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Sample records for nocturnal sleep disruption

  1. Trauma Associated Sleep Disorder: A Proposed Parasomnia Encompassing Disruptive Nocturnal Behaviors, Nightmares, and REM without Atonia in Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; O'Reilly, Brian; Polchinski, Jason; Kwon, Herbert P.; Germain, Anne; Roth, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the clinical, polysomnographic and treatment responses of patients with disruptive nocturnal behaviors (DNB) and nightmares following traumatic experiences. Methods: A case series of four young male, active duty U.S. Army Soldiers who presented with DNB and trauma related nightmares. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic, attended overnight polysomnogram (PSG) and received treatment. We report pertinent clinical and PSG findings from our patients and review prior literature on sleep disturbances in trauma survivors. Results: DNB ranged from vocalizations, somnambulism to combative behaviors that injured bed partners. Nightmares were replays of the patient's traumatic experiences. All patients had REM without atonia during polysomnography; one patient had DNB and a nightmare captured during REM sleep. Prazosin improved DNB and nightmares in all patients. Conclusions: We propose Trauma associated Sleep Disorder (TSD) as a unique sleep disorder encompassing the clinical features, PSG findings, and treatment responses of patients with DNB, nightmares, and REM without atonia after trauma. Citation: Mysliwiec V, O'Reilly B, Polchinski J, Kwon HP, Germain A, Roth BJ. Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1143-1148. PMID:25317096

  2. The Nightly Use of Sodium Oxybate Is Associated with a Reduction in Nocturnal Sleep Disruption: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jed; Pardi, Daniel; Hornfeldt, Carl S.; Inhaber, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Method: Patients were withdrawn from antidepressants and sedative/hypnotics, and then randomized to receive 4.5, 6, or 9 g SXB or placebo nightly for 8 weeks. Patients receiving 6 and 9 g/night doses were titrated to their final dose in weekly 1.5 g increments, while patients receiving placebo were randomized to undergo a similar mock dose titration. The use of stimulant therapy continued unchanged. Changes in sleep architecture were measured using centrally scored nocturnal polysomnograms. Daily diaries were used to record changes in narcolepsy symptoms and adverse events. Results: Following 8 weeks of SXB treatment, study patients demonstrated significant dose-related increases in the duration of stage 3 and 4 sleep, reaching a median increase of 52.5 minutes in patients receiving 9 g nightly. Compared to placebo-treated patients, delta power was significantly increased in all dose groups. Stage 1 sleep and the frequency of nocturnal awakenings were each significantly decreased at the 6 and 9 g/night doses. The changes in nocturnal sleep coincided with significant decreases in the severity and frequency of narcolepsy symptoms. Conclusions: The nightly administration of SXB to narcolepsy patients significantly impacts measures of slow wave sleep, wake after sleep onset, awakenings, total sleep time, and stage 1 sleep in a dose-related manner. The frequency and severity of narcolepsy symptoms decreased with treatment. Citation: Black J; Pardi D; Hornfeldt CS; Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):596-602. PMID:21206549

  3. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  4. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  5. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and “subjective” hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 ± 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 ± 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 ± 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 ± 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 ± 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S

  6. Nocturnal Pruritus: The Battle for a Peaceful Night's Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Michael Joseph; Stull, Carolyn; Kinney, Michael Owen; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a debilitating condition with numerous etiologies. Many patients suffer from nocturnal pruritus, which can decrease quality of life and affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. Nocturnal pruritus may occur in all sleep stages but is most prevalent in stages N1 and N2. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturnal itch, which will aid in the development of tailored management strategies. PMID:27011178

  7. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential

  8. Nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances in clinically stable asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Chugh, Inder Mohan; Khanna, Puneet; Shah, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    Presence of nocturnal symptoms is related to asthma severity. Clinically stable asthmatic children, too, report frequent nocturnal symptoms and sleep disturbances. The study determined these parameters in stable, asthmatic children, in their home environment. This case-control, questionnaire-based study in 70 school-going children comprised 40 asthmatics (Group 1) and 30, age/gender matched, healthy children (Group 2). Parents maintained peak expiratory flow (PEF) and sleep diaries for one week. Group 1 had significantly lower mean morning (250.3 vs. 289.1 I/minute) and mean evening PEF values (261.7 vs. 291.3 I/minute). Group 1 (38.95%), reported frequent nocturnal symptoms like cough (36.90%), breathlessness (32.80%), wheeze (27.68%) and chest tightness (14.35%). Sleep disturbances, significant in Group 1 (38, 95% vs. 14.35%), included daytime sleepiness (24.60%), daytime tiredness (20.50%), difficulty in maintaining sleep (15.38%), early morning awakening (14.35%), struggle against sleep during daytime (12.30%), and involuntarily falling asleep (17.43%). On a scale of 1-6, Group 1 scored significant sleep disturbances/patient (3 vs. 0.8); lethargy/tiredness in morning (2.9 vs. 2.2), poorer sleep quality (4.7 vs. 5.4), less parents' satisfaction with child's sleep (4.5 vs. 5.5) and daytime fitness (4.1 vs. 5.3). Group 1, when exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (22, 55%), reported significant nocturnal symptoms (18/22, 81%) and reduced mean morning and evening PEF values (17/22, 77%). It is concluded that clinically stable, asthmatic children reported increased nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbances and poorer sleep quality. Lack of awareness of asthma-sleep association and its clinical implications could lead to poor asthma control and impaired daytime activity. PMID:17136879

  9. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  10. Sleep disorders and acute nocturnal delirium in the elderly: a comorbidity not to be overlooked.

    PubMed

    Terzaghi, Michele; Sartori, Ivana; Rustioni, Valter; Manni, Raffaele

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is a disturbance of consciousness and cognition that results in a confusional state. It tends to fluctuate in intensity and is often observed in older patients. Sleep is a window of vulnerability for the occurrence of delirium and sleep disorders can play a role in its appearance. In particular, delirious episodes have been associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, which is reported to be frequent in the elderly. Hereby, we present a case-report documenting the sudden onset of a confusional state triggered by obstructive sleep apnoea-induced arousal, together with a review of the literature on the topic. We emphasise that, among the many pathogenic factors implicated in delirium, it is worth considering the possible link between nocturnal delirium and the occurrence of impaired arousals. Indeed, the complex confusional manifestations of delirium could be due, in part, to persistence of dysfunctional sleep activity resulting in an inability to sustain full arousal during behavioural wakefulness. Arousals can be triggered by sleep disturbances or other medical conditions. Clinicians should be aware that older patients may present disordered sleep patterns, and make investigation of sleep patterns and disorders potentially affecting sleep continuity a key part of their clinical workup, especially in the presence of cognitive comorbidities. Correct diagnosis and optimal treatment of sleep disorders and disrupted sleep can have a significant impact in the elderly, improving sleep quality and reducing the occurrence of abnormal sleep-related behaviours. PMID:24636782

  11. The Effects of Sleep Continuity Disruption on Positive Mood and Sleep Architecture in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Patrick H.; Quartana, Phillip J.; Smith, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to test an experimental model of the effects of sleep continuity disturbance on sleep architecture and positive mood in order to better understand the mechanisms linking insomnia and depression. Design: Participants were randomized to receive 3 consecutive nights of sleep continuity disruption via forced nocturnal awakenings (FA, n = 21), or one of two control conditions: restricted sleep opportunity (RSO, n = 17) or uninterrupted sleep (US, n = 24). Setting: The study was set in an inpatient clinical research suite. Participants: Healthy, good-sleeping men and women were included. Measurement and Results: Polysomnography was used to measure sleep architecture, and mood was assessed via self-report each day. Compared to restricted sleep opportunity controls, forced awakenings subjects had significantly less slow wave sleep (P < 0.05) after the first night of sleep deprivation, and significantly lower positive mood (P < 0.05) after the second night of sleep deprivation. The differential change in slow wave sleep statistically mediated the observed group differences in positive mood (P = 0.002). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first human experimental study to demonstrate that, despite comparable reductions in total sleep time, partial sleep loss from sleep continuity disruption is more detrimental to positive mood than partial sleep loss from delaying bedtime, even when controlling for concomitant increases in negative mood. With these findings, we provide temporal evidence in support of a putative biologic mechanism (slow wave sleep deficit) that could help explain the strong comorbidity between insomnia and depression. Citation: Finan PH, Quartana PJ, Smith MT. The effects of sleep continuity disruption on positive mood and sleep architecture in healthy adults. SLEEP 2015;38(11):1735–1742. PMID:26085289

  12. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  13. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved: increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information. Instead, and based on explicit as well as saliency cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications. PMID:22557988

  14. Role of respiratory sleep disorders in the pathogenesis of nocturnal angina and arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Liston, R.; Deegan, P. C.; McCreery, C.; McNicholas, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents how respiratory sleep disorders can adversely effect ischaemic heart disease. Three male patients (aged 60-67 years) with proven ischaemic heart disease are described. They illustrate a spectrum of nocturnal cardiac dysfunction, two with nocturnal angina and one with nocturnal arrhythmias. Full sleep studies were performed in a dedicated sleep laboratory on all patients, and one patient had 48 hours of continuous Holter monitoring. Two patients were found to have obstructive sleep apnoea with apnoea/hypopnoea indices of 57 and 36 per hour, respectively, the former with nocturnal arrhythmias and the latter with nocturnal angina. In both cases, nasal continuous positive airways pressure successfully treated the sleep apnoea, with an associated improvement in nocturnal arrhythmias and angina. The third patient who presented with nocturnal angina, did not demonstrate obstructive sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index = 7.2) but had significant oxygen desaturation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This patient responded to a combination of nocturnal oxygen and protriptyline, an agent known to suppress REM sleep, and had no further nocturnal angina. All patients were considered to be an optimum cardiac medication and successful symptom resolution only occurred with the addition of specific therapy aimed at their sleep-related respiratory problem. We conclude that all patients with nocturnal angina or arrhythmias should have respiratory sleep abnormalities considered in their assessment. PMID:8183772

  15. Sleep in the nocturnal primate, Aotus trivirgatus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cycles of wakefulness and stages of sleep in owl monkeys during 24-hr periods divided into half dark and half light segments. Recordings of electrophysiological activity were used. Reversal of the sequence of light and dark served to test the influence of environmental lighting on the sleep-wakefulness cycles. The sleep patterns of owl monkeys expressed in percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) were compared with those of a closely related New World monkey species, Saimiri Sciureus.

  16. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  17. Disrupted Sleep: From Molecules to Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Cirelli, Chiara; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Van Cauter, Eve; Schwartz, Sophie; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Although the functions of sleep remain to be fully elucidated, it is clear that there are far-reaching effects of its disruption, whether by curtailment for a single night, by a few hours each night over a long period, or by disruption in sleep continuity. Epidemiological and experimental studies of these different forms of sleep disruption show deranged physiology from subcellular levels to complex affective behavior. In keeping with the multifaceted influence of sleep on health and well-being, we illustrate how the duration of sleep, its timing, and continuity can affect cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, metabolic and hormone regulation, mood, and vigilance. Recent brain imaging studies provide some clues on mechanisms underlying the most common cause of disrupted sleep (insomnia). These insights should ultimately result in adequate interventions to prevent and treat sleep disruption because of their high relevance to our most prevalent health problems. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Disruption of the duration, timing, and continuity of sleep affects cellular ultrastructure, gene expression, appetite regulation, hormone production, vigilance, and reward functions. PMID:26468189

  18. Polysomnographic study of nocturnal sleep in idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Poli, Francesca; Vandi, Stefano; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-04-01

    We investigated nocturnal sleep abnormalities in 19 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time (IH) in comparison with two age- and sex- matched control groups of 13 normal subjects (C) and of 17 patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC), the latter considered as the extreme of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Sleep macro- and micro- (i.e. cyclic alternating pattern, CAP) structure as well as quantitative analysis of EEG, of periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), and of muscle tone during REM sleep were compared across groups. IH and NC patients slept more than C subjects, but IH showed the highest levels of sleep fragmentation (e.g. awakenings), associated with a CAP rate higher than NC during lighter sleep stages and lower than C during slow wave sleep respectively, and with the highest relative amount of A3 and the lowest of A1 subtypes. IH showed a delta power in between C and NC groups, whereas muscle tone and PLMS had normal characteristics. A peculiar profile of microstructural sleep abnormalities may contribute to sleep fragmentation and, possibly, EDS in IH. PMID:23061443

  19. Nocturnal Pruritus: The Battle for a Peaceful Night’s Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Lavery, Michael Joseph; Stull, Carolyn; Kinney, Michael Owen; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a debilitating condition with numerous etiologies. Many patients suffer from nocturnal pruritus, which can decrease quality of life and affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. Nocturnal pruritus may occur in all sleep stages but is most prevalent in stages N1 and N2. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturnal itch, which will aid in the development of tailored management strategies. PMID:27011178

  20. Nocturnal Diaphoresis Secondary to Mild Obstructive Sleep Apnea in a Patient with a History of Two Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Vorona, Robert Daniel; Szklo-Coxe, Mariana; Fleming, Mark; Ware, J. Catesby

    2013-01-01

    Numerous medical disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea, may cause nocturnal diaphoresis. Previous work has associated severe obstructive sleep apnea with nocturnal diaphoresis. This case report is of import as our patient with severe nocturnal diaphoresis manifested only mild sleep apnea, and, for years, his nocturnal diaphoresis was ascribed to other causes, i.e., first prostate cancer and then follicular B-cell lymphoma. Additionally, it was the nocturnal diaphoresis and not more common symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea, such as snoring, that led to the definitive diagnosis of his sleep apnea and then to treatment with a gratifying resolution of his onerous symptom. Citation: Vorona RD; Szklo-Coxe M; Fleming M; Ware JC. Nocturnal diaphoresis secondary to mild obstructive sleep apnea in a patient with a history of two malignancies. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(7):717-719. PMID:23853568

  1. Sleep

    MedlinePlus

    ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ... sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep disorders? Can certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is ...

  2. The effect of self-awakening from nocturnal sleep on sleep inertia.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Hiroki; Hayashi, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of self-awakening on sleep inertia after nocturnal sleep. Ten undergraduate and graduate students participated in the study. Their polysomnograms were recorded for five consecutive nights; the first, second, and third to fifth nights were adaptation, forced-awakening, and self-awakening nights, respectively. Participants rated sleepiness, fatigue, comfort, and work motivation, and these ratings were followed by switching (7 min) and auditory reaction time tasks (6 min), both before bedtime (15 min) and immediately after awakening (4 min x 15 min). Although reaction times on the auditory were task prolonged, and participants complained of feeling uncomfortable immediately after forced-awakening, reaction times were shortened after self-awakening, and the participants did not complain of feeling uncomfortable on these nights. The results of this study suggest that sleep inertia occurs after forced-awakening and that it can be prevented by self-awakening. PMID:19800388

  3. The Multidimensional Correlates Associated With Short Nocturnal Sleep Duration and Subjective Insomnia Among Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Participants: Eight thousand four adolescent students. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using χ2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia. Citation: Yen CF; Ko CH; Yen JY; Cheng CP. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1515–1525. PMID:19014071

  4. Effect of sustained release terbutaline on symptoms and sleep quality in patients with nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, I C; Rhind, G B; Power, J T; Flenley, D C; Douglas, N J

    1987-01-01

    The effect of an oral sustained release beta 2 agonist on symptoms, sleep quality, and peak flow rates has been studied in nine patients with nocturnal asthma. Patients received oral terbutaline 7.5 mg twice daily or placebo for seven days in a double blind crossover study and spent the last two nights of each limb in a sleep laboratory. Oral terbutaline improved morning peak flow (259 v 213 l min-1) and decreased nocturnal inhaler usage (1.3 v 1.9) with no alteration in sleep quality as assessed electroencephalographically. The study shows that oral sustained release terbutaline can be useful in the treatment of nocturnal asthma without impairment of sleep quality. PMID:3321540

  5. Sleep and nocturnal acid reflux in normal subjects and patients with reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed Central

    Freidin, N; Fisher, M J; Taylor, W; Boyd, D; Surratt, P; McCallum, R W; Mittal, R K

    1991-01-01

    Nocturnal gastro-oesophageal reflux may be important in the pathogenesis of reflux oesophagitis. This study aimed to determine whether: (1) gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs during sleep in patients with reflux oesophagitis and, if so, to explore the mechanism, and (2) the sleep pattern of patients with oesophagitis is different from that of control subjects. After a standard evening meal, simultaneous manometric, oesophageal pH, and polysomnographic recordings were obtained in 11 patients with endoscopic oesophagitis and 11 control subjects. Patients with gastrooesophageal reflux disease had significantly more total reflux episodes throughout the nocturnal monitoring period than control subjects (105 v 6). Ninety two of 105 episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux in patients occurred during the awake state and 10 during sleep stage II. A number of reflux episodes occurred during brief periods of arousal from the various sleep stages. Of the 105 reflux events recorded in patients, 42 were induced by transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation, 20 by stress reflux, 22 by free reflux mechanisms, and in 21 the mechanism was unclear. The sleep pattern and the time spent in each sleep stage was not different between the two groups. It is concluded that the awake state is crucial for the occurrence of nocturnal reflux episodes in normal subjects as well as in patients with reflux oesophagitis and that the difference between the frequency of gastro-oesophageal reflux between normal subjects and patients cannot be explained by different sleep patterns. PMID:1752454

  6. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Smith, Kelly E.; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Jackson, Garrett J.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  7. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  8. Nocturnal oscillations in plasma renin activity during sleep in hypertensive patients: the influence of perindopril.

    PubMed

    Brandenberger, G; Imbs, J L; Libert, J P; Ehrhart, J; Simon, C; Santoni, J P; Follenius, M

    1990-01-01

    In previous studies, we established a strong concordance between nocturnal oscillations in plasma renin activity (PRA) and REM-NREM sleep cycles. To determine whether this relation persists in the case of moderate essential hypertension and if it is influenced by antihypertensive therapies affecting renin release, six normal subjects and six hypertensive patients were studied. The normal subjects underwent one control night. The hypertensive patients were studied during a first night when a placebo was given. Four of them underwent a second night following a single dose of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, perindopril; and a third night, 45 days later, with the antihypertensive treatment. In addition, two of the patients underwent two night-studies, after a single and repeated doses of a beta-blocker, atenolol, to see whether preventing renin release modified the sleep structure. The relationship between the nocturnal PRA oscillations and the sleep stage patterns persisted in hypertensive patients receiving placebo. In patients who had low PRA levels, the increases associated with NREM sleep were small. However, the mean relative amplitude of the oscillations, expressed as a percentage of the nocturnal mean, was about 60%, which was similar to that in normotensive subjects. Active renin and PRA oscillations were closely coupled. ACE activity profiles displayed damped fluctuations and no systematic relationship with sleep stages.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2172356

  9. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kadoya, Manabu; Koyama, Hidenori; Kurajoh, Masafumi; Naka, Mariko; Miyoshi, Akio; Kanzaki, Akinori; Kakutani, Miki; Shoji, Takuhito; Moriwaki, Yuji; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Inaba, Masaaki; Namba, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP) changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated. Methods This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP) fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio)], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV), and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Results Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150), a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164) were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179) and awake physical activity (β = 0.190) were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336) and awake physical activity (β = 0.489) were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls. Conclusion Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension. PMID:27166822

  10. Postoperative sleep disruptions: a potential catalyst of acute pain?

    PubMed

    Chouchou, Florian; Khoury, Samar; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Denis, Ronald; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2014-06-01

    Despite the substantial advances in the understanding of pain mechanisms and management, postoperative pain relief remains an important health care issue. Surgical patients also frequently report postoperative sleep complaints. Major sleep alterations in the postoperative period include sleep fragmentation, reduced total sleep time, and loss of time spent in slow wave and rapid eye movement sleep. Clinical and experimental studies show that sleep disturbances may exacerbate pain, whereas pain and opioid treatments disturb sleep. Surgical stress appears to be a major contributor to both sleep disruptions and altered pain perception. However, pain and the use of opioid analgesics could worsen sleep alterations, whereas sleep disruptions may contribute to intensify pain. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between postoperative sleep and pain. Although the sleep-pain interaction has been addressed from both ends, this review focuses on the impact of sleep disruptions on pain perception. A better understanding of the effect of postoperative sleep disruptions on pain perception would help in selecting patients at risk for more severe pain and may facilitate the development of more effective and safer pain management programs. PMID:24074687

  11. Prolonged confusion with nocturnal wandering arising from NREM and REM sleep: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kushida, C A; Clerk, A A; Kirsch, C M; Hotson, J R; Guilleminault, C

    1995-11-01

    A 51-year-old man with Machado-Joseph disease had a 3-year history of prolonged confusion following nightly nocturnal wandering. Polysomnography with videotape monitoring revealed 19- to 120-minute sleepwalking episodes emerging from non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and occasionally from rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, followed by 22-47 minutes of prolonged confusion and disorientation. The patient also had a periodic limb movement disorder and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Excessive daytime sleepiness was evident by results from the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Multiple Sleep Latency Test. A sleep-deprived electroencephalogram (EEG) and a polysomnogram with an expanded EEG montage before and during these episodes revealed no epileptiform activity. A contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan demonstrated findings consistent only with Machado-Joseph disease. The patient improved with a combination of temazepam and carbidopa-levodopa. PMID:8638068

  12. Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm λ) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm λ) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light

  13. [Sleep disorders with nocturnal bradycardia in 2 depressed patients].

    PubMed

    Lemoine, P; Canini, F; Ferber, C; Mouret, J

    1991-12-01

    Polygraphic sleep exploration is usually not necessary to evaluate and treat such dyssomnias as nightmares or anguish dreams, but it may be indispensable in case of severe repeated or refractory sleep disorders, particularly in patients with concomitant depression. Two cases of major depression (DSM III R) associated with wakings during the night and dreams of death are reported. In both cases, polygraphic sleep exploration performed after complete, two-weeks long discontinuation of medicines revealed sinus bradycardia during paradoxical sleep, particularly in pre-waking periods. Heart rates ranged from 33 to 43 beats/minute in the most pronounced bradycardic episodes. The possibility of organic cardiac pathology was excluded by additional examinations. Atropine (175 mg) administered alone resulted in complete disappearance of bradycardic episodes and in improvement of objective and subjective sleep parameters. In these two cases bradycardia seemed to be due to vagal dysfunction with exaggeration of the "rebound" bradycardia which follows the initial tachycardia that occurs during the phasic phenomena of paradoxical sleep. PMID:1837364

  14. Atypical patterns in portable monitoring for sleep apnoea: features of nocturnal epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Parrino, Liborio; Milioli, Giulia; Grassi, Andrea; De Paolis, Fernando; Riccardi, Silvia; Colizzi, Elena; Bosi, Marcello; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Atypical cardiorespiratory patterns can be found during routine clinical use of portable monitoring for diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Over 1,000 consecutive portable recordings were analysed to study the potential ictal nature of stereotyped cardiorespiratory and motor patterns. Snoring, airflow, thoracic effort, pulse rate, body position, oxygen saturation and activity of the anterior tibialis muscles were quantified. Recordings showing stereotyped polygraphic patterns recurring throughout the night, but without the features of sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index <5 events·h(-1)), were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography. A total of 15 recordings showing repeated polygraphic patterns characterised by a sequence of microphone activation, respiratory activity atypical for sleep and wakefulness, heart rate acceleration and limb movements, followed by body position change, were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography that showed frontal epileptic discharges triggering periodic electroencephalographic arousals, autonomic activation and stereotyped motor patterns. A diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) was established for all patients. NFLE should be taken into consideration in patients with stereotyped and recurrent behavioural features during portable monitoring carried out for diagnosis of SDB. PMID:22700842

  15. Sleep disturbance, nocturnal agitation behaviors, and medical comorbidity in older adults with dementia: relationship to reported caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Richards, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to determine whether care recipients' nighttime sleep patterns, medical comorbidity, observed nocturnal agitation behaviors, and caregivers' perceptions of nocturnal agitation behaviors in care recipients with dementia are associated with caregiver burden. Sixty care recipient-caregiver dyads, comprising older adults with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia living at home with caregivers, participated. Caregivers' perceptions of the frequency of care recipients' nocturnal agitation behaviors were associated with caregiver burden; however, objective, real-time data on the frequency of nocturnal agitation behaviors were not associated with burden. Care recipients' increased minutes of wakefulness before falling asleep and severe cognitive impairment with musculoskeletal/integument and neurological comorbidities were associated with higher caregiver burden. These results suggest that targeted interventions to reduce sleep onset latency, medical comorbidity, and caregivers' perception of frequency of nocturnal behaviors may reduce caregiver burden. PMID:24877599

  16. Minimal nocturnal oxygen saturation predicts future subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: the Wisconsin sleep cohort.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Peppard, Paul E; Korcarz, Claudia E; Barnet, Jodi H; Hagen, Erika W; Hla, K Mae; Palta, Mari; Young, Terry; Stein, James H

    2015-12-01

    Previous data on the associations between nocturnal oxygen saturation parameters and carotid atherosclerosis are conflicting. We examined the prospective associations of nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques. We used data on 689 Wisconsin sleep cohort participants who had baseline overnight polysomnography followed by carotid ultrasonography a mean (SD) of 7.8 (2.5) years later. Far wall common carotid IMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Bilateral common, bifurcation and internal carotid artery segments were evaluated for plaque score. Participants (8) were aged 56 years (55% male); 32% had hypertension and mean body mass index (BMI) was 31 (7) kg m(2). Mean and minimum nocturnal SaO2 were 95% (2) and 86% (7), respectively. Mean percentage sleep time with SaO2 < 90% was 2% (8). Both mean (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60 lower plaque count per 5% higher mean SaO2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.96, P = 0.033) and minimum SaO2 (OR: 0.88 lower plaque count per 5% higher minimum SaO2, 95% CI: 0.80-0.97, P = 0.013) predicted carotid plaque score after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Minimum SaO2 predicted future plaque score after adding adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors (OR: 0.90 lower plaque count per 5% higher minimum SaO2, 95% CI: 0.81-0.99, P = 0.038). Mean SaO2 was not associated with carotid IMT after CVD risk factor adjustment. We conclude that minimum nocturnal SaO2 is an independent predictor of future carotid plaque burden. Other nocturnal SaO2 parameters are not associated with future carotid IMT or plaques after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:26096939

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal hypoxemia in young adults with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Whitesell, P L; Owoyemi, O; Oneal, P; Nouraie, M; Klings, E S; Rock, A; Mellman, T A; Berihun, T; Lavella, J; Taylor, R E; Perrine, S P

    2016-06-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is reported in up to 69% of adolescents and children with sickle cell disease (SCD) [1], but data regarding the prevalence of SDB in adults with SCD are limited. In order to obtain a preliminary assessment of the frequency and degree of sleep-related hypoxemia and potential associations with cardiovascular function in adults with SCD, we conducted overnight sleep studies, 6-min walk tests, echocardiograms, and hematologic and chemistry panels, calculated the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and conducted fatigue- and health-related quality-of-life measurement in 20 young adults with SCD visiting a sickle cell clinic for routine care. Sleep apnea, defined as an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 5 events/h, was found in 50% of patients. Traditional clinical indicators, such as obesity, the presence of snoring, and reported sleep complaints, did not reliably differentiate them. The patients with AHI > 5 had higher mean systolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), evidence of impaired left ventricular diastolic function (i.e., increased mitral valve E/A ratio, p = 0.05), a trend toward higher reduction in 6-min walk distances (p = 0.06), and lower health-related quality-of-life scores (p ≤ 0.01). Three of nine patients with more severe anemia (total Hb < 9.0) showed nocturnal hypoxemia in the absence of sleep apnea. As prolonged and frequent hypoxemic episodes likely increase risks for vaso-occlusive, cardiovascular, and neurologic complications of SCD, these results suggest that the prevalence and severity of SDB should be investigated further in studies of larger patient populations. If confirmed, these findings could identify opportunities to prevent or reduce nocturnal hypoxia and improve outcomes. PMID:27544835

  18. Nocturnal oxygen desaturation and disordered sleep as a potential factor in executive dysfunction in sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Hollocks, Matthew J; Kok, Tessa B; Kirkham, Fenella J; Gavlak, Johanna; Inusa, Baba P; DeBaun, Michael R; de Haan, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has identified cognitive impairment in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA, Hemoglobin SS) compared with controls, partly accounted for by overt neuropathology after clinical stroke, "covert" ("silent") infarction, and severity of anemia. However, cognitive deficits have also been identified in children with SCA with no history of stroke and a normal T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. Our aim was to investigate whether nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation could be associated with cognitive impairment in children with SCA. We assessed 10 children with SCA (9 with normal MRI) using neuropsychological measures of executive function. Cognitive assessment was immediately followed by overnight polysomnography to record nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation and sleep arousals. Decreases in hemoglobin oxygen saturation and/or increased sleep arousals were associated with reduced performance on cognitive assessment. Nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen desaturation and sleep fragmentation may be a contributing factor to executive dysfunction in SCA. PMID:22114954

  19. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  20. Sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxemia in Peruvian men with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Jorge Rey; Mezones-Holguín, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia associated with sleepiness in Peruvian men with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis based on a study which includes patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2012. We included male adults who had polysomnographic recordings and who answered the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE). The intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ≤90 %) was classified in four new categories: 0, <1, 1 to 10 and >10 % total sleep time with nocturnal hypoxemia (NH). When the ESE score was higher than 10, we used the definitions presence or absence of sleepiness. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for association between sleepiness and NH. Results 518 male patients with OSA were evaluated. Four hundred and fifty-two (87 %) patients had NH and 262 (51 %) had sleepiness. Of the 142 (27.4 %) patients who had >10 % total sleep time with NH, 98 (69.0 %) showed sleepiness and had a greater probability of sleepiness prevalence, with a crude PR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.31–2.53). This association persisted in the multivariate models. Conclusions We found an association between NH and sleepiness. Only patients with the major intensity of NH (over 10 % of the total sleep time) had a greater probability of sleepiness. This suggests that sleepiness probably occurs after a chronic process and after overwhelming compensatory mechanisms. PMID:24249663

  1. Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Disruption: Stress, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-03-01

    Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. PMID:26055668

  2. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV. PMID:26333783

  3. Racial Differences in Reported Napping and Nocturnal Sleep in 2- to 8-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Crosby, Brian; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Harsh, John

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to examine racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep of 2- to 8-year-old children, to identify factors accounting for these differences, and to determine if variability in napping was related to psychosocial functioning. Methods Caretakers of 1043 children (73.5% non-Hispanic white; 50.4% male) 2 to 8 years old from a community sample reported on their children’s napping behavior and nighttime sleep. Caretakers of 255 preschool children (3–5 years old) also completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children. Results A more gradual age-related decline in napping was found for black children. At age 8, 39.1% of black children were reported to nap, compared with only 4.9% of white children. Black children also napped significantly more days per week, had shorter average nocturnal sleep durations, and slept significantly less on weekdays than on weekend nights. Despite differences in sleep distribution, total weekly sleep duration (diurnal and nocturnal) was nearly identical for the 2 racial groups at each year of age. Logistic regression analysis revealed that demographic variables were related to but did not fully explain napping differences. Napping in a subset of preschoolers was not significantly related to psychosocial functioning. Conclusions There are remarkable racial differences in reported napping and nighttime sleep patterns beginning as early as age 3 and extending to at least 8 years of age. These differences are independent of commonly investigated demographic factors. Differences in napping behavior do not seem to have psychosocial significance in a sample of preschool children. PMID:15866856

  4. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  5. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    PubMed Central

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I V; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H J; Deng, M H

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset. PMID:8127888

  6. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance.

    PubMed

    Dollins, A B; Zhdanova, I V; Wurtman, R J; Lynch, H J; Deng, M H

    1994-03-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset. PMID:8127888

  7. The impact of posttraumatic stress disorder versus resilience on nocturnal autonomic nervous system activity as functions of sleep stage and time of sleep.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Lavela, Joseph; Bell, Kimberly; Mellman, Thomas A

    2016-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been associated with sleep disturbances including alterations in sleep stages and recently, elevated nocturnal autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal (i.e., dominance of the sympathetic nervous system over the parasympathetic nervous system). Data suggest that sleep contributes to the regulation of ANS activity. In our previous ambulatory heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring study, strong relationships between sleep and nocturnal ANS activity in resilient participants (i.e., individuals who had never had PTSD despite exposure to high-impact trauma) were not seen with PTSD. In this study, we examined the impact of PTSD vs. resilience on ANS activity as a function of sleep stage and time of sleep. Participants (age 18-35) with current PTSD (n=38) and resilience (n=33) completed two overnight polysomnography recordings in a lab setting. The second night electrocardiogram was analyzed for frequency domain HRV parameters and heart rate within rapid-eye-movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep periods. Results indicated that ANS arousal indexed by HRV was greater during REM compared with NREM sleep and that the REM-NREM difference was greater in the PTSD than in the resilient participants. This effect of PTSD was reduced to non-significance when analyses controlled for REM sleep percentage, which was lower with PTSD. Exploratory analyses revealed that the REM-NREM difference in HRV was correlated with REM sleep percentage in resilient participants, but not with PTSD. In contrast with our data from home settings, the present study did not find increased overall nocturnal ANS arousal with PTSD. Analyses did reveal higher heart rate during initial NREM sleep with more rapid decline over the course of NREM sleep with PTSD compared with resilience. Findings suggest that elevated ANS arousal indexed by heart rate with PTSD is specific to the early part of sleep and possible impairment in regulating ANS activity with PTSD related to

  8. Melatonin therapy to improve nocturnal sleep in critically ill patients: encouraging results from a small randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bourne, Richard S; Mills, Gary H; Minelli, Cosetta

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Sleep disturbances are common in critically ill patients and when sleep does occur it traverses the day-night periods. The reduction in plasma melatonin levels and loss of circadian rhythm observed in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation may contribute to this irregular sleep-wake pattern. We sought to evaluate the effect of exogenous melatonin on nocturnal sleep quantity in these patients and, furthermore, to describe the kinetics of melatonin after oral administration in this patient population, thereby guiding future dosing schedules. Methods We conducted a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 24 patients who had undergone a tracheostomy to aid weaning from mechanical ventilation. Oral melatonin 10 mg or placebo was administered at 9 p.m. for four nights. Nocturnal sleep was monitored using the bispectral index (BIS) and was expressed in terms of sleep efficiency index (SEI) and area under the curve (AUC). Secondary endpoints were SEI measured by actigraphy and nurse and patient assessments. Plasma melatonin concentrations were measured in nine patients in the melatonin group on the first night. Results Nocturnal sleep time was 2.5 hours in the placebo group (mean SEI = 0.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.17 to 0.36). Melatonin use was associated with a 1-hour increase in nocturnal sleep (SEI difference = 0.12, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.27; P = 0.09) and a decrease in BIS AUC indicating 'better' sleep (AUC difference = -54.23, 95% CI -104.47 to -3.98; P = 0.04). Results from the additional sleep measurement methods were inconclusive. Melatonin appeared to be rapidly absorbed from the oral solution, producing higher plasma concentrations relative to similar doses reported in healthy individuals. Plasma concentrations declined biexponentially, but morning (8 a.m.) plasma levels remained supraphysiological. Conclusion In our patients, nocturnal sleep quantity was severely compromised and melatonin use was associated with

  9. A Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Model Demonstrates That Nocturnal Hot Flashes Interrupt Objective Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Hadine; Crawford, Sybil; Economou, Nicole; Kim, Semmie; Regan, Susan; Hall, Janet E.; White, David

    2013-01-01

    gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist model demonstrates that nocturnal hot flashes interrupt objective sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1977-1985. PMID:24293774

  10. Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph, A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Acebo, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8 to 9 year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports.…

  11. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  12. Nocturnal CPAP improves walking capacity in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. Methods Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment. Results After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4 ± 95.3 m to 288.6 ± 94.6 m (P < 0.05), and decreased urinary catecholamine levels, pre-exercise heart rate, oxygenation, and Borg scale in the overlap syndrome group. An improvement in the apnoea-hypopnoea index was an independent factor associated with the increase in walking distance (r = 0.564). Conclusion Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome. Trial registration NCT00914264 PMID:23782492

  13. [Acute correction of nocturnal hypoxemia and sleep pattern using continuous nasal positive pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Díaz, M; Rendón, A; Cano, M E

    1998-01-01

    In order to find out the effectiveness of the nasal CPAP in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), we studied 30 patients with this diagnosis corroborated by nocturnal polysomnography. The average age was 46.37 +/- 11.58 years, 97% were males and 90% were overweight, with a weight of 101.24 +/- 15.57 Kg. All the patients were evaluated before and after the application of nasal CPAP with a pressure of 12.9 +/- 4.35 cm of H2O with a FIO2 of 21%. The sleep efficiency index improved from 0.62 +/- 0.03 to 0.84 +/- 0.02 (p < 0.0001). The maximum duration of the apneas diminished from 65.5 +/- 6.5 seconds to 19 +/- 3.7 seconds (p < 0.0001), and the minimum level of O2 saturation of the hemoglobin increased from 56.8 +/- 3.2% to 84.9 +/- 1.9% (p < 00.0001). These findings showed a clear improvement in the majority of the evaluated parameters in all of the patients, and, in many of them, a normalization. We conclude that the nasal CPAP is effective for the acute improvement of the disorders observed during the sleep in patients with OSA, which supports its therapeutic use in this illness. PMID:9927773

  14. Effects of filtering visual short wavelengths during nocturnal shiftwork on sleep and performance.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shadab A; Shapiro, Colin M; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J; Casper, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    under baseline on the first night shift. By the middle night shift, the difference in performance was no longer significant between day shift and either of the two night shift conditions, suggesting some adaptation to the night shift had occurred under baseline conditions. These results suggest that both daytime and nighttime sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. PMID:23834705

  15. Nocturnal sleep-related variables from 24-h free-living waist-worn accelerometry: International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tudor-Locke, C; Mire, E F; Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kurpad, A; Kuriyan, R; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Church, T S; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We describe the process of identifying and defining nocturnal sleep-related variables (for example, movement/non-movement indicators of sleep efficiency, waking episodes, midpoint and so on) using the unique 24-h waist-worn free-living accelerometer data collected in the International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: Seven consecutive days of 24-h waist-worn accelerometer (GT3X+, ActiGraph LLC) data were collected from over 500 children at each site. An expert subgroup of the research team with accelerometry expertize, frontline data collectors and data managers met on several occasions to categorize and operationally define nocturnal accelerometer signal data patterns. The iterative process was informed by the raw data drawn from a sub set of the US data, and culminated in a refined and replicable delineated definition for each identified nocturnal sleep-related variable. Ultimately based on 6318 participants from all 12 ISCOLE sites with valid total sleep episode time (TSET), we report average clock times for nocturnal sleep onset, offset and midpoint in addition to sleep period time, TSET and restful sleep efficiency (among other derived variables). Results: Nocturnal sleep onset occurred at 2218 hours and nocturnal sleep offset at 0707 hours. The mean midpoint was 0243 hours. The sleep period time of 529.6 min (8.8 h) was typically accumulated in a single episode, making the average TSET very similar in duration (529.0 min). The mean restful sleep efficiency ranged from 86.8% (based on absolute non-movement of 0 counts per minute) to 96.0% (based on relative non-movement of <100 counts per minute). Conclusions: These variables extend the potential of field-based 24-h waist-worn accelerometry to distinguish and categorize the underlying robust patterns of movement/non-movement signals conveying magnitude, duration, frequency and periodicity during the nocturnal sleep period. PMID:27152185

  16. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (-5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness. PMID:26337732

  17. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (–5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness. PMID:26337732

  18. Watch out where you sleep: nocturnal sleeping behaviour of Bay Island lizards

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Nitya Prakash; Harikrishnan, Surendran

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping exposes lizards to predation. Therefore, sleeping strategies must be directed towards avoiding predation and might vary among syntopic species. We studied sleeping site characteristics of two syntopic, congeneric lizards—the Bay Island forest lizard, Coryphophylax subcristatus and the short-tailed Bay Island lizard, C. brevicaudus and evaluated inter-specific differences. We measured structural, microclimatic and potential predator avoidance at the sleeping perches of 386 C. subcristatus and 185 C. brevicaudus. Contrary to our expectation, we found similar perch use in both species. The lizards appeared to use narrow girth perch plants and accessed perches by moving both vertically and horizontally. Most lizards slept on leaves, with their heads directed towards the potential path of a predator approaching from the plant base. There was no inter-specific competition in the choices of sleeping perches. These choices indicate an anti-predator strategy involving both tactile and visual cues. This study provides insight into a rarely studied behaviour in reptiles and its adaptive significance. PMID:27168958

  19. Watch out where you sleep: nocturnal sleeping behaviour of Bay Island lizards.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Nitya Prakash; Harikrishnan, Surendran; Vasudevan, Karthikeyan

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping exposes lizards to predation. Therefore, sleeping strategies must be directed towards avoiding predation and might vary among syntopic species. We studied sleeping site characteristics of two syntopic, congeneric lizards-the Bay Island forest lizard, Coryphophylax subcristatus and the short-tailed Bay Island lizard, C. brevicaudus and evaluated inter-specific differences. We measured structural, microclimatic and potential predator avoidance at the sleeping perches of 386 C. subcristatus and 185 C. brevicaudus. Contrary to our expectation, we found similar perch use in both species. The lizards appeared to use narrow girth perch plants and accessed perches by moving both vertically and horizontally. Most lizards slept on leaves, with their heads directed towards the potential path of a predator approaching from the plant base. There was no inter-specific competition in the choices of sleeping perches. These choices indicate an anti-predator strategy involving both tactile and visual cues. This study provides insight into a rarely studied behaviour in reptiles and its adaptive significance. PMID:27168958

  20. Positive airway pressure improves nocturnal beat-to-beat blood pressure surges in obesity hypoventilation syndrome with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason R; Fonkoue, Ida T; Grimaldi, Daniela; Emami, Leila; Gozal, David; Sullivan, Colin E; Mokhlesi, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment has been shown to have a modest effect on ambulatory blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there is a paucity of data on the effect of PAP therapy on rapid, yet significant, BP swings during sleep, particularly in obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS). The present study hypothesizes that PAP therapy will improve nocturnal BP on the first treatment night (titration PAP) in OHS patients with underlying OSA, and that these improvements will become more significant with 6 wk of PAP therapy. Seventeen adults (7 men, 10 women; age 50.4 ± 10.7 years, BMI 49.3 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) with OHS and clinically diagnosed OSA participated in three overnight laboratory visits that included polysomnography and beat-to-beat BP monitoring via finger plethysmography. Six weeks of PAP therapy, but not titration PAP, lowered mean nocturnal BP. In contrast, when nocturnal beat-to-beat BPs were aggregated into bins consisting of at least three consecutive cardiac cycles with a >10 mmHg BP surge (i.e., Δ10-20, Δ20-30, Δ30-40, and Δ>40 mmHg), titration, and 6-wk PAP reduced the number of BP surges per hour (time × bin,P< 0.05). PAP adherence over the 6-wk period was significantly correlated to reductions in nocturnal systolic (r= 0.713,P= 0.001) and diastolic (r= 0.497,P= 0.043) BP surges. Despite these PAP-induced improvements in nocturnal beat-to-beat BP surges, 6 wk of PAP therapy did not alter daytime BP. In conclusion, PAP treatment reduces nocturnal beat-to-beat BP surges in OHS patients with underlying OSA, and this improvement in nocturnal BP regulation was greater in patients with higher PAP adherence. PMID:26818059

  1. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways. PMID:26530153

  2. Effects of sleep disruption and high fat intake on glucose metabolism in mice.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jacqueline M; Barf, R Paulien; Opp, Mark R

    2016-06-01

    Poor sleep quality or quantity impairs glycemic control and increases risk of disease under chronic conditions. Recovery sleep may offset adverse metabolic outcomes of accumulated sleep debt, but the extent to which this occurs is unclear. We examined whether recovery sleep improves glucose metabolism in mice subjected to prolonged sleep disruption, and whether high fat intake during sleep disruption exacerbates glycemic control. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 18-h sleep fragmentation daily for 9 days, followed by 1 day of recovery. During sleep disruption, one group of mice was fed a high-fat diet (HFD) while another group was fed standard laboratory chow. Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were assessed by insulin and glucose tolerance testing at baseline, after 3 and 7 days of sleep disruption, and at the end of the protocol after 24h of undisturbed sleep opportunity (recovery). To characterize changes in sleep architecture that are associated with sleep debt and recovery, we quantified electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings during sleep fragmentation and recovery periods from an additional group of mice. We now report that 9 days of 18-h daily sleep fragmentation significantly reduces rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Mice respond with increases in REMS, but not NREMS, during the daily 6-h undisturbed sleep opportunity. However, both REMS and NREMS increase significantly during the 24-h recovery period. Although sleep disruption alone has no effect in this protocol, high fat feeding in combination with sleep disruption impairs glucose tolerance, effects that are reversed by recovery sleep. Insulin sensitivity modestly improves after 3 days of sleep fragmentation and after 24h of recovery, with significantly greater improvements in mice exposed to HFD during sleep disruption. Improvements in both glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are associated with NREMS rebound, raising the possibility that this

  3. Effects of non-invasive ventilation on objective sleep and nocturnal respiration in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Boentert, Matthias; Brenscheidt, Inga; Glatz, Christian; Young, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is indicated if sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), daytime hypercapnia, or significant diaphragmatic weakness is present. We investigated both short-term and long-term effects of NIV on objective measures of sleep and nocturnal respiration in patients with ALS. Polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous capnography were conducted for diagnosis of SDB (T0), for treatment initiation (T1), and follow-up 3, 9, and 15 months later (T2, T3, and T4, respectively). Records from 65 patients were retrospectively analyzed at T0 and T1. At subsequent timepoints, the number of full data sets decreased since follow-up sleep studies frequently included polygraphy rather than PSG (T2, 38 patients, T3, 17 patients, T4, 11 patients). At T0, mean age was 63.2 years, 29 patients were female, and 22 patients had bulbar ALS. Immediate sequelae of NIV initiation included significant increases of slow wave sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and oxygen saturation. Mean apnea-hypopnea index, respiratory rate, and the maximum transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension were reduced. At T2-T4, normoxia and normocapnia were preserved. Sleep quality measures showed no alteration as diurnal use of NIV gradually increased reflecting disease progression. In contrast to previous reports, improvement of sleep and respiratory outcomes was found in both non-bulbar and bulbar patients. NIV significantly improves objective sleep quality and SDB in the first night of treatment in patients with bulbar and non-bulbar ALS. NIV warrants nocturnal normoventilation without deterioration of sleep quality in the long run with only minor changes to ventilator settings. PMID:26076745

  4. Nocturnal interictal epileptic discharges in adult Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: the effect of sleep stage and time of night.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Emilia; Mahdi, Rima; Roche, Frederic; Maeder, Malin; Foletti, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) is characterized by interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) occurring during sleep. The aim of this study was to determine whether sleep influences not only the frequency of seizures and IEDs, but also the time-dependent evolution that may support the hypothesis of homeostatic influences on epileptic threshold. Video polysomnography data from our database were reviewed to identify adult LGS patients with at least seven hours of nocturnal recording. Thirteen patients were identified and a second polysomnography was available for nine. The number, duration and index of IEDs, relative to total sleep, sleep stages, and time during the night, were calculated. The majority of IEDs occurred during non-rapid eye movement sleep, mainly in stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. Adjusting for time spent in each sleep stage, we found 45 IEDs/hour in stage 1, 123/hour in stage 2, 106/hour in slow-wave sleep, and 26/hour in rapid eye movement sleep. The temporal distribution of IEDs showed a significant rise in the first three hours of sleep, followed by a progressive decrease at the end of the night (F=85.6; p<0.0001). Interictal epileptiform discharges occurrence in adult LGS is facilitated by non-rapid eye movement sleep with an evident effect of stage 2 and slow-wave sleep. The significant IED occurrence in the first part of the night and the subsequent decline suggests a link between epileptic threshold and homeostatic sleep mechanisms. The latter should be considered regarding choice of therapy. PMID:26842220

  5. Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura H; Bradley, T Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general population and increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents due to hypersomnolence from sleep disruption, and risk of cardiovascular diseases owing to repetitive hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activation, and systemic inflammation. In contrast, central sleep apnoea (CSA) is rare in the general population. Although their pathogenesis is multifactorial, the prevalence of both OSA and CSA is increased in patients with fluid retaining states, especially heart failure, where they are associated with increased mortality risk. This observation suggests that fluid retention may contribute to the pathogenesis of both OSA and CSA. According to this hypothesis, during the day fluid accumulates in the intravascular and interstitial spaces of the legs due to gravity, and upon lying down at night redistributes rostrally, again owing to gravity. Some of this fluid may accumulate in the neck, increasing tissue pressure and causing the upper airway to narrow, thereby increasing its collapsibility and predisposing to OSA. In heart failure patients, with increased rostral fluid shift, fluid may additionally accumulate in the lungs, provoking hyperventilation and hypocapnia, driving below the apnoea threshold, leading to CSA. This review article will explore mechanisms by which overnight rostral fluid shift, and its prevention, can contribute to the pathogenesis and therapy of sleep apnoea. PMID:23230237

  6. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  7. Sleep Disruption in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M.; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M.; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of patients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, up to 82% experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant, and up to 43% in the post-transplant period. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. The review opens with a discussion of sleep disruption measurement and clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders. An overview of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of sleep disruption and disorders in patients receiving HCT follows. Current evidence regarding sociodemographic and clinical predictors of sleep disruption and disorders is summarized. The review concludes with suggestions for behavioral and pharmacologic management of sleep disruption and disorders as well as directions for future research. PMID:24747335

  8. Safe enough to sleep: sleep disruptions associated with trauma, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charuvastra, Anthony; Cloitre, Marylene

    2009-10-01

    Sleep disturbance is an essential symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder, and recent evidence suggests that disrupted sleep may play an important role in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder following traumatic stress. The authors review several aspects of sleep as it relates to posttraumatic stress disorder. First, there is an association between traumatic stress and different components of disrupted sleep in children and adolescents. Second, sleep disruption appears to be a core feature of other pediatric anxiety disorders, and the authors consider if this preexisting sleep vulnerability may explain in part why preexisting anxiety disorders are a risk factor for developing posttraumatic stress disorder following a traumatic event. Third, the authors consider attachment theory and the social context of trauma and sleep disruption. This article concludes with a consideration of the therapeutic implications of these findings. PMID:19836694

  9. Nocturnal Melatonin Profiles in Patients with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder and Control Sleepers.

    PubMed

    Micic, Gorica; Lovato, Nicole; Gradisar, Michael; Burgess, Helen J; Ferguson, Sally A; Kennaway, David J; Lack, Leon

    2015-10-01

    A significant delay in the timing of endogenous circadian rhythms has been associated with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). More recently, other mechanisms have also been proposed to account for this disorder. To further explore the etiology of DSPD, the present study compared nocturnal melatonin profiles of 26 DSPD patients (18 males, 8 females; age, 21.73 ± 4.98 years) and 17 normally timed good sleepers (10 males, 7 females; age, 23.82 ± 5.23 years) in a time-free, dim-light (<10 lux) laboratory environment. A 30-h modified constant routine with alternating 20-min sleep opportunities and 40 min of enforced wakefulness was used to measure the endogenous melatonin circadian rhythm. Salivary melatonin was sampled half-hourly from 1820 h to 0020 h and then hourly from 0120 h to 1620 h. DSPD patients had significantly later timed melatonin profiles that were delayed by approximately 3 h compared to normal sleepers, and there were no notable differences in the relative duration of secretion between groups. However, melatonin secretion between dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and acrophase was less prominent in DSPD patients compared to good sleepers, who showed a more acute initial surge of melatonin following the DLMO. Although the regulatory role of melatonin is unknown, abnormal melatonin profiles have been linked to psychiatric and neurological disorders (e.g., major depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, Parkinson disease). These results therefore suggest that in addition to a delayed endogenous circadian rhythm, a diminished initial surge of melatonin secretion following DLMO may contribute to the etiology of DSPD. PMID:26149168

  10. Regularity analysis of nocturnal oximetry recordings to assist in the diagnosis of sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J Víctor; Hornero, Roberto; Nabney, Ian T; Álvarez, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Tobal, Gonzalo C; del Campo, Félix

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) severity and the regularity of nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2) recordings was analysed. Three different methods were proposed to quantify regularity: approximate entropy (AEn), sample entropy (SEn) and kernel entropy (KEn). A total of 240 subjects suspected of suffering from SAHS took part in the study. They were randomly divided into a training set (96 subjects) and a test set (144 subjects) for the adjustment and assessment of the proposed methods, respectively. According to the measurements provided by AEn, SEn and KEn, higher irregularity of oximetry signals is associated with SAHS-positive patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Pearson correlation analyses showed that KEn was the most reliable predictor of SAHS. It provided an area under the ROC curve of 0.91 in two-class classification of subjects as SAHS-negative or SAHS-positive. Moreover, KEn measurements from oximetry data exhibited a linear dependence on the apnoea-hypopnoea index, as shown by a correlation coefficient of 0.87. Therefore, these measurements could be used for the development of simplified diagnostic techniques in order to reduce the demand for polysomnographies. Furthermore, KEn represents a convincing alternative to AEn and SEn for the diagnostic analysis of noisy biomedical signals. PMID:26719242

  11. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and…

  12. Daily worry is related to low heart rate variability during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period.

    PubMed

    Brosschot, Jos F; Van Dijk, Eduard; Thayer, Julian F

    2007-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are risk factors for cardiovascular (CV) disease. Worry might be a mediator of their risks by prolonging their cognitive representation and concomitant CV activity. We hypothesized that daily stressors and worry, and trait anxiety and trait worry would be associated with high heart rate (HR) and low heart rate variability (HRV) during waking and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, and that worry would mediate the effects of daily stressors. Low HRV and high HR are physiological risk factors for CV disease. Using an hourly diary, stressors, worry frequency and duration, and biobehavioral variables were measured during one day in 52 healthy subjects. During this time and the subsequent nocturnal sleep period, ambulatory ECG was measured. Stressors, worry and traits were related to higher HR and lower HRV during waking, and the effects of stressors and worry were extended into the sleeping period. Worry duration mediated the effects of stressors. The results were largely independent of biobehavioral variables including sleep quality. The results support the notion that worry, by prolonging CV activity, is a mediator of the CV risks of stress. They also imply a role for unconscious cognitive representation of stress. PMID:17020787

  13. A new strategy to analyze possible association structures between dynamic nocturnal hormone activities and sleep alterations in humans.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Stefanie; Kneib, Thomas; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Yassouridis, Alexander

    2009-04-01

    The human sleep process shows dynamic alterations during the night. Methods are needed to examine whether and to what extent such alterations are affected by internal, possibly time-dependent, factors, such as endocrine activity. In an observational study, we examined simultaneously sleep EEG and nocturnal levels of renin, growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (between 2300 and 0700) in 47 healthy volunteers comprising 24 women (41.67 +/- 2.93 yr of age) and 23 men (37.26 +/- 2.85 yr of age). Hormone concentrations were measured every 20 min. Conventional sleep stage scoring at 30-s intervals was applied. Semiparametric multinomial logit models are used to study and quantify possible time-dependent hormone effects on sleep stage transition courses. Results show that increased cortisol levels decrease the probability of transition from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep to wakefulness (WAKE) and increase the probability of transition from REM to non-REM (NREM) sleep, irrespective of the time in the night. Via the model selection criterion Akaike's information criterion, it was found that all considered hormone effects on transition probabilities with the initial state WAKE change with time. Similarly, transition from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to light sleep (LS) is affected by a "hormone-time" interaction for cortisol and renin, but not GH. For example, there is a considerable increase in the probability of SWS-LS transition toward the end of the night, when cortisol concentrations are very high. In summary, alterations in human sleep possess dynamic forms and are partially influenced by the endocrine activity of certain hormones. Statistical methods, such as semiparametric multinomial and time-dependent logit regression, can offer ambitious ways to investigate and estimate the association intensities between the nonstationary sleep changes and the time-dependent endocrine activities. PMID:19144755

  14. Association of Sleep Disordered Breathing with Mono-Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis: A Study among School Children of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Pakhare, Abhijit P.; Goyal, Abhishek; P, Aswin; Dhingra, Bhavna; Tamaria, K. C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of primary monosymptopomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) in children aged 5–10 year and to find its association with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) by using a 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD) scale. Methods This was a school based cross sectional epidemiological study from July 2015 to November 2015. A questionnaire seeking information on socio-demographic variables, nocturnal enuresis (NE) frequency, school performance and a validated 22 item pediatric sleep related breathing disorder scale (SRBDs) was distributed to 1820 pupils in three primary schools. Results A total of 1528(83.95%) questionnaires were retrieved. Out of 1528 forms, 182(11.9%) forms were incomplete for requested information and hence 1346 (73.9%) questionnaires were finally analyzed. The prevalence of NE was found to be 12.7% (95% CI; 11–14.6), whereas prevalence of primary nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) was 8.2% (95% CI; 7.1–10.1). SRBD scale score >0.33 (adjusted OR: 2.87; 95%CI: 1.67–4.92), paternal history of enuresis in childhood (adjusted OR:4.96; 95% CI: 2.36–10.45), and inappropriate toilet training (adjusted OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.01–2.66) were independently associated with PMNE. Conclusion Sleep disordered breathing, inappropriate toilet training and a history of childhood NE in father were found to be significant risk factors for PMNE in the present study. Thus, these findings suggest that it is imperative to rule out SDB in PMNE patients as they may require different therapeutic interventions. PMID:27191620

  15. Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. PMID:24747335

  16. Low daytime pulse oximetry reading is associated with nocturnal desaturation and obstructive sleep apnea in children with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Spivey, John F; Uong, Elizabeth C; Strunk, Robert; Boslaugh, Sarah E; DeBaun, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    A retrospective medical record review was established to test the hypothesis that in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA), a daytime oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) nocturnal desaturation with or without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Twenty children had a resting SpO(2) nocturnal desaturation. The average daytime SpO(2) correlated with the average nighttime SpO(2) (Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.453; P = 0.045). Our results indicate that in children with SCA, a daytime SpO(2)

  17. Association of Smoking, Sleep Apnea, and Plasma Alkalosis With Nocturnal Ventricular Arrhythmias in Men With Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rakesh; Wexler, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Excess sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias remains a major mode of mortality in patients with systolic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the association of nocturnal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with low ejection fraction heart failure. We incorporated a large number of known pathophysiologic triggers to identify potential targets for therapy to reduce the persistently high incidence of sudden death in this population despite contemporary treatment. Methods: Eighty-six ambulatory male patients with stable low (≤ 45%) ejection fraction heart failure underwent full-night attendant polysomnography and simultaneous Holter recordings. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of couplets (paired premature ventricular excitations) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) (at least three consecutive premature ventricular excitations) during sleep. Results: In multiple regression analysis, four variables (current smoking status, increased number of arousals, plasma alkalinity, and old age) were associated with VT and two variables (apnea-hypopnea index and low right ventricular ejection fraction) were associated with couplets during sleep. Conclusions: We speculate that cessation of smoking, effective treatment of sleep apnea, and plasma alkalosis could collectively decrease the incidence of nocturnal ventricular tachyarrhythmias and the consequent risk of sudden death, which remains high despite the use of β blockades. PMID:22172636

  18. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

  19. The Effects of Sleep Disruption on the Treatment of a Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Dolezal, Danielle N.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep disruption on the mealtime behavior of a young boy with developmental disabilities. Results showed that bite acceptance was less likely to persist during meals following disrupted sleep, but only when escape extinction was not implemented. Findings are discussed in terms of establishing operations and the effects…

  20. Preventing intensive care unit delirium: a patient-centered approach to reducing sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Stuck, Amy; Clark, Mary Jo; Connelly, Cynthia D

    2011-01-01

    Delirium in the intensive care unit is a disorder with multifactorial causes and is associated with poor outcomes. Sleep-wake disturbance is a common experience for patients with delirium. Care processes that disrupt sleep can lead to sleep deprivation, contributing to delirium. Patient-centered care is a concept that considers what is best for each individual. How can clinicians use a patient-centered approach to alter processes to decrease patient disruptions and improve sleep and rest? Could timing of blood draws and soothing music work to promote sleep? PMID:21983504

  1. Effects of early and late nocturnal sleep on priming and spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Plihal, W; Born, J

    1999-09-01

    A wordstem priming task (nondeclarative memory), and a mental spatial rotation task (declarative memory) were presented to subjects of an experimental "sleep" group (n = 11) and of a "wake" control group (n = 10). Repetition priming effects and recall of spatial memory were tested after 3-hr retention intervals, which followed learning and were placed either in the early or in the late half of the night. Sleep group subjects slept during the retention intervals while subjects of the wake group stayed awake. As expected, early retention sleep was dominated by slow wave sleep (SWS), whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prevailed during late retention sleep. After early retention sleep, recall of spatial memory was superior to that after late retention sleep (p < 0.01), and also to that after retention intervals of wakefulness (p < 0.05). In contrast, priming was more effective after late than early retention sleep (p < 0.05). It appears that early sleep dominated by SWS facilitates consolidation of declarative memory whereas late sleep dominated by REM sleep facilitates consolidation of nondeclarative memory. PMID:10442025

  2. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24467663

  3. Sleep Disruption Medical Intervention Forecasting (SDMIF) Module for the Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Brooker, John; Mallis, Melissa; Hursh, Steve; Caldwell, Lynn; Myers, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fatigue due to sleep disruption is a condition that could lead to operational errors, potentially resulting in loss of mission or crew. Pharmacological consumables are mitigation strategies used to manage the risks associated with sleep deficits. The likelihood of medical intervention due to sleep disruption was estimated with a well validated sleep model and a Monte Carlo computer simulation in an effort to optimize the quantity of consumables. METHODS: The key components of the model are the mission parameter program, the calculation of sleep intensity and the diagnosis and decision module. The mission parameter program was used to create simulated daily sleep/wake schedules for an ISS increment. The hypothetical schedules included critical events such as dockings and extravehicular activities and included actual sleep time and sleep quality. The schedules were used as inputs to the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) Model (IBR Inc., Baltimore MD), which calculated sleep intensity. Sleep data from an ISS study was used to relate calculated sleep intensity to the probability of sleep medication use, using a generalized linear model for binomial regression. A human yes/no decision process using a binomial random number was also factored into sleep medication use probability. RESULTS: These probability calculations were repeated 5000 times resulting in an estimate of the most likely amount of sleep aids used during an ISS mission and a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: These results were transferred to the parent IMM for further weighting and integration with other medical conditions, to help inform operational decisions. This model is a potential planning tool for ensuring adequate sleep during sleep disrupted periods of a mission.

  4. "Nocturnal seizures" in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Anthony; McSweeney, Julia; Kulik, Thomas; Khatwa, Umakanth; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2013-10-15

    The usual differential diagnoses of nocturnal events in children include parasomnias, nocturnal seizures, nocturnal reflux (Sandifer syndrome), hypnic jerks, periodic limb movements of sleep, and sleep disordered breathing. We report a previously healthy young girl who presented to the sleep clinic for evaluation of nocturnal events which were diagnosed as medically refractory nocturnal seizures. It was not until a syncopal event occurred in the daytime, which prompted referral for cardiac evaluation, the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hyper-tension (IPAH) was made. Sleep physicians should consider IPAH in the differential diagnosis of nocturnal events in children. PMID:24127156

  5. [Continuous nocturnal automassage of an acupuncture point modifies sleep in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Buguet, A; Sartre, M; Le Kerneau, J

    1995-01-01

    To test the somnogenic properties of the automassage of point 7 heart of acupuncture, polygraphic night sleep was studied in six healthy volunteers (age: 27.8 +/- 1.6 years) from 23:00 h to 07:00 h. After one night of adaptation, two PEBA cones (Polyether Block Amides; Isocones) were fixed bilaterally at both points 7 heart (active application, AA) or on the back of hand (placebo application, AP). The alternate application was used 2 weeks later, using a randomized, double-blind, and cross-over protocol. Cyclic alternating patterns (CAP) were also analysed on the electroencephalogram during non-REM sleep. Sleep efficiency increased in AA, due to a decrease in wakefulness, and an increase in total sleep time due to an increase in non-REM sleep. The number of CAP decreased in AA, as did the number of CAP sequences and the ratio of CAP duration to total sleep time (CAP rate) and to the duration of slow-wave sleep. In conclusion, the application of Isocones at point 7 heart during the night induced a decrease in wakefulness and an increase in non-REM sleep during night sleep in healthy subjects. PMID:7603415

  6. End-Tidal CO2 Tension Is Predictive of Effective Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and Central Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Sugimura, Koichiro; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Fukui, Shigefumi; Ogawa, Hiromasa; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Central sleep apnea (CSA) is characterized by recurring cycles of crescendo-decrescendo ventilation during sleep, and enhances sympathetic nerve activity. Thus CSA has a prognostic impact in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Although nocturnal oxygen (O2) therapy decreases frequency of CSA and improves functional exercise capacity, it is also known that some non-responders to the therapy exist. We thus aimed to identify predictors of responders to nocturnal O2 therapy in CHF patients with CSA. In 12 CHF patients with CSA hospitalized at our department, sleep study was performed at 2 consecutive nights. Patients nasally inhaled O2 at either the first or second night in a randomized manner. To predict the percentage reduction in apnea-hypopnea index (%ΔAHI) in response to the nocturnal O2 therapy, we performed multiple regression analysis with a stepwise method with variables including age, brain-natriuretic peptide, circulation time, baseline AHI, hypercapnic ventilatory response and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (PETCO2). Nocturnal O2 therapy significantly decreased AHI (from 32 ± 13 /h to 12 ± 10 /h, P < 0.0001). Among the possible predictors, PETCO2 was the only variable that is predictive of % changes in AHI. Receiver operating characteristics analysis determined 4.25% as the optimal cutoff PETCO2 level to identify responder to nocturnal O2 therapy (> 50% reduction of AHI), with 88.9% of sensitivity and 66.7% of specificity. In conclusion, PETCO2 is useful to predict the efficacy of O2 therapy in CHF patients with CSA, providing important information to the current nocturnal O2 therapy. PMID:27169493

  7. Field study on the impact of nocturnal road traffic noise on sleep: the importance of in- and outdoor noise assessment, the bedroom location and nighttime noise disturbances.

    PubMed

    Pirrera, Sandra; De Valck, Elke; Cluydts, Raymond

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this field study is to gain more insight into the way nocturnal road traffic noise impacts the sleep of inhabitants living in noisy regions, by taking into account several modifying variables. Participants were tested during five consecutive nights in their homes and comparisons between effective indoor and outdoor noise levels (LAeq, LAmax, number of noise events), sleep (actigraphy and sleep logs) and aspects of well-being (questionnaires) were made. Also, we investigated into what extent nocturnal noise exposure - objectively measured as well as perceived - directly relates to sleep outcomes and how the bedroom location influenced our measurements. We found that subjects living and sleeping in noisy regions correctly perceive their environment in terms of noise exposure and reported an overall discomfort due to traffic noise. In the evaluation of the objective noise levels, the inside noise levels did not follow the outside noise levels, though the different noise patterns could be described as characteristic for a noise and quiet environment. The impact on sleep, however, was only modest and we did not find any influence of noise intrusion on mood or pre-sleep arousal levels. Concerning the subjectively reported noise disturbances during the night, a clear relationship between noise and sleep outcomes could be established; with sleep onset latencies and judged sleep quality being particularly affected. The importance of inside and outside noise assessment as well as the use of multiple noise indicators in a home environment is further described. Additional emphasis is put on the determination of quiet control regions and the bedroom location, as this can alter noise levels and sleep outcomes. Also, including subjective noise evaluations during the night might not only provide crucial information on how participants experience the noise, but also allows for a more qualitative interpretation of the actual noise situation. PMID:25217747

  8. Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Thorpy, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    Depression, dementia, and physiologic changes contribute to the high prevalence of sleep disturbances in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Antiparkinsonian drugs also play a role in insomnia by increasing daytime sleepiness and affecting motor symptoms and depression. Common types of sleep disturbances in PD patients include nocturnal sleep disruption and excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep apnea, sleep walking and sleep talking, nightmares, sleep terrors, and panic attacks. A thorough assessment should include complete medical and psychiatric histories, sleep history, and a 1- to 2-week sleep diary or Epworth Sleepiness Scale evaluation. Polysomnography or actigraphy may also be indicated. Treatment should address underlying factors such as depression or anxiety. Hypnotic therapy for sleep disturbances in PD patients should be approached with care because of the risks of falling, agitation, drowsiness, and hypotension. Behavioral interventions may also be useful. PMID:15259535

  9. Disrupted sleep without sleep curtailment induces sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction via the tumor necrosis factor-α pathway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction are recognized as prominent consequences of sleep deprivation. Experimentally induced short-term sleep fragmentation, even in the absence of any reductions in total sleep duration, will lead to the emergence of excessive daytime sleepiness and cognitive impairments in humans. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α has important regulatory effects on sleep, and seems to play a role in the occurrence of excessive daytime sleepiness in children who have disrupted sleep as a result of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition associated with prominent sleep fragmentation. The aim of this study was to examine role of the TNF-α pathway after long-term sleep fragmentation in mice. Methods The effect of chronic sleep fragmentation during the sleep-predominant period on sleep architecture, sleep latency, cognitive function, behavior, and inflammatory markers was assessed in C57BL/6 J and in mice lacking the TNF-α receptor (double knockout mice). In addition, we also assessed the above parameters in C57BL/6 J mice after injection of a TNF-α neutralizing antibody. Results Mice subjected to chronic sleep fragmentation had preserved sleep duration, sleep state distribution, and cumulative delta frequency power, but also exhibited excessive sleepiness, altered cognitive abilities and mood correlates, reduced cyclic AMP response element-binding protein phosphorylation and transcriptional activity, and increased phosphodiesterase-4 expression, in the absence of AMP kinase-α phosphorylation and ATP changes. Selective increases in cortical expression of TNF-α primarily circumscribed to neurons emerged. Consequently, sleepiness and cognitive dysfunction were absent in TNF-α double receptor knockout mice subjected to sleep fragmentation, and similarly, treatment with a TNF-α neutralizing antibody abrogated sleep fragmentation-induced learning deficits and increases in sleep propensity. Conclusions Taken together, our findings show that

  10. Sleep and Breathing at High Altitude.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Himanshu; Anholm, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep at high altitude is characterized by poor subjective quality, increased awakenings, frequent brief arousals, marked nocturnal hypoxemia, and periodic breathing. A change in sleep architecture with an increase in light sleep and decreasing slow-wave and REM sleep have been demonstrated. Periodic breathing with central apnea is almost universally seen amongst sojourners to high altitude, although it is far less common in long-standing high altitude dwellers. Hypobaric hypoxia in concert with periodic breathing appears to be the principal cause of sleep disruption at altitude. Increased sleep fragmentation accounts for the poor sleep quality and may account for some of the worsened daytime performance at high altitude. Hypoxic sleep disruption contributes to the symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Hypoxemia at high altitude is most severe during sleep. Acetazolamide improves sleep, AMS symptoms, and hypoxemia at high altitude. Low doses of a short acting benzodiazepine (temazepam) may also be useful in improving sleep in high altitude. PMID:11898114

  11. Exercise-induced increase in core temperature does not disrupt a behavioral measure of sleep.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, P J; Breus, M J; Youngstedt, S D

    1998-06-01

    On separate nights 90 to 30 min before typical bedtime, eight physically active men completed three conditions: seated rest, low-intensity and moderate-intensity cycle exercise. Low-and moderate-intensity exercise had no significant effect on sleep onset latency, the number of awakenings, total sleep time or sleep efficiency as measured by the Sleep Assessment Device. Mean core body temperature was higher during sleep after moderate intensity (36.80+/-0.02 degrees C) exercise compared to both the low-intensity exercise (36.67+/-0.02 degrees C) and rest (36.51+/-0.02 degrees C) conditions. It is concluded that a 1-h bout of moderate-intensity exercise performed shortly before bed elevates core body temperature before and during sleep; however, this elevated temperature does not disrupt behavioral measures of sleep obtained in the home environment in physically active male college students who were somewhat sleep deprived. PMID:9748085

  12. Circadian Disruption, Sleep Loss and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Fall, Katja; Rider, Jennifer R.; Lockley, Steven W.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system has been hypothesized to increase cancer risk, either due to direct disruption of the molecular machinery generating circadian rhythms or due to disruption of parameters controlled by the clock such as melatonin levels or sleep duration. This hypothesis has been studied in hormone-dependent cancers among women, but data are sparse regarding potential effects of circadian disruption on the risk of prostate cancer. This review systematically examines available data evaluating the effects of light at night, sleep patterns, and night shift work on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22564869

  13. Effects of Nocturnal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dernaika, Tarek A.; Kinasewitz, Gary T.; Tawk, Maroun M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension. Methods: Study subjects were 98 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension who had 3 or more documented daytime BP measurements taken within 3 months of enrollment and every 3 months after CPAP initiation for 1 year. Resistant hypertension was defined as daytime BP of at least 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic, despite the use of 3 or more antihypertensive medications. Patients in the resistant hypertension group (n = 42) were compared with subjects with controlled hypertension (n = 56). Results: Mean difference in mean arterial pressure was −5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] −2.0 to −8.7 mm Hg; p = 0.03) in the resistant group and −0.8 mm Hg (95% CI −2.9 to 3.3 mm Hg; p = 0.53) in patients with controlled BP at the end of follow up period. CPAP permitted de-escalation of antihypertensive treatment in 71% of subjects with resistant hypertension but did not significantly alter the antihypertensive regimen in the controlled group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that baseline BP (odds ratio 5.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 8.9; p = 0.01) and diuretic therapy (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.1; p = 0.02), but not apnea-hypopnea index or hours of CPAP use, were independently associated with a decrease in mean arterial pressure after 12 months of CPAP therapy. Conclusion: In this observational study, CPAP was associated with different effects on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with sleep apnea. A beneficial response to CPAP therapy was found mainly in subjects with the most severe hypertensive disease. Citation: Dernaika TA; Kinasewitz GT; Tawk MM. Effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(2):103–107. PMID

  14. Sleep disruption impairs hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Asya; Pang, Wendy W.; Ibarra, Ingrid; Colas, Damien; Bonnavion, Patricia; Korin, Ben; Heller, H. Craig; Weissman, Irving L.; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting the success of hematopoietic cell transplantation are still unknown. Here we show in mice that donor’s sleep deprivation reduces the ability of its hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to engraft and reconstitute the blood and bone marrow of an irradiated recipient by more than 50%. We demonstrate that sleep deprivation downregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-19b, a negative regulator of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) genes, which inhibit HSC migration and homing. Accordingly, HSCs from sleep-deprived mice have higher levels of SOCS genes expression, lower migration capacity in vitro and reduced homing to the bone marrow in vivo. Recovery of sleep after sleep deprivation restored the reconstitution potential of the HSCs. Taken together, this study provides insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation on HSCs, emphasizing the potentially critical role of donor sleep in the success of bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26465715

  15. Sleep disruption impairs haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Asya; Pang, Wendy W; Ibarra, Ingrid; Colas, Damien; Bonnavion, Patricia; Korin, Ben; Heller, H Craig; Weissman, Irving L; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting the success of haematopoietic cell transplantation are still unknown. Here we show in mice that donor sleep deprivation reduces the ability of its haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to engraft and reconstitute the blood and bone marrow of an irradiated recipient by more than 50%. We demonstrate that sleep deprivation downregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-19b, a negative regulator of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) genes, which inhibit HSC migration and homing. Accordingly, HSCs from sleep-deprived mice have higher levels of SOCS genes expression, lower migration capacity in vitro and reduced homing to the bone marrow in vivo. Recovery of sleep after sleep deprivation restored the reconstitution potential of the HSCs. Taken together, this study provides insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation on HSCs, emphasizing the potentially critical role of donor sleep in the success of bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26465715

  16. Nocturnal elevation of plasma melatonin and urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in young men: attempts at modification by brief changes in environmental lighting and sleep and by autonomic drugs.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, G M; Pelham, R W; Pang, S F; Loughlin, L L; Wilson, K M; Sandock, K L; Vaughan, M K; Koslow, S H; Reiter, R J

    1976-04-01

    In order to determine whether the human pattern of circulating melatonin resembles that previously described in lower animals, men 19-32 years old were exposed to a light-dark cycle with 14 hours of light per day (L:D 14:10). In whites and blacks, nocturnal (dark phase, sleeping) melatonin levels were almost always elevated to 0.05-0.1 ng/ml plasma compared with lower or undetectable levels during the day, measured by the tadpole bioassay. Thin-layer migration of bioactive material was identical to that for melatonin standard. A rhythm with nocturnal elevation of urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) was observed. Nocturnal (sleep phase) rise in blood melatonin (but not urinary 5-HIAA) continued during 21/2 day-night cycle lengths after the onset of constant light. Though the dark phase plasma melatonin rise was less marked after reversal of the sleep-wake cycle (no change in the light cycle), dark phase rise in urinary 5-HIAA continued. Though marked cardiovascular and other effects were produced by intravenous isoproterenol or scopolamine, no definite effect on melatonin levels was observed after either drug during the light phase in waking subjects. PMID:1262447

  17. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  18. Are Absence Epilepsy and Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy System Epilepsies of the Sleep/Wake System?

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter

    2015-01-01

    System epilepsy is an emerging concept interpreting major nonlesional epilepsies as epileptic dysfunctions of physiological systems. I extend here the concept of reflex epilepsy to epilepsies linked to input dependent physiological systems. Experimental and clinical reseach data were collected to create a coherent explanation of underlying pathomechanism in AE and NFLE. We propose that AE should be interpreted as epilepsy linked to the corticothalamic burst-firing mode of NREM sleep, released by evoked vigilance level oscillations characterized by reactive slow wave response. In the genetic variation of NFLE the ascending cholinergic arousal system plays an essential role being in strong relationship with a gain mutation of the nicotinic acethylcholin receptors, rendering the arousal system hyperexcitable. I try to provide a more unitary interpretation for the variable seizure manifestation integrating them as different degree of pathological arosuals and alarm reactions. As a supporting hypothesis the similarity between arousal parasomnias and FNLE is shown, underpinned by overlaping pathomechanism and shared familiarity, but without epileptic features. Lastly we propose that both AE and NFLE are system epilepsies of the sleep-wake system representing epileptic disorders of the antagonistic sleep/arousal network. This interpretation may throw new light on the pathomechanism of AE and NFLE. PMID:26175547

  19. Sleep Loss and the Inflammatory Response in Mice Under Chronic Environmental Circadian Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Natarajan, Divya; Delisser, Patrick; Davidson, Alec J.; Paul, Ketema N.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work and trans-time zone travel lead to insufficient sleep and numerous pathologies. Here, we examined sleep/wake dynamics during chronic exposure to environmental circadian disruption (ECD), and if chronic partial sleep loss associated with ECD influences the induction of shift-related inflammatory disorder. Sleep and wakefulness were telemetrically recorded across three months of ECD, in which the dark-phase of a light-dark cycle was advanced weekly by 6 h. A three month regimen of ECD caused a temporary reorganization of sleep (NREM and REM) and wake processes across each week, resulting in an approximately 10% net loss of sleep each week relative to baseline levels. A separate group of mice were subjected to ECD or a regimen of imposed wakefulness (IW) aimed to mimic sleep amounts under ECD for one month. Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) was quantified in sleep-wake regulatory areas: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain (BF), and medial preoptic area (MnPO). To assess the inflammatory response, trunk blood was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent release of IL-6 was measured. Fos-IR was greatest in the NAc, BF, and MnPO of mice subjected to IW. The inflammatory response to LPS was elevated in mice subjected to ECD, but not mice subjected to IW. Thus, the net sleep loss that occurs under ECD is not associated with a pathological immune response. PMID:23696854

  20. Sleep loss and the inflammatory response in mice under chronic environmental circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Ehlen, J Christopher; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Natarajan, Divya; Delisser, Patrick; Davidson, Alec J; Paul, Ketema N

    2013-01-01

    Shift work and trans-time zone travel lead to insufficient sleep and numerous pathologies. Here, we examined sleep/wake dynamics during chronic exposure to environmental circadian disruption (ECD), and if chronic partial sleep loss associated with ECD influences the induction of shift-related inflammatory disorder. Sleep and wakefulness were telemetrically recorded across three months of ECD, in which the dark-phase of a light-dark cycle was advanced weekly by 6 h. A three month regimen of ECD caused a temporary reorganization of sleep (NREM and REM) and wake processes across each week, resulting in an approximately 10% net loss of sleep each week relative to baseline levels. A separate group of mice were subjected to ECD or a regimen of imposed wakefulness (IW) aimed to mimic sleep amounts under ECD for one month. Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) was quantified in sleep-wake regulatory areas: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain (BF), and medial preoptic area (MnPO). To assess the inflammatory response, trunk blood was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent release of IL-6 was measured. Fos-IR was greatest in the NAc, BF, and MnPO of mice subjected to IW. The inflammatory response to LPS was elevated in mice subjected to ECD, but not mice subjected to IW. Thus, the net sleep loss that occurs under ECD is not associated with a pathological immune response. PMID:23696854

  1. Maternal Ube3a Loss Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis But Leaves Circadian Rhythmicity Largely Intact

    PubMed Central

    Ehlen, J. Christopher; Jones, Kelly A.; Pinckney, Lennisha; Gray, Cloe L.; Burette, Susan; Weinberg, Richard J.; Evans, Jennifer A.; Brager, Allison J.; Zylka, Mark J.

    2015-01-01

    mechanisms underlying sleep disruptions in AS. Here we demonstrate that abnormal sleep patterns arise from a deficit in accumulation of sleep drive, uncovering the Ube3a gene as a novel genetic regulator of sleep homeostasis. Our findings encourage a re-evaluation of current treatment strategies for sleep dysfunction in AS, and suggest that interventions that promote increased sleep drive may alleviate sleep disturbances in individuals with AS. PMID:26446213

  2. Child emotional insecurity and academic achievement: the role of sleep disruptions.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A; Keller, Peggy S; Cummings, E Mark; Acebo, Christine

    2007-03-01

    The authors examined children's sleep as an intervening variable in the connection between emotional insecurity in the family and academic achievement. The role of ethnicity (African American and European American) and socioeconomic status (SES) in moderating the examined relations was assessed. One hundred sixty-six children (8- and 9-year-olds) reported their emotional insecurity, and the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through actigraphy and self-report. Decreased amount and quality of sleep were intervening variables in the relations between insecurity in the marital relationship and children's achievement. The effects of disrupted sleep on achievement were more pronounced for both African American children and children of lower SES. Results highlight the importance of the contemporaneous examinations of family and sleep functioning in the prediction of child outcomes. PMID:17371107

  3. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  4. Insomnia and sleep disruption: relevance for athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Leger, Damien; Metlaine, Arnaud; Choudat, Dominique

    2005-04-01

    Insomnia is a common sleep complaint even in young adults and has important daytime consequences. Several subjective and objective tools are recommended to assess the magnitude of the problem and to try to find a cause. Chronic insomnia is often caused by precipitating factors, such as acute stress, work conditions, illness, and travel, and perpetuating factors, such as poor sleep hygiene, anxiety, and medications. Insomnia may have implications in athletic performance resulting from physical and cognitive effects. Several pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches are employed in the management of insomnia that have proven effective for short-term treatment. The pharmacologic approaches include the use of zolpidem and specific GABA agonists, benzodiazepines for specific indications, antidepressants, and melatonin. The nonpharmacologic approaches include stimulus control, sleep restriction, relaxation strategies, and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:15892923

  5. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

  6. Sleep and activity rhythms in mice: a description of circadian patterns and unexpected disruptions in sleep.

    PubMed

    Mitler, M M; Lund, R; Sokolove, P G; Pittendrigh, C S; Dement, W C

    1977-08-01

    Studies on daily and circadian rhythms in wheel running and electrographically defined wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep in M. musculus were done to gather data on the temporal distribution of activity and sleep. Generally, peaks in NREM and sleep tended to coincide and to alternate with the coincident peaks of wakefulness and wheel running. However, during the active phase of the circadian wheel running cycle some NREM and REM sleep did occur; conversely, during its rest phase, wakefulness was often present. The most striking finding was that in mice with clearly entrained or free-running activity onsets, the circadian peak-through patterns in wakefulness, NREM, and REM sleep were not always distinct--they could be damped and/or polyphasic. Several explanations of these phenomena are considered. PMID:195675

  7. A personal light-treatment device for improving sleep quality in the elderly: dynamics of nocturnal melatonin suppression at two exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Bierman, Andrew; Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Light treatment has been used as a non-pharmacological tool to help mitigate poor sleep quality frequently found in older people. In order to increase compliance to non-pharmacological light treatments, new, more efficacious light-delivery systems need to be developed. A prototype personal light-treatment device equipped with low brightness blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (peak wavelength near 470 nm) was tested for its effectiveness in suppressing nocturnal melatonin, a measure of circadian stimulation. Two levels of corneal irradiance were set to deliver two prescribed doses of circadian light exposure. Eleven older subjects, between 51 and 80 yrs of age who met the selection criteria, were exposed to a high and a low level of light for 90 min on separate nights from the personal light-treatment device. Blood and saliva samples were collected at prescribed times for subsequent melatonin assay. After 1 h of light exposure, the light-induced nocturnal melatonin suppression level was about 35% for the low-light level and about 60% for the high-light level. The higher level of blue light suppressed melatonin more quickly, to a greater extent over the course of the 90 min exposure period, and maintained suppression after 60 min. The constant exposure of the low-light level resulted in a decrease in nocturnal melatonin suppression for the last sampling time, whereas for the high-light level, suppression continued throughout the entire exposure period. The present study performed with healthy adults suggests that the tested personal light-treatment device might be a practical, comfortable, and effective way to deliver light treatment to those suffering from circadian sleep disorders; however, the acceptance and effectiveness of personal light-treatment devices by older people and by other segments of the population suffering from sleep disorders in a real-life situation need to be directly tested. PMID:19444752

  8. Depressant Effects of Salvia divinorum Involve Disruption of Physiological Sleep.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, María Eva; Brindis, Fernando; López-Ruiz, Edith; Ramírez-Salado, Ignacio; Martínez, Adrián; Pellicer, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    Although Salvia divinorum is traditionally known as a 'mind-altering' or psychoactive herb used, among others things, as a tranquilizer, this property has not been validated with regard to its efficacy and safety. The objective of this study is to provide evidence for the sedative effects of S. divinorum and discriminate the nature of the responsible constituents by examining different experimental models. A battery of tests, including the open-field, hole-board, exploration cylinder, plus-maze and sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis potentiation, were used in mice after administration of non-polar, medium polar and/or polar extracts of the plant (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). Polysomnographic analysis in rats receiving an active medium polar extract (10 and 100 mg/kg) containing salvinorins was also assessed to study the effects of this plant on sleep architecture. All tested extracts produced significant sedative-like responses, although those of the medium polar extract were more pronounced in mice. The sedative effect of this latter extract, which contains a mixture of salvinorins, caused fragmented sleep architecture in rats by diminishing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and increased the quiet awake stage at 10 and 100 mg/kg. Our results provide evidence that S. divinorum exhibits sedative-like depressant properties that alter physiological sleep architecture. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037508

  9. Chronically restricted or disrupted sleep as a causal factor in the development of depression.

    PubMed

    Meerlo, Peter; Havekes, Robbert; Steiger, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are a common complaint in the majority of people suffering from depression. While sleep complaints were traditionally seen as a symptom of mood disorders, accumulating evidence suggests that in many cases the relationship may be reverse as well. A long list of longitudinal studies shows that sleep complaints often precede the onset of depression and constitute an independent risk factor for the development of the disorder. Additionally, experimental studies in animals show that chronically restricted or disrupted sleep may gradually induce neurobiological changes that are very similar to what has been reported for depressed patients. The mechanisms through which insufficient sleep increases the risk for depression are poorly understood but may include effects of sleep disturbance on neuroendocrine stress systems, serotonergic neurotransmission, and various interacting signaling pathways involved in the regulation of neuronal plasticity and neurogenesis. Because sleep is considered to play a crucial role in regulating neuronal plasticity and synaptic strength, chronically insufficient sleep may contribute to depression through an impairment of these plasticity processes leading to altered connectivity and communication within and between brain regions involved in the regulation of mood. PMID:25646723

  10. Chronic Snoring and Sleep in Children: A Demonstration of Sleep Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, M. Cecilia; Guilleminault, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chronic snoring that does not adhere to the criteria for a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may be associated with learning and behavioral problems. We investigated the sleep structure of chronic snorers who had an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 1 event per hour and analyzed the cyclic alternating pattern. Methods:…

  11. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep (sleep-disruptive behaviors) PROBLEMS FALLING AND ...

  12. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. PMID:25582807

  13. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  14. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    PubMed

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-12-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  15. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions.

    PubMed

    Arble, Deanna M; Bass, Joseph; Behn, Cecilia Diniz; Butler, Matthew P; Challet, Etienne; Czeisler, Charles; Depner, Christopher M; Elmquist, Joel; Franken, Paul; Grandner, Michael A; Hanlon, Erin C; Keene, Alex C; Joyner, Michael J; Karatsoreos, Ilia; Kern, Philip A; Klein, Samuel; Morris, Christopher J; Pack, Allan I; Panda, Satchidananda; Ptacek, Louis J; Punjabi, Naresh M; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Scheer, Frank A; Saxena, Richa; Seaquest, Elizabeth R; Thimgan, Matthew S; Van Cauter, Eve; Wright, Kenneth P

    2015-12-01

    A workshop was held at the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with a focus on the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on energy balance and diabetes. The workshop identified a number of key principles for research in this area and a number of specific opportunities. Studies in this area would be facilitated by active collaboration between investigators in sleep/circadian research and investigators in metabolism/diabetes. There is a need to translate the elegant findings from basic research into improving the metabolic health of the American public. There is also a need for investigators studying the impact of sleep/circadian disruption in humans to move beyond measurements of insulin and glucose and conduct more in-depth phenotyping. There is also a need for the assessments of sleep and circadian rhythms as well as assessments for sleep-disordered breathing to be incorporated into all ongoing cohort studies related to diabetes risk. Studies in humans need to complement the elegant short-term laboratory-based human studies of simulated short sleep and shift work etc. with studies in subjects in the general population with these disorders. It is conceivable that chronic adaptations occur, and if so, the mechanisms by which they occur needs to be identified and understood. Particular areas of opportunity that are ready for translation are studies to address whether CPAP treatment of patients with pre-diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevents or delays the onset of diabetes and whether temporal restricted feeding has the same impact on obesity rates in humans as it does in mice. PMID:26564131

  16. Impact of Sleep and Circadian Disruption on Energy Balance and Diabetes: A Summary of Workshop Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna M.; Bass, Joseph; Behn, Cecilia Diniz; Butler, Matthew P.; Challet, Etienne; Czeisler, Charles; Depner, Christopher M.; Elmquist, Joel; Franken, Paul; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Erin C.; Keene, Alex C.; Joyner, Michael J.; Karatsoreos, Ilia; Kern, Philip A.; Klein, Samuel; Morris, Christopher J.; Pack, Allan I.; Panda, Satchidananda; Ptacek, Louis J.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo; Scheer, Frank A.; Saxena, Richa; Seaquest, Elizabeth R.; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Van Cauter, Eve; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2015-01-01

    A workshop was held at the National Institute for Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases with a focus on the impact of sleep and circadian disruption on energy balance and diabetes. The workshop identified a number of key principles for research in this area and a number of specific opportunities. Studies in this area would be facilitated by active collaboration between investigators in sleep/circadian research and investigators in metabolism/diabetes. There is a need to translate the elegant findings from basic research into improving the metabolic health of the American public. There is also a need for investigators studying the impact of sleep/circadian disruption in humans to move beyond measurements of insulin and glucose and conduct more in-depth phenotyping. There is also a need for the assessments of sleep and circadian rhythms as well as assessments for sleep-disordered breathing to be incorporated into all ongoing cohort studies related to diabetes risk. Studies in humans need to complement the elegant short-term laboratory-based human studies of simulated short sleep and shift work etc. with studies in subjects in the general population with these disorders. It is conceivable that chronic adaptations occur, and if so, the mechanisms by which they occur needs to be identified and understood. Particular areas of opportunity that are ready for translation are studies to address whether CPAP treatment of patients with pre-diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) prevents or delays the onset of diabetes and whether temporal restricted feeding has the same impact on obesity rates in humans as it does in mice. Citation: Arble DM, Bass J, Behn CD, Butler MP, Challet E, Czeisler C, Depner CM, Elmquist J, Franken P, Grandner MA, Hanlon EC, Keene AC, Joyner MJ, Karatsoreos I, Kern PA, Klein S, Morris CJ, Pack AI, Panda S, Ptacek LJ, Punjabi NM, Sassone-Corsi P, Scheer FA, Saxena R, Seaquest ER, Thimgan MS, Van Cauter E, Wright KP. Impact of sleep and

  17. Estimating the Need for Medical Intervention due to Sleep Disruption on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Hurst, S. R.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Caldwell, J. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    During ISS and shuttle missions, difficulties with sleep affect more than half of all US crews. Mitigation strategies to help astronauts cope with the challenges of disrupted sleep patterns can negatively impact both mission planning and vehicle design. The methods for addressing known detrimental impacts for some mission scenarios may have a substantial impact on vehicle specific consumable mass or volume or on the mission timeline. As part of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) task, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading the development of a Monte Carlo based forecasting tool designed to determine the consumables required to address risks related to sleep disruption. The model currently focuses on the International Space Station and uses an algorithm that assembles representative mission schedules and feeds this into a well validated model that predicts relative levels of performance, and need for sleep (SAFTE Model, IBR Inc). Correlation of the resulting output to self-diagnosed needs for hypnotics, stimulants, and other pharmaceutical countermeasures, allows prediction of pharmaceutical use and the uncertainty of the specified prediction. This paper outlines a conceptual model for determining a rate of pharmaceutical utilization that can be used in the IMM model for comparison and optimization of mitigation methods with respect to all other significant medical needs and interventions.

  18. Disruptions of Sleep/Wake Patterns in the Stable Tubule Only Polypeptide (STOP) Null Mouse Model of Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Profitt, Maxine F; Deurveilher, Samuel; Robertson, George S; Rusak, Benjamin; Semba, Kazue

    2016-09-01

    Disruption of sleep/wake cycles is common in patients with schizophrenia and correlates with cognitive and affective abnormalities. Mice deficient in stable tubule only polypeptide (STOP) show cognitive, behavioral, and neurobiological deficits that resemble those seen in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about their sleep phenotype. We characterized baseline sleep/wake patterns and recovery sleep following sleep deprivation in STOP null mice. Polysomnography was conducted in adult male STOP null and wild-type (WT) mice under a 12:12 hours light:dark cycle before, during, and after 6 hours of sleep deprivation during the light phase. At baseline, STOP null mice spent more time awake and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) over a 24-hour period, with more frequent transitions between wake and NREMS, compared to WT mice, especially during the dark phase. The distributions of wake, NREMS and REMS across the light and the dark phases differed by genotype, and so did features of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Following sleep deprivation, both genotypes showed homeostatic increases in sleep duration, with no significant genotype differences in the initial compensatory increase in sleep intensity (EEG delta power). These results indicate that STOP null mice sleep less overall, and their sleep and wake periods are more fragmented than those of WT mice. These features in STOP null mice are consistent with the sleep patterns observed in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26940700

  19. Nocturnal enuresis in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rachel B; Kassim, Adetola A; Goodpaster, Robert L; DeBaun, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a prevalent and challenging problem in children and young adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). Limited progress has been made in elucidating etiology and pathophysiology of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD. Among adults with SCD ages 18-20 years, approximately 9% report nocturnal enuresis. Nocturnal enuresis contributes to decreased health related quality of life in people with SCD, resulting in low self-esteem and sometimes social isolation. Postulated non-mutually exclusive causes of nocturnal enuresis in individuals with SCD include hyposthenuria leading to nocturnal polyuria, decreased bladder capacity or nocturnal bladder overactivity, increased arousal thresholds, and sleep disordered breathing. No evidence-based therapy for nocturnal enuresis in SCD exists. This review is focused on describing the natural history, postulated causes and a rational approach to the evaluation and management of nocturnal enuresis in children and adults with SCD. PMID:24617333

  20. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children’s BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Börnhorst, Claudia; Hebestreit, Antje; Moreno, Luis; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Siani, Alfonso; Molnar, Dénes; Sioen, Isabelle; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future. PMID:26670249

  1. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S.A.; Ross, Ian L.; Thomas, Kevin G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory—II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  2. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  3. Nocturnal awakening with headache and its relationship with sleep disorders in a population-based sample of adult inhabitants of Sao Paulo City, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lucchesi, Ligia Mendonça; Speciali, Jose Geraldo; Santos-Silva, Rogerio; Taddei, Jose Augusto; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia Rita Azeredo

    2010-12-01

    Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal awakening with headache (NAH) in the population of São Paulo City according to gender, age (20-80 years old) and socioeconomic classes and its relationship to sleep disorders, sleep parameters, anxiety, depression, fatigue, life quality and obesity. We used a population-based survey with a representative three-stage cluster sample. Questionnaires and scales were applied face-to-face, and polysomnography was performed in 1101 volunteers, aged 42 ± 14 years, 55% women. The complaint of NAH occurring at least once a week had a prevalence of 8.4%, mostly in women, obese subjects and those aged 50-59 years-old. We observed associations of NAH with insomnia, restless leg syndrome (RLS), nightmares and bruxism, but not obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. In a logistics regression model, risk factors for NAH were female gender, odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) 4.5 (2.8-7.3); obesity, OR 1.9 (1.1-3.3); age between 50 and 59 years, OR 2.4 (1.2-4.7); severe anxiety, OR 8.1 (3.6-18.1); RLS, 2.7 (1.2-5.6); and nightmares, 2.2 (1.3-3.7). Our study shows that NAH was highly prevalent in the population of São Paulo and suggests that this phenomenon has specific characteristics with specific risk factors: obesity, RLS and nightmares. PMID:20974608

  4. Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological

  5. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  6. Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption

    PubMed Central

    Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S.; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V.; Burnham, Melissa M.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability to individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly’s ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

  7. Changes in sleep disruption in the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hilario, E Yvette; Weiss, Roger D; Hien, Denise A

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, χ(2) (1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  8. Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V; Burnham, Melissa M; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability of individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly's ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

  9. Artificial light at night disrupts sleep in female great tits (Parus major) during the nestling period, and is followed by a sleep rebound.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    Artificial light at night has been linked to a wide variety of physiological and behavioural consequences in humans and animals. Given that little is known about the impact of light pollution on sleep in wild animals, we tested how experimentally elevated light levels affected sleep behaviour of female songbirds rearing 10 day old chicks. Using a within-subject design, individual sleep behaviour was observed over three consecutive nights in great tits (Parus major), with females sleeping in a natural dark situation on the first and third night, whereas on the second night they were exposed to a light-emitting diode (1.6 lux). Artificial light in the nest box dramatically and significantly affected sleep behaviour, causing females to fall asleep later (95 min; while entry time was unaffected), wake up earlier (74 min) and sleep less (56%). Females spent a greater proportion of the night awake and the frequency of their sleep bouts decreased, while the length of their sleep bouts remained equal. Artificial light also increased begging of chicks at night, which may have contributed to the sleep disruption in females or vice versa. The night following the light treatment, females slept 25% more compared to the first night, which was mainly achieved by increasing the frequency of sleep bouts. Although there was a consistent pattern in how artificial light affected sleep, there was also large among-individual variation in how strongly females were affected. When comparing current results with a similar experiment during winter, our results highlight differences in effects between seasons and underscore the importance of studying light pollution during different seasons. Our study shows that light pollution may have a significant impact on sleep behaviour in free-living animals during the reproductive season, which may provide a potential mechanism by which artificial light affects fitness. PMID:27179331

  10. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A; Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  11. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A.; Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J.; Bannerman, David M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  12. Are there hangover-effects on physical performance when melatonin is ingested by athletes before nocturnal sleep?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, G; Buckley, P; Edwards, B; Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J

    2001-04-01

    Athletes ingest melatonin in an attempt to improve sleep quality or alleviate symptoms of jet lag after transmeridian travel. It is not known whether there are residual effects of this hormone on physical performance in fit subjects. After a sample size estimation involving a meaningful effect on performance of 5%, five milligrams of melatonin or placebo were ingested by twelve physically-active subjects before sleep in a double-blind experiment. The following morning, subjective sleep quality (latency and maintenance) were measured together with intra-aural temperature, grip strength of the left and right hands, and time to complete a 4 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. The subjects also rated perceived exertion during the latter test. The null hypothesis of no effect of melatonin on either subjective sleep quality or physical performance measured the morning after administration could not be rejected on the basis of our observations (P > 0.30). The mean differences between treatments were less than 1% for the strength tests and time trial performance. The confidence intervals for these differences for left and right grip strength and the cycling test were - 2.1 to 2.8 kg, - 3.1 to 2.7 kg and -3.0 to 4.5 s, respectively. In conclusion, it is unlikely that 5 mg of melatonin would have any meaningful effects on physical performance in the morning after fit subjects ingest the hormone. There was also little evidence that it improves sleep quality in this population. Further research is needed concerning the effects of daytime and nighttime admistration of melatonin on performance, in both situations of normal and disturbed sleep. PMID:11354528

  13. Management of nocturnal enuresis - myths and facts.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajiv; Raut, Sumantra

    2016-07-01

    Nocturnal enuresis often causes considerable distress or functional impairment to patient and their parents necessitating a multidisciplinary approach from paediatrician, paediatric nephrologist, urologists and psychiatrist. Mechanisms of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis are mainly nocturnal polyuria, bladder overactivity and failure to awaken from sleep in response to bladder sensations. Goal oriented and etiology wise treatment includes simple behavioral intervention, conditioning alarm regimen and pharmacotherapy with desmopressin, imipramine and anticholinergic drugs. Symptoms often recurs requiring change over or combination of different modes of treatment. PMID:27458562

  14. Management of nocturnal enuresis - myths and facts

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajiv; Raut, Sumantra

    2016-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis often causes considerable distress or functional impairment to patient and their parents necessitating a multidisciplinary approach from paediatrician, paediatric nephrologist, urologists and psychiatrist. Mechanisms of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis are mainly nocturnal polyuria, bladder overactivity and failure to awaken from sleep in response to bladder sensations. Goal oriented and etiology wise treatment includes simple behavioral intervention, conditioning alarm regimen and pharmacotherapy with desmopressin, imipramine and anticholinergic drugs. Symptoms often recurs requiring change over or combination of different modes of treatment. PMID:27458562

  15. Circadian regulation gene polymorphisms are associated with sleep disruption and duration, and circadian phase and rhythm in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl; Byun, Eeeseung; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in circadian regulation, such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput [CLOCK], cryptochrome [CRY1] and period [PER], have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with the sleep disturbances commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe polymorphisms in selected circadian genes that are associated with sleep duration or disruption as well as the sleep-wake rhythm strength and phase timing among adults living with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS was recruited from HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 h on weekdays to estimate sleep duration or total sleep time (TST), sleep disruption or percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO) and several circadian rhythm parameters: mesor, amplitude, the ratio of mesor to amplitude (circadian quotient), and 24-h autocorrelation. Circadian phase measures included clock time for peak activity (acrophase) from actigraphy movement data, and bed time and final wake time from actigraphy and self-report. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in five candidate genes involved in circadian regulation: CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Interactions between genotype and HIV variables (i.e. viral load, years since HIV diagnosis) were also evaluated. Controlling for potentially confounding variables (e.g. race, gender, CD4+ T-cell count, waist circumference, medication use, smoking and depressive symptoms), CLOCK was associated with WASO, 24-h autocorrelation and objectively-measured bed time; CRY1 was associated with circadian quotient; PER1 was associated with mesor and self-reported habitual wake time; PER2 was associated with TST

  16. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  17. Sleep Disruption and Proprioceptive Delirium due to Acetaminophen in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Carnovale, Carla; Pozzi, Marco; Nisic, Andrea Angelo; Scrofani, Elisa; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Radice, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a 7-year-old boy, who received acetaminophen for the treatment of hyperpyrexia, due to an infection of the superior airways. 13 mg/kg (260 mg) of acetaminophen was administered orally before bedtime, and together with the expected antipyretic effect, the boy experienced sleep disruption and proprioceptive delirium. The symptoms disappeared within one hour. In the following six months, acetaminophen was administered again twice, and the reaction reappeared with similar features. Potential alternative explanations were excluded, and analysis with the Naranjo algorithm indicated a “probable” relationship between acetaminophen and this adverse reaction. We discuss the potential mechanisms involved, comprising imbalances in prostaglandin levels, alterations of dopamine, and cannabinoid and serotonin signalings. PMID:23573447

  18. Nocturnal hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, D.; John, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Patients receiving conventional hemodialysis have high hospitalisation rates, poor quality of life and survival compared to the general population. Many centres around the world are providing longer hours of hemodialysis - short daily hemodialysis and nocturnal hemodialysis - with a view to improving patient survival and quality of life. Studies have shown that nocturnal haemodiaysis is more effective than conventional hemodialysis in clearing most small, middle and larger molecule toxins and suggest nocturnal dialysis enhances patient survival and quality of life. Concerns include patient acceptance, vascular access related complications and increased cost. The purpose of this review is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of nocturnal dialysis, with a focus on applicability to India where the renal physician has to face cultural and economic barriers, erratic power supply and poor water quality. PMID:23326041

  19. No first night shift effect observed following a nocturnal main sleep and a prophylactic 1-h afternoon nap.

    PubMed

    Kosmadopoulos, Anastasi; Zhou, Xuan; Roach, Gregory D; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    Neurobehavioural impairment on the first night shift is often greater than on subsequent night shifts due to extended wakefulness. The aim of the study was to determine whether a 1-h afternoon nap prior to the first night shift is sufficient to produce neurobehavioural performance at levels comparable to the second night shift. Twelve male volunteers (mean age 22.9 years) participated in a laboratory protocol that simulated two 12-h night shifts. A nap preceded the first shift and a 7-h daytime sleep was scheduled between shifts. Neurobehavioural performance and subjective sleepiness measured across each night did not significantly differ between first and second shifts. PMID:27077691

  20. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePlus

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  1. Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among military veterans.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Kolko, David J; Germain, Anne

    2012-03-01

    The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135

  2. Children's Sleep and Autonomic Function: Low Sleep Quality Has an Impact on Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV Participants: Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). Interventions: N/A. Methods: Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. Results: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Conclusions: Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children. Citation: Michels N; Clays E; De Buyzere M; Vanaelst B; De Henauw S; Sioen I. Children's sleep

  3. [Nocturnal monitoring of home non-invasive ventilation: Contribution of simple tools such as pulse-oximetry, capnography, built-in ventilator software and autonomic markers of sleep fragmentation].

    PubMed

    Janssens, J-P; Borel, J-C; Pépin, J-L

    2014-02-01

    Complex respiratory events, which may have a detrimental effect on both quality of sleep and control of nocturnal hypoventilation, occur during sleep in patients treated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV). Among these events are patient-ventilator asynchrony, increases in upper airway resistance with or without increased respiratory drive, and leaks. Detection of these events is important in order to select the most appropriate ventilator settings and interface. Simple tools can provide important information when monitoring NIV. Pulse-oximetry is important to ensure that an adequate SpO2 is provided, and to detect either prolonged or short and recurrent desaturations. However, the specificity of pulse-oximetry tracings under NIV is low. Transcutaneous capnography discriminates between hypoxemia related to V/Q mismatch and hypoventilation, documents correction of nocturnal hypoventilation, and may detect ventilator-induced hyperventilation, a possible cause for central apnea/hypopnea and glottic closure. Data provided by ventilator software helps the clinician by estimating ventilation, tidal volume, leaks, rate of inspiratory or expiratory triggering by the patient, although further validation of these signals by independent studies is indicated. Finally, autonomic markers of sympathetic tone using signals such as pulse wave amplitude of the pulse-oximetry signal can provide reliable information of sleep fragmentation. PMID:24602678

  4. H1N1 influenza virus induces narcolepsy-like sleep disruption and targets sleep-wake regulatory neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, Chiara; Codita, Alina; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Cherninsky, Andrij; Karlsson, Håkan; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Harkany, Tibor; Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Kristensson, Krister

    2016-01-19

    An increased incidence in the sleep-disorder narcolepsy has been associated with the 2009-2010 pandemic of H1N1 influenza virus in China and with mass vaccination campaigns against influenza during the pandemic in Finland and Sweden. Pathogenetic mechanisms of narcolepsy have so far mainly focused on autoimmunity. We here tested an alternative working hypothesis involving a direct role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in susceptible subjects. We show that infection with H1N1 influenza virus in mice that lack B and T cells (Recombinant activating gene 1-deficient mice) can lead to narcoleptic-like sleep-wake fragmentation and sleep structure alterations. Interestingly, the infection targeted brainstem and hypothalamic neurons, including orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons that regulate sleep-wake stability and are affected in narcolepsy. Because changes occurred in the absence of adaptive autoimmune responses, the findings show that brain infections with H1N1 virus have the potential to cause per se narcoleptic-like sleep disruption. PMID:26668381

  5. Feasibility of an interval, inspiration-triggered nocturnal odorant application by a novel device: a patient-blinded, randomised crossover, pilot trial on mood and sleep quality of depressed female inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vitinius, Frank; Hellmich, Martin; Matthies, Annalena; Bornkessel, Fabian; Burghart, Heiner; Albus, Christian; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Vent, Julia

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that certain odorants positively affect mood, but this has not yet been scientifically tested in humans. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new odorant applicator and to assess the effects of nocturnal intermittent rose odorant application on mood, and quality of sleep and dreams in depressed female inpatients. We hypothesised that mood as primary outcome will improve. Twenty-seven normosmic, 18- to 49-year-old female, depressed inpatients were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Exclusion criteria were rhinitis, hyp- or anosmia. During sleep, an interval-controlled, inspiration-triggered applicator added rose concentrate to the inspirated air. There were three consecutive nights of each odorant and placebo application and a wash-out phase. Patients completed standardised questionnaires on mood, dreams, and sleep quality. Four patients dropped out (n = 1: non-compliance in filling in the questionnaires, n = 3: intolerance of nasal tube). Otherwise, this novel odorant applicator was well tolerated. Application of the odorant showed no significant mood differences between rose and placebo, however, some subdomains of sleep quality and mood showed a positive trend towards improvement by rose application. The feasibility of this new device and of nasal tubes could be shown. Odorant application is well tolerated. It may have a positive influence on quality of mood and sleep in depressed patients. A longer application phase is planned to obtain convincing evidence for our hypothesis. PMID:24390040

  6. The Influence of Sleep Disruption and Pain Perception on Indicators of Quality of Life in Individuals Living with Dementia at Home

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N.; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of sleep quality and pain perceptions on different dimensions of quality of life in community-dwelling persons with dementia. Evaluations of pain were collected using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), sleep disruption using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) items, and quality of life indicators using the DemQOL-Proxy in 88 persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Lower overall quality of life was associated with the presence of pain and symptoms of sleep disruption when controlling for mental status, age, and number of health conditions. Pain and sleep symptoms were differentially associated with different aspects of QoL. As symptoms negatively impact quality of life but are modifiable, better clinical procedures are needed to prevent and also identify and treat symptoms of pain and sleep disturbance in community-dwelling persons with dementia. PMID:25193739

  7. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  8. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hvolby, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology. PMID:25127644

  9. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = −0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  10. Cutaneous warming promotes sleep onset.

    PubMed

    Raymann, Roy J E M; Swaab, Dick F; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2005-06-01

    Sleep occurs in close relation to changes in body temperature. Both the monophasic sleep period in humans and the polyphasic sleep periods in rodents tend to be initiated when core body temperature is declining. This decline is mainly due to an increase in skin blood flow and consequently skin warming and heat loss. We have proposed that these intrinsically occurring changes in core and skin temperatures could modulate neuronal activity in sleep-regulating brain areas (Van Someren EJW, Chronobiol Int 17: 313-54, 2000). We here provide results compatible with this hypothesis. We obtained 144 sleep-onset latencies while directly manipulating core and skin temperatures within the comfortable range in eight healthy subjects under controlled conditions. The induction of a proximal skin temperature difference of only 0.78 +/- 0.03 degrees C (mean +/- SE) around a mean of 35.13 +/- 0.11 degrees C changed sleep-onset latency by 26%, i.e., by 3.09 minutes [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.91 to 4.28] around a mean of 11.85 min (CI, 9.74 to 14.41), with faster sleep onsets when the proximal skin was warmed. The reduction in sleep-onset latency occurred despite a small but significant decrease in subjective comfort during proximal skin warming. The induction of changes in core temperature (delta = 0.20 +/- 0.02 degrees C) and distal skin temperature (delta = 0.74 +/- 0.05 degrees C) were ineffective. Previous studies have demonstrated correlations between skin temperature and sleep-onset latency. Also, sleep disruption by ambient temperatures that activate thermoregulatory defense mechanisms has been shown. The present study is the first to experimentally demonstrate a causal contribution to sleep-onset latency of skin temperature manipulations within the normal nocturnal fluctuation range. Circadian and sleep-appetitive behavior-induced variations in skin temperature might act as an input signal to sleep-regulating systems. PMID:15677527

  11. Sleep in healthy elderly subjects: a 24-hour ambulatory polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Gigli, G L; Placidi, F; Diomedi, M; Maschio, M; Silvestri, G; Scalise, A; Marciani, M G

    1996-04-01

    It is still debated whether the deterioration of the sleep pattern, frequently reported by elderly subjects, is due only to aging per se. Other factors associated with aging or modifications of biological rhythms could also be involved. Elderly subjects frequently complain of daytime sleepiness, but it is not clear whether this actually represents a return to a polyphasic structure of sleep, or only a consequence of a disturbed night sleep. Ten healthy, independent and active elderly subjects (age > 72 years) were elevated by means of 24-hour ambulatory polysomnography. Findings of nocturnal sleep were compared with sleep of the same group in the 24-hour period and with sleep of young healthy controls. We observed a fragmentation of nocturnal sleep, but a fairly good representation of stages and a preservation of cyclicity. Except for three cases, with early or late times of sleep onset and wake-up, sleep disruption did not seem to be related to modification of circadian rhythms. Only three subjects presented undesired daytime naps, whereas the others either did not show daytime sleep at all, or were used to having their siesta after lunch since their young adulthood. In normal aging, daytime sleep does not constitute a social problem. Ambulatory polysomnography is a valid alternative to laboratory recordings in the identification of daytime sleep. PMID:8734563

  12. The Impact of Sleep Disruption on Executive Function in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-C.; Spano, G.; Edgin, J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, is well established in children with Down syndrome. However, only a few studies have focused on older children and young adults in this population. Given the presence of sleep disorders and the early emergence of Alzheimer's disease, more work is needed to examine the…

  13. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2007-02-28

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  14. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  15. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families.

    PubMed

    Worthman, Carol M; Brown, Ryan A

    2013-02-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3-56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  16. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. PMID:23219054

  17. Randomized controlled trial of pharmacological replacement of melatonin for sleep disruption in individuals with tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Ku, Ban; Ota, Doug; Kiratli, B. Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a melatonin agonist for treating sleep disturbances in individuals with tetraplegia. Design Placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized control trial. Setting At home. Participants Eight individuals with tetraplegia, having an absence of endogenous melatonin production and the presence of a sleep disorder. Interventions Three weeks of 8 mg of ramelteon (melatonin agonist) and 3 weeks of placebo (crossover, randomized order) with 2 weeks of baseline prior to and 2 weeks of washout between active conditions. Outcome Change in objective and subjective sleep. Measures Wrist actigraphy, post-sleep questionnaire, Stanford sleepiness scale, SF-36. Results We observed no consistent changes in either subjective or objective measures of sleep, including subjective sleep latency (P = 0.55, Friedman test), number of awakenings (P = 0.17, Friedman test), subjective total sleep time (P = 0.45, Friedman test), subjective morning alertness (P = 0.35, Friedman test), objective wake after sleep onset (P = 0.70, Friedman test), or objective sleep efficiency (P = 0.78, Friedman test). There were significant increases in both objective total sleep time (P < 0.05, Friedman test), subjective time in bed (P < 0.05, Friedman test), and subjective sleep quality (P < 0.05, Friedman test), although these occurred in both arms. There were no significant changes in any of the nine SF-36 subscale scores (Friedman test, Ps >Bonferroni adjusted α of 0.005). Conclusion In this pilot study, we were unable to show effectiveness of pharmacological replacement of melatonin for the treatment of self-reported sleep problems in individuals with tetraplegia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00507546. PMID:24090266

  18. The bidirectional relation between emotional reactivity and sleep: From disruption to recovery.

    PubMed

    Altena, Ellemarije; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Geoffroy, Pierre-Alexis; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; Bioulac, Stephanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and greatly affect consecutive emotional reactivity, while sleep quality itself can be strongly affected by reactions to previous emotional events. In this review, we shed light on this bidirectional relation through examples of pathology: insomnia and bipolar disorder. We show that both experimental sleep deprivation and insomnia are related to increased emotional reactivity and increased amygdala activation upon emotional stimuli presentation, and that particularly Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is important for emotional processing and reorganization of emotion-specific brain activity. Increased emotional reactivity affects REM sleep quality and sleep spindles, while REM sleep is particularly affected in insomnia, possibly related to condition-specific hyperarousal levels. Normal sleep onset deactivation of brain regions important for emotional processing (amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) is further affected in insomnia. In bipolar disorder, sleep disturbances are common in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic phases. Both amygdala and ACC volume and function are affected in bipolar disorder, with the ACC showing phase-dependent resting state activity differences. Deficient Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABA-ergic activity of this region might play a role in sleep disturbances and their influence on emotional reactivity, given the inhibitory role of GABA on brain activity during sleep and its deficiency in both bipolar disorder and insomnia. Promising findings of normalizing brain activity in both insomnia and bipolar disorder upon treatment may inspire a focus on treatment studies investigating the normalization of sleep, emotional reactivity, and their corresponding brain activity patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866361

  19. Sleep complaints in periodic paralyses: a web survey.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, G; Mostacci, B; Sancisi, E; Cirignotta, F

    2001-01-01

    Neuronal potassium conductance has been shown to influence the sleep-wake cycle and REM sleep homeostasis. The periodic paralyses (PP) are characterized by episodes of muscular weakness associated with changes in serum potassium levels and, therefore, with possible alterations in extracellular neuronal potassium conductance. We submitted a sleep questionnaire to the members of Periodic Paralysis International Listserv, an on-line support and information group for subjects with PP. Three control groups were made up of patients with untreated depression, patients with depression under treatment and healthy subjects. Both subjects with PP and those with untreated depression had a higher frequency of self-reported insufficient sleep quality and a higher number of nocturnal awakenings than patients with depression under treatment and healthy controls. PP subjects had more self-reported daytime sleepiness, sleep-related hallucinations and nightmares/abnormal dreams than the other three groups. Patients affected by PP may have disrupted sleep architecture and homeostasis. In particular, we suggest that the stereotypical abnormal dreams reported by several patients may reflect oneiric elaboration of nocturnal episodes of flaccid paralysis, while the increased frequency of sleep-related hallucinations may be due to enhanced REM sleep expression associated with alterations of neuronal potassium conductance. PMID:11769870

  20. Pain Disrupts Sleep in Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Both chronic pain and sleep problems are common for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although one study has revealed a relationship between having a medical condition and sleep problems in this population, the role of pain was not examined independently. Thus, the goal of this study was to clarify the specific role…

  1. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. PMID:26173051

  2. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  3. Chronic Decrease in Wakefulness and Disruption of Sleep-Wake Behavior after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Skopin, Mark D.; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Viechweg, Shaun S.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause sleep-wake disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. The pathobiology of sleep disorders in TBI, however, is not well understood, and animal models have been underused in studying such changes and potential underlying mechanisms. We used the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model to analyze sleep-wake patterns as a function of time after injury. Rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and wake bouts during light and dark phases were measured with electroencephalography and electromyography at an early as well as chronic time points after LFP. Moderate TBI caused disturbances in the ability to maintain consolidated wake bouts during the active phase and chronic loss of wakefulness. Further, TBI resulted in cognitive impairments and depressive-like symptoms, and reduced the number of orexin-A-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:25242371

  4. Disrupted sleep-wake regulation in type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, T; Ramesh, V; Dworak, M; Choi, D-S; McCarley, R W; Kalinchuk, A V; Basheer, R

    2015-09-10

    The type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) is implicated in regulating levels of extracellular adenosine ([AD]ex). In the basal forebrain (BF) levels of [AD]ex increase during wakefulness and closely correspond to the increases in the electroencephalogram (EEG) delta (0.75-4.5Hz) activity (NRδ) during subsequent non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS). Thus in the BF, [AD]ex serves as a biochemical marker of sleep homeostasis. Waking EEG activity in theta range (5-9Hz, Wθ) is also described as a marker of sleep homeostasis. An hour-by-hour temporal relationship between the Wθ and NRδ is unclear. In this study we examined the relationship between these EEG markers of sleep homeostasis during spontaneous sleep-wakefulness and during sleep deprivation (SD) and recovery sleep in the ENT1 gene knockout (ENT1KO) mouse. We observed that baseline NREMS amount was decreased during the light period in ENT1KO mice, accompanied by a weak correlation between Wθ of each hour and NRδ of its subsequent hour when compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Perfusion of low dose of adenosine into BF not only strengthened the Wθ-NRδ relationship, but also increased NREMS to match with the WT littermates suggesting decreased [AD]ex in ENT1KO mice. However, the SD-induced [AD]ex increase in the BF and the linear correlation between the EEG markers of sleep homeostasis were unaffected in ENT1KO mice suggesting that during SD, sources other than ENT1 contribute to increase in [AD]ex. Our data provide evidence for a differential regulation of wakefulness-associated [AD]ex during spontaneous vs prolonged waking. PMID:26143012

  5. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    PubMed

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises. PMID:18773929

  6. The fourth shift: exploring the gendered nature of sleep disruption among couples with children.

    PubMed

    Venn, Susan; Arber, Sara; Meadows, Robert; Hislop, Jenny

    2008-03-01

    The study of sleep has been neglected within sociology, yet may provide insights into fundamental aspects of the nature of gender inequalities. This article examines how, for couples with children, sleep is influenced by the gendered nature of caring. A key concern is not only who gets up to care for children's physical needs at night, but whether this changes with women's increased role in the labour market. Of concern also is how changes in the nature of caring for older children, as opposed to young children, may impact on parents' sleep. This article analyses qualitative data from an ESRC funded multi-disciplinary project on couples' sleep based on in-depth audio-tape recorded interviews with 26 couples (aged 20-59) with younger and older children. Additionally, one week's audio sleep diaries were completed and follow up in-depth interviews were undertaken with each partner on an individual basis. Physical and emotional care for young children at night was largely provided by women, with a lack of explicit negotiation between partners about who provides this care, even when women return to employment. Thus, considerably more women than men continued their daytime and evening shifts, as well as undertaking an ongoing third shift of sentient activity for their family, into the night. This resulted in a fourth night-time shift where physical caring, and sentient activities continued. As a consequence, women were more likely to subjugate their own sleep needs to those of their family. Fathers did not, in general, undertake this fourth night-time shift. Those that did were more likely to be the fathers of young adult children who were staying out late at night, with the focus of their concerns being the safety of their children. PMID:18321332

  7. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  8. Sleep-wake disorders and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is an active process that occupies about one-third of the lives of humans; however, there are relatively few studies of skin disorders during sleep. Sleep disruption in dermatologic disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and mental health of the patient and in some situations may even lead to exacerbations of the dermatologic condition. Sleep and skin disorders interface at several levels: (1) the role of the skin in normal sleep physiology, such as thermoregulation, core body temperature control, and sleep onset; (2) the effect of endogenous circadian rhythms and peripheral circadian "oscillators" on cutaneous symptoms, such as the natural trough in cortisol levels during the evening in patients with inflammatory dermatoses, which most likely results in increased pruritus during the evening and night; (3) the effect of symptoms such as pruritus, hyperhidrosis, and problems with thermoregulation, on sleep and sleep-related quality of life of the patients and their families; (4) the possible effect of primary sleep disorders, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, sleep deprivation, and circadian rhythm disorders, on dermatologic disorders; for example, central nervous system arousals from sleep in sleep apnea can result in increased sympathetic neural activity and increased inflammation; and (5) comorbidity of some dermatologic disorders with stress and psychiatric disorders, for example, major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that are also associated with sleep-related complaints. Sleep loss in atopic dermatitis (AD) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD-like symptoms in AD. Scratching during sleep, which may be proportional to the overall level of sympathetic nervous activity during the respective stages of sleep, usually occurs most frequently during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages 1 and 2 (vs stages 3 and 4 which are the deeper stages of sleep), and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, where the

  9. Sleep in asthma.

    PubMed

    Khan, Wajahat H; Mohsenin, Vahid; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2014-09-01

    Many patients with asthma experience worsening of symptoms at night. Understanding the mechanism of nocturnal asthma and the factors that exacerbate asthma during sleep would lead to better management of the condition. PMID:25156764

  10. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  11. Diagnosing nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a case study of two children.

    PubMed

    Tomonoh, Yuko; Yasumoto, Sawa; Ihara, Yukiko; Fujita, Takako; Nakamura, Noriko; Ninomiya, Shinya; Kodama, Rie; Ideguchi, Hiroshi; Inoue, Takahito; Mitsudome, Akihisa; Hirose, Shinichi

    2011-09-01

    We describe two children of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) diagnosed using carefully observed nocturnal sleep EEGs and detailed patient histories. Case #1, a 14-year-old boy, showed repeated generalized tonic convulsions and frequent eyes opening seizures during sleep. Conventional EEGs - done with the patient awake or in sleep stage I - showed no abnormalities, while a nocturnal sleep EEG - done during in sleep stage II - revealed the repeated, sharp wave bursts predominantly in the right frontal lobe characteristic of NFLE. During these wave bursts, we noticed the boy's eyes opening, although his parents had not been aware this NFLE symptom. Case #2, a 12-year-old boy, showed one daytime generalized convulsion. He had also been suffering from repeated paroxysmal episodes similar to parasomnia - waking up, sitting, walking, screaming, and speaking - which always followed the same patterns lasting several minutes. During the nocturnal sleep EEG, episodes occurred twice, showing abnormal epileptic discharges predominantly in the frontal lobe. His parents did not mention the episodes to us until questioned, as they had recognized them as parasomnia. The previous conventional EEG showed abnormal slow waves in the frontal lobe, which led us to suspect frontal lobe epilepsy and to take a detailed patient history. The frequency and stereotypy of their symptoms during sleep caused us to perform nocturnal sleep EEGs and led us NFLE diagnosis. Detailed patient histories including sleep habits and carefully observed nocturnal sleep EEGs enabled us to recognize these NFLE clinical features. PMID:21511499

  12. Effects of partial food restriction on nocturnal meal size and feeding speed are counteracted by concurrent REM sleep deprivation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Johansson, G G; Elomaa, E

    1986-06-01

    Effects of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation on meal size and feeding speed were investigated by means of the cuff pedestal technique in 9 male rats exposed to partial food restriction. Reduction of available food by 50% alone, when accomplished by providing the pellets at the beginning of each dark period, during 7 consecutive days, induced a quite linear increase both in the meal size and feeding speed. When the same feeding schedule was repeated in combination with REM sleep deprivation, the meal size remained smaller and the feeding time was prolonged (during the first 3-4 days) when compared to those during food restriction alone, although losses of body weight were almost doubled. These findings are in agreement with the effects of REM sleep deprivation on the meal pattern in rats on ad libitum diet and provide further support for the suggestion of the importance of REM sleep in the generation of the light/dark rhythm of feeding in the rat. PMID:3741588

  13. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  14. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solarewicz, Julia Z; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2(+/+)) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2(-/-)). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  15. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin

    PubMed Central

    Solarewicz, Julia Z.; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M.; Mateika, Jason H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2+/+) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2−/−). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2+/+ and Tph2−/− mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2+/+ compared with the Tph2−/− mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2+/+ compared with the Tph2−/− mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  16. Emotional trait and memory associates of sleep timing and quality.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Rubin, Zoe S; Tracy, Lauren E; Spencer, Rebecca M C; Orr, Scott P; Verga, Patrick W

    2015-10-30

    Poor ability to remember the extinction of conditioned fear, elevated trait anxiety, and delayed or disrupted nocturnal sleep are reported in anxiety disorders. The current study examines the interrelationship of these factors in healthy young-adult males. Skin-conductance response was conditioned to two differently colored lamps. One color but not the other was then extinguished. After varying delays, both colors were presented to determine extinction recall and generalization. Questionnaires measured sleep quality, morningness-eveningness, neuroticism and trait anxiety. A subset produced a mean 7.0 nights of actigraphy and sleep diaries. Median split of mean sleep midpoint defined early- and late-"sleep timers". Extinction was more rapidly learned in the morning than evening only in early timers who also better generalized extinction recall. Extinction recall was greater with higher sleep efficiency. Sleep efficiency and morningness were negatively associated with neuroticism and anxiety. However, neuroticism and anxiety did not predict extinction learning, recall or generalization. Therefore, neuroticism/anxiety and deficient fear extinction, although both associated with poor quality and late timing of sleep, are not directly associated with each other. Elevated trait anxiety, in addition to predisposing directly to anxiety disorders, may thus also indirectly promote such disorders by impairing sleep and, consequently, extinction memory. PMID:26257092

  17. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  18. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  19. Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers.

    PubMed Central

    Deary, I J; Tait, R

    1987-01-01

    Twelve medical house officers were tested on a battery of memory, concentration, and work related tasks after three conditions: a night spent off duty; a night spent on call; and a night spent admitting emergency cases. Short term recall, but not digit span, concentration, or work related abilities, was impaired after a night of emergency admissions. A night spent on call had no effect on cognitive performance. Self reported mood scores showed that house officers were more deactivated (indicating a lack of vigour and drive) after nights of emergency admissions but not after nights on call. Significant between subject differences were found for five of the eight cognitive tests. Though loss of sleep and long hours of work have an effect on memory and mood, the individual differences among doctors are the main source of the variance in performance of tasks. PMID:3122881

  20. Effects of sleep disruption on cognitive performance and mood in medical house officers.

    PubMed

    Deary, I J; Tait, R

    1987-12-12

    Twelve medical house officers were tested on a battery of memory, concentration, and work related tasks after three conditions: a night spent off duty; a night spent on call; and a night spent admitting emergency cases. Short term recall, but not digit span, concentration, or work related abilities, was impaired after a night of emergency admissions. A night spent on call had no effect on cognitive performance. Self reported mood scores showed that house officers were more deactivated (indicating a lack of vigour and drive) after nights of emergency admissions but not after nights on call. Significant between subject differences were found for five of the eight cognitive tests. Though loss of sleep and long hours of work have an effect on memory and mood, the individual differences among doctors are the main source of the variance in performance of tasks. PMID:3122881

  1. Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Presenting as Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jocelyn Y.; Wallace, Douglas M.; Lopez, Maria R.; Carrazana, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE). Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE. PMID:24479058

  2. [Sleep in question].

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    It is important to differentiate the effects of aging on sleep systems from the effects of medical illnesses. The health care team, especially the night team, plays an essential role in the identification of sleep disorders and in setting up strategies for better management of nocturnal difficulties. PMID:23133904

  3. The effect of histidine on mental fatigue and cognitive performance in subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Fujimura, Naoko; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Sato, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Our previous study reported that a dried bonito broth known in Japan as 'dashi' improved or ameliorated mood states, including fatigue, during the daily lives of human subjects. Histidine is an amino acid that is present in dried bonito broth, and we sought to evaluate whether histidine would affect feelings of fatigue in humans. We investigated the effects of histidine intake on the feeling of fatigue, mood states and mental task performance by performing a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Twenty subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores were asked to ingest histidine or a placebo every day for two weeks. The subjects' mood states were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) for eight feelings (fatigue, depression, carelessness, drowsiness, clear thinking, motivation, attentiveness and concentration). We also measured subjects' cognitive performance using the CogHealth test battery. The fatigue T-scores on the POMS test decreased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). After two weeks of histidine ingestion, the reaction time for the working memory task in the CogHealth test battery was significantly shorten compared to placebo ingestion. The VAS scores for clear thinking and for attentiveness were increased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). These results suggest that daily ingestion of histidine may ameliorate feelings of fatigue, increase performance during working memory tasks, and improve the clear thinking and attentiveness. PMID:25921948

  4. Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation: Implications for depression and antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, P J; Meerlo, P; Naylor, A S; van Dam, A M; Dayer, A G; Fuchs, E; Oomen, C A; Czéh, B

    2010-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in hippocampus and frontal cortex. We discuss recent studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis with special emphasis on effects of stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation, a group of seemingly unrelated factors that share at least two unifying properties, namely that they all regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We conclude that although neurogenesis has been implicated in cognitive function and is stimulated by antidepressant drugs, its functional impact and contribution to the etiology of depression remains unclear. A lasting reduction in neurogenesis following severe or chronic stress exposure, either in adult or early life, may represent impaired hippocampal plasticity and can contribute to the cognitive symptoms of depression, but is, by itself, unlikely to produce the full mood disorder. Normalization of reductions in neurogenesis appears at least partly, implicated in antidepressant action. PMID:19748235

  5. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  6. Assessment and treatment of nocturnal panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Craske, Michelle G; Tsao, Jennie C I

    2005-06-01

    Nocturnal panic (NP), waking from sleep in a state of panic, is a common occurrence among patients with panic disorder, with 44-71% reporting at least one such attack. NP is a non-REM event that is distinct from sleep terrors, sleep apnea, nightmares or dream-induced arousals. This review outlines recent advances in the characterization of NP, as well as current approaches to the assessment and treatment of NP. In contrast to earlier work, more recent studies suggest that patients with NP do not differ from patients without NP on sleep architecture, sleep physiology, self-reported sleep quality and severity of panic disorder. However, more precise measurement of physiological precipitants and features is warranted. Assessment of NP focuses on ruling out other explanations for NP, with differential diagnosis based on interviews, sleep polysomnography and ambulatory recording of sleep. Psychological treatment (cognitive-behavioral therapy) targets misappraisals of anxiety sensations, hyperventilatory response, and conditioned reactions to internal, physical cues. Recent evidence supports the efficacy of this approach, however, controlled studies on pharmacological agents in the treatment of NP are lacking. Research is needed to examine the effects of combined cognitive-behavioral therapy and medications, compared to medication alone in the treatment of NP. PMID:15893248

  7. Influences of twilight on diurnal variation of core temperature, its nadir, and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep and morning drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masayuki; Tokura, Hiromi; Wakamura, Tomoko; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Oishi, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the physiological significance of dusk and dawn in the circadian rhythm of core temperature (T(core)) and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in humans during sleep and the waking sensation just after rising. Seven female and four male students served as participants. Participants retired at 2300 h and rose at 0700 h. They were requested to sit on a chair and spend time as quietly as possible during wakefulness, reading a book or listening to recorded light music. Two lighting conditions were provided for each participant: 1) Light-Dark (LD)-rectangular light change with abrupt decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx at 1800 h, abrupt increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700 h. 2) LD-twilight light change with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx starting at 1700 h (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx starting at 0500 h (twilight period about 2 h). The periods of 0 lx at night were from 2300 h to 0700 h on the first day and from 2300 to 0500 h on the second day. Nadir time advanced significantly under the influence of the LD-twilight condition. The amount of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in urine collected at 0200 h was significantly higher under LD-twilight in comparison with LD-rectangular light. Morning drowsiness tended to be lower under LD-twilight. Our results suggest that in architectural design of indoor illumination it is important to provide LD-twilight in the evening and early morning for sleep promotion in healthy normal people and/or light treatment in elderly patients with advanced dementia. PMID:19408625

  8. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  9. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  10. Sleep in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex

    2016-03-01

    Disorders of sleep are an integral part of neurodegenerative diseases and include insomnia, sleep-wake cycle disruption, excessive daytime sleepiness that may be manifested as persistent somnolence or sudden onset of sleep episodes, obstructive and central sleep apnea, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome. The origin of these sleep disorders is multifactorial including degeneration of the brain areas that modulate sleep, the symptoms of the disease, and the effect of medications. Treatment of sleep disorders in patients with neurodegenerative diseases should be individualized and includes behavioral therapy, sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, melatonin, hypnotics, waking-promoting agents, and continuous positive airway pressure. PMID:26972029

  11. Is Nocturnal Panic a Distinct Disease Category? Comparison of Clinical Characteristics among Patients with Primary Nocturnal Panic, Daytime Panic, and Coexistence of Nocturnal and Daytime Panic

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masaki; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Nishida, Shingo; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with panic disorder (PD) experience nocturnal panic attacks. We investigated the differences in demographic variables and symptom characteristics as well as response to treatment among patients with primary day panic (DP), primary nocturnal panic (NP), and the coexistence of DP and NP (DP/NP), and discuss whether NP is a distinct disease category. Method: One hundred one consecutive untreated patients with PD were enrolled and subsequently divided into the NP, DP, and DP/NP groups. The presence of 13 panic attack symptom items as well as scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared among the groups. After 3 months of regular treatment, PDSS scores were assessed again to evaluate treatment response. Results: Nocturnal panic attacks of the participants were mostly reported to occur in the first tertile of nocturnal sleep. The number of males, onset age, and presence of choking sensation were significantly higher, and the PDSS score was significantly lower in the NP group compared with the other groups. The DP/NP group showed the highest PDSS score, and participants in this group were prescribed the highest doses of medication among all groups. Only diagnostic sub-category was significantly associated with treatment response. The total score for PDSS and PSQI correlated significantly only in the NP group. Conclusions: DP/NP could be a severe form of PD, while primary NP could be a relatively mild subcategory that may partially share common pathophysiology with adult type night terror. Citation: Nakamura M; Sugiura T; Nishida S; Komada Y; Inoue Y. Is nocturnal panic a distinct disease category? Comparison of clinical characteristics among patients with primary nocturnal panic, daytime panic, and coexistence of nocturnal and daytime panic. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):461-467. PMID:23674937

  12. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  13. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000064.htm Sleep disorders in the elderly To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. ...

  14. Heart Rate Variability During Sleep and Subsequent Sleepiness in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Natelson, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25–55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (α1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night’s sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher fractal scaling index α1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index α1 during non-REM sleep (p < 0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS. PMID:23499514

  15. Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Santana, Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Almeida, Priscila de Carvalho; Machado, Almério de Souza; Araújo-Filho, José Bouzas; Salles, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. RESULTS: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75 ± 6.29 vs. 86.38 ± 8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = −0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = −0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:24473760

  16. Disrupted Sleep and Delayed Recovery from Chronic Peripheral Neuropathy are Distinct Phenotypes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muncey, Aaron R.; Saulles, Adam R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Background Sleep apnea, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and obesity are features of metabolic syndrome associated with decreased restorative sleep and increased pain. These traits are relevant for anesthesiology because they confer increased risks of a negative anesthetic outcome. This study tested the one-tailed hypothesis that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity have enhanced nociception and disordered sleep. Methods Rats were from a breeding strategy that selected for low aerobic capacity runners (LCR) and high aerobic capacity runners (HCR). Four different phenotypes were quantified. Rats (n=12) underwent von Frey sensory testing, thermal nociceptive testing (n=12), electrographic recordings of sleep and wakefulness (n=16), and thermal nociceptive testing before and for six weeks after a unilateral chronic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve (n=14). Results Paw withdrawal latency to a thermal nociceptive stimulus was significantly (P<0.01) less in LCR than HCR rats. There were significant differences in sleep. LCR rats spent significantly (P<0.01) more time awake (18%) and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (−19%) than HCR rats. Non-rapid eye movement sleep episodes were of shorter duration (−34%) in LCR than HCR rats. Rapid eye movement sleep of LCR rats was significantly more fragmented than Rapid eye movement sleep of HCR rats. LCR rats required two weeks longer than HCR rats to recover from peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Rodents with low aerobic capacity exhibit features homologous to human metabolic syndrome. This rodent model offers a novel tool for characterizing the mechanisms through which low aerobic function and obesity might confer increased risks for anesthesia. PMID:20938334

  17. Hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koe, G G

    1989-07-01

    This case report describes the hypnotic treatment of Sleep Terror Disorder in a 16-year-old male who was resistant to other forms of treatment. In this patient, night terrors seemed to be precipitated by nocturnal noises wakening him from deep sleep. Posthypnotic suggestions reducing awareness of nocturnal sensory stimulation successfully eliminated his night terrors. PMID:2773819

  18. Sleep apnoea in acromegaly.

    PubMed Central

    Perks, W H; Horrocks, P M; Cooper, R A; Bradbury, S; Allen, A; Baldock, N; Prowse, K; van't Hoff, W

    1980-01-01

    Day time somnolence or excessive snoring, or both, occurred in five out of 11 patients with acromegaly. All five had episodes of sleep apnoea, and three had the sleep apnoea syndrome. Growth hormone concentrations were higher (p less than 0.025) in these patients than in the six patients without these symptoms. One patient with daytime somnolence and one asymptomatic patient had flow loop evidence of upper airways obstruction. Two of the patients with the sleep apnoea syndrome had cardiomegaly. Sleep apnoea appears to be common and clinically important in acromegaly, and it may be central, obstructive, or mixed. Polygraphic nocturnal monitoring is indicated to assess these patients properly. PMID:7388361

  19. H1N1 influenza virus induces narcolepsy-like sleep disruption and targets sleep–wake regulatory neurons in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tesoriero, Chiara; Codita, Alina; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Cherninsky, Andrij; Karlsson, Håkan; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Harkany, Tibor; Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas G. M.; Bentivoglio, Marina; Kristensson, Krister

    2016-01-01

    An increased incidence in the sleep-disorder narcolepsy has been associated with the 2009–2010 pandemic of H1N1 influenza virus in China and with mass vaccination campaigns against influenza during the pandemic in Finland and Sweden. Pathogenetic mechanisms of narcolepsy have so far mainly focused on autoimmunity. We here tested an alternative working hypothesis involving a direct role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in susceptible subjects. We show that infection with H1N1 influenza virus in mice that lack B and T cells (Recombinant activating gene 1-deficient mice) can lead to narcoleptic-like sleep–wake fragmentation and sleep structure alterations. Interestingly, the infection targeted brainstem and hypothalamic neurons, including orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons that regulate sleep–wake stability and are affected in narcolepsy. Because changes occurred in the absence of adaptive autoimmune responses, the findings show that brain infections with H1N1 virus have the potential to cause per se narcoleptic-like sleep disruption. PMID:26668381

  20. Nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with neuromuscular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bersanini, Chiara; Khirani, Sonia; Ramirez, Adriana; Lofaso, Frédéric; Aubertin, Guillaume; Beydon, Nicole; Mayer, Michèle; Maincent, Kim; Boulé, Michèle; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the study was to identify daytime predictors of nocturnal gas exchange anomalies in children with neuromuscular disease (NMD) and normal daytime gas exchange. Lung function tests, respiratory muscle evaluation and nocturnal gas exchange were obtained as part of routine evaluation. We included 52 consecutive children with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n = 20), spinal muscular atrophy (n = 10) and other NMD (n = 22). 20 patients had nocturnal hypoxaemia, defined as minimal arterial oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (S(p,O(2))) <90% for ≥ 2% of night time, and 22 had nocturnal hypercapnia, defined as maximal transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (P(tc,CO(2))) >50 mmHg for ≥ 2% of night time. Forced vital capacity and helium functional residual capacity correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.01, respectively). Daytime pH correlated negatively with maximal nocturnal P(tc,CO(2)) (p=0.005) and daytime arterial carbon dioxide tension (P(a,CO(2))) correlated with the percentage of time with a P(tc,CO(2)) >50 mmHg (p = 0.02). Sniff nasal inspiratory pressure correlated with minimal nocturnal S(p,O(2)) (p = 0.02). Daytime P(a,CO(2)) was a weak predictor of nocturnal hypercapnia (sensitivity 80%; specificity 57%). Daytime lung function and respiratory muscle parameters correlate poorly with nocturnal hypoxaemia and hypercapnia in children with NMD and normal daytime gas exchange, which necessitates more systematic sleep studies in these children. PMID:22135279

  1. Sleep-related violence.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A

    2005-03-01

    Most violent behaviors arise from wakefulness. It is important to realize that violent behaviors that may have forensic science implications can arise from the sleep period. By virtue of the fact that these behaviors arise from sleep, they are executed without conscious awareness, and, therefore, without culpability. The most common underlying conditions arising from sleep are disorders of arousal (sleepwalking and sleep terrors), the rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures. In addition, there are a number of psychiatric conditions (dissociative disorders, malingering, and Munchausen syndrome by proxy) that actually arise from periods of wakefulness occurring during the sleep period. The clinical and medico-legal evaluation of such cases is outlined, and should be performed by a multidisciplinary team of experienced sleep medicine practitioners. PMID:15743554

  2. Sleep and psychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Vivien C.; Guilleminault, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders constitute 15.4% of the disease burden in established market economies. Many psychiatric disorders are associated with sleep disturbances, and the relationship is often bidirectional. This paper reviews the prevalence of various psychiatric disorders, their clinical presentation, and their association with sleep disorders. Among the psychiatric disorders reviewed are affective disorders, psychosis, anxiety disorders (including post-traumatic stress disorder), substance abuse disorders, eating disorders, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders. The spectrum of associated sleep disorders includes insomnia, hypersomnia, nocturnal panic, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, restless legs/periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive sleep apnea, and parasomnias. The effects on sleep of various psychotropic medications utilized to treat the above psychiatric disorders are summarized. PMID:16416705

  3. Nocturnality and species survival.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1996-01-01

    Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers a dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. PMID:8876201

  4. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... predictive of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, even when depression, drug-use, alcohol-related problems, PTSD, and hopelessness have been controlled (Ribeiro et al., 2012; Wong & Brower, 2012). Bjørngaard et al. (2011), in a ... adjusting for depression and symptoms of anxiety. Further, they showed a ...

  5. Sleep and Stroke.

    PubMed

    Mims, Kimberly Nicole; Kirsch, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Evidence increasingly suggests sleep disorders are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular events, including stroke. Strong data correlate untreated sleep apnea with poorer stroke outcomes and more recent evidence implicates sleep disruption as a possible etiology for increased cerebrovascular events. Also, sleep duration may affect incidence of cardiovascular events. In addition, sleep-disordered breathing, insomnia, restless legs syndrome, and parasomnias can occur as a result of cerebrovascular events. Treatment of sleep disorders improve sleep-related symptoms and may also improve stroke recovery and risk of future events. PMID:26972032

  6. When to Suspect Sleep Apnea and What to Do About It.

    PubMed

    Kimoff, R John

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep with resultant hypoxia-reoxygenation and sleep fragmentation, is prevalent among patients with cardiovascular disease. Refractory hypertension, nocturnal angina or arrhythmias, and stroke in particular should prompt consideration of OSA. The symptoms of OSA include snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness; risk factors include obesity and reduced upper airway dimensions. Up to 50% of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) may manifest OSA, central sleep apnea-Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR), or both. Patients with CSA-CSR may present with fatigue, disrupted sleep, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Objective sleep recording is required to document the nature and severity of sleep apnea. The gold standard is in-laboratory overnight polysomnography (PSG), including monitoring of electroencephalography and other signals to determine sleep-wake state, and recording of body position, airflow, respiratory effort, and pulse oximetry. Portable cardiorespiratory recorders are now approved for diagnosis in patients without comorbidities. Full PSG is recommended for diagnosis in all other cases, although OSA and CSA-CSR can be identified from portable recorders in some patients with CHF and other conditions. The objectives of treatment are to improve symptoms, quality of life, and cardiovascular outcomes. The mainstay of treatment for moderate-to-severe OSA is positive airway pressure (PAP). Automated PAP devices may be used in uncomplicated OSA, whereas continuous fixed PAP is the treatment of choice for other patients with OSA, and may also treat a proportion of patients with CSA-CSR. A form of bi-level PAP known as adaptive servoventilation is effective in treating a majority of patients with CSA-CSR. PMID:26112305

  7. Association of Nocturnal Hypoxemia with Progression of CKD

    PubMed Central

    Hatta, Tsuguru; Hayashi, Terumasa; Shoji, Tatsuya; Suzuki, Akira; Tomida, Kodo; Okada, Noriyuki; Rakugi, Hiromi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Nocturnal hypoxemia is highly prevalent among patients with CKD. Nocturnal hypoxemia contributes to systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, endothelial cell dysfunction, and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which are common pathologic mechanisms of CKD progression. This study investigated whether nocturnal hypoxemia is independently associated with CKD progression. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This two-center retrospective cohort study included 161 patients with stages 3–4 CKD enrolled from January of 2009 to July of 2011 with a body mass index less than 25.0 kg/m2. The 4% oxygen desaturation index, the number of events per hour in which oxygen saturation decreases by >4% during sleep, was measured, and the declining rate of the estimated GFR was followed over 1 year. The severity of nocturnal hypoxemia was categorized as none (oxygen desaturation index<5.0), mild (5.0≤oxygen desaturation index<15.0), or moderate to severe (15.0≤oxygen desaturation index). Results The mean estimated GFR of the total cohort at baseline was 31 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Eighty patients (49.7%) were diagnosed with nocturnal hypoxemia; 64 patients were diagnosed with mild nocturnal hypoxemia, and 16 patients were diagnosed with moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia. The estimated GFR declined three- to fourfold faster in patients with moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia than patients with no or mild nocturnal hypoxemia (the mean values [95% confidence intervals] were −2.14 [−1.06 to −3.21], −3.02 [−1.31 to −4.74], and −8.59 [−2.00 to −15.2] ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year in the no, mild, and moderate-to-severe nocturnal hypoxemia groups, respectively; P=0.003). Nocturnal hypoxemia remained a significant predictor of decline in estimated GFR after adjustment for various baseline clinical factors. Conclusions In nonobese patients with CKD, nocturnal hypoxemia is an independent risk factor of a rapid decline

  8. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  9. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  10. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26912959

  11. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  12. Nocturnal periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schulz, R; Baseler, G; Ghofrani, H A; Grimminger, F; Olschewski, H; Seeger, W

    2002-04-01

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration is frequently observed in congestive heart failure. Among other factors, prolongation of circulation time, hypocapnia and hypoxia are thought to underlie this sleep-related breathing disorder. Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is also characterized by reduced cardiac output and blood gas alterations. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether a nocturnal periodic breathing (PB) occurs in PPH. A total of 20 consecutive patients with PPH who had been admitted for pharmacological investigation of pulmonary vasoreactivity were investigated by lung function testing, right heart catheterization and full-night attended polysomnography. PB was detected in six patients (30%) (mean +/- SEM: apnoea/hypopnoea index 37 +/- 5 h(-1); arterial oxygen saturation was <90% during 56 +/- 6.5% of total sleep time). The patients with PB had more severe haemodynamic impairment than those without. They also had a more marked reduction in the pulmonary diffusion capacity and greater arterial hypoxia. PB was markedly improved or even eradicated by nasal oxygen during the night. Periodic breathing occurs in patients with advanced primary pulmonary hypertension and can be reversed by nocturnal nasal oxygen. The clinical and prognostic significance of periodic breathing in primary pulmonary hypertension needs to be determined by further studies. PMID:11998995

  13. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  14. d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Hasan, Sibah; Tam, Shu K E; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-05-01

    d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Convergent evidence implicates DAO in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia. To better understand the functional role of DAO, we characterized the behaviour of the first genetically engineered Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mouse. Our primary objective was to assess both spatial and non-spatial short-term memory performance. Relative to wildtype (Dao(+/+) ) littermate controls, Dao(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced spatial recognition memory performance, improved odour recognition memory performance, and enhanced spontaneous alternation in the T-maze. In addition, Dao(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in five tests of approach/avoidance conflict: the open field test, elevated plus maze, successive alleys, light/dark box and novelty-suppressed feeding. Despite evidence of a reciprocal relationship between anxiety and sleep and circadian function in rodents, we found no evidence of sleep or circadian rhythm disruption in Dao(-/-) mice. Overall, our observations are consistent with, and extend, findings in the natural mutant ddY/Dao(-) line. These data add to a growing body of preclinical evidence linking the inhibition, inactivation or deletion of DAO with enhanced cognitive performance. Our results have implications for the development of DAO inhibitors as therapeutic agents. PMID:25816902

  15. Dream-disturbed sleep in insomnia and narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Bliwise, D L; Lebret-Bories, E; Guilleminault, C; Dement, W C

    1993-05-01

    Both patients with narcolepsy and insomnia frequently present clinically with nocturnal sleep disrupted by disturbing dreams. Polysomnographic correlates of these reports are unclear. In this study, 24 patients with psychophysiological insomnia and 16 patients with narcolepsy were compared on selected polysomnographic and self-reported typical dream characteristics. As a group, patients with narcolepsy showed more frightening, recurrent dreams and shorter rapid eye movement (REM) segments when compared with patients with insomnia. However, within the narcolepsy group, there were few correlations between typical dream characteristics and any measure of REM segment length or REM density. In the insomnia group, shorter REM segments and higher REM density were related to typically more vivid, frightening, and disrupted dreaming. We speculate that the mechanisms of disturbed dream recall may be different in insomnia and narcolepsy. PMID:8501449

  16. Disruption of behavioral circadian rhythms induced by psychophysiological stress affects plasma free amino acid profiles without affecting peripheral clock gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Miyazaki, Koyomi; Nemoto, Tadashi; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Kaneda, Hirotaka

    2014-07-18

    Disordered circadian rhythms are associated with various psychiatric conditions and metabolic diseases. We recently established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by reduced amplitude of circadian wheel-running activity and sleep-wake cycles, sleep fragmentation and hyperphagia. Here, we evaluate day-night fluctuations in plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), appetite hormones and prolactin as well as the hepatic expression of circadian clock-related genes in mice with CSD (CSD mice). Nocturnal increases in wheel-running activity and circadian rhythms of plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly disrupted in CSD mice. Hyperphagia with a decreased leptin/ghrelin ratio was found in CSD mice. Day-night fluctuations in plasma FAA contents were severely disrupted without affecting total FAA levels in CSD mice. Nocturnal increases in branched-chain amino acids such as Ile, Leu, and Val were further augmented in CSD mice, while daytime increases in Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Lys, Arg, His, Tyr, Met, Cys, Glu, and Asn were significantly attenuated. Importantly, the circadian expression of hepatic clock genes was completely unaffected in CSD mice. These findings suggest that circadian clock gene expression does not always reflect disordered behavior and sleep rhythms and that plasma FFA profiles could serve as a potential biomarker of circadian rhythm disorders. PMID:24971530

  17. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dubé, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11–15 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y ± 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (μV), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep. PMID

  18. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  19. Periodic leg movements in prepubertal children with sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Sandra; Guilleminault, Christian

    2004-11-01

    This study's aims were to determine: (1) prevalence of periodic leg movements (PLMs) in walking prepubertal children consulting a sleep clinic for any sleep disorder; (2) associations between PLMs and other sleep and medical disorders; and (3) the response of other sleep disorders to treatment with the dopamine agonist pramipexol. Clinical evaluation and polysomnography were carried out for a period of 12 months on 252 consecutively seen, prepubertal children with sleep disorders (156 males, 96 females; aged 15mo to 11y, mean 7y 1mo, SD3y 10mo). Sleep disorders unrelated to PLMs were treated, and six children received pramipexol for PLMs. Follow-up included clinical evaluation and polysomnography. Twenty-three per cent of children were diagnosed with PLMs on the basis of polysomnography. The presence of PLMs had usually been unrecognized clinically. The only clinical symptom that could be related to periodic limb movement disorder was a report of leg pains at morning awakening. Only two of 58 children had PLMs without other clinical or polysomnographic findings. Comorbidity seen with PLMs included neuropsychiatric syndromes (n=20), isolated sleep disordered breathing (SDB; n=29), and several other comorbid conditions (n=7). Seven of 11 children seen with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder also had PLMs. Surgery for SDB was associated with subsequent cessation of PLMs in 15 of 29 children. Five out of six children with PLMs who received pramipexol were able to tolerate the drug and experienced a complete disappearance of their PLMs. Presence of chronic fatigue, sleepiness, disrupted nocturnal sleep, and difficulties in falling asleep should lead to a systematic search for PLMs that is independent of associated syndromes. Isolated treatment of SDB might help eliminate some, but not all, PLMs. PMID:15540638

  20. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  1. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  2. Parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE): lights and shadows--controversial points in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Provini, Federica; Leta, Chiara; Lugaresi, Elio; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by seizures with complex, often bizarre, violent behaviour arising only or mainly during sleep. These unusual seizures and their occurrence during sleep are often accompanied by normal EEG tracings and neuroradiological findings, making it difficult to distinguish NFLE seizures from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. NFLE was described for the first time in 1981, but, as its epileptic origin was controversial, the condition was called nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the problem of differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. This paper discusses some controversial points still under debate. The difficulties in distinguishing nocturnal epileptic seizures from parasomnias reflect just one aspect of the intriguing issue of the pathophysiological relationships between all types of paroxysmal motor behaviours during sleep. PMID:22136895

  3. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    PubMed Central

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  4. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is

  5. Nocturnal indicators of increased cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Waloszek, Joanna M; Woods, Michael J; Byrne, Michelle L; Nicholas, Christian L; Bei, Bei; Murray, Greg; Raniti, Monika; Allen, Nicholas B; Trinder, John

    2016-04-01

    Depression is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in adults, and recent literature suggests preclinical signs of cardiovascular risk are also present in depressed adolescents. No study has examined the effect of clinical depression on cardiovascular factors during sleep. This study examined the relationship between clinical depression and nocturnal indicators of cardiovascular risk in depressed adolescent girls from the general community (13-18 years old; 11 clinically depressed, eight healthy control). Continuous beat-to-beat finger arterial blood pressure and heart rate were monitored via Portapres and electrocardiogram, respectively. Cardiovascular data were averaged over each hour for the first 6 h of sleep, as well as in 2-min epochs of stable sleep that were then averaged within sleep stages. Data were also averaged across 2-min epochs of pre-sleep wakefulness and the first 5 min of continuous non-rapid eye movement sleep to investigate the blood pressure dipping response over the sleep-onset period. Compared with controls, depressed adolescents displayed a similar but significantly elevated blood pressure profile across sleep. Depressed adolescents had significantly higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressures across the entire night (P < 0.01), as well as during all sleep stages (P < 0.001). Depressed adolescents also had higher blood pressure across the sleep-onset period, but the groups did not differ in the rate of decline across the period. Higher blood pressure during sleep in depressed adolescent females suggests that depression has a significant association with cardiovascular functioning during sleep in adolescent females, which may increase risk for future cardiovascular pathology. PMID:26543013

  6. The Superior Sleep of Healthy Elderly Nuns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, Carolyn C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared nocturnal sleep structure of 10 healthy elderly nuns to that of 10 healthy age-matched female controls. The nuns fell asleep more quickly and had less early morning awakening, as well as greater rapid eye movement sleep time. These differences may reflect the more highly entrained life style of the nuns, including modest habitual sleep…

  7. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  8. Behavioral Treatment for Nocturnal Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most prevalent and distressing of all childhood problems. The treatment of nocturnal enuresis has shifted in the past few decades from a strictly psychopathological perspective to a biobehavioral perspective. Although the primary clinical features of this disorder are medical/organic, there is currently strong…

  9. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  10. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  11. Nocturnal blood pressure profiles among normotensive, controlled hypertensive and refractory hypertensive subjects

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Oded; Logan, Alexander G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nocturnal blood pressure abnormalities are independently associated with an increased risk of death and cardiovascular disease. It is unclear, however, whether they are related to the presence or severity of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To determine and compare the prevalence of sleep pattern disturbances in normotensive (NT) and hypertensive patients. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study assessed the nocturnal blood pressure profiles from 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring of refractory hypertensive (RH) (n=26), controlled hypertensive (CH) (n=52) and NT (n=52) subjects who were matched for age, sex and body mass index. Results are expressed as mean ± SD or proportion, as appropriate. RESULTS: During sleep, the percentage fall in mean arterial pressure was 15.1±6.1% in the NT group, 11.5±7.0% in the CH group and 7.7±7.7% in the RH group (P<0.0001). The corresponding proportions of nondipping were 25.0%, 42.3% and 61.5%, respectively (P=0.006), and those of nocturnal hypertension were 9.6%, 23.1% and 84.6%, respectively (P<0.0001). All pairwise comparisons of nocturnal blood pressure fall were significant. The proportion of subjects in the RH group who experienced a rise in nocturnal blood pressure (19.2%) was significantly greater than the proportions in the NT and CH groups (P=0.001), as was the proportion of subjects with nocturnal hypertension (P<0.0001). There was less extreme dipping in RH, although the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.08). CONCLUSIONS: A significantly higher prevalence of nondipping, nocturnal hypertension and nocturnal blood pressure rising in RH was demonstrated. These sleep disturbances or independently, their cause, may account for the difficulties in attaining blood pressure control. PMID:19746250

  12. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total

  13. Short-term sleep deprivation disrupts the molecular composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in entorhinal cortex and impairs the rat spatial reference memory.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Li, Chao; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Jiali; Hu, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies reported that sleep deprivation (SD) causes impairment in spatial cognitive performance. However, the molecular mechanisms affected by SD underlying this behavioral phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we focused on the entorhinal cortex (EC), the gateway of the hippocampus, and investigated how SD affected the subunit expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, the main ionotropic glutamategic receptors serving a pivotal role in spatial cognition. In EC, we found 4h SD remarkably reduced surface expression of GluA1, while there was an increase in the surface expression of GluA2 and GluA3. As for NMDARs, SD with short duration significantly reduced the surface expression levels of GluN1 and GluN2B without effect on the GluN2A. In parallel with the alterations in AMPARs and NMDARs, we found the 4h SD impaired rat spatial reference memory as assessed by Morris water maze task. Overall, these data indicate that brief SD differently affects the AMPAR and NMDAR subunit expressions in EC and might consequently disrupt the composition and functional properties of these receptors. PMID:26455878

  14. Diabetes, sleep disorders, and male sexual function.

    PubMed

    Schiavi, R C; Stimmel, B B; Mandeli, J; Rayfield, E J

    1993-08-01

    The prevalence and role of sleep disorders in the sexual problems of diabetic patients remain unexplored. This study was conducted on 40 diabetic men carefully screened to exclude the confounding effects of other medical illnesses or drugs likely to impair sexual function and 40 age-matched healthy volunteers. They underwent an extensive psychosexual interview, medical and psychiatric evaluations, and three recorded nights in a sleep laboratory. Electroencephalogram, eye movements, muscle tone, and nocturnal penile tumescence were monitored continuously. Respiratory airflow and bilateral anterior tibialis recordings were obtained during the first sleep session. Diabetic men had significantly higher prevalences of respiratory and periodic leg movement disturbances during sleep. There was clinical, although not nocturnal penile tumescence, evidence suggesting that respiratory abnormalities during sleep are associated with erectile difficulties in diabetic men. Future studies should include blood oxygenation and respiratory effort measures to clarify the significance of sleep-related airflow disturbances in diabetic patients. PMID:8399810

  15. Extended Driving Impairs Nocturnal Driving Performances

    PubMed Central

    Sagaspe, Patricia; Taillard, Jacques; Åkerstedt, Torbjorn; Bayon, Virginie; Espié, Stéphane; Chaumet, Guillaume; Bioulac, Bernard; Philip, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Though fatigue and sleepiness at the wheel are well-known risk factors for traffic accidents, many drivers combine extended driving and sleep deprivation. Fatigue-related accidents occur mainly at night but there is no experimental data available to determine if the duration of prior driving affects driving performance at night. Participants drove in 3 nocturnal driving sessions (3–5am, 1–5am and 9pm–5am) on open highway. Fourteen young healthy men (mean age [±SD] = 23.4 [±1.7] years) participated Inappropriate line crossings (ILC) in the last hour of driving of each session, sleep variables, self-perceived fatigue and sleepiness were measured. Compared to the short (3–5am) driving session, the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings increased by 2.6 (95% CI, 1.1 to 6.0; P<.05) for the intermediate (1–5am) driving session and by 4.0 (CI, 1.7 to 9.4; P<.001) for the long (9pm–5am) driving session. Compared to the reference session (9–10pm), the incidence rate ratio of inappropriate line crossings were 6.0 (95% CI, 2.3 to 15.5; P<.001), 15.4 (CI, 4.6 to 51.5; P<.001) and 24.3 (CI, 7.4 to 79.5; P<.001), respectively, for the three different durations of driving. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness scores were both positively correlated to driving impairment in the intermediate and long duration sessions (P<.05) and increased significantly during the nocturnal driving sessions compared to the reference session (P<.01). At night, extended driving impairs driving performances and therefore should be limited. PMID:18941525

  16. Sleep Disturbances in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders appear to be frequent comorbidities in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness commonly occur in patients with FTD and significantly contribute to caregiver burden and burnout. Sleep is severely fragmented in FTD patients, likely secondary to behavioral disturbances, other primary sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and restless leg syndrome, and neurodegeneration of nuclei involved in sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of primary sleep disorders may improve excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality and may improve daytime cognitive functioning. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is rare in FTD and may be confused with excessive nocturnal activity due to disturbed circadian rhythm. The relationship between FTD, sleep quality, and sleep disorders requires further study to better understand the contribution of disturbed sleep to daytime neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in FTD. Further, future studies should focus on comparing sleep disturbances between different FTD syndromes, especially behavioral variant FTD and primary progressive aphasia. Comorbid sleep disorders should be promptly sought and treated in patients with FTD to improve patient and caregiver quality of life. PMID:27485946

  17. Circadian and Melatonin Disruption by Exposure to Light at Night Drives Intrinsic Resistance to Tamoxifen Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A.; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G.; Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to anti-estrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of ERα+ MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speeds the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characters were not produced in animals where circadian rhythms were not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to re-establish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

  18. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Geetanjali; Larsen, Paul; Parakh, Manish; Fernandez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively in sleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE). NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved. PMID:24383033

  19. Sleep and Eating Disorders.

    PubMed

    Allison, Kelly C; Spaeth, Andrea; Hopkins, Christina M

    2016-10-01

    Insomnia is related to an increased risk of eating disorders, while eating disorders are related to more disrupted sleep. Insomnia is also linked to poorer treatment outcomes for eating disorders. However, over the last decade, studies examining sleep and eating disorders have relied on surveys, with no objective measures of sleep for anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and only actigraphy data for binge eating disorder. Sleep disturbance is better defined for night eating syndrome, where sleep efficiency is reduced and melatonin release is delayed. Studies that include objectively measured sleep and metabolic parameters combined with psychiatric comorbidity data would help identify under what circumstances eating disorders and sleep disturbance produce an additive effect for symptom severity and for whom poor sleep would increase risk for an eating disorder. Cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia may be a helpful addition to treatment of those with both eating disorder and insomnia. PMID:27553980

  20. The function of nocturnal transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Loik, Michael; Tissue, David

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal transpiration is an important source of water loss, accounting for up to 25% of daytime transpiration in some species. Nocturnal water losses cannot be explained under the prevailing 'paradigm' of optimizing carbon gain while minimizing water loss because carbon fixation does not occur at night. Alternative explanations regarding the function and potential evolutionary advantage of nocturnal transpiration have been proposed, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and transport or delivery of O2 to parenchyma cells for respiration. However, recent evidence suggests that the role of nocturnal transpiration in supplementing the overall plant nutrient budget is relatively small, and the O2 hypothesis is difficult to test experimentally. Here, we propose that the main function of nocturnal transpiration (and water transport) is to prevent catastrophic xylem failure by restoring depleted stem 'capacitors' and enhancing early morning CO2 uptake, as stomata 'prepare' for daytime conditions. Nocturnal sap flux was highest in Eucalyptus grandis trees in the field following a heat wave (reaching 47C with VPDs > 8kPa in the daytime) generating maximal daytime water losses compared with cooler and lower VPD periods, indicating the importance of nocturnal stomatal conductance for stem refilling. Moreover, we observed that the time for stomata to respond to light early in the morning (dawn) across 25 different genotypes of E. camaldulensis in a glasshouse was shortest in those genotypes with highest nocturnal stomatal conductance, which was also correlated with higher daytime photosynthesis. This observation is consistent with previous observations that nocturnal stomatal conductance is partially controlled by the clock, which is utilised to anticipate daytime conditions. Data from the literature suggests that eucalypts respond similarly to other C3 species, suggesting that mechanisms regulating night-time transpiration may be universal.

  1. Nocturnal orgasm in college women: its relation to dreams and anxiety associated with sexual factors.

    PubMed

    Henton, C L

    1976-12-01

    Ss (N = 774 female undergraduates) were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Chi-square analysis revealed that a differential exists between academic levels with senior experiencing states of sexual excitement more than freshmen, sophomores, and juniors. Sexual excitement during sleeping hours and a high degree of anxiety were positively related. PMID:1003178

  2. Nocturnal activity of nesting shrubland and grassland passerines: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slay, Christy M.; Ellison, Kevin S.; Ribic, Christine; Smith, Kimberly G.; Schmitz, Carolyn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nocturnal activity of nesting passerines is largely undocumented in field situations. We used video recordings to quantify sleep patterns of four shrubland and three grassland bird species during the nestling period. All species exhibited “back sleep” (bill tucked under scapular feathers); individuals woke frequently for vigils of their surroundings. Sleep-bout duration varied from 6 minutes (grasshopper sparrow) to 28 minutes (blue-winged warbler, field sparrow). Duration on nest varied from 6.4 hours (field sparrow) to 8.8 hours (indigo bunting). Adults woke 20–30 minutes before sunrise. First morning absence from the nest was short; nestlings were fed within 12 minutes of a parent’s departure. Further research is needed to understand energetic costs of sleep and behavioral adaptations to environmental pressures.

  3. Sleep and the response to hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Jauch-Chara, Kamila; Schultes, Bernd

    2010-10-01

    Undetected nocturnal hypoglycaemia frequently occurs in patients with diabetes, having a negative influence on well-being, counterregulation against and awareness of subsequent hypoglycaemia, and even causing sudden death in some cases most likely by inducing cardiac arrhythmia. Sleep markedly weakens the neuroendocrine defence mechanism against hypoglycaemia by shifting the glycaemic threshold for counterregulatory activation to lower levels. While hypoglycaemia triggers awakening in healthy subjects, patients with type 1 diabetes frequently fail to awake in the presence of low plasma glucose levels. Little is known about the frequency of and responses to nocturnal hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Unfortunately, effective strategies to prevent or even safely detect nocturnal hypoglycaemia are still lacking. Taken together, hypoglycaemia occurring during sleep presents a major, often neglected problem in the management of diabetic patients. Different aspects of this phenomenon such as responses to and consequences of nocturnal hypoglycaemia as well as strategies for its prevention are highlighted in this review. PMID:21112027

  4. Prospective Study of 2 Bed Alarms for Detection of Nocturnal Seizures.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Stephen; Poppel, Kate Van; McGregor, Amy; Ellis, Michelle; Patters, Andrea; Wheless, James

    2013-11-01

    For parents of children with epilepsy, seizures occurring in sleep are a major concern. Risk factors for sudden unexplained death in epilepsy patients include being in bed and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A device for detecting nocturnal seizure activity would be valuable. Children with various seizure types undergoing evaluation had standard video electroencephalography (EEG), cardiopulmonary and nursing monitoring, and 1 of 2 models (ST-2 and MP5) of a Medpage bed alarm. The video EEG record was reviewed to detect any seizures missed by the bed alarms or caregivers. The ability of the bed alarms to detect motor seizures in general and specific seizure types was tested. In 15 patients, 69 seizures were recorded by video EEG. The ST-2 did not detect any nocturnal seizures. The MP5 alarm detected 1 of 15 in sleeping patients: a generalized tonic-clonic seizure. The Medpage seizure alarms do not appear to adequately detect nocturnal seizures. PMID:23076428

  5. Nocturnal angina: precipitating factors in patients with coronary artery disease and those with variant angina.

    PubMed

    Quyyumi, A A; Efthimiou, J; Quyyumi, A; Mockus, L J; Spiro, S G; Fox, K M

    1986-10-01

    Factors precipitating nocturnal myocardial ischaemia were investigated in 10 patients with frequent daytime and nocturnal angina pectoris. Eight patients had fixed obstructive coronary artery disease or a low exercise threshold or both before the onset of ischaemia. Two patients had variant angina with normal coronary arteries and negative exercise tests. During sleep the electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram, electro-oculogram, electromyogram, chest wall movements, nasal airflow, and oxygen saturation were continuously measured. Forty two episodes of transient ST segment depression were recorded in the eight patients with coronary artery disease and 26 episodes of ST segment depression and elevation in the two patients with variant angina and normal coronary arteries. All episodes of ST segment depression in the former group of patients were preceded by an increase in heart rate as a result of arousal and lightening of sleep, bodily movements, rapid eye movement sleep, or sleep apnoea (one episode). In contrast, in the variant angina group no increase in heart rate, arousal, or apnoea preceded 23 of the 26 episodes of ST segment change. Thus increase in myocardial oxygen demand was important in precipitating nocturnal angina in patients with coronary artery disease and reduced coronary reserve. In the patients with coronary spasm these factors did not often precede the onset of nocturnal myocardial ischaemia. PMID:3768213

  6. Nocturnal and respiratory disturbances in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (progressive supranuclear palsy).

    PubMed Central

    De Bruin, V. S.; Machado, C.; Howard, R. S.; Hirsch, N. P.; Lees, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Respiratory and sleep disturbances may be important causes of morbidity in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome but the frequency and character of nocturnal abnormalities remains uncertain. A prospective study of 11 patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome and age-matched control subjects was undertaken using clinical assessments, a structured sleep questionnaire, spirometry, static maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures and nocturnal oximetry. The mean age of the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome patients was 63.2 (52-70) years and mean disease duration was 4.0 (2-6) years. There was moderate to severe motor disability in nine and mild to moderate dementia in eight. In the patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome the following abnormalities contributed to sleep disturbances significantly more frequently than in normal controls: depression, dysphagia, frequent nocturnal awakenings (usually associated with urinary frequency), immobility in bed, difficulty with transfers, impaired dressing and feeding. There was profound impairment of voluntary respiratory control whilst automatic and limbic control were well maintained. Nocturnal respiratory abnormalities were not present even in the most severely disabled. In Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome sleep abnormalities are common; they relate to the cognitive, pseudobulbar and extrapyramidal disturbances and may therefore be amenable to symptomatic control. PMID:8761503

  7. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  8. Nocturnal lagophthalmos: an overview and classification.

    PubMed

    Latkany, Robert L; Lock, Barbara; Speaker, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal lagophthalmos is the inability to close the eyelids during sleep. Lagophthalmos is associated with exposure keratopathy, poor sleep, and persistent exposure-related symptoms. There are a variety of causes of lagophthalmos, grouped as proptosis/eye exposure etiologies and palpebral insufficiency etiologies. Although obvious lagophthalmos is usually detected, it is sometimes difficult to recognize obscure lagophthalmos, due either to eyelash obstruction or overhang of the upper lid anterior and inferior to the most superior portion of the lower lid in a closed position. We present a novel classification system and illustrations of obvious and obscure lagophthalmos. A diagnosis can usually be made with a focused history and slit lamp examination. Treatment is multipronged and may include minor procedures or ocular surgery to correct the lid malposition; natural, topical or oral agents; and punctal plugs to manage ocular surface effects. Correct and timely diagnosis allows greater opportunity for relief of patient suffering and prevention of severe ocular surface pathology, as well as educated planning for future ocular surgical procedures. PMID:16671223

  9. An Actigraphy Study of Sleep and Pain in Midlife Women – The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Owens, Jane; Hall, Martica H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether women reporting nighttime pain would have more actigraphy-measured evidence for disturbed sleep and report feeling less rested compared to women without nighttime pain. Methods Up to 27 consecutive nights of actigraphy and sleep diary data were analyzed from each participant in this community-based study of 314 African-American (n=118), White (n=141), and Chinese (n=55) women, aged 48-58 years, who were pre-, peri- or post-menopausal and participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Dependent variables were actigraphy-measured movement and fragmentation index, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency, and diary self-report of feeling rested after waking up. All outcomes were fit using linear mixed effect models to examine covariate-adjusted associations between the independent variable, nighttime pain severity, and sleep outcomes. Results Higher pain severity scores were associated with longer sleep duration but reduced sleep efficiency and feeling less rested. Women reporting nocturnal vasomotor symptoms had more sleep-related movement and sleep fragmentation, reduced sleep efficiency, and were less likely to feel rested after wakening, regardless of whether they reported pain. Conclusions Midlife women who report higher nighttime pain levels have more objective evidence for less efficient sleep, consistent with self-reported less restful sleep. Nocturnal vasomotor symptoms also can contribute to restlessness and wakefulness in midlife women. PMID:25706182

  10. Does sleep improve memory organization?

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Masashi; Furuta, Hisakazu; Sumiyoshi, Tomiki; Suzuki, Michio; Ochiai, Yoko; Hosokawa, Munehito; Matsui, Mie; Kurachi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can integrate information into existing memory networks, look for common patterns and distil overarching rules, or simply stabilize and strengthen the memory exactly as it was learned. Recent research has shown that sleep facilitates abstraction of gist information as well as integration across multiple memories, insight into hidden solutions, and even the ability to make creative connections between distantly related ideas and concepts. To investigate the effect of sleep on memory organization, 35 normal volunteers were randomly assigned either to the sleep (n = 17) or wake group (n = 18). The sleep subjects performed the Japanese Verbal Learning Test (JVLT), a measure of learning and memory, three times in the evening, and slept. On the following morning (9 h later), they were asked to recall the words on the list. The wake subjects took the same test in the morning, and were asked to recall the words in the same time interval as in the sleep group. The semantic clustering ratio (SCR), divided by the total number of words recalled, was used as an index of memory organization. Our main interest was whether the sleep subjects elicit a greater increase in this measure from the third to the fourth assessments. Time × Group interaction effect on SCR was not significant between the sleep group and wake group as a whole. Meanwhile, the change in the SCR between the third and fourth trials was negatively correlated with duration of nocturnal waking in the sleep group, but not other sleep indices. Based on this observation, further analysis was conducted for subjects in the sleep group who awoke nocturnally for <60 min for comparison with the wake group. A significant Time × Group interaction was noted; these "good-sleepers" showed a significantly greater improvement in the memory index compared with the wake subjects. These results provide the first suggestion that sleep may enhance memory organization, which requires further study. PMID