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1

The nightly administration of sodium oxybate results in significant reduction in the nocturnal sleep disruption of patients with narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundPrevious studies indicate that nightly sodium oxybate administration reduces nocturnal sleep disruption in narcolepsy. The present study provided an opportunity to further characterize these sleep-related effects in patients with narcolepsy during treatment with sodium oxybate as monotherapy or in combination with modafinil.

Jed Black; Daniel Pardi; Carl S. Hornfeldt; Neil Inhaber

2009-01-01

2

Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J; Swick T; Zee P. Disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):955-965. PMID:23997709

Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

2013-01-01

3

Total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction and sleep disruption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep loss may result from total sleep deprivation (such as a shift worker might experience), chronic sleep restriction (due to work, medical conditions or lifestyle) or sleep disruption (which is common in sleep disorders such as sleep apnea or restless legs syndrome). Total sleep deprivation has been widely researched, and its effects have been well described. Chronic sleep restriction and

Amy C. Reynolds; Siobhan Banks

2010-01-01

4

Sleep efficiency and nocturnal hemodynamic dipping in young, normotensive adults.  

PubMed

Blunted dipping of nocturnal systolic arterial pressure (SAP) and heart rate (HR) are independent risk factors for hypertension and all-cause mortality. While several epidemiological studies report a significant association between short sleep duration and hypertension, associations between sleep efficiency and the nocturnal drop of SAP remain controversial. Moreover, relations between sleep efficiency and HR diurnal patterns have been overlooked. We hypothesized that low sleep efficiency (<85%) would be associated with blunted nocturnal SAP and HR dipping. Twenty-two normotensive subjects (13 men, 9 women; age: 18-28 yr) wore an actigraphy watch for 7 days and nights, and an ambulatory blood pressure monitor for 24 h on a nonactigraph night. There were no differences in age, sex, body mass index, mean sleep time, number of awakenings, or 24-h blood pressure between the low (n = 12) and high (n = 10) sleep efficiency groups. However, the low sleep efficiency subjects demonstrated a blunted dip of nocturnal SAP (10 ± 1% vs. 14 ± 1%, P = 0.04) and HR (12 ± 3% vs. 21 ± 3%, P = 0.03) compared with the high sleep efficiency group. The low sleep efficiency group also demonstrated a higher mean nocturnal HR (63 ± 2 vs. 55 ± 2 beats/min; P = 0.02). These findings support growing evidence that sleep efficiency, independent of total sleep time, may be an important cardiovascular risk factor. PMID:25031228

Ross, Amanda J; Yang, Huan; Larson, Robert A; Carter, Jason R

2014-10-01

5

Pathology of the brain and the structure of nocturnal sleep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An electropolygraphic comparison series of the nocturnal sleep of 126 patients with neurological disorders and 10 persons who were normally healthy is reported. Perturbations in sleep duration are noted in various neurological disorders, with alteration in the length of sleep, however, insignificant. In narcolepsy, stage perturbation is noted.

Veyn, A. M.

1973-01-01

6

Manipulation of skin temperature improves nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Besides excessive daytime sleepiness, disturbed nocturnal sleep is a major complaint of patients with narcolepsy. Previously, alterations in skin temperature regulation in narcoleptic patients have been shown to be related to increased sleepiness. This study tests the hypothesis that direct control of nocturnal skin temperature might be applied to improve the disturbed sleep of narcoleptic patients.Methods:Participants were eight patients (five

R. Fronczek; R J E M Raymann; S. Overeem; N. Romeijn; J G van Dijk; G. J. Lammers; E J W Van Someren

2008-01-01

7

[Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].  

PubMed

Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential injurious or bothersome to other household members. Clonazepam and melatonin (3-12 mg) are highly effective for treating RBD. PMID:20525541

Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

2010-06-01

8

Nocturia, nocturnal polyuria, and sleep quality in the elderly.  

PubMed

Nocturia is a common symptom in the elderly, which profoundly influences general health and quality of life. One consequence of nocturia is sleep deterioration, with increased daytime sleepiness and loss of energy and activity. Accidents, e.g., fall injuries, are increased both at night and in the daytime in elderly persons with nocturia. Nocturia is caused by nocturnal polyuria, a reduced bladder capacity, or a combination of the two. Nocturnal polyuria can be caused by numerous diseases, such as diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, congestive heart failure, and sleep apnoea. In the nocturnal polyuria syndrome (NPS), the 24-h diuresis is normal or only slightly increased, while there is a shift in diuresis from daytime to night. NPS is caused by a disturbance of the vasopressin system, with a lack of nocturnal increase in plasma vasopressin or, in some cases, no detectable levels of the hormone at any time of the 24-h period. The calculated prevalence of NPS is about 3% in an elderly population, with no gender difference. In NPS, there are serious sleep disturbances, partly due to the need to get up for micturition, but there is also increased difficulty in falling asleep after nocturnal awakenings and increased sleepiness in the morning. The treatment of NPS may include avoidance of excessive fluid intake, use of diuretics medication in the afternoon rather than the morning, and desmopressin orally at bedtime. PMID:15172208

Asplund, R

2004-05-01

9

Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in Kindergarten Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessed sleep patterns and sleep disruptions in kindergarten children and investi - gated the relation between sleep measures derived from objective and subjective eval - uation methods. The sleep patterns of 59 normal kindergarten children (mean age = 5.5 years) were monitored for 4 to 5 consecutive nights by means of activity monitors (actigraph) and by means of parental daily

Liat Tikotzky; Avi Sadeh

2001-01-01

10

BRAIN-BEHAVIOR ADAPTATIONS TO SLEEP LOSS IN THE NOCTURNALLY MIGRATING SWAINSON’S THRUSH (CATHARUS USTULATUS).  

E-print Network

??Many typically diurnal songbirds experience dramatic sleep loss during the migratory seasons because of their nocturnal flights. However, nocturnally migrating songbirds continue to function normally… (more)

Fuchs, Thomas

2006-01-01

11

Diurnal and Nocturnal Sleep in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Narcolepsy is an under-recognized disease, but classically reported as one of the most severe conditions of chronic hypersomnia.\\u000a Excessive daytime sleepiness is usually the first symptom to appear in childhood or in young adulthood, occurring daily, often\\u000a irresistible, with short duration, capable of restoring normal vigilance for one to several hours, and associated with dreaming.\\u000a In contrast, disturbed nocturnal sleep

Yves Dauvilliers; Giuseppe Plazzi

12

Nocturnal sleep structure and temperature slope in MPTP treated monkeys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.   The nocturnal sleep of three 1-Methyl, 4-phenyl, 1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated monkeys (one non-motor disabled\\u000a and two severely motor disabled), while held in a primate chair was regis-tered using a reversible system for head fixation\\u000a and chronic recordings. Two electroencephalogram (EEG) channels, one electrooculogram (EOG) and one electromyogram (EMG) channel\\u000a were monitored constantly and tape recorded during eight nights for

H. Almirall; I. Pigarev; M. D. de la Calzada; M. Pigareva; M. T. Herrero; T. Sagales

1999-01-01

13

Development of the nocturnal sleep electroencephalogram in human infants.  

PubMed

The development of nocturnal sleep and the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) was investigated in a longitudinal study during infancy. All-night polysomnographic recordings were obtained at home at 2 wk and at 2, 4, 6, and 9 mo after birth (analysis of 7 infants). Total sleep time and the percentage of quiet sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep (QS/NREMS) increased with age, whereas the percentage of active sleep or rapid eye movement sleep (AS/REMS) decreased. Spectral power of the sleep EEG was higher in QS/NREMS than in AS/REMS over a large part of the 0.75- to 25-Hz frequency range. In both QS/NREMS and AS/REMS, EEG power increased with age in the frequency range <10 Hz and >17 Hz. The largest rise occurred between 2 and 6 mo. A salient feature of the QS/NREMS spectrum was the emergence of a peak in the sigma band (12-14 Hz) at 2 mo that corresponded to the appearance of sleep spindles. Between 2 and 9 mo, low-frequency delta activity (0.75-1.75 Hz) showed an alternating pattern with a high level occurring in every other QS/NREMS episode. At 6 mo, sigma activity showed a similar pattern. In contrast, theta activity (6.5-9 Hz) exhibited a monotonic decline over consecutive QS/NREMS episodes, a trend that at 9 mo could be closely approximated by an exponential function. The results suggest that 1) EEG markers of sleep homeostasis appear in the first postnatal months, and 2) sleep homeostasis goes through a period of maturation. Theta activity and not delta activity seems to reflect the dissipation of sleep propensity during infancy. PMID:14630625

Jenni, Oskar G; Borbély, Alexander A; Achermann, Peter

2004-03-01

14

Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation  

PubMed Central

Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d?=?0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d?=?0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

2014-01-01

15

Nocturnal sweating--a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnoea: the Icelandic sleep apnoea cohort  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of frequent nocturnal sweating in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients compared with the general population and evaluate the possible changes with positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Nocturnal sweating can be very bothersome to the patient and bed partner. Design Case–control and longitudinal cohort study. Setting Landspitali—The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants The Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort consisted of 822 untreated patients with OSA, referred for treatment with PAP. Of these, 700 patients were also assessed at a 2-year follow-up. The control group consisted of 703 randomly selected subjects from the general population. Intervention PAP therapy in the OSA cohort. Main outcome measures Subjective reporting of nocturnal sweating on a frequency scale of 1–5: (1) never or very seldom, (2) less than once a week, (3) once to twice a week, (4) 3–5 times a week and (5) every night or almost every night. Full PAP treatment was defined objectively as the use for ?4?h/day and ?5?days/week. Results Frequent nocturnal sweating (?3× a week) was reported by 30.6% of male and 33.3% of female OSA patients compared with 9.3% of men and 12.4% of women in the general population (p<0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for demographic factors. Nocturnal sweating was related to younger age, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, sleepiness and insomnia symptoms. The prevalence of frequent nocturnal sweating decreased with full PAP treatment (from 33.2% to 11.5%, p<0.003 compared with the change in non-users). Conclusions The prevalence of frequent nocturnal sweating was threefold higher in untreated OSA patients than in the general population and decreased to general population levels with successful PAP therapy. Practitioners should consider the possibility of OSA in their patients who complain of nocturnal sweating. PMID:23674447

Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Janson, Christer; Bjornsdottir, Erla; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

2013-01-01

16

Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time.  

PubMed

We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. PMID:23061443

Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-04-01

17

Social ties and adolescent sleep disruption.  

PubMed

Teens tend go to bed later, get less sleep, and report more daytime sleepiness. Medical research emphasizes biological determinants of teens' disrupted sleep (i.e., the timing of puberty and resultant drops in melatonin), rarely or inadequately considering youths' social ties as a determinant of sleep behaviors. Sociologists recognize how social ties affect health behaviors but have generally neglected sleep, especially among teens. Drawing on a sample of 974 teens from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, this study controls for developmental and social relational factors to predict changes in youths' sleep patterns between 12 and 15 years of age. In general, social relational factors outperform developmental factors in determining youths' sleep patterns, particularly pointing to the importance of parental, peer, and school ties in promoting healthy sleep behaviors. The implications of these findings for further research are briefly discussed. PMID:24311758

Maume, David J

2013-01-01

18

[Structure of nocturnal sleep in patients with various locations of stroke].  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study the structure of nocturnal sleep in stroke patients with various lesion. 160 patients and 30 healthy controls were studied. In all cases the diagnosis was confirmed by CT or MRI. Clinical and neurological studies were performed and polygraph traces of nocturnal sleep (electroencephalograms, electrooculograms, electromograms) were recorded. Sleep parameters were analyzed using a program developed at the Sleep Studies Center, I.M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy; along with standard parameters, this program involves analysis of segmental structure of sleep. The most prominent sleep disturbances were seen in stroke in the right hemisphere. Frontal lesions cause reduction and derangement of delta-sleep, parieto-temporal stroke affects the second stage and REM-sleep and brainstem stroke in pons affects REM-sleep. PMID:12830539

Gasanov, R L

2001-01-01

19

Sleep Disturbances and Nocturnal Agitation Behaviors in Older Adults with Dementia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To examine nighttime sleep patterns of persons with dementia showing nocturnal agitation behaviors and to determine whether restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: General community. Participants: 59 participants with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia. Participants ages ranged from 66 to 88 years (mean age 79.1; SD 6.0). Mean Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 20.1 (SD 6.6). MMSE was used to measure baseline cognitive function and not for the diagnosis of dementia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured by 2 nights of in-home, attended, portable polysomnography (PSG). Nocturnal agitation was measured over 3 additional nights using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory modified for direct observations. Two experts independently and via consensus identified probable RLS. Total sleep time in participants was 5.6 h (SD 1.8 h). Mean periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMI) was 15.29, and a high percentage (49%) had moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Probable RLS was present in 24% of participants. Those with more severe cognitive impairment had longer sleep latency. Severe cognitive impairment, low apnea hypopnea index (AHI), and probable RLS were associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors (R2 = 0.35, F3,55 = 9.40, P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that probable RLS is associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia, while OSA and PLMS are not. Further investigation is warranted to determine if treatment of RLS impacts nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia. Citation: Rose KM; Beck C; Tsai PF; Liem PH; Davila DG; Kleban M; Gooneratne NS; Kalra G; Richards KC. Sleep disturbances and nocturnal agitation behaviors in older adults with dementia. SLEEP 2011;34(6):779-786. PMID:21629366

Rose, Karen M.; Beck, Cornelia; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Liem, Pham H.; Davila, David G.; Kleban, Morton; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Kalra, Gurpreet; Richards, Kathy Culpepper

2011-01-01

20

Sleep apnea in children with refractory monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis  

PubMed Central

Background Children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) are believed to have deep sleep with high arousal threshold. Studies suggest that obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and NE are common problems during childhood. We sought to assess the prevalence of OSAHS in children with refractory NE and whether its severity is associated with the frequency of bedwetting. Methods The study group comprised 43 children with refractory monosymptomatic NE and a control group of 30 children, both aged 6–12 years. All subjects underwent thorough neurological examination, one night of polysomnography only for the patient group, and a lumbosacral plain X-ray to exclude spina bifida. Results The groups were well matched. Two subjects of the control group had mild OSAHS. The mean age of the patients was (9.19±2.4 years), 26 were boys, and 67% showed frequent NE (>3 days bedwetting/week). Patients with NE had significantly higher rates of OSAHS (P<0.0001); three patients had mild, 12 had moderate, and eleven showed severe OSAHS. There was no significant statistical difference among patients having OSAHS in relation to age, sex, or family history of NE. The frequency of bedwetting was statistically significantly higher in patients with severe OSAHS (P=0.003). Conclusion Patients with refractory NE had a significantly higher prevalence of OSAHS with no sex difference. The frequency of bedwetting was higher in patients with severe OSAHS. PMID:24648781

El-Mitwalli, Ashraf; Bediwy, Adel Salah; Zaher, Ashraf Ahmed; Belal, Tamer; Saleh, Abdel Baset M

2014-01-01

21

The association between short and long nocturnal sleep durations and risky behaviours and the moderating factors in Taiwanese adolescents.  

PubMed

Sleep quantity and risky behaviours are important health issues in adolescents. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the association between short and long nocturnal sleep durations and a variety of adolescent risky behaviours, including suicidality, violence, regular alcohol consumption, illicit drug use, truancy, unprotected sex, tattooing and criminal record of theft in a large-scale, representative population of Taiwanese adolescents, and to examine the moderating factors for the association between nocturnal sleep duration and risky behaviours. A total of 8319 adolescent students in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study and completed the questionnaires. The associations between short and long nocturnal sleep durations and adolescent risky behaviours, as well as the moderating effects of depression and socio-demographic characteristics on these associations, were examined. The results indicated that short nocturnal sleep duration was significantly associated with all risky behaviours, and long nocturnal sleep duration was significantly associated with all risky behaviours except for suicidality. Meanwhile, depression, sex, age, and maternal education level had moderating effects on the association between nocturnal sleep duration and several risky behaviours. The findings imply that professionals should investigate the concomitant risky behaviours in adolescents with short or long nocturnal sleep duration. PMID:20472300

Yen, Cheng-Fang; King, Bryan H; Tang, Tze-Chun

2010-08-30

22

Sleep disruption in breast cancer patients and survivors.  

PubMed

Sleep disruption is prevalent in patients and survivors of breast cancer. Most patients undergoing chemotherapy will experience transient sleep disruption, and nearly 60% will have chronic sleep problems. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Sleep disruption is a consequence of several biological alterations, including circadian disruption and immune and metabolic deregulations. These systems also play significant roles in the control and progression of breast cancer. Sleep disruption is associated with many side effects and psychiatric and medical comorbidities. This article discusses the relationship between stress and posttraumatic stress disorder, depression and fatigue, and how sleep disturbance might be the cause or consequence of these disorders. Current evidence for management of sleep disturbance in breast cancer and high chronic use of hypnotic medication in this population is also discussed. Finally, the differences in management of sleep disturbance during acute cancer care and during the survivorship phase are discussed. More research is needed on accurate and timely assessment of sleep disturbance associated with breast cancer, and additional tailored approaches for the management of sleep problems in breast cancer should be developed. PMID:24335687

Palesh, Oxana; Aldridge-Gerry, Arianna; Ulusakarya, Ayhan; Ortiz-Tudela, Elisabet; Capuron, Lucile; Innominato, Pasquale F

2013-12-01

23

Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors during sleep: frontal lobe epilepsy or parasomnia?  

PubMed

Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors have been described in a few individuals, and their possible epileptic origin as nocturnal frontal lobe seizures has been suggested. However, the clinical and polysomnographic differentiation from parasomnias and physiologic movements during sleep have not been clarified yet. In this study, we evaluated a group of patients with nocturnal motor behaviors and tried to characterize paroxysmal arousals. Thirty-four participants (mean [+/-SD] age 22.7 [+/-12.9] years) noting nocturnal motor agitation or behaviors and 12 healthy controls (mean age 24.1 [+/-3.1] years) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with video-tape recording and motor behaviors analysis. Arousals with motor attacks were classified as minimal, minor, or major depending on semiology, complexity, and duration of behaviors. All patients showed several minimal (e.g., scratching or rubbing the nose and the head) and minor (e.g., pelvic thrusting or swinging with dystonic component) attacks, and 53% also had major episodes (e.g., sudden elevation of the head and trunk from the bed with complex behaviors) occurring mainly in non-rapid eye movement sleep. In all the patients, motor attacks were characterized by stereotypy, sudden onset, short duration, and repetitiveness. In 80%, epileptiform abnormalities were found. All control subjects showed motor events, but they were fewer, slower, nonstereotyped, and semiologically different from the patients'. No significant difference in conventional sleep parameters between the two groups were found. Paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors probably represent a particular form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy rather than an unusual parasomnia. The semiologic characteristics of these type of arousals are difficult to recognize and differentiate from physiologic movements or parasomnias without video-polygraphic analysis. PMID:9458058

Zucconi, M; Oldani, A; Ferini-Strambi, L; Bizzozero, D; Smirne, S

1997-11-01

24

Periodic Limb Movement During Sleep is Associated with Nocturnal Hypertension in Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Increasing evidence suggests that blood pressure (BP) is significantly influenced by sleep problems in children, but the association between periodic limb movement during sleep (PLMS) and BP is still unclear. This study aims to compare ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in children with and without PLMS. Methods and Results: A cross-sectional study involving 314 children (mean (SD) age of 10.4 (1.7) years, boys 62.4%). Participants underwent an overnight polysomnographic study and ABP monitoring. Subjects were hypertensive if mean SBP or DBP > 95th percentile and prehypertensive if mean SBP or DBP > 90th percentile of reference. Children with PLMS (n = 17) were at significantly higher risk for nocturnal systolic (adjusted OR (95%CI) = 6.25 [1.87-20.88]) and diastolic (OR (95%CI) = 4.83 [1.66-14.07]) hypertension. However, mean nocturnal BP did not differ between children with and without PLMS. There was a trend for higher daytime BP in patients with PLMS than those children without PLMS (P = 0.084 for systolic BP z score; P = 0.051 for diastolic BP z score; P = 0.067 for systolic prehypertension). There were significant associations between log transformed PLM index and daytime systolic and mean BP z scores (P = 0.03 and 0.033 respectively) as well as that between log transformed PLM related arousal index (PLMSArI) and nocturnal diastolic and mean BP (P = 0.008 and 0.038 respectively). Conclusions: PLMS was independently associated with a wide range of BP elevations, especially nocturnal indices. Future studies should examine the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and effects of PLMS treatment on BP. Citation: Wing YK; Zhang J; Ho CKW; Au CT; Li AM. Periodic limb movement during sleep is associated with nocturnal hypertension in children. SLEEP 2010;33(6):759-765. PMID:20550016

Wing, Yun Kwok; Zhang, Jihui; Ho, Crover Kwok Wah; Au, Chun-Ting; Li, Albert Martin

2010-01-01

25

Self-Reported Sleep Bruxism and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Relationship to Gender and Ethnicity§  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives : Nocturnal bruxism is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and GERD is strongly associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Gender and ethnic differences in the prevalence and clinical presentation of these often overlapping sleep disorders have not been well documented. Our aim was to examine the associations between, and the symptoms associated with, nocturnal GERD and sleep bruxism in patients with OSA, and to examine the influence of gender and ethnicity. Methods : A retrospective chart review was performed of patients diagnosed with OSA at an academic sleep center. The patients completed a sleep questionnaire prior to undergoing polysomnography. Patients with confirmed OSA were evaluated based on gender and ethnicity. Associations were determined between sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, and daytime sleepiness, insomnia, restless legs symptoms, and markers of OSA severity in each group. Results : In these patients with OSA, the prevalence of nocturnal GERD (35%) and sleep bruxism (26%) were higher than the general population. Sleep bruxism was more common in Caucasians than in African Americans or Hispanics; there was no gender difference. Nocturnal GERD was similar among all gender and ethnic groups. Bruxism was associated with nocturnal GERD in females, restless legs symptoms in all subjects and in males, sleepiness in African Americans, and insomnia in Hispanics. Nocturnal GERD was associated with sleepiness in males and African Americans, insomnia in females, and restless legs symptoms in females and in Caucasians. Conclusion : Patients with OSA commonly have comorbid sleep bruxism and nocturnal GERD, which may require separate treatment. Providers should be aware of differences in clinical presentation among different ethnic and gender groups. PMID:25352924

Hesselbacher, Sean; Subramanian, Shyam; Rao, Shweta; Casturi, Lata; Surani, Salim

2014-01-01

26

Sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoventilation after western equine encephalitis.  

PubMed

That viral encephalitis can produce daytime hypoventilation is well appreciated, but an association of this infection with the development of a prolonged disturbance of breathing during sleep once the ventilatory disorder during wakefulness has resolved, has not been reported. We describe a young male who required assisted mechanical ventilation in association with western equine encephalitis. Normal waking ventilation returned over 3 to 4 wk, but frequent apneas and severe hypoventilation persisted during sleep with a near absence of waking ventilatory response to chemical stimuli. Over 3 months there was considerable improvement in breathing during sleep associated with an increase in both hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responsiveness. PMID:6849538

White, D P; Miller, F; Erickson, R W

1983-01-01

27

Sleep and Quality of Life in Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturia, waking up at night to void, is a highly prevalent disorder in the elderly, with a profound impact on life expectancy,\\u000a health, and quality of life (QoL). Elderly persons with nocturia are troubled by sleep impairment because of involuntary awakenings,\\u000a increased nightmares, and a general feeling of insufficient and non-restorative sleep. Consequently, their daytime performance\\u000a is impaired and they

Ragnar Asplund

28

Nocturnal sleep enhances working memory training in Parkinson's disease but not Lewy body dementia  

PubMed Central

Working memory is essential to higher order cognition (e.g. fluid intelligence) and to performance of daily activities. Though working memory capacity was traditionally thought to be inflexible, recent studies report that working memory capacity can be trained and that offline processes occurring during sleep may facilitate improvements in working memory performance. We utilized a 48-h in-laboratory protocol consisting of repeated digit span forward (short-term attention measure) and digit span backward (working memory measure) tests and overnight polysomnography to investigate the specific sleep-dependent processes that may facilitate working memory performance improvements in the synucleinopathies. We found that digit span backward performance improved following a nocturnal sleep interval in patients with Parkinson's disease on dopaminergic medication, but not in those not taking dopaminergic medication and not in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies. Furthermore, the improvements in patients with Parkinson's disease on dopaminergic medication were positively correlated with the amount of slow-wave sleep that patients obtained between training sessions and negatively correlated with severity of nocturnal oxygen desaturation. The translational implication is that working memory capacity is potentially modifiable in patients with Parkinson's disease but that sleep disturbances may first need to be corrected. PMID:22907117

Trotti, Lynn Marie; Wilson, Anthony G.; Greer, Sophia A.; Bliwise, Donald L.

2012-01-01

29

Palatal Sensory Threshold Reflects Nocturnal Hypoxemia and Airway Occlusion in Snorers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Upper airway sensory deficit has been reported to be associated with snoring or obstructive sleep apnea. There are limited data on the correlation between disease severity and upper airway sensation. In this study, we investigated the relationship between clinical parameters and standardized palatal sensory threshold (SPST) using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments. Methods: We recruited 40 snorers and 19 control subjects. Palatal sensory threshold was measured in all study subjects, using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments. Standardized palatal sensory threshold was determined by subtraction of hard palate sensation from uvular sensation. All subjects with snoring underwent a modified Muller maneuver during wakefulness before polysomnography. Results: SPST was higher in snorers than in control subjects, but did not differ according to the severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Patients with higher SPST (? 0.45 g/mm2) were older and had more severe hypoxemia indices: lower nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) and higher percentage of sleep time at < 90% SpO2. Adjusted for age, sex, neck circumference, and body mass index, SPST was correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index and hypoxemia indices. With a cutoff value ? 0.45 g/mm2, the sensitivity of SPST for nocturnal hypoxemia (nadir SpO2, < 80%) was 81.3%. Patients with higher SPST (? 0.45 g/mm2) showed more airway occlusion in modified Muller maneuver, than those with lower values. Conclusions: The SPST measured using Semmes Weinstein monofilaments reflects nocturnal hypoxemia and airway occlusion. This test provides a potential tissue marker of the severity of hypoxemia in patients who snore. Citation: Kim SW; Park HW; Won SJ; Jeon SY; Jin HR; Lee SJ; Chang DY; Kim DW. Palatal sensory threshold reflects nocturnal hypoxemia and airway occlusion in snorers and obstructive sleep apnea patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1179-1186. PMID:24235900

Kim, Sang-Wook; Park, Hyun Woo; Won, Sung Jun; Jeon, Sea-Yuong; Jin, Hong Ryul; Lee, So-Jin; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Kim, Dae Woo

2013-01-01

30

Antiglucocorticoid treatment disrupts endocrine cycle and nocturnal sleep pattern  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Mifepriston (RU 486) is a steroid antagonist which binds with high affinity to glucocorticoid receptors (GR), and also to progesterone receptors. The antiglucocorticoid action of Mifepriston in man has been demonstrated by blockade of the negative feedback action of endogenous cortisol and by antagonism of the effects of exogenously aministered dexamethasone. In the present study Mifepriston was administered to

Klaus Wiedemann; Christoph Lauer; Albrecht Loycke; Thomas Pollmiicher; Philippe Durst; Jean-Paul Machér; Florian Holsboer

1992-01-01

31

Blockade of endogenous growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors dissociates nocturnal growth hormone secretion and slow-wave sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A temporal association between non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep stages 3 and 4 and nocturnal augmentation of GH release was found long ago, yet the precise mechanism for this associ- ation has not been identified. It has been shown, however that pulsatile GHRH administration increases both slow-wave sleep (SWS) and GH. Based on these data, a role for GHRH

Stacy K Jessup; Beth A Malow; Kathleen V Symons; Ariel L Barkan

2004-01-01

32

Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

2014-01-01

33

Sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxemia in Peruvian men with obstructive sleep apnea  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia associated with sleepiness in Peruvian men with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis based on a study which includes patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2012. We included male adults who had polysomnographic recordings and who answered the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE). The intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ?90 %) was classified in four new categories: 0, <1, 1 to 10 and >10 % total sleep time with nocturnal hypoxemia (NH). When the ESE score was higher than 10, we used the definitions presence or absence of sleepiness. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for association between sleepiness and NH. Results 518 male patients with OSA were evaluated. Four hundred and fifty-two (87 %) patients had NH and 262 (51 %) had sleepiness. Of the 142 (27.4 %) patients who had >10 % total sleep time with NH, 98 (69.0 %) showed sleepiness and had a greater probability of sleepiness prevalence, with a crude PR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.31–2.53). This association persisted in the multivariate models. Conclusions We found an association between NH and sleepiness. Only patients with the major intensity of NH (over 10 % of the total sleep time) had a greater probability of sleepiness. This suggests that sleepiness probably occurs after a chronic process and after overwhelming compensatory mechanisms. PMID:24249663

de Castro, Jorge Rey; Mezones-Holguin, Edward

2014-01-01

34

Sleep in children with disruptive behavioral disorders.  

PubMed

This study compared sleep in patients with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder (CD/ODD) and normative children and evaluated the associations between sleep and behavioral symptoms in patients. Participants were 30 patients, aged 7 to 12 years, with diagnoses of CD/ODD and their age and gender matched controls. Patients with CD/ODD and their parents reported significantly more sleep problems than did the control children and their parents (p values < 0.01). By actigraphy, CD/ODD children with comorbid ADHD slept significantly less than did the patients with CD/ODD alone and the controls. In patients, low sleep amount and efficiency associated with increased amount of parent-reported externalizing symptoms (r = -0.72, 0.66, p values < 0.001). Results highlight the need of evaluating sleep in children with CD/ODD. Improving their sleep may ease their symptoms. PMID:24180372

Aronen, Eeva T; Lampenius, Tuulikki; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri

2014-09-01

35

Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

2010-01-01

36

Effects of Filtering Visual Short Wavelengths During Nocturnal Shiftwork on Sleep and Performance  

PubMed Central

Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450–480?nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480?nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age?±?SD: 31.3?±?4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2?h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p?sleep efficiency (p?=?0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p?=?0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40?min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p?sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. (Author correspondence: casper@lunenfeld.ca) PMID:23834705

Rahman, Shadab A.; Shapiro, Colin M.; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J.

2013-01-01

37

Nocturnal Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Latency for Identifying Patients With Narcolepsy/Hypocretin Deficiency  

PubMed Central

IMPORTANCE Narcolepsy, a disorder associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02 and caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is diagnosed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) following nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In many patients, a short rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML) during the NPSG is also observed but not used diagnostically. OBJECTIVE To determine diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of nocturnal REML measures in narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study using receiver operating characteristic curves for NPSG REML and MSLT findings (sleep studies performed between May 1976 and September 2011 at university medical centers in the United States, China, Korea, and Europe) to determine optimal diagnostic cutoffs for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency compared with different samples: controls, patients with other sleep disorders, patients with other hypersomnias, and patients with narcolepsy with normal hypocretin levels. Increasingly stringent comparisons were made. In a first comparison, 516 age- and sex-matched patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were selected from 1749 patients and compared with 516 controls. In a second comparison, 749 successive patients undergoing sleep evaluation for any sleep disorders (low pretest probability for narcolepsy) were compared within groups by final diagnosis of narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. In the third comparison, 254 patients with a high pretest probability of having narcolepsy were compared within group by their final diagnosis. Finally, 118 patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were compared with 118 age- and sex-matched patients with a diagnosis of narcolepsy but with normal hypocretin levels. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Sensitivity and specificity of NPSG REML and MSLT as diagnostic tests for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. This diagnosis was defined as narcolepsy associated with cataplexy plus HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity (no cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 results available) or narcolepsy with documented low (?110 pg/mL) cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level. RESULTS Short REML (?15 minutes) during NPSG was highly specific (99.2% [95% CI, 98.5%–100.0%] of 516 and 99.6% [95% CI, 99.1%–100.0%] of 735) but not sensitive (50.6% [95% CI, 46.3%–54.9%] of 516 and 35.7% [95% CI, 10.6%–60.8%] of 14) for patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency vs population-based controls or all patients with sleep disorders undergoing a nocturnal sleep study (area under the curve, 0.799 [95% CI, 0.771–0.826] and 0.704 [95% CI, 0.524–0.907], respectively). In patients with central hypersomnia and thus a high pretest probability for narcolepsy, short REML remained highly specific (95.4% [95% CI, 90.4%–98.3%] of 132) and similarly sensitive (57.4% [95% CI, 48.1%–66.3%] of 122) for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (area under the curve, 0.765 [95% CI, 0.707–0.831]). Positive predictive value in this high pretest probability sample was 92.1% (95% CI, 83.6%–97.0%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients being evaluated for possible narcolepsy, short REML (?15 minutes) at NPSG had high specificity and positive predictive value and may be considered diagnostic without the use of an MSLT; absence of short REML, however, requires a subsequent MSLT. PMID:23649748

Andlauer, Olivier; Moore, Hyatt; Jouhier, Laura; Drake, Christopher; Peppard, Paul E.; Han, Fang; Hong, Seung-Chul; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; O'Hara, Ruth; Haffen, Emmanuel; Roth, Thomas; Young, Terry; Mignot, Emmanuel

2014-01-01

38

Nocturnal and daytime panic attacks—comparison of sleep architecture, heart rate variability, and response to sodium lactate challenge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of this study was to determine if nocturnal panic patients have greater autonomic dysregulation than patients with daytime panic.Methods: Three groups were studied: patients who suffer from panic attacks during sleep (n = 12), those who suffer from daytime panic attacks only (n = 12), and control subjects (n = 12). Each subject underwent 24-hour holter monitoring

Eileen P Sloan; Madhu Natarajan; Brian Baker; Paul Dorian; Dmitry Mironov; Aiella Barr; David M Newman; Colin M Shapiro

1999-01-01

39

Optimizing sleep\\/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective sleep\\/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled “time in bed” (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep

Daniel J. Mollicone; Hans P. A. Van Dongen; David F. Dinges

2007-01-01

40

Optimizing sleep\\/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effective sleep\\/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled ``time in bed'' (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep

Daniel J. Mollicone; Hans P. A. van Dongen; David F. Dinges

2007-01-01

41

Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome  

PubMed Central

Circadian organization of the mammalian transcriptome is achieved by rhythmic recruitment of key modifiers of chromatin structure and transcriptional and translational processes. These rhythmic processes, together with posttranslational modification, constitute circadian oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, which drive rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the sleep–wake cycle. In humans, sleep is normally timed to occur during the biological night, when body temperature is low and melatonin is synthesized. Desynchrony of sleep–wake timing and other circadian rhythms, such as occurs in shift work and jet lag, is associated with disruption of rhythmicity in physiology and endocrinology. However, to what extent mistimed sleep affects the molecular regulators of circadian rhythmicity remains to be established. Here, we show that mistimed sleep leads to a reduction of rhythmic transcripts in the human blood transcriptome from 6.4% at baseline to 1.0% during forced desynchrony of sleep and centrally driven circadian rhythms. Transcripts affected are key regulators of gene expression, including those associated with chromatin modification (methylases and acetylases), transcription (RNA polymerase II), translation (ribosomal proteins, initiation, and elongation factors), temperature-regulated transcription (cold inducible RNA-binding proteins), and core clock genes including CLOCK and ARNTL (BMAL1). We also estimated the separate contribution of sleep and circadian rhythmicity and found that the sleep–wake cycle coordinates the timing of transcription and translation in particular. The data show that mistimed sleep affects molecular processes at the core of circadian rhythm generation and imply that appropriate timing of sleep contributes significantly to the overall temporal organization of the human transcriptome. PMID:24449876

Archer, Simon N.; Laing, Emma E.; Moller-Levet, Carla S.; van der Veen, Daan R.; Bucca, Giselda; Lazar, Alpar S.; Santhi, Nayantara; Slak, Ana; Kabiljo, Renata; von Schantz, Malcolm; Smith, Colin P.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

2014-01-01

42

Dual-tasking alleviated sleep deprivation disruption in visuomotor tracking: An fMRI study  

E-print Network

Dual-tasking alleviated sleep deprivation disruption in visuomotor tracking: An fMRI study Yunglin cortex a b s t r a c t Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation becomes more sleep deprived and more depen- dent on technology (National Sleep Foundation, 2011 Sleep

43

Weight loss alters severity of individual nocturnal respiratory events depending on sleeping position.  

PubMed

Weight loss is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The mechanisms of how weight loss affects nocturnal breathing are not fully understood. The severity of OSA is currently estimated by the number of respiratory events per hour of sleep (i.e. apnea-hypopnea-index, AHI). AHI neglects duration and morphology of individual respiratory events, which describe the severity of individual events. In the current paper, we investigate the novel Adjusted-AHI parameter (incorporating individual event severity) and AHI after weight loss in relation to sleeping position. It was hypothesised that there are positional differences in individual event severity changes during weight loss. Altogether, 32 successful (>?5% of weight) and 34 unsuccessful weight loss patients at baseline and after 1?year follow-up were analysed. The results revealed that individual respiratory event severity was reduced differently in supine and non-supine positions during weight loss. During weight loss, AHI was reduced by 54% (p = 0.004) and 74% (p < 0.001), while Adjusted-AHI was reduced by 14% (p = 0.454) and 48% (p = 0.003) in supine and non-supine positions, respectively. In conclusion, the severity of individual respiratory events decreased more in the non-supine position. The novel Adjusted-AHI parameter takes these changes into account and might therefore contribute additional information to the planning of treatment of OSA patients. PMID:25237739

Kulkas, A; Leppänen, T; Sahlman, J; Tiihonen, P; Mervaala, E; Kokkarinen, J; Randell, J; Seppä, J; Töyräs, J; Tuomilehto, H

2014-10-01

44

Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general population and increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents due to hypersomnolence from sleep disruption, and risk of cardiovascular diseases owing to repetitive hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activation, and systemic inflammation. In contrast, central sleep apnoea (CSA) is rare in the general population. Although their pathogenesis is multifactorial, the prevalence of both OSA and CSA is increased in patients with fluid retaining states, especially heart failure, where they are associated with increased mortality risk. This observation suggests that fluid retention may contribute to the pathogenesis of both OSA and CSA. According to this hypothesis, during the day fluid accumulates in the intravascular and interstitial spaces of the legs due to gravity, and upon lying down at night redistributes rostrally, again owing to gravity. Some of this fluid may accumulate in the neck, increasing tissue pressure and causing the upper airway to narrow, thereby increasing its collapsibility and predisposing to OSA. In heart failure patients, with increased rostral fluid shift, fluid may additionally accumulate in the lungs, provoking hyperventilation and hypocapnia, driving below the apnoea threshold, leading to CSA. This review article will explore mechanisms by which overnight rostral fluid shift, and its prevention, can contribute to the pathogenesis and therapy of sleep apnoea. PMID:23230237

White, Laura H; Bradley, T Douglas

2013-03-01

45

Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.  

PubMed

Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. PMID:24747335

Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

2014-10-01

46

Sleep Influences the Severity of Memory Disruption in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment  

E-print Network

Sleep Influences the Severity of Memory Disruption in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Results From Sleep Self-assessment and Continuous Activity Monitoring Carmen E. Westerberg, PhD, Eric MD, and Ken A. Paller, PhD Abstract: Sleep is important for declarative memory consolidation in healthy adults

Reber, Paul J.

47

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.  

PubMed

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

2013-08-01

48

Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stöwhas AC; Grimm M; Stadelmann K; Tesler N; Achermann P; Huber R; Kohler M; Bloch KE. Are nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance impaired at moderate altitude (1,630-2,590 m)? SLEEP 2013;36(12):1969-1976. PMID:24293773

Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stowhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

2013-01-01

49

Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine  

PubMed Central

Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5–4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R.; Schmitt, Luke I.; Halassa, Michael M.

2014-01-01

50

Sleep in patients with restrictive lung disease.  

PubMed

Restrictive lung disease leads to ventilatory defects and diffusion impairments. These changes may contribute to abnormal nocturnal pathophysiology, including sleep architecture disruption and impaired ventilation and oxygenation. Patients with restrictive lung disease may suffer significant daytime fatigue and dysfunction. Hypercarbia and hypoxemia during sleep may impact progression of lung disease and related symptoms. Little is known about the impact of treatment of sleep disruption on sleep quality and overall prognosis in restrictive lung disease. This review discusses the pathophysiology of sleep and comorbid sleep disorders in restrictive lung diseases including interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome. PMID:25156766

Won, Christine H J; Kryger, Meir

2014-09-01

51

Prevalence and mental health correlates of sleep disruption among military members serving in a combat zone.  

PubMed

Sleep disruption is an emergent military health issue, but remarkably little is known of its prevalence or comorbidities in the combat zone. This study was designed to quantify the prevalence and mental health correlates of sleep disruption among military personnel serving within a ground combat zone during Operation Enduring Freedom. This was a large, cross-sectional survey of active duty and reserve U.S. Navy personnel (N = 3,175). Self-reported sleep measures included total hours of sleep per day, total hours of sleep required to feel well-rested, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty staying asleep. The survey also measured mental health symptoms, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression. Participants reported an average of 5.9 hours of sleep per day despite requiring on average 6.8 hours to feel well rested. More than half (56%) were classified as sleep deficient, and 67% reported 6 or fewer hours of sleep per day. Adjusted for covariates, individuals endorsing sleep disruption were at substantially elevated risk of meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. This study documents the prevalence of sleep disruption in a very large and difficult-to-access sample of military members serving in a combat zone, and details robust associations with mental health. PMID:25003859

Taylor, Marcus K; Hilton, Susan M; Campbell, Justin S; Beckerley, Shiloh E; Shobe, Katharine K; Drummond, Sean P A

2014-07-01

52

Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.  

PubMed

Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. PMID:25355211

Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

2014-10-29

53

Amygdala opioid receptors mediate the electroacupuncture-induced deterioration of sleep disruptions in epilepsy rats  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical and experimental evidence demonstrates that sleep and epilepsy reciprocally affect each other. Previous studies indicated that epilepsy alters sleep homeostasis; in contrast, sleep disturbance deteriorates epilepsy. If a therapy possesses both epilepsy suppression and sleep improvement, it would be the priority choice for seizure control. Effects of acupuncture of Feng-Chi (GB20) acupoints on epilepsy suppression and insomnia treatment have been documented in the ancient Chinese literature, Lingshu Jing (Classic of the Miraculous Pivot). Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints on sleep disruptions in rats with focal epilepsy. Results Our result indicates that administration of pilocarpine into the left central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) induced focal epilepsy and decreased both rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep. High-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints, in which a 30-min EA stimulation was performed before the dark period of the light:dark cycle in three consecutive days, further deteriorated pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions. The EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruption was blocked by microinjection of naloxone, ?- (naloxonazine), ?- (nor-binaltorphimine) or ?-receptor antagonists (natrindole) into the CeA, suggesting the involvement of amygdaloid opioid receptors. Conclusion The present study suggests that high-frequency (100 Hz) EA stimulation of bilateral Feng-Chi acupoints exhibits no benefit in improving pilocarpine-induced sleep disruptions; in contrast, EA further deteriorated sleep disturbances. Opioid receptors in the CeA mediated EA-induced exacerbation of sleep disruptions in epileptic rats. PMID:24215575

2013-01-01

54

Pediatric Pulmonology 42:374379 (2007) Nocturnal Body Position in Sleeping Children With  

E-print Network

with OSAS are more likely to sleep prone, suggesting that this position may promote upper airway patency upper airway obstruc- tion during sleep, and affects approximately 1�3% of children.1 With and Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea Ehab Dayyat, MD,1 Muna M.A. Maarafeya, MD,1,2 Oscar Sans Capdevila, MD,1

55

Zolpidem and triazolam do not affect the nocturnal sleep-induced memory improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  It is widely accepted that sleep facilitates memory consolidation. Hypnotics (e.g., benzodiazepines), which reportedly increase\\u000a sleep efficiency but also modify sleep architecture, could affect memory improvement that occurs during sleep.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  The present study examined the effects of single doses of two short half-life hypnotics, zolpidem and triazolam, on sleep-induced\\u000a improvement of memory.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Twenty-two healthy volunteers participated in this randomized, double-blind,

Jaime Meléndez; Irina Galli; Katica Boric; Alonso Ortega; Leonardo Zuñiga; Carlos F. Henríquez-Roldán; Ana M. Cárdenas

2005-01-01

56

Nocturnal Awakening & Sleep Duration in Veterans with PTSD: An Actigraphic Study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess whether awakenings from sleep and sleep duration in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were related to demography, posttraumatic or depressive symptoms, subjective sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Sample consisted of 23 veterans with lifetime PTSD and current sleep disturbance not due to apnea or other diagnosable conditions. Data collection included demography, two weeks of actigraphy, Beck Depression Inventory, Posttraumatic Checklist, Clinical Assessment of Posttraumatic Symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: The study revealed that awakenings increased with younger age. Variability in awakenings also increased with younger age (p = 0.002). More awakenings were associated with shorter sleep duration. Conclusions: These paradoxical observations regarding younger age and more awakening may be related to increased sleep symptoms early in the course and then gradual waning of posttraumatic symptoms over time, since awakenings tend to increase with age in normals (rather than decrease, as we observed). PMID:24353674

S. Khawaja, Imran; M. Hashmi, Ali; Westermeyer, Joseph; Thuras, Paul; Hurwitz, Thomas

2013-01-01

57

9. Common causes of sleep disruption and daytime sleepiness: childhood sleep disorders II  

Microsoft Academic Search

hildren's sleep disorders differ from those in adults. There are differences in the physiology and pathophysiology of sleep in children, and behavioural, psychological and devel- opmental aspects of childhood sleep patterns. These factors contrib- ute to age-related differences in presentation for sleep disorders. Sleep disorders in children are common, and much can be done in primary care when parents present

Helen S Heussler

2005-01-01

58

Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in social jetlag and mental illness.  

PubMed

Sleep and wake represent two profoundly different states of physiology that arise within the brain from a complex interaction between multiple neural circuits and neurotransmitter systems. These neural networks are, in turn, adjusted by three key drivers that collectively determine the duration, quality, and efficiency of sleep. Two of these drivers are endogenous, namely, the circadian system and a homeostatic hourglass oscillator, while the third is exogenous-our societal structure (social time). In this chapter, we outline the neuroscience of sleep and highlight the links between sleep, mood, cognition, and mental health. We emphasize that the complexity of sleep/wake generation and regulation makes this behavioral cycle very vulnerable to disruption and then explore this concept by examining sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) when the exogenous and endogenous drivers of sleep are in conflict. SCRD can be particularly severe when social timing forces an abnormal pattern of sleep and wake upon our endogenous sleep biology. SCRD is also very common in mental illness, and although well known, this association is poorly understood or treated. Recent studies suggest that the generation of sleep and mental health shares overlapping neural mechanisms such that defects in these endogenous pathways result in pathologies to both behaviors. The evidence for this association is examined in some detail. We conclude this review by suggesting that the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of sleep/wake behavior, and of the health consequences of sleep disruption, will provide new ways to decrease the conflict between biological and societal timing in both the healthy and individuals with mental illness. PMID:23899602

Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N; Wulff, Katharina; Winnebeck, Eva; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

2013-01-01

59

Importance of hypertension and social isolation in causing sleep disruption in dementia.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), heart disease, social isolation, and sociodemographic factors on sleep in the elderly patients with dementia. Samples included 1210 noninstitutionalized, Malaysian elderly patients with dementia. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of sleep disturbances among respondents. Approximately 41% of the patients experienced sleep problems. The results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02), social isolation (OR = 1.33), and HT (OR = 1.53) significantly increased sleep disruption in respondents (P <.05). Furthermore, education (OR =.63) and non-Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.63) significantly decreased sleep problems (P <.05). It was found that DM, heart disease, sex differences, and marital status were not significant predictors of sleep disturbances (P >.05). It was concluded that age, social isolation, and HT increased sleep disruption but education and ethnic non-Malay reduced the risk of sleep problems. Moreover, HT was the most important variable to increase sleep disturbances in the elderly patients with dementia. PMID:24085252

Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

2014-02-01

60

Nocturnal sleep in isolation-reared monkeys: evidence for enviromental independence.  

PubMed

Thirteen all-night recordings were obtained from 3 infant pigtailed (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys raised on a cloth surrogate mother and under conditions of social isolation. Totally implantable biotelemetry systems were used to record the sleep physiology from the unrestrained animals. Sleep stages and night-to-night variability were virtually identical to values previously found in 8 mother-reared group-living infants. Sustained alterations in the early rearing enviroment, even though considerably modifying the organism's development, did not appear to result in differences in sleep organization. PMID:413757

Reite, M; Short, R

1977-11-01

61

Orexin receptor antagonists differ from standard sleep drugs by promoting sleep at doses that do not disrupt cognition.  

PubMed

Current treatments for insomnia, such as zolpidem (Ambien) and eszopiclone (Lunesta), are ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA)-positive allosteric modulators that carry a number of side effects including the potential to disrupt cognition. In an effort to develop better tolerated medicines, we have identified dual orexin 1 and 2 receptor antagonists (DORAs), which promote sleep in preclinical animal models and humans. We compare the effects of orally administered eszopiclone, zolpidem, and diazepam to the dual orexin receptor antagonist DORA-22 on sleep and the novel object recognition test in rat, and on sleep and two cognition tests (delayed match to sample and serial choice reaction time) in the rhesus monkey. Each compound's minimal dose that promoted sleep versus the minimal dose that exerted deficits in these cognitive tests was determined, and a therapeutic margin was established. We found that DORA-22 has a wider therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive impairment in rat and rhesus monkey compared to the other compounds tested. These data were further supported with the demonstration of a wider therapeutic margin for DORA-22 compared to the other compounds on sleep versus the expression of hippocampal activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc), an immediate-early gene product involved in synaptic plasticity. These findings suggest that DORAs might provide an effective treatment for insomnia with a greater therapeutic margin for sleep versus cognitive disturbances compared to the GABAA-positive allosteric modulators currently in use. PMID:23552372

Uslaner, Jason M; Tye, Spencer J; Eddins, Donnie M; Wang, Xiaohai; Fox, Steven V; Savitz, Alan T; Binns, Jacquelyn; Cannon, Christopher E; Garson, Susan L; Yao, Lihang; Hodgson, Robert; Stevens, Joanne; Bowlby, Mark R; Tannenbaum, Pamela L; Brunner, Joseph; Mcdonald, Terrence P; Gotter, Anthony L; Kuduk, Scott D; Coleman, Paul J; Winrow, Christopher J; Renger, John J

2013-04-01

62

Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia predicts prevalent hypertension in the European Sleep Apnoea Database cohort study.  

PubMed

Systemic hypertension is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but the pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood. A collaborative European network of 24 sleep centres established a European Sleep Apnoea Database to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity associated with OSAS. 11 911 adults referred with suspected OSAS between March 2007 and September 2013 underwent overnight sleep studies, either cardiorespiratory polygraphy or polysomnography. We compared the predictive value of the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) for prevalent hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates including age, smoking, obesity, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Among patients (70% male, mean±sd age 52±12 years), 78% had AHI >5 events·h(-1) and 41% systemic hypertension. Both AHI and ODI independently related to prevalent hypertension after adjustment for relevant covariates (p<0.0001 for linear trend across quartiles (Q) of severity for both variables). However, in multiple regression analysis with both ODI and AHI in the model, ODI was, whereas AHI was not, independently associated with prevalent hypertension: odds ratios (95% CI) for Q4 versus Q1 regarding ODI were 2.01 (1.61-2.51) and regarding AHI were 0.92 (0.74-1.15) (p<0.0001 and p=0.3054, respectively). This cross sectional study suggests that chronic intermittent hypoxia plays an important role in OSAS-related hypertension. PMID:25102963

Tkacova, Ruzena; McNicholas, Walter T; Javorsky, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Sliwinski, Pawel; Parati, Gianfranco; Grote, Ludger; Hedner, Jan

2014-10-01

63

Nocturnal sleep, daytime sleepiness, and quality of life in stable patients on hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although considerable progress has been made in the treatment of chronic kidney disease, compromised quality of life continues to be a significant problem for patients receiving hemodialysis (HD). However, in spite of the high prevalence of sleep complaints and disorders in this population, the relationship between these problems and quality of life remains to be well characterized. Thus, we

Kathy P Parker; Nancy G Kutner; Donald L Bliwise; James L Bailey; David B Rye

2003-01-01

64

The Effect of Honey on Nocturnal Cough and Sleep Quality for Children and Their Parents  

Microsoft Academic Search

C OUGH IS A COMMON SYMPTOM IN PEDIAT- ric practice and can be particularly trou- bling to children and their parents, re- sulting in discomfort, loss of sleep, and missed schooldays and workdays. Care- givers frequently administer over-the-counter (OTC) medicationstotheirchildreninanattempttotreatcough. Apart from the costs associated with such medications, some OTC medications have unwelcome and poten- tially dangerous adverse effects. Dextromethorphan,

DIMITRI A. CHRISTAKIS

2007-01-01

65

Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep  

PubMed Central

Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

2013-01-01

66

A comparison of disrupted sleep patterns in women with cancer-related fatigue and postmenopausal women without cancer (Resubmission)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Fatigue and disrupted sleep often coexist and both are prominent clinical problems in cancer affecting quality of life. Disrupted sleep patterns are likely related to cancer-related fatigue. The relationship needs further investigation. This study aimed to characterize and compare disrupted sleep patterns in fatigued breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy with postmenopausal women without a history of cancer. Anxiety levels were also examined. Methods Data for this secondary analysis came from two studies. Global sleep quality and state anxiety were self-reported by 30 fatigued female breast cancer chemotherapy outpatients and 32 non-cancer postmenopausal women using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. Results Fatigued breast cancer patients showed significant sleep difficulties, characterized by prolonged sleep onset latency (M= 54.3, SD= 49.2 minutes) and frequent nighttime awakenings, despite 40% of the patients using sleep medications three or more times a week. Compared to the non-cancer comparison group, fatigued patients reported significantly longer sleep latency (p=0.041), more use of sleep medications (p=0.006), and higher total PSQI scores (p=0.005). State anxiety levels did not differ between the two groups (p=0.88). Conclusions Sleep is disrupted in fatigued breast cancer women undergoing chemotherapy. Nearly all fatigued patients (97%) had trouble sleeping (global PSQI scores >5), indicating significant difficulties in overall sleep quality among those patients. Knowledge of the nature of sleep disruption among cancer patients may contribute to CRF symptom management leading to tailored interventions designed to improve sleep quality in cancer patients thereby managing fatigue and improving quality of life. PMID:21093372

Wu, Horng-Shiuann; Davis, Jean E.; Padiyar, Josna P.; Yarandi, Hossein

2010-01-01

67

foraging alters resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption and starvation in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Recent human studies suggest that genetic polymorphisms allow an individual to maintain optimal cognitive functioning during sleep deprivation. If such polymorphisms were not associated with additional costs, selective pressures would allow these alleles to spread through the population such that an evolutionary alternative to sleep would emerge. To determine whether there are indeed costs associated with resiliency to sleep loss, we challenged natural allelic variants of the foraging gene (for) with either sleep deprivation or starvation. Flies with high levels of Protein Kinase G (PKG) (forR) do not display deficits in short-term memory following 12 h of sleep deprivation. However, short-term memory is significantly disrupted when forR flies are starved overnight. In contrast, flies with low levels of PKG (fors, fors2) show substantial deficits in short-term memory following sleep deprivation but retain their ability to learn after 12 h of starvation. We found that forR phenotypes could be largely recapitulated in fors flies by selectively increasing the level of PKG in the ?/? lobes of the mushroom bodies, a structure known to regulate both sleep and memory. Together, these data indicate that whereas the expression of for may appear to provide resilience in one environmental context, it may confer an unexpected vulnerability in other situations. Understanding how these tradeoffs confer resilience or vulnerability to specific environmental challenges may provide additional clues as to why an evolutionary alternative to sleep has not emerged. PMID:22308351

Donlea, Jeffrey; Leahy, Averi; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Suzuki, Yasuko; Hughson, Bryon N.; Sokolowski, Marla B.; Shaw, Paul J.

2012-01-01

68

Effects of acute simulated microgravity on nocturnal sleep, daytime vigilance, and psychomotor performance: comparison of horizontal and 6 degrees head-down bed rest.  

PubMed

This study examined the effect of acute simulated microgravity on nocturnal sleep, daytime vigilance, and psychomotor performance. Each of 7 volunteers were maintained for 3 days of head-down and horizontal bed rest in a counter-balanced design. Assessment measures were polysomnographic recordings on the first night and performance on psychophysiological tasks on the second day involving subjective and objective vigilance, P300, simple reaction time tasks, and dual performance tasks. No clear difference in sleep structure was observed between the head-down and horizontal conditions, except for a slight decrease in Stage 4 for head-down. Both subjective and objective daytime vigilance, P300, and the simple RT task showed no statistical difference, although tracking performance on the dual task showed deterioration at 10:00 for the head-down condition. These results suggest that nocturnal sleep, daytime vigilance, and psychophysiological functions were not disturbed in head-down sleep conditions, although there was a mild deterioration of higher attentional function in the morning. PMID:17165393

Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi; Mizuno, Koh; Tanaka, Hideki; Mishima, Kazuo; Sato, Hidetomo; Shirakawa, Shuichiro

2006-10-01

69

A personal light-treatment device for possibly improving sleep quality in the elderly: Dynamics of nocturnal melatonin suppression at two exposure levels  

PubMed Central

Light treatment has been used as a non-pharmacological tool to help mitigate poor sleep quality frequently found in the older people. In order to increase compliance to non-pharmacological light treatments, new, more efficacious light-delivery systems need to be developed. A prototype personal light-treatment device equipped with low brightness blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (peak wavelength near 470 nm) was tested for its effectiveness in suppressing nocturnal melatonin, a measure of circadian stimulation. Two levels of corneal irradiance were set to deliver two prescribed doses of circadian light exposure. Eleven older subjects, between 51 and 80 yrs of age who met the selection criteria, were exposed to a high and to a low level of light for 90 min on separate nights from the personal light-treatment device. Blood and saliva samples were collected at prescribed times for subsequent melatonin assay. After 1 h of light exposure, the light-induced nocturnal melatonin suppression level was about 35% for the low light level and about 60% for the high light level. The higher level of blue light suppressed melatonin slightly faster, to a greater extent over the course of the 90 min exposure period, and was maintained after 60 min. The constant exposure of the low light level resulted in a decrease in nocturnal melatonin suppression for the last sampling time, whereas for the high light level, suppression continued throughout the entire exposure period. The present study performed with healthy adults suggests that the tested personal light-treatment device might be a practical, comfortable, and effective way to deliver light treatment to those suffering from circadian sleep disorders; however, the acceptance and effectiveness of personal light-treatment devices by older people and by other segments of the population suffering from sleep disorders in a real-life situation needs to be directly tested. PMID:19444752

Figueiro, Mariana G.; Bierman, Andrew; Bullough, John D.; Rea, Mark S.

2009-01-01

70

Estimating the Need for Medical Intervention due to Sleep Disruption on the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During ISS and shuttle missions, difficulties with sleep affect more than half of all US crews. Mitigation strategies to help astronauts cope with the challenges of disrupted sleep patterns can negatively impact both mission planning and vehicle design. The methods for addressing known detrimental impacts for some mission scenarios may have a substantial impact on vehicle specific consumable mass or volume or on the mission timeline. As part of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) task, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading the development of a Monte Carlo based forecasting tool designed to determine the consumables required to address risks related to sleep disruption. The model currently focuses on the International Space Station and uses an algorithm that assembles representative mission schedules and feeds this into a well validated model that predicts relative levels of performance, and need for sleep (SAFTE Model, IBR Inc). Correlation of the resulting output to self-diagnosed needs for hypnotics, stimulants, and other pharmaceutical countermeasures, allows prediction of pharmaceutical use and the uncertainty of the specified prediction. This paper outlines a conceptual model for determining a rate of pharmaceutical utilization that can be used in the IMM model for comparison and optimization of mitigation methods with respect to all other significant medical needs and interventions.

Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Hurst, S. R.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Caldwell, J. Lynn

2008-01-01

71

Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological function despite immediate sleep disruption following diffuse brain injury in the mouse: clinical relevance to medically untreated concussion. SLEEP 2014;37(4):743-752. PMID:24899763

Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

2014-01-01

72

Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Worry might be a mediator of their risks by prolonging their cognitive representation and concomitant CV activity. We hypothesized that daily stressors and worry, and trait anxiety and trait worry would be associated with high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) during waking and the subsequent nocturnal

Jos F. Brosschot; Eduard Van Dijk; Julian F. Thayer

2007-01-01

73

Toward optimizing lighting as a countermeasure to sleep and circadian disruption in space flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light is being used as a pre-launch countermeasure to circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts. The effect of light on the circadian system is readily monitored by measurement of plasma melatonin. Our group has established an action spectrum for human melatonin regulation and determined the region of 446-477 nm to be the most potent for suppressing plasma melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 460 and 555 nm for suppressing melatonin using a within-subjects design. Subjects ( N=12) were exposed to equal photon densities ( 7.18×1012photons/cm2/s) at 460 and 555 nm. Melatonin suppression was significantly stronger at 460 nm ( p<0.02). An extension to the action spectrum showed that 420 nm light at 16 and 32?W/cm2 significantly suppressed melatonin ( p<0.04 and p<0.002). These studies will help optimize lighting countermeasures to circadian and sleep disruption during spaceflight.

Fucci, Robert L.; Gardner, James; Hanifin, John P.; Jasser, Samar; Byrne, Brenda; Gerner, Edward; Rollag, Mark; Brainard, George C.

2005-05-01

74

Alterations in Pain Responses in Treated and Untreated Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome: Associations with Sleep Disruption  

PubMed Central

Objective There has been recent interest in characterizing potential abnormalities of pain processing in patients with sleep disorders such as Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS). The aim of this study was to evaluate psychophysical responses to noxious heat and pressure stimuli in both treated and untreated RLS patients, compared to matched controls. Methods This study is a cross-sectional group comparison of RLS patients with matched controls. A total of 31 patients (15 treated, 16 untreated) with a confirmed diagnosis of RLS were compared to 18 controls with no history of RLS or related sleep disorders. Results RLS patients (both treated and untreated) demonstrated reduced pain thresholds and reported greater clinical pain relative to controls. Moreover, RLS patients demonstrated enhanced temporal summation of heat pain (p< .05), which may reflect aberrant central nervous system facilitation of pain transmission. Both treated and untreated RLS patients reported disrupted sleep relative to controls, and mediation analyses suggested that the reduced pain thresholds in RLS were attributable to sleep disturbance. However, the effect of RLS on the magnitude of temporal summation of heat pain was independent of sleep disturbance. Conclusions These findings suggest that central nervous system pain processing may be amplified in RLS, perhaps partially as a consequence of sleep disruption. RLS patients, even those whose symptoms are managed pharmacologically, may be at elevated long-term risk for the development or maintenance of persistent pain conditions. Further studies in larger samples could help to improve the prospects for pain management in RLS patients. PMID:21570347

Edwards, Robert R; Quartana, Phillip J.; Allen, Richard P; Greenbaum, Seth; Earley, Christopher J; Smith, Michael T

2011-01-01

75

Electroencephalographic studies of sleep  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

1975-01-01

76

Sleep  

MedlinePLUS

... Kit Library Frequently Asked Questions Glossary Contact Us Sleep Click Here to Start VIDEO STORIES Sleep Basics Causes of Insomnia Things You Can Do Harmful Sleep Habits Helpful Sleep Habits Assessment Afterdeployment is Moving ...

77

Children's Sleep and Autonomic Function: Low Sleep Quality Has an Impact on Heart Rate Variability  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV Participants: Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). Interventions: N/A. Methods: Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. Results: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Conclusions: Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children. Citation: Michels N; Clays E; De Buyzere M; Vanaelst B; De Henauw S; Sioen I. Children's sleep and autonomic function: low sleep quality has an impact on heart rate variability. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1939-1946. PMID:24293769

Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

2013-01-01

78

Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among military veterans  

PubMed Central

The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135

Insana, Salvatore P.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne

2012-01-01

79

Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundAlthough obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown.MethodsWe studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ?12% of

Sofia B. Ahmed; Paul E. Ronksley; Brenda R. Hemmelgarn; Willis H. Tsai; Braden J. Manns; Marcello Tonelli; Scott W. Klarenbach; Rick Chin; Fiona M. Clement; Patrick J. Hanly

2011-01-01

80

Bidirectional Communication between the Brain and the Immune System: Implications for Physiological Sleep and Disorders with Disrupted Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review describes mechanisms of immune-to-brain and brain-to-immune signaling involved in mediating physiological sleep and altered sleep with disease. The central nervous system (CNS) modulates immune function by signaling target cells of the immune system through autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways. Neurotransmitters and hormones produced and released by these pathways interact with immune cells to alter immune functions, including cytokine production.

Dianne Lorton; Cheri L. Lubahn; Chris Estus; Brooke A. Millar; Jeffery L. Carter; Carlo A. Wood; Denise L. Bellinger

2006-01-01

81

The Impact of Sleep Disruption on Executive Function in Down Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, is well established in children with Down syndrome. However, only a few studies have focused on older children and young adults in this population. Given the presence of sleep disorders and the early emergence of Alzheimer's disease, more work is needed to examine the…

Chen, C.-C.; Spano, G.; Edgin, J. O.

2013-01-01

82

Nightwatch: Sleep Disruption of Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit  

PubMed Central

Caregiving for ill loved ones can affect sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep has been associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, and it is known to affect work performance and ability to accomplish necessary tasks. While some research has looked at the sleep of caregivers of loved ones with chronic illness and found that they experience poorer sleep, little is known about the impact of caring for a child with asthma on the caregiver’s sleep and the ways in which their sleep may be affected. Community Action Against Asthma, a community-based participatory research partnership, conducted interviews with semistructured and open-ended questions with 40 caregivers of children with asthma who live in Detroit. Findings showed that caregivers regularly experience poor quality sleep because of sleeping lightly in order to listen for the child’s symptoms, wake multiple times to check on the child because of worry, and provide care for child when he or she experiences symptoms in the middle of the night. Results of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicate that 12.5% of caregivers received a score of 16 or more, the score on the scale used to indicate likely presence of a sleep disorder, and 42.5% had a score of 10 or more, indicating excessive sleepiness. Sleep disturbance in caregivers is an underrecognized consequence of childhood asthma, with implications for providers caring for children with asthma.

Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Parker, Edith A.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

2014-01-01

83

Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. PMID:23219054

Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

2013-08-01

84

Longitudinal change in sleep and daytime sleepiness in postpartum women.  

PubMed

Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

Filtness, Ashleigh J; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

2014-01-01

85

REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

Ocampo-Garces, Adrian; Hernandez, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

2013-01-01

86

Nocturnal Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

87

Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs  

E-print Network

Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to induce perceptual impairments, ranging from perceptual distortion to hallucinatory states. Although this phenomenon has been extensively described in the literature, its neurobiological underpinnings remain elusive...

Frau, Roberto; Orrù , Marco; Puligheddu, Monica; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Mereu, Giampaolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

2008-11-01

88

Neonatal EEG-sleep disruption mimicking hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after intrapartum asphyxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: EEG-sleep organization of asphyxiated and non-asphyxiated full-term neonates was compared during the first 3 days after birth.Background: Aggressive fetal and neonatal resuscitative efforts have reduced the severe expression of the neonatal brain disorder termed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Neonates may alternatively express altered EEG-sleep organization over the first days of life after asphyxia which may mimic mild or moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

Mark S. Scher; Doris A. Steppe; Marquita E. Beggarly; Dawn G. Salerno; David L. Banks

2002-01-01

89

Sleep and ADHD  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper, intended to provide useful insights for the clinical management of sleep disturbances in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), presents a critical, updated overview of the most relevant studies on the prevalence, etiopathophysiology and treatment strategies of sleep problems associated with ADHD, including restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, sleep-onset delay, increased nocturnal motor activity, sleep-disordered breathing, deficit in

Eric Konofal; Michel Lecendreux; Samuele Cortese

2010-01-01

90

REM sleep deprivation generates cognitive and neurochemical disruptions in the intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

The recently described intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents provides an interesting model for studying mechanisms of toxin-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury. The relevance of this model remains unexplored with regard to sleep disorders that occur in PD. On this basis, the construction of a PD model depicting several behavioral and neurochemical alterations related to sleep would be helpful in understanding the association between PD and sleep regulation. We performed bilateral intranigral injections of rotenone (12??g) on day 0 and the open-field test initially on day 20 after rotenone. Acquisition phase of the object-recognition test, executed also during day 20, was followed by an exact period of 24 hr of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD; day 21). In the subsequent day (22), the rats were re-exposed to the open-field test and to the object-recognition test (choice phase). After the last session of behavioral tests, the rat brains were immediately dissected, and their striata were collected for neurochemical purposes. We observed that a brief exposure to REMSD was able to impair drastically the object-recognition test, similarly to a nigrostriatal lesion promoted by intranigral rotenone. However, the combination of REMSD and rotenone surprisingly did not inflict memory impairment, concomitant with a moderate compensatory mechanism mediated by striatal dopamine release. In addition, we demonstrated the existence of changes in serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmissions within the striatum mostly as a function of REMSD and REMSD plus rotenone, respectively. PMID:23908011

Dos Santos, Ana Carolina D; Castro, Marcela Alexandra V; Jose, Elis Angela K; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S

2013-11-01

91

foraging alters resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption and starvation in Drosophila  

E-print Network

, St. Louis, MO 63104; and b Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto­Champaign, Urbana, IL, and approved January 4, 2012 (received for review August 7, 2011) Recent human studies sleep deprivation. If such polymorphisms were not associated with additional costs, selective pressures

Sokolowski, Marla

92

Nocturnal Temazepam in the Treatment of Narcolepsy  

PubMed Central

Narcolepsy is characterized by fragmented nighttime sleep and frequent arousals. One treatment approach to improve daytime symptoms is to consolidate nighttime sleep through decreasing arousals. Sodium oxybate is the first FDA-approved medication that follows this approach. Benzodiazepines are known to also decrease arousals at night and have been proposed to help with sleep fragmentation. In one report, clonazepam was shown to improve cataplexy in 10 of 14 patients with narcolepsy although no improvement in daytime sleepiness was reported. The purpose of this case review was to share our experience of nocturnal temazepam on daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Citation: Kansagra S; Walter R; Vaughn B. Nocturnal temazepam in the treatment of narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):499-500. PMID:23674942

Kansagra, Sujay; Walter, Robert; Vaughn, Bradley

2013-01-01

93

The influence of acute exercise on sleep following high caffeine intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of vigorous acute exercise on nocturnal sleep that had been disrupted by high doses (1200 mg) of caffeine throughout the daytime. Eight moderately fit, young males with a history of moderate caffeine use completed four conditions in a within-subjects, counterbalanced design: 60 min of (i) cycling at 60% V?O2peak or

Shawn D. Youngstedt; Patrick J. O'Connor; James B. Crabbe; Rod K. Dishman

2000-01-01

94

Sleep disorders in psychiatry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or

Jorge Alberto Costa e Silva

2006-01-01

95

Sleep and ADHD.  

PubMed

This paper, intended to provide useful insights for the clinical management of sleep disturbances in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), presents a critical, updated overview of the most relevant studies on the prevalence, etiopathophysiology and treatment strategies of sleep problems associated with ADHD, including restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, sleep-onset delay, increased nocturnal motor activity, sleep-disordered breathing, deficit in alertness, and sleep alterations accounted for by comorbid psychiatric disorders or ADHD medications. We also discuss some possible avenues for future research in the field. PMID:20620109

Konofal, Eric; Lecendreux, Michel; Cortese, Samuele

2010-08-01

96

[Epilepsy and sleep].  

PubMed

Two hundreds epileptic patients with nocturnal seizures were studied. The study included evaluation of anamnesis, clinical and neurological examination, routine EEG and/or video-EEG-monitoring, MRI of the brain. The period of observation was 6 months - 10 years (on average 3.5 years). Epilepsy started with nocturnal seizures in 48% cases, in 30.5% of patients all seizures persisted during sleep. In 25% patients, nocturnal seizures were different from seizures in awakening. In 18.5% cases, seizures were randomly dispersed in the sleep-wake cycle. Different types of nocturnal nonepileptic seizures were noted in 8.5% cases. The relationship between sleep and epilepsy as well as different types of parasomnias that mimicked epileptic seizures were described and analyzed. PMID:23994912

Kotov, A S

2013-01-01

97

Nocturnal temazepam in the treatment of narcolepsy.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is characterized by fragmented nighttime sleep and frequent arousals. One treatment approach to improve daytime symptoms is to consolidate nighttime sleep through decreasing arousals. Sodium oxybate is the first FDA-approved medication that follows this approach. Benzodiazepines are known to also decrease arousals at night and have been proposed to help with sleep fragmentation. In one report, clonazepam was shown to improve cataplexy in 10 of 14 patients with narcolepsy although no improvement in daytime sleepiness was reported. The purpose of this case review was to share our experience of nocturnal temazepam on daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). PMID:23674942

Kansagra, Sujay; Walter, Robert; Vaughn, Bradley

2013-05-15

98

Effects of sleep deprivation on human immune  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of 40 h of wakefulness on a variety of im- munological parameters in the peripheral blood from 10 normal male subjects was studied. Sleep deprivation led to enhanced nocturnal plasma interleukin 1-like and interleukin 2-like activities. The rise in nocturnal response of lymphocytes to pokeweed mitogen stimula- tion during a normal 24 h sleep-wake cycle was delayed by

H. MOLDOFSKY; F. A. LUE; J. R. DAVIDSON; R. GORCZYNSKI

99

EFFECT OF SHIP NOISE ON SLEEP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of a steady sound level of 65 dB(A) from a diesel ship engine on nocturnal sleep were studied using polygraphic and subjective sleep parameters. Three healthy men, aged 29 to 33 years, participated in the experiment. Sleep polygrams and the sound level in a sleep laboratory were recorded for each subject for five exposure nights and five control

Y. Tamura; T. Kawada; Y. Sasazawa

1997-01-01

100

[Epilepsy and sleep disorders].  

PubMed

Sleep disorders often occur in patients with epilepsy. Every neurologist is familiar with the postictal drowsiness after tonicoclonic convulsions and likewise with the provocation of an attack after sleep deprivation that is often combined with alcohol consumption. It is more difficult to differentiate between motor disturbances and epileptic episodes during sleep. For example, nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, which are frequently an expression of frontal lobe epilepsy, are long not recognized as non-epileptic, sleep-associated attacks. In addition, nocturnal episodes in context of a REM sleep behavioral disturbance can occasionally be differentiated from frontal lobe epileptic seizures only with great difficulty. A clear differential diagnostics between epileptic and non-epileptic attacks during sleep is, however, a requirement for a selective treatment. PMID:15968874

Eisensehr, I; Schmidt, D

2005-05-17

101

Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement in mice reveals increased susceptibility to sleep disruption and intermittent hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) are major manifestations of sleep apnea, a frequent condition in aging humans. Sleep perturbations are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may underlie the progression of disease. We hypothesized that acute short-term IH, SF, and their combination (IH+SF) may reveal unique susceptibility in sleep integrity in a murine model of AD. The effects of acute IH, SF, and IH+SF on sleep architecture, delta power, sleep latency, and core body temperature were assessed in adult male human ApoE4-targeted replacement mice (hApoE4) and wild-type (WT) controls. Slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly reduced, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was almost abolished during acute exposure to IH alone and IH+SF for 6 h in hApoE4, with milder effects in WT controls. Decreased delta power during SWS did not show postexposure rebound in hApoE4 unlike WT controls. IH and IH+SF induced hypothermia, which was more prominent in hApoE4 than WT controls. Mice subjected to SF also showed sleep deficits but without hypothermia. hApoE4 mice, unlike WT controls, exhibited increased sleep propensity, especially following IH and IH+SF, suggesting limited ability for sleep recovery in hApoE4 mice. These findings substantiate the potential impact of IH and SF in modulating sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis including maintenance of body temperature. Furthermore, the increased susceptibility and limited recovery ability of hApoE4 mice to sleep apnea suggests that early recognition and treatment of the latter in AD patients may restrict the progression and clinical manifestations of this frequent neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:22573105

Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay

2012-01-01

102

Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.  

PubMed

The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate. PMID:12467942

Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich

2002-12-15

103

Delay in the Recovery of Normal Sleep-Wake Cycle after Disruption of the Light-Dark Cycle in Mice: A Bipolar Disorder-Prone Animal Model?  

PubMed Central

Objective Disruption of the circadian rhythm is known as a provoking factor for manic episodes. Individual differences exist in the recovery rate from disruption in the general population. To develop a screening method to detect individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder, the authors observed the relationship between the recovery of the normal sleep-wake cycle after switching the light-dark (LD) cycle and quinpirole-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methods Sixteen male mice (age of 5 weeks, weight 28-29 gm) were subjected to a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. Sleep-wake behaviors were checked every 5 min for a total duration of 15 days, i.e., 2 days of baseline observations, 3 days of LD cycle changes, and 10 days of recovery. During the dark cycle on the 16th experimental day, their general locomotor activities were measured in an open field for 120 minutes after an injection of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Results The individual differences in the recovery rate of the baseline sleep-wake cycle were noted after 3 days of switching the LD cycle. Fifty percent (n=8) of the mice returned to the baseline cycle within 6 days after normalizing the LD cycle (early recovery group). The locomotor activities of mice that failed to recover within 6 days (delayed recovery group) were significantly higher (mean rank=12.25) than those of the early recovery group (mean rank=4.75, u=62.0, p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Given that the quinpirole-induced hyperactivity is an animal model of bipolar disorder, our results suggest individuals who have difficulties in recovery from circadian rhythm disruption may be vulnerable to bipolar disorder. PMID:25395982

Jung, Sun Hwa; Moon, Eunsoo; Chung, Young In; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Jeong, Hee Jeong

2014-01-01

104

Nighttime Sleep Disruptions, the Hospital Care Environment, and Symptoms in Elementary School-Age Children With Cancer  

PubMed Central

Purpose/Objectives To describe nighttime sleep-wake patterns during a 12-hour night shift among school-age children with cancer receiving inpatient chemotherapy and relationships among nighttime sleep, environmental stimuli, medication doses, and symptoms during that shift. Design Exploratory, descriptive, multiple-case study. Setting Inpatient pediatric oncology unit at a tertiary pediatric hospital in the western United States. Sample 15 elementary school-age children with cancer receiving inpatient chemotherapy. Methods Wrist actigraphs measured sleep-wake patterns. Data loggers and sound pressure level meters measured bedside light, temperature, and sound levels. Medication doses and occurrences of pain, nausea, and vomiting were identified through chart review. Main Research Variables Minutes of sleep. Findings Sleep varied based on time of night (F = 56.27, p < 0.01), with sleep onset delayed past 10 pm. A basic mixed linear model identified significant fixed effects for sound (F = 50.87, p < 0.01) and light (F = 7.04, p < 0.01) on minutes of sleep. A backward regression model including sound, light, medication doses, pain, and nausea accounted for about 57% of the variance in sleep minutes (F = 62.85, p < 0.01). Conclusions Sleep was marked by frequent awakenings, limiting children’s ability to experience full sleep cycles. Multiple factors—in particular, excessive sound levels—compromise sleep quantity and quality throughout the night. Implications for Nursing Efforts to develop and test individualized and system-based interventions to modify the hospital care environment to promote nighttime sleep are needed. Oncology nurses have the opportunity to influence the care environment at an individual level and to influence unit-based practices to promote a healthy nighttime sleep environment. PMID:23107850

Linder, Lauri A.; Christian, Becky J.

2013-01-01

105

Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Presenting as Excessive Daytime Sleepiness  

PubMed Central

Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE). Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE. PMID:24479058

Cheng, Jocelyn Y.; Wallace, Douglas M.; Lopez, Maria R.; Carrazana, Enrique J.

2013-01-01

106

Sleep and daytime sleepiness in upper airway resistance syndrome compared to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has investigated differences in the nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness among patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), upper airway resistance (UARS), sleep hypopnoea syndrome, and normal control subjects, using sleep scoring and spectral activity analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Twelve nonobese males with UARS aged 30 - 60 yrs were recruited. These subjects were strictly matched for

C. Guilleminault; Y. Do Kim; S. Chowdhuri; M. Horita; M. Ohayon; C. Kushida

2001-01-01

107

Correlates of sleep-onset REM periods during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test in community adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of narcolepsy without documented cataplexy is based on the observation of two or more sleep-onset REM periods (SOREMPs) during the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). We report on the prevalence and correlates of SOREMPs in the community-based Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study. MSLTs were conducted following nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) and daily sleep diaries in 289 males and 267 females

Emmanuel Mignot; Ling Lin; Laurel Finn; Cecilia Lopes; Kathryn Pluff; Mary L. Sundstrom; Terry Young

2006-01-01

108

Electroencephalographic changes during respiratory cycles predict sleepiness in sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Common polysomnographic measures of sleep-disordered breathing have shown a disappointing ability to predict important consequences such as excessive daytime sleepiness. Using novel analytic techniques, this study tested the hypothesis that numerous, brief disruptions in cortical activity could occur on a breath-to-breath basis during nonapneic sleep. Spectral analysis proved the existence of respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic changes in each of 38 adult patients evaluated by polysomnography for sleep-disordered breathing. Furthermore, the tendency for sigma (13-15 Hz) electroencephalographic power to vary with the respiratory cycle predicted next-day sleepiness as measured by the multiple sleep latency test. The predictive value was enhanced when the analysis was limited to those 27 patients who had sleep-disordered breathing (more than 5 apneas or hypopneas per hour of sleep). In contrast, nocturnal rates of apneas and hypopneas, as well as minimal oxygen saturation, did not predict sleepiness as well. On average, sigma power increased notably during inspiration, whereas delta (1-4 Hz) power showed a simultaneous decrease. We conclude that electroencephalographic activity shows detectable changes during nonapneic respiratory cycles in adults evaluated for sleep-disordered breathing. Quantification of these changes, which may reflect numerous inspiratory microarousals, could prove useful in prediction of excessive daytime sleepiness. PMID:15591467

Chervin, Ronald D; Burns, Joseph W; Ruzicka, Deborah L

2005-03-15

109

Heart Rate Variability During Sleep and Subsequent Sleepiness in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome  

PubMed Central

We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25–55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (?1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night’s sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher fractal scaling index ?1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep (p < 0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS. PMID:23499514

Togo, Fumiharu; Natelson, Benjamin H.

2013-01-01

110

Trait interindividual differences in the sleep physiology of healthy young adults  

E-print Network

recovery nights following sleep deprivation). Among 18 sleep variables analyzed, all except slow-wave sleep power, individual differences, nocturnal polysomnography, phenotypes, recovery sleep, sleep structureTrait interindividual differences in the sleep physiology of healthy young adults A D R I E N N E M

Pennsylvania, University of

111

Disrupted Sleep and Delayed Recovery from Chronic Peripheral Neuropathy are Distinct Phenotypes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep apnea, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and obesity are features of metabolic syndrome associated with decreased restorative sleep and increased pain. These traits are relevant for anesthesiology because they confer increased risks of a negative anesthetic outcome. This study tested the one-tailed hypothesis that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity have enhanced nociception and disordered sleep. Methods Rats were from a breeding strategy that selected for low aerobic capacity runners (LCR) and high aerobic capacity runners (HCR). Four different phenotypes were quantified. Rats (n=12) underwent von Frey sensory testing, thermal nociceptive testing (n=12), electrographic recordings of sleep and wakefulness (n=16), and thermal nociceptive testing before and for six weeks after a unilateral chronic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve (n=14). Results Paw withdrawal latency to a thermal nociceptive stimulus was significantly (P<0.01) less in LCR than HCR rats. There were significant differences in sleep. LCR rats spent significantly (P<0.01) more time awake (18%) and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (?19%) than HCR rats. Non-rapid eye movement sleep episodes were of shorter duration (?34%) in LCR than HCR rats. Rapid eye movement sleep of LCR rats was significantly more fragmented than Rapid eye movement sleep of HCR rats. LCR rats required two weeks longer than HCR rats to recover from peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Rodents with low aerobic capacity exhibit features homologous to human metabolic syndrome. This rodent model offers a novel tool for characterizing the mechanisms through which low aerobic function and obesity might confer increased risks for anesthesia. PMID:20938334

Muncey, Aaron R.; Saulles, Adam R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

2010-01-01

112

Stages of sleep after psychoemotional tension: the individual character of changes.  

PubMed

This report describes complex psychophysiological studies of nocturnal sleep in healthy humans in normal concentrations and after emotional tension. A series of contemporary methods was used: questionnaires, psychological tests, motor tests, and polysomnography with heart rate recording. These experiments showed that psychoemotional tension induced changes mainly in the structure of the first sleep cycle, decreasing the proportion of the second stage of slow sleep in total nocturnal sleep, led to a redistribution of delta sleep, increasing delta sleep in the second half of nocturnal sleep, and suppressed the mechanisms underlying the organization of the phases of rapid sleep. Psychoemotional tension affected human cerebrovisceral functions, for example inducing increases in the frequency and variability of the heart rhythm during nocturnal sleep. The nature of these changes in sleep structure and autonomic responses depended on the personality characteristics of the individual person. Thus, the individual approach to the question of psychoemotional stress in sleep disturbances is, we believe, the most appropriate. PMID:12403003

Vein, A M; Sudakov, K V; Levin, Ya I; Yumatov, E A; Strygin, K N; Kovrov, G V

2002-01-01

113

Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour

Alex Iranzo; Joan Santamaria; Mart??n de Riquer

2004-01-01

114

Workplace debt: sleep loss.  

PubMed

Normal sleep is characterized by definite cycles of varying sleep depths as well as synchrony with the 24-hour circadian rhythm. Irregular work schedules put nurses at risk for sleep disruption, which is associated with adverse health effects as well as decreased patient safety. Strategies based on maintaining normal sleep cycles and the circadian rhythm can help nurses avoid the adverse effects of sleep loss. PMID:19343846

Humphries, Jean D

2009-01-01

115

DELIRIUM: IS SLEEP IMPORTANT?  

PubMed Central

Delirium and poor sleep quality are common and often co-exist in hospitalized patients. A link between these disorders has been hypothesized but whether this link is a cause and effect relationship or simply an association resulting from shared mechanisms is yet to be determined. Potential shared mechanisms include: abnormalities of neurotransmitters, tissue ischemia, inflammation, and sedative exposure. Sedatives, while decreasing sleep latency, often cause a decrease in slow wave sleep and stage REM sleep and therefore may not provide the same restorative properties as natural sleep. Mechanical ventilation, an important cause of sleep disruption in ICU patients, may lead to sleep disruption not only from the discomfort of the endotracheal tube but also as a result of ineffective respiratory efforts and by inducing central apnea events if not properly adjusted for the patient’s physiologic needs. When possible, efforts should be made to optimize the patient-ventilator interaction to minimize sleep disruptions. PMID:23040286

Watson, Paula L.; Ceriana, Piero; Fanfulla, Francesco

2012-01-01

116

Is Nocturnal Panic a Distinct Disease Category? Comparison of Clinical Characteristics among Patients with Primary Nocturnal Panic, Daytime Panic, and Coexistence of Nocturnal and Daytime Panic  

PubMed Central

Objective: Many patients with panic disorder (PD) experience nocturnal panic attacks. We investigated the differences in demographic variables and symptom characteristics as well as response to treatment among patients with primary day panic (DP), primary nocturnal panic (NP), and the coexistence of DP and NP (DP/NP), and discuss whether NP is a distinct disease category. Method: One hundred one consecutive untreated patients with PD were enrolled and subsequently divided into the NP, DP, and DP/NP groups. The presence of 13 panic attack symptom items as well as scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared among the groups. After 3 months of regular treatment, PDSS scores were assessed again to evaluate treatment response. Results: Nocturnal panic attacks of the participants were mostly reported to occur in the first tertile of nocturnal sleep. The number of males, onset age, and presence of choking sensation were significantly higher, and the PDSS score was significantly lower in the NP group compared with the other groups. The DP/NP group showed the highest PDSS score, and participants in this group were prescribed the highest doses of medication among all groups. Only diagnostic sub-category was significantly associated with treatment response. The total score for PDSS and PSQI correlated significantly only in the NP group. Conclusions: DP/NP could be a severe form of PD, while primary NP could be a relatively mild subcategory that may partially share common pathophysiology with adult type night terror. Citation: Nakamura M; Sugiura T; Nishida S; Komada Y; Inoue Y. Is nocturnal panic a distinct disease category? Comparison of clinical characteristics among patients with primary nocturnal panic, daytime panic, and coexistence of nocturnal and daytime panic. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):461-467. PMID:23674937

Nakamura, Masaki; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Nishida, Shingo; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

2013-01-01

117

Non-invasive ventilation and sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we review the effects of nocturnal mechanical ventilation on sleep. Indeed, although non-invasive assisted ventilation during sleep has been applied extensively, the exact effects of this treatment on sleep quality have not been thoroughly studied. In patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe restrictive ventilatory defects, the resulting respiratory failure is aggravated by the specific

Mónica M. González; Veronica F. Parreira; Daniel O. Rodenstein

2002-01-01

118

Sleep and psychiatry  

PubMed Central

Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

2005-01-01

119

Sleep disorders in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are common in pregnancy and may be influenced by a multitude of factors. Pregnancy physiology may predispose to sleep disruption but may also result in worsening of some underlying sleep disorders, and the de novo development of others. Apart from sleep disordered breathing, the impact of sleep disorders on pregnancy, fetal, and neonatal outcomes is poorly understood. In this article, we review the literature and discuss available data pertaining to the most common sleep disorders in perinatal women. These include restless legs syndrome, insomnia, circadian pattern disturbances, narcolepsy, and sleep-disordered breathing. PMID:25156772

Oyiengo, Dennis; Louis, Mariam; Hott, Beth; Bourjeily, Ghada

2014-09-01

120

Sleep and Quality of Life in REM Sleep Parasomnia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasomnias are abnormal behavioral or physiological events that intrude into the sleep process disrupting its continuity.\\u000a Parasomnia associated to REM sleep include REM sleep behavior disorder, nightmare disorders, recurrent isolated sleep paralysis\\u000a (SP), and sleep-related painful erections. The quality of life of patients suffering from parasomnias may vary according to\\u000a the disorder. REM sleep behavior disorder patients experience recurrent vivid

Luigi Ferini-Strambi; Maria Livia Fantini

121

Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis*  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. RESULTS: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75 ± 6.29 vs. 86.38 ± 8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = ?0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = ?0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:24473760

Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Santana, Maria Angelica Pinheiro; Almeida, Priscila de Carvalho; Machado, Almerio de Souza; Araujo-Filho, Jose Bouzas; Salles, Cristina

2013-01-01

122

Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PSQI-A) in Male Military Veterans  

PubMed Central

Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), yet they bear less stigma than other PTSD symptoms. Given the growing number of returning military veterans, brief, valid assessments that identify PTSD in a minimally stigmatizing way may be highly useful in both research and clinical practice. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) was examined for the ability to identify cases of PTSD among male military veterans. Male military veterans (N = 119) completed the PSQI-A, as well as measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Veterans with PTSD had higher PSQI-A identified disruptive nocturnal behaviors than veterans without PTSD. The PSQI-A had good internal consistency and had convergent validity with sleep quality, combat exposure, PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. A cutoff score ? 4 provided an area-under-the-curve = .81, with 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 60% positive and 83% negative predictive value for a clinical diagnosis of PTSD; correct classification was 74%. The PSQI-A is a valid measure to possibly detect PTSD among male military veterans without directly probing trauma reactions. Assessment of disruptive nocturnal behaviors may provide a cost-effective, non-stigmatizing approach to PTSD screening among male military veterans. PMID:23512653

Insana, Salvatore P.; Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne

2013-01-01

123

Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the US. Numerous studies have demonstrated that sleep disturbances are common in COPD patients, with more prominent complaints in patients with more severe disease and with increasing age. Sleep disturbances may occur due to the effects of breathing abnormalities on sleep and sleep disruption. However, other

Nancy Collop

2010-01-01

124

Effects of Daytime Food Intake on Memory Consolidation during Sleep or Sleep Deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep enhances memory consolidation. Bearing in mind that food intake produces many metabolic signals that can influence memory processing in humans (e.g., insulin), the present study addressed the question as to whether the enhancing effect of sleep on memory consolidation is affected by the amount of energy consumed during the preceding daytime. Compared to sleep, nocturnal wakefulness has been shown

Nina Herzog; Alexia Friedrich; Naoko Fujita; Steffen Gais; Kamila Jauch-Chara; Kerstin M. Oltmanns; Christian Benedict

2012-01-01

125

Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More  

PubMed Central

Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

St. Louis, Erik K.

2012-01-01

126

Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.  

PubMed

Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

St Louis, Erik K

2011-09-01

127

Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide  

MedlinePLUS

... other psychiatric disorders. What are nightmares? Nightmares are dreams that are associated with fear and anxiety. They ... related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry , 147 , 1189-1194. Krakow, B., ...

128

Disruption of behavioral circadian rhythms induced by psychophysiological stress affects plasma free amino acid profiles without affecting peripheral clock gene expression in mice.  

PubMed

Disordered circadian rhythms are associated with various psychiatric conditions and metabolic diseases. We recently established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by reduced amplitude of circadian wheel-running activity and sleep-wake cycles, sleep fragmentation and hyperphagia. Here, we evaluate day-night fluctuations in plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), appetite hormones and prolactin as well as the hepatic expression of circadian clock-related genes in mice with CSD (CSD mice). Nocturnal increases in wheel-running activity and circadian rhythms of plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly disrupted in CSD mice. Hyperphagia with a decreased leptin/ghrelin ratio was found in CSD mice. Day-night fluctuations in plasma FAA contents were severely disrupted without affecting total FAA levels in CSD mice. Nocturnal increases in branched-chain amino acids such as Ile, Leu, and Val were further augmented in CSD mice, while daytime increases in Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Lys, Arg, His, Tyr, Met, Cys, Glu, and Asn were significantly attenuated. Importantly, the circadian expression of hepatic clock genes was completely unaffected in CSD mice. These findings suggest that circadian clock gene expression does not always reflect disordered behavior and sleep rhythms and that plasma FFA profiles could serve as a potential biomarker of circadian rhythm disorders. PMID:24971530

Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Miyazaki, Koyomi; Nemoto, Tadashi; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Kaneda, Hirotaka

2014-07-18

129

Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress  

PubMed Central

Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

Gr?nli, Janne; Soule, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

2014-01-01

130

In search of objective components for sleep quality indexing in normal sleep.  

PubMed

The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of nocturnal human sleep can provide information about sleep quality in terms of correlation with a set of daytime measures. These measures were designed with the aim of comprising selected quality of night sleep and consist of subjective sleep quality ratings, neuropsychological tests and physiological parameters. First, a factor analysis model was applied to the large number of daytime measures of sleep quality in order to detect their latent structure. Secondly, in addition to the gold standard sleep staging method to arrive at variables about sleep architecture from PSG, we applied a recently developed continuous sleep representation by considering the probabilistic sleep model (PSM) describing the microstructure of sleep. Significant correlations between sleep architecture and daytime variables of sleep quality were found. Both the factor analysis and the PSM helped maximize the information about this relationship. PMID:23751915

Rosipal, Roman; Lewandowski, Achim; Dorffner, Georg

2013-09-01

131

Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

Depner, Christopher M; Stothard, Ellen R; Wright, Kenneth P

2014-07-01

132

REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a chronic disease characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, striking transitions from\\u000a wakefulness into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, typically associated with cataplexy and other phenomena due to the abnormal\\u000a occurrence of REM sleep elements during wakefulness (sleep paralysis and hallucinations) and frequent sleep\\/wake transitions.\\u000a Nocturnal sleep in NC is usually disturbed by a large cohort

Giuseppe Plazzi; Yves Dauvilliers

133

Sleep-wake transition in narcolepsy and healthy controls using a support vector machine.  

PubMed

Narcolepsy is characterized by abnormal sleep-wake regulation, causing sleep episodes during the day and nocturnal sleep disruptions. The transitions between sleep and wakefulness can be identified by manual scorings of a polysomnographic recording. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic classifier capable of separating sleep epochs from epochs of wakefulness by using EEG measurements from one channel. Features from frequency bands ? (0-4 Hz), ? (4-8 Hz), ? (8-12 Hz), ? (12-16 Hz), 16 to 24 Hz, 24 to 32 Hz, 32 to 40 Hz, and 40 to 48 Hz were extracted from data by use of a wavelet packet transformation and were given as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classification algorithm was assessed by hold-out validation and 10-fold cross-validation. The data used to validate the classifier were derived from polysomnographic recordings of 47 narcoleptic patients (33 with cataplexy and 14 without cataplexy) and 15 healthy controls. Compared with manual scorings, an accuracy of 90% was achieved in the hold-out validation, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 95%. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 88%, respectively. The 10-fold cross-validation procedure yielded an accuracy of 88%, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 92%, a sensitivity of 87%, and a specificity of 87%. Narcolepsy with cataplexy patients experienced significantly more sleep-wake transitions during night than did narcolepsy without cataplexy patients (P = 0.0199) and healthy subjects (P = 0.0265). In addition, the sleep-wake transitions were elevated in hypocretin-deficient patients. It is concluded that the classifier shows high validity for identifying the sleep-wake transition. Narcolepsy with cataplexy patients have more sleep-wake transitions during night, suggesting instability in the sleep-wake regulatory system. PMID:25271675

Jensen, Julie B; Sorensen, Helge B D; Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud L; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

2014-10-01

134

The Relationship between Thermoregulation and REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background This study explored the relationship between symptoms of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, thermoregulation and sleep in Parkinson’s Disease. Methods The study group comprised 12 patients with Parkinson’s Disease and 11 healthy age-matched controls. We investigated markers of thermoregulation (core-body temperature profile), circadian rhythm (locomotor actigraphy) and sleep (polysomnography). Results The mesor (the mean value around which the core temperature rhythm oscillates) of the core-body temperature in patients with Parkinson’s Disease was significantly lower than that of controls. In addition, the nocturnal fall in CBT (the difference between the mesor and the nadir temperature) was also significantly reduced in PD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, in patients the reduction in the amplitude of their core-body temperature profile was strongly correlated with the severity of self-reported rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptom, reduction in the percentage of REM sleep and prolonged sleep latency. By contrast, these disturbances of thermoregulation and sleep architecture were not found in controls and were not related to other markers of circadian rhythm or times of sleep onset and offset. Conclusions These findings suggest that the brainstem pathology associated with disruption of thermoregulation in Parkinson’s disease may also contribute to rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder. It is possible that detailed analysis of the core-body temperature profile in at risk populations such as those patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder might help identify those who are at high risk of transitioning to Parkinson’s Disease. PMID:23991135

Zhong, George; Bolitho, Samuel; Grunstein, Ronald; Naismith, Sharon Linda; Lewis, Simon John Geoffrey

2013-01-01

135

Daytime micro-naps in a nocturnal migrant: an EEG analysis  

PubMed Central

Many species of typically diurnal songbirds experience sleep loss during the migratory seasons owing to their nocturnal migrations. However, despite substantial loss of sleep, nocturnally migrating songbirds continue to function normally with no observable effect on their behaviour. It is unclear if and how avian migrants compensate for sleep loss. Recent behavioural evidence suggests that some species may compensate for lost night-time sleep with short, uni- and bilateral ‘micro-naps’ during the day. We provide electrophysiological evidence that short episodes of sleep-like daytime behaviour (approx. 12?s) are accompanied by sleep-like changes in brain activity in an avian migrant. Furthermore, we present evidence that part of this physiological brain response manifests itself as unihemispheric sleep, a state during which one brain hemisphere is asleep while the other hemisphere remains essentially awake. Episodes of daytime sleep may represent a potent adaptation to the challenges of avian migration and offer a plausible explanation for the resilience to sleep loss in nocturnal migrants. PMID:18990656

Fuchs, T.; Maury, D.; Moore, F.R.; Bingman, V.P.

2008-01-01

136

Relationship Between Child Sleep Disturbances and Maternal Sleep, Mood, and Parenting Stress: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although sleep disturbances in children are common, little is known about the relationship between children's sleep disruptions and maternal sleep and daytime functioning. Forty-seven mothers completed measures of sleep, depression, parenting stress, fatigue, and sleepiness. Significant differences in maternal mood and parenting stress were found between mothers of children with and without significant sleep disturbances. Regression analyses showed that the

Lisa J. Meltzer; Jodi A. Mindell

2007-01-01

137

Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total non-REM sleep described by traditional parameters was statistically unaffected during the disturbed nights, but the perturbing effects of noise on non-REM sleep stability and continuity were revealed by a significant increase in the CAP rate. The perspectives for a wide-ranging exploitation of this sleep parameter are discussed.

Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

1993-04-01

138

Ethnic Differences in Sleep Quality Accompany Ethnic Differences in Night-time Blood Pressure Dipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: African Americans exhibit a smaller nocturnal decrease in blood pressure (BP) than whites, and there are also reports of poorer sleep quality among African Americans. We examined the contribution of sleep quality to ethnic differences in BP dipping in African American and white male and female college students. We hypothesized that African Americans would exhibit blunted nocturnal BP dipping

Joel W. Hughes; Ihori Kobayashi; Nathan T. Deichert

2007-01-01

139

[Nocturnal oxygen administration and cardiac arrhythmias during Cheyne-Stokes respiration in patients with heart failure].  

PubMed

Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSR) is common during sleep in patients with severe congestive heart failure. It is not clear, if there is a relation between CSR and arrhythmias. Therefore in this study the impact of the nocturnal CSR on ventricular arrhythmias and the heart rate, as well as the influence of nasal nocturnal oxygen on CSR and sleep was studied. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover study 22 patients were assigned to 1 week each of oxygen and room air. The age of the patients was 57 +/- 10 years. Their mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 18.9 +/- 6.4%. Breathing oxygen significantly reduced the duration of CSR by over 50% (162 +/- 142 vs 88 +/- 106 min, p < 0.05). Sleep did improve as evidenced mainly by less arousals (21 +/- 13 vs 15 +/- 9/h total sleep time; p < 0.05) and stage 1 sleep as well as more stage 2 and slow wave sleep. Nocturnal oxygen resulted in a reduction of ventricular arrhythmias for ventricular ectopic beats (53.1 +/- 157.7 vs 44.7 +/- 97.1/h), couplets (9.0 +/- 38.3 vs 3.7 +/- 14.3/h) and tachycardias (1.8 +/- 7.2 vs 0.4 +/- 0.8/h). Due to the high day-today variability these differences were not significant, but the decrease of average nocturnal heart rate with oxygen was (71 +/- 14 vs 68 +/- 14/min; p < 0.05). In conclusion, nocturnal oxygen causes a reduction of CSR, an improvement of sleep and a decrease of arousals. A significant reduction of arrhythmias by nocturnal oxygen could not be proved. PMID:8767368

Hagenah, G; Andreas, S; Clemens, C; Figulla, H R; Kreuzer, H

1996-06-01

140

Recent Advances in Understanding Sleep and Sleep Disturbances in Older AdultsGrowing Older Does Not Mean Sleeping Poorly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite commonly held assumptions, growing older does not necessarily result in disturbed or unsatisfying sleep. There is no reason to assume, a priori, that the sleep of an older adult is necessarily problematic; in fact, many high-functioning older adults are satisfied with their sleep. When the various factors that can disrupt sleep—poor health, primary sleep disorders, poor sleep-hygiene practices (e.g.,

Michael V. Vitiello

2009-01-01

141

Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013  

PubMed Central

Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

2014-01-01

142

Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.  

PubMed

In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575). PMID:14725836

Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martín

2004-01-01

143

[Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly : Part 2: therapy].  

PubMed

Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing. PMID:25277109

Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

2014-11-01

144

Circadian and melatonin disruption by exposure to light at night drives intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.  

PubMed

Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to antiestrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of estrogen receptor (ER?(+)) MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speed the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characteristics were not observed in animals in which the circadian melatonin rhythm was not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

2014-08-01

145

Does Sleep Improve Memory Organization?  

PubMed Central

Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n?=?17) or wake group (n?=?18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9?h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time?×?Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for <60?min for comparison with the wake group. A significant Time?×?Group interaction was noted; these “good-sleepers” showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study. PMID:24782726

Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

2014-01-01

146

Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*  

PubMed Central

Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Alvaro A

2013-01-01

147

Sleep apnea and the kidney: is sleep apnea a risk factor for chronic kidney disease?  

PubMed

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing, which presents challenges for both patients and health-care budgets. Although this phenomenon has been attributed to the growth in diabetes, hypertension, and obesity, sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia may also contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD and its progression to kidney failure. Two pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for CKD are glomerular hyperfiltration and chronic intrarenal hypoxia, resulting in tubulointerstitial injury, the final common pathway to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Multiple descriptive studies have demonstrated an association between CKD and sleep apnea. Although sleep apnea is common in patients with CKD and associated with significant nocturnal hypoxemia, it is often relatively free of sleep-related symptoms, making it difficult to detect without objective nocturnal monitoring. Nevertheless, sleep apnea and nocturnal hypoxemia have been associated with loss of kidney function and kidney injury, suggesting that they contribute to the pathogenesis of continued deterioration in kidney function. There are several pathways through which sleep apnea may achieve this, including a direct effect of intrarenal hypoxia and activation of the systemic and renal renin-angiotensin system. Further research is required to better understand these relationships and determine whether specific interventions in patients with sleep apnea have an impact on clinical outcomes, such as reducing the prevalence of CKD and delaying its progression to ESKD. PMID:25288001

Hanly, Patrick J; Ahmed, Sofia B

2014-10-01

148

Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively in sleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE). NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved. PMID:24383033

Rathore, Geetanjali; Larsen, Paul; Parakh, Manish; Fernandez, Cristina

2013-01-01

149

Dreaming sleep attacks and desynchronized sleep enhancement. Report of a case of brain stem signs.  

PubMed

When central neurologic signs were localized to the vestibular region of the brain stem and cerebellum, a 54-year-old man experienced frequent awakenings from nocturnal sleep and daytime sleep attacks with hallucinosis. Sleep attacks were characterized by lid fluttering and closure, upward turning of the eyes, rapid eye movements, myoclonic twitching of all extremities, and loss of consciousness, lasting one or two minutes and aborted by strong sensory stimulation. At their termination, reports of hallucinoid imagery were given. In a sleep record of 6.5 hours, there were 2.2 hours awake (34%), 4.3 hours desynchronized sleep (66%), and a complete absence of synchronized sleep. Reports of hallucinoid imagery were given after awakenings from desynchronized sleep. The findings support the hypotheses that desynchronized sleep is normally under brain stem control and that some types of narcolepsy may be pathophysiologically related to desynchronized sleep. PMID:1200765

Hobson, J A

1975-11-01

150

Craniofacial skeletal architecture and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome severity.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is a sleep related breathing disorder caused by pharynx obstruction that often terminates in abrupt arousals and is capable of disrupting physiological sleep profile. Its' severity has been associated, among others, with craniofacial skeletal morphology. To investigate this relationship and elucidate craniofacial skeleton patterns in individuals without obvious maxillofacial abnormalities, 171 OSAS patients were studied with nocturnal polysomnographic record and cephalometric X-ray (24 variables). Cephalometric variables were compared between three apnoea/hypopnoea index (AHI) groups (AHI ? 15; 15 < AHI < 30; AHI ? 30) and uni/multivariate analysis between cephalometric variables and AHI were performed. The patients were predominantly men (83%), with a mean age of 48.1 years. Mean BMI and AHI were 28.4 kg/m(2) and 26.2, respectively. Most cephalometric variables differed among the three AHI groups. Fifteen cephalometric variables showed a correlation with AHI. Five cephalometric variables and BMI were independent AHI predictors. Cephalometric variables were better AHI predictors in normal weight patients. Significant evidence of craniofacial skeleton influence was found on OSAS severity, caudalization of the hyoid and lower sagittal facial projection being the most important patterns. From the cephalometric variables analysed, the hypopharynx calibre demonstrated a higher predictive value for AHI, independently of BMI. PMID:23517815

Costa E Sousa, Rui Augusto; dos Santos Gil, Nuno Alexandre

2013-12-01

151

Sickle Cell Anemia: Iron Availability and Nocturnal Oximetry  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that low iron availability, measured as transferrin saturation, is associated with low nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA; hemoglobin SS). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian children with SCA who were not receiving regular blood transfusions. Thirty-two children (16 boys) with SCA (mean age 8.0, range 3.6-15.3 years) underwent motion-resistant nocturnal oximetry (Masimo Radical) and had steady state serum transferrin saturation and hematological indices assessed. Results: Higher transferrin saturation, adjusted for age and ?-thalassemia deletion, was associated with lower nocturnal mean SpO2 (p = 0.013, r2 = 0.41), number of SpO2 dips/h > 3% from baseline (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.19) and with min/h with SpO2 < 90% (p = 0.026 r2 = 0.16). Transferrin saturation < 16% (indicative of iron deficiency) was associated with a 2.2% higher nocturnal mean SpO2. Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, higher iron availability, assessed by transferrin saturation, is associated with nocturnal chronic and intermittent hemoglobin oxygen desaturation in SCA. Whether these associations are causal and are driven by hypoxia-inducible factor and hepcidin-mediated upregulation of demand for iron warrants further investigation. Citation: Cox SE; L'Esperance V; Makani J; Soka D; Prentice AM; Hill CM; Kirkham FJ. Sickle cell anemia: iron availability and nocturnal oximetry. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):541-545. PMID:23066366

Cox, Sharon E.; L'Esperance, Veline; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratius; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hill, Catherine M.; Kirkham, Fenella J.

2012-01-01

152

Estradiol suppresses recovery of REM sleep following sleep deprivation in ovariectomized female rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep complaints such as insufficient sleep and insomnia are twice as prevalent in women. Symptoms of sleep disruption are often coincident with changes in the gonadal hormone profile across a women's lifespan. Data from a number of different species, including humans, non-human primates and rodents strongly implicate a role for gonadal hormones in the modulation of sleep. In female rats,

Michael D. Schwartz; Jessica A. Mong

2011-01-01

153

Sleep disorders in psychiatry.  

PubMed

Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal from antidepressant drugs, a reflection of an REM rebound after drug-induced REM deprivation. The postulated link between sleep and psychiatric disorders has been reinforced by the findings of modern neurobiology. PMID:16979426

Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

2006-10-01

154

The function of nocturnal transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nocturnal transpiration is an important source of water loss, accounting for up to 25% of daytime transpiration in some species. Nocturnal water losses cannot be explained under the prevailing 'paradigm' of optimizing carbon gain while minimizing water loss because carbon fixation does not occur at night. Alternative explanations regarding the function and potential evolutionary advantage of nocturnal transpiration have been proposed, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and transport or delivery of O2 to parenchyma cells for respiration. However, recent evidence suggests that the role of nocturnal transpiration in supplementing the overall plant nutrient budget is relatively small, and the O2 hypothesis is difficult to test experimentally. Here, we propose that the main function of nocturnal transpiration (and water transport) is to prevent catastrophic xylem failure by restoring depleted stem 'capacitors' and enhancing early morning CO2 uptake, as stomata 'prepare' for daytime conditions. Nocturnal sap flux was highest in Eucalyptus grandis trees in the field following a heat wave (reaching 47C with VPDs > 8kPa in the daytime) generating maximal daytime water losses compared with cooler and lower VPD periods, indicating the importance of nocturnal stomatal conductance for stem refilling. Moreover, we observed that the time for stomata to respond to light early in the morning (dawn) across 25 different genotypes of E. camaldulensis in a glasshouse was shortest in those genotypes with highest nocturnal stomatal conductance, which was also correlated with higher daytime photosynthesis. This observation is consistent with previous observations that nocturnal stomatal conductance is partially controlled by the clock, which is utilised to anticipate daytime conditions. Data from the literature suggests that eucalypts respond similarly to other C3 species, suggesting that mechanisms regulating night-time transpiration may be universal.

Pfautsch, Sebastian; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Loik, Michael; Tissue, David

2014-05-01

155

Sleep and affective disorders. A minireview.  

PubMed

The most predictable electroencephalographic sleep changes of major depression are a shortened first NREM sleep period, a prolonged first REM period (with increased density of rapid eye movements), sleep continuity disturbance, and diminished slow wave sleep (with shifting of delta activity from the first to the second NREM sleep period). The more rapid appearance of the first REM sleep period occurs in relation to sleep onset but not apparently in relation to clock time. The changes occurring in the first NREM-REM cycle of the night appear to be relatively specific to major (particularly endogenous) depression. Depressed men appear to have diminished nocturnal penile tumescence compared with healthy controls, but depressed patients generally do not have a higher incidence of sleep apnea or nocturnal myoclonus. The sleep physiologic changes of depression appear to persist into clinical remission, suggesting that they are trait-like. Published studies appear to support the conclusion that there is a close link between the regulation of sleep and the regulation of mood in affective illness. PMID:3332319

Reynolds, C F

1987-12-01

156

Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

Henton, Comradge L.

1976-01-01

157

The Effects of Current-Concern- and Nonconcern-Related Waking Suggestions on Nocturnal Dream Content  

Microsoft Academic Search

In previous research, presleep suggestions influenced nocturnal dream content. It was hypothesized that suggesting topics associated with participants’ current concerns would influence dream content more than suggesting other topics. Ten students spent 4 nights in a sleep laboratory: an adaptation night, a baseline night, and 2 nights under suggestions to dream about a concern-related or other topic. Concern-related suggestions influenced

Charles D. Nikles; David L. Brecht; Eric Klinger; Amy L. Bursell

1998-01-01

158

Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in…

Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

2007-01-01

159

Amnestic sleep-related eating disorder associated with zolpidem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the association of amnestic nocturnal eating behavior with use of zolpidem for insomnia.Background: Sleep-related eating disorder is increasingly recognized in relationship to other diagnosable sleep disorders. Many of these disorders, like restless legs syndrome (RLS), give rise to complaints of insomnia. Zolpidem is the most commonly prescribed drug for insomnia complaints, and although it has sometimes been

Timothy I Morgenthaler; Michael H Silber

2002-01-01

160

Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.  

PubMed

Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

2011-01-01

161

A new model of chronic intermittent hypoxia in humans: effect on ventilation, sleep, and blood pressure.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repetitive nocturnal upper airway obstructions that are associated with sleep disruption and cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) The cyclic oscillations in O(2) saturation are thought to contribute to cardiovascular and other morbidity, but animal and patient studies of the pathogenic link between CIH and these diseases have been complicated by species differences and by the effects of confounding factors such as obesity, hypertension, and impaired glucose metabolism. To minimize these limitations, we set up a model of nocturnal CIH in healthy humans. We delivered O(2) for 15 s every 2 min during sleep while subjects breathed 13% O(2) in a hypoxic tent to create 30 cycles/h of cyclic desaturation-reoxygenation [saturation of peripheral O(2) (Sp(O(2))) range: 95-85%]. We exposed subjects overnight for 8-9 h/day for 2 wk (10 subjects) and 4 wk (8 subjects). CIH exposure induced respiratory disturbances (central apnea hypopnea index: 3.0 +/- 1.9 to 31.1 +/- 9.6 events/h of sleep at 2 wk). Exposure to CIH for 14 days induced an increase in slopes of hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (1.5 +/- 0.6 to 3.1 +/- 1.2 l.min(-1).% drop in Sp(O(2)) and 2.2 +/- 1.0 to 3.3 +/- 0.9 l.min(-1).mmHg CO(2)(-1), respectively), consistent with hypoxic acclimatization. Waking normoxic arterial pressure increased significantly at 2 wk at systolic (114 +/- 2 to 122 +/- 2 mmHg) and for diastolic at 4 wk (71 +/- 1.3 to 74 +/- 1.7 mmHg). We propose this model as a new technique to study the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of CIH in human volunteers. PMID:19228987

Tamisier, R; Gilmartin, G S; Launois, S H; Pépin, J L; Nespoulet, H; Thomas, R; Lévy, P; Weiss, J W

2009-07-01

162

Editorial: Society of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (SBSM) Announces the Adoption of Behavioral Sleep Medicine (BSM) as the Society's Official Journal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its birth in the 1930s with the development of the bell and pad treatment for nocturnal enuresis, behavioral sleep medicine (BSM) has expanded to include interventions targeting a variety of sleep disorders. During its early development, BSM lacked a focused, professional identity as researchers and clinicians published in a variety of journals and joined a variety of professional organizations.

Christina S. McCrae; Michael L. Perlis; Michael T. Smith; Daniel J. Taylor

2010-01-01

163

Sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report.  

PubMed

Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. Family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome. PMID:11382885

Alves, R; Alóe, F; Tavares, S; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

1999-01-01

164

Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.  

PubMed

Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies. PMID:24548881

Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

2014-05-01

165

Twenty-four hours, or five days, of continuous sleep deprivation or experimental sleep fragmentation do not alter thirst or motivation for water reward in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disruption results in an increased demand for energy, which typically causes hyperphagia in an attempt to redress the energy metabolism imbalance. Therefore, experiments combining food reward and sleep disruption may underestimate the effect of sleep disruption due to their contradictory influences on behavior (for example on operant measures of attention). In contrast, water is not a central component of

Michael A. Christie; Robert W. McCarley; Robert E. Strecker

2010-01-01

166

Genomics of Sleep-disordered Breathing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technologies of genomics and proteomics are powerful tools for discovering novel gene and protein expression responses to disease. Considerable evidence indicates that a genetic basis exists to the causes of sleep-disordered breathing, in particular its most common form of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is character- ized by periods of intermittent hypoxia and disrupted sleep. How- ever, the genetic

Vsevolod Y. Polotsky; Christopher P. O'Donnell

2007-01-01

167

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: an historical overview.  

PubMed

The clinical hallmark of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is episodic hemoglobinuria, and it was this feature that captured the attention of European physicians in the latter half of the 19th century, resulting in careful observational studies that established PNH as an entity distinct from paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria and march hemoglobinuria. Curiosity about the etiology of the nocturnal aspects of the hemoglobinuria led the German physician Paul Strübing to develop the prescient hypothesis that the erythrocytes of PNH are abnormally sensitive to hemolysis when the plasma is acidified during sleep because of accumulation of carbon dioxide and lactic acid as a result of slowing of the circulation. Investigation of the intricate pathophysiology that underlies the abnormal sensitivity of PNH erythrocytes to hemolysis in acidified serum produced a number of remarkable scientific achievements that involved discovery of the alternative pathway of complement, identification of the membrane proteins that regulate complement, discovery of a novel mechanism for attachment of proteins to the cell surface, and identification of the genetic basis of the disease. These discoveries were made steadily over a period of more than 100 years, and each generation of physicians and scientists made important contributions to the field. The mysteries of PNH have been solved in a particularly satisfying way because the precision and orderliness of the solutions made clearly understandable what had seemed at the times prior to resolution to be problems of nearly insurmountable complexity. The history of PNH is an inspirational reminder of the elegant complexity of nature, the rewards of curiosity and the power and beauty of science. PMID:19074065

Parker, Charles J

2008-01-01

168

Sleep inertia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep inertia is a transitional state of lowered arousal occurring immediately after awakening from sleep and producing a temporary decrement in subsequent performance. Many factors are involved in the characteristics of sleep inertia. The duration of prior sleep can influence the severity of subsequent sleep inertia. Although most studies have focused on sleep inertia after short naps, its effects can

Patricia Tassi; Alain Muzet

2000-01-01

169

Support Vector Machines for Automated Recognition of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome From ECG Recordings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity as well as excessive daytime sleepiness and poor quality of life. In this study, we apply a machine learning technique [support vector machines (SVMs)] for automated recognition of OSAS types from their nocturnal ECG recordings. A total of 125 sets of nocturnal ECG recordings acquired from normal subjects (OSAS- )

Ahsan H. Khandoker; Marimuthu Palaniswami; Chandan K. Karmakar

2009-01-01

170

Magnetic resonance findings in REM sleep behavior disorder.  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is characterized by bizarre acts during nocturnal sleep that may lead to physical injuries. Dream content suggests that motor overactivity is an attempted dream enactment and polygraphic studies reveal REM stage without atonia, an alteration of REM sleep generation that facilitates excessive motor activity. In 6 patients with REM sleep behavior disorder. MRI of the brain showed multifocal signal intensity lesions suggestive of lacunar infarcts in periventricular regions (5 patients) and in dorsal pontomesencephalic areas (3 patients). REM sleep behavior disorder may be the result of injury to the midrostral tegmentum nuclei, the tegmentoreticular tracts, or both. This condition is easily controlled with clonazepam. PMID:2812333

Culebras, A; Moore, J T

1989-11-01

171

Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

1988-01-01

172

December 2007(II): S244S252 Sleep and Inflammation  

E-print Network

and sleep deprivation cause numerous neurobe- havioral and physiological changes. A number of recent studies have reported associations between disrupted sleep/sleep deprivation and inflammatory responses inflammatory processes associated with aging and increase the wellness phenotype. Key words: sleep deprivation

Pennsylvania, University of

173

Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

1972-01-01

174

Do asthmatics suffer bronchoconstriction during rapid eye movement sleep?  

PubMed Central

Many patients with asthma are troubled by nocturnal wheeze. The cause of this symptom is unknown, but sleep is an important factor. A study was carried out to determine whether nocturnal bronchoconstriction is related to any specific stage of sleep. Eight asthmatics with nocturnal wheeze and eight control subjects performed forced expiratory manoeuvres immediately after being woken from rapid eye movement (REM) or non-REM sleep, wakings being timed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. The control subjects showed no significant temporal bronchoconstriction or bronchoconstriction related to the stage of sleep. All patients showed bronchoconstriction overnight, the mean peak expiratory flow rate falling from 410 (SEM 50) 1/min before sleep to 186 (49)1/min after sleep. After the patients had been woken from REM sleep the forced expiratory volume in one second was on average 300 ml lower (p less than 0.02) and peak expiratory flow rate 45 1/min lower (p less than 0.03) than after they had been woken from non-REM sleep. As wakenings from REM sleep were 21(8) minutes later in the night than those from non-REM sleep multivariate analysis was performed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. This showed that the overnight decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly related both to time and to REM sleep. This study suggests that asthmatics may suffer bronchoconstriction during REM sleep. Images FIG 1 PMID:3085766

Shapiro, C M; Catterall, J R; Montgomery, I; Raab, G M; Douglas, N J

1986-01-01

175

CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS  

PubMed Central

This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

2013-01-01

176

Can improving sleep influence sleep-disordered breathing?  

PubMed

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses a group of disorders that include obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and nocturnal hypoventilation. SDB commonly coexists with sleep disorders such as insomnia and restless legs syndrome, and sleep deprivation has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of SDB. Participants of a workshop, held at the 6th annual meeting of The International Sleep Disorders Forum: The Art of Good Sleep in 2008, evaluated whether the effective management of sleep disorders could result in a reduction in SDB. Following the workshop, a critical review of the literature in the field of sleep and SDB was conducted in order to assess the impact of improving sleep on SDB, and to determine whether measures taken to improve sleep result in a subsequent improvement in SDB. Results showed that studies evaluating the influence of improved sleep on respiratory abnormalities in patients with SDB are lacking. Studies in patients with OSA, with or without obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, show that therapy with continuous positive airways pressure and non-invasive ventilation improves sleep parameters with beneficial effects on SDB. Studies involving small numbers of patients have shown that the antidepressants fluoxetine and mirtazapine produce improvements in sleep parameters and the apnoea-hypopnoea index, and that acetazolamide may improve CSA. The benzodiazepines flurazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam, the hypnotic zolpidem, the melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon and gamma-hydroxybutyrate have all been shown to improve sleep, but are not associated with reductions or worsening in SDB. It is clear that there is a distinct knowledge gap with regard to the benefit of improving sleep disturbances for subsequent improvements in SDB. Randomized controlled clinical trials investigating the effect of pharmacological and non-pharmacological improvement of sleep disorders focusing on whether there is improvement in coexisting OSA/SDB are clearly needed. Furthermore, well-designed clinical trials investigating the role of hypnotic agents in improving SDB in certain phenotypes will enable the development of treatment recommendations for primary care physicians managing these patients in routine clinical practice. PMID:20047352

Sériès, Frédéric

2009-01-01

177

Gender differences in associations of diurnal blood pressure variation, awake physical activity, and sleep quality with negative affect: the work site blood pressure study.  

PubMed

This study reports on the associations among depression, anxiety, awake physical activity, sleep quality (assessed by nocturnal physical activity), and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation in a nonpsychiatric sample (The Work Site Blood Pressure Study). We conducted ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring and actigraphy in 231 working men and women. Depression and anxiety were measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. There were gender-specific associations between depression or anxiety and ABP parameters. In men, depression was associated positively with the sleep/awake systolic BP (SBP) ratio (r=0.24, P=0.006). After controlling for age, body mass index, and awake and sleep activity, depression remained significantly associated with the sleep/awake SBP ratio (r=0.25, P=0.005) and was also significantly related to sleep SBP (r=0.21, P=0.02). Anxiety, which was related to depression (r=0.73, P<0.0001), had a similar but slightly weaker pattern of associations with ABP and activity. These associations were not found in women, but there were associations of anxiety with awake SBP (r=0.24, P=0.01) and pulse rate (r=0.27, P=0.006). In conclusion, depression is associated with disrupted diurnal BP variation independent of ambulatory physical activity in working men, whereas anxiety is associated with awake SBP and pulse rate in women. PMID:11711488

Kario, K; Schwartz, J E; Davidson, K W; Pickering, T G

2001-11-01

178

A Novel Approach to Detect the Obscured Upper Body in application to Diagnosis of Obstructive Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive Sleep Apnea is increasingly seen as a common and important condition, contributing to sleep disturbance and consequential daytime sleepiness. According to recent research findings, the best predictors of morbidity in individual patients, as assessed by improvements with CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure therapy), are nocturnal oxygen saturation and movements during sleep. Video monitoring and interpretation is less well developed

Ching-Wei Wang; Andrew Hunter

2008-01-01

179

Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal  

PubMed Central

The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light–dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light–dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep–wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J.; Gorter, Jenke A.; Eijer, Willem G.; Sellix, Michael T.; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A.

2014-01-01

180

Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.  

PubMed

The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

2014-10-21

181

Nocturnal hypoxaemia in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the study was to find the prevalence of sleep-related disturbances in patients of Eisenmenger syndrome. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary care referral centre in North India. Participants The study included 25 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (mean age 25.2±9.6?years, 18 men) and 12 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with pulmonary stenosis physiology (mean age 20.5±8.5?years, 8 men) as controls. Interventions All the patients underwent an overnight comprehensive polysomnogram study and pulmonary function testing. Main outcome measure Oxygen desaturation index, which is the number of oxygen drops per hour. Results The patients and controls had significant nocturnal hypoxaemia in the absence of apnoea and hypopnoea. The mean oxygen drop index in Eisenmenger syndrome group was 9.0±6.2 and in the control group was 8.0±5.9 (p=0.63). The apnoea–hypopnoea index was 3.37±5.0 in the Eisenmenger syndrome group and was 2.1±3.6 in the control group. Patients with >10 oxygen drops per hour had significantly higher haemoglobin (17.2±1.3% vs 14.4±1.5%, p<0.001) than those with oxygen drops less than 10. Conclusions Eisenmenger syndrome patients have significant nocturnal hypoxaemia unrelated to hypopnoea and apnoea. Nocturnal desaturation occurred more frequently in patients with greater haemoglobin values. PMID:23482988

Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish; Bardolei, Neil; Sharma, Ajay; Shukla, Garima; Bhatia, Manvir; Kalaivani, Mani; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Bahl, Vinay K; Guleria, Randeep

2013-01-01

182

Cassette EEG sleep recordings in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.  

PubMed

Tourette syndrome (TS) patients often complain of sleep problems, and questionnaire studies indicate that sleep disturbance is frequent. Decreased slow wave sleep and increased awakenings have been reported in laboratory polysomnography in TS patients, and a serotoninergic disorder of arousal has been postulated. We recorded outpatient sleep in 20 patients newly diagnosed with TS utilizing a 4-channel cassette EEG system. The newly-diagnosed patients were predominantly male, and ranged in age from 10 to 36 years. Some had taken psychotropic medications in the past, but none had been treated systematically for TS. Seven patients had chronic tics only, 8 had tics and attention deficit-hyperactivity, and 5 had tics plus obsessions and compulsions. None had other medical, neurologic, or psychiatric disorders. All were nocturnal sleepers, and were recorded in their usual sleeping environments and routines. TS patients had reduced sleep, decreased sleep efficiency, increased awakenings, and decreased slow wave sleep. Tic patients had increased nocturnal awakenings and movements, particularly those who had tics during sleep. Sleep fragmentation and loss of slow wave sleep was most marked in TS patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity. Sleep latency was increased, REM sleep reduced, and REM sleep latency decreased in TS patients with obsessions and compulsions. These findings accord with previous reports of sleep disturbance in TS, and suggest that these disturbances may vary with TS symptoms. Chronic tics may persist in sleep and cause awakenings, TS with attention deficit may be associated with a disorder of arousal and alertness, and obsessions and compulsions may be manifestations of a biochemical disturbance involving paradoxical sleep. PMID:1628407

Drake, M E; Hietter, S A; Bogner, J E; Andrews, J M

1992-07-01

183

Daytime REM Sleep in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have demonstrated both clinical and neurochemical similarities between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and narcolepsy. The intrusion of REM sleep into the daytime remains a cardinal feature of narcolepsy, but the importance of these intrusions in PD remains unclear. In this study we examined REM sleep during daytime Maintenance of Wakefulness Testing (MWT) in PD patients. Methods Patients spent 2 consecutive nights and days in the sleep laboratory. During the daytime, we employed a modified MWT procedure in which each daytime nap opportunity (4 per day) was extended to 40 minutes, regardless of whether the patient was able to sleep or how much the patient slept. We examined each nap opportunity for the presence of REM sleep and time to fall asleep. Results Eleven of 63 PD patients studied showed 2 or more REM episodes and 10 showed 1 REM episode on their daytime MWTs. Nocturnal sleep characteristics and sleep disorders were unrelated to the presence of daytime REM sleep, however, patients with daytime REM were significantly sleepier during the daytime than those patients without REM. Demographic and clinical variables, including Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores and levodopa dose equivalents, were unrelated to the presence of REM sleep. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of PD patients demonstrated REM sleep and daytime sleep tendency during daytime nap testing. These data confirm similarities in REM intrusions between narcolepsy and PD, perhaps suggesting parallel neurodegenerative conditions of hypocretin deficiency. PMID:22939103

Bliwise, Donald L.; Trotti, Lynn Marie; Juncos, Jorge J.; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Rye, David B.

2012-01-01

184

Investigation of the effectiveness of a split sleep schedule in sustaining sleep and maintaining performance.  

PubMed

Shift work is common in today's society, and is associated with negative health outcomes, and accidents and incidents. These detrimental effects can be primarily attributed to sleeping and working at an adverse circadian time. The aim of this study was to examine whether a split sleep schedule is as effective as a consolidated day shift or night shift schedule for maintaining performance and sustaining sleep. Fifty-three healthy male volunteers (mean?±?SD age?=?26.51?±?4.07 years) underwent a randomized three condition study design. A split sleep condition involving two 5-h sleeping opportunities in 24?h [time in bed (TIB) 0300?h-0800?h and 1500?h-2000?h] was compared to a 10-h consolidated nighttime sleep (TIB 2200?h-0800?h) and 10-h consolidated daytime sleep (TIB 1000?h-2000?h). All participants underwent a baseline period of 10?h of nocturnal time in bed (TIB) followed by a 5-d simulated workweek spent in one of the three conditions. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance task, digit-symbol substitution task and subjective state were assessed. During the 5-d simulated workweek, participants in the nighttime sleep condition slept the most (total sleep time per day (TST) 8.4?h?±?13.4?min), followed by the split sleep condition (TST 7.16?h?±?14.2?min) and the daytime sleep condition (TST 6.4?h?±?15.3?min). Subjective sleepiness was highest in the daytime sleep condition and lowest in the nighttime sleep condition. No significant differences in performance were observed between the conditions. Compared to a nighttime consolidated sleep opportunity or split sleep, placement of a consolidated sleep opportunity during the day yielded truncated sleep and increased sleepiness. Further research in real-world situations is warranted to fully assess the efficacy of alternative split sleep schedules for improving safety and productivity. PMID:25222346

Jackson, Melinda L; Banks, Siobhan; Belenky, Gregory

2014-12-01

185

Brain oscillatory activity during sleep shows unknown dysfunctions in early encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Electroencephalographic recordings in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have mainly been performed during wakefulness. Our aim was to quantify their alterations in nocturnal sleep electroencephalogram (EEG). In 20 patients and 20 healthy volunteers, we recorded a nocturnal digital polysomnography. Different sleep parameters were measured. Besides, we performed quantitative analysis of EEG (qEEG) as follows: spectral power in the different sleep stages was calculated in the frequency bands low ?, ?, ?, ?, and ?. Also, the mean dominant frequency and Sleep Indexes were obtained. In comparison with controls, the group of patients showed (1) different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of sleep; (2) an increase in, both, ? band power and the average mean dominant frequency during rapid eye movement (REM); (3) in all sleep stages, a decrease of sleep electroencephalogram spectral power in low ? band and an increase in ? band: and (4) in stages N3 and REM, significant increases in the minimum of mean dominant frequency and in the respective sleep indexes. Therefore, in cirrhotic patients without overt HE, and likely having minimal hepatic encephalopathy, we found different alterations in both the microstructure and the macrostructure of nocturnal sleep. Also, sleep qEEG showed a brain dysfunction in slow oscillatory mechanisms intrinsic of sleep stages, with an increase in the frequency of its maximal electroencephalogram synchronization, from low ? to ? band. These alterations may reflect the onset of encephalopathy; sleep qEEG may, thus, be an adequate tool for its brain functional evaluation and follow-up. PMID:25074827

Martino, María Elena; Fernández-Lorente, José; Romero-Vives, María; Bárcena, Rafael; Gaztelu, José María

2014-09-01

186

A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Measuring Sleep Dysfunction in Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep dysfunction can manifest in several ways, ranging from insomnia to somnolence, and from disrupted sleep to lack of restful sleep. Measuring sleep dysfunction is an area of active research and there exist a number of patient-reported outcome instruments that measure various aspects of sleep dysfunction. However, these instruments have not been evaluated systematically. We used a conceptual model of

Emily Beth Devine; Zafar Hakim; Jesse Green

2005-01-01

187

Alterations in sleep during pregnancy and postpartum: a review of 30 years of research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy, childbirth, and early motherhood physiologically and psychologically affect a woman's sleep. Hormonal alterations during early pregnancy, enlargement of the fetus during late pregnancy, and a newborn with random sleep-wake patterns all contribute to disrupted sleep. Since the initial study of sleep and pregnancy in 1968, fewer than 20 articles have been published which address alterations in sleep architecture related

Kathryn A. Lee

1998-01-01

188

Sleep Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... Benefits Even though scientists are still learning exactly why people need sleep, studies show that sleep is necessary ... caused by stress and ultraviolet rays. This is why deep sleep may truly be "beauty sleep." ... of people experience chronic, long-term sleep disorders each year, ...

189

Mammalian sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the

Hugh Staunton

2005-01-01

190

Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets. PMID:19380369

Stevens, Richard G

2009-01-01

191

Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10 years (mean ± standard error of the mean) wore actigraphs and completed diaries on subjective stress, fatigue, sleep quality, number of examinations and consumption of caffeine and alcohol for 4 weeks during their final year of secondary school. The resulting almost 500 assessments were analysed using mixed-effect models to estimate the effects of mere school attendance and additional examination stress on sleep estimates and subjective ratings. Total sleep time decreased from 7:38 h ± 12 min during holidays to 6:40 h ± 12 min during a regular school week. This 13% decrease elicited a partial compensation, as indicated by a 3% increase in sleep efficiency and a 6% decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings. During examination weeks total sleep time decreased to 6:23 h ± 8 min, but it was now accompanied by a decrease in sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality and an increase in wake bout duration. In conclusion, school examination stress affects the sleep of adolescents. The compensatory mechanism of more consolidated sleep, as elicited by the sleep restriction associated with mere school attendance, collapsed during 2 weeks of sustained examination stress. PMID:23398048

Astill, Rebecca G; Verhoeven, Dorit; Vijzelaar, Romy L; Van Someren, Eus J W

2013-08-01

192

Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

Jordan, Amy S; McSharry, David G; Malhotra, Atul

2014-02-22

193

Sleep bruxism as a manifestation of subclinical rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.  

PubMed

A 59-year-old man with temporomandibular joint pain/dysfunction syndrome presented with a long history of nocturnal bruxism. All-night polysomnographic recordings with video monitoring showed episodes of teeth grinding or clenching occurring exclusively during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, which were often associated with movements of the hands and fingers and/or brief vocalization. Throughout REM sleep, there was excessive phasic chin electromyographic twitching, without increased tone, and also excessive phasic electromyographic twitching in multiple muscle sites. The patient maintained a normal nonrapid eye movement-REM cycle, but showed increased REM density. Polysomnographic characteristics suggested that there may be a common pathophysiology in a certain type of sleep bruxism and the REM sleep behavior disorder. Sleep bruxism seen in this case is concluded to be a manifestation of subclinical REM sleep behavior disorder. PMID:7809570

Tachibana, N; Yamanaka, K; Kaji, R; Nagamine, T; Watatani, K; Kimura, J; Shibasaki, H

1994-09-01

194

The cognitive cost of sleep lost  

PubMed Central

A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses primarily on the cognitive impairments produced by sleep disruption in rodent models of several human patterns of sleep loss/sleep disturbance. Though not an exclusive list, this review will focus on four specific types of sleep disturbance: total sleep deprivation, experimental sleep fragmentation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic sleep restriction. The use of rodent models can provide greater opportunities to understand the neurobiological changes underlying sleep loss induced cognitive impairments. Thus, this review concludes with a description of recent neurobiological findings concerning the neuroplastic changes and putative brain mechanisms that may underlie the cognitive deficits produced by sleep disturbances. PMID:21875679

McCoy, John G.; Strecker, Robert E.

2013-01-01

195

Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us, nighttime slumber is disrupted by thoughts of our "to-do" list, worries about our studies or workload, or interruptions  

E-print Network

Sleep Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us an occasional or persistent sleep disturbance known as insomnia. According to modest estimates, at least 20-30 million Americans suffer from insomnia. Dangers of Sleep Deprivation The term "insomnia" describes trouble

Leistikow, Bruce N.

196

Differential diagnoses of nocturnal fear and movement paroxysm: a case report.  

PubMed

Recurrent nocturnal behavioural and movement paroxysms are a diagnostic challenge for the clinical pediatrician. We report on an adolescent girl who presents recurrent stereotypical nightmare-like episodes occurring during non-REM sleep stages 1-2 (N1 and N2). We discuss the differential diagnoses between epileptic and nonepileptic events and between nocturnal frontal and temporal seizures. The pathophysiological and unusual electroencephalographical features are discussed with respect to clinical features and results of interictal FDG-PET. Conclusion In case of stereotypical nightmare-like episodes in children or adolescents, an epileptic origin has to be ruled out before a parasomnia is diagnosed. In addition, a normal awake EEG or interictal sleep EEG in the diagnostic workup may not exclude an epileptic disorder. In case of nightly stereotypic motor or affective events, an epileptic disorder should be discussed. PMID:22466609

Weber, Peter; Jüngling, Freimut; Datta, Alexandre Niklaus

2012-09-01

197

Effects of Sleep Fragmentation on Sleep and Markers of Inflammation in Mice  

PubMed Central

Many people in our society experience curtailment and disruption of sleep due to work responsibilities, care-giving, or life style choice. Delineating the health effect of acute and chronic disruptions in sleep is essential to raising awareness of and creating interventions to manage these prevalent concerns. To provide a platform for studying the health impact and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with inadequate sleep, we developed and characterized an approach to creating chronic disruption of sleep in laboratory mice. We used this method to evaluate how 3 durations of sleep fragmentation (SF) affect sleep recuperation and blood and lung analyte concentrations in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice housed in environmentally controlled chambers were exposed to automated SF for periods of 6, 12, or 24 h or for 12 h daily during the light (somnolent) phase for 4 sequential days. Sleep time, slow-wave amplitude, or bout lengths were significantly higher when uninterrupted sleep was permitted after each of the 3 SF durations. However, mice did not recover all of the lost slow-wave sleep during the subsequent 12- to 24-h period and maintained a net loss of sleep. Light-phase SF was associated with significant changes in serum and lung levels of some inflammatory substances, but these changes were not consistent or sustained. The data indicate that acute light-phase SF can result in a sustained sleep debt in mice and may disrupt the inflammatory steady-state in serum and lung. PMID:24512957

Trammell, Rita A; Verhulst, Steve; Toth, Linda A

2014-01-01

198

[Recording nocturnal erections following injuries and insurance claims: cost-effectiveness].  

PubMed

Road accidents, work accidents, or other trauma can cause impotence and are frequently followed by insurance claims. During 1990-97 we examined 230 males with such a complaint. All underwent full polysomnographic recordings in the sleep laboratory for 2 nights, during the course of which NPT (nocturnal penile tumescence) was examined with special equipment. It was assessed by an experienced technician following planned awakenings from REM sleep. In 75 of the 230 subjects (33%), satisfactory erections were observed. In 100 (43%), who experienced at least 3 periods of REM sleep, no erections occurred. These patients were categorized as suffering from organic impotence. In the remaining 55 (24%), the results were inconclusive, with only partial erections or not enough REM sleep periods. Since a man recognized as suffering from impotence may be awarded large monthly payments for life, these examinations, in our opinion, are an important tool to prevent unjustified claims, and can save the state unnecessary expenses. PMID:10914256

Peled, R; Pillar, G; Berger, Y; Tov, N; Peled, N; Lavie, P

1999-03-15

199

Sleep in infants and young children: part two: common sleep problems.  

PubMed

Approximately 25% of children younger than 5 years experience some type of sleep problem. Whether the problem is acute or chronic, significant disruption to the child's sleep can occur and have a negative impact on the child and family. This article is the second in a two-part series on sleep in infants and young children. The purpose of this article is to provide fundamental information regarding common pediatric sleep problems for the clinician to use when assessing a child's sleep behaviors or addressing parental concerns. The definition, impact, and clinical evaluation of sleep problems are discussed. PMID:15129213

Davis, Katherine Finn; Parker, Kathy P; Montgomery, Gary L

2004-01-01

200

Circadian Variation of Heart Rate Variability Across Sleep Stages  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Nocturnal cardiovascular events are more frequent at the beginning and end of the night. It was proposed that this pattern reflects the nocturnal distribution of sleep and sleep stages. Using heart rate variability (HRV), we recently showed an interaction between the circadian system and vigilance states on the regulation of cardiac rhythmicity. Here, we further investigate this interaction in order to clarify the specific effects of sleep stages on the regulation of the heart. Design: Participants underwent a 72-h ultradian sleep-wake cycle procedure in time isolation consisting of alternating 60-min wake episodes in dim light and 60-min nap opportunities in total darkness. Setting: Time isolation suite. Patients or participants: Fifteen healthy young participants; two were subsequently excluded. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The current study revealed that sleep onset and progression to deeper sleep stages was associated with a shift toward greater parasympathetic modulation, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a shift toward greater sympathetic modulation. We found a circadian rhythm of heart rate (HR) and high-frequency power during wakefulness and all non-REM sleep stages. A significant circadian rhythm of HR and sympathovagal balance of the heart was also observed during REM sleep. During slow wave sleep, maximal parasympathetic modulation was observed at ?02:00, whereas during REM sleep, maximal sympathetic modulation occurred in the early morning. Conclusion: The circadian and sleep stage-specific effects on heart rate variability are clinically relevant and contribute to the understanding of the degree of cardiovascular vulnerability during sleep. Citation: Boudreau P; Yeh WH; Dumont GA; Boivin DB. Circadian variation of heart rate variability across sleep stages. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1919-1928. PMID:24293767

Boudreau, Philippe; Yeh, Wei-Hsien; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

2013-01-01

201

RESEARCH ARTICLE Age-related disruptions of circadian rhythm and memory  

E-print Network

often report poor night-time sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, lack of energy, and difficulty adjusting to these cognitive impairments, other factors such as disrupted sleep patterns and increased daytime drowsiness may contribute indirectly to impaired cognitive abilities. Disrupted sleep­wake cycles may be the result of age

Liu, Taosheng

202

Anatomical Basis of Sleep-Related Breathing Abnormalities in Children With Nasal Obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To define, in a group of children with nasal obstruction, the anatomical differences that differenti- ate those with quiet, unobstructed nocturnal respira- tion from those with obstructive sleep-related breathing abnormalities (snoring and obstructive sleep apnea). Design: Case series. Patients: Fifty-nine children aged 3 to 13 years (35 boys and 24 girls) with nasal obstruction and without tonsil- lar hypertrophy,

Yehuda Finkelstein; David Wexler; Gilead Berger; Ariela Nachmany; Myra Shapiro-Feinberg; Dov Ophir

2000-01-01

203

Associations of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Disordered Breathing with Cognition in Older Community-Dwelling Men: The MrOS Sleep Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To examine the association of sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing, and cognition in older men. DESIGN A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING 6 sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS 2,909 community-dwelling men age 67 or older who were not selected on the basis of sleep problems or cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Predictors were measured with in-home polysomnography: sleep architecture, nocturnal hypoxemia (any sleep time with SaO2<80%), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and arousal index. Cognitive outcomes were measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Trails B test, and the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT). RESULTS Analyses adjusted by age, race, education, BMI, lifestyle, comorbidities and medication use show that those who spent less percent of time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep had worse levels of cognition: compared to the highest quartile (?23.7%), those in the lowest quartile (<14.8%) took an average of 5.9 seconds longer on the Trails B and 20.1 seconds longer on the DVT. Similarly, increased percent time spent in stage 1 sleep was related to poorer cognitive function. Those in the highest quartile of stage 1 sleep (?8.6%) had worse cognitive scores on average compared to those in the lowest quartile (<4.0%). Those with nocturnal hypoxemia took longer to complete the DVT by an average of 22.3 seconds compared to those without, but no associations were found with 3MS or Trails B. CONCLUSION Spending less percent of time spent in REM sleep, more percent of time spent in stage 1 sleep, and having higher levels of nocturnal hypoxemia were associated with poorer cognition in older men. Further studies are needed to clarify the direction of these associations and to explore potential mechanisms. PMID:22188071

Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Laffan, Alison; Stone, Katie L.

2011-01-01

204

Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders  

PubMed Central

Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

Steier, Joerg

2012-01-01

205

Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

2014-01-01

206

Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep  

PubMed Central

The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages. PMID:25140132

Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Heller, Horace Craig

2014-01-01

207

Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep.  

PubMed

The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages. PMID:25140132

Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Heller, Horace Craig

2014-01-01

208

Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

2014-01-01

209

Sleep, sleep apnea, and epilepsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  Sleep disorders occur commonly in patients with epilepsy, and can be responsible for symptoms of daytime somnolence and also\\u000a can contribute to the intractability of epilepsy. The most important aspect of treating sleep disorders, especially sleep\\u000a apnea, is the recognition of the problem. In a busy clinical practice, symptoms of sleep disorders are frequently overlooked\\u000a or mistaken. Whenever sleep

Carl W. Bazil

2004-01-01

210

Nocturnal Awakenings and Pediatric Injury Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective This study was designed to examine relations between nocturnal awakenings and unintentional injury risk among toddlers. Methods A nationally representative sample of 799 children was followed longitudinally from birth through 36 months. Patterns of nocturnal awakening were assessed by parent-report at ages 6, 15, 24 and 36 months, and injury events were reported at quarterly intervals over the same

David C. Schwebel; Carl M. Brezausek

2007-01-01

211

Recruitment experience in the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial.  

PubMed

The Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial was a randomized controlled clinical trial sponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and carried out by six clinics. The primary objective was to compare, in patients with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, the effectiveness of 24 hours of oxygen administration to that of 12 hours of oxygen administration including the patient's usual period of sleep. Some patients entering the period of baseline observation were not eligible for randomization at the end of the baseline period. Such attrition is discussed relative to setting goals for the number of patients to enter such an observation period. The impact of an enrollment rate less than what was originally projected is discussed relative to changes in the eligibility criteria and relative to the decision as to whether to extend the recruitment period. PMID:3440385

Williams, G W; Snedecor, S M; DeMets, D L

1987-12-01

212

Sleep and Quality of Life in Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disordered sleep affects daytime health and behavioral functioning in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric conditions.\\u000a Sleep disorders lead to a multitude of secondary behavioral effects that affect both the individual and the family (1). Daytime\\u000a sleepiness resulting from disrupted sleep often manifests itself in typically developing children as hyperactivity, inattention,\\u000a and aggression (2). Those with autism, a spectrum of

Beth A. Malow; Susan G. McGrew

213

Altered sleep–wake cycles and physical performance in athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep–waking cycles are fundamental in human circadian rhythms and their disruption can have consequences for behaviour and performance. Such disturbances occur due to domestic or occupational schedules that do not permit normal sleep quotas, rapid travel across multiple meridians and extreme athletic and recreational endeavours where sleep is restricted or totally deprived. There are methodological issues in quantifying the physiological

Thomas Reilly; Ben Edwards

2007-01-01

214

Crepuscular Rhythms of EEG Sleep-Wake in a Hystricomorph Rodent, Octodon degus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep-wake circadian rhythms are well documented for nocturnal rodents, but little is known about sleep regulation in diurnal or crepuscular rodent species. This study examined the circadian sleep-wake rhythms in Octodon degus by means of electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Recordings were made from animals housed with or without running wheels in the cages. In a 24-h light-dark (LD) cycle (LD 12:12),

Martien J. H. Kas; Dale M. Edgar

1998-01-01

215

The Association Between Sleep Duration and Weight in Treatment-Seeking Preschoolers with Obesity1  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between nocturnal sleep duration and weight and caloric intake outcomes among preschool-aged children who are obese and enrolled in a family-based weight management program. Methods Forty-one preschool-aged children who were obese (BMI ?95th percentile) and enrolled in a weight management program completed pre- and posttreatment assessments of body mass, caloric intake, and sleep. Separate linear regression analyses examined the relationship between nocturnal sleep duration and posttreatment body mass index relative to ageand sex-linked norms (BMIz) and caloric intake. Results After controlling for pretreatment BMIz, longer posttreatment nocturnal sleep was significantly associated with lower posttreatment BMIz (?=-0.21, p=0.02) and explained a significant proportion of unique variance in posttreatment BMIz (?R2=0.04). Similarly, after controlling for pretreatment caloric intake, longer nocturnal sleep duration at posttreatment was significantly associated with lower caloric intake at posttreatment (?=-0.45, p=0.003) and explained a significant proportion of unique variance in posttreatment caloric intake (?R2=0.19). Conclusions These findings extend the literature on the sleep and weight relationship and suggest that adequate sleep may be an important element in interventions for preschoolers with obesity. PMID:22841032

Clifford, Lisa M.; Beebe, Dean W.; Simon, Stacey L.; Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Rausch, Joseph R.; Stark, Lori J.

2012-01-01

216

Predictive Value of Pulmonary Function Parameters for Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal polysomnography is the standard diagnostic test for sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) but is both expensive and time-con- suming. We developed a predictive index for SAS based on pulmo- nary function data, including respiratory resistance determined by the forced oscillation technique, from 168 obese snorers with sus- pected SAS. Our model used logistic regression to obtain case-by- case predictions of

FRANÇOISE ZERAH-LANCNER; FREDERIC LOFASO; MARIE PIA; CHRISTOPHE DELCLAUX; FRANÇOISE GOLDENBERG; ANDRÉ COSTE; BRUNO HOUSSET; ALAIN HARF

2000-01-01

217

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Pathogenesis of Neuropsychological Deficits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuropsychological deficits have been documented in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSSA). Both nocturnal hypoxemia and impairment of daytime vigilance have been suggested as the pathogenesis of these deficits, yet it remains difficult to find good correlations between cognitive deficits and either of these physiological parameters. In the present study, 10 normal controls were compared to 10 moderately and

Marc-André Bédard; Jacques Montplaisir; François Richer; Isabelle Rouleau; Jacques Malo

1991-01-01

218

The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled.

Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

2014-01-01

219

The diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma  

PubMed Central

Purpose To determine the diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost with sofZia® (Travatan Z® [TZ]) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods Twenty-seven subjects with NTG were admitted to an inpatient sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate every 2 hours in the habitual position (diurnal period: upright; nocturnal period: supine). Baseline IOP and OPP levels were compared to those during active treatment with TZ and 3 days after stopping the medication. OPP was calculated as 2/3 [diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP – diastolic BP)] – IOP. Results TZ significantly reduced the mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels compared to baseline at all time points. During treatment, mean IOP decreased from 17.1±3.4 to 14.7±3.0 mmHg during the diurnal period (P<0.01) and from 19.9±3.6 to 18.8±3.5 mmHg during the nocturnal period (P<0.01). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (15.6±3.2 mmHg) and nocturnal (18.7±3.7 mmHg) periods. Mean OPP was not significantly changed with treatment during either period. Conclusion In this population of NTG patients, TZ significantly lowers IOP at all time points throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods. The treatment effect on IOP endures for up to 3 days after the last dose. Treatment did not significantly improve OPP. PMID:25382969

Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

2014-01-01

220

New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea.  

PubMed

OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

Ayas, Najib T; Hirsch, Allen A J; Laher, Ismail; Bradley, T Douglas; Malhotra, Atul; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Tasali, Esra

2014-08-01

221

Bench-to-bedside review: Delirium in ICU patients - importance of sleep deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Delirium occurs frequently in critically ill patients and has been associated with both short-term and long-term consequences. Efforts to decrease delirium prevalence have been directed at identifying and modifying its risk factors. One potentially modifiable risk factor is sleep deprivation. Critically ill patients are known to experience poor sleep quality with severe sleep fragmentation and disruption of sleep architecture.

Gerald L Weinhouse; Richard J Schwab; Paula L Watson; Namrata Patil; Bernardino Vaccaro; Pratik Pandharipande; E Wesley Ely

2009-01-01

222

Sleep-related hormone secretion in depressed patients.  

PubMed

Among human subjects, sleep is a time of considerable neuro-endocrine activity and the nocturnal secretion of growth hormone is intimately related to the sleep-wake cycle. In contrast, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis of entrained individuals shows a circadian pattern of activity with secretion increasing in the latter part of sleep. A variety of neuroendocrine disturbances have been described in depressed patients who also manifest consistent disturbances in their sleep-wake cycle. The sleep-wake cycle is capable of masking these rhythms and thereby modifying patterns of hormone secretion. The sleep disturbance in depressed patients appears to have little effect on the phase of either cortisol or growth hormone secretion but does reduce their amplitudes. PMID:4091022

Jarrett, D B; Coble, P; Kupfer, D J; Greenhouse, J B

1985-01-01

223

Sleep habits in mild cognitive impairment.  

PubMed

We explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling seniors. Recent evidence suggests that sleep habits are differentially compromised in different subtypes of MCI, but the relationship between sleep disruption and MCI remains poorly understood. We gathered daily objective measures of sleep disturbance from 45 seniors, including 16 with MCI (mean age, 86.9±4.3 y), over a 6-month period. We also collected self-report measures of sleep disturbance. Although there were no differences between groups in any of our self-report measures, we found that amnestic MCI (aMCI) volunteers had less disturbed sleep than both nonamnestic MCI (naMCI) and cognitively intact volunteers, as measured objectively by movement in bed at night (F2,1078=4.30, P=0.05), wake after sleep onset (F2,1078=41.6, P<0.001), and number of times up at night (F2,1078=26.7, P<0.001). The groups did not differ in total sleep time. In addition, the aMCI group had less day-to-day variability in these measures than the intact and naMCI volunteers. In general, the naMCI volunteers showed a level of disturbed sleep that was intermediate to that of aMCI and intact volunteers. These differences in sleep disruption between aMCI and naMCI may be related to differences in the pathology underlying these MCI subtypes. PMID:24145694

Hayes, Tamara L; Riley, Thomas; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffrey A

2014-01-01

224

Sleep Patterns  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about sleep rhythms (on page 21 of the PDF), learners will collect data about their own sleep cycles and use a fraction wheel to examine their data. This lesson guide includes background information, information about astronauts' sleep in space, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Greg L.

2009-01-01

225

Sleep Apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... shows how the airway can collapse and block air flow to the lungs, causing sleep apnea. Central sleep apnea is a less common type of sleep apnea. This disorder occurs if the area of your brain that controls your breathing doesn't send the correct signals ...

226

Sleep Apnea  

MedlinePLUS

... untreated. You are also more likely to have traffic accidents if you drive while you're sleepy. If you have sleep apnea, it is very important to get treatment. ... Do I need a sleep study? What are the health risks associated with sleep apnea? What lifestyle changes ...

227

Myotonic dystrophy type 1, daytime sleepiness and REM sleep dysregulation.  

PubMed

Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), or Steinert's disease, is the most common adult-onset form of muscular dystrophy. DM1 also constitutes the neuromuscular condition with the most significant sleep disorders including excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), central and obstructive sleep apneas, restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic leg movements in wake (PLMW) and periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) as well as nocturnal and diurnal rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dysregulation. EDS is the most frequent non-muscular complaint in DM1, being present in about 70-80% of patients. Different phenotypes of sleep-related problems may mimic several sleep disorders, including idiopathic hypersomnia, narcolepsy without cataplexy, sleep apnea syndrome, and periodic leg movement disorder. Subjective and objective daytime sleepiness may be associated with the degree of muscular impairment. However, available evidence suggests that DM1-related EDS is primarily caused by a central dysfunction of sleep regulation rather than by sleep fragmentation, sleep-related respiratory events or periodic leg movements. EDS also tends to persist despite successful treatment of sleep-disordered breathing in DM1 patients. As EDS clearly impacts on physical and social functioning of DM1 patients, studies are needed to identify the best appropriate tools to identify hypersomnia, and clarify the indications for polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in DM1. In addition, further structured trials of assisted nocturnal ventilation and randomized trials of central nervous system (CNS) stimulant drugs in large samples of DM1 patients are required to optimally treat patients affected by this progressive, incurable condition. PMID:22465566

Dauvilliers, Yves A; Laberge, Luc

2012-12-01

228

Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.  

PubMed

Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

2003-08-01

229

Persistent neuropsychological deficits and vigilance impairment in sleep apnea syndrome after treatment with continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by nocturnal sleep disturbance, excessive daytime sleepiness and neuropsychological deficits in the areas of memory, attention, and executive tasks. In the present study, these clinical manifestations were assessed in apneic patients before and 6 months after treatment with nasally applied continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). CPAP treatment was found to restore normal respiration

Marc-André Bédard; Jacques Montplaisir; Jacques Malo; François Richer; Isabelle Rouleau

1993-01-01

230

Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly\\u000a men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream\\u000a enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates\\u000a excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive

Vivien C. Abad; Christian Guilleminault

2004-01-01

231

Sleep and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are both widespread and wide-ranging. Emerging early in the disease process,\\u000a sometimes prior to the onset of motor symptoms, sleep disruption results from the degeneration of the basal ganglia that is\\u000a the hallmark of the disease, as well as changes in brain stem sleep centres. Accordingly, sleep problems consist of motor\\u000a symptoms such as

Daisy L. Whitehead; Rosalind Mitchell-Hay; Prashant Reddy; Sharon Muzerengi; K. Ray Chaudhuri

232

Update on obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to COPD  

PubMed Central

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786

Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E

2014-01-01

233

Short Sleep Duration Is Associated with Reduced Leptin, Elevated Ghrelin, and Increased Body Mass Index  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep duration may be an important regulator of body weight and metabolism. An association between short habitual sleep time and increased body mass index (BMI) has been reported in large population samples. The potential role of metabolic hormones in this association is unknown. Methods and Findings Study participants were 1,024 volunteers from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study, a population-based longitudinal study of sleep disorders. Participants underwent nocturnal polysomnography and reported on their sleep habits through questionnaires and sleep diaries. Following polysomnography, morning, fasted blood samples were evaluated for serum leptin and ghrelin (two key opposing hormones in appetite regulation), adiponectin, insulin, glucose, and lipid profile. Relationships among these measures, BMI, and sleep duration (habitual and immediately prior to blood sampling) were examined using multiple variable regressions with control for confounding factors. A U-shaped curvilinear association between sleep duration and BMI was observed. In persons sleeping less than 8 h (74.4% of the sample), increased BMI was proportional to decreased sleep. Short sleep was associated with low leptin (p for slope = 0.01), with a predicted 15.5% lower leptin for habitual sleep of 5 h versus 8 h, and high ghrelin (p for slope = 0.008), with a predicted 14.9% higher ghrelin for nocturnal (polysomnographic) sleep of 5 h versus 8 h, independent of BMI. Conclusion Participants with short sleep had reduced leptin and elevated ghrelin. These differences in leptin and ghrelin are likely to increase appetite, possibly explaining the increased BMI observed with short sleep duration. In Western societies, where chronic sleep restriction is common and food is widely available, changes in appetite regulatory hormones with sleep curtailment may contribute to obesity. PMID:15602591

2004-01-01

234

Nocturnal manifestations of atypical and vascular parkinsonism: how do they differ from Parkinson's disease?  

PubMed

While nocturnal disturbances of Parkinson's disease (PD) are increasingly recognized as being part of a continuum that includes daytime manifestations, there is still little analysis in the medical literature that assesses these complex phenomena in patients with atypical (AP) and vascular parkinsonisms (VP). The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of these disturbances in patients with AP and VP and to determine the range of nighttime symptoms that occur compared with those in patients with PD. This comparison was done using a semi-structured interview and self-rated questionnaires in 63 AP and VP patients (PSP 24, MSA 24, CBD 5, and VP 10), and 208 PD patients. 61 AP and VP patients (96.8%) and 201 PD patients (96.6%) reported at least one nocturnal symptom with a score of less than 6 on the Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (MPDSS). Nocturnal akinesia, as measured on the Nocturnal Akinesia, Dystonia, and Cramp Score, was found to be significantly greater in patients with PSP (p = 0.006), MSA (p = 0.002), and CBD (p = 0.012) than PD patients, but not VP patients (p = 0.428). Like those with PD, patients with AP and VP identified the problem of getting up at night to urinate (MPDSS item 8) as being the most frequent and troublesome nocturnal symptom. MSA and PSP patients reported more frequent (p = 0.001) and troublesome (p < 0.001) urinary incontinence (MPDSS item 9) than PD patients and MSA patients had more severe problems with unexpectedly falling asleep during the day (MPDSS item 15) than PD patients (p = 0.003). In summary, our study determined that nocturnal manifestations are commonly experienced by patients with AP and VP and highlighted specific nocturnal symptoms, which are more prevalent and troublesome in certain AP syndromes. The concept of 24-h control of symptoms should not be limited to only PD and we recommend that all who are involved in the care of AP and VP patients should realize that many nocturnal symptoms are experienced by these patients and a multidisciplinary approach should be utilized to address these problems. PMID:24668247

Bhidayasiri, Roongroj; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Petchrutchatachart, Sitthi; Kaewwilai, Lalita; Panyakaew, Pattamon; Boonrod, Nonglak; Colosimo, Carlo

2014-08-01

235

Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.  

PubMed

Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. PMID:20035789

Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2010-04-01

236

Sleep Disturbance in the Homeless Population: The Relationship between Homelessness, Sleep and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about how sleep disruption impacts physical health among the homeless. The association between homelessness, quality of sleep and physical health were investigated in the current study. Convenience sampling was used to select participants from a pool of people attending the programs of Ecclesia Ministries. Interviews were conducted with 32 persons from the Boston metropolitan area, of whom

Megan Elizabeth Corning

2010-01-01

237

SLEEP DISTURBANCES IN LONG-TERM CARE  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Nighttime sleep disruption is characteristic of long-term care residents, is typically accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Causal factors include medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental factors and lifestyle habits. There is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to treatment; however, further research on the implementation of treatments within the long-term care setting is needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. A growing number of older adults reside in long-term care facilities. In this setting, residents commonly suffer from nighttime sleep disruption, which is often accompanied by daytime sleepiness and may be caused by a multitude of factors. Importantly, sleep disturbance is associated with negative health outcomes, including risk for falling, and elevated mortality risk among long-term care residents. A number of factors contribute to sleep disturbance in the long-term care setting including medical and psychiatric illness, medications, circadian rhythm abnormalities, sleep disordered breathing and other primary sleep disorders, environmental conditions (e.g., noise and light) and lifestyle habits. Based on research with older adults in the community and work conducted within long-term care settings, there is some suggestion that these factors are amenable to nonpharmacological treatments. Further research on the broad implementation of treatments for sleep problems within the long-term care setting is still needed. Additional work is also needed to understand the administrative and policy factors that might lead to systemic changes in how sleep is viewed and sleep problems are addressed in long-term care settings. PMID:18035230

Martin, Jennifer L.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

2008-01-01

238

Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

2014-01-01

239

Mammalian sleep  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

Staunton, Hugh

2005-05-01

240

Mammalian sleep.  

PubMed

This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of 'I'ness or "self" in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders. PMID:15843983

Staunton, Hugh

2005-05-01

241

Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced “neural injury.” We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae. PMID:20086074

Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

2010-01-01

242

Early Developmental Changes in Sleep in Infants: The Impact of Maternal Depression  

PubMed Central

Objectives: This study evaluated whether sleep over the first 6 months of life was more disturbed in infants born to mothers who were depressed compared with infants from nondepressed mothers. Design: Actigraphy was recorded for 7 consecutive days starting at 2 weeks postpartum and monthly thereafter until 6 months of age. Mothers completed daily sleep/wake diaries. Sleep data at 2 weeks and 6 months postpartum are presented here. Setting: The home environment. Participants: Eighteen healthy, full-term infants, 9 males and 9 females. Seven infants were born to women with no personal or family history of depression; 11 infants were born to women diagnosed with depression or with elevated levels of depression symptoms. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, and number and duration of sleep episodes were computed for nocturnal and daytime sleep in each 24-hour block. Data were coded for risk group (1 = low risk, 2 = high risk), and repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance contrasted changes in sleep measures at Week 2 and Week 24, between risk groups. The high-risk infants took longer to fall asleep, had lower sleep efficiencies, and had more sleep bouts in the nocturnal sleep period than did low-risk infants. These effects persisted at 6 months postpartum. Conclusions: Maternal depression is associated with significant sleep disturbance in infancy at 2 weeks postpartum that continues through 24 weeks. It remains to be determined if sleep disturbance in infancy confers a greater risk of developing early-onset depression in childhood. Citation: Armitage R; Flynn H; Hoffmann R; Vazquez D; Lopez J; Marcus S. Early developmental changes in sleep in infants: the impact of maternal depression. SLEEP 2009;32(5):693-696. PMID:19480236

Armitage, Roseanne; Flynn, Heather; Hoffmann, Robert; Vazquez, Delia; Lopez, Juan; Marcus, Sheila

2009-01-01

243

Spatial patterning in nocturnal prosimians: a review of methods and relevance to studies of sociality.  

PubMed

Patterns of home range overlap between individuals are key parameters used in discussions of sociality in nocturnal prosimians. Despite the importance of space use variables in defining social structure in nocturnal prosimians, researchers have yet to reach a consensus concerning the most reliable techniques for measuring patterns of home range use. In this paper, we review the methods used in 27 studies of nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior published since 1977. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of the various methods of data collection (radio tracking, trap mark, and identification of sleeping site locations) and data analysis (minimum convex polygon method, minimum concave polygon method, and quadrat analysis) used in these studies. We conclude that the most effective method for gathering data on individual movements and social interactions is direct observation of individual radio tagged animals during all-night follows. In those cases where radio tracking and/or all-night follows are not possible, trap mark techniques can be used, although they tend to greatly underestimate home range size. We recommend that data collected on nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior be analyzed using the minimum convex polygon method, quadrat analysis, and, perhaps, one other of the more mathematically sophisticated techniques popular in studies of non-primate mammals. Finally, we urge researchers to employ standardized methods of data collection and data analysis in future studies of range use in nocturnal prosimians. Without standardization of methods, quantitative comparisons of the findings from different studies are biologically meaningless and prevent cross-species comparisons of space use and its relation to sociality. PMID:10811437

Sterling, E J; Nguyen, N; Fashing, P J

2000-05-01

244

Reduced heart rate variability predicts poor sleep quality in a case–control study of chronic fatigue syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasympathetic function is important in the induction and maintenance of sleep. We examined whether nocturnal vagal modulation\\u000a of heart rate is related to the poor sleep quality commonly reported in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Heart rate (HR, as\\u000a R–R intervals) was continuously monitored during sleep in 20 patients with CFS and 20 matched control subjects. Questionnaires\\u000a assessed demographic information, symptoms,

A. R. Burton; K. Rahman; Y. Kadota; A. Lloyd; U. Vollmer-Conna

2010-01-01

245

Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Leger, D.

2012-01-01

246

Sleep Apnea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of sleep apnea have been identified: obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA). OSA occurs when\\u000a the upper airway collapses; in OSA, there is no airflow, often despite great respiratory effort. In CSA, the transitory cessations\\u000a of breathing are because of a drop in respiratory capacity—there is no airflow and no respiratory effort. Excessive daytime\\u000a sleepiness

Cheryl M. Carlucci; Robert A. Hauser

247

[Sleep disturbances and suicidality: relationships and clinical implications].  

PubMed

Besides several risk factors for suicide, there is a recent increase in clinical and epidemiological studies pointing to a potential relationship between sleep loss or sleep disturbances and suicidality. This work, based on a systematic literature research, gives an overview on the findings of relationships between suicidality (i. e., suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, suicides) and sleep disturbances, especially insomnia, nightmares, but also hypersomnia and nocturnal panic attacks. There is evidence that sleep disturbances in suicidal insomniacs with comorbid psychiatric disorder are independently predictive for suicidality, too. Shared aspects of pathogenesis of the two entities and therapeutic options are also discussed. Recognition of sleep disturbances is essential for suicide prevention in clinical practice. PMID:24081516

Norra, C; Richter, N

2013-10-01

248

Effects of environmental noise on sleep.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future. PMID:23257581

Hume, Kenneth I; Brink, Mark; Basner, Mathias

2012-01-01

249

Case Control Polysomnographic Studies of Sleep Disorders in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between a number of primary sleep disorders and Parkinson's disease (PD) is still debated. There are limited case control polysomnographic studies in PD and most of these study sample sizes are small. Methodology/Findings We conducted one of the largest case-control studies involving overnight polysomnographic evaluation, with prospective recruitment of unselected Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls from an Asian population. The cases were recruited from the specialized movement disorder outpatient clinics in a tertiary referral center, and controls from the same geographical locations. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnographic study and a multiple sleep latency test. A total of 124 subjects including 56 patients and 68 controls frequency-matched for age and sex were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients had significantly shorter total sleep time than controls (p?=?0.01), lower sleep efficiency (p?=?0.001) and increased REM latency (p?=?0.007). In patients, multivariate analysis showed that reduced total sleep time was significantly associated with increased age (p?=?0.001) and increased levodopa dose (p?=?0.032). The mean Insomnia Severity Index was higher in PD patients (9.0±7.1) compared to controls (3.3±3.9, p<0.001). The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was higher in PD patients (9.3±5.9 vs. 5.7±4.8, p<0.001). Nocturnal arousals, obstructive sleep apnea, periodic leg movements and objective abnormal sleepiness were not increased in our patients. Conclusions/Significance Our case-control polysomnographic study, the first-ever performed in an Asian population, revealed altered sleep architecture and reduced sleep in PD patients compared to controls. Reduced total sleep time was associated with increased age and levodopa dose. However, nocturnal arousals, primary sleep disorders and abnormal sleepiness were not increased in our PD patients suggesting that ethnic/genetic differences may be a factor in the pathophysiology of these conditions. PMID:21799880

Yong, Ming-Hui; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Pavanni, Ratnagopal; Lim, Li-Ling; Tan, Eng-King

2011-01-01

250

Epilepsy and sleep-disordered breathing as false friends: a case report.  

PubMed

Because signs of nocturnal seizures can overlap with sleep respiratory events, clinicians can have difficulty distinguishing abnormal events related to sleep disorders from epileptic seizures. We describe the case of a 3-year-old child presenting with ictal electroencephalographic (EEG) activity associated with a particular form of atypical obstructive sleep apnea, characterized by increased respiratory rate, paradoxical breathing, desaturations, and tonic-dystonic posture associated with movement artifacts. Following cardiorespiratory polysomnography, the patient was initially misdiagnosed as having severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. PMID:24257432

Vitelli, Ottavio; Miano, Silvia; Tabarrini, Alessandra; Mazzotta, Anna Rita; Supino, Maria Chiara; Forlani, Martina; Villa, Maria Pia

2014-10-01

251

Sleep, sleep-disordered breathing and lipid homeostasis: translational evidence from murine models and children  

PubMed Central

Impaired sleep, particularly in the context of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), is associated with a vast array of comorbidities, including obesity. It is well known that the etiology of obesity is both complex and multifactorial. Recent trends have shown that obesity rates have risen at an alarming rate in children, and this has likely contributed to an increased prevalence of SDB in children. Like the ‘chicken and the egg’ hypothesis, the temporal relationship of obesity and SDB is unclear but it is speculated that these two conditions converge to promote a fundamental disruption to normal lipid homeostasis. In this review, the effect of sleep disruption and SDB on lipid homeostasis in both murine and human models will be critically examined, with the intent of demonstrating that disrupted sleep in children is itself a precursor to obesity via disordered lipid homeostasis. PMID:22942904

Bhattacharjee, Rakesh; Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David

2012-01-01

252

Correlations between depression behaviors and sleep parameters after repeated corticosterone injections in rats  

PubMed Central

Aim: Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats. Methods: SD rats were injected with corticosterone (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle for 7 d. Their sleep-wake behavior was monitored through implanted EEG and EMG electrodes. Their depressive behaviors were assessed using forced swim test, open field test and sucrose preference test. Results: The corticosterone-treated rats showed significantly reduced sleep time, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and altered power spectra during non-REM sleep. All depressive behavioral tests did not show significant difference across the groups. However, individual correlation analysis revealed statistically significance: the immobility time (despair) was negatively correlated with REM sleep latency, slow wave sleep (SWS) time ratio, SWS bouts and delta power density, and it was positively correlated with REM sleep bouts and beta power density. Meanwhile, sucrose preference (anhedonia) was positively correlated with total sleep time and light sleep bouts, and it was negatively correlated with the REM sleep time ratio. Conclusion: In stress-mimicked rats, sleep disturbances are a predictor of depressive disorders, and certain symptoms of depression may be related to the disruption of several specific sleep parameters. PMID:24989251

Wang, Zi-jun; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xue-qiong; Sheng, Zhao-fu; Li, Sheng-jie; Huang, Yuan-li; Cao, Qing; Cui, Xiang-yu; Cui, Su-ying; Zhang, Yong-he

2014-01-01

253

Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

2011-04-01

254

Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy  

MedlinePLUS

... disorder catalog Conditions > Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (often shortened to ADNFLE ) On this page: Description ... What is ADNFLE? Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon form of epilepsy that ...

255

[Sleep disorders].  

PubMed

Some sleep disorders and sleep problems are reported as risk of dementia. It is reported that 50-80% of idiopathic REM sleep behavior had a later conversion to a synucleinopathy, thus this parasomnia is regarded as early marker of Parkinson disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and multiple system atrophy. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome causes reversible decline of cognitive functions in children and adults, and it increases the risk of dementia and mild cognitive impairment in elderly women. A decrease of amplitude of circadian activity rhythm and habitual long sleep duration (> or = 9 hours) are reported to increase the risk of dementia in elderly people. Some reports indicate that hypnotic use may be a risk factor of dementia. However, it is not cleared whether insomnia itself related with dementia or not, since no study evaluated the risk of insomnia without hypnotic treatment. PMID:24796108

Tagaya, Hirokuni; Murayama, Norio; Hakamata, Yuko

2014-04-01

256

Review article: putting immediate-release proton-pump inhibitors into clinical practice--improving nocturnal acid control and avoiding the possible complications of excessive acid exposure.  

PubMed

Nocturnal gastro-oesphageal reflux is an under-appreciated clinical challenge. This condition may cause symptoms such as nocturnal heartburn, or it may be asymptomatic. In addition, patients may experience sleep disturbances that can potentially lead to complications such as erosive oesophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus, and may be a risk factor for development of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Delayed-release proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have traditionally been effective in treating both daytime and night-time reflux symptoms, but are limited in control of nocturnal acidity by their pharmacodynamic characteristics. This narrative review addresses the prevalence, impact and pharmacologic approaches used to control nocturnal acidity. Methods to optimize nocturnal acid control include careful attention to dosing schedule, using higher doses of PPIs, adding an histamine H2-receptor antagonist at bedtime to once or twice daily delayed-release PPI, or using immediate-release omeprazole (Zegerid powder for oral suspension; Santarus, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). This new formulation appears to provide sustained control of intragastric pH at steady state, and when dosed at bedtime, and may be effective in improving control of nocturnal pH and treating night-time GERD. PMID:16303035

Katz, P O

2005-12-01

257

The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.  

PubMed

Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. PMID:20363166

Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

2010-08-01

258

Just a scary dream? A brief review of sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.  

PubMed

The clinical spectrum of sleep disorders in children is broad, ranging from primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome to complex sleep-related behaviors and movement disorders. Although snoring and OSA typically receive significant attention and discussion, other biologically based sleep disorders are as common, if not more common, in children. A general pediatrician is frequently presented with the complaint of sleep talking, sleep walking, or abnormal movements during sleep. Even more alarming is the presentation of the child suddenly and explosively screaming during sleep. Such complaints fall under the category of parasomnias. Exclusive to sleep and wake-to-sleep transitions, these parasomnias include arousals with abnormal motor, behavioral, autonomic, or sensory symptoms. Parasomnias can be noticeably dissimilar in clinical manifestations, but most share biologic characteristics. Three parasomnias associated with loud vocalizations associated with sleep that can present to general practitioners include sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although usually benign, these sleep disorders can be disruptive and even potentially dangerous to the patient and can often be threatening to quality of life. In this article, we describe the clinical features of some of these disorders and how to differentiate between their alarming presentations. PMID:24126984

Haupt, Mark; Sheldon, Stephen H; Loghmanee, Darius

2013-10-01

259

Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (p<0.025). The laboratory study revealed a decrease of 2.4% in nocturnal sleep efficiency in the nap condition (p<0.025), a reduction of nocturnal Total Sleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (p<0.001) which resulted primarily from significantly earlier waketimes (p<0.005), but no reliable effects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT (nap: 15.6 mins., no nap: 11.5 mins., p<0.005). No significant change in circadian rhythm parameters was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy seniors were able to adopt a napping regimen involving a 90-minute siesta nap each day between 13:30 and 15:00, achieving about one hour of actual sleep per nap. There were some negative consequences for nocturnal sleep in terms of reduced sleep efficiency and earlier waketimes, but also some positive consequences for objective evening performance and (in the diary study) 24-hour sleep totals. Subjective alertness measures and performance measures showed no reliable effects and circadian phase parameters appeared unchanged.

Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

2001-01-01

260

Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space.  

PubMed

Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed. PMID:15943202

Mallis, M M; DeRoshia, C W

2005-06-01

261

Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed.

Mallis, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

2005-01-01

262

Relationship between early-life stress load and sleep in psychiatric outpatients: a sleep diary and actigraphy study.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to investigate whether stress experienced early in life is associated with actigraphic and subjective sleep measures in a sample of adult psychiatric outpatients. A total of 48 psychiatric outpatients completed self-report questionnaires assessing current depression, current anxiety symptoms and stress load during childhood (before the age of 13?years), adolescence (between the age of 13 and 18?years) and adulthood (between the age of 19 and current age). Sleep-related activity was measured using 24-h wrist actigraphy over a 7-day period at home, during which participants also kept a sleep diary. High stress load in childhood, but not in adolescence, was associated with shortened actigraphically assessed total sleep time, prolonged sleep onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency and an increased number of body movements in sleep, even after accounting for the effects of later occurring stress and psychopathological symptoms such as depression and anxiety scores. Unexpectedly, no significant associations between early-life stress load and subjective sleep measures were found. Results are consistent with findings from previous studies indicating an association between childhood adversities and higher levels of nocturnal activity. The findings suggest that high stress load during childhood might be a vulnerability factor for sleep continuity problems in adulthood. PMID:22700459

Schäfer, Valérie; Bader, Klaus

2013-08-01

263

Screening of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome by Heart Rate Variability Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Enhanced nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) has been evoked in sleep-related breathing disorders. However, its capacity to detect obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has not been systematically determined. Thus, we evaluated the discriminant power of HRV parameters in a first group of patients (G1) and validated their discriminant capacity in a second group (G2). Methods and Results—In G1, 39 of

Frederic Roche; Jean-Michel Gaspoz; Isabelle Court-Fortune; Pascal Minini; Vincent Pichot; David Duverney; Frederic Costes; Jean-Claude Barthelemy

2010-01-01

264

ERK Phosphorylation Regulates Sleep and Plasticity in Drosophila  

PubMed Central

Given the relationship between sleep and plasticity, we examined the role of Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in regulating baseline sleep, and modulating the response to waking experience. Both sleep deprivation and social enrichment increase ERK phosphorylation in wild-type flies. The effects of both sleep deprivation and social enrichment on structural plasticity in the LNvs can be recapitulated by expressing an active version of ERK (UAS-ERKSEM) pan-neuronally in the adult fly using GeneSwitch (Gsw) Gsw-elav-GAL4. Conversely, disrupting ERK reduces sleep and prevents both the behavioral and structural plasticity normally induced by social enrichment. Finally, using transgenic flies carrying a cAMP response Element (CRE)-luciferase reporter we show that activating ERK enhances CRE-Luc activity while disrupting ERK reduces it. These data suggest that ERK phosphorylation is an important mediator in transducing waking experience into sleep. PMID:24244744

Vanderheyden, William M.; Gerstner, Jason R.; Tanenhaus, Anne; Yin, Jerry C.; Shaw, Paul J.

2013-01-01

265

Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients. Methods A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years) were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K) to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS). Results The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K. Conclusions We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients. PMID:24926405

Kim, Eun Ja; Baek, Joon Hyun; Shin, Dong Jin; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Kee-Hyung; Shin, Dong Hoon; Noh, Young; Sung, Young Hee

2014-01-01

266

Nocturnal foraging in the American White Pelican  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal foraging was examined in American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) at the Dauphin River, about 50 km from a breeding colony on Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. From two to three times as many pelicans foraged at night as in the daytime, with foraging flocks being larger at night. In contrast, more pelicans were present at adjacent loafing sites during the

BLAIR F. MCMAHON; ROGER M. EVANS

1992-01-01

267

Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised.

A F Clark; P J Tayler; S R Bhate

1990-01-01

268

Nocturnal enuresis and upper airway obstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between nocturnal enuresis (NE) and upper airway obstruction (UAO) in pediatric population. Material and methods: This study presents the results of our experience with 321 children who underwent adenotonsillar surgery. Results: Among 321 children who were operated on, 111 (35%) had NE. Seventy-four of the 111 children who had

Ugur Çinar; Cetin Vural; Burak Çakir; Ebru Topuz; M. Ihsan Karaman; Suat Turgut

2001-01-01

269

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Children, Seasonal Photoperiods, Nocturnal Movements and Diurnal Agitation  

PubMed Central

Objective The main purpose of this study was to verify that the shortening photoperiods of winter contribute to increasing the nocturnal and diurnal agitation of children with ADHD and that lengthening photoperiods diminish it. Method To verify this hypothesis we chose a location where daylight times drop drastically in the fall: Edmonton (Canada). The study’s sample was fifteen children, varying in age from 7 to 9 years (M=8.13 years old). The participants were divided into two clinical groups and one control group. The first clinical group was made up of five (n=5) children diagnosed with ADHD and treated with psychostimulants. The second clinical group was made up of five (n=5) children with ADHD not treated with psychostimulants. The control group was composed of five (n=5) children showing no signs of ADHD or psychopathologies. The intensity of diurnal agitation linked to ADHD was evaluated by teachers using the French version questionnaire (SWAN-F) at T1 (first day of experiment). The children’s nocturnal movements were evaluated using actimetry. Their sleep quality was measured with a sleep agenda. These last two measurements were carried out for five consecutive days when the length of the photoperiod was at its shortest (end of December). The same procedures were repeated at the end of June (T2), when the photoperiod was at its maximum. Results The principal results support the study’s hypothesis and show a significant baseline difference (p=0.008) between the nocturnal motor movements of the ADHD children and those of the control children. Conclusions According to these results, this type of research should be reproduced in other Nordic countries and should include a larger sample group of children diagnosed with ADHD. PMID:22299015

Langevin, Rene; Ramde, Jean

2012-01-01

270

Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: Detection and quantification with electrocardiogram-  

E-print Network

Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: Detection and quantification, Boston, MA f Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Abstract Sleep disruption is an important aspect of major depressive disorder

271

Adolescence and Parental History of Alcoholism: Insights from the Sleep EEG  

E-print Network

Adolescence and Parental History of Alcoholism: Insights from the Sleep EEG Leila Tarokh, Eliza Van Background: Disrupted sleep is a common complaint of individuals with alcohol use disorder and in abstinent alcoholics. Furthermore, among recovering alcoholics, poor sleep predicts relapse to drink- ing. Whether

272

Sleep disorders - overview  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, ... Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it causes obstructive sleep apnea ...

273

American Sleep Association  

MedlinePLUS

... awareness about sleep disorders and sleep health, promoting sleep medicine research, and providing a portal for communication between ... Nov/14 - 1:42 pm Job Announcement: Physician (Sleep Medicine) 29/Oct/14 - 1:01 pm Re: Recently ...

274

Investigating Sleep  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about sleep rhythms (on page 25 of the PDF), learners will investigate how changing the time they go to bed impacts their own sleep patterns. For one night, learners will go to bed one hour earlier than usual. They will observe and record any impacts that this change has on their abilities to fall asleep, and on their usual wake times the next morning. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Tharp, Barbara Z.; Vogt, Greg L.

2009-01-01

275

Sleep Fragmentation Exacerbates Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Alters Subsequent Sleep-Wake Behavior in a Mouse Model of Musculoskeletal Sensitization  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. Design: This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Methods: Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Results: Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased numbers of sleep-wake state transitions during the light and dark periods; changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness; and altered delta power during NREM sleep. These effects persisted for at least 3 weeks postsensitization. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization exacerbates the physiological and behavioral responses of mice to musculoskeletal sensitization, including mechanical hypersensitivity and sleep-wake behavior. These data contribute to increasing literature demonstrating bidirectional relationships between sleep and pain. The prevalence and incidence of insufficient sleep and pathologies characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain are increasing in the United States. These demographic data underscore the need for research focused on insufficient sleep and chronic pain so that the quality of life for the millions of individuals with these conditions may be improved. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization. SLEEP 2014;37(3):515-524. PMID:24587574

Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

2014-01-01

276

Hypnogram and sleep parameter computation from activity and cardiovascular data.  

PubMed

The automatic computation of the hypnogram and sleep Parameters, from the data acquired with portable sensors, is a challenging problem with important clinical applications. In this paper, the hypnogram, the sleep efficiency (SE), rapid eye movement (REM), and nonREM (NREM) sleep percentages are automatically estimated from physiological (ECG and respiration) and behavioral (Actigraphy) nocturnal data. Two methods are described; the first deals with the problem of the hypnogram estimation and the second is specifically designed to compute the sleep parameters, outperforming the traditional estimation approach based on the hypnogram. Using an extended set of features the first method achieves an accuracy of 72.8%, 77.4%, and 80.3% in the detection of wakefulness, REM, and NREM states, respectively, and the second an estimation error of 4.3%, 9.8%, and 5.4% for the SE, REM, and NREM percentages, respectively. PMID:24845281

Domingues, Alexandre; Paiva, Teresa; Sanches, J Miguel

2014-06-01

277

Sleep in Othello  

PubMed Central

Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

Dimsdale, Joel E.

2009-01-01

278

Disturbed Sleep in a Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

17-year-old white male with Duchenne muscular dystrophy presented to the pediatric pulmonary clinic for a follow-up evaluation after being hospitalized for pneumonia. During the hospital stay he was noted to have nocturnal desaturation inter- mittently during sleep. The patient has been wheelchair bound since age 12 years. His father's two current concerns include the patient's difficulty swallowing and difficulty breathing

Mary H. Wagner; Richard B. Berry

279

Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit  

PubMed Central

In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging) in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%). Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8%) and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%). Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry. PMID:24991437

Väyrynen, Kirsi; Numminen, Heikki; Miettinen, Katja; Keso, Anna; Tenhunen, Mirja; Huhtala, Heini

2014-01-01

280

Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Reduces Sleep-induced Blood Pressure Increments In Preeclampsia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preeclampsia is the predominant cause of admissions to neonatal intensive care. The diurnal blood pressure pattern is flattened or reversed in preeclampsia. We hypothesized that snoring and par- tial upper airway obstruction contribute to nocturnal rises in blood pressure. We tested this hypothesis by controlling sleep- induced upper airway flow limitation and snoring with nasal posi- tive pressure. Eleven women

N. EDWARDS; D. M. BLYTON; T. KIRJAVAINEN; G. J. KESBY; C. E. SULLIVAN

281

Prevalence of patent foramen ovale in subjects with obstructive sleep apnea: a transcranial Doppler ultrasound study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Under particular conditions a patent foramen ovale (PFO) can potentially give rise to ischemic stroke by means of paradoxic embolization. In obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) right to left shunting (RLSh) can occur through PFO during periods of nocturnal apnea. Our study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of PFO diagnosed by means of transcranial Doppler (TcD) in subjects with

Manolo Beelke; Silvia Angeli; Massimo Del Sette; Carlo Gandolfo; Maria Eloisa Cabano; Paola Canovaro; Lino Nobili; Franco Ferrillo

2003-01-01

282

Obesity: CPAP effects in sleep apnoea-what should be expected?  

PubMed

Patients with obesity and obstructive sleep apnoea have increased morbidity. Now, one study has reported limited beneficial effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with both these conditions. However, in another study, the reduction in blood pressure obtained with CPAP was not observed when nocturnal hypoxia was suppressed with supplemental oxygen. PMID:25091728

Lévy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis

2014-09-01

283

Controlled Trial of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Heart Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent among patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) and may contribute to progres- sion of cardiac dysfunction via hypoxia, elevated sympathetic ner- vous system activity, and systemic hypertension. Our aim was to assess the long-term effect of OSA treatment with nocturnal contin- uous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on systolic heart function, sympathetic activity, blood

Darren R. Mansfield; N. Claire Gollogly; David M. Kaye; Meroula Richardson; Peter Bergin; Matthew T. Naughton

284

An event-related analysis of awakening reactions due to nocturnal church bell noise.  

PubMed

The sleep disturbing effects of nocturnal ambient non-traffic related noises such as bell strokes emitted from church bell towers on nearby residents are presently unknown. Nonetheless, this specific noise source is suspected to cause sleep disturbances in a small but qualified minority of people living in the vicinity of the bell towers that throughout the night indicate the time with bell ringings. A field study was carried out to elucidate whether acoustic properties of such bell strokes relate to awakening and to provide event-related exposure-effect functions between acoustical predictors and awakening probability. Awakening reactions were determined in 27 voluntary subjects, measured in their home setting for four consecutive nights with ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and concurrent acoustic recordings in- and outside the dwelling. Results indicate that the bell ringing events increase awakenings in a similar fashion as has previously been reported with transportation noise events and that awakening probability first and foremost depends on maximum sound pressure level of an event. The number of bell strokes and the personal variables gender, age, and noise sensitivity did not influence awakening probability significantly. Awakening probability by tendency increased with elapsed time after sleep onset, and was decreased during slow wave sleep and REM sleep compared to S2 sleep. The results suggest that a reduction of the maximum sound pressure level or an interruption of ringings during nighttime might reduce awakenings. The determined exposure-effect relationships are compared with similar functions for impulsive noise and transportation noise, more specifically, aircraft noise. The paper concludes with a few considerations regarding nighttime noise regulation. PMID:21978615

Brink, Mark; Omlin, Sarah; Müller, Christian; Pieren, Reto; Basner, Mathias

2011-11-15

285

Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people  

PubMed Central

Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. – 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n?=?56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x?: 5.8 hrs vs. x?: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

2014-01-01

286

Sleep in brain development  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the discovery of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep was no longer considered a homogeneous state of passive rest for the brain. On the contrary, sleep, and especially REM sleep, appeared as an active condition of intense cerebral activity. The fact that we get large amounts of sleep in early life suggested that sleep may play a role in

PATRICIO D. PEIRANO; CECILIA R. ALGARÍN

2008-01-01

287

Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

2014-01-01

288

Regional differences of the sleep electroencephalogram in adolescents.  

PubMed

The sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from anterior (Fz/Cz) and posterior (Pz/Oz) bipolar derivations in two developmental groups: 20 pre- or early pubertal (Tanner 1/2, mean age 11.4 +/- 1.1 years, 11 boys) and 20 late pubertal or mature adolescents (Tanner 4/5, 14.1 +/- 1.3 years, 8 boys). A sleep-state independent reduction of EEG power over almost the entire frequency range was present in Tanner 4/5 compared with Tanner 1/2 adolescents. Spectral characteristics of the sleep EEG yielded state- and frequency-dependent regional differences that were similar in both developmental groups. Anterior predominance of power in delta and sigma ranges occurred in non-rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep EEG power was greater in low delta, alpha, and sigma ranges for the posterior derivation and in theta and beta ranges for the anterior derivation. The decay rate of the sleep homeostatic process--reflected by the exponential decline of the 2-Hz EEG power band across the sleep episode--did not differ for derivations or groups. These results indicate that the nocturnal dynamics of sleep homeostasis are independent of derivation and remain stable across puberty. PMID:15910511

Jenni, Oskar G; van Reen, Eliza; Carskadon, Mary A

2005-06-01

289

Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

2002-01-01

290

Sleep quality, sleep propensity and academic performance.  

PubMed

We examined associations between measures of sleep propensity on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and academic performance by GPA and grades in introductory psychology for 414 students. In the total sample, neither sleep propensity nor sleep quality correlated with GPA or introductory psychology grades. However, among students carrying a full course load, those reporting poor sleep quality performed less well on academic measures than those reporting a better quality of sleep. Further research is needed to assess the moderating influence of overall demands of daytime functioning on the association between sleep quality and academic performance. PMID:15560340

Howell, Andrew J; Jahrig, Jesse C; Powell, Russell A

2004-10-01

291

Disruptive Ubiquity?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a presentation given at the Colston Symposium 2004 at the University of Bristol. The presentation aimed to stimulate debate and discussion within the framework of the symposium by introducing ubiquitous technologies as an example of potentially disruptive technologies (Christensen) in an educational context. It highlighted that while individual examples of ubiquitous technologies may have significant

Paul Shabajee

292

Traffic noise-induced sleep disturbances and their correction by an anxiolytic sedative, OX-373.  

PubMed

In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study the effect of nocturnal traffic noise and bedtime medication of a new benzodiazepine, OX-373, on objective and subjective sleep variables as well as on the quality of morning awakenings was investigated. 10 healthy subjects spent 17 nights in the sleep laboratory: 2 adaptation nights, 1 baseline night, 4 drug nights (20, 30, and 40 mg OX-373 and placebo) and 4 subsequent wash-out nights as well as 3 nights under traffic noise with placebo, 30 and 40 mg OX-373 and 3 subsequent wash-out nights. Nocturnal traffic noise with an intensity of 45-65 dB(A) induced sleep disturbances characterized by an increase in intermittent wakefulness and stage 1 and the number of nocturnal awakenings as well as by a decrease of spindle and REM sleep stages. Subjectively, a decrease of deep sleep and increase of light sleep and middle insomnia was reported. Upon awakening in the morning, mood was significantly deteriorated. The new benzodiazepine OX-373 attenuated the above-described traffic noise-induced changes and produced even oppositional alterations, such as a decrease in stage 1, number of awakenings and stage shifts while increasing stage 2. The drug alone decreased the number of awakenings and stage 1 and augmented stage 4 as compared with placebo, which was subjectively felt as an increase in deep sleep and as a decrease of light sleep, early and middle insomnia. In the morning, there were no signs of 'hangover', which was confirmed also by psychometry. Nor were there any clinically relevant alterations in blood pressure and pulse. Thus, our studies confirmed earlier pharmaco-EEG and psychometric investigations predicting OX-373 as well-tolerated anxiolytic sedative, and suggested further that traffic noise could eventually be utilized as an experimental provocative technique in order to induce a standardized sleep disturbance for early clinical drug evaluation of potentially hypnotic substances. PMID:6118840

Saletu, B; Grünberger, J

1981-01-01

293

Irregular Bedtime and Nocturnal Cellular Phone Usage as Risk Factors for Being Involved in Bullying: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Japanese Adolescents  

PubMed Central

Purpose A number of studies have tried to identify risk factors for being involved in bullying in order to help developing preventive measures; however, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the effect of nocturnal lifestyle behavior such as sleep pattern or cellular phone usage. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between school bullying and sleep pattern or nocturnal cellular phone usage in adolescents. The effect of school size on school bullying was also examined. Methods Data from the cross-sectional survey of psychopathologies conducted for 19,436 Japanese students from 45 public junior high schools (7th–9th grade) and 28 senior high schools (10th–12th grade) were analyzed. Results Bullying status was significantly associated with irregular bedtime (OR?=?1.23 and 1.41 for pure bullies and bully-victims, respectively) and e-mail exchange or calling after lights-out (OR?=?1.53 and 1.31 for pure bullies and bully-victims, respectively) after controlling domestic violence and substance usage. In addition, school size was significantly associated with the increased risk of bullying in junior high school students (OR?=?1.13 for bully-victims). Conclusions The present results suggested that sleep pattern and nocturnal cellular phone usage might be risk factors for being involved in school bullying in adolescents. Although further accumulation of data is needed, progressive trend towards nocturnal lifestyle and increasing usage of cellular phone might impair the well-being of adolescents. School-based interventions for lifestyle including sleep pattern and cellular phone usage may be encouraged to reduce school bullying. PMID:23029211

Tochigi, Mamoru; Nishida, Atsushi; Shimodera, Shinji; Oshima, Norihito; Inoue, Ken; Okazaki, Yuji; Sasaki, Tsukasa

2012-01-01

294

Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome  

PubMed Central

Sleep restriction and circadian clock disruption are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The metabolic pathways involved in human sleep, however, have yet to be investigated with the use of a metabolomics approach. Here we have used untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)/MS metabolomics to examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma metabolite rhythms. Twelve healthy young male subjects remained in controlled laboratory conditions with respect to environmental light, sleep, meals, and posture during a 24-h wake/sleep cycle, followed by 24 h of wakefulness. Two-hourly plasma samples collected over the 48 h period were analyzed by LC/MS. Principal component analysis revealed a clear time of day variation with a significant cosine fit during the wake/sleep cycle and during 24 h of wakefulness in untargeted and targeted analysis. Of 171 metabolites quantified, daily rhythms were observed in the majority (n = 109), with 78 of these maintaining their rhythmicity during 24 h of wakefulness, most with reduced amplitude (n = 66). During sleep deprivation, 27 metabolites (tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, 8 acylcarnitines, 13 glycerophospholipids, and 3 sphingolipids) exhibited significantly increased levels compared with during sleep. The increased levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and taurine may explain the antidepressive effect of acute sleep deprivation and deserve further study. This report, to our knowledge the first of metabolic profiling during sleep and sleep deprivation and characterization of 24 h rhythms under these conditions, offers a novel view of human sleep/wake regulation. PMID:25002497

Davies, Sarah K.; Ang, Joo Ern; Revell, Victoria L.; Holmes, Ben; Mann, Anuska; Robertson, Francesca P.; Cui, Nanyi; Middleton, Benita; Ackermann, Katrin; Kayser, Manfred; Thumser, Alfred E.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Skene, Debra J.

2014-01-01

295

Does Abnormal Sleep Impair Memory Consolidation in Schizophrenia?  

PubMed Central

Although disturbed sleep is a prominent feature of schizophrenia, its relation to the pathophysiology, signs, and symptoms of schizophrenia remains poorly understood. Sleep disturbances are well known to impair cognition in healthy individuals. Yet, in spite of its ubiquity in schizophrenia, abnormal sleep has generally been overlooked as a potential contributor to cognitive deficits. Amelioration of cognitive deficits is a current priority of the schizophrenia research community, but most efforts to define, characterize, and quantify cognitive deficits focus on cross-sectional measures. While this approach provides a valid snapshot of function, there is now overwhelming evidence that critical aspects of learning and memory consolidation happen offline, both over time and with sleep. Initial memory encoding is followed by a prolonged period of consolidation, integration, and reorganization, that continues over days or even years. Much of this evolution of memories is mediated by sleep. This article briefly reviews (i) what is known about abnormal sleep in schizophrenia, (ii) sleep-dependent memory consolidation in healthy individuals, (iii) recent findings of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia, and (iv) implications of impaired sleep-dependent memory consolidation in schizophrenia. This literature suggests that abnormal sleep in schizophrenia disrupts attention and impairs sleep-dependent memory consolidation and task automation. We conclude that these sleep-dependent impairments may contribute substantially to generalized cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Understanding this contribution may open new avenues to ameliorating cognitive dysfunction and thereby improve outcome in schizophrenia. PMID:19750201

Manoach, Dara S.; Stickgold, Robert

2009-01-01

296

Circadian control of nocturnal songbird migration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bird migration has evolved under the influence of annual and daily fluctuations in resource availability. Numerous passerine\\u000a migrants migrate exclusively by night, maximizing the time available for foraging and feeding during the day. When held in\\u000a captivity, and in total absence of environmental cues, nocturnal migrants typically show rhythms of night-time restlessness\\u000a (Zugunruhe), which persist with a periodicity of about

Timothy Coppack; Franz Bairlein

297

Disruptive Coloration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

Ipsen, David; Gillfillan, Gretchen L.; Judy Diamond (Revised New Edition); Judy Scotchmoor (Revised New Edition); Stebbins, Robert

2009-04-01

298

The sleep-feeding conflict: Understanding behavioral integration through genetic analysis in Drosophila.  

PubMed

One of the brain's most important functions is the control of homeostatically regulated behaviors. Dysregulation of the neural systems controlling sleep and feeding underlies many chronic illnesses. In a recent study published in Current Biology we showed that flies, like mammals, suppress sleep when starved and identified the genes Clock and cycle as regulators of sleep during starvation. Here we show that starvation specifically disrupts sleep initiation without affecting sleep consolidation. The identification of genes regulating sleep-feeding interactions will provide insight into how the brain integrates and controls the expression of complex behaviors. PMID:20689154

McDonald, Daniel M; Keene, Alex C

2010-08-01

299

In-Car Nocturnal Blue Light Exposure Improves Motorway Driving: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20–50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11)?=?6.64; p<0.05). Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p?=?0.001) and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p?=?0.003) than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]). Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004 PMID:23094031

Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Sagaspe, Patricia; Anund, Anna; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Philip, Pierre

2012-01-01

300

[REM sleep behavior disorder: an overt access to motor and cognitive control during sleep].  

PubMed

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is characterized by violent, or potentially violent, movements during REM sleep, corresponding to enacted dreams. During sleep monitoring, there is a partial or total loss of the normal muscle atonia during REM sleep. REM sleep behavior disorder predominantly affects elderly subjects without any other disease (idiopathic RBD, a precursor of Parkinson disease and Lewy body dementia) or suffering from various neurological and neurodegenerative diseases, mainly synucleinopathies. In addition to being a treatable cause of nocturnal injury of the patients or their bed-partners, RBD is a fantastic window into motor and cognitive control during REM sleep. Notably, parkinsonism transiently disappears during RBD. The patient's voice is louder and better articulated than when awake, and movements are rapid (but jerky) suggesting that the deleterious message from the basal ganglia to the primary motor cortex is reduced or bypassed. As we observed culturally-acquired behaviors, retired patients practicing their former work with mastered gestures, as well as sentences pronounced with appropriate prosody, gesturing, fluency, and syntax during the RBD, we suggest that these behaviors are generated by the same cortical areas as during wakefulness. This model also enables the demonstration that REM during REM sleep are coded in the same direction as the arm and hand movements, as if the dreamer were scanning the dream images. This online access to the motor and verbal dream scenario (through the video and audio monitoring), and the physiological measures (via the EEG, eye movements, muscle tone, respiration, heart rate), together with the offline access to the mental content (dream report after the awakening) constitute a triangulation for validating new hypotheses about REM sleep and dreams. PMID:20801470

Arnulf, I

2010-10-01

301

Effects of estrogen replacement therapy on rates of cyclic alternating patterns and hot-flush events during sleep in postmenopausal women: a pilot study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of conjugated estrogens on the rates of cyclic alternating patterns of sleep (CAPS) and nocturnal hot flushes in symptomatic postmenopausal women. Seven postmenopausal or post-hysterectomy women aged 45 to 60 years with nocturnal diaphoresis and\\/or hot flushes participated in this study. The study was conducted with a single-masked design

Martin B. Scharf; Michael D. McDannold; Robin Stover; Nadia Zaretsky; David V. Berkowitz

1997-01-01

302

A HAT for sleep?: epigenetic regulation of sleep by Tip60 in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Unfortunately, how AD is mechanistically linked with interference of the body's natural sleep rhythms remains unclear. Our recent findings provide insight into this question by demonstrating that sleep disruption associated with AD is driven by epigenetic changes mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Tip60. In this study, we show that Tip60 functionally interacts with the AD associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) to regulate axonal growth of Drosophila small ventrolateral neuronal (sLNv) pacemaker cells, and their production of neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) that stabilizes appropriate sleep-wake patterns in the fly. Loss of Tip60 HAT activity under APP neurodegenerative conditions causes decreased PDF production, retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for PDF release and disruption of sleep-wake cycles in these flies. Remarkably, excess Tip60 in conjunction with APP fully rescues these sleep-wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for Tip60 in these processes. Our studies highlight the importance of epigenetic based mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in neurodegenerative diseases like AD. PMID:23572111

Pirooznia, Sheila K; Elefant, Felice

2013-01-01

303

Sleeping Birds Do Not Respond to Predator Odour  

PubMed Central

Background During sleep animals are relatively unresponsive and unaware of their environment, and therefore, more exposed to predation risk than alert and awake animals. This vulnerability might influence when, where and how animals sleep depending on the risk of predation perceived before going to sleep. Less clear is whether animals remain sensitive to predation cues when already asleep. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested whether great tits are able to detect the chemical cues of a common nocturnal predator while sleeping. We predicted that birds exposed to the scent of a mammalian predator (mustelid) twice during the night would not go into torpor (which reduces their vigilance) and hence would not reduce their body temperature as much as control birds, exposed to the scent of another mammal that does not represent a danger for the birds (rabbit). As a consequence of the higher body temperature birds exposed to the scent of a predator are predicted to have a higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and to lose more body mass. In the experiment, all birds decreased their body temperature during the night, but we did not find any influence of the treatment on body temperature, RMR, or body mass. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that birds are not able to detect predator chemical cues while sleeping. As a consequence, antipredatory strategies taken before sleep, such as roosting sites inspection, may be crucial to cope with the vulnerability to predation risk while sleeping. PMID:22110676

Amo, Luisa; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

2011-01-01

304

Vibration, noise, and their interacting contributions toward sleep disturbance.  

PubMed

The market share of goods traffic operating on the European rail networks is expected to almost double from 2001 to 2020. Nocturnal time slots are expected to play an important part in facilitating this increase and as such sleep disturbance in residential areas is expected to be the most significant hindering factor. Little data currently exist that may be utilized to investigate the potential impact. Within the European project CargoVibes we experimentally investigated sleep disturbance due to vibration and noise arising from freight trains. An experimental trial was conducted involving 23 healthy subjects sleeping for six nights; a habituation night, a control night, and four nights with combinations of vibration and noise exposure. The primary objective was to examine the contribution of each exposure, and investigate how vibration and noise contribute individually and simultaneously to human response. The secondary aim was to determine whether increased numbers of events relative to previous work using 20-36 trains further impacted on sleep. Physiological parameters including sleep stage, cardiac activity, and cortical arousals were obtained using polysomnography and questionnaires were administered to obtain sleep quality data. Results indicate that vibration directly contributes to sleep fragmentation. The findings shall be further discussed at the conference. PMID:25235569

Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

2014-04-01

305

Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species.  

PubMed

The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus (VLPO) is a group of sleep-active neurons that has been identified in the hypothalamus of rats and is thought to inhibit the major ascending monoaminergic arousal systems during sleep; lesions of the VLPO cause insomnia. Identification of the VLPO in other species has been complicated by the lack of a marker for this cell population, other than the expression of Fos during sleep. We now report that a high percentage of the sleep-active (Fos-expressing) VLPO neurons express mRNA for the inhibitory neuropeptide, galanin, in nocturnal rodents (mice and rats), diurnal rodents (degus), and cats. A homologous (i.e. galanin mRNA-containing cell group) is clearly distinguishable in the ventrolateral region of the preoptic area in diurnal and nocturnal monkeys, as well as in humans. Galanin expression may serve to identify sleep-active neurons in the ventrolateral preoptic area of the mammalian brain. The VLPO appears to be a critical component of sleep circuitry across multiple species, and we hypothesize that shrinkage of the VLPO with advancing age may explain sleep deficits in elderly humans. PMID:12401341

Gaus, S E; Strecker, R E; Tate, B A; Parker, R A; Saper, C B

2002-01-01

306

Neuroimaging in sleep medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of neuroimaging techniques has made possible the characterization of cerebral function throughout the sleep-wake cycle in normal human subjects. Indeed, human brain activity during sleep is segregated within specific cortical and subcortical areas in relation to the sleep stage, sleep physiological events and previous waking activity. This approach has allowed sleep physiological theories developed from animal data to

Thien Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Dominique Petit; Stéphanie Mazza; Jacques Montplaisir; Pierre Maquet

2007-01-01

307

Therapeutic Strategies for Sleep Apnea in Hypertension and Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) causes hypoxemia, negative intrathoracic pressure, and frequent arousal, contributing to increased cardiovascular disease mortality and morbidity. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is linked to hypertension, ischemic heart disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. Successful continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment has a beneficial effect on hypertension and improves the survival rate of patients with cardiovascular disease. Thus, long-term compliance with CPAP treatment may result in substantial blood pressure reduction in patients with resistant hypertension suffering from OSAS. Central sleep apnea and Cheyne-Stokes respiration occur in 30–50% of patients with heart failure (HF). Intermittent hypoxemia, nocturnal surges in sympathetic activity, and increased left ventricular preload and afterload due to negative intrathoracic pressure all lead to impaired cardiac function and poor life prognosis. SDB-related HF has been considered the potential therapeutic target. CPAP, nocturnal O2 therapy, and adaptive servoventilation minimize the effects of sleep apnea, thereby improving cardiac function, prognosis, and quality of life. Early diagnosis and treatment of SDB will yield better therapeutic outcomes for hypertension and HF. PMID:23509623

Noda, Akiko; Miyata, Seiko; Yasuda, Yoshinari

2013-01-01

308

Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular risk  

PubMed Central

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a form of sleep disordered breathing characterized by episodes of apnea (during sleep) lasting at least 10 seconds per episode. The apneic periods are associated with arterial hypoxemia and disruption of normal sleep as a result of awakenings. It is increasingly being recognized that OSA is a public health hazard and there is increasing evidence that it is associated with an increase in morbidity (and possibly mortality). Patients with OSA also utilize the healthcare resources at higher rates than control patients long before their diagnosis is confirmed. Early recognition of this condition may lead to earlier treatments (eg, nasal CPAP) with reduction of the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, platelet activation and pulmonary hypertension. PMID:18516275

Dorasamy, Punginathn

2007-01-01

309

Sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress in preclinical chronic mountain sickness (excessive erythrocytosis)  

PubMed Central

Chronic mountain sickness (CMS) is considered to be a loss of ventilatory acclimatization to high altitude (>2500 m) resulting in marked arterial hypoxemia and polycythemia. This case-control study explores the possibility that sleep-disordered breathing (SBD) and associated oxidative stress contribute to the etiology of CMS. Nocturnal respiratory and SaO2 patterns were measured using standard polysomnography techniques and compared between male high-altitude residents (aged 18–25) with preclinical CMS ([excessive erythrocytosis (EE)], n=20) and controls (n=19). Measures of oxidative stress and antioxidant status included isoprostanes (8-iso-PGF2 alpha), superoxide dismutase and ascorbic acid. EE cases had a greater apnea-hypopnea index, a higher frequency of apneas (central and obstructive) and hypopneas during REM sleep, and lower nocturnal SaO2 compared to controls. 8-iso-PGF2alpha was greater in EE than controls, negatively associated with nocturnal SaO2, and positively associated with hemoglobin concentration. Mild sleep-disordered breathing and oxidative stress are evident in preclinical CMS, suggesting that the resolution of nocturnal hypoxemia or antioxidant treatment may prevent disease progression. PMID:23380170

Julian, Colleen Glyde; Vargas, Enrique; Gonzales, Marcelino; Davila, R. Daniela; Ladenburger, Anne; Reardon, Lindsay; Schoo, Caroline; Powers, Robert W.; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Moore, Lorna G.

2013-01-01

310

Neurobiological mechanisms involved in sleep bruxism.  

PubMed

Sleep bruxism (SB) is reported by 8% of the adult population and is mainly associated with rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) characterized by repetitive jaw muscle contractions (3 bursts or more at a frequency of 1 Hz). The consequences of SB may include tooth destruction, jaw pain, headaches, or the limitation of mandibular movement, as well as tooth-grinding sounds that disrupt the sleep of bed partners. SB is probably an extreme manifestation of a masticatory muscle activity occurring during the sleep of most normal subjects, since RMMA is observed in 60% of normal sleepers in the absence of grinding sounds. The pathophysiology of SB is becoming clearer, and there is an abundance of evidence outlining the neurophysiology and neurochemistry of rhythmic jaw movements (RJM) in relation to chewing, swallowing, and breathing. The sleep literature provides much evidence describing the mechanisms involved in the reduction of muscle tone, from sleep onset to the atonia that characterizes rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Several brainstem structures (e.g., reticular pontis oralis, pontis caudalis, parvocellularis) and neurochemicals (e.g., serotonin, dopamine, gamma aminobutyric acid [GABA], noradrenaline) are involved in both the genesis of RJM and the modulation of muscle tone during sleep. It remains unknown why a high percentage of normal subjects present RMMA during sleep and why this activity is three times more frequent and higher in amplitude in SB patients. It is also unclear why RMMA during sleep is characterized by co-activation of both jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscles instead of the alternating jaw-opening and jaw-closing muscle activity pattern typical of chewing. The final section of this review proposes that RMMA during sleep has a role in lubricating the upper alimentary tract and increasing airway patency. The review concludes with an outline of questions for future research. PMID:12764018

Lavigne, G J; Kato, T; Kolta, A; Sessle, B J

2003-01-01

311

Isolated sleep paralysis  

MedlinePLUS

Sleep paralysis - isolated; Parasomnia - Isolated sleep paralysis ... Episodes of isolated sleep paralysis last from a few seconds to 1 or 2 minutes in which the person is unable to move or speak. ...

312

Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

... get by on little sleep with no negative effects. However, research shows that getting enough quality ... supported research is shedding light on how sleep and lack of sleep affect the human body. The NIH ...

313

Employees with Sleep Disorders  

MedlinePLUS

... of sleep disorders that affect the body’s normal cycle of daytime wakefulness and night time sleep (About ... result, the individual never completes a full sleep cycle and has significant daytime sleepiness. The most common ...

314

How I treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal blood disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and thrombosis. Many of the clinical manifestations of the disease result from complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy for PNH. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks terminal complement activation, is highly effective in reducing hemolysis, improving quality of life, and reducing the risk for thrombosis in PNH patients. Insights into the relevance of detecting PNH cells in PNH and other bone marrow failure disorders are highlighted, and indications for treating PNH patients with bone marrow transplantation and eculizumab are explored. PMID:19372253

2009-01-01

315

Practice Parameters for the Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Testing for Children  

PubMed Central

Background: Although a level 1 nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) is often used to evaluate children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, there are no published evidence-based practice parameters focused on the pediatric age group. In this report, we present practice parameters for the indications of polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the assessment of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. These practice parameters were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Methods: A task force of content experts was appointed by the AASM to review the literature and grade the evidence according to the American Academy of Neurology grading system. Recommendations For PSG and MSLT Use: PSG is indicated for children suspected of having periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) for diagnosing PLMD. (STANDARD) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children as part of the evaluation for suspected narcolepsy. (STANDARD) Children with frequent NREM parasomnias, epilepsy, or nocturnal enuresis should be clinically screened for the presence of comorbid sleep disorders and polysomnography should be performed if there is a suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing or periodic limb movement disorder. (GUIDELINE) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children suspected of having hypersomnia from causes other than narcolepsy to assess excessive sleepiness and to aid in differentiation from narcolepsy. (OPTION) The polysomnogram using an expanded EEG montage is indicated in children to confirm the diagnosis of an atypical or potentially injurious parasomnia or differentiate a parasomnia from sleep-related epilepsy (OPTION) Polysomnography is indicated in children suspected of having restless legs syndrome (RLS) who require supportive data for diagnosing RLS. (OPTION) Recommendations Against PSG Use: Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for evaluation of children with sleep-related bruxism. (STANDARD) Conclusions: The nocturnal polysomnogram and MSLT are useful clinical tools for evaluating pediatric non-respiratory sleep disorders when integrated with the clinical evaluation. Citation: Aurora RN; Lamm CI; Zak RS; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA; Casey KR. Practice parameters for the non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing for children. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1467-1473. PMID:23115395

Aurora, R. Nisha; Lamm, Carin I.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Casey, Kenneth R.

2012-01-01

316

Deficiency of FK506-binding protein (FKBP) 51 alters sleep architecture and recovery sleep responses to stress in mice.  

PubMed

FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) is a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor, functionally linked to its activity via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Thus, FKBP51 plays an important regulatory role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis necessary for stress adaptation and recovery. Previous investigations illustrated that HPA functionality is influenced by polymorphisms in the gene encoding FKBP51, which are associated with both increased protein levels and depressive episodes. Because FKBP51 is a key molecule in stress responses, we hypothesized that its deletion impacts sleep. To study FKBP51-involved changes in sleep, polysomnograms of FKBP51 knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were compared at baseline and in the recovery phase after 6-h sleep deprivation (SD) and 1-h restraint stress (RS). Using another set of animals, the 24-h profiles of hippocampal free corticosterone levels were also determined. The most dominant effect of FKBP51 deletion appeared as increased nocturnal wake, where the bout length was significantly extended while non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) and rapid eye movement sleep were rather suppressed. After both SD and RS, FKBP51KO mice exhibited less recovery or rebound sleep than WTs, although slow-wave activity during NREMS was higher in KOs, particularly after SD. Sleep compositions of KOs were nearly opposite to sleep profiles observed in human depression. This might result from lower levels of free corticosterone in FKBP51KO mice, confirming reduced HPA reactivity. The results indicate that an FKBP51 deletion yields a pro-resilience sleep phenotype. FKBP51 could therefore be a therapeutic target for stress-induced mood and sleep disorders. PMID:24354785

Albu, Stefana; Romanowski, Christoph P N; Letizia Curzi, M; Jakubcakova, Vladimira; Flachskamm, Cornelia; Gassen, Nils C; Hartmann, Jakob; Schmidt, Mathias V; Schmidt, Ulrike; Rein, Theo; Holsboer, Florian; Hausch, Felix; Paez-Pereda, Marcelo; Kimura, Mayumi

2014-04-01

317

Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review.  

PubMed

During adolescence, changes in sleep patterns due to biological and environmental factors are well documented. Later bedtimes and inadequate sleep, i.e., short and disrupted sleep patterns, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have become increasingly common. Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep plays a crucial role in healthy adolescent development. This review systematically explores descriptive evidence, based on prospective and cross sectional investigations, indicating that inadequate sleep is associated with negative outcomes in several areas of health and functioning, including somatic and psychosocial health, school performance and risk taking behavior. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing the underpinnings of these associations and for developing and implementing interventions designed to achieve healthier and more balanced sleep patterns in the adolescent population. PMID:23806891

Shochat, Tamar; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Tzischinsky, Orna

2014-02-01

318

Sleep in Othello.  

PubMed

Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. PMID:19960651

Dimsdale, Joel E

2009-06-15

319

Overview of sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

2006-03-01

320

Predictors of female nocturnal orgasms: A multivariate analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variables predicting the reported occurrence and frequency of nocturnal orgasms among women are reported. Undergraduate and graduate women (N = 245) from a large midwestern university volunteered to complete nine self?report scales and inventories. Thirty?seven percent of the sample reported they had experienced nocturnal orgasm, and 30% reported having had the experience in the past year. The predictors accounted for

Barbara L. Wells

1986-01-01

321

The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.  

PubMed

The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies. PMID:23117538

Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

2012-01-01

322

Automated prediction of the apnea-hypopnea index from nocturnal oximetry recordings.  

PubMed

Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis. It provides the value of the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), which is used to evaluate SAHS severity. However, PSG is costly, complex, and time-consuming. We present a novel approach for automatic estimation of the AHI from nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) recordings and the results of an assessment study designed to characterize its performance. A set of 240 SaO(2) signals was available for the assessment study. The data were divided into training (96 signals) and test (144 signals) sets for model optimization and validation, respectively. Fourteen time-domain and frequency-domain features were used to quantify the effect of SAHS on SaO(2) recordings. Regression analysis was performed to estimate the functional relationship between the extracted features and the AHI. Multiple linear regression (MLR) and multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural networks were evaluated. The MLP algorithm achieved the highest performance with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.91. The proposed MLP-based method could be used as an accurate and cost-effective procedure for SAHS diagnosis in the absence of PSG. PMID:21926015

Marcos, J Víctor; Hornero, Roberto; Álvarez, Daniel; Aboy, Mateo; Del Campo, Félix

2012-01-01

323

Control of sleep and wakefulness in health and disease.  

PubMed

Sleep and wake are actively promoted states of consciousness that are dependent on a network of state-modulating neurons arising from both the brain stem and hypothalamus. This network helps to coordinate the occurrence of a sleep state in billions of cortical neurons. In many neurological diseases, there is a specific disruption to one of the components of this network. Under conditions of such disruptions, we often gain an improved understanding of the underlying function of the specific component under nonpathological conditions. The loss or dysfunction of one of the hypothalamic or brain stem regions that are responsible for promotion of sleep or wake can lead to disruptions in sleep and wake states that are often subtle, but sometime quite pronounced and of significant medical importance. By understanding the neural substrate and its pathophysiology, one can more appropriately target therapies that might help the specific sleep disruption. This chapter reviews what is currently understood about the neurobiological underpinnings of sleep and wake regulation and how various pathologies evoke changes in these regulatory mechanisms. PMID:23899597

Zeitzer, Jamie M

2013-01-01

324

[The relationship between sleep and obesity: current perspective].  

PubMed

Disruption of circadian rhythms negatively affects regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis. Disrupted metabolism in response to disrupted biological rhythms might lead, together with genetic background, to obesity and to other health complications. Results of epidemiologic surveys are consistent with mechanistic theory showing the interconnection between the biological rhythms, sleep and metabolism. Epidemiologic surveys confirm that sleep duration of less than 6 hours increases significantly the risk of obesity. Systematic reviews of epidemiologic surveys examining association of sleep and obesity refer to large heterogeneity in involved subjects, methodological approaches of measuring obesity and sleep, and confounders. Design of study plays also essential role in interpretation and definition of causal relationship. Reduced sleep duration in relation to obesity is in the literature discussed from different points of view: 1. as a possible primary cause of obesity, 2. as a result of comorbidities resulting from obesity and 3. as an accompanied part of the third factor contributing to obesity (e.g. long working hours, chronic emotional stress, overusing of media). Causal relationship between sleep and obesity is not yet fully elucidated, however the association is supposed to be bidirectional. The article gives an overview of current knowledge concerning the influence of sleep on the development of obesity and points to the critical points of current research. PMID:22913759

Piská?ková, Zlata; Forejt, Martin; Martykánová, Lucie

2012-01-01

325

The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men.  

PubMed

Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture. PMID:24435056

Wittert, Gary

2014-01-01

326

The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men  

PubMed Central

Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture. PMID:24435056

Wittert, Gary

2014-01-01

327

The case against memory consolidation in REM sleep.  

PubMed

We present evidence disputing the hypothesis that memories are processed or consolidated in REM sleep. A review of REM deprivation (REMD) studies in animals shows these reports to be about equally divided in showing that REMD does, or does not, disrupt learning/memory. The studies supporting a relationship between REM sleep and memory have been strongly criticized for the confounding effects of very stressful REM deprivation techniques. The three major classes of antidepressant drugs, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), profoundly suppress REM sleep. The MAOIs virtually abolish REM sleep, and the TCAs and SSRIs have been shown to produce immediate (40-85%) and sustained (30-50%) reductions in REM sleep. Despite marked suppression of REM sleep, these classes of antidepressants on the whole do not disrupt learning/memory. There have been a few reports of patients who have survived bilateral lesions of the pons with few lingering complications. Although these lesions essentially abolished REM sleep, the patients reportedly led normal lives. Recent functional imaging studies in humans have revealed patterns of brain activity in REM sleep that are consistent with dream processes but not with memory consolidation. We propose that the primary function of REM sleep is to provide periodic endogenous stimulation to the brain which serves to maintain requisite levels of central nervous system (CNS) activity throughout sleep. REM is the mechanism used by the brain to promote recovery from sleep. We believe that the cumulative evidence indicates that REM sleep serves no role in the processing or consolidation of memory. PMID:11515146

Vertes, R P; Eastman, K E

2000-12-01

328

Disturbed Dreaming and the Instability of Sleep: Altered Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Microstructure in Individuals with Frequent Nightmares as Revealed by the Cyclic Alternating Pattern  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Design: Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Setting: Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. Participants: There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Citation: Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419. PMID:23449753

Simor, Peter; Bodizs, Robert; Horvath, Klara; Ferri, Raffaele

2013-01-01

329

Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids.  

PubMed

Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

Perkin, Elizabeth K; Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

2014-01-01

330

Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids  

PubMed Central

Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

Holker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rudiger

2014-01-01

331

Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL  

PubMed Central

Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; Mc Cullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

2013-01-01

332

Participatory research to design a novel telehealth system to support the night-time needs of people with dementia: NOCTURNAL.  

PubMed

Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the "smart home" to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; McCullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

2013-12-01

333

Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

McGuire, Sarah M.

334

Benign Nocturnal Childhood Occipital Epilepsy: A New Syndrome with Nocturnal Seizures, Tonic Deviation of the Eyes, and Vomiting  

Microsoft Academic Search

An epileptic syndrome of benign nocturnal childhood occipital epilepsy with excellent prognosis is described. The syndrome is characterized by a clinical ictal triad of nocturnal seizures, tonic deviation of the eyes, and vomiting. There may be marching to involve the head and limbs, ending with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. Consciousness is usually, but not invariably, disturbed. Infrequent daytime fits may

Chrysostomos P. Panayiotopoulos; Jean Aicardi

1989-01-01

335

Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance  

PubMed Central

Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the early postpartum period are related to daytime functioning across postpartum weeks 2-13. In this field-based study, 71 primiparous women wore an actigraph, a small wrist-worn device that monitors sleep and sleep timing, for the 12-week study period. Mothers self-administered a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) each morning to evaluate the number of >500ms response lapses. They also completed a Morningness-Eveningness scale at the beginning of the study to identify chronotype. After controlling for maternal age, earlier sleep timing was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 9,12; a more stable sleep midpoint was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 2,5-13. Earlier sleep midpoints were related to more stable sleep midpoints at postpartum week 2 and a morning-type chronotype. An earlier sleep midpoint was also associated with a reduced slope of worsening PVT lapses across weeks. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, women with earlier or more stable sleep periods had less daytime impairment than women with later or more variable sleep midpoints. Postpartum women with earlier sleep midpoints also showed less severe decrements in performance across time, which has been attributed to cumulative impacts of sleep disturbance. These data suggest the sleep period, in addition to sleep duration and fragmentation, should be more closely examined, particularly among vulnerable women, as it may affect the neurobehavioral performance of new mothers. PMID:24041725

McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

2013-01-01

336

Sleep Discrepancy, Sleep Complaint, and Poor Sleep Among Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432

2013-01-01

337

Genetics of Sleep and Sleep disorders  

PubMed Central

Sleep remains one of the least understood phenomena in biology – even its role in synaptic plasticity remains debatable. Since sleep was recognized to be regulated genetically, intense research has launched on two fronts: the development of model organisms for deciphering the molecular mechanisms of sleep and attempts to identify genetic underpinnings of human sleep disorders. In this Review, we describe how unbiased, high-throughput screens in model organisms are uncovering sleep regulatory mechanisms and how pathways, such as the circadian clock network and specific neurotransmitter signals, have conserved effects on sleep from Drosophila to humans. At the same time, genome-wide association (GWA) studies have uncovered ~14 loci increasing susceptibility to sleep disorders, such as narcolepsy and restless leg syndrome. To conclude, we discuss how these different strategies will be critical to unambiguously defining the function of sleep. PMID:21784243

Sehgal, Amita; Mignot, Emmanuel

2011-01-01

338

College residential sleep environment.  

PubMed

College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings. PMID:24693819

Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

2013-12-01

339

[Stress and sleep].  

PubMed

For this paper, psychophysiological relationships between stress and sleep are considered with reference to clinical psychiatric problems. Answers to the first question--how does sleep affect the tolerance of stress in the waking state?--are provided by sleep deprivation experiments. The latter show that total sleep deprivation has a great influence on stress. However gradual partial sleep deprivation to a sleep time of 5 hours seems well tolerated by most individuals. In some special cases we found subjects well adapted to the workaday world who could live with briefer sleeping periods. Because of experimental problems, the second question--how does stress affect sleep?--is more difficult to answer. Anxiety is one of the most important factors deteriorating sleep under conditions of stress. This reduced sleep is in turn stressful for waking behavior. Thus, the relationship between stress and sleep, two factors separated for scientific investigation, is essential and especially important in the problem of insomnia. PMID:203025

Schneider, D

1977-01-01

340

Neuroimaging of sleep and sleep disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herein are presented the results of research in the area of sleep neuroimaging over the past year. Significant work has been\\u000a performed to clarify the basic mechanisms of sleep in humans. New studies also extend prior observations regarding altered\\u000a brain activation in response to sleep deprivation by adding information regarding vulnerability to sleep deprivation and regarding\\u000a the influence of task

Eric A. Nofzinger

2006-01-01

341

Deep Sleep and Parietal Cortex Gene Expression Changes Are Related to Cognitive Deficits with Age  

PubMed Central

Background Age-related cognitive deficits negatively affect quality of life and can presage serious neurodegenerative disorders. Despite sleep disruption's well-recognized negative influence on cognition, and its prevalence with age, surprisingly few studies have tested sleep's relationship to cognitive aging. Methodology We measured sleep stages in young adult and aged F344 rats during inactive (enhanced sleep) and active (enhanced wake) periods. Animals were behaviorally characterized on the Morris water maze and gene expression profiles of their parietal cortices were taken. Principal Findings Water maze performance was impaired, and inactive period deep sleep was decreased with age. However, increased deep sleep during the active period was most strongly correlated to maze performance. Transcriptional profiles were strongly associated with behavior and age, and were validated against prior studies. Bioinformatic analysis revealed increased translation and decreased myelin/neuronal pathways. Conclusions The F344 rat appears to serve as a reasonable model for some common sleep architecture and cognitive changes seen with age in humans, including the cognitively disrupting influence of active period deep sleep. Microarray analysis suggests that the processes engaged by this sleep are consistent with its function. Thus, active period deep sleep appears temporally misaligned but mechanistically intact, leading to the following: first, aged brain tissue appears capable of generating the slow waves necessary for deep sleep, albeit at a weaker intensity than in young. Second, this activity, presented during the active period, seems disruptive rather than beneficial to cognition. Third, this active period deep sleep may be a cognitively pathologic attempt to recover age-related loss of inactive period deep sleep. Finally, therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing active period deep sleep (e.g., by promoting active period wakefulness and/or inactive period deep sleep) may be highly relevant to cognitive function in the aging community. PMID:21483696

Buechel, Heather M.; Popovic, Jelena; Searcy, James L.; Porter, Nada M.; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M.

2011-01-01

342

Sleep Disturbances as the Hallmark of PTSD: Where Are We Now?  

PubMed Central

The hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances are the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), proposed by Ross and colleagues in 1989, has stimulated a wealth of clinical, preclinical, and animal studies on the role of sleep in the pathophysiology of PTSD. The present review revisits this influential hypothesis in light of clinical and experimental findings that have since accumulated. Polysomnographic studies conducted in adults with PTSD have yielded mixed findings regarding REM sleep disturbances, and they generally suggest modest and nonspecific sleep disruptions. Prospective and treatment studies have provided more robust evidence for the relationship between sleep disturbances and psychiatric outcomes and symptoms. Experimental animal and human studies that have probed the relationship between REM sleep and fear responses, as well as studies focused more broadly on sleep-dependent affective and memory processes, also provide strong support for the hypothesis that sleep plays an important role in PTSD-relevant processes. Overall, the literature suggests that disturbed REM or non-REM sleep can contribute to maladaptive stress and trauma responses and may constitute a modifiable risk factor for poor psychiatric outcomes. Clinicians need to consider that the chronic sleep disruption associated with nightmares may affect the efficacy of first-line PTSD treatments, but targeted sleep treatments may accelerate recovery from PTSD. The field is ripe for prospective and longitudinal studies in high-risk groups to clarify how changes in sleep physiology and neurobiology contribute to increased risk of poor psychiatric outcomes. PMID:23223954

Germain, Anne

2014-01-01

343

Technology disrupted  

SciTech Connect

Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

Papatheodorou, Y. [CH2M Hill (United States)

2007-02-15

344

Contemporary Surgery for Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been available in some form for greater than three decades. Early management for airway obstruction during sleep relied on tracheotomy which although life saving was not well accepted by patients. In the early eighties two new forms of treatment for OSAS were developed. Surgically a technique described as a uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was used to treat the retropalatal region for snoring and sleep apnea. Concurrently sleep medicine developed a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to manage nocturnal airway obstruction. Both of these measures were used to expand and stabilize the pharyngeal airway space during sleep. The goal for each technique was to limit or alleviate OSAS. Almost 30 yr later these two treatment modalities continue to be the mainstay of contemporary treatment. As expected, CPAP device technology improved over time along with durable goods. Surgery followed suit and additional techniques were developed to treat soft and bony structures of the entire upper airway (nose, palate and tongue base). This review will only focus on the contemporary surgical methods that have demonstrated relatively consistent positive clinical outcomes. Not all surgical and medical treatment modalities are successful or even partially successful for every patient. Advances in the treatment of OSAS are hindered by the fact that the primary etiology is still unknown. However, both medicine and surgery continue to improve diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods of diagnosis as well as treatment regimens should always include both medical and surgical collaborations so the health and quality of life of our patients can best be served. PMID:19784401

2009-01-01

345

Nocturnal life of young songbirds well before migration  

PubMed Central

In songbirds, nocturnal activity is believed to be a characteristic feature of migration. However, unlike experimental conditions where the onset of nocturnal restlessness is defined as a shift of activity leading up to the dark period, this behaviour has, until now, not been observed in natural conditions. Here we studied the nocturnal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) during the pre-migratory period. The birds started nocturnal flights at the age of 38 days, whereas migration did not commence until they were at least 50 days old. The birds left their natal site by nocturnal flights and repeatedly returned to it. Such shuttle movements suggest the existence of a previously unknown period of nocturnal activity. Motivation to perform such night flights gradually increases with age. We relate the function of these nocturnal pre-migratory flights to the development of a stellar compass, necessary for detecting the compass direction towards winter quarters and for the formation of a navigational target, which will be used during return (spring) migration. PMID:16048767

Mukhin, Andrey; Kosarev, Vlad; Ktitorov, Pavel

2005-01-01

346

SLEEP&CIRCADIAN NEUROBIOLOGY  

E-print Network

CENTER FOR SLEEP&CIRCADIAN NEUROBIOLOGY ANNUAL REPORT 2013 #12;#12;Annual Report 2013 TABLE Programs in Sleep 6 Medicine Pediatrics Psychiatry Basic Science Programs 19 Clinical Program 24 Fellowship Program 25 Sleep Research Program at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 26 Sleep Research in Nursing

Bushman, Frederic

347

Helping children sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep problems in children are very common and affect both the child and parents. The common problems are bedtime resistance, delayed sleep onset and frequent night waking. This review summarises current non-pharmacological practices and intervention options to aid healthy children sleep. Children may benefit from good sleep hygiene practices, which include a consistent routine for bed and consistent bedtime, a

Barbara C Galland; Edwin A Mitchell

2010-01-01

348

Measuring sleep quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite being used commonly in sleep medicine, the term “sleep quality” has not been rigorously defined. The purpose of this article is to consider objective measures of the subjective “sleep quality” experience. In order to do so, it was necessary to choose a definition of “sleep quality” as a basis for discussion. We have chosen to employ the simple Likert-style

Andrew D. Krystal; Jack D. Edinger

2008-01-01

349

A review of sodium oxybate and baclofen in the treatment of sleep disorders.  

PubMed

Studies examining GABA(B) receptor agonists have reported effects on sleep including decreased sleep onset latency (SOL), increased sleep consolidation and increases in slow wave sleep (SWS). ?-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is proposed to act as a GABA(B) receptor agonist; however, the mechanism of action of GHB is controversial. In addition, the GABA(B) receptor agonist, baclofen, has also been proposed to exert similar effects on sleep. The aim of this paper is to provide a review of the human clinical studies of sodium oxybate and baclofen regarding sleep and the treatment of sleep disorders including narcolepsy and insomnia, as well as other disorders involving disrupted sleep such as fibromyalgia. PMID:21476957

Brown, Mark A; Guilleminault, Christian

2011-01-01

350

Sleep and the athlete.  

PubMed Central

Sleep is generally considered to be restorative and the notion of exercise being associated with the changes in subsequent sleep is popular but has only recently been demonstrated. There are several facets of exercise performed that have an influence on sleep. These include the intensity and duration of the exercise, and the interval between the cessation of exercise and sleep onset. Other factors that may alter sleep after exercise are the age and fitness of the subject, and his lean body mass. Most studies on the effect of exercise on sleep can be interpreted as being partially or totally supportive of the restorative theory of sleep function. PMID:7248684

Shapiro, C. M.

1981-01-01

351

Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

2013-01-01

352

Changes in sleep duration, timing, and quality as children transition to kindergarten.  

PubMed

Sleep can be seen as a biologically driven behavior shaped by cultural context. A "poor fit" occurs when contextual demands for the timing and duration sleep periods are incompatible with the underlying biology. Such contextual factors are well-known for adults, yet little is known of the contextual factors that shape young children's sleep health and to what degree such factors impact sleep duration, timing, and quality. This study attempted to identify how the transition to kindergarten was associated with changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality for children enrolled in preschool prior to attending kindergarten vs. those who were not. Wrist actigraphy in 38 5-year-old children was collected at three longitudinal points before and after the start of kindergarten. Our data suggested that the transition to kindergarten was associated with a reduction in weekday sleep (mostly due to lost napping) and an advance in the weekday nocturnal sleep period that was most pronounced for children not enrolled in preschool prior to kindergarten. These sleep changes paralleled objective and caregiver-reported data of increased sleep pressure that lasted well into the first month of kindergarten. PMID:24364713

Cairns, Alyssa; Harsh, John

2014-11-01

353

Analysis of Sleep Fragmentation and Sleep Structure in Patients With Sleep Apnea and Normal Volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep disorders have a high prevalence. Sleep disorders are recognized first by the complaint of non-restorative sleep. A quantification of the disorder is done by the investigation in a sleep laboratory. The investigation in the sleep laboratory examines the EEG, EOG and EMG to derive sleep stages. This is a labor intensive sleep scoring after the polysomnography investigation. Usually the

T. Penzel; C.-C. Lo; P. C. Ivanov; K. Kesper; H. F. Becker; C. Vogelmeier

2005-01-01

354

Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses  

PubMed Central

Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

2011-01-01

355

The development of insomnia or the plasticity of good sleep? A preliminary study of acute changes in sleep and insomnia resulting from an analogue trauma.  

PubMed

The present preliminary study aimed to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the development of insomnia. An analogue stressor (i.e., trauma video) was used to prevent presleep cognitive de-arousal. Subsequent changes in nocturnal sleep and sleep-related attentional processing were examined. Thirty-four participants were randomly assigned to either a cognitive arousal (trauma video; age: M = 22.9, SD = 4.3, 6 male, 11 female) or control (pleasant video; age: M = 23.8, SD = 5.8, 7 male, 10 female) condition. Although no significant differences were found for presleep cognitive de-arousal (p = .39), the cognitive arousal group experienced a significant worsening in sleep latency (p = .048, partial ?(2) = .12) and an increase in sleep-related attentional bias (p = .032, d = 0.51) following the manipulation. However, changes in sleep and attentional bias were not maintained. Vulnerability to stress did not significantly account for any change in attentional bias, arousal, or sleep. These findings challenge current conceptualizations of the development of insomnia, yet also supporting the notion that good sleep is a default state that protects individuals from sleep disturbance. PMID:24628110

Richardson, Cele; Gradisar, Michael; Pulford, Amanda

2015-01-01

356

Neurobehavioral Dynamics Following Chronic Sleep Restriction: Dose-Response Effects of One Night for Recovery  

PubMed Central

Objective: Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Design: Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Setting: Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Interventions: Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Measurements and Results: Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated above baseline at the maximum recovery dose of 10 h TIB. Conclusions: Neurobehavioral deficits induced by 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h improved monotonically as acute recovery sleep dose increased, but some deficits remained after 10 h TIB for recovery. Complete recovery from such sleep restriction may require a longer sleep period during 1 night, and/or multiple nights of recovery sleep. It appears that acute recovery from chronic sleep restriction occurs as a result of elevated sleep pressure evident in both increased SWE and TST. Citation: Banks S; Van Dongen HPA; Maislin G; Dinges DF. Neurobehavioral dynamics following chronic sleep restriction: dose-response effects of one night for recovery. SLEEP 2010;33(8):1013–1026. PMID:20815182

Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F.

2010-01-01

357

Predominant endothelial vasomotor activity during human sleep: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.  

PubMed

Vasomotion is important in the study of vascular disorders, including stroke. Spontaneous low and very low hemodynamic oscillations (3-150 mHz) measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) reflect the endothelial (3-20 mHz), neurogenic (20-40 mHz) and myogenic (40-150 mHz) components of vasomotion. We investigated sleep-specific patterns of vasomotion by characterizing hemodynamic oscillations with NIRS in healthy subjects, and tested the feasibility of NIRS as a bedside tool for monitoring vasomotion during whole-night sleep. To characterize local cerebral vasomotion, we compared cerebral NIRS measurements with muscular NIRS measurements and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during different sleep stages in 14 healthy volunteers. Spectral powers of hemodynamic oscillations in the frequency range of endothelial vasomotion were systemically predominant in every sleep stage, and the powers of endothelial and neurogenic vasomotion decreased in deep sleep as compared with light sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in brain, muscle, and SpO2 . The decrease in the powers of myogenic vasomotion in deep sleep only occurred in brain, and not in muscle. These results point to a predominant role of endothelial function in regulating vasomotion during sleep. The decline in cerebral endothelial and neurogenic vasomotion during progression to deeper non-REM sleep suggests that deep sleep may play a protective role for vascular function. NIRS can be used to monitor endothelial control of vasomotion during nocturnal sleep, thus providing a promising non-invasive bedside tool with which to study the sleep-relevant pathological mechanisms in vascular diseases and stroke. PMID:25156240

Zhang, Zhongxing; Khatami, Ramin

2014-11-01

358

Perceived Control and Sleep in Hospitalized Older Adults: A Sound Hypothesis?  

PubMed Central

Background/Objectives To examine the associations between perceived control over sleep, noise levels, sleep duration and noise complaints in a cohort of hospitalized adults. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting General medicine ward in an academic medical center. Participants 118 hospitalized patients age 50 years and over (mean age 65 years, 57% female, 67% African American). Measurements Sleep duration was measured via wrist actigraphy and noise levels in patient rooms were measured via sound monitors. Validated questionnaires used to assess sleep characteristics at baseline and sleep quality for each night. Perceived control over sleep was measured at baseline using the Sleep Self-Efficacy (SSE) scale (range 9–45). Results Mean SSE score was 32.1 (SD = 9.4) and median score was 34 (IQR = 24–41). Average sleep duration for patients in the hospital was 333 minutes (5.5 hours). Forty-two percent of patients complained of noise disrupting their sleep. Linear regression clustered by subject showed that above median SSE was associated with longer sleep duration (+55 minutes 95%CI[14, 97], p=0.010). This association remained significant after controlling for objective noise levels and patient demographics (+50 minutes 95%CI [11, 90], p=0.014). In logistic regression controlling for noise level and patient demographics, those patients with high SSE were 51% less likely to complain of noise disruptions (OR=0.49 95%CI[0.25, 0.96], p=0.039). Conclusion Higher perceived control over sleep is associated with longer sleep duration, better sleep quality, and fewer reports of noise disruptions. In addition to noise control, interventions to boost perceived control may improve in-hospital sleep. PMID:23504939

Adachi, Marie; Staisiunas, Paul G.; Knutson, Kristen L.; Beveridge, Claire; Meltzer, David O.; Arora, Vineet M.

2013-01-01

359

Things that go bump in the night: diagnosing sleep-related movement disorders without a sleep laboratory.  

PubMed

It is common for general physicians to experience diagnostic doubt and trepidation whenever faced with patients who exhibit abnormal nocturnal behaviours or excessive movements at night. There is also a perception that expensive and often poorly available overnight tests are usually required for diagnostic precision. In fact, the majority of conditions, whether they be parasomnias or, more rarely, nocturnal seizures, can be reliably diagnosed from a directed history, if available. Although the evidence base for treating parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders remains minimal, accurate recognition is important for a variety of reasons. This review covers the diagnostic features of the full range of parasomnias and movement disorders that might present to a multidisciplinary adult sleep clinic. Throughout, it will be argued that the recognition of key or salient features obtained from a good history is the most important diagnostic tool. Indeed, when diagnostic doubt remains after a thorough sleep history, it is relatively rare for detailed tests to add much in the way of useful information. PMID:24995451

Reading, P

2014-01-01

360

Visual cues and parental favouritism in a nocturnal bird  

PubMed Central

Visual signals are crucial for parent–offspring communication, although their functioning has been neglected for nocturnal birds. Here, we investigated parental preference for nestling coloration in nocturnal conditions—a question hitherto unexplored—in a nocturnal raptor, the scops owl (Otus scops). We assessed how parents allocated food during the night in relation to a manipulation of ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the cere (skin above the beak) of their offspring. Reflectance of the cere shows a marked peak in the UV part of the spectrum, and location of the UV peak is related to nestling body mass (i.e. heavier nestlings have a UV peak at lower wavelengths). We found evidence of parental bias in favour of lighter offspring: UV-reduced nestlings gained more weight during the night than their control siblings. This study provides the first experimental evidence of the use of visual cues for parent–offspring communication in a nocturnal bird. PMID:19864276

Parejo, Deseada; Aviles, Jesus M.; Rodriguez, Juan

2010-01-01

361

Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

1977-01-01

362

Review of rapid eye movement behavior sleep disorders.  

PubMed

The spectrum of rapid eye movement behavior disorders (RBD) spans various age groups, with the greatest prevalence in elderly men. Major diagnostic features include harmful or potentially harmful sleep behaviors that disrupt sleep continuity and dream enactment during rapid eye movement sleep. In RBD patients, the polysomnogram during rapid eye movement sleep demonstrates excessive augmentation of chin electromyogram or excessive chin or limb phasic electromyogram twitching. RBD may be associated with various neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and dementia with Lewy bodies. Other co-morbid conditions may include narcolepsy, agrypnia excitata, sleepwalking, and sleep terrors. RBD is hypothesized to be caused by primary dysfunction of the pedunculo-pontine nucleus or other key brainstem structures associated with basal ganglia pathology or, alternatively, from abnormal afferent signals in the basal ganglia leading to dysfunction in the midbrain extrapyramidal area/ pedunculo-pontine nucleus regions. PMID:14984689

Abad, Vivien C; Guilleminault, Christian

2004-03-01

363

Self Organized Criticality as a new paradigm of sleep regulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humans and animals often exhibit brief awakenings from sleep (arousals), which are traditionally viewed as random disruptions of sleep caused by external stimuli or pathologic perturbations. However, our recent findings show that arousals exhibit complex temporal organization and scale-invariant behavior, characterized by a power-law probability distribution for their durations, while sleep stage durations exhibit exponential behavior. The co-existence of both scale-invariant and exponential processes generated by a single regulatory mechanism has not been observed in physiological systems until now. Such co-existence resembles the dynamical features of non-equilibrium systems exhibiting self-organized criticality (SOC). Our empirical analysis and modeling approaches based on modern concepts from statistical physics indicate that arousals are an integral part of sleep regulation and may be necessary to maintain and regulate healthy sleep by releasing accumulated excitations in the regulatory neuronal networks, following a SOC-type temporal organization.

Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Bartsch, Ronny P.

2012-02-01

364

International cooperative study of aircrew layover sleep Operational summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The findings of this cooperative study of layover sleep have direct implications for flight operations. In the consensus view of the principal investigators, these can be divided into their relevance for eastward or westward flight. Eastward flight produced more sleep disruption than westward. Different sleep and scheduling strategies are recommended for each flight direction, and the importance of individual crewmember factors is discussed in relation to age and circadian type. Despite the limitations of this study with regard to trip simplicity and the baseline data, the results for each airline are highly consistent and should be applicable to a wide range of long-haul crewmembers and carriers.

Graeber, R. Curtis; Dement, William C.; Nicholson, Anthony N.; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Wegmann, Hans M.

1986-01-01

365

Breastfeeding, Maternal Depressive Mood and Room Sharing as Predictors of Sleep Fragmentation in 12-Week-Old Infants: A Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sleep fragmentation in infancy can burden a family by disrupting the sleep of all its members. However, there has been no longitudinal prospective investigation of the determinants of infant sleep fragmentation. We undertook such an investigation. New mothers (N = 106) completed questionnaires and were administered structured telephone interviews…

Simard, Valerie; Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

2011-01-01

366

Phase-Dependent Effect of Room Light Exposure in a 5-h Advance of the Sleep-Wake Cycle: Implications for Jet Lag  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute disruption in sleep quality, vigilance levels, and cognitive and athletic performance observed after transmeridian flights is presumed to be the result of a transient misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the shifted sleep schedule. Several laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that exposure to bright artificial light can accelerate circadian entrainment to a shifted sleep-wake schedule. In

Diane B. Boivin; Francine O. James

2002-01-01

367

Sleep disorders and fibromyalgia.  

PubMed

Disordered sleep is such a prominent symptom in fibromyalgia that the American College of Rheumatology included symptoms such as waking unrefreshed, fatigue, tiredness, and insomnia in the 2010 diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Even though sleep recording is not part of the routine evaluation, polysomnography may disclose primary sleep disorders in patients with fibromyalgia, including obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. In addition, genetic background and environmental susceptibility link fibromyalgia and further sleep disorders. Among nonpharmacological treatment proposed for sleep disturbance in fibromyalgia, positive results have been obtained with sleep hygiene and cognitive-behavioral therapy. The effect of exercise is contradictory, but overweight or obese patients with fibromyalgia should be encouraged to lose weight. Regarding the approved antidepressants, amitriptyline proved to be superior to duloxetine and milnacipran for sleep disturbances. New perspectives remain on the narcolepsy drug sodium oxybate, which recently was approved for sleep management in fibromyalgia. PMID:21594765

Roizenblatt, Suely; Neto, Nilton Salles Rosa; Tufik, Sergio

2011-10-01

368

Patterns of sleep behaviour.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

Webb, W. B.

1972-01-01

369

Sleep locally, act globally.  

PubMed

In most animals, sleep is considered a global brain and behavioral state. However, recent intracortical recordings have shown that aspects of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and wakefulness can occur simultaneously in different parts of the cortex in mammals, including humans. Paradoxically, however, NREM sleep still manifests as a global behavioral shutdown. In this review, the authors examine this paradox from an evolutionary perspective. On the basis of strategic modeling, they suggest that in animals with brains composed of heavily interconnected and functionally interdependent units, a global regulator of sleep maintains the behavioral shutdown that defines sleep and thereby ensures that local use-dependent functions are performed in a safe and efficient manner. This novel perspective has implications for understanding deficits in human cognitive performance resulting from sleep deprivation, sleep disorders such as sleepwalking, changes in consciousness that occur during sleep, and the function of sleep itself. PMID:22572533

Rattenborg, Niels C; Lima, Steven L; Lesku, John A

2012-10-01

370

Factors affecting the flight habits of certain nocturnal Lepidoptera  

E-print Network

a. Wind Direction- b. Wind Velocity- 37 Moon Phase- 41 Cloud Coverage- GENERATIONS AND SEASONAL PERIODS OF ACTIVITY---- TABLE GP CONTENTS (Continued) PML SPECIES INNIGENOVS TO THE BEAEOS COONTY AEEA - --- --- - ? -" 58 Estimate of Total... such as temperature, relative humi- dity, rainfall, barometric pressure, wind velocity, wind direction, moon phase, and sky coverage have on the flight habits of nocturnal Lepi- doptera, (2) to determine the species of nocturnal Lepidopters which are indigenous...

Van Cleave, Horace William

2012-06-07

371

Nocturnal enuresis—theoretic background and practical guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nocturnal polyuria, nocturnal detrusor overactivity and high arousal thresholds are central in the pathogenesis of enuresis.\\u000a An underlying mechanism on the brainstem level is probably common to these mechanisms. Enuretic children have an increased\\u000a risk for psychosocial comorbidity. The primary evaluation of the enuretic child is usually straightforward, with no radiology\\u000a or invasive procedures required, and can be carried out

Tryggve Nevéus

2011-01-01

372

An Overview of Sleep in the CF Literature Nanci Yuan, MD, FAAP, D ABSM  

E-print Network

in our 24/7 global society (1). Disrupted sleep may impact hormones that regulate height, weight worsen lung disease, may worsen weight loss, and may worsen cor pulmonale. SDB may also help direct CFAn Overview of Sleep in the CF Literature Nanci Yuan, MD, FAAP, D ABSM Assistant Clinical Professor

Kay, Mark A.

373

Arousal from sleep: The uniqueness of an individual's response and the problem of noise control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dynamic nature of sleep is reviewed. Research is then presented concerning two fundamental issues: (1) does an individual react differently to auditory sounds when asleep as compared to when the individual is awake and (2) does sleep disruption necessarily involve behavioral awakening?

Levere, T. E.

1979-01-01

374

Sleep and endocrinology.  

PubMed

A bidirectional interaction between sleep electroencephalogram and endocrine activity is well established in various species including humans. Various hormones (peptides and steroids) participate in sleep regulation. A key role was shown for the reciprocal interaction between sleep-promoting growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and sleep-impairing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Changes in the GHRH : CRH ratio result in changes of sleep-endocrine activity. It is thought that the change of this ratio in favour of CRH contributes to aberrations of sleep during ageing and depression (shallow sleep, blunted GH and elevated cortisol). Besides GHRH, ghrelin and galanin enhance slow wave sleep. Somatostatin is another sleep-impairing factor. Neuropeptide Y acts as a CRH antagonist and induces sleep onset. There are hints that CRH promotes rapid eye movement sleep (REMS). In animals prolactin enhances REMS. In humans vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) appears to play a role in the temporal organization of sleep as, after VIP, the non-REMS-REMS cycle decelerated. Cortisol appears to enhance REMS. Finally, gonadal hormones participate in sleep regulation. Oestrogen replacement therapy and CRH-1 receptor antagonism in depression are beneficial clinical applications of sleep-endocrine research. PMID:12823639

Steiger, A

2003-07-01

375

Disruptive technology roadmaps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disruptive technologies create growth in the industries they penetrate or create entirely new industries through the introduction of products and services that are dramatically cheaper, better, and more convenient. These disruptive technologies often disrupt workforce participation by allowing technologically unsophisticated individuals to enter and become competitive in the industrial workforce. Disruptive technologies offer a revolutionary change in the conduct of

Ronald N. Kostoff; Robert Boylan; Gene R. Simons

2004-01-01

376

Importance of sleep restoration in co-morbid disease: effect of anticonvulsants.  

PubMed

Over the past two to three decades, sleep medicine has emerged as an important discipline as it strives to meet the challenges of some of the most prevalent disorders among humans. Among the 110 disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, two of the most prevalent and treatable have only recently begun to receive significant attention: sleep apnea and restless legs syndrome with sleep-related periodic limb movements disorder. It is becoming clear that the sleep disruption caused by such disorders has ramifications beyond the usually associated daytime sleepiness, and may include: exacerbation of seizures, headaches, short-term memory deficits, and other cognitive problems. Sleep apnea has also been correlated with hypertension and cardiovascular/cerebrovascular disease. Animal studies have taken this one step further by demonstrating that total sleep deprivation is consistently fatal, usually within 1 month, although the precise mechanism remains to be discovered. The most compelling finding in the animal studies is that "rescuing" the animals with sleep, before the irreversible stage, is associated with rebound amounts of deep sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep ("dream sleep"). This same response is seen after initiating treatment of sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and can also occur in patients with other sleep disorders in response to particular medications, such as valproate or gabapentin. PMID:10718682

Ehrenberg, B

2000-01-01

377

SLEEP: How Much Do I Need? Sleep Cycle  

E-print Network

SLEEP: How Much Do I Need? Sleep Cycle Getting Better R. E. S. T. Tips Do I Have Insomnia? Class Studying Reading Sitting at the computer Why do I need sleep? Sleep is considered food system, mood, and longevity. Sleep is when the body does most of its repair work. During sleep a number

Virginia Tech

378

Got Sleep? : Mobile phone application to improve sleep  

E-print Network

Got Sleep? : Mobile phone application to improve sleep Abstract Got sleep? is an android application to help people to be aware of their sleep-related behavioral patterns and tips about how they should change their behaviors to improve their sleep. The application evaluates people's sleep habits

379

Effects of zolpidem on sleep architecture, night time ventilation, daytime vigilance and performance in heavy snorers.  

PubMed Central

1. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled trial, zolpidem 10 mg, a new imidazopyridine hypnotic drug, was administered in a single dose to 10 healthy non-obese heavy snorers. 2. Nocturnal polysomnography showed that zolpidem increased total sleep time, sleep efficiency and the percentage of stage 2. 3. Respiratory monitoring showed that zolpidem did not modify the percentage of total sleep time spent snoring. The percentages of total sleep time with a SaO2 < 4% of the baseline value and with a SaO2 < 90% and the mean SaO2 were also unchanged with zolpidem. The respiratory disturbance index was modestly increased by zolpidem although in all but one subject it remained < 5 with both treatments. 4. Zolpidem intake did not impair daytime vigilance and performance evaluated the day after. PMID:7917771

Quera-Salva, M A; McCann, C; Boudet, J; Frisk, M; Borderies, P; Meyer, P

1994-01-01

380

Improved nasal breathing in snorers increases nocturnal growth hormone secretion and serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 subsequently.  

PubMed

In snoring men improved nasal breathing during sleep has been shown to decrease snoring and morning tiredness. The aim was to evaluate whether improved nasal breathing had any effect on growth hormone (GH) secretion, the nocturnal secretion of GH being associated with deep sleep. Forty-two snoring men, mean age 45 years and mean body mass index 26 kg.m-2, slept every night during one month with the Nozovent nostril dilator. Before and at the end of the test period, we analysed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (free T4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (free T3), cortisol and testosterone in blood sampled at 08:00 h. Fifteen of the 37 snoring men who completed the study experienced a reduction in snoring and were less tired in the morning during the test period. In this group, the mean IGF-1 concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after one month. There was no significant difference in mean IGF-1 level between the snorers and a population sample. Likewise, TSH, free T4, free T3, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were within normal limits. Snorers with reduced snoring and morning tiredness due to improved nasal breathing showed an increase in morning IGF-1 concentration which can probably be explained by higher nocturnal GH secretion induced by more deep sleep. PMID:9923061

Löth, S; Petruson, B; Lindstedt, G; Bengtsson, B A

1998-12-01

381

Explaining sleep duration in adolescents: the impact of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and working status.  

PubMed

Previous studies found students who both work and attend school undergo a partial sleep deprivation that accumulates across the week. The aim of the present study was to obtain information using a questionnaire on a number of variables (e.g., socio-demographics, lifestyle, work timing, and sleep-wake habits) considered to impact on sleep duration of working (n = 51) and non-working (n = 41) high-school students aged 14-21 yrs old attending evening classes (19:00-22:30 h) at a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected for working days and days off. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. Work, sex, age, smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeine, and physical activity were considered control variables. Significant predictors of sleep duration were: work ( p < 0.01), daily work duration (8-10 h/day; p < 0.01), sex ( p = 0.04), age 18-21 yrs (0.01), smoking( p = 0.02) and drinking habits ( p = 0.03), irregular physical exercise (p < 0.01), ease of falling asleep ( p = 0.04), and the sleep-wake cycle variables of napping ( p < 0.01), nocturnal awakenings ( p < 0.01), and mid-sleep regularity ( p < 0.01). The results confirm the hypotheses that young students who work and attend school showed a reduction in night-time sleep duration. Sleep deprivation across the week, particularly in students working 8-10 h/day, is manifested through a sleep rebound (i.e., extended sleep duration) on Saturdays. However, the different roles played by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables have proven to be factors that intervene with nocturnal sleep duration. The variables related to the sleep-wake cycle-naps and night awakenings-proved to be associated with a slight reduction in night-time sleep, while regularity in sleep and wake-up schedules was shown to be associated with more extended sleep duration, with a distinct expression along the week and the weekend. Having to attend school and work, coupled with other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, creates an unfavorable scenario for satisfactory sleep duration. PMID:18533330

Fischer, Frida Marina; Nagai, Roberta; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

2008-04-01

382

DAILY SLEEP CHANGES IN A NOISY ENVIRONMENT ASSESSED BY SUBJECTIVE AND POLYGRAPHIC SLEEP PARAMETERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency,

T. Kawada; Y. Sasazawa; Y. Kiryu; S. Suzuki

1997-01-01

383

Cardio-respiratory coordination increases during sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardio-respiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the cardiogram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10(-51)) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10(-15)). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas. PMID:24718564

Riedl, Maik; Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Juergen; Wessel, Niels

2014-01-01

384

Cardio-Respiratory Coordination Increases during Sleep Apnea  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardio-respiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the coordigram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10?51) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10?15). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas. PMID:24718564

Riedl, Maik; Muller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F.; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Juergen; Wessel, Niels

2014-01-01

385

Sleep-related headaches.  

PubMed

Irrespective of diagnosis, chronic daily, morning, or "awakening" headache patterns are soft signs of a sleep disorder. Sleep apnea headache may emerge de novo or may present as an exacerbation of cluster, migraine, tension-type, or other headache. Insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder in chronic migraine and tension-type headache, and increases risk for depression and anxiety. Sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep loss, oversleeping, schedule shift) is an acute headache trigger for migraine and tension-type headache. Snoring and sleep disturbance are independent risk factors for progression from episodic to chronic headache. PMID:23099138

Rains, Jeanetta C; Poceta, J Steven

2012-11-01

386

[REM sleep parasomnia].  

PubMed

The parasomnias consist of a heterogenous group of sleep behaviour disorders with different etiologies and various symptomatologies. By employing polysomnography and the simultaneous video recording of behaviour during sleep, it is possible to associate behavioral disturbances during sleep with specific sleep stages. In the present case study, a patient with a REM (rapid eye movement) sleep behaviour disorder is discussed. This rare form of parasomnia is characterized by motor enactment of vivid and striking dreams. Underlying disease in the present case involved bilateral lacunar ischemic infarcts in the brain stem. Under the combined psychotropic medication of carbamazepine and amitriptyline, the behaviour disorder during REM sleep remitted markedly. PMID:7969657

Bahro, M; Katzmann, K J; Gückel, F; Sungurtekin, I; Riemann, D

1994-08-01

387

Childhood epilepsy and sleep.  

PubMed

Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

2014-08-01

388

Sleep and synaptic changes.  

PubMed

Several recent studies, using molecular, electrophysiological, or structural approaches, have investigated how synapses are affected by sleep, spontaneous wake, chronic sleep restriction, and acute sleep deprivation. Overall, the results have found that even a few hours of sleep or wake can modify the molecular composition of excitatory synapses, change their efficacy, and make synapses grow or shrink. Moreover, partial and total loss of sleep affect the ability of synapses to undergo long-term potentiation, an effect that may underlie some of the negative consequences of sleep deprivation on memory and other cognitive functions. PMID:23623392

Cirelli, Chiara

2013-10-01

389

The nature of sleep.  

PubMed

Normal human sleep is often described as a state of reduced activity and reactivity, a kind of low general vigilance. Despite decades of intense scrutiny, our understanding of natural sleep is still incomplete. The two fundamental stages of sleep, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM), are present in man as well as animals. Problems with sleep are frequent complaints of modern man, and a variety of these complaints are explored. Cognizance of the essence of normal human sleep may facilitate the anesthetist's understanding of pharmacologically induced sleep. PMID:2180245

Biddle, C; Oaster, T R

1990-02-01

390

[Actigraphy in sleep medicine and sleep research].  

PubMed

Actigraphy is a method that utilizes a miniaturized computerized wristwatch-like device to monitor and collect data generated by body movements over extended periods of time. It allows estimation of sleep and wakefulness based on motor activity. It provides a noninvasive, objective, and longitudinal method for the diagnostic and post-treatment evaluation of patients with sleep disorders in the ambulatory setting. It has been used for researchers to study sleep disturbances in a variety of populations, most frequently for the evaluation of insomnia, paradoxica