Sample records for nocturnal sleep disruption

  1. Changes in nocturnal sleep in Huntington's and Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Emser; M. Brenner; T. Stober; K. Schimrigk

    1988-01-01

    There have been no reports of studies on nocturnal sleep or quantitative studies of sleep spindle density in Huntington's disease, whereas sleep in Parkinson's disease has been extensively reported. We therefore examined nocturnal sleep changes in patients with Parkinson's and Huntington's disease and compared them with a control group. The previously reported decrease in sleep spindle density was observed in

  2. Sensory processing during early and late nocturnal sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Plihal; S. Weaver; M. Mölle; H. L. Fehm; J. Born

    1996-01-01

    The present experiments in 10 healthy men compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and heart rate (HR) indicators of stimulus processing during early and late phases of nocturnal stage 2 sleep. Definition of early and late sleep relied on endocrine pituitary-adrenal secretory activity which is known to be inhibited during early nocturnal sleep but sharply increases during late sleep. AEPs and

  3. Nocturnal sleep in multisystem atrophy with autonomic failure: polygraphic findings in ten patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Manni; R. Morini; E. Martignoni; C. Pacchetti; G. Micieli; A. Tartara

    1993-01-01

    A nocturnal polysomnographic study with infrared video-monitoring was performed in ten patients with multisystem atrophy with autonomic failure (MSA-AF) (seven males, three females; median age: 54 years), selected irrespective of the presence of sleep complaints. The MSA-AF patients showed disrupted sleep patterns. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of REM sleep were found, some of which resembled those seen in patients with

  4. Age-Related Reduction in Daytime Sleep Propensity and Nocturnal Slow Wave Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.; Stanley, Neil; Deacon, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether age-related and experimental reductions in SWS and sleep continuity are associated with increased daytime sleep propensity. Methods: Assessment of daytime sleep propensity under baseline conditions and following experimental disruption of SWS. Healthy young (20-30 y, n = 44), middle-aged (40-55 y, n = 35) and older (66-83 y, n = 31) men and women, completed a 2-way parallel group study. After an 8-h baseline sleep episode, subjects were randomized to 2 nights with selective SWS disruption by acoustic stimuli, or without disruption, followed by 1 recovery night. Objective and subjective sleep propensity were assessed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). Findings: During baseline sleep, SWS decreased (P < 0.001) and the number of awakenings increased (P < 0.001) across the 3 age groups. During the baseline day, MSLT values increased across the three age groups (P < 0.0001) with mean values of 8.7min (SD: 4.5), 11.7 (5.1) and 14.2 (4.1) in the young, middle-aged, and older adults, respectively. KSS values were 3.7 (1.0), 3.2 (0.9), and 3.4 (0.6) (age-group: P = 0.031). Two nights of SWS disruption led to a reduction in MSLT and increase in KSS in all 3 age groups (SWS disruption vs. control: P < 0.05 in all cases). Conclusions: Healthy aging is associated with a reduction in daytime sleep propensity, sleep continuity, and SWS. In contrast, experimental disruption of SWS leads to an increase in daytime sleep propensity. The age-related decline in SWS and reduction in daytime sleep propensity may reflect a lessening in homeostatic sleep requirement. Healthy older adults without sleep disorders can expect to be less sleepy during the daytime than young adults. Citation: Dijk DJ; Groeger JA; Stanley N; Deacon S. Age-related reduction in daytime sleep propensity and nocturnal slow wave sleep. SLEEP 2010;33(2):211-223. PMID:20175405

  5. Breathing during Sleep in Patients with Nocturnal Desaturation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HEINRICH F. BECKER; AMANDA J. PIPER; WENDY E. FLYNN; STEPHEN G. M C NAMARA; RON R. GRUNSTEIN; J. HERMANN PETER; COLIN E. SULLIVAN

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to hypoxemia during sleep in patients with respiratory failure remain poorly understood, with few studies providing a measure of minute ventilation ( I ) during sleep. The aim of this study was to measure ventilation during sleep in patients with nocturnal desaturation secondary to different respiratory diseases. The 26 patients studied had diagnoses of chronic obstructive pulmo-

  6. Pathology of the brain and the structure of nocturnal sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veyn, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    An electropolygraphic comparison series of the nocturnal sleep of 126 patients with neurological disorders and 10 persons who were normally healthy is reported. Perturbations in sleep duration are noted in various neurological disorders, with alteration in the length of sleep, however, insignificant. In narcolepsy, stage perturbation is noted.

  7. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential injurious or bothersome to other household members. Clonazepam and melatonin (3-12 mg) are highly effective for treating RBD. PMID:20525541

  8. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal heart rate variability and sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Myllymäki, Tero; Rusko, Heikki; Syväoja, Heidi; Juuti, Tanja; Kinnunen, Marja-Liisa; Kyröläinen, Heikki

    2012-03-01

    Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV) after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal HR, HRV, HR, and HRV-based relaxation, as well as on actigraphic and subjective sleep quality. Fourteen healthy male subjects (age 36 ± 4 years, maximal oxygen uptake 49 ± 4 ml/kg/min) performed five different running exercises on separate occasions starting at 6 p.m. with HR guidance at home. The effect of intensity was studied with 30 min of exercises at intensities corresponding to HR level at 45% (easy), 60% (moderate) and 75% (vigorous) of their maximal oxygen uptake. The effect of duration was studied with 30, 60, and 90 min of moderate exercises. Increased exercise intensity elevated nocturnal HR compared to control day (p < 0.001), but it did not affect nocturnal HRV. Nocturnal HR was greater after the day with 90- than 30- or 60-min exercises (p < 0.01) or control day (p < 0.001). Nocturnal HRV was lower after the 90-min exercise day compared to control day (p < 0.01). Neither exercise intensity nor duration had any impact on actigraphic or subjective sleep quality. The results suggest that increased exercise intensity and/or duration cause delayed recovery of nocturnal cardiac autonomic modulation, although long exercise duration was needed to induce changes in nocturnal HRV. Increased exercise intensity or duration does not seem to disrupt sleep quality. PMID:21667290

  9. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  10. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  11. Prior spontaneous nocturnal waking duration and EEG during quiet sleep in infants: an automatic analysis approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Igino Fagioli; Piero Salzarulo

    1998-01-01

    To ascertain the role of spontaneous nocturnal waking duration on the EEG dynamics during quiet sleep (QS) periods, we analysed the nocturnal polygraphic recordings of 12 infants aged 9–47 weeks old. Their sleep was characterised by two sleep episodes, separated by spontaneous waking and containing at least two QS-paradoxical sleep (PS) cycles each. Automatic analysis of the EEG activity recorded

  12. Pediatric Pulmonology 42:374379 (2007) Nocturnal Body Position in Sleeping Children With

    E-print Network

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric Pulmonology 42:374­379 (2007) Nocturnal Body Position in Sleeping Children. Objectives: To assess whether body position during sleep differs among children with obstructive sleep apnea on respiratory disturbance. Four hundred and thirty consecutive children with polysomnographically demonstrated

  13. Nocturnal Mnemonics: Sleep and Hippocampal Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Saletin, Jared M.; Walker, Matthew P.

    2012-01-01

    As critical as waking brain function is to learning and memory, an established literature now describes an equally important yet complementary role for sleep in information processing. This overview examines the specific contribution of sleep to human hippocampal memory processing; both the detriments caused by a lack of sleep, and conversely, the proactive benefits that develop following the presence of sleep. First, a role for sleep before learning is discussed, preparing the hippocampus for initial memory encoding. Second, a role for sleep after learning is considered, modulating the post-encoding consolidation of hippocampal-dependent memory. Third, a model is outlined in which these encoding and consolidation operations are symbiotically accomplished, associated with specific NREM sleep physiological oscillations. As a result, the optimal network outcome is achieved: increasing hippocampal independence and hence overnight consolidation, while restoring next-day sparse hippocampal encoding capacity for renewed learning ability upon awakening. Finally, emerging evidence is considered suggesting that, unlike previous conceptions, sleep does not universally consolidate all information. Instead, and based on explicit as well as saliency cues during initial encoding, sleep executes the discriminatory offline consolidation only of select information. Consequently, sleep promotes the targeted strengthening of some memories while actively forgetting others; a proposal with significant theoretical and clinical ramifications. PMID:22557988

  14. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... desired effects, namely reduced suicide risk. The Future Future research should look into the mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep problems and suicide behavior, including both ...

  15. Treatment of nocturnal eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder with topiramate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John W. Winkelman

    2003-01-01

    Background: Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) and nocturnal eating syndrome (NES) combine features of sleep disorders and eating disorders. Treatment of these nocturnal eating behaviors has been directed towards underlying identifiable sleep or eating disorders using dopaminergic or opioid agonists, as well as anorectic agents, at times with the addition of sedatives.Methods: Two patients with SRED and two with NES, who

  16. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Sadeh; Amiram Raviv; Reut Gruber

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of school-age children. Sleep patterns of 140 children (72 boys and 68 girls; 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade students) were evaluated with activity monitors (actigraphs). In addition, the children and their parents completed complementary sleep questionnaires and daily reports. The findings reflected significant age differences, indicating that older children have more

  17. Sleep patterns and sleep disruptions in school-age children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Sadeh; Amiram Raviv; Reut Gruber

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of school-age children. Sleep patterns of 140 children (72 boys and 68 girls; 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade students) were evaluated with activity monitors (actigraphs). In addition, the children and their parents completed complementary sleep questionnaires and daily reports. The findings reflected significant age differences, indicating that older children have more

  18. The Relationship Between Sleep Deprivation and the Nocturnal Decline of Blood Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven J. Rosansky; Sudeep J. Menachery; David Whittman; Jason C. Rosenberg

    1996-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) has a circadian pattern with a 10% to 15% drop in systolic and diastolic BP comparing nighttime and daytime averages. The mechanism and the “reason” for the decline of nocturnal blood pressure has not been described. If the nocturnal decline is a restorative physiologic process we reasoned that sleep deprivation would increase the nocturnal drop. Thus, we

  19. Effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on sleep structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Basner; Alexander Samel

    2005-01-01

    Summary\\u000a Question of the study  To systematically investigate the influence of nocturnal aircraft noise on sleep structure. \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1999 and 2003, 128 subjects were polysomnographically studied for 13 consecutive nights each in the laboratory. Sixteen\\u000a subjects served as controls. A total of 112 subjects received 4 to 128 aireraft noise events (ANEs) per night with maximum\\u000a sound pressure levels (SPLs) ranging

  20. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in schizophrenia†

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Katharina; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Foster, Russell G.; Joyce, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances comparable with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia, but very little is known about the contribution of circadian coordination to these prevalent disruptions. Aims A systematic exploration of circadian time patterns in individuals with schizophrenia with recurrent sleep disruption. Method We examined the relationship between sleep-wake activity, recorded actigraphically over 6 weeks, along with ambient light exposure and simultaneous circadian clock timing, by collecting weekly 48 h profiles of a urinary metabolite of melatonin in 20 out-patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy control individuals matched for age, gender and being unemployed. Results Significant sleep/circadian disruption occurred in all the participants with schizophrenia. Half these individuals showed severe circadian misalignment ranging from phase-advance/delay to non-24 h periods in sleep-wake and melatonin cycles, and the other half showed patterns from excessive sleep to highly irregular and fragmented sleep epochs but with normally timed melatonin production. Conclusions Severe circadian sleep/wake disruptions exist despite stability in mood, mental state and newer antipsychotic treatment. They cannot be explained by the individuals' level of everyday function. PMID:22194182

  1. Nocturnal Asthma Symptoms and Poor Sleep Quality among Urban School Children with Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Fagnano, Maria; Bayer, Alison L.; Isensee, Carrie A.; Hernandez, Telva; Halterman, Jill S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe nocturnal asthma symptoms among urban children with asthma and assess the burden of sleep difficulties between children with varying levels of nocturnal symptoms. Methods We analyzed baseline data from 287 urban children with persistent asthma (ages 4–10) enrolled in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial; Rochester, NY. Caregivers reported on nocturnal asthma symptoms (# nights/2 weeks with wheezing or coughing), parent quality of life (Juniper’s PACQLQ), and sleep quality using the validated Children’s Sleep Habits Questionnaire. We used bivariate and multivariate statistics to compare nocturnal asthma symptoms with sleep quality/quantity and quality of life. Results Most children (mean age 7.5yrs) were Black (62%); 74% had Medicaid. Forty-one percent of children had intermittent nocturnal asthma symptoms, 23% mild persistent, and 36% moderate to severe. Children’s average total sleep quality score was 51 (range 33–99) which is above the clinically significant cut-off of 41, indicating pervasive sleep disturbances among this population. Sleep scores were worse for children with more nocturnal asthma symptoms compared to those with milder symptoms on total score, as well as several subscales including night wakings, parasomnias, and sleep disordered breathing (all p<.03). Parents of children with more nocturnal asthma symptoms reported their child having fewer nights with enough sleep in the past week (p=.018) and worse parent quality of life (p<.001). Conclusions Nocturnal asthma symptoms are prevalent in this population, and are associated with poor sleep quality and worse parent quality of life. These findings have potential implications for understanding the disease burden of pediatric asthma. PMID:21816697

  2. Screening of obstructive sleep apnoea: heart rate spectral analysis of nocturnal pulse oximetric recording

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. ZAMARRÓN; P. V. ROMERO; F. GUDE; A. AMARO; J. R. RODRIGUEZ

    2001-01-01

    Using heart rate spectral analysis of nocturnal pulse oximetry, we prospectively evaluated the utility of this methodology in patients clinically suspected of having obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A hundred and ninety-seven outpatients referred with symptoms compatible with the diagnosis of OSA were studied. All participants had nocturnal pulse oximetry performed simultaneously with conventional polysomnography. Power density of heart rate obtained

  3. Nocturnal proinflammatory cytokine-associated sleep disturbances in abstinent African American alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael; Rinetti, Gina; Redwine, Laura; Motivala, Sarosh; Dang, Jeff; Ehlers, Cindy

    2004-07-01

    Animal studies reveal that cytokines play a key role in the regulation of sleep. Alcoholic patients show profound alterations of sleep and a defect in the homeostatic recovery of sleep following sleep loss. In this study, we investigated whether nocturnal plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) were associated with disordered sleep in alcohol dependence by testing the temporal relationships between these inflammatory cytokines and sleep, before and after sleep deprivation. All-night polysomnography and serial blood sampling at 23:00, 03:00, and 06:30 h were conducted across baseline, partial sleep deprivation, and recovery nights in abstinent African American alcoholics (n=16) and matched controls (n=15). Coupled with prolonged sleep latency and increased rapid eye movement sleep, alcoholics showed nocturnal elevations of IL-6 and TNF as compared to controls after adjustment for alcohol consumption and body mass index. Following sleep deprivation, alcoholics showed greater nocturnal levels of IL-6 and greater nocturnal increases of TNF as compared to controls. Pre-sleep IL-6 levels at 23:00 h correlated with prolonged sleep latency after adjustment for potential confounders whereas IL-6 levels at 03:00 h correlated with rapid eye movement sleep in the second half of the night. Taken together, these findings indicate that circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines may have a negative influence on sleep initiation. These findings have implications for determining why sleep is disordered in alcoholics and may aid in the development of novel treatments to optimize sleep in this population. PMID:15157952

  4. Sleep apnea in children with refractory monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed Central

    El-Mitwalli, Ashraf; Bediwy, Adel Salah; Zaher, Ashraf Ahmed; Belal, Tamer; Saleh, Abdel Baset M

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with nocturnal enuresis (NE) are believed to have deep sleep with high arousal threshold. Studies suggest that obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and NE are common problems during childhood. We sought to assess the prevalence of OSAHS in children with refractory NE and whether its severity is associated with the frequency of bedwetting. Methods The study group comprised 43 children with refractory monosymptomatic NE and a control group of 30 children, both aged 6–12 years. All subjects underwent thorough neurological examination, one night of polysomnography only for the patient group, and a lumbosacral plain X-ray to exclude spina bifida. Results The groups were well matched. Two subjects of the control group had mild OSAHS. The mean age of the patients was (9.19±2.4 years), 26 were boys, and 67% showed frequent NE (>3 days bedwetting/week). Patients with NE had significantly higher rates of OSAHS (P<0.0001); three patients had mild, 12 had moderate, and eleven showed severe OSAHS. There was no significant statistical difference among patients having OSAHS in relation to age, sex, or family history of NE. The frequency of bedwetting was statistically significantly higher in patients with severe OSAHS (P=0.003). Conclusion Patients with refractory NE had a significantly higher prevalence of OSAHS with no sex difference. The frequency of bedwetting was higher in patients with severe OSAHS. PMID:24648781

  5. Disruption of hierarchical predictive coding during sleep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Melanie; Sitt, Jacobo D; King, Jean-Remi; Elbaz, Maxime; Azizi, Leila; Buiatti, Marco; Naccache, Lionel; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-03-17

    When presented with an auditory sequence, the brain acts as a predictive-coding device that extracts regularities in the transition probabilities between sounds and detects unexpected deviations from these regularities. Does such prediction require conscious vigilance, or does it continue to unfold automatically in the sleeping brain? The mismatch negativity and P300 components of the auditory event-related potential, reflecting two steps of auditory novelty detection, have been inconsistently observed in the various sleep stages. To clarify whether these steps remain during sleep, we recorded simultaneous electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic signals during wakefulness and during sleep in normal subjects listening to a hierarchical auditory paradigm including short-term (local) and long-term (global) regularities. The global response, reflected in the P300, vanished during sleep, in line with the hypothesis that it is a correlate of high-level conscious error detection. The local mismatch response remained across all sleep stages (N1, N2, and REM sleep), but with an incomplete structure; compared with wakefulness, a specific peak reflecting prediction error vanished during sleep. Those results indicate that sleep leaves initial auditory processing and passive sensory response adaptation intact, but specifically disrupts both short-term and long-term auditory predictive coding. PMID:25737555

  6. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid ? plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  7. Nocturnal blood pressure non-dipping, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sleep quality in women.

    PubMed

    Ulmer, Christi S; Calhoun, Patrick S; Bosworth, Hayden B; Dennis, Michelle F; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-01-01

    Women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have poor sleep quality and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure may be an explanatory factor for the relationship between sleep and CVD found in previous research. The current study was designed to determine if non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure was associated with trauma exposure, PTSD diagnosis, PTSD symptoms, and sleep quality in a sample of women. Participants completed 24 hours of ABPM and self-report questionnaires. Non-dipping was defined as less than 10% reduction in blood pressure during sleep. The frequency of non-dippers did not differ by diagnostic status (d = .15). However, non-dippers endorsed more traumatic event categories (d = .53), more PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (d = .53), poorer overall sleep quality (d = .59), more frequent use of sleep medication (d = .62), greater sleep-related daytime dysfunction (d = .58), and longer sleep onset latencies (d = .55) than dippers. Increased attention to nocturnal blood pressure variation may be needed to improve blood pressure control in trauma-exposed women. PMID:24236808

  8. Effect of Short-Term Acclimatization to High Altitude on Sleep and Nocturnal Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Ursprung, Justyna; Siebenmann, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Objective physiologic data on sleep and nocturnal breathing at initial exposure and during acclimatization to high altitude are scant. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to high altitude induces quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep and that these changes are partially reversed with acclimatization. Design: Prospective observation. Setting: One night in a sleep laboratory at 490 meters, the first and the third night in a mountain hut at 4559 meters. Participants: Sixteen healthy mountaineers. Intervention: Altitude exposure. Measurements: Polysomnography, questionnaire evaluation of sleep and acute mountain sickness. Results: Compared to 490 m, median nocturnal oxygen saturation decreased during the 1st night at 4559 m from 96% to 67%, minute ventilation increased from 4.4 to 6.3 L/min, and the apnea-hypopnea index increased from 0.1 to 60.9/h; correspondingly, sleep efficiency decreased from 93% to 69%, and slow wave sleep from 18% to 6% (P < 0.05, all instances). During the 3rd night at 4559 m, oxygen saturation was 71%, slow wave sleep 11% (P < 0.05 vs. 1st night, both instances) and the apnea/hypopnea index was 86.5/h (P = NS vs. 1st night). Symptoms of AMS and of disturbed sleep were significantly reduced in the morning after the 3rd vs. the 1st night at 4559 m. Conclusions: In healthy mountaineers ascending rapidly to high altitude, sleep quality is initially impaired but improves with acclimatization in association with improved oxygen saturation, while periodic breathing persists. Therefore, high altitude sleep disturbances seem to be related predominantly to hypoxemia rather than to periodic breathing. Citation: Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y; Ursprung J; Siebenmann C; Maggiorini M; Bloch KE. Effect of short-term acclimatization to high altitude on sleep and nocturnal breathing. SLEEP 2012;35(3):419-423. PMID:22379248

  9. Improving the definition and reproducibilty of nocturnal hypertension: absolute sleep blood pressure versus dipping proportion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. LaRocca; G. A. Mansoor; W. B. White; J. Kempthorne-Rawson

    2002-01-01

    Patients with elevated blood pressure (BP) during sleep (nondipper BP profile) have excess hypertensive target organ damage and appear to be at increased risk for cardiovascular complications. However, the nondipper BP profile has modest reproducibility on repeat studies with as many as 30-40% of subjects changing categories. In order for nocturnal BP to be a therapeutic target, a better method

  10. Sleep apnea and nocturnal myoclonus in elderly persons in Vilcabamba, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, N; Fukuda, H; Nishihara, K; Ohtani, K; Endo, S; Torii, S

    1983-07-01

    Four men (M age 90.5 years) and four women (M age 91.2 years) in Vilcabamba, Ecuador (a community noted for people with extreme longevity) volunteered for sleep recordings using four-channel Medilog portable cassette recorder. Of the eight physically healthy persons recorded, only one man displayed sleep apnea syndrome. No nocturnal myoclonus was observed. Low incidence of sleep apnea of elderly persons in Vilcabamba may be due to a low barometric pressure and/or lack of drug abuse. PMID:6863855

  11. Children and nocturnal snoring: Evaluation of the effects of sleep related respiratory resistive load and daytime functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Guilleminault; R. Winkle; R. Korobkin; B. Simmons

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five children, age range 2 to 14 years (mean age=7), were referred to the Stanford University Sleep Disorders Clinic for various clinical symptoms, including excessive daytime somnolence, heavy nocturnal snoring, and abnormal daytime behavior. All children (10 girls and 15 boys) were polygraphically monitored during sleep. No sleep apnea syndrome or oxygen desaturation was revealed. However, each child presented significant

  12. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Wulff; Silvia Gatti; Joseph G. Wettstein; Russell G. Foster

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption are frequently observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disease. The abnormal sleep that is experienced by these patients is largely assumed to be the product of medication or some other influence that is not well defined. However, normal brain function and the generation of sleep are linked by common neurotransmitter systems and regulatory

  13. Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis by sleep deprivation is independent of circadian disruption and melatonin suppression.

    PubMed

    Mueller, A D; Mear, R J; Mistlberger, R E

    2011-10-13

    Procedures that restrict or fragment sleep can inhibit neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult rodents, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. We showed that rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) by the platform-over-water method inhibits hippocampal cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats with low-dose corticosterone clamp. This procedure also greatly disrupts daily behavioral rhythms. Given recent evidence for circadian clock regulation of cell proliferation, we asked whether disruption of circadian rhythms might play a role in the anti-neurogenic effects of sleep loss. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to a 4-day RSD procedure or were exposed to constant bright light (LL) for 4 days or 10 weeks, a non-invasive procedure for eliminating circadian rhythms of behavior and physiology in this species. Proliferating cells in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus were identified by immunolabeling for the thymidine analogue 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Consistent with our previous results, the RSD procedure suppressed cell proliferation by ?50%. By contrast, although LL attenuated or eliminated daily rhythms of activity and sleep-wake without affecting daily amounts of REM sleep, cell proliferation was not affected. Melatonin, a nocturnally secreted neurohormone that is inhibited by light, has been shown to promote survival of new neurons. We found that 3-weeks of LL eliminated daily rhythms and decreased plasma melatonin by 88% but did not significantly affect either total cell survival or survival of new neurons (doublecortin+). Finally, we measured cell proliferation rates at the beginning and near the end of the daily light period in rats entrained to a 12:12 light/lark (LD) cycle, but did not detect a daily rhythm. These results indicate that the antineurogenic effect of RSD is not secondary to disruption of circadian rhythms, and provide no evidence that hippocampal cell proliferation and survival are regulated by the circadian system or by nocturnal secretion of pineal melatonin. PMID:21771640

  14. Atypical patterns in portable monitoring for sleep apnoea: features of nocturnal epilepsy?

    PubMed

    Parrino, Liborio; Milioli, Giulia; Grassi, Andrea; De Paolis, Fernando; Riccardi, Silvia; Colizzi, Elena; Bosi, Marcello; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    Atypical cardiorespiratory patterns can be found during routine clinical use of portable monitoring for diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Over 1,000 consecutive portable recordings were analysed to study the potential ictal nature of stereotyped cardiorespiratory and motor patterns. Snoring, airflow, thoracic effort, pulse rate, body position, oxygen saturation and activity of the anterior tibialis muscles were quantified. Recordings showing stereotyped polygraphic patterns recurring throughout the night, but without the features of sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index <5 events·h(-1)), were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography. A total of 15 recordings showing repeated polygraphic patterns characterised by a sequence of microphone activation, respiratory activity atypical for sleep and wakefulness, heart rate acceleration and limb movements, followed by body position change, were selected for investigation. Once included in the study, patients underwent attended nocturnal video polysomnography that showed frontal epileptic discharges triggering periodic electroencephalographic arousals, autonomic activation and stereotyped motor patterns. A diagnosis of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) was established for all patients. NFLE should be taken into consideration in patients with stereotyped and recurrent behavioural features during portable monitoring carried out for diagnosis of SDB. PMID:22700842

  15. Olopatadine, a non-sedating H1 antihistamine, decreases the nocturnal scratching without affecting sleep quality in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Motomura, Eishi; Noro, Yuichi; Umeda, Koji; Morikawa, Takuya; Umeda-Togami, Kumi; Omoto, Youichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kondo, Makoto; Tsuda, Kenshiro; Okuda, Masahiro; Gabazza, Esteban C; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time that a second-generation antihistamine ameliorates nocturnal scratching behavior in atopic dermatitis patients using a modified wristwatch-type acoustic scratching counting system that we have recently developed. We also analyzed the sleep quality by simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram, and found that sleep quality was unaffected. PMID:25641045

  16. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  17. CNS determinants of sleep-related worsening of airway functions: implications for nocturnal asthma.

    PubMed

    Haxhiu, Musa A; Rust, Cheryl F; Brooks, Chevon; Kc, Prabha

    2006-03-28

    This review summarizes the recent neuroanatomical and physiological studies that form the neural basis for the state-dependent changes in airway resistance. Here, we review only the interactions between the brain regions generating quiet (non-rapid eye movement, NREM) and active (rapid eye movement, REM) sleep stages and CNS pathways controlling cholinergic outflow to the airways. During NREM and REM sleep, bronchoconstrictive responses are heightened and conductivity of the airways is lower as compared to the waking state. The decrease in conductivity of the lower airways parallels the sleep-induced decline in the discharge of brainstem monoaminergic cell groups and GABAergic neurons of the ventrolateral periaqueductal midbrain region, all of which provide inhibitory inputs to airway-related vagal preganglionic neurons (AVPNs). Withdrawal of central inhibitory influences to AVPNs results in a shift from inhibitory to excitatory transmission that leads to an increase in airway responsiveness, cholinergic outflow to the lower airways and consequently, bronchoconstriction. In healthy subjects, these changes are clinically unnoticed. However, in patients with bronchial asthma, sleep-related alterations in lung functions are troublesome, causing intensified bronchopulmonary symptoms (nocturnal asthma), frequent arousals, decreased quality of life, and increased mortality. Unquestionably, the studies revealing neural mechanisms that underlie sleep-related alterations of airway function will provide new directions in the treatment and prevention of sleep-induced worsening of airway diseases. PMID:16198640

  18. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  19. Sleep in athletes undertaking protocols of exposure to nocturnal simulated altitude at 2650 m.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, T A; Gore, C J; Hahn, A G; Hopkins, W G; Hawley, J A; McKenna, M J; Clark, S A; Aughey, R J; Townsend, N E; Chow, C-M

    2005-06-01

    A popular method to attempt to enhance performance is for athletes to sleep at natural or simulated moderate altitude (SMA) when training daily near sea level. Based on our previous observation of periodic breathing in athletes sleeping at SMA, we hypothesised that athletes' sleep quality would also suffer with hypoxia. Using two typical protocols of nocturnal SMA (2650 m), we examined the effect on the sleep physiology of 14 male endurance-trained athletes. The selected protocols were Consecutive (15 successive exposure nights) and Intermittent (3x 5 successive exposure nights, interspersed with 2 normoxic nights) and athletes were randomly assigned to follow either one. We monitored sleep for two successive nights under baseline conditions (B; normoxia, 600 m) and then at weekly intervals (nights 1, 8 and 15 (N1, N8 and N15, respectively)) of the protocols. Since there was no significant difference in response between the protocols being followed (based on n=7, for each group) we are unable to support a preference for either one, although the likelihood of a Type II error must be acknowledged. For all athletes (n=14), respiratory disturbance and arousal responses between B and N1, although large in magnitude, were highly individual and not statistically significant. However, SpO2 decreased at N1 versus B (p<0.001) and remained lower on N8 (p<0.001) and N15 (p<0.001), not returning to baseline level. Compared to B, arousals were more frequent on N8 (p=0.02) and N15 (p=0.01). The percent of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) increased from N1 to N8 (p=0.03) and N15 (p=0.01). Overall, sleeping at 2650 m causes sleep disturbance in susceptible athletes, yet there was some improvement in REM sleep over the study duration. PMID:16075782

  20. Sleep Disruption Among Older Men and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Fall, Katja; Rider, Jennifer R.; Schernhammer, Eva; Czeisler, Charles A.; Launer, Lenore; Harris, Tamara; Stampfer, Meir J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Lockley, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Background While positive associations have consistently been reported between sleep disruption and breast cancer, less is known about its potential role in prostate cancer. Methods Within the prospective AGES-Reykjavik cohort study, we followed 2,102 men recruited in 2002–2006 until the end of 2009. Participants answered questions on sleep disruption. Information on the occurrence of prostate cancer was obtained through record-linkages across the Icelandic Cancer Registry. We used Cox regression models with 95% confidence intervals [CIs] to estimate hazard ratios [HR] of prostate cancer by symptoms of sleep disruption. Results During follow-up, 135 men (6.4%) were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Compared to men without sleep disruption, those with problems falling and staying asleep were at significantly increased risk of prostate cancer [HR, 1.7 (95% CI, 1.0–2.9) and 2.1 (95% CI, 1.2–3.7)], respectively, with increasing sleep disruption severity. When restricted to advanced prostate cancer (? stage T3 or lethal disease), these associations became even stronger [HRs 2.1 (95% CI, 0.7–6.2) and 3.2 (95% CI, 1.1–9.7)]. The results did not change after excluding from the analyses men who woke up during the night, indicative of nocturia, suggesting limited risk of reverse association. Conclusions Our data suggest that certain aspects of sleep disruption may confer an increased risk of prostate cancer and call for additional, larger studies with longer follow-up times. Impact Prostate cancer is one of the leading public health concerns in men; if confirmed in future studies the association between sleep disruption and prostate cancer risk may open new avenues for prevention. PMID:23652374

  1. Teledyne Sleep Sentry: evaluation in pediatric patients for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K A; Duck, S C

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four insulin-dependent diabetic pediatric subjects were studied for 1444 nights for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia with the Teledyne Sleep Sentry (Teledyne Avionics, Charlottesville, Virginia): a wristwatch-like unit that measures absolute changes in skin temperature and decreases in galvanic skin resistance, indicators of hypoglycemia. The device detected 42 of 46 recognized hypoglycemic episodes. One hundred fifty alarms were sounded without evidence of hypoglycemia, probably due to night sweating. Twenty-five percent of the subjects experienced unacceptable cutaneous reactions, presumably due to metallic iontophoresis. PMID:6653316

  2. Effects of a moderate nocturnal cold stress on daytime sleep in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Dewasmes; N. Loos; V. Candas; A. Muzet

    2003-01-01

      \\u000a The effects of a nocturnal exposure to a cool environment on daytime recovery sleep was studied in eight young (20–25 years\\u000a old) healthy volunteers. A set of standardized clothing (KSU ensemble type) was provided to each individual (estimated total\\u000a thermal resistance: 0.6 clo). The subject kept awake was passively exposed from 22.30 to 07.30 hours to environments perceived\\u000a as neutral (N) and

  3. The associations of bedtime, nocturnal, and daytime sleep duration with bone mineral density in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Wu, Yang; Yang, Yu; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Danyu; Hu, Yongxin; Liu, Zhoujun; Xu, Juan; Shen, Qiaoxuan; Zhang, Niya; Mao, Xiaodong; Liu, Chao

    2015-06-01

    To explore the association of sleep patterns with bone mineral density (BMD) in pre- and post-menopausal women, we used a questionnaire to evaluate the sleep patterns and performed calcaneal quantitative ultrasound to estimate BMD, in 6,510 women aged 40 years or older, from June to November 2011 in Nanjing City. We found a 1.7-fold risk of osteoporosis in post-menopausalwomen with bedtime of ?0:00 am (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.39-2.13), compared to those whose bedtime of <0:00 am. post-menopausalwomen with excessive total sleep (>10 h vs. 8-9 h, OR = 1.54, 95 % CI 1.05-2.02) were shown to have a higher risk of osteoporosis, however, this high risk was not detected in those with excessive nocturnal sleep (>10 h vs. 8-9 h, OR = 0.85, 95 % CI 0.62-1.30). By contrast, post-menopausalwomen with inadequate nocturnal sleep (?7 h vs. 8-9 h, OR = 1.68, 95 % CI 1.32-2.75), excessive daytime sleep (?180 min vs. 0 min, OR = 1.52, 95 % CI 1.08-2.13), and noontime nap (>60 min vs. 0 min: OR = 1.37, 95 % CI 1.06-1.76) were demonstrated to have higher risk of bone loss. Nevertheless, these associations were not found in premenopausal women. We conclude that delayed bedtime, nocturnal sleep deprivation, excessive daytime sleep, and noontime nap, but not reduced total sleep duration, could promote bone loss in post-menopausalwomen, which might be related to circadian rhythm disturbances. However, they have limited influences to BMD in women who were still in menstruating. Mechanism responsible for the phenomena warrants further investigation. PMID:25449993

  4. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  5. SLEEP, SLEEP DISORDERED BREATHING, AND NOCTURNAL HYPOVENTILATION IN CHILDREN WITH NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Raanan; Muzumdar, Hiren

    2009-01-01

    I. SUMMARY Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is now well recognized in children with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) and may lead to significant morbidity and increased mortality. Predisposing factors to SDB in children with NMD include reduced ventilatory responses, reduced activity of respiratory muscles during sleep and poor lung mechanics due to the underlying neuro-muscular disorder. SDB may present long before signs of respiratory failure emerge. When untreated, SDB may contribute to significant cardiovascular morbidities, neuro-cognitive deficits and premature death. One of the problems in detecting SDB in patients with NMD is the lack of correlation between lung function testing and daytime gas exchange. Polysomnography is the preferred method to evaluate for SDB in children with NMD. When the diagnosis of SDB is confirmed, treatment by non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is usually recommended. However, other modalities of mechanical ventilation do exist and may be indicated in combination with or without other supportive measures. PMID:20113988

  6. Nocturnal Continuous Glucose and Sleep Stage Data in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes in Real-World Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Feupe, Stephanie Feudjio; Frias, Patrick F.; Mednick, Sara C.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Heintzman, Nathaniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep plays an important role in health, and poor sleep is associated with negative impacts on diabetes management, but few studies have objectively evaluated sleep in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nocturnal glycemia and sleep characteristics in T1DM were evaluated using body-worn sensors in real-world conditions. Methods Analyses were performed on data collected by the Diabetes Management Integrated Technology Research Initiative pilot study of 17 T1DM subjects: 10 male, 7 female; age 19–61 years; T1DM duration 14.9 ± 11.0 years; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.3% ± 1.3% (mean ± standard deviation). Each subject was equipped with a continuous glucose monitor and a wireless sleep monitor (WSM) for four nights. Sleep stages [rapid eye movement (REM), light, and deep sleep] were continuously recorded by the WSM. Nocturnal glycemia (mg/dl) was evaluated as hypoglycemia (<50 mg/dl), low (50–69 mg/dl), euglycemia (70–120 mg/dl), high (121–250 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dl) and by several indices of glycemic variability. Glycemia was analyzed within each sleep stage. Results Subjects slept 358 ± 48 min per night, with 85 ± 27 min in REM sleep, 207 ± 42 min in light sleep, and 66 ± 30 min in deep sleep (mean ±standard deviation). Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c (R2 = 0.42; F = 9.37; p < .01). Nocturnal glycemia varied widely between and within subjects. Glycemia during REM sleep was hypoglycemia 5.5% ± 18.1%, low 6.6% ± 18.5%, euglycemia 44.6% ± 39.5%, high 37.9% ± 39.7%, and hyperglycemia 5.5% ± 21.2%; glycemia during light sleep was hypoglycemia 4.8% ± 12.4%, low 7.3% ± 12.9%, euglycemia 42.1% ± 33.7%, high 39.2% ± 34.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.5% ± 20.5%; and glycemia during deep sleep was hypoglycemia 0.5% ± 2.2%, low 5.8% ± 14.3%, euglycemia 48.0% ± 37.5%, high 39.5% ± 37.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.2% ± 19.5%. Significantly less time was spent in the hypoglycemic range during deep sleep compared with light sleep (p = .02). Conclusions Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c, and less hypoglycemia occurred in deep sleep in T1DM, though this must be further evaluated in larger subsequent studies. Furthermore, the consumer-grade WSM device was useful for objectively studying sleep in a real-world setting. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2013;7(5):1337–1345 PMID:24124962

  7. Sleep disruption in hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients: prevalence, severity, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M; Gonzalez, Brian D; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of recipients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, with up to 82% of patients experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant and up to 43% after transplant. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than what we see in the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption and disorders (ie, insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome) as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. We identified 35 observational studies published in the past decade that examined sleep disruption or disorders in HCT. Most studies utilized a single item measure of sleep, had small sample size, and included heterogeneous samples of patients. Six studies of the effects of psychosocial and exercise interventions on sleep in HCT have reported no significant improvements. These results highlight the need for rigorous observational and interventional studies of sleep disruption and disorders in HCT recipients.. PMID:24747335

  8. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anthony N; Turner, Claire; Stone, Barbara M; Robson, Philip J

    2004-06-01

    The effects of cannabis extracts on nocturnal sleep, early-morning performance, memory, and sleepiness were studied in 8 healthy volunteers (4 males, 4 females; 21 to 34 years). The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled with a 4-way crossover design. The 4 treatments were placebo, 15 mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 5 mg THC combined with 5 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and 15 mg THC combined with 15 mg CBD. These were formulated in 50:50 ethanol to propylene glycol and administered using an oromucosal spray during a 30-minute period from 10 pm. The electroencephalogram was recorded during the sleep period (11 pm to 7 am). Performance, sleep latency, and subjective assessments of sleepiness and mood were measured from 8:30 am (10 hours after drug administration). There were no effects of 15 mg THC on nocturnal sleep. With the concomitant administration of the drugs (5 mg THC and 5 mg CBD to 15 mg THC and 15 mg CBD), there was a decrease in stage 3 sleep, and with the higher dose combination, wakefulness was increased. The next day, with 15 mg THC, memory was impaired, sleep latency was reduced, and the subjects reported increased sleepiness and changes in mood. With the lower dose combination, reaction time was faster on the digit recall task, and with the higher dose combination, subjects reported increased sleepiness and changes in mood. Fifteen milligrams THC would appear to be sedative, while 15 mg CBD appears to have alerting properties as it increased awake activity during sleep and counteracted the residual sedative activity of 15 mg THC. PMID:15118485

  9. The Effects of Sleep Disruption on the Treatment of a Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Dolezal, Danielle N.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep disruption on the mealtime behavior of a young boy with developmental disabilities. Results showed that bite acceptance was less likely to persist during meals following disrupted sleep, but only when escape extinction was not implemented. Findings are discussed in terms of establishing operations and the effects…

  10. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    PubMed

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

  11. Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stöwhas AC; Grimm M; Stadelmann K; Tesler N; Achermann P; Huber R; Kohler M; Bloch KE. Are nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance impaired at moderate altitude (1,630-2,590 m)? SLEEP 2013;36(12):1969-1976. PMID:24293773

  12. Environmental disruption of the circadian clock leads to altered sleep and immune responses in mouse.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Derrick J; Savenkova, Marina I; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, one of the most salient outputs of the circadian (daily) clock is the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Modern industrialized society has led to a fundamental breakdown in the relationship between our endogenous timekeeping systems and the solar day, disrupting normal circadian rhythms. We have argued that disrupted circadian rhythms could lead to changes in allostatic load, and the capacity of organisms to respond to other environmental challenges. In this set of studies, we apply a model of circadian disruption characterized in our lab in which mice are housed in a 20h long day, with 10h of light and 10h of darkness. We explored the effects of this environmental disruption on sleep patterns, to establish if this model results in marked sleep deprivation. Given the interaction between circadian, sleep, and immune systems, we further probed if our model of circadian disruption also alters the innate immune response to peripheral bacterial endotoxin challenge. Our results demonstrate that this model of circadian disruption does not lead to marked sleep deprivation, but instead affects the timing and quality of sleep. We also show that while circadian disruption does not lead to basal changes in the immune markers we explored, the immune response is affected, both in the brain and the periphery. Together, our findings further strengthen the important role of the circadian timing system in sleep regulation and immune responses, and provide evidence that disrupting the circadian clock increases vulnerability to further environmental stressors, including immunological challenges. PMID:25542734

  13. Sleep Disturbances and Nocturnal Symptoms: Relationships with Quality of Life in a Population-Based Sample of Women with Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Booth, Marika; Buysse, Daniel J.; Elliott, Marc N.; Suskind, Anne M.; Clemens, J. Quentin; Berry, Sandra H.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the nature and impact of sleep disturbances on quality of life (QOL) in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: Participants were 3,397 women from a telephone probability survey who met IC/BPS symptom criteria. Sleep quality, duration, and IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms (i.e., trouble sleeping due to bladder pain, urgency, or needing to use the bathroom), general QOL (mental and physical health and sexual functioning), and IC/BPS QOL impairment were assessed via self-report during telephone interview. Results: Over half of the sample reported poor sleep quality, sleep duration ? 6 hours, or trouble sleeping due to IC/BPS symptoms. After covariate adjustment, short sleep duration was significantly associated with greater IC/BPS QOL impairment (? = -0.04; p < 0.001) and poorer self-reported physical health (? = 1.86; p < 0.001). Poor sleep quality was significantly associated with greater IC/BPS QOL impairment (? = 0.06; p < 0.001), poorer self-reported physical health (? = -2.86; p < 0.001), and greater sexual dysfunction (? = -0.04; p < 0.05). IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms were significantly associated with greater IC/BPS impairment (? = 0.14; p < 0.001), poorer physical health (? = -2.76; p < 0.001) and mental health (? = 0.52; p < 0.01), and greater sexual dysfunction (? = -0.10; p < 0.001), after covariate adjustment. After further adjustment for IC/BPS nocturnal symptoms, we found that poor sleep quality and short sleep duration were independent correlates of poor self-reported physical health. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, as well as disorder-specific sleep disturbances, are highly prevalent in women with IC/BPS and are associated with poorer disease-specific and general QOL. Citation: Troxel WM, Booth M, Buysse DJ, Elliott MN, Suskind AM, Clemens JQ, Berry SH. Sleep disturbances and nocturnal symptoms: relationships with quality of life in a population-based sample of women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(12):1331-1337. PMID:25325604

  14. Are COPD Patients with Nocturnal REM Sleep-Related Desaturations More Prone to Developing Chronic Respiratory Failure Requiring Long-Term Oxygen Therapy?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margherita Sergi; Maurizio Rizzi; Arnaldo Andreoli; Marica Pecis; Claudio Bruschi; Francesco Fanfulla

    2002-01-01

    Background: Nocturnal oxygen desaturations (NOD), especially during REM sleep, have been described in patients with COPD. However, the role of NOD in the evolution of COPD to chronic respiratory failure has not been well studied. Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate whether NOD is a risk factor for the development of chronic respiratory failure in COPD patients.

  15. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with insomnia and the aggravation of sleep-disordered breathing.

    PubMed

    Takekawa, H; Kubo, J; Miyamoto, T; Miyamoto, M; Hirata, K

    2001-06-01

    A case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diagnosed by sleep-disordered breathing is described. The patient's chief complaints were insomnia and nocturnal dyspnea after taking a hypnotic drug. On examination, he showed restrictive ventilatory impairment, alveolar hypoventilation and hypoxia. Polysomnographic examination revealed marked hypoxia during REM sleep periods, decreased duration of REM sleep periods, and increased sleep disruption. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was diagnosed by the neurological finding of paraspinal muscle weakness and neurogenic changes revealed by needle electromyography and muscle biopsy. The daytime and nocturnal respiratory insufficiency improved after nasal bilevel positive airway pressure therapy. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis should be suspected as a cause of insomnia and nocturnal dyspnea. PMID:11422868

  16. foraging alters resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption and starvation in Drosophila

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    foraging alters resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption and starvation in Drosophila Jeffrey. Sokolowskib , and Paul J. Shawa,2 a Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Washington University in St. Louis sleep deprivation. If such polymorphisms were not associated with additional costs, selective pressures

  17. Pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensive patients: role of fluid retention and nocturnal rostral fluid shift.

    PubMed

    White, L H; Bradley, T D; Logan, A G

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients, particularly those with drug resistance. Evidence from animal experiments, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials strongly suggest a causal link. Mechanistic studies argue for increased sympathetic neural activity and endothelial dysfunction. However, disturbances in fluid volume regulation and distribution may also be involved in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of OSA in fluid-retaining states including hypertension, a direct relationship between the severity of OSA and the volume of fluid displaced from the legs to the neck during sleep, and a decrease in upper airway cross-sectional area in response to graded lower body positive pressure. Treatments targeting fluid retention and redistribution, including diuretics, mineralocorticoid antagonists, exercise, and possibly renal denervation lower blood pressure and reduce the apnoea-hypopnoea index, a measure of OSA severity. From these observations, it has been postulated that during the daytime, excess fluid collects in the lower extremities due to gravity, and on lying down overnight is redistributed rostrally to the neck, where it may narrow the upper airway and increase its collapsibility, predisposing to OSA when pharyngeal dilator muscle activity decreases during sleep. This article discusses the associations between OSA and hypertension and reviews the evidence for fluid accumulation and its nocturnal rostral redistribution in the pathogenesis of OSA in hypertensive patients. PMID:25339298

  18. Sleep Disturbances Associated with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Iwanami, Masaoki; Hirata, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common problems affecting the quality life of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and are often underestimated. The causes of sleep disturbances are multifactorial and include nocturnal motor disturbances, nocturia, depressive symptoms, and medication use. Comorbidity of PD with sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, or circadian cycle disruption also results in impaired sleep. In addition, the involvement of serotoninergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic neurons in the brainstem as a disease-related change contributes to impaired sleep structures. Excessive daytime sleepiness is not only secondary to nocturnal disturbances or dopaminergic medication but may also be due to independent mechanisms related to impairments in ascending arousal system and the orexin system. Notably, several recent lines of evidence suggest a strong link between rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and the risk of neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. In the present paper, we review the current literature concerning sleep disorders in PD. PMID:21876839

  19. Epidemiology of Sleep Disturbances and Cardiovascular Consequences.

    PubMed

    Badran, Mohammad; Yassin, Bishr Abu; Fox, Nurit; Laher, Ismail; Ayas, Najib

    2015-07-01

    It is increasingly recognized that disruption of sleep and reduced amounts of sleep can have significant adverse cardiovascular consequences. For example, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common underdiagnosed disorder characterized by recurrent nocturnal asphyxia resulting from repetitive collapse of the upper airway; this leads to repetitive episodes of nocturnal hypoxemia and arousal from sleep. Risk factors for disease include obesity, increased age, male sex, and family history. In epidemiologic studies, OSA appears to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and treatment is associated with better outcomes. Habitual short sleep duration is common in today's society. In epidemiologic studies, short sleep duration is associated with a number of adverse health effects, including all-cause mortality, weight gain, and incident CVD. Given the links between sleep disorders and adverse health outcomes, obtaining adequate quality and amounts of sleep should be considered a component of a healthy lifestyle, similar to good diet and exercise. PMID:26037823

  20. The effect of butoctamide hydrogen succinate on nocturnal sleep: All-night polygraphical studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuyuki Okudaira; Shizuo Torii; Shiro Endo

    1980-01-01

    Butoctamide hydrogen succinate (BAHS), related to an organic compound naturally occurring in the central nervous system (CNS), has been shown to increase REM sleep in chronically prepared cats. In the present study, we confirmed that BAHS increases REM sleep in healthy humans. The subjects were six males whose mean age was 21 years and the experiment covered eight consecutive nights.

  1. Assessment of Sleep Disruption and Sleep Quality in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K; Drummond, Sean P A; Larson, Gerald E; Potterat, Eric G

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about sleep in elite military populations who are exposed to higher operational demands, unpredictable training, deployment, and mission cycles. Twenty-nine Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators wore an actiwatch for an 8-day/7-night period for objective sleep assessment and completed a nightly sleep log. A total of 170 nights of actigraphically recorded sleep were collected. When comparing objectively versus subjectively recorded sleep parameter data, statistically significant differences were found. Compared with sleep log data, actigraphy data indicate NSW Operators took longer to fall asleep (an average of 25.82 minutes), spent more time awake after sleep onset (an average of 39.55 minutes), and demonstrated poorer sleep efficiency (83.88%) (ps < 0.05). Self-reported sleep quality during the study period was 6.47 (maximum score = 10). No relationships existed between the objectively derived sleep indices and the self-reported measure of sleep quality (rs = -0.29 to 0.09, all ps > 0.05). Strong inter-relationships existed among the subjectively derived sleep indices (e.g., between self-reported sleep quality and sleep efficiency; r = 0.61, p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to objectively and subjectively quantify sleep among NSW Operators. These findings suggest sleep maintenance and sleep efficiency are impaired when compared to normative population data. PMID:26126252

  2. Importance of hypertension and social isolation in causing sleep disruption in dementia.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), heart disease, social isolation, and sociodemographic factors on sleep in the elderly patients with dementia. Samples included 1210 noninstitutionalized, Malaysian elderly patients with dementia. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of sleep disturbances among respondents. Approximately 41% of the patients experienced sleep problems. The results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02), social isolation (OR = 1.33), and HT (OR = 1.53) significantly increased sleep disruption in respondents (P <.05). Furthermore, education (OR =.63) and non-Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.63) significantly decreased sleep problems (P <.05). It was found that DM, heart disease, sex differences, and marital status were not significant predictors of sleep disturbances (P >.05). It was concluded that age, social isolation, and HT increased sleep disruption but education and ethnic non-Malay reduced the risk of sleep problems. Moreover, HT was the most important variable to increase sleep disturbances in the elderly patients with dementia. PMID:24085252

  3. Nocturnal pulse rate and symptomatic response in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea treated with continuous positive airway pressure for one year

    PubMed Central

    Drakatos, Panagis; Kosky, Christopher; Williams, Adrian; Hart, Nicholas; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Steier, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing and a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We hypothesised that in patients with OSA the characteristics of nocturnal pulse rate (PR) are associated with changes in blood pressure and daytime sleepiness, following commencement of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Methods Pulse oximetry data, demographics, daytime sleepiness and blood pressure were recorded at baseline and at one year follow up. Patients with OSA were grouped according to positive and negative changes in the PR (?PR) response during the first night of pulse oximetry before commencement of CPAP. Results A total of 115 patients (58 with OSA and 57 matched subjects without OSA) were identified and included in the analysis. The scale of improvement in daytime sleepiness could be predicted by a negative or positive ?PR, as recorded in the initial screening pulse oximetry [?ESS –5.8 (5.1) vs. –0.8 (7.2) points, P<0.05]. A negative correlation was observed between mean nocturnal PR and changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) after one year of CPAP treatment (r=–0.42, P<0.05). Conclusions Mean nocturnal PR prior to CPAP initiation was associated with changes in SBP at one year follow up. A descending nocturnal PR in patients with OSA, prior to CPAP initiation, might help to identify a symptomatic response from long term CPAP treatment. PMID:24976980

  4. A classification algorithm based on spectral features from nocturnal oximetry and support vector machines to assist in the diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Víctor Marcos; Roberto Hornero; Daniel Álvarez; Félix Del Campo; Carlos Zamarrón

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate an algorithm to help in the diagnosis of the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) signals from nocturnal pulse oximetry were used to identify OSAS patients. A total of 149 SaO2 recordings from subjects suspected of OSAS were available. The initial population was divided into a training

  5. Executive brain functions after exposure to nocturnal traffic noise: effects of task difficulty and sleep quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergei A. Schapkin; Michael Falkenstein; Anke Marks; Barbara Griefahn

    2006-01-01

    The after-effects of nocturnal traffic noise on cognitive performance and inhibitory brain activity were investigated. Twenty\\u000a participants (18–30 years) performed an easy and a difficult visual Go\\/Nogo task with simultaneous EEG recording after a quiet\\u000a night and then during three nights when aircraft noise was presented with equivalent noise levels of 39, 44, and 50 dBA, respectively,\\u000a between 11 p.m. to 7

  6. Inhibition of hippocampal neurogenesis by sleep deprivation is independent of circadian disruption and melatonin suppression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. D. Mueller; R. J. Mear; R. E. Mistlberger

    2011-01-01

    Procedures that restrict or fragment sleep can inhibit neurogenesis in the hippocampus of adult rodents, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. We showed that rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RSD) by the platform-over-water method inhibits hippocampal cell proliferation in adrenalectomized rats with low-dose corticosterone clamp. This procedure also greatly disrupts daily behavioral rhythms. Given recent evidence for circadian clock regulation of

  7. Temporally limited nocturnal traffic curfews to prevent noise induced sleep disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Griefahn; Anke Marks; Sibylle Robens

    This study aimed at the identification of a time frame suitable for the prevention of noise induced sleep disturbances. Curfews at the end of nights were expected to provide the best protection; further persons with corresponding bed times were expected to profit most. Subjects and methods. 24 students (12 women, 12 men, 21-27 yrs) slept two consecutive weeks four nights

  8. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  9. Are Absence Epilepsy and Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy System Epilepsies of the Sleep/Wake System?

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter

    2015-01-01

    System epilepsy is an emerging concept interpreting major nonlesional epilepsies as epileptic dysfunctions of physiological systems. I extend here the concept of reflex epilepsy to epilepsies linked to input dependent physiological systems. Experimental and clinical reseach data were collected to create a coherent explanation of underlying pathomechanism in AE and NFLE. We propose that AE should be interpreted as epilepsy linked to the corticothalamic burst-firing mode of NREM sleep, released by evoked vigilance level oscillations characterized by reactive slow wave response. In the genetic variation of NFLE the ascending cholinergic arousal system plays an essential role being in strong relationship with a gain mutation of the nicotinic acethylcholin receptors, rendering the arousal system hyperexcitable. I try to provide a more unitary interpretation for the variable seizure manifestation integrating them as different degree of pathological arosuals and alarm reactions. As a supporting hypothesis the similarity between arousal parasomnias and FNLE is shown, underpinned by overlaping pathomechanism and shared familiarity, but without epileptic features. Lastly we propose that both AE and NFLE are system epilepsies of the sleep-wake system representing epileptic disorders of the antagonistic sleep/arousal network. This interpretation may throw new light on the pathomechanism of AE and NFLE. PMID:26175547

  10. Chronic Snoring and Sleep in Children: A Demonstration of Sleep Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, M. Cecilia; Guilleminault, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chronic snoring that does not adhere to the criteria for a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may be associated with learning and behavioral problems. We investigated the sleep structure of chronic snorers who had an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 1 event per hour and analyzed the cyclic alternating pattern. Methods:…

  11. Circadian clock genes Per1 and Per2 regulate the response of metabolism-associated transcripts to sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Husse, Jana; Hintze, Sophie Charlotte; Eichele, Gregor; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Human and animal studies demonstrate that short sleep or poor sleep quality, e.g. in night shift workers, promote the development of obesity and diabetes. Effects of sleep disruption on glucose homeostasis and liver physiology are well documented. However, changes in adipokine levels after sleep disruption suggest that adipocytes might be another important peripheral target of sleep. Circadian clocks regulate metabolic homeostasis and clock disruption can result in obesity and the metabolic syndrome. The finding that sleep and clock disruption have very similar metabolic effects prompted us to ask whether the circadian clock machinery may mediate the metabolic consequences of sleep disruption. To test this we analyzed energy homeostasis and adipocyte transcriptome regulation in a mouse model of shift work, in which we prevented mice from sleeping during the first six hours of their normal inactive phase for five consecutive days (timed sleep restriction--TSR). We compared the effects of TSR between wild-type and Per1/2 double mutant mice with the prediction that the absence of a circadian clock in Per1/2 mutants would result in a blunted metabolic response to TSR. In wild-types, TSR induces significant transcriptional reprogramming of white adipose tissue, suggestive of increased lipogenesis, together with increased secretion of the adipokine leptin and increased food intake, hallmarks of obesity and associated leptin resistance. Some of these changes persist for at least one week after the end of TSR, indicating that even short episodes of sleep disruption can induce prolonged physiological impairments. In contrast, Per1/2 deficient mice show blunted effects of TSR on food intake, leptin levels and adipose transcription. We conclude that the absence of a functional clock in Per1/2 double mutants protects these mice from TSR-induced metabolic reprogramming, suggesting a role of the circadian timing system in regulating the physiological effects of sleep disruption. PMID:23285241

  12. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells ?? T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. PMID:25582807

  13. Delayed thalamic astrocytosis and disrupted sleep-wake patterns in a preclinical model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hazra, Anupam; Macolino, Christine; Elliott, Melanie B; Chin, Jeannie

    2014-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) involves diffuse axonal injury and induces subtle but persistent changes in brain tissue and function and poses challenges for early detection of neurological injury. The present study uses an automated behavioral analysis system to assess alterations in rodent behavior in the subacute phase in a preclinical mouse model of TBI, controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. In the first few weeks following CCI, mice demonstrated normal exploratory behaviors and other typical home-cage behaviors. However, beginning 4 weeks post-injury, CCI mice developed disruptions in sleep-wake patterns, including an increased number of awakenings from sleep. Such impaired sleep maintenance was accompanied by an increased latency to reach peak sleep in CCI mice. These sleep disruptions implicate involvement of the thalamocortical network, the activity of which must be tightly regulated to control sleep maintenance. After injury, there was an increase in reactive microglia in thalamic regions as well as delayed reactive astrocytosis that was evident in the thalamic reticular nucleus, which preceded the development of sleep disruptions. These data suggest that cortical injury may trigger inflammatory responses in deeper neuroanatomical structures, including the thalamic reticular nucleus. Such engagement of the thalamus may perturb the thalamocortical network that regulates sleep/awake patterns and contribute to sleep disruptions observed in this model as well as those documented in patients with TBI. PMID:24964253

  14. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of unremembered nocturnal eating in diabetic subjects: Kurume sleep trouble in obesity and metabolic disorders (KUSTOMED) study.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hitomi; Kato, Tomoko; Tajiri, Yuji; Sato, Shuichi; Hirao, Saori; Oshige, Tamami; Hara, Kento; Iwata, Shinpei; Kato, Naoka; Sasaki, Yuko; Hasuo, Rika; Yoshinobu, Satoko; Mitsuzaki, Kenshi; Kato, Tamotsu; Hashinaga, Toshihiko; Muraishi, Kazuhisa; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Kaku, Hiroh

    2013-01-01

    Nighttime food intake is associated with weight gain and higher HbA1c levels. We experienced night eaters who have no memory of their nocturnal eating in the morning. In this study, the curious night eating behavior was designated as "unremembered nocturnal eating syndrome (UNES)". We screened 1,169 patients with diabetes for sleep quality and abnormal eating behavior at night using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire with an additional question regarding UNES. When abnormal nocturnal eating behavior was noted, detailed clinical information was extracted from interviews with the patients. We identified 9 patients who experienced UNES. They had a higher BMI compared with subjects who reported no such episodes. Among them, 6 patients who consumed food at night without memory 2-5 times per month or more had significantly higher HbA1c levels. Continuous glucose monitoring in a patient with type 1 diabetes revealed an abrupt elevation of glucose levels from midnight when some foods were consumed. Eight of the 9 patients were taking benzodiazepine and/or non-benzodiazepine hypnotic agents when they experienced the episodes. The prevalence of UNES was 0.8% in all subjects and 4% in those taking hypnotic drugs. The ratio of hypnotic drug use in subjects with UNES was significantly higher than for individuals without UNES (89% vs. 17%, p<0.0001). Although UNES seems to be etiologically heterogeneous, hypnotics-induced parasomnia and/or anterograde amnesia may be associated with the behavior. UNES is not rare in diabetic patients on hypnotic medicine and may be a hidden cause of unexpected morning hyperglycemia. PMID:23774071

  15. Differential activation of immune factors in neurons and glia contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption.

    PubMed

    Dissel, Stephane; Seugnet, Laurent; Thimgan, Matthew S; Silverman, Neal; Angadi, Veena; Thacher, Pamela V; Burnham, Melissa M; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    Individuals frequently find themselves confronted with a variety of challenges that threaten their wellbeing. While some individuals face these challenges efficiently and thrive (resilient) others are unable to cope and may suffer persistent consequences (vulnerable). Resilience/vulnerability to sleep disruption may contribute to the vulnerability of individuals exposed to challenging conditions. With that in mind we exploited individual differences in a fly's ability to form short-term memory (STM) following 3 different types of sleep disruption to identify the underlying genes. Our analysis showed that in each category of flies examined, there are individuals that form STM in the face of sleep loss (resilient) while other individuals show dramatic declines in cognitive behavior (vulnerable). Molecular genetic studies revealed that Antimicrobial Peptides, factors important for innate immunity, were candidates for conferring resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. Specifically, Metchnikowin (Mtk), drosocin (dro) and Attacin (Att) transcript levels seemed to be differentially increased by sleep deprivation in glia (Mtk), neurons (dro) or primarily in the head fat body (Att). Follow-up genetic studies confirmed that expressing Mtk in glia but not neurons, and expressing dro in neurons but not glia, disrupted memory while modulating sleep in opposite directions. These data indicate that various factors within glia or neurons can contribute to individual differences in resilience/vulnerability to sleep deprivation. PMID:25451614

  16. Changes in sleep disruption in the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hilario, E Yvette; Weiss, Roger D; Hien, Denise A

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, ?(2) (1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  17. Changes of sleep architecture, spectral composition of sleep EEG, the nocturnal secretion of cortisol, ACTH, GH, prolactin, melatonin, ghrelin, and leptin, and the DEX-CRH test in depressed patients during treatment with mirtazapine.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Dagmar A; Wichniak, Adam; Uhr, Manfred; Ising, Marcus; Brunner, Hans; Held, Katja; Weikel, Jutta C; Sonntag, Annette; Steiger, Axel

    2006-04-01

    The noradrenergic and specific serotoninergic antidepressant mirtazapine improves sleep, modulates hormone secretion including blunting of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity, and may prompt increased appetite and weight gain. The simultaneous investigation of sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and hormone secretion during antidepressive treatment helps to further elucidate these effects. We examined sleep EEG (for later conventional and quantitative analyses) and the nocturnal concentrations of cortisol, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin, melatonin and the key factors of energy balance, ghrelin, and leptin before and after 28 days of treatment of depressed patients (seven women, three men, mean age 39.9+/-4.2 years) with mirtazapine. In addition, a sleep EEG was recorded at day 2 and the dexamethasone-corticotropin-releasing hormone (DEX-CRH) test was performed to assess HPA activity at days -3 and 26. Psychometry and mirtazapine plasma concentrations were measured weekly. Already at day 2, sleep continuity was improved. This effect persisted at day 28, when slow-wave sleep, low-delta, theta and alpha activity, leptin and (0300-0700) melatonin increased, and cortisol and ghrelin decreased. ACTH and prolactin remained unchanged. The first two specimens of GH collected after the start of quantitative EEG analysis were reduced at day 28. The DEX-CRH test showed, at day 26, a blunting of the overshoot of ACTH and cortisol found at day -3. The Hamilton Depression score decreased from 32.1+/-7.3 to 15.5+/-6.7 between days -1 and 28. A weight gain of approximately 3 kg was observed. This unique profile of changes is compatible with the action of mirtazapine at 5-HT-2 receptors, at presynaptic adrenergic alpha 2 receptors, at the HPA system, and on ghrelin and leptin. PMID:16237393

  18. Seizures in Sleep: Clinical Spectrum, Diagnostic Features, and Management.

    PubMed

    Eliashiv, Dawn; Avidan, Alon Y

    2015-07-01

    Sleep is disrupted in most patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit and the disturbances are even more profound in patients impacted by epilepsy. Nocturnal seizures must be differentiated from other common nocturnal events, such as delirium, parasomnias, and sedation. Many antiepileptic drugs produce undesirable side effects on sleep architecture that may further predispose patients to insomnia during the night and excessive sedation and hypersomnolence during the day. Failure to recognize, correctly diagnose, and adequately manage these disturbances may lead to more prolonged hospitalization, increased risk for nosocomial infections, poorer health-related qualify of life, and greater health care financial burden. PMID:26118918

  19. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A; Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  20. Toward optimizing lighting as a countermeasure to sleep and circadian disruption in space flight.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Robert L; Gardner, James; Hanifin, John P; Jasser, Samar; Byrne, Brenda; Gerner, Edward; Rollag, Mark; Brainard, George C

    2005-01-01

    Light is being used as a pre-launch countermeasure to circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts. The effect of light on the circadian system is readily monitored by measurement of plasma melatonin. Our group has established an action spectrum for human melatonin regulation and determined the region of 446-477 nm to be the most potent for suppressing plasma melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 460 and 555 nm for suppressing melatonin using a within-subjects design. Subjects (N=12) were exposed to equal photon densities (7.18 x 10(12) photons/cm2/s) at 460 and 555 nm. Melatonin suppression was significantly stronger at 460 nm (p<0.02). An extension to the action spectrum showed that 420 nm light at 16 and 32 microW/cm2 significantly suppressed melatonin (p<0.04 and p<0.002). These studies will help optimize lighting countermeasures to circadian and sleep disruption during spaceflight. PMID:15838948

  1. Nocturnal Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Fanfulla, F; Cascone, L; Taurino, A E

    2004-08-01

    Sleep has effects on breathing, including changes in respiratory control, airways resistance and muscular contractility. These sleep-related modifications in the respiratory system do not induce adverse effects in healthy subjects, but may cause problems in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hypo-ventilation causes the most important gas-exchange alteration during sleep in COPD patients, leading to hypercapnia and hypoxemia, especially during rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. Blood gases alterations lead to increased arousals, sleep disruption, pulmonary hypertension and higher mortality. The presence of other sleep-related breathing disorders, like sleep apnea syndrome, may induce a more pronounced impairment of gas exchange, both during sleep and wakefulness, and development of symptoms like excessive daytime somnolence. Nocturnal oximetry is recommended to evaluate gas exchange during sleep in COPD patients. Sleep studies are usually indicated when there is a possibility of sleep apnea or obesity-hypoventilation syndrome. The role of non-invasive mechanical ventilation in managing COPD patients with nocturnal hypoventilation is discussed. PMID:15334044

  3. The effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on objective and subjective measures of nocturnal sleep: a comparison of two structurally different HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Eckernäs, S A; Roos, B E; Kvidal, P; Eriksson, L O; Block, G A; Neafus, R P; Haigh, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that HMG CoA reductase inhibitors which are administered as inactive, lipophilic lactones (e.g. simvastatin) have a greater propensity to evoke nocturnal sleep disturbances than pravastatin, an inhibitor given in the active, hydrophilic, open-acid form. 2. The effects of 4 weeks treatment with equipotent doses of simvastatin (20 mg day-1) and pravastatin (40 mg day-1) have been compared using polysomnography and subjective sleep assessments in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, incomplete block design study involving 24 male patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia (mean LDL cholesterol 5.11 mmol l-1). 3. Analysis of sleep EEG measures relevant to insomnia provided no evidence of significant differences between pravastatin, simvastatin and placebo, except in terms of entries and latency to stage I sleep. The number of entries to stage I sleep was significantly greater after simvastatin treatment than after either pravastatin or placebo (P < 0.05), but by contrast the latency to stage I sleep was significantly prolonged only in the pravastatin group (P < 0.05 vs placebo). 4. Subjective ratings of sleep initiation, maintenance and quality made during and after therapy were not significantly different between the three treatment groups. 5. It appears that the inherent hydrophobicity of simvastatin does not increase the occurrence of sleep disturbances in this patient population at a dose shown to elicit a characteristic hypolipidaemic response. PMID:8471404

  4. An introduction to the clinical correlates of disrupted slow-wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Roth, Thomas; Benca, Ruth M; Erman, Milton

    2010-04-01

    Chronic sleep deficits have been shown to lead to problems with cognition and memory, and evidence supports an association between deficits in slow-wave sleep and a variety of clinical and psychiatric disorders. Improving sleep architecture through an increase in slow-wave sleep, with or without increases in total time asleep, may lead to improvements in these associated disorders. Further research and the development of novel sleep therapies, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, are needed. PMID:20409443

  5. Sleep disruptions and mental health of primary caregivers of persons with disability due to chronic mental and physical conditions in the Australian population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence T Lam

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep disruption and the general mental health of caregivers of disabled people in Australia.\\u000aIt was hypothesised that greater sleep disruption would be associated with poorer mental health amongst caregivers. The study utilised data obtained from a national health survey of a stratified random sample, with the current sample consisting of 687

  6. Sleep abnormality in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yijun; Pan, Liping; Fu, Ying; Sun, Na; Li, Yu-Jing; Cai, Hao; Su, Lei; Shen, Yi; Cui, Linyang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We investigated the sleep structure of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and the association of abnormalities with brain lesions. Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study. Thirty-three patients with NMOSD and 20 matched healthy individuals were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients were collected. Questionnaires were used to assess quality of sleep, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depression. Nocturnal polysomnography was performed. Results: Compared with healthy controls, patients with NMOSD had decreases in sleep efficiency (7%; p = 0.0341), non-REM sleep N3 (12%; p < 0.0001), and arousal index (6; p = 0.0138). REM sleep increased by 4% (p = 0.0423). There were correlations between arousal index and REM% or Epworth Sleepiness Scale (r = ?0.0145; p = 0.0386, respectively). Six patients with NMOSD (18%, 5 without infratentorial lesions and 1 with infratentorial lesions) had a hypopnea index >5, and all of those with sleep apnea had predominantly the peripheral type. The periodic leg movement (PLM) index was higher in patients with NMOSD than in healthy controls (20 vs 2, p = 0.0457). Surprisingly, 77% of the patients with PLM manifested infratentorial lesions. Conclusions: Sleep architecture was markedly disrupted in patients with NMOSD. Surveillance of nocturnal symptoms and adequate symptomatic control are expected to improve the quality of life of patients with NMOSD. PMID:25918736

  7. Long-term effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Fren?, ?tefan M; Tudorache, Voicu M; Ardelean, Carmen; Mih?icu??, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is often linked to high blood pressure and has a particularly high prevalence in patients with resistant hypertension. The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on blood pressure (BP) values has been evaluated in several short-term clinical trials with conflicting results. Our aim was to investigate the role of long-term CPAP treatment in achieving BP control in patients who associate OSA and resistant hypertension. We have included in the study 33 patients with resistant hypertension, diagnosed with OSA in our sleep lab. Data was collected initially and after a mean follow-up period of 4 years. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the use of CPAP therapy. Patients under CPAP therapy (n = 12) exhibited a higher reduction in both systolic and diastolic pressure and BP control was achieved in 75% of cases, while patients without CPAP treatment (n = 21) remained with refractory hypertension in proportion of 90.5%. A de-escalation of antihypertensive drug regimen by discontinuation of 1 or more drugs was observed in 41.6% (n = 5) of patients from CPAP group and in the other 33.4% (n = 4) the medication remained unchanged, but BP control was reached. Using a direct logistic regression model for examining the impact of different confounders on the probability of diagnosis of resistant hypertension at follow-up, the only statistically significant predictor found was the lack of CPAP usage. PMID:25665364

  8. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  9. Nocturnal hypoventilation - identifying & treating syndromes.

    PubMed

    Piper, Amanda J

    2010-02-01

    Nocturnal hypoventilation is a common feature of disorders affecting the function of the diaphragm or central respiratory drive mechanisms. The ensuing change in gas exchange is initially confined to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but over time buffering of the raised carbon dioxide produces a secondary depression of respiratory drive that will further reduce ventilation not only during sleep but eventually during wakefulness as well. Failure to identify and treat nocturnal hypoventilation results in impairments in daytime function, quality of life and premature mortality. While some simple daytime tests of respiratory function can identify at risk individuals, these cannot predict the nature or severity of any sleep disordered breathing present. Nocturnal monitoring of gas exchange with or without full polysomnography is the only way to comprehensively assess this disorder, especially in the early stages of its evolution. Non invasive ventilation used during sleep is the most appropriate approach to reverse the consequences of nocturnal hypoventilation, although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may be effective in those individuals where a significant degree of upper airway obstruction is present. When appropriately selected patients use therapy on a regular basis, significant improvements in quality of life, exercise capacity and survival can be achieved, irrespective of the underlying disease process. PMID:20308760

  10. Bidirectional Communication between the Brain and the Immune System: Implications for Physiological Sleep and Disorders with Disrupted Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne Lorton; Cheri L. Lubahn; Chris Estus; Brooke A. Millar; Jeffery L. Carter; Carlo A. Wood; Denise L. Bellinger

    2006-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms of immune-to-brain and brain-to-immune signaling involved in mediating physiological sleep and altered sleep with disease. The central nervous system (CNS) modulates immune function by signaling target cells of the immune system through autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways. Neurotransmitters and hormones produced and released by these pathways interact with immune cells to alter immune functions, including cytokine production.

  11. Medical management of nocturnal enuresis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Aniruddh V; Caldwell, Patrina H Y

    2012-04-01

    Nocturnal enuresis, or bedwetting, is the most common cause of urinary incontinence in children. It is known to have a significant psychosocial impact on the child as well as the family. Nocturnal enuresis typically presents as failure to become dry at night after successful daytime toilet training. It can be primary or secondary (developing after being successfully dry at night for at least 6 months). Children with nocturnal enuresis may have excessive nocturnal urine production, poor sleep arousal and/or reduced bladder capacity. Alarm therapy is the recommended first-line therapy, with treatment choices being influenced by the presence or absence of the abnormalities mentioned above. Children with nocturnal enuresis may also have daytime urinary urgency, frequency or incontinence of urine. This group (non-monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis) requires a different clinical approach, with a focus on treating daytime bladder symptoms, which commonly involves pharmacotherapy with anticholinergic medications and urotherapy (including addressing bowel problems). This review discusses the current management of nocturnal enuresis using the terminologies recommended by the International Children's Continence Society. PMID:22168597

  12. Nocturnal hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Ranganathan, D.; John, G. T.

    2012-01-01

    Patients receiving conventional hemodialysis have high hospitalisation rates, poor quality of life and survival compared to the general population. Many centres around the world are providing longer hours of hemodialysis - short daily hemodialysis and nocturnal hemodialysis - with a view to improving patient survival and quality of life. Studies have shown that nocturnal haemodiaysis is more effective than conventional hemodialysis in clearing most small, middle and larger molecule toxins and suggest nocturnal dialysis enhances patient survival and quality of life. Concerns include patient acceptance, vascular access related complications and increased cost. The purpose of this review is to examine the advantages and drawbacks of nocturnal dialysis, with a focus on applicability to India where the renal physician has to face cultural and economic barriers, erratic power supply and poor water quality. PMID:23326041

  13. Feasibility of an interval, inspiration-triggered nocturnal odorant application by a novel device: a patient-blinded, randomised crossover, pilot trial on mood and sleep quality of depressed female inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vitinius, Frank; Hellmich, Martin; Matthies, Annalena; Bornkessel, Fabian; Burghart, Heiner; Albus, Christian; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Vent, Julia

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that certain odorants positively affect mood, but this has not yet been scientifically tested in humans. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new odorant applicator and to assess the effects of nocturnal intermittent rose odorant application on mood, and quality of sleep and dreams in depressed female inpatients. We hypothesised that mood as primary outcome will improve. Twenty-seven normosmic, 18- to 49-year-old female, depressed inpatients were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Exclusion criteria were rhinitis, hyp- or anosmia. During sleep, an interval-controlled, inspiration-triggered applicator added rose concentrate to the inspirated air. There were three consecutive nights of each odorant and placebo application and a wash-out phase. Patients completed standardised questionnaires on mood, dreams, and sleep quality. Four patients dropped out (n = 1: non-compliance in filling in the questionnaires, n = 3: intolerance of nasal tube). Otherwise, this novel odorant applicator was well tolerated. Application of the odorant showed no significant mood differences between rose and placebo, however, some subdomains of sleep quality and mood showed a positive trend towards improvement by rose application. The feasibility of this new device and of nasal tubes could be shown. Odorant application is well tolerated. It may have a positive influence on quality of mood and sleep in depressed patients. A longer application phase is planned to obtain convincing evidence for our hypothesis. PMID:24390040

  14. Longitudinal Change in Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Filtness, Ashleigh J.; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

  15. Nightwatch: Sleep Disruption of Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Parker, Edith A.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiving for ill loved ones can affect sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep has been associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, and it is known to affect work performance and ability to accomplish necessary tasks. While some research has looked at the sleep of caregivers of loved ones with chronic illness and found that they experience poorer sleep, little is known about the impact of caring for a child with asthma on the caregiver’s sleep and the ways in which their sleep may be affected. Community Action Against Asthma, a community-based participatory research partnership, conducted interviews with semistructured and open-ended questions with 40 caregivers of children with asthma who live in Detroit. Findings showed that caregivers regularly experience poor quality sleep because of sleeping lightly in order to listen for the child’s symptoms, wake multiple times to check on the child because of worry, and provide care for child when he or she experiences symptoms in the middle of the night. Results of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicate that 12.5% of caregivers received a score of 16 or more, the score on the scale used to indicate likely presence of a sleep disorder, and 42.5% had a score of 10 or more, indicating excessive sleepiness. Sleep disturbance in caregivers is an underrecognized consequence of childhood asthma, with implications for providers caring for children with asthma. PMID:25419470

  16. Determinants of shortened, disrupted, and mistimed sleep and associated metabolic health consequences in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in modern societies have been paralleled by reductions in the time their denizens spend asleep. Epidemiological studies have shown that disturbed sleep-comprising short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep-increases the risk of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and T2DM. Supporting a causal role of disturbed sleep, experimental animal and human studies have found that sleep loss can impair metabolic control and body weight regulation. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes comprise sleep loss-induced changes in appetite-signaling hormones (e.g., higher levels of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin) or hedonic brain responses, altered responses of peripheral tissues to metabolic signals, and changes in energy intake and expenditure. Even though the overall consensus is that sleep loss leads to metabolic perturbations promoting the development of obesity and T2DM, experimental evidence supporting the validity of this view has been inconsistent. This Perspective aims at discussing molecular to behavioral factors through which short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep may threaten metabolic public health. In this context, possible factors that may determine the extent to which poor sleep patterns increase the risk of metabolic pathologies within and across generations will be discussed (e.g., timing and genetics). PMID:25805757

  17. Sleep and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Peter-Derex, Laure; Yammine, Pierre; Bastuji, Hélène; Croisile, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a significant impact on patients and caregivers and a major risk factor for early institutionalization. Micro-architectural sleep alterations, nocturnal sleep fragmentation, decrease in nocturnal sleep duration, diurnal napping and even inversion of the sleep-wake cycle are the main disorders observed in patients with AD. Experimental and epidemiological evidence for a close reciprocal interaction between cognitive decline and sleep alterations is growing. Management of sleep disorders in AD is pre-eminently behavioral. Association of melatonin and bright light treatment seems to be promising as well. The presence of sleep complaints, especially excessive somnolence in demented patients, should draw attention to possible associated sleep pathologies such as sleep apnea syndrome or restless legs syndrome. PMID:24846773

  18. Nocturnal hemodialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paramjit Kalirao; Joshua M. Kaplan

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing number of patients with end stage renal disease comes an increasingly urgent need for renal replacement\\u000a therapy that is both clinically effective and cost effective. This article explores some of the advantages of nocturnal hemodialysis\\u000a as well as some of the barriers to its use.

  19. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs

    E-print Network

    Frau, Roberto; Orrù , Marco; Puligheddu, Monica; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Mereu, Giampaolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to induce perceptual impairments, ranging from perceptual distortion to hallucinatory states. Although this phenomenon has been extensively described in the literature, its neurobiological underpinnings remain elusive...

  20. Neonatal EEG-sleep disruption mimicking hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy after intrapartum asphyxia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark S. Scher; Doris A. Steppe; Marquita E. Beggarly; Dawn G. Salerno; David L. Banks

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: EEG-sleep organization of asphyxiated and non-asphyxiated full-term neonates was compared during the first 3 days after birth.Background: Aggressive fetal and neonatal resuscitative efforts have reduced the severe expression of the neonatal brain disorder termed hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Neonates may alternatively express altered EEG-sleep organization over the first days of life after asphyxia which may mimic mild or moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy.

  1. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. PMID:23353660

  2. Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

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  3. Sleep disorders in psychiatry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Alberto Costa e Silva

    2006-01-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or

  4. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solarewicz, Julia Z; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2(+/+)) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2(-/-)). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  5. Treatment of nocturnal eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Howell, Michael J; Schenck, Carlos H

    2009-09-01

    Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose metabolism that result in stable energy stores. Two conditions break this nighttime fast and are associated with weight gain as well as medical and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is characterized by isolated nocturnal eating, whereas the night-eating syndrome (NES) is a circadian delay in meal timing leading to evening hyperphagia, nocturnal eating, and morning anorexia. Recently, SRED has been associated with the benzodiazepine receptor agonist zolpidem. Both SRED and NES are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. In SRED, the antiseizure medication topiramate and dopaminergics have both demonstrated promising results. Nocturnal eating associated with NES has responded well to sertraline. PMID:19744399

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  7. The effect of histidine on mental fatigue and cognitive performance in subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Fujimura, Naoko; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Sato, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Our previous study reported that a dried bonito broth known in Japan as 'dashi' improved or ameliorated mood states, including fatigue, during the daily lives of human subjects. Histidine is an amino acid that is present in dried bonito broth, and we sought to evaluate whether histidine would affect feelings of fatigue in humans. We investigated the effects of histidine intake on the feeling of fatigue, mood states and mental task performance by performing a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Twenty subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores were asked to ingest histidine or a placebo every day for two weeks. The subjects' mood states were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) for eight feelings (fatigue, depression, carelessness, drowsiness, clear thinking, motivation, attentiveness and concentration). We also measured subjects' cognitive performance using the CogHealth test battery. The fatigue T-scores on the POMS test decreased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). After two weeks of histidine ingestion, the reaction time for the working memory task in the CogHealth test battery was significantly shorten compared to placebo ingestion. The VAS scores for clear thinking and for attentiveness were increased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). These results suggest that daily ingestion of histidine may ameliorate feelings of fatigue, increase performance during working memory tasks, and improve the clear thinking and attentiveness. PMID:25921948

  8. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  9. Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement in mice reveals increased susceptibility to sleep disruption and intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) are major manifestations of sleep apnea, a frequent condition in aging humans. Sleep perturbations are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may underlie the progression of disease. We hypothesized that acute short-term IH, SF, and their combination (IH+SF) may reveal unique susceptibility in sleep integrity in a murine model of AD. The effects of acute IH, SF, and IH+SF on sleep architecture, delta power, sleep latency, and core body temperature were assessed in adult male human ApoE4-targeted replacement mice (hApoE4) and wild-type (WT) controls. Slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly reduced, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was almost abolished during acute exposure to IH alone and IH+SF for 6 h in hApoE4, with milder effects in WT controls. Decreased delta power during SWS did not show postexposure rebound in hApoE4 unlike WT controls. IH and IH+SF induced hypothermia, which was more prominent in hApoE4 than WT controls. Mice subjected to SF also showed sleep deficits but without hypothermia. hApoE4 mice, unlike WT controls, exhibited increased sleep propensity, especially following IH and IH+SF, suggesting limited ability for sleep recovery in hApoE4 mice. These findings substantiate the potential impact of IH and SF in modulating sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis including maintenance of body temperature. Furthermore, the increased susceptibility and limited recovery ability of hApoE4 mice to sleep apnea suggests that early recognition and treatment of the latter in AD patients may restrict the progression and clinical manifestations of this frequent neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:22573105

  10. Sleep and daytime sleepiness in upper airway resistance syndrome compared to obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Guilleminault; Y. Do Kim; S. Chowdhuri; M. Horita; M. Ohayon; C. Kushida

    2001-01-01

    This study has investigated differences in the nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness among patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), upper airway resistance (UARS), sleep hypopnoea syndrome, and normal control subjects, using sleep scoring and spectral activity analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG). Twelve nonobese males with UARS aged 30 - 60 yrs were recruited. These subjects were strictly matched for

  11. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy presenting as excessive daytime sleepiness.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jocelyn Y; Wallace, Douglas M; Lopez, Maria R; Carrazana, Enrique J

    2013-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE). Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE. PMID:24479058

  12. Automated detection of nocturnal slow eye movements modulated by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark I. Boulos; Karthikeyan Umapathy; Peyman Shokrollahi; Kristiina M. V. McConville; Tess Sudenis; Dana R. Jewell; Sridhar Krishnan; Brian J. Murray

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionEye movements convey important information about brain function. Neuropsychiatric conditions and medications may produce abnormal eye movements (EMs) in sleep. Serotonergic drugs are known to increase nocturnal EMs. Few studies have quantified sleep EMs due to technical complexity. We investigated the effects of serotonergic drugs on slow EMs in sleeping patients using an objective automated EM quantification tool.

  13. Heart Rate Variability During Sleep and Subsequent Sleepiness in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Natelson, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25–55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (?1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night’s sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher fractal scaling index ?1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep (p < 0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS. PMID:23499514

  14. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  15. Sleep and immune function.

    PubMed

    Besedovsky, Luciana; Lange, Tanja; Born, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Sleep and the circadian system exert a strong regulatory influence on immune functions. Investigations of the normal sleep-wake cycle showed that immune parameters like numbers of undifferentiated naïve T cells and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines exhibit peaks during early nocturnal sleep whereas circulating numbers of immune cells with immediate effector functions, like cytotoxic natural killer cells, as well as anti-inflammatory cytokine activity peak during daytime wakefulness. Although it is difficult to entirely dissect the influence of sleep from that of the circadian rhythm, comparisons of the effects of nocturnal sleep with those of 24-h periods of wakefulness suggest that sleep facilitates the extravasation of T cells and their possible redistribution to lymph nodes. Moreover, such studies revealed a selectively enhancing influence of sleep on cytokines promoting the interaction between antigen presenting cells and T helper cells, like interleukin-12. Sleep on the night after experimental vaccinations against hepatitis A produced a strong and persistent increase in the number of antigen-specific Th cells and antibody titres. Together these findings indicate a specific role of sleep in the formation of immunological memory. This role appears to be associated in particular with the stage of slow wave sleep and the accompanying pro-inflammatory endocrine milieu that is hallmarked by high growth hormone and prolactin levels and low cortisol and catecholamine concentrations. PMID:22071480

  16. DELIRIUM: IS SLEEP IMPORTANT?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Paula L.; Ceriana, Piero; Fanfulla, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Delirium and poor sleep quality are common and often co-exist in hospitalized patients. A link between these disorders has been hypothesized but whether this link is a cause and effect relationship or simply an association resulting from shared mechanisms is yet to be determined. Potential shared mechanisms include: abnormalities of neurotransmitters, tissue ischemia, inflammation, and sedative exposure. Sedatives, while decreasing sleep latency, often cause a decrease in slow wave sleep and stage REM sleep and therefore may not provide the same restorative properties as natural sleep. Mechanical ventilation, an important cause of sleep disruption in ICU patients, may lead to sleep disruption not only from the discomfort of the endotracheal tube but also as a result of ineffective respiratory efforts and by inducing central apnea events if not properly adjusted for the patient’s physiologic needs. When possible, efforts should be made to optimize the patient-ventilator interaction to minimize sleep disruptions. PMID:23040286

  17. Nocturia Compounds Nocturnal Wakefulness in Older Individuals with Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Hernandez, Beatriz; Friedman, Leah; Yesavage, Jerome A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the impact of nocturia on objective measures of sleep in older individuals with insomnia. Methods: The sleep and toileting patterns of a group of community-dwelling older men (n = 55, aged 64.3 ± 7.52 years) and women (n = 92, aged 62.5 ± 6.73 years) with insomnia were studied for two weeks using sleep logs and one week using actigraphy. The relationships between nocturia and various sleep parameters were analyzed with ANOVA and linear regression. Results: More than half (54.2% ± 39.9%) of all log-reported nocturnal awakenings were associated with nocturia. A greater number of trips to the toilet was associated with worse log-reported restedness (p < 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p < 0.001), as well as increases in actigraph-derived measures of the number and length of nocturnal wake bouts (p < 0.001) and wake after sleep onset (p < 0.001). Actigraph-determined wake bouts were 11.5% ± 23.5% longer on nights on which there was a trip to the toilet and wake after sleep onset was 20.8% ± 33.0% longer during these nights. Conclusions: Nocturia is a common occurrence in older individuals with insomnia and is significantly associated with increased nocturnal wakefulness and decreased subjective restedness after sleep. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 263. Citation: Zeitzer JM; Bliwise DL; Hernandez B; Friedman L; Yesavage JA. Nocturia compounds nocturnal wakefulness in older individuals with insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(3):259-262. PMID:23493881

  18. Disrupted Sleep and Delayed Recovery from Chronic Peripheral Neuropathy are Distinct Phenotypes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muncey, Aaron R.; Saulles, Adam R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Background Sleep apnea, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and obesity are features of metabolic syndrome associated with decreased restorative sleep and increased pain. These traits are relevant for anesthesiology because they confer increased risks of a negative anesthetic outcome. This study tested the one-tailed hypothesis that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity have enhanced nociception and disordered sleep. Methods Rats were from a breeding strategy that selected for low aerobic capacity runners (LCR) and high aerobic capacity runners (HCR). Four different phenotypes were quantified. Rats (n=12) underwent von Frey sensory testing, thermal nociceptive testing (n=12), electrographic recordings of sleep and wakefulness (n=16), and thermal nociceptive testing before and for six weeks after a unilateral chronic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve (n=14). Results Paw withdrawal latency to a thermal nociceptive stimulus was significantly (P<0.01) less in LCR than HCR rats. There were significant differences in sleep. LCR rats spent significantly (P<0.01) more time awake (18%) and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (?19%) than HCR rats. Non-rapid eye movement sleep episodes were of shorter duration (?34%) in LCR than HCR rats. Rapid eye movement sleep of LCR rats was significantly more fragmented than Rapid eye movement sleep of HCR rats. LCR rats required two weeks longer than HCR rats to recover from peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Rodents with low aerobic capacity exhibit features homologous to human metabolic syndrome. This rodent model offers a novel tool for characterizing the mechanisms through which low aerobic function and obesity might confer increased risks for anesthesia. PMID:20938334

  19. The effects of nocturnal life on endocrine circadian patterns in healthy adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Qiang Qin; Jue Li; Yuan Wang; Jing Wang; Jia-Ying Xu; Takashi Kaneko

    2003-01-01

    We observed the 24-hour patterns of endocrine in medical students who lived either a diurnal life or nocturnal life. Nocturnal life was designed by skipping their breakfast but consuming much (>50% of their daily food intake) in the evening and at night with the sleep from 0130 h to 0830 h the next morning. After 3 weeks in the experimental

  20. Sleep and eating disorders: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. FASSINO; G. ABBATE DAGA; S. DEFILIPPI; L. GIANOTTI; F. GASTALDI; N. DELSEDIME

    Summary Objective Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) and patients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN) often have comorbid sleep disorders. Currently, the cluster of Eating Disorders (EDs) includes also syndromes other than AN and BN, such as Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and other disorders related to sleep disorders which are still being studied: Night Eating Syndrome, Nocturnal Eating Syndrome, Sleep-related Eating Disorder.

  1. Is Nocturnal Panic a Distinct Disease Category? Comparison of Clinical Characteristics among Patients with Primary Nocturnal Panic, Daytime Panic, and Coexistence of Nocturnal and Daytime Panic

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masaki; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Nishida, Shingo; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with panic disorder (PD) experience nocturnal panic attacks. We investigated the differences in demographic variables and symptom characteristics as well as response to treatment among patients with primary day panic (DP), primary nocturnal panic (NP), and the coexistence of DP and NP (DP/NP), and discuss whether NP is a distinct disease category. Method: One hundred one consecutive untreated patients with PD were enrolled and subsequently divided into the NP, DP, and DP/NP groups. The presence of 13 panic attack symptom items as well as scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared among the groups. After 3 months of regular treatment, PDSS scores were assessed again to evaluate treatment response. Results: Nocturnal panic attacks of the participants were mostly reported to occur in the first tertile of nocturnal sleep. The number of males, onset age, and presence of choking sensation were significantly higher, and the PDSS score was significantly lower in the NP group compared with the other groups. The DP/NP group showed the highest PDSS score, and participants in this group were prescribed the highest doses of medication among all groups. Only diagnostic sub-category was significantly associated with treatment response. The total score for PDSS and PSQI correlated significantly only in the NP group. Conclusions: DP/NP could be a severe form of PD, while primary NP could be a relatively mild subcategory that may partially share common pathophysiology with adult type night terror. Citation: Nakamura M; Sugiura T; Nishida S; Komada Y; Inoue Y. Is nocturnal panic a distinct disease category? Comparison of clinical characteristics among patients with primary nocturnal panic, daytime panic, and coexistence of nocturnal and daytime panic. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):461-467. PMID:23674937

  2. Gender differences in subjective sleep after trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2013-08-01

    Women are at higher risk than men for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following certain types of trauma such as accidents and assaults. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the development of PTSD. Although gender differences in objective sleep soon after trauma have been found in a prior polysomnographic study, gender differences in subjective sleep soon after trauma and their associations to the development of PTSD have not been examined. This pilot study prospectively examined whether gender moderated the relationship between subjective sleep soon after trauma and PTSD symptom development. Injury patients (17 women, 28 men) completed a sleep questionnaire and a 1-week sleep diary 2 weeks after their injuries, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale at 7-weeks postinjury. Results showed that women reported greater frequency of nightmares and disruptive nocturnal behaviors (e.g., hot flashes, memories/nightmares about trauma) following the trauma and more severe PTSD symptoms at 7 weeks. Further, gender moderated the relationship between sleep-onset latency and PTSD symptom severity, such that longer sleep-onset latency predicted more severe PTSD symptoms in men, but less severe PTSD symptoms in women. These findings suggest that gender-specific mechanisms may underlie the relationship between sleep impairment and the development of PTSD. PMID:23861181

  3. Neuromuscular disorders and sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibrahim Oztura; Christian Guilleminault

    2005-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are caused by the primary involvement of the motor unit. In these patients, sleep-disordered breathing\\u000a (SDB) due to respiratory muscle weakness is often encountered during sleep. Because there is a tendency to overlook this disorder,\\u000a all patients with neuromuscular disorders should be questioned about SDB. Overnight polysomnography is the best investigation\\u000a for SDB and nocturnal desaturations. In the

  4. Sleep and Quality of Life in REM Sleep Parasomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luigi Ferini-Strambi; Maria Livia Fantini

    Parasomnias are abnormal behavioral or physiological events that intrude into the sleep process disrupting its continuity.\\u000a Parasomnia associated to REM sleep include REM sleep behavior disorder, nightmare disorders, recurrent isolated sleep paralysis\\u000a (SP), and sleep-related painful erections. The quality of life of patients suffering from parasomnias may vary according to\\u000a the disorder. REM sleep behavior disorder patients experience recurrent vivid

  5. When to Suspect Sleep Apnea and What to Do About It.

    PubMed

    Kimoff, R John

    2015-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), which is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep with resultant hypoxia-reoxygenation and sleep fragmentation, is prevalent among patients with cardiovascular disease. Refractory hypertension, nocturnal angina or arrhythmias, and stroke in particular should prompt consideration of OSA. The symptoms of OSA include snoring and excessive daytime sleepiness; risk factors include obesity and reduced upper airway dimensions. Up to 50% of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF) may manifest OSA, central sleep apnea-Cheyne-Stokes respiration (CSA-CSR), or both. Patients with CSA-CSR may present with fatigue, disrupted sleep, and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. Objective sleep recording is required to document the nature and severity of sleep apnea. The gold standard is in-laboratory overnight polysomnography (PSG), including monitoring of electroencephalography and other signals to determine sleep-wake state, and recording of body position, airflow, respiratory effort, and pulse oximetry. Portable cardiorespiratory recorders are now approved for diagnosis in patients without comorbidities. Full PSG is recommended for diagnosis in all other cases, although OSA and CSA-CSR can be identified from portable recorders in some patients with CHF and other conditions. The objectives of treatment are to improve symptoms, quality of life, and cardiovascular outcomes. The mainstay of treatment for moderate-to-severe OSA is positive airway pressure (PAP). Automated PAP devices may be used in uncomplicated OSA, whereas continuous fixed PAP is the treatment of choice for other patients with OSA, and may also treat a proportion of patients with CSA-CSR. A form of bi-level PAP known as adaptive servoventilation is effective in treating a majority of patients with CSA-CSR. PMID:26112305

  6. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  7. Understanding sleep during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Shirley A; Freeman, Jackie L

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents have unique sleep behaviors related to physiological and developmental differences. Research suggests that sleep debt related to these adolescent differences contributes to risk for accidents, behavioral changes, and other health concerns. In addition, the impact of pain related to trauma, surgery, and chronic illness can further alter the sleep patterns of this age group. Limited normative parameters describe the sleep of healthy adolescents. A comparative study of 26 adolescents from 12 through 18 years of age was designed to describe the sleep patterns of two groups of adolescents. Sleep parameters, including actual sleep time, sleep efficiency, nighttime awakenings, and other sleep patterns of adolescents following post-operative tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A), were compared with an age and gender-matched sample of healthy adolescents. All adolescents wore wrist-actigraphy and documented sleep information in a diary for three continuous days. Healthy adolescents had significantly less (p = 0.003) actual hours of night time sleep and significantly less (p = 0.039) sleep efficiency than adolescents in the post-operative sample during the three days. None of the adolescents in this study had sufficient actual hours of nighttime sleep. Findings support the need for nurses to assess adolescent sleep patterns and to educate teens and their families about the importance of adequate sleep. Further research is needed to establish sleep interventions that will improve the sleep hygiene of both healthy adolescents and those who experience sleep disruption due to painful conditions. PMID:24941511

  8. SLEEP, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2007 1309 SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING (SDB) IS A CONDITION

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    for Sleep and Respiratory Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA SDBSLEEP, Vol. 30, No. 10, 2007 1309 SLEEP-DISORDERED BREATHING (SDB) IS A CONDITION CHARACTERIZED BY REPEATED BREATHING PAUSES AND REDUCED AIRFLOW DURING SLEEP, LEADING TO nocturnal arousals, unrefreshing

  9. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  10. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  11. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dubé, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~11–15 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y ± 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y ± 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (?V), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep.

  12. An event-related analysis of awakening reactions due to nocturnal church bell noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Brink; Sarah Omlin; Christian Müller; Reto Pieren; Mathias Basner

    2011-01-01

    The sleep disturbing effects of nocturnal ambient non-traffic related noises such as bell strokes emitted from church bell towers on nearby residents are presently unknown. Nonetheless, this specific noise source is suspected to cause sleep disturbances in a small but qualified minority of people living in the vicinity of the bell towers that throughout the night indicate the time with

  13. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    PubMed Central

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  14. Sleep Disorders in Atypical Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Sabra M.; Videnovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disorders are commonly seen in atypical parkinsonism, with particular disorders occurring more frequently in specific parkinsonian disorders. Multiple systems atrophy (MSA) is a synucleinopathy often associated with nocturnal stridor which is a serious, but treatable condition highly specific to MSA. In addition, this disorder is strongly associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD), which is also seen in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RBD is far less prevalent in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), which is a tauopathy. Insomnia and impaired sleep architecture are the most common sleep abnormalities seen in PSP. Corticobasilar degeneration (CBD) is also a tauopathy, but has far fewer sleep complaints associated with it than PSP. In this manuscript we review the spectrum of sleep dysfunction across the atypical parkinsonian disorders, emphasize the importance of evaluating for sleep disorders in patients with parkinsonian symptoms, and point to sleep characteristics that can provide diagnostic clues to the underlying parkinsonian disorder. PMID:24955381

  15. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND NOCTURNAL CARDIAC AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Covassin, Naima; Neikrug, Ariel B.; Liu, Lianqi; Maglione, Jeanne; Natarajan, Loki; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Loredo, Jose S.; Palmer, Barton W.; Redwine, Laura S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the association between Parkinson’s disease (PD) clinical characteristics and cardiac autonomic control across sleep stages. Methods Frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) measures were estimated in 18 PD patients undergoing a night of polysomnography. Results Significant relationships were found between PD severity and nocturnal HRV indices. The associations were restricted to rapid eye movement (R) sleep. Conclusions The progressive nocturnal cardiac autonomic impairment occurring with more severe PD can be subclinical emerging only during conditions requiring active modulation of physiological functions such as R-sleep. PMID:23141523

  16. Sleep and breathing disorders: the genesis of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Foresman, B H

    2000-08-01

    Sleep encompasses approximately a third of our lives; however, sleep and the disorders of sleep are not widely understood. Data suggest that sleep plays a restorative role in physiologic mechanisms and that long-term disruption of sleep may contribute to the development of disease. Nearly a third of the adult population is chronically afflicted by sleep disorders, and substantial economic loss is attributable to these disorders in terms of lost time, inefficiency, and accidents. Of the sleep disorders, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is one of the more common, clinically affecting up to 5% of the adult population. Obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of disease and has an adverse impact on daytime functioning in those affected by the disease. This article reviews basic sleep physiology, how these physiologic mechanisms are disrupted by OSA, and some of the techniques for treating patients with this disorder. PMID:11002613

  17. In search of objective components for sleep quality indexing in normal sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Rosipal, Roman; Lewandowski, Achim; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of nocturnal human sleep can provide information about sleep quality in terms of correlation with a set of daytime measures. These measures were designed with the aim of comprising selected quality of night sleep and consist of subjective sleep quality ratings, neuropsychological tests and physiological parameters. First, a factor analysis model was applied to the large number of daytime measures of sleep quality in order to detect their latent structure. Secondly, in addition to the gold standard sleep staging method to arrive at variables about sleep architecture from PSG, we applied a recently developed continuous sleep representation by considering the probabilistic sleep model (PSM) describing the microstructure of sleep. Significant correlations between sleep architecture and daytime variables of sleep quality were found. Both the factor analysis and the PSM helped maximize the information about this relationship. PMID:23751915

  18. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed during the STS-90 (Neurolab) and STS-95 missions in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. In both flight-based experiments, the effects of melatonin on sleep stages and spectral composition of the EEG during sleep will be determined as well as its effects on daytime alertness and performance; (5) the impact of space flight on sleep and waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance in 30-45-year-old astronauts is compared with its impact in a 77-year-old astronaut. This case study is the first to assess the effects of space flight on an older individual. Because the investigators are still blind to the treatment in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, preliminary results will be presented independent of the drug condition.

  19. Sleep and sleep disorders in older adults.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Kate

    2011-03-01

    A common but significant change associated with aging is a profound disruption to the daily sleep-wake cycle. It has been estimated that as many as 50% of older adults complain about difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep. Poor sleep results in increased risk of significant morbidity and mortality. Moreover, in younger adults, compromised sleep has been shown to have a consistent effect on cognitive function, which may suggest that sleep problems contribute to the cognitive changes that accompany older age. The multifactorial nature of variables affecting sleep in old age cannot be overstated. Changes in sleep have been thought to reflect normal developmental processes, which can be further compromised by sleep disturbances secondary to medical or psychiatric diseases (e.g., chronic pain, dementia, depression), a primary sleep disorder that can itself be age-related (e.g., Sleep Disordered Breathing and Periodic Limb Movements During Sleep), or some combination of any of these factors. Given that changes in sleep quality and quantity in later life have implications for quality of life and level of functioning, it is imperative to distinguish the normal age-related sleep changes from those originating from pathological processes. PMID:21225347

  20. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders.

    PubMed

    Depner, Christopher M; Stothard, Ellen R; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-07-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  1. Sleep and breathing in neuromuscular disease.

    PubMed

    Bourke, S C; Gibson, G J

    2002-06-01

    Respiratory muscle weakness in neuromuscular disease causes significant morbidity and mortality. The published data on respiratory muscle activity and breathing during sleep in normal subjects, the impact of respiratory muscle weakness on sleep and breathing and the relations to daytime respiratory function in neuromuscular disease are reviewed here. In normal subjects during sleep upper airway resistance increases, chemosensitivity is reduced and the wakefulness drive to breathe is lost, resulting in a fall in ventilation. During rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, ribcage and accessory breathing muscles are suppressed, particularly during bursts of eye movements, and breathing is more irregular, rapid and shallow, with a further fall in ventilation. In subjects with respiratory muscle weakness sleep is fragmented, with shorter total sleep time, frequent arousals, an increase in stage 1 sleep and a reduction in, or complete suppression of, REM sleep. Sleep-disordered breathing and nocturnal desaturation are common and most severe during REM sleep. Correlations between daytime respiratory function and nocturnal desaturation are moderate or weak, but daytime respiratory function has greater prognostic value than nocturnal measurements. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep quality and breathing in subjects with respiratory muscle weakness. However, the optimal criteria for initiation of ventilation and its role in rapidly progressive neuromuscular diseases are unclear. PMID:12108875

  2. Sleep-wake transition in narcolepsy and healthy controls using a support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Julie B; Sorensen, Helge B D; Kempfner, Jacob; Sørensen, Gertrud L; Knudsen, Stine; Jennum, Poul

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by abnormal sleep-wake regulation, causing sleep episodes during the day and nocturnal sleep disruptions. The transitions between sleep and wakefulness can be identified by manual scorings of a polysomnographic recording. The aim of this study was to develop an automatic classifier capable of separating sleep epochs from epochs of wakefulness by using EEG measurements from one channel. Features from frequency bands ? (0-4 Hz), ? (4-8 Hz), ? (8-12 Hz), ? (12-16 Hz), 16 to 24 Hz, 24 to 32 Hz, 32 to 40 Hz, and 40 to 48 Hz were extracted from data by use of a wavelet packet transformation and were given as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classification algorithm was assessed by hold-out validation and 10-fold cross-validation. The data used to validate the classifier were derived from polysomnographic recordings of 47 narcoleptic patients (33 with cataplexy and 14 without cataplexy) and 15 healthy controls. Compared with manual scorings, an accuracy of 90% was achieved in the hold-out validation, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 95%. Sensitivity and specificity were 90% and 88%, respectively. The 10-fold cross-validation procedure yielded an accuracy of 88%, an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 92%, a sensitivity of 87%, and a specificity of 87%. Narcolepsy with cataplexy patients experienced significantly more sleep-wake transitions during night than did narcolepsy without cataplexy patients (P = 0.0199) and healthy subjects (P = 0.0265). In addition, the sleep-wake transitions were elevated in hypocretin-deficient patients. It is concluded that the classifier shows high validity for identifying the sleep-wake transition. Narcolepsy with cataplexy patients have more sleep-wake transitions during night, suggesting instability in the sleep-wake regulatory system. PMID:25271675

  3. Nocturnal Hypoxia in ALS Is Related to Cognitive Dysfunction and Can Occur as Clusters of Desaturations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Min; Park, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Sang-Yun; Nam, Hyun-woo; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive weakness of the respiratory and limb muscles. Consequently, most patients with ALS exhibit progressive hypoventilation, which worsens during sleep. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and cognitive dysfunction and to assess the pattern of nocturnal hypoxia in patients with ALS. Method Twenty-five patients with definite or probable ALS underwent neuropsychologic testing, nocturnal pulse oximetry, and capnography. Patients were grouped according to the presence of nocturnal hypoxia (SpO2<95% for ?10% of the night) and their clinical characteristics and cognitive function were compared. Results Compared to patients without nocturnal hypoxia, those with nocturnal hypoxia (n?=?10, 40%) had poor memory retention (p?=?0.039) and retrieval efficiency (p?=?0.045). A cluster-of-desaturation pattern was identified in 7 patients (70%) in the Hypoxia Group. Conclusions These results suggest that nocturnal hypoxia can be related to cognitive dysfunction in ALS. In addition, a considerable number of patients with ALS may be exposed to repeated episodes of deoxygenation–reoxygenation (a cluster-of-desaturation pattern) during sleep, which could be associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species. Further studies are required to define the exact causal relationships between these phenomena, the exact manifestations of nocturnal cluster-of-desaturation patterns, and the effect of clusters of desaturation on ALS progression. PMID:24058674

  4. Sleep quality in Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, H E; Ney, G; Scharf, S M; Ravdin, L; Hilton, E

    1995-12-01

    Complaints of chronic fatigue as well as sleep disturbances are prevalent in Lyme disease. We compared polysomnographic measures of sleep in patients with documented Lyme disease with those of a group of age-matched normal control subjects. Eleven patients meeting Centers for Disease Control criteria for late Lyme disease with serologic confirmation by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot without a history of other medical or psychiatric illness and 10 age-matched control subjects were studied. Lyme disease patients and controls underwent 2 nights of polysomnography. Multiple sleep latency testing (MSLT) was performed in the patients. Sleep was staged by standard criteria, and continuity of sleep was assessed for each stage of frequency analysis of consecutive epochs. All patients studied reported sleep-related complaints, including difficulty initiating sleep (27%), frequent nocturnal awakenings (27%), excessive daytime somnolence (73%) and restless legs/nocturnal leg jerking (9%). Greater sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and a greater arousal index were noted in Lyme patients. The median length of uninterrupted occurrences of stage 2 and stage 4 non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was less in Lyme patients (6.3 +/- 3.0 epochs in patients vs. 11.4 +/- 4.4 epochs in controls for stage 2, p < 0.01, and 4.3 +/- 4.4 epochs in patients vs. 11.2 +/- 6.3 epochs in controls for stage 4, p < 0.01), indicating greater sleep fragmentation. Mean sleep onset latency during the MSLT was normal (12.7 +/- 5.6 minutes). Three patients demonstrated alpha-wave intrusion into NREM sleep. These sleep abnormalities may contribute to the fatigue and sleep complaints common in this disease. PMID:8746401

  5. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Mellies, Uwe; Dohna-Schwake, Christian; Stehling, Florian; Voit, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing is a common but under-diagnosed complication causing sleep disturbance and daytime symptoms in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Non-invasive (positive pressure) ventilation is an established treatment of respiratory failure; its role in treatment of sleep disordered breathing though remains controversial. Aim of this study was to verify the hypothesis that nocturnal non-invasive ventilation has beneficial impact on breathing during sleep, sleep quality and daytime complaints in children with spinal muscular atrophy. Twelve children with spinal muscular atrophy type I or II (7.8+/-1.9 years) underwent polysomnography and were asked to fill out a symptom questionnaire. Seven patients (six with spinal muscular atrophy I and one with spinal muscular atrophy II) had sleep disordered breathing and received non-invasive ventilation during sleep. Five less severely affected patients (one with spinal muscular atrophy I and four with spinal muscular atrophy II) had no sleep disordered breathing and served as reference group. Patients were restudied after 6-12 months. In patients with sleep disordered breathing both sleep architecture and disease related symptoms were significantly worse than in the reference-group. Non-invasive ventilation during sleep completely eliminated disordered breathing, normalized sleep architecture and improved symptoms (P<0.05 for all). In children with spinal muscular atrophy sleep disordered breathing may cause relevant impairment of sleep and well-being. Both can be highly improved by nocturnal non-invasive ventilation. PMID:15564035

  6. Changes in sleep–waking cycle after striatal excitotoxic lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan Mena-Segovia; León Cintra; Oscar Prospéro-Garc??a; Magda Giordano

    2002-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) patients show severe diurnal choreic movements, while during slow-wave sleep (SWS) abnormal movements subside. Sleep disturbances in HD, including irregular delta activity and decreases in SWS, have also been reported. Striatal excitotoxic lesions have been shown to induce increased nocturnal spontaneous locomotor activity in rodents. In order to characterize the changes in circadian activity and sleep patterns

  7. EEG synchronisation during sleep-related epileptic seizures as a new tool to discriminate confusional arousals from paroxysmal arousals: preliminary findings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zucconi; M. Manconi; D. Bizzozero; F. Rundo; C. J. Stam; L. Ferini-Strambi; R. Ferri

    2005-01-01

    Confusional arousals, paroxysmal arousals (as part of the nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy) and normal arousals and awakenings from NREM sleep are frequently a challenge for differential diagnosis. In this article we describe the course of synchronisation between different EEG channels during nocturnal seizures in 3 patients with sleep-related epileptic seizures and in 1 patient with sleep terrors. The functional interactions

  8. A Mixed-Method Examination of Maternal and Paternal Nocturnal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Craig, Garfield F.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to describe and compare causes of, and activities during, postpartum parents’ nocturnal awakenings. Methods Twenty-one primiparous postpartum couples were studied for one week with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results Mothers reported more awakenings per night (3.3±1.1) and more wake after sleep onset (116.0±60.0 minutes) compared to fathers (2.4±0.5 and 42.7±39.4 minutes, respectively). ‘Actions taken’ during maternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily for infant feeding (49.0%), general infant care (18.5%), and infant changing (12.0%). ‘Actions taken’ during paternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily ‘passive awakenings’ (35.9%), for self-care (18.4%), and for infant feeding (9.4%). Conclusions Qualitative analyses revealed ways that new families can optimize the sleep of both parents’ while also providing optimal nocturnal infant care. PMID:24007974

  9. Effect of Ship Noise on Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of a steady sound level of 65 dB(A) from a diesel ship engine on nocturnal sleep were studied using polygraphic and subjective sleep parameters. Three healthy men, aged 29 to 33 years, participated in the experiment. Sleep polygrams and the sound level in a sleep laboratory were recorded for each subject for five exposure nights and five control nights. The following morning, the subjects answered a self-rating sleep questionnaire (called the OSA) and underwent simple reaction time tests. The percentage of S2, SREM latency and the REM interval increased, while %SREM decreased during the noise-exposed nights as compared with corresponding values on the control nights. Other parameters of sleep EEG were unchanged. Five scale scores for OSA, sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation deteriorated significantly on the noise-exposed nights as compared with the control nights. Canonical discriminant analysis was conducted using 19 sleep parameters. The standard partial regression coefficients of %SREM, %S2 and %S1 were somewhat higher than other parameters. It was suggested that exposure to the 65 dB(A) ship noise exerted adverse effects on nocturnal sleep, subjectively and in part polygraphically (REM sleep and shallow sleep).

  10. Sleep-wake abnormalities in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Zorick, F; Roehrs, T; Wittig, R; Lamphere, J; Sicklesteel, J; Roth, T

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the degree to which sleep (REM vs. NREM) intrudes into wake and wake intrudes into sleep in narcolepsy, 103 patients with narcolepsy were compared to 105 patients with other diagnoses of disorders of excessive sleep (DOES). Narcoleptic patients had more frequent REM onsets on the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and nocturnal polysomnograms. But the MSLT latencies to REM versus NREM in narcoleptic patients did not differ. Nocturnal measures of REM pressure, percentage of REM, and REM latency excluding the REM onsets, did not differ among patient groups. With respect to the intrusion of wake into sleep, narcoleptic patients had more and longer awakenings compared with other DOES patients, but the distribution of wake into REM and NREM sleep did not differ among groups. These data suggest that narcolepsy is not exclusively a REM-related disorder, but involves an inability to sustain a specific neural state for periods comparable to those in normal subjects or other DOES patients. PMID:3704441

  11. Capnography for Assessing Nocturnal Hypoventilation and Predicting Compliance with Subsequent Noninvasive Ventilation in Patients with ALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sung-Min Kim; Kyung Seok Park; Hyunwoo Nam; Suk-Won Ahn; Suhyun Kim; Jung-Joon Sung; Kwang-Woo Lee; Rory Morty

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundPatients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suffer from hypoventilation, which can easily worsen during sleep. This study evaluated the efficacy of capnography monitoring in patients with ALS for assessing nocturnal hypoventilation and predicting good compliance with subsequent noninvasive ventilation (NIV) treatment.MethodsNocturnal monitoring and brief wake screening by capnography\\/pulse oximetry, functional scores, and other respiratory signs were assessed in 26 patients

  12. Sleep Neurobiology and Critical Care Illness.

    PubMed

    Drouot, Xavier; Quentin, Solene

    2015-07-01

    The intensive care unit (ICU) environment is not propitious for restoring sleep and many studies have reported that critically ill patients have severe sleep disruptions. However, sleep alterations in critically ill patients are specific and differ significantly from those in ambulatory patients. Polysomnographic patterns of normal sleep are frequently lacking in critically ill patients and the neurobiology of sleep is important to consider regarding alternative methods to quantify sleep in the ICU. This article discusses elements of sleep neurobiology affecting the specificity of sleep patterns and sleep alterations in patients admitted to the ICU. PMID:26118910

  13. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a Community Sample of Young Children: The Role of Obesity, Asthma, Anxiety/Depression, and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Susan L.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Mayes, Susan D.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Basta, Maria; Bixler, Edward O.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated the prevalence and association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with a wide range of factors (e.g., medical complaints, obesity, objective sleep [including sleep disordered breathing], and parent-reported anxiety/depression and sleep difficulties) in a large general population sample of children. Few studies have researched the prevalence and predictors of EDS in young children, none in a general population sample of children, and the results are inconsistent. Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Population -based. Participants: 508 school-aged children from the general population. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Children underwent a 9-hour polysomnogram (PSG), physical exam, and parent completed health, sleep and psychological questionnaires. Children were divided into 2 groups: those with and without parent reported EDS. The prevalence of subjective EDS was approximately 15%. Significant univariate relationships were found between children with EDS and BMI percentile, waist circumference, heartburn, asthma, and parent reported anxiety/depression, and sleep difficulties. The strongest predictors of EDS were waist circumference, asthma, and parent-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression and trouble falling asleep. All PSG sleep variables including apnea/hypopnea index, caffeine consumption, and allergies were not significantly related to EDS. Conclusions: It appears that the presence of EDS is more strongly associated with obesity, asthma, parent reported anxiety/depression, and trouble falling asleep than with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) or objective sleep disruption per se. Our findings suggest that children with EDS should be thoroughly assessed for anxiety/depression, nocturnal sleep difficulties, asthma, obesity, and other metabolic factors, whereas objective sleep findings may not be as clinically useful. Citation: Calhoun SL; Vgontzas AN; Fernandez-Mendoza J; Mayes SD; Tsaoussoglou M; Basta M; Bixler EO. Prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in a community sample of young children: the role of obesity, asthma, anxiety/depression, and sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(4):503-507. PMID:21461329

  14. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  15. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  16. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly. Part 2: therapy].

    PubMed

    Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing. PMID:25277109

  17. Pathophysiology of Pediatric Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliot S. Katz; Carolyn M. D'Ambrosio

    2008-01-01

    The essential feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in chil- dren is increased upper airway resistance during sleep. Airway narrowing may be due to craniofacial abnormalities and\\/or soft tissue hypertrophy. The resultant breathing patterns during sleep are highly variable, but include obstructive cycling, in- creased respiratory effort, flow limitation, tachypnea, and\\/or gas exchange abnormalities. Consequently, sleep disruption occurs, ranging from

  18. Sleep Studies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ... Sleep." Rate This Content: NEXT >> March 29, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  19. Nocturia × disturbed sleep: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Furtado; Helena Hachul; Monica L. Andersen; Rodrigo A. Castro; Manoel B. Girão; Sergio Tufik

    In this article, we provide a concise review of the literature on nocturia and its interference with sleep and, consequently,\\u000a on quality of life. There are few studies addressing the possible influences of nocturia on sleep disruption. Nocturia is\\u000a a potential contributor to sleep disorders because affected individuals experience nonrestorative sleep due to frequent interruptions.\\u000a We also attempted to determine

  20. Sleep in eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Christoph J; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian

    2004-04-01

    Sleep research on eating disorders has addressed two major questions: (1) the effects of chronic starvation in anorexia nervosa and of rapidly fluctuating eating patterns in bulimia nervosa on the sleep regulating processes and (2) the search for a significant neurobiological relationship between eating disorders and major depression. At present, the latter question appears to be resolved, since most of the available evidences clearly underline the notion that eating disorders (such as anorexia and bulimia nervosa) and affective disorders are two distinct entities. Regarding the effects of starvation on sleep regulation, recent research in healthy humans and in animals demonstrates that such a condition results in a fragmentation of sleep and a reduction of slow wave sleep. Although several peptides are supposed to be involved in these regulatory processes (i.e. CCK, orexin, leptin), their mode of action is still poorly understood. In opposite to these experimentally induced sleep disturbances are the findings that the sleep patterns in eating disorder patients per se do not markedly differ from those in healthy subjects. However, when focusing on the so-called restricting anorexics, who maintain their chronic underweight by strictly dieting, the expected effects of malnutrition on sleep can be ascertained. Furthermore, at least partial weight restoration results in a 'deepening' of nocturnal sleep in the anorexic patients. However, our knowledge about the neurobiological systems (as well as their circadian pattern of activity) that transmit the effects of starvation and of weight restoration on sleep is still limited and should be extended to metabolic signals mediating sleep. PMID:15033150

  1. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  2. Sickle Cell Anemia: Iron Availability and Nocturnal Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Sharon E.; L'Esperance, Veline; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratius; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hill, Catherine M.; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that low iron availability, measured as transferrin saturation, is associated with low nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA; hemoglobin SS). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian children with SCA who were not receiving regular blood transfusions. Thirty-two children (16 boys) with SCA (mean age 8.0, range 3.6-15.3 years) underwent motion-resistant nocturnal oximetry (Masimo Radical) and had steady state serum transferrin saturation and hematological indices assessed. Results: Higher transferrin saturation, adjusted for age and ?-thalassemia deletion, was associated with lower nocturnal mean SpO2 (p = 0.013, r2 = 0.41), number of SpO2 dips/h > 3% from baseline (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.19) and with min/h with SpO2 < 90% (p = 0.026 r2 = 0.16). Transferrin saturation < 16% (indicative of iron deficiency) was associated with a 2.2% higher nocturnal mean SpO2. Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, higher iron availability, assessed by transferrin saturation, is associated with nocturnal chronic and intermittent hemoglobin oxygen desaturation in SCA. Whether these associations are causal and are driven by hypoxia-inducible factor and hepcidin-mediated upregulation of demand for iron warrants further investigation. Citation: Cox SE; L'Esperance V; Makani J; Soka D; Prentice AM; Hill CM; Kirkham FJ. Sickle cell anemia: iron availability and nocturnal oximetry. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):541-545. PMID:23066366

  3. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal from antidepressant drugs, a reflection of an REM rebound after drug-induced REM deprivation. The postulated link between sleep and psychiatric disorders has been reinforced by the findings of modern neurobiology. PMID:16979426

  4. Experiences of Sleep and Benzodiazepine Use among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older women; however, little is known about sleep experiences among chronic benzodiazepine users. The experience of sleep, sleep troubles, and management of sleep problems were explored through semi-structured interviews with 12 women aged 65 to 92 who had used a benzodiazepine for three months or longer to treat a sleep disturbance. Themes that emerged from an interpretive phenomenological analysis included multiple reasons for sleep disruptions (health problems, mental disturbances, and sleeping arrangements); opposing effects of benzodiazepines on sleep (helps or does not work); and several supplemental sleep strategies (modification of the environment, distraction, and consumption). PMID:25581296

  5. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sairam Parthasarathy; Martin J. Tobin

    Abnormalities of sleep are extremely common in critically ill patients, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. About half\\u000a of total sleep time occurs during the daytime, and circadian rhythm is markedly diminished or lost. Judgments based on inspection\\u000a consistently overestimate sleep time and do not detect sleep disruption. Accordingly, reliable polygraphic recordings are\\u000a needed to measure sleep quantity and quality

  6. Progressive disruption of the circadian rhythm of melatonin in fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, F; Cortelli, P; Avoni, P; Vergnani, L; Maltoni, P; Pavani, A; Sforza, E; Degli Uberti, E C; Gambetti, P; Lugaresi, E

    1994-05-01

    Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) is a disease characterized by loss of sleep activity due to selective thalamic degeneration. To assess the secretory pattern of melatonin (MT) in FFI, we studied two cases of overt disease under standardized conditions and polysomnographic control. Each patient underwent repeated 24-h study sessions, and MT was assayed at 30-min intervals. Six healthy volunteers were used as controls. Slow wave sleep was never recorded, whereas occasional episodes of enacted dreaming accompanied by rapid ocular movements and complex muscular activities were documented, with no detectable rhythm. Plasma MT concentrations gradually decreased as the disease progressed. A significant circadian rhythm was detected in the earlier recordings, with decreasing amplitudes with disease progression. Complete rhythm obliteration was achieved in the most advanced stage. Normally placed nocturnal acrophases were detected in the earlier stages, but then a shift toward the daytime hours was observed. Thalamic lesions of FFI appear to determine a progressive disruption of the sleep/wake cycle accompanied by decreased circulating levels of MT, with progressive alterations in the circadian rhythm of this hormone. On the other hand, decreased secretion of MT may contribute to the sleep disturbances of FFI. PMID:8175963

  7. Parkinson's disease and sleep/wake disturbances.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Sleep disturbances are a common non-motor feature in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Early diagnosis and appropriate management are imperative for enhancing patient quality of life. Sleep disturbances can be caused by multiple factors in addition to age-related changes in sleep, such as nocturnal motor symptoms (rigidity, resting tremor, akinesia, tardive dyskinesia, and the "wearing off" phenomenon), non-motor symptoms (pain, hallucination, and psychosis), nocturia, and medication. Disease-related pathology involving the brainstem and changes in the neurotransmitter systems (norepinephrine, serotonin, and acetylcholine) responsible for regulating sleep structure and the sleep/wake cycle play a role in emerging excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep disturbances. Additionally, screening for sleep apnea syndrome, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, and restless legs syndrome is clinically important. Questionnaire-based assessment utilizing the PD Sleep Scale-2 is useful for screening PD-related nocturnal symptoms. In this review, we focus on the current understanding and management of sleep disturbances in PD. PMID:25687697

  8. Doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer is driven by light at night-induced disruption of the circadian melatonin signal.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shulin; Dauchy, Robert T; Hauch, Adam; Mao, Lulu; Yuan, Lin; Wren, Melissa A; Belancio, Victoria P; Mondal, Debasis; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

    2015-08-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance, particularly to doxorubicin (Dox), represents a major impediment to successfully treating breast cancer and is linked to elevated tumor metabolism and tumor over-expression and/or activation of various families of receptor- and non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian time structure and suppression of nocturnal melatonin production by dim light exposure at night (dLEN), as occurs with shift work, and/or disturbed sleep-wake cycles, is associated with a significantly increased risk of an array of diseases, including breast cancer. Melatonin inhibits human breast cancer growth via mechanisms that include the suppression of tumor metabolism and inhibition of expression or phospho-activation of the receptor kinases AKT and ERK1/2 and various other kinases and transcription factors. We demonstrate in tissue-isolated estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER?+) MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts, grown in nude rats maintained on a light/dark cycle of LD 12:12 in which dLEN is present during the dark phase (suppressed endogenous nocturnal melatonin), a significant shortening of tumor latency-to-onset, increased tumor metabolism and growth, and complete intrinsic resistance to Dox therapy. Conversely, a LD 12:12 dLEN environment incorporating nocturnal melatonin replacement resulted in significantly lengthened tumor latency-to-onset, tumor regression, suppression of nighttime tumor metabolism, and kinase and transcription factor phosphorylation, while Dox sensitivity was completely restored. Melatonin acts as both a tumor metabolic inhibitor and circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to Dox and drive tumor regression, indicating that dLEN-induced circadian disruption of nocturnal melatonin production contributes to a complete loss of tumor sensitivity to Dox chemotherapy. PMID:25857269

  9. Nocturnal and respiratory disturbances in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (progressive supranuclear palsy).

    PubMed Central

    De Bruin, V. S.; Machado, C.; Howard, R. S.; Hirsch, N. P.; Lees, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Respiratory and sleep disturbances may be important causes of morbidity in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome but the frequency and character of nocturnal abnormalities remains uncertain. A prospective study of 11 patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome and age-matched control subjects was undertaken using clinical assessments, a structured sleep questionnaire, spirometry, static maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures and nocturnal oximetry. The mean age of the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome patients was 63.2 (52-70) years and mean disease duration was 4.0 (2-6) years. There was moderate to severe motor disability in nine and mild to moderate dementia in eight. In the patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome the following abnormalities contributed to sleep disturbances significantly more frequently than in normal controls: depression, dysphagia, frequent nocturnal awakenings (usually associated with urinary frequency), immobility in bed, difficulty with transfers, impaired dressing and feeding. There was profound impairment of voluntary respiratory control whilst automatic and limbic control were well maintained. Nocturnal respiratory abnormalities were not present even in the most severely disabled. In Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome sleep abnormalities are common; they relate to the cognitive, pseudobulbar and extrapyramidal disturbances and may therefore be amenable to symptomatic control. PMID:8761503

  10. Detection and screening of sleep apnea using spectral and time domain analysis of heart rate variability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abed Elhamid Lawabni; Ahmed H. Tewfik

    2003-01-01

    Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) is one of the most common breathing related sleep disorders. Sleep apnea (SA) may be of particular concern in chronic heart failure patients due to its high levels of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to assess the diagnostic potential of SA using spectral analysis of nocturnal heart rate, and to introduce new simple time

  11. The function of nocturnal transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Loik, Michael; Tissue, David

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal transpiration is an important source of water loss, accounting for up to 25% of daytime transpiration in some species. Nocturnal water losses cannot be explained under the prevailing 'paradigm' of optimizing carbon gain while minimizing water loss because carbon fixation does not occur at night. Alternative explanations regarding the function and potential evolutionary advantage of nocturnal transpiration have been proposed, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and transport or delivery of O2 to parenchyma cells for respiration. However, recent evidence suggests that the role of nocturnal transpiration in supplementing the overall plant nutrient budget is relatively small, and the O2 hypothesis is difficult to test experimentally. Here, we propose that the main function of nocturnal transpiration (and water transport) is to prevent catastrophic xylem failure by restoring depleted stem 'capacitors' and enhancing early morning CO2 uptake, as stomata 'prepare' for daytime conditions. Nocturnal sap flux was highest in Eucalyptus grandis trees in the field following a heat wave (reaching 47C with VPDs > 8kPa in the daytime) generating maximal daytime water losses compared with cooler and lower VPD periods, indicating the importance of nocturnal stomatal conductance for stem refilling. Moreover, we observed that the time for stomata to respond to light early in the morning (dawn) across 25 different genotypes of E. camaldulensis in a glasshouse was shortest in those genotypes with highest nocturnal stomatal conductance, which was also correlated with higher daytime photosynthesis. This observation is consistent with previous observations that nocturnal stomatal conductance is partially controlled by the clock, which is utilised to anticipate daytime conditions. Data from the literature suggests that eucalypts respond similarly to other C3 species, suggesting that mechanisms regulating night-time transpiration may be universal.

  12. Sleep disturbances in eating disorders: a review.

    PubMed

    Cinosi, E; Di Iorio, G; Acciavatti, T; Cornelio, M; Vellante, F; De Risio, L; Martinotti, G

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are frequently associated with disturbances of sleep and circadian rhythms. This review focus on the relationship between sleep disturbances and eating disorders. In the first part are discussed the presence of sleep disorders among patients suffering from anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, the macrostructure and microstructure of theirs sleep, the differences between the various subtypes in ED patients, the dreams of eating disordered patients and their recurrent contents. In the second part, there are treated sleep disturbances in binge eating disorder and other eating disorders not otherwise specified, such as nocturnal (night) eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder. In the third part, there are presented data concerning the neurobiological and neuroendocrinological correlates between feeding, metabolism, weight restoration and the processes regulating sleep. In conclusion, possible future investigations are proposed. PMID:22262340

  13. Sleep disorders in multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Ghorayeb, I; Bioulac, B; Tison, F

    2005-12-01

    Complaints about sleep disorders and excessive daytime sleepiness are common among patients with multiple system atrophy. The diffuse neurodegenerative process that encompasses the key structures involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake transition and respiratory function may account for these complaints and for the most frequent polysomnographic findings in MSA, i.e., sleep-related breathing disturbances and REM sleep behaviour disorder, which are both treatable conditions. Nocturnal stridor is an inspiratory sound produced by complex vocal cord muscle dysfunction. Often occurring with sleep apnoea, stridor is associated with decreased survival. REM sleep behaviour disorder, a parasomnia characterized by loss of normal skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep with prominent motor activity, is detected in almost all patients. The pathophysiology of both disorders is partially elucidated but increasing evidence points to the role of basal ganglia dysfunction. PMID:16082509

  14. Update on disorders of sleep and the sleep--wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Culebras, A

    1992-06-01

    Wakefulness and sleep are antagonistic states competing for the domain of brain activity. Non-REM sleep and REM sleep are different states of being, sustained by activity in brainstem nuclei, hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and thalamus. Such complex phenomenology is subject to many alterations grouped in the new International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The insomnias are the result of interacting psychosocial, psychophysiologic, neurodevelopmental, and medical factors. Proper perspective of each factor provides the clinical strategies to approach medically the symptom-complex of insomnia. The most common cause of daytime hypersomnia is chronic sleep deprivation. Obstructive sleep apnea responds to nasal CPAP, but the failure rate approaches 30%. In intolerant patients BiPAP and surgical remedies should be considered. Motor and behavioral abnormalities of sleep may be linked to REM sleep as in the REM sleep behavior disorder. Paroxysmal nocturnal dystonia and nocturnal wanderings may be associated with epilepsy. Intrusions of one state of being (wakefulness, non-REM sleep, and REM sleep) into another result in mixed, poorly defined, or only partially developed states. Dissociation of states may be responsible for confusional arousals, hallucinations, and cateplexy. Senile degeneration of the suprachiasmatic nuclei may underlie the circadian rhythm changes in old age and the "sundown" syndrome in demented patients. Misalignment of the hypothalamic pacemaker causes dysregulation of sleep-related physiologic and behavioral variables. Exposure to bright light retrains the pacemaker in night-shift workers, transmeridian travelers, and in patients with seasonal affective syndrome. Benzodiazepine compounds are very effective hypnotics, but should be used sparingly in the elderly to avoid falls, memory lapses, and aggravation of a preexisting sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep laboratory evaluations are indicated in patients with hypersomnia, suspected sleep apnea syndrome, motor-behavioral disorders of sleep, and in many individuals complaining of insomnia. PMID:1603736

  15. [Sleep disorders in dementia patients].

    PubMed

    Savaskan, E

    2015-06-01

    Dementia is characterized by cognitive and also behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The most prominent BPSD are depression and apathy but sleep disorders also complicate the clinical course of dementia. These symptoms are a severe burden for patients and caregivers and are difficult to treat partly due to comorbidities. Common sleep disorders in dementia are insomnia, hypersomnia, circadian rhythm alterations and aberrant nocturnal motor behavior. Sleep duration and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are reduced. The diagnostic assessment of sleep disorders should include an evaluation of the underlying risk factors and a detailed sleep history for which several assessment instruments are available. The therapy of sleep disorders of dementia is primarily nonpharmacological: sleep counseling, sleep hygiene regulation, relaxation and psychotherapy techniques are given priority. Pharmacological treatment often has severe side effects in this elderly, vulnerable population and can only be considered if other nonpharmacological options have been unsuccessful. The application of medication should be limited in time and dosage. The pharmacological therapeutic options are critically discussed in detail. PMID:25957245

  16. [Sleep disorders in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kotterba, S

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorders can be diagnosed in approximately 15?% of the population and have been shown to increase with age. The relationship between sleep disorders and neurological disorders, however, is still insufficiently considered in the clinical practice. Sleep disorders can be an early symptom of the disease, such as the presence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as an early indicator of neurodegeneration. Sleep disorders have also been shown to be a main symptom of various neurological syndromes, such as in restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and narcolepsy. The international classification of sleep disorders 2nd edition (ICSD 2) describes the main diagnoses, insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders and hypersomnia but all of these can also appear as symptoms in various neurological diseases. Parasomnias are largely considered a differential diagnosis to nocturnal epilepsy. In this review, the main sleep disorders are described with a particular focus on how they relate to neurological diseases; in particular, how they influence disease-related symptoms and how they affect the course of the disease. PMID:26062945

  17. Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us, nighttime slumber is disrupted by thoughts of our "to-do" list, worries about our studies or workload, or interruptions

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    Sleep Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us that sleeplessness may compromise the immune system. Sleep Quantity vs. Quality The amount of sleep each of us. The quality of sleep we get is probably more important than the quantity. Sleep consists of two types

  18. The cognitive cost of sleep lost

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. McCoy; Robert E. Strecker

    A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep

  19. Tuned in parenting and infant sleep patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn E. Priddis

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self?referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants. It briefly considers an intervention

  20. Sleep in infants and young children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Finn Davis; Kathy P. Parker; Gary L. Montgomery

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 25% of children younger than 5 years experience some type of sleep problem. Whether the problem is acute or chronic, significant disruption to the child's sleep can occur and have a negative impact on the child and family. This article is the second in a two-part series on sleep in infants and young children. The purpose of this article

  1. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  2. Support Vector Machines for Automated Recognition of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome From ECG Recordings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahsan H. Khandoker; Marimuthu Palaniswami; Chandan K. Karmakar

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity as well as excessive daytime sleepiness and poor quality of life. In this study, we apply a machine learning technique [support vector machines (SVMs)] for automated recognition of OSAS types from their nocturnal ECG recordings. A total of 125 sets of nocturnal ECG recordings acquired from normal subjects (OSAS- )

  3. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    Brodsky, Robert A

    2014-10-30

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The absence of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, CD55 and CD59, leads to uncontrolled complement activation that accounts for hemolysis and other PNH manifestations. GPI anchor protein deficiency is almost always due to somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA), a gene involved in the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis; however, alternative mutations that cause PNH have recently been discovered. In addition, hypomorphic germ-line PIGA mutations that do not cause PNH have been shown to be responsible for a condition known as multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2. Eculizumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits terminal complement, is the treatment of choice for patients with severe manifestations of PNH. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only cure for PNH but should be reserved for patients with suboptimal response to eculizumab. PMID:25237200

  4. Correlations of physiological activities in nocturnal Cheyne–Stokes respiration

    PubMed Central

    Umantsev, Alexander; Golbin, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    We have conducted a power–spectrum–density (PSD) analysis of the distinct sleep stages of a previously diagnosed nocturnal Cheyne–Stokes respiration patient (NCSR) and studied the correlations of different physiological activities. This is the first study where the correlations were analyzed separately for different sleep stages and the influence of arousals was completely eliminated. Mathematical analysis of the polysomnographical records revealed clear indicators of the disorder in the form of large peaks in a very-low frequency range of f ? 0.02 Hz. We have shown existence of the significant entrainment of the cerebral and cardiac activities with respiration during different stages of sleep in the patient. The entrainment is highly pronounced in light (stage 2) and deep (stage 3) sleep, but is significantly less pronounced in rapid eye movement sleep. A correlation functions analysis revealed that the correlations between the central activities and respiration attain maximum at negative lag times. Lagging of respiration behind the central activities favors the central hypothesis of generation of NCSR. On the basis of comparison of PSD plots of a NCSR patient and a healthy patient we speculate that the vasomotor center of a NCSR patient assumes the control function in the respiratory control system. Clinical applications of the findings of the study may lead to the development of novel low-cost methods of diagnostic of NCSR based on easy-to-obtain electrocardiogram or electroencephalogram records of patients and emergence of some forms of “substitution therapy”. PMID:23620676

  5. [Sleep disorders in multiple system atrophy].

    PubMed

    Santamaria, J; Iranzo, A; Tolosa, E

    2004-01-01

    Sleep disorders are so common in multiple system atrophy that they should be considered an integral part of the disease. Sleep fragmentation occurs in more than half of the patients, with sleep onset and sleep maintenance insomnia. Periodic leg movements of sleep are also common, although they are generally asymptomatic. REM sleep behavior disorder, a parasomnia in which the patient presents vigorous movements associated with intense dreaming dreaming during REM sleep, is detected polysomnographically in almost all the patients with variable severity. Nocturnal stridor is produced by obstruction on the glottis level. The cause of stridor is unknown but two alternative explanations have been proposed: paralysis of the muscles opening the vocal chords and excessive contraction of the muscles that close them. A combination of both, however, is the most likely explanation. Nocturnal stridor is associated with decreased survival and its treatment is based on continuous positive air pressure (CPAP) when it occurs only during sleep or tracheostomy when it worsens and becomes also diurnal. PMID:15199419

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Flexible Dose Fesoterodine in Men and Women with Overactive Bladder Symptoms Including Nocturnal Urinary Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Jeffrey P.; Jumadilova, Zhanna; Johnson, Theodore M.; FitzGerald, Mary P.; Carlsson, Martin; Martire, Diane L.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Awakening from sleep to urinate is the hallmark of nocturia, a condition that impacts several facets of health related quality of life and for which current therapy is suboptimal. Given the paucity of prospective data on antimuscarinics for the management of nocturia, we investigated the efficacy and safety of flexible dose fesoterodine for the treatment of nocturnal urgency in subjects with nocturia and overactive bladder. Materials and Methods Subjects with 2 to 8 nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours began a 2-week, single-blind, placebo run-in followed by 1:1 randomization to 12 weeks of double-blind treatment with fesoterodine (4 mg daily for 4 weeks with an optional increase to 8 mg) or placebo using predefined criteria for nocturnal urgency episodes, nocturnal urine volume voided and total 24-hour urine volume voided. The primary end point was change from baseline to week 12 in the mean number of micturition related nocturnal urgency episodes per 24 hours. Results Overall 963 subjects were randomized from 2,990 screened, and 82% of subjects treated with fesoterodine and 84% of those treated with placebo completed the study. Significant improvements in the primary end point (?1.28 vs ?1.07), in nocturnal micturitions per 24 hours (?1.02 vs ?0.85) and in nocturnal frequency urgency sum (?4.01 vs ?3.42) were observed with fesoterodine vs placebo (all p ?0.01). Health related quality of life measures (overactive bladder questionnaire Symptom Bother ?20.1 vs ?16.5, sleep 22.3 vs 19.9 and other domains; all p <0.05) were improved with fesoterodine. Conclusions To our knowledge this is the first prospective study to assess antimuscarinic efficacy for reducing nocturnal urgency. Flexible dose fesoterodine significantly reduced nocturnal urgency episodes vs placebo in subjects with overactive bladder. PMID:23159276

  7. Circadian desynchrony promotes metabolic disruption in a mouse model of shiftwork.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Johanna L; Husse, Jana; Bode, Brid; Naujokat, Nadine; Meyer-Kovac, Judit; Schmid, Sebastian M; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Shiftwork is associated with adverse metabolic pathophysiology, and the rising incidence of shiftwork in modern societies is thought to contribute to the worldwide increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but may involve direct physiological effects of nocturnal light exposure, or indirect consequences of perturbed endogenous circadian clocks. This study employs a two-week paradigm in mice to model the early molecular and physiological effects of shiftwork. Two weeks of timed sleep restriction has moderate effects on diurnal activity patterns, feeding behavior, and clock gene regulation in the circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In contrast, microarray analyses reveal global disruption of diurnal liver transcriptome rhythms, enriched for pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and correlating with first indications of altered metabolism. Although altered food timing itself is not sufficient to provoke these effects, stabilizing peripheral clocks by timed food access can restore molecular rhythms and metabolic function under sleep restriction conditions. This study suggests that peripheral circadian desynchrony marks an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with chronic shiftwork. Thus, strengthening the peripheral circadian system by minimizing food intake during night shifts may counteract the adverse physiological consequences frequently observed in human shift workers. PMID:22629359

  8. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  9. Blink rate during tests of executive performance after nocturnal traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Breimhorst, Markus; Marks, Anke; Robens, Sibylle; Griefahn, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    This analysis is on the hypothesis that nocturnal traffic noise affects sleep quality whereas performance decrement is avoided by increased effort expressed by a decrease in blink rates (BRs) during a visual task. Twenty-four persons (12 women, 12 men; 19-28 years, 23.56+/-2.49 years) slept during three consecutive weeks in the laboratory while exposed to road, rail, or aircraft noise with weekly permuted changes. Each week consisted of a random sequence of a quiet night (32 dBA) and three nights with equivalent noise levels of 39, 44 and 50 dBA respectively. The polysomnogram was recorded during all nights. Every morning the participants rated their sleep quality and then completed two executive tasks (Go/Nogo-, Switch-task). Neither of the two performance tests was affected by nocturnal noise. Sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality decreased with increasing noise levels but were not associated with the type of noise. In contrast, BRs were associated with the type of noise, not with noise levels. The results do not support the hypothesis concerning the BR. The possible reasons are discussed. However, the results do not exclude that other physiological parameters such as heart rate or brain potentials measured during the tests might have revealed alterations associated with nocturnal noise exposure. PMID:19805931

  10. Healthy Sleep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who doesn't love a good night's sleep? The Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard and WGBH have collaborated to produce the Healthy Sleep website to help "illuminate the relevance of sleep, explain the underlying science of sleep, and, most importantly, provide practical information for getting the sleep you need." Visitors interested in getting the sleep they need will find the many videos and interactive features here well worth their time. Under the "Why Sleep Matters" link, visitors will find an interactive timeline entitled "Historical and Cultural Perspectives of Sleep". The "Consequences of Insufficient Sleep" gives visitors the choice of several short videos to watch, including those that address the consequences of driving while drowsy, the link between disease risk and poor sleep, and the public safety and performance issues that arise due to insufficient sleep. The "Getting the Sleep You Need" link has many tips for visitors on how to approach poor sleep habits, including when to seek treatment.

  11. Wake Detection Capacity of Actigraphy During Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Jean; Kawinska, Anna; Carrier, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the ability of actigraphy compared to polysomnography (PSG) to detect wakefulness in subjects submitted to 3 sleep conditions with different amounts of wakefulness: a nocturnal sleep episode and 2 daytime recovery sleep episodes, one with placebo and one with caffeine. A second objective was to compare the ability of 4 different scoring algorithms (2 threshold algorithms and 2 regression analysis algorithms) to detect wake in the 3 sleep conditions. Design: Three nights of simultaneous actigraphy (Actiwatch-L, Mini-Mitter/Respironics) and PSG recordings in a within-subject design. Setting: Chronobiology laboratory. Participants: Fifteen healthy subjects aged between 20 and 60 years (7M, 8F). Interventions: 200 mg of caffeine and daytime recovery sleep. Results: An epoch-by-epoch comparison between actigraphy and PSG showed a significant decrease in actigraphy accuracy with increased wakefulness in sleep conditions due to the low sleep specificity of actigraphy (generally <50%). Actigraphy overestimated total sleep time and sleep efficiency more strongly in conditions involving more wakefulness. Compared to the 2 regression algorithms, the 2 threshold algorithms were less able to detect wake when the sleep episode involved more wakefulness, and they tended to alternate more between wake and sleep in the scoring of long periods of wakefulness resulting in an overestimation of the number of awakenings. Conclusion: The very low ability of actigraphy to detect wakefulness casts doubt on its validity to measure sleep quality in clinical populations with fragmented sleep or in situations where the sleep-wake cycle is challenged, such as jet lag and shift work. Citation: Paquet J; Kawinska A; Carrier J. Wake detection capacity of actigraphy during sleep. SLEEP 2007;30(10):1362-1369 PMID:17969470

  12. The Acute Effects of the Noradrenaline Reuptake Inhibitor Org 4428 on EEG Sleep in Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex L. van Bemmel; Miranda T. G. Vermeeren; Gé Ruigt; Cor Sennef

    1999-01-01

    Drug-induced improvement of depression may be mediated by changes in sleep physiology. In earlier studies on sleep EEG changes during treatment with antidepressants in depressed patients it could not be excluded that sleep disruptions and changes in the amount and distribution of REM sleep play a role in the changes in the sleep EEG. Therefore knowledge of the effects of

  13. Neuronal Machinery of Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Donlea, Jeffrey M.; Pimentel, Diogo; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep is under homeostatic control, but the mechanisms that sense sleep need and correct sleep deficits remain unknown. Here, we report that sleep-promoting neurons with projections to the dorsal fan-shaped body (FB) form the output arm of Drosophila’s sleep homeostat. Homeostatic sleep control requires the Rho-GTPase-activating protein encoded by the crossveinless-c (cv-c) gene in order to transduce sleep pressure into increased electrical excitability of dorsal FB neurons. cv-c mutants exhibit decreased sleep time, diminished sleep rebound, and memory deficits comparable to those after sleep loss. Targeted ablation and rescue of Cv-c in sleep-control neurons of the dorsal FB impair and restore, respectively, normal sleep patterns. Sleep deprivation increases the excitability of dorsal FB neurons, but this homeostatic adjustment is disrupted in short-sleeping cv-c mutants. Sleep pressure thus shifts the input-output function of sleep-promoting neurons toward heightened activity by modulating ion channel function in a mechanism dependent on Cv-c. PMID:24559676

  14. MBD5 haploinsufficiency is associated with sleep disturbance and disrupts circadian pathways common to Smith-Magenis and fragile X syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Pugliesi, Loren; Burns, Brooke; Shah, Zalak; Tahir, Raiha; Gu, Yanghong; Nelson, David L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have an identifiable single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as fragile X syndrome (FXS, FMR1), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, RAI1), or 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (del 2q23.1, MBD5) share phenotypic features, including a high prevalence of sleep disturbance. We describe the circadian deficits in del 2q23.1 through caregiver surveys in which we identify several frequent sleep anomalies, including night/early awakenings, coughing/snoring loudly, and difficulty falling asleep. We couple these findings with studies on the molecular analysis of the circadian deficits associated with haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in which circadian gene mRNA levels of NR1D2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were altered in del 2q23.1 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), signifying that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 can result in dysregulation of circadian rhythm gene expression. These findings were further supported by expression microarrays of MBD5 siRNA knockdown cells that showed significantly altered expression of additional circadian rhythm signaling pathway genes. Based on the common sleep phenotypes observed in del 2q23.1, SMS, and FXS patients, we explored the possibility that MBD5, RAI1, and FMR1 function in overlapping circadian rhythm pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified conserved putative E boxes in MBD5 and RAI1, and expression levels of NR1D2 and CRY2 were significantly reduced in patient LCLs. Circadian and mTOR signaling pathways, both associated with sleep disturbance, were altered in both MBD5 and RAI1 knockdown microarray data, overlapping with findings associated with FMR1. These data support phenotypic and molecular overlaps across these syndromes that may be exploited to provide therapeutic intervention for multiple disorders. PMID:25271084

  15. Sleep disorders in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Akinnusi, Morohunfolu E; Saliba, Ranime; Porhomayon, Jahan; El-Solh, Ali A

    2012-04-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has lead to an increase in the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in the general population. The disproportionate structural characteristics of the pharyngeal airway and the diminished neural regulation of the pharyngeal dilating muscles during sleep predispose the obese patients to pharyngeal airway collapsibility. A subgroup of obese apneic patients is unable to compensate for the added load of obesity on the respiratory system, with resultant daytime hypercapnia. Weight loss using dietary modification and life style changes is the safest approach to reducing the severity of sleep apnea, but its efficacy is limited on the long run. Although it has inherent risks, bariatric surgery provides the most immediate result in alleviating sleep apnea. Obesity has been linked also to narcolepsy. The loss of neuropeptides co-localized in hypocretin neurons is suggested as the potential mechanism. Poor sleep quality, which leads to overall sleep loss and excessive daytime sleepiness has also become a frequent complaint in this population. Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care. Both sleep related eating disorder and night eating syndrome are treatable and represent potentially reversible forms of obesity. PMID:22385877

  16. Sleep Environments and Sleep Durations in a Sample of Low-Income Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katherine E.; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration is commonly studied in children, but less is known about the potential impact of adverse sleep environments, particularly at preschool ages. We examined the frequency of suboptimal sleep environments and tested for associations with sleep duration or nocturnal sleep time among low-income preschool children. Methods: Parents of Head Start preschoolers in Michigan (Detroit and greater Lansing) completed questionnaires on children's sleep schedules and sleep environments. Respondents indicated how often their children slept in a place “too bright,” “too loud,” “too cold,” or “too hot” on a scale of 1 = never to 5 = always. A suboptimal sleep environment (SSE) was defined when one or more of these conditions were reported for ? 1-2 nights/week. Weeknight sleep duration or reported time that the child went to sleep was regressed on SSE as an explanatory variable, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal education, and average daily nap duration. Results: Among 133 preschool children, mean age was 4.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 48% were male, 39% were white, and 52% were black; 34% of parents had ? a high school degree. Parents reported that 26 (20%) of the children slept in a SSE ? 1-2 nights per week. In regression models, SSE was associated with 27 minutes shorter sleep duration (? = -0.45, SE = 0.22, p = 0.044) and 22 minutes later time child “fell asleep” (? = 0.37, SE = 0.19, p = 0.048) on weeknights. Conclusions: Among these Head Start preschool children, environmental challenges to adequate sleep are not uncommon, and they may have consequences. Clinician or preschool assessment of sleep environments may open opportunities to improve sleep at early ages. Citation: Wilson KE; Miller AL; Lumeng JC; Chervin RD. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):299-305. PMID:24634628

  17. CPAP treats muscle cramps in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Westwood, Andrew J; Spector, Andrew R; Auerbach, Sanford H

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case series of 4 patients with varying degrees of obstructive sleep apnea who incidentally had a history of nocturnal leg cramps. None of the patients had periodic limb movements during the study and denied symptoms consistent with restless legs syndrome. In 3 of the 4 patients, nocturnal leg cramps resolved with CPAP treatment for OSA, while the fourth patient noted near-resolution of cramping after starting CPAP. In patients presenting with muscle cramps, obstructive sleep apnea should be considered. PMID:24932152

  18. Relationship of Plasma Growth Hormone to Slow-Wave Sleep in African Sleeping Sickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny W. Radomski; Alain Buguet; Félix Doua; Pascal Bogui; Philippe Tapie

    1996-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a unique disease model of disrupted circadian rhythms in the sleep-wake cycle and cortisol and prolactin secretion. This study examined the temporal relationship between growth hormone (GH) secretion and the sleep-wake cycle in 8 infected African patients and 6 healthy indigenous African subjects. Twenty-four-hour sleep patterns were recorded by polysomnography and hourly blood samples

  19. An overview of nocturia and the syndrome of nocturnal polyuria in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kujubu, Dean A; Aboseif, Sherif R

    2008-08-01

    Nocturia is common in the elderly population and, aside from being a nuisance, it is associated with morbidity and mortality. Nocturia results from the complex interactions of several factors: changes in the urinary system and renal function with aging, the effects of sleep on renal function, changes in sleeping patterns associated with aging, and the presence of concurrent diseases and medications. Nocturia in the elderly can be caused by many conditions; a common cause is the syndrome of nocturnal polyuria. Although the pathophysiology of nocturnal polyuria remains obscure, some investigators believe that low night-time levels of antidiuretic hormone are involved. Proper management of nocturia requires identification of the specific underlying causes. This Review provides an overview of the mechanisms, evaluation and treatment of nocturia for the practicing nephrologist. PMID:18578009

  20. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... counter (OTC) medicines without a prescription. Prescription Prescription sleep medicines work well for many people but they can ... of the risks and benefits of using prescription sleep medicines. Sleep drugs taken for insomnia can affect your ...

  1. Sleeping Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the legs at night. These are symptoms of restless leg syndrome. Jerking or kicking the legs during sleep. These ... treatments for sleep disorders like sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome. * Link Disclaimer: Links to information and Web sites ...

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in Turkish children

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Seçil; Durukan, Elif; Iseri, Elvan; Gürocak, Serhat; Maral, I?il; Ali Bumin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and assess risk factors that can cause this disease. Methods After the determination of 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Ankara, questionnaires were given to 15,150 students to be answered by their parents. Detailed urologic history was obtained and physical examination applied to the students whose parents answered the questionnaire. After excluding children with polysymptomatic NE, 14060 questionnaires of MNE patients were evaluated. Demographic features with social and medical history of students and their parents, general approach of family to the children, school success of the students and general behavioral attitudes, method of toilet training and the presence of nocturnal enuresis were questioned. Results MNE was determined in 9.0% (n: 1266) of the students and nocturnal enuresis frequency was higher in boys than girls (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed gender, method of toilet training, sleep problems, school success, and general approach of the family to children and general behavioral attitudes of the children as significant factors. In logistic regression analysis; age, male gender, toilette training with threatening method, deep sleeper, sleep walking, being introverted and shy, significantly increases the risk of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusions The current study suggests that the methods of toilet training are extremely important to prevent bedwetting and behavioral disorders due to enuresis. Parents should be well-informed about the appropriate toilet training method. PMID:20877597

  3. ANNOYANCE FROM NOCTURNAL AIRCRAFT NOISE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Quehl; M. Basner; H. Buess; N. Luks; H. Maaß; L. Mawet; E. W. Mueller; U. Mueller; C. Piehler; G. Plath; E. Rey; A. Samel; M. Schulze; M. Vejvoda; J. Wenzel

    Introduction Annoyance is the most important psychological effect of environmental noise exposure. People's annoyance reaction to traffic noise is primarily caused by noise-induced sleep disturbances. Thus, aircraft noise exposure during sleep may cause increased annoyance. Even though sound energy emitted by individual aircrafts has drastically been reduced in the past - particularly due to the replacement of older and loud

  4. Cytotoxic chemotherapy increases sleep and sleep fragmentation in non-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption ranks among the most common complaints of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Because of the complex interactions among cancer, treatment regimens, and life-history traits, studies to establish a causal link between chemotherapy and sleep disruption are uncommon. To investigate how chemotherapy acutely influences sleep, adult female c57bl/6 mice were ovariectomized and implanted with wireless biotelemetry units. EEG/EMG biopotentials were collected over the course of 3days pre- and post-injection of 13.5mg/kg doxorubicin and 135mg/kg cyclophosphamide or the vehicle. We predicted that cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin would disrupt sleep and increase central proinflammatory cytokine expression in brain areas that govern vigilance states (i.e., hypothalamus and brainstem). The results largely support these predictions; a single chemotherapy injection increased NREM and REM sleep during subsequent active (dark) phases; this induced sleep was fragmented and of low quality. Mice displayed marked increases in low theta (5-7Hz) to high theta (7-10Hz) ratios following chemotherapy treatment, indicating elevated sleep propensity. The effect was strongest during the first dark phase following injection, but mice displayed disrupted sleep for the entire 3-day duration of post-injection sleep recording. Vigilance state timing was not influenced by treatment, suggesting that acute chemotherapy administration alters sleep homeostasis without altering sleep timing. qPCR analysis revealed that disrupted sleep was accompanied by increased IL-6 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Together, these data implicate neuroinflammation as a potential contributor to sleep disruption after chemotherapy. PMID:25449581

  5. Night eating syndrome and nocturnal snacking: association with obesity, binge eating and psychological distress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S L Colles; J B Dixon; P E O'Brien

    2007-01-01

    Objective:Night eating syndrome (NES) is characterized by a time-delayed pattern of eating relative to sleep, where most food is consumed in the evening and night. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of NES and nocturnal snacking by exploring the relationship between NES and (1) obesity, (2) binge eating disorder (BED) and (3) psychological distress.Subjects:One hundred and eighty bariatric

  6. Circadian intraocular pressure management with Latanoprost: Diurnal and nocturnal intraocular pressure reduction and increased uveoscleral outflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiromu K. Mishima; Yoshiaki Kiuchi; Michiya Takamatsu; Péter Rácz; Laszlo Z. Bito

    1997-01-01

    Based on their mechanism of action, the most frequently used ocular hypertensive agents, the beta-blockers, cannot be assumed to reduce lOP during sleep. The need for drugs that reduce IOP around-the-clock is underscored, however, by the fact that inadequate nocturnal ocular perfusion pressure is considered to be one of the likely causes of glaucomatous optic neuropathy especially in some cases

  7. A Behavioural Basis for Distinguishing Wakefulness from Sleep in Insomniac and Good Sleepers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KIMBERLY A. CÔTÉ; ROBERT D. OGILVIE

    1995-01-01

    This research was conducted to further validate the Ogilvie and Wilkinson (1988) behavioural model for providing a detailed characterization of nocturnal sleep and wakefulness. 18 chronic insomniacs and 11 good sleepers used behavioural response sleep\\/wake monitors in their homes for three consecutive nights. A 2 (insomnia × control) × 3 (nights) MANOVA was performed with age as a covariate as

  8. [Normal sleep].

    PubMed

    Susi?, Veselinka

    2007-01-01

    Sleep represents organized complex behavior necessary and vital for the survival of the species. It is reversible, internally regulated and homeostatically controlled process. Sleep consists of two separate states designated as NREM and REM sleep. NREM sleep has four sleep states (1 through 4) easily defined by the PSG and EEG components. REM sleep consists of tonic and phasic components. The tonic component of REM sleep by default includes the duration while phasic component consists of clusters of rapid eye movement, muscle twitches and PGO activity. The two states of sleep differ fundamentally both from one another as well as from the state of wakefulness. NREM and REM sleep is organized in sleep cycles with a typical duration between 90 and 110 minutes. Approximately 4 to 6 cycles emerge during the night with the REM episodes being prolonged towards the morning. About 70-80% of sleep process belongs to NREM and 20-25% to REM sleep. Normal aging carries the reduction in slow high-voltage activity (delta sleep) while REM sleep is of the relatively constant duration. Overall, sleep in elderly is characterized by the increase in the number of sleep stage shifts, increase in the number of awakenings and a shift towards the superficial sleep stages. PMID:18069349

  9. Treatment of nocturnal eating disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Howell; Carlos H. Schenck

    2009-01-01

    Opinion statement  Identifying abnormal nocturnal eating is critically important for patient care and public health. Obesity is a global pandemic\\u000a and a leading cause of preventable mortality in the United States, with more than 100,000 deaths annually. Normally, nighttime\\u000a energy homeostasis is maintained, despite an absence of food intake, through appetite suppression and alterations in glucose\\u000a metabolism that result in stable

  10. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality.

    PubMed

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-06-25

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient's sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among diabetics and delineates how individual factor influences sleep. The article also discusses potential interventions and lifestyle changes to promote healthy sleep among diabetics. PMID:26131327

  11. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patient’s sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among diabetics and delineates how individual factor influences sleep. The article also discusses potential interventions and lifestyle changes to promote healthy sleep among diabetics. PMID:26131327

  12. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Slater, Gemma; Steier, Joerg

    2012-12-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  13. Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Heller, Horace Craig

    2014-01-01

    The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages. PMID:25140132

  14. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  15. Percutaneous nocturnal oximetry in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: periodic desaturation.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Mamede; Costa, João; Pinto, Susana; Pinto, Anabela

    2009-06-01

    Percutaneous nocturnal oximetry (PNO) is useful to screen respiratory function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PNO recordings of some patients disclose a periodical pattern of O(2) desaturation (PP), whose significance is unknown. We aimed to characterize PP pattern, and we used a prospective study enrolling 261 consecutive ALS patients. Clinical, pulmonary and neurophysiological tests performed included: ALS functional rating scale, forced vital capacity (FVC), maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax), mouth occlusion pressure (MOP), phrenic nerve motor response, needle electromyography of the diaphragm, PNO, and sleep study. A total of 837 PNO recordings were analysed (3.2 recordings/patient) and 45 patients showed typical PP (17.2%). Four were excluded, 13 had normal diaphragm (group 1, G1), and in 28 the diaphragm was abnormal (G2). The two groups were comparable, apart from respiratory score, FVC and PImax which were lower in G2. In G1, REM sleep was absent and hypoventilation occurred at slow-wave sleep. Five patients in G1 were very spastic, had low MOP/FVC and a short survival. This study identified a subgroup of ALS patients (G1) with marked signs of upper motor neuron lesion, strong respiratory muscles, PP, low MOP/FVC ratio and poor prognosis. We speculate that they have a central respiratory dysfunction and deserve special care. PMID:18763180

  16. Sleep and Quality of Life in Neuromuscular Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Piper

    Respiratory muscle weakness is a common feature of many neuromuscular disorders contributing to the development of daytime\\u000a respiratory failure. However sleep-related breathing abnormalities and sleep disturbance can occur months or years before\\u000a the emergence of daytime hypercapnia. Although obstructive events are commonly seen in the early stages of many disorders\\u000a with age and disease progression central events and nocturnal hypoventilation

  17. Epidemiology of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Bresnitz, E A; Goldberg, R; Kosinski, R M

    1994-01-01

    Sleep-disturbed breathing, which includes apneas, hypopneas, and oxygen desaturations, occurs in asymptomatic individuals and increases with age. Obstructive apnea is the most frequent type of respiratory disturbance documented by polysomonography, the gold standard test for assessing sleep-disturbed breathing. Many of the prevalence studies done to date have had one or more methodological weaknesses, including selection biases, varying definitions of obstructive sleep apnea, failure to distinguish types of apneas, failure to control for confounding variables, and small sample size. Although there is consensus on the definitions of sleep-disturbed breathing, the appropriate number of apneas and hypopneas for diagnosing clinically significant obstructive sleep apnea is uncertain. While the cutoff of five or more apneas and hypopneas per hour is historically considered abnormal, the origins of this number are vague, and the longevity of those who have this value on polysomnography is not necessarily reduced. This is particularly true among those without symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, which include excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, nocturnal awakenings, and morning headaches. Investigators should be careful to distinguish symptomatic study subjects from asymptomatic subjects, and to exclude central apneas in calculating their estimates. In addition, various studies have used different definitions of sleep apnea syndrome, making comparisons of point estimates difficult. It would be more appropriate for researchers to estimate morbidity and mortality indices with confidence intervals, using several different cutoff points. Subject selection in all studies should follow a two-stage sampling procedure. All subjects with symptoms compatible with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and a subsample of asymptomatic individuals should be studied with all-night polysomnography. If portable monitoring is used, the validity and reproducibility of this diagnostic method should be assessed. Subjects with significant comorbidity should be excluded from prevalence studies. Factors that clearly increase the risk of sleep-disturbed breathing and obstructive sleep apnea and its related symptoms include age, structural abnormalities of the upper airway, sedatives and alcohol, and probably family history. Although endocrine changes such as growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and progesterone deficiency also have been suggested as risk factors for exacerbating obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, there is minimal epidemiologic evidence to support this. Case-control studies are recommended to assess the relation of endocrine factors to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a rigorous fashion. A limited number of mortality studies have suggested decreased survival in persons with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, possibly primarily due to vascular-related disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7713177

  18. Altered sleep–wake cycles and physical performance in athletes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Reilly; Ben Edwards

    2007-01-01

    Sleep–waking cycles are fundamental in human circadian rhythms and their disruption can have consequences for behaviour and performance. Such disturbances occur due to domestic or occupational schedules that do not permit normal sleep quotas, rapid travel across multiple meridians and extreme athletic and recreational endeavours where sleep is restricted or totally deprived. There are methodological issues in quantifying the physiological

  19. Factors that impact on sleep in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Agness C; Parker, Vicki

    2009-12-01

    This literature review shows that sleep is important for healing and survival of critical illness (Richardson et al., 2007; Straham and Brown, 2004). Sleep deprivation impinges on recovery, ability to resist infection, brings about neurological problems such as delirium, respiratory problems because it weakens upper air way muscles thus prolonging the duration of ventilation, ICU stay and complicating periods just after extubation (Friese, 2008; Parthasarathy and Tobin, 2004). Noise, pain and discomfort (Jacobi et al., 2002; Honkus, 2003) modes of ventilation and drugs have been cited as causes of sleep deprivation in critically ill patients (Friese, 2008; Parthasarathy and Tobin, 2004). The inability of nurses to accurately assess patients' sleep has also been cited as a concern while polysonography has been cited as the most effective way of assessing patients' sleep despite the difficulties associated with it. While some of these causes of sleep disruption can not be easily alleviated, every effort must be made to promote REM and SWS sleep. More research is needed to find solutions to sleep disruption in ICU. More research is needed to ascertain the impact of mechanical ventilation on sleep disruption and more focused ways of sleep assessment are needed. Nurses need to minimise disruptions by clustering their care at night in order to allow patients to have the much needed REM sleep. Furthermore, more specific way of sleep assessment in the critically ill. PMID:19880319

  20. Sleep and Quality of Life in Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth A. Malow; Susan G. McGrew

    Disordered sleep affects daytime health and behavioral functioning in a variety of neurologic and psychiatric conditions.\\u000a Sleep disorders lead to a multitude of secondary behavioral effects that affect both the individual and the family (1). Daytime\\u000a sleepiness resulting from disrupted sleep often manifests itself in typically developing children as hyperactivity, inattention,\\u000a and aggression (2). Those with autism, a spectrum of

  1. Melatonin treatment in an institutionalised child with psychomotor retardation and an irregular sleep–wake pattern

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Pillar; A Etzioni; E Shahar; P Lavie

    1998-01-01

    An institutionalised 13 year old girl with psychomotor retardation suffered from an irregular sleep–wake pattern. Multiple measurements of urinary sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6) concentrations were abnormally low, without any significant day–night differences. Administration of exogenous melatonin (3 mg) at 18:00 resulted in increased nocturnal urinary aMT6 concentrations and improvements in her sleep–wake pattern. Melatonin may help disabled children suffering from sleep disorders.

  2. Parasomnias and sleep disordered breathing in Caucasian and Hispanic children – the Tucson children's assessment of sleep apnea study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L Goodwin; Kris L Kaemingk; Ralph F Fregosi; Gerald M Rosen; Wayne J Morgan; Terry Smith; Stuart F Quan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies in children have demonstrated that frequent occurrence of parasomnias is related to increased sleep disruption, mental disorders, physical harm, sleep disordered breathing, and parental duress. Although there have been several cross-sectional and clinical studies of parasomnias in children, there have been no large, population-based studies using full polysomnography to examine the association between parasomnias and sleep disordered

  3. Sleep abnormalities associated with neuromuscular disease: pathophysiology and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Piper, Amanda

    2002-06-01

    The development of respiratory failure is common in patients with neuromuscular disorders that involve the respiratory muscles. However, the high incidence of sleep-related breathing problems in this population is less well known. In patients with neuromuscular disease, nocturnal breathing abnormalities frequently precede respiratory failure during wakefulness by months or even years. These nocturnal breathing problems are caused by multiple factors, including diaphragm and upper airway muscle weakness, scoliosis, obesity, and central respiratory control problems. Advances in the understanding of the links between sleep-disordered breathing and the development of daytime dysfunction and respiratory failure has revolutionized the management of these individuals. Mask positive pressure therapy is now available to improve both quality of life and longevity for these individuals. The lack of correlation between daytime testing and the severity of nocturnal breathing abnormalities makes it difficult to predict the presence of sleep-disordered breathing. Further, patients may not always be aware of symptoms associated with sleep-disordered breathing, even if specifically questioned. However, simple bedside measurements of vital capacity and inspiratory muscle strength can provide useful guides for when nocturnal respiratory monitoring is indicated. PMID:16088613

  4. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Aubertin, G

    2013-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in school-aged children. Tonsillar and/or adenoids hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSA in children. OSA has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas-exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), complicated with a large array of negative health outcomes. The clinical symptoms are not able to distinguish primary snoring from OSA. Polysomnography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, but the demand is increasing for this highly technical sleep test. So, some other simpler diagnostic methods are available, as respiratory polygraphy, but need to be validated in children. Treatment of OSA in children must be based on a mutlidisciplinary approach with pediatricians, ENT surgeons and orthodontists. PMID:23870386

  5. Nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease: issues, implications, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Katz, Philip O

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) may be greater than daytime GERD in terms of clinical complications such as increased risk of esophageal lesions and respiratory conditions, as well as issues of health-related quality of life, sleep, work productivity, and economics. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective therapy for patients with GERD; however, treatment success is greater in the improvement of daytime symptoms and acid control. Acid suppression of most PPIs, which are administered once daily before breakfast, wanes during the nighttime hours. Although nighttime heartburn improves with once-daily PPI treatment, PPIs are unable to eliminate nighttime heartburn completely. Increasing the dose of a PPI provides longer acid suppression, but the benefits have not been shown to be consistently greater than standard once-daily dosing. Twice-daily dosing, with a dose given before bedtime, would extend the duration of acid suppression into the nighttime hours; however, nocturnal acid breakthrough remains an issue. As a result, improved PPIs that will more reliably control nighttime symptoms and provide on-demand relief have been developed and studied. These newer PPI formulations offer significant hope for the advancement of treatment opportunities. PMID:18641592

  6. Nocturnal flow on a western Colorado slope

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Jr. Leone; P. H. Gudiksen

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Energy sponsored Atomspheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program has conducted a research program designed to increase our knowledge and understanding of terrain-dominated flows with specific emphasis on nocturnal flows within mountain valleys. ASCOT has sponsored both field studies and numerical modeling efforts to improve our understanding of the wind, temperature and turbulence structure of nocturnal drainage

  7. Duration of activity and mode of action of modafinil: Studies on sleep and wakefulness in humans.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Belyavin, Aj; Nicholson, An

    2013-12-01

    The duration of activity of modafinil was investigated in healthy male volunteers in two double-blind crossover studies. Mode of action was explored using a statistical model concerned with the relationship between total sleep duration and that of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Nocturnal sleep (23:00-07:00) followed by next-day performance (09:00-17:00) was studied in 12 subjects administered 100, 200, 300 mg modafinil and placebo, 0.5 h before bedtime. Performance overnight (19:00-08:45) followed by sleep (09:15-15:15) was studied in nine subjects administered 100, 200, 300, 400 mg modafinil, 300 mg caffeine and placebo at 22:15. Modafinil dose-dependently reduced sleep duration (nocturnal: 200 mg, p<0.05; 300 mg, p<0.001; morning: 300 and 400 mg, p<0.05) and REM sleep (nocturnal: 300 mg; morning: 400 mg; p<0.05). The statistical model revealed that reduced REM sleep was due to alerting activity, with no evidence of direct suppression of REM sleep, suggesting dopaminergic activity. Enhanced performance with modafinil during overnight work varied with dose (200 mg>100 mg; 300, 400 mg>200, 100 mg, caffeine). However, in the study of next-day performance, the enhancement was attenuated at the highest dose (300 mg) by the greater disturbance of prior sleep. These findings indicate that modafinil has a long duration of action, with alerting properties arising predominantly from dopaminergic activity. PMID:24306135

  8. Sleep and the Time Course of Motor Skill Learning Matthew P. Walker,1

    E-print Network

    Walker, Matthew P.

    of sleep, and that selective disruption of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep prevents this overnightResearch Sleep and the Time Course of Motor Skill Learning Matthew P. Walker,1 Tiffany Brakefield 02115, USA Growing evidence suggests that sleep plays an important role in the process of procedural

  9. Sleep Quality and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and behavioural difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. Mothers often wake and tend to their child when their child is having sleep difficulties. Therefore, mothers of children with developmental disabilities can have poor sleep quality due to these disruptions. The present study investigated the impact of sleep

  10. The diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost with sofZia® (Travatan Z® [TZ]) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods Twenty-seven subjects with NTG were admitted to an inpatient sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate every 2 hours in the habitual position (diurnal period: upright; nocturnal period: supine). Baseline IOP and OPP levels were compared to those during active treatment with TZ and 3 days after stopping the medication. OPP was calculated as 2/3 [diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP – diastolic BP)] – IOP. Results TZ significantly reduced the mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels compared to baseline at all time points. During treatment, mean IOP decreased from 17.1±3.4 to 14.7±3.0 mmHg during the diurnal period (P<0.01) and from 19.9±3.6 to 18.8±3.5 mmHg during the nocturnal period (P<0.01). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (15.6±3.2 mmHg) and nocturnal (18.7±3.7 mmHg) periods. Mean OPP was not significantly changed with treatment during either period. Conclusion In this population of NTG patients, TZ significantly lowers IOP at all time points throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods. The treatment effect on IOP endures for up to 3 days after the last dose. Treatment did not significantly improve OPP. PMID:25382969

  11. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    AYAS, Najib T.; HIRSCH, Allen A. J.; LAHER, Ismail; BRADLEY, T. Douglas; MALHOTRA, Atul; POLOTSKY, Vsevolod Y.; TASALI, Esra

    2015-01-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  12. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Ayas, Najib T; Hirsch, Allen A J; Laher, Ismail; Bradley, T Douglas; Malhotra, Atul; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y; Tasali, Esra

    2014-08-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  13. Sleep in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Before and During Treatment with Methylphenidate: A Controlled Polysomnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Sobanski, Esther; Schredl, Michael; Kettler, Nina; Alm, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep problems are frequently associated with childhood ADHD, as indicated by numerous polysomnographic investigations showing increased nocturnal movements, reduced sleep efficiency, and decreased percentage of REM sleep (although findings are not consistent over all studies). Data on objective and subjective sleep parameters in adults with ADHD are sparse, and to date the impact of stimulants, the most widely used pharmacological treatment for ADHD, on sleep in adults with ADHD has not been examined. Thus the objectives of our study were to assess objective and subjective sleep parameters in adults with ADHD and the impact of stimulant medication on sleep. Design: Two-group comparison and open-label therapy study. Participants: We enrolled 34 nonmedicated patients with ADHD, of whom 24 were without current comorbid psychiatric disorders, and 34 sex- and gender-matched control subjects without current psychiatric disorders or psychotropic medication. Interventions: Ten patients were treated with methylphenidate over ?26 days with a mean daily dose of 36.7 ± 11.2 mg. Measurements: Polysomnographic recording over 2 consecutive nights as well as assessments of subjective sleep parameters were performed in all patients and controls before treatment and reassessed in those patients receiving methylphenidate. Results: Compared to controls untreated patients showed increased nocturnal activity, reduced sleep efficiency, more nocturnal awakenings and reduced percentage of REM sleep. Treatment with methylphenidate resulted in increased sleep efficiency as well as a subjective feeling of improved restorative value of sleep. Conclusions: Sleep problems in patients with ADHD continue from childhood to adulthood, with similar objective sleep characteristics in adults and children with ADHD. Medication with methylphenidate appears to have beneficial effects on sleep parameters in adults with ADHD. Citation: Sobanski E; Schredl M; Kettler N; Alm B. Sleep in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) before and during treatment with methylphenidate: a controlled polysomnographic study. SLEEP 2007;31(3):375-381. PMID:18363314

  14. Sleep in psychogenic nonepileptic seizures and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Milena K; Allen, Rebecca M; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES), a form of functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD), are very rarely seen in genuine, electroencephalography (EEG)-confirmed sleep. However, they are more commonly reported as a nocturnal occurrence, likely from a state that is misidentified as sleep (termed by some as "pseudosleep"). Sleep state can be helpful to distinguish FNSD from other neurological disorders. Pseudo-cataplexy, a form of "psychogenic" narcolepsy, "pseudo-parasomnia" and PNES can have a similar presentation. PNES and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently share previously experienced psychological trauma, and therefore the sleep abnormalities found in PTSD may be similarly present in PNES. Future research should use EEG monitoring to evaluate the sleep physiology of patients with FNSD such as PNES, as insights into sleep abnormalities may enable further understanding of the etiology and manifestations of PNES. PMID:25534169

  15. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Youtube Google + Blog Instagram LinkedIn RSS Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Problems & Disorders View More ... Up for NSF related news, sleep tips & more: Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  16. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  17. Sleep Habits in Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Tamara L.; Riley, Thomas; Mattek, Nora; Pavel, Misha; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in community-dwelling seniors. Recent evidence suggests that sleep habits are differentially compromised in different subtypes of MCI, but the relationship between sleep disruption and MCI remains poorly understood. We gathered daily objective measures of sleep disturbance from 45 seniors, including 16 with MCI (mean age 86.9 ± 4.3 years), over a six month period. We also collected self-report measures of sleep disturbance. Although there were no differences between groups in any of our self-report measures, we found that amnestic MCI (aMCI) volunteers had less disturbed sleep than both non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) and cognitively intact volunteers, as measured objectively by movement in bed at night (F2,1078=4.30, p=0.05), wake after sleep onset (F2,1078=41.6, p<0.001), and times up at night (F2,1078=26.7, p<0.001). The groups did not differ in total sleep time. In addition, the aMCI group had less day-to-day variability in these measures than the intact and naMCI volunteers. In general, the naMCI volunteers showed a level of disturbed sleep that was intermediate to that of aMCI and intact volunteers. These differences in sleep disruption between aMCI and naMCI may be related to differences in the pathology underlying these MCI subtypes. PMID:24145694

  18. New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2013 New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients People with rheumatoid ... in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism. In addition, sleep disruptions, which are common among people with RA, ...

  19. Nocturnal light environments and species ecology: implications for nocturnal color vision in forests.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Carrie C; Cummings, Molly E

    2012-12-01

    Although variation in the color of light in terrestrial diurnal and twilight environments has been well documented, relatively little work has examined the color of light in nocturnal habitats. Understanding the range and sources of variation in nocturnal light environments has important implications for nocturnal vision, particularly following recent discoveries of nocturnal color vision. In this study, we measured nocturnal irradiance in a dry forest/woodland and a rainforest in Madagascar over 34 nights. We found that a simple linear model including the additive effects of lunar altitude, lunar phase and canopy openness successfully predicted total irradiance flux measurements across 242 clear sky measurements (r=0.85, P<0.0001). However, the relationship between these variables and spectral irradiance was more complex, as interactions between lunar altitude, lunar phase and canopy openness were also important predictors of spectral variation. Further, in contrast to diurnal conditions, nocturnal forests and woodlands share a yellow-green-dominant light environment with peak flux at 560 nm. To explore how nocturnal light environments influence nocturnal vision, we compared photoreceptor spectral tuning, habitat preference and diet in 32 nocturnal mammals. In many species, long-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral sensitivity matched the peak flux present in nocturnal forests and woodlands, suggesting a possible adaptation to maximize photon absorption at night. Further, controlling for phylogeny, we found that fruit/flower consumption significantly predicted short-wavelength-sensitive cone spectral tuning in nocturnal mammals (P=0.002). These results suggest that variation in nocturnal light environments and species ecology together influence cone spectral tuning and color vision in nocturnal mammals. PMID:22899522

  20. Probabilistic sleep architecture models in patients with and without sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Cash, Sydney S.; Mietus, Joseph; Peng, Chung-Kang; Thomas, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sleep fragmentation of any cause is disruptive to the rejuvenating value of sleep. However, methods to quantify sleep architecture remain limited. We have previously shown that human sleep–wake stage distributions exhibit multi-exponential dynamics, which are fragmented by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting that Markov models may be a useful method to quantify architecture in health and disease. Sleep stage data were obtained from two subsets of the Sleep Heart Health Study database: control subjects with no medications, no OSA, no medical co-morbidities and no sleepiness (n = 374); and subjects with severe OSA (n = 338). Sleep architecture was simplified into three stages: wake after sleep onset (WASO); non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The connectivity and transition rates among eight ‘generator’ states of a first-order continuous-time Markov model were inferred from the observed (‘phenotypic’) distributions: three exponentials each of NREM sleep and WASO; and two exponentials of REM sleep. Ultradian REM cycling was accomplished by imposing time-variation to REM state entry rates. Fragmentation in subjects with severe OSA involved faster transition probabilities as well as additional state transition paths within the model. The Markov models exhibit two important features of human sleep architecture: multi-exponential stage dynamics (accounting for observed bout distributions); and probabilistic transitions (an inherent source of variability). In addition, the model quantifies the fragmentation associated with severe OSA. Markov sleep models may prove important for quantifying sleep disruption to provide objective metrics to correlate with endpoints ranging from sleepiness to cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:21955148

  1. Sleep Disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    For something as critical to our well being as good sleep, human beings suffer from an amazing number of sleeping disorders. The following Web sites explore just a few of these disorders, starting with a brief introduction to the normal stages of sleep from the Sleep Disorders Center of Central Texas (1). Next, the University of Waterloo offers a fascinating look at sleep paralysis, which many researchers consider the "likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures" (2). The third site (3), provided by the National Women's Health Information Center, is an easy-to-read source for information about insomnia. Likewise, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) offers an in-depth information packet on snoring and sleep apnea, as well as the ASAA newsletter and other resources (4). The next Web site (5 ) comes from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and offers an introduction to the phenomenon of narcolepsy, including treatment, prognosis, and related research. Restless legs syndrome may not be as immediately familiar as some of the other sleep disorders addressed above, but a visit to the homepage of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (6) should answer any questions about this "creepy-crawly" sensation in the limbs that occurs during sleep or other inactive periods. Of course, you don't have to have a bona fide sleeping disorder to suffer from sleep deprivation. Visitors to the next Web site from Loughborough University's Sleep Research Centre will find detailed information on how sleep deprivation affects brain function (7). Not surprisingly, the news isn't good. Finally, the Sleep Foundation offers How's Your Sleep, an online quiz designed to help users learn more about what may be affecting their sleep (8).

  2. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Is Independently Associated with Reduced Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Bariatric Patients Suffering from Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Alparslan; You, Jing; Egan, Cameron; Fu, Alex; Khanna, Ashish; Eshraghi, Yashar; Ghosh, Raktim; Bose, Somnath; Qavi, Shahbaz; Arora, Lovkesh; Sessler, Daniel I.; Doufas, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that recurrent nocturnal hypoxemia may affect pain response and/or the sensitivity to opioid analgesia. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoxemia, quantified by sleep time spent at an arterial saturation (SaO2) < 90% and minimum nocturnal SaO2 on polysomnography, are associated with decreased pain and reduced opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours in patients having laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Methods With Institutional Review Board approval, we examined the records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010 and had an available nocturnal polysomnography study. We assessed the relationships between the time-weighted average of pain score and total opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours, and: (a) the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90%, (b) the minimum nocturnal SaO2, and (c) the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. We used multivariable regression models to adjust for both clinical and sleep-related confounders. Results Two hundred eighteen patients were included in the analysis. Percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was inversely associated with total postoperative opioid consumption; a 5-%- absolute increase in the former would relatively decrease median opioid consumption by 16% (98.75% CI: 2% to 28%, P = 0.006). However, the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was not associated with pain. The minimum nocturnal SaO2 was associated neither with total postoperative opioid consumption nor with pain. In addition, neither pain nor total opioid consumption was significantly associated with the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. Conclusions Preoperative nocturnal intermittent hypoxia may enhance sensitivity to opioids. PMID:26010491

  3. Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-08-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

  4. Daytime REM Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Trotti, Lynn Marie; Juncos, Jorge J.; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Rye, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated both clinical and neurochemical similarities between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and narcolepsy. The intrusion of REM sleep into the daytime remains a cardinal feature of narcolepsy, but the importance of these intrusions in PD remains unclear. In this study we examined REM sleep during daytime Maintenance of Wakefulness Testing (MWT) in PD patients. Methods Patients spent 2 consecutive nights and days in the sleep laboratory. During the daytime, we employed a modified MWT procedure in which each daytime nap opportunity (4 per day) was extended to 40 minutes, regardless of whether the patient was able to sleep or how much the patient slept. We examined each nap opportunity for the presence of REM sleep and time to fall asleep. Results Eleven of 63 PD patients studied showed 2 or more REM episodes and 10 showed 1 REM episode on their daytime MWTs. Nocturnal sleep characteristics and sleep disorders were unrelated to the presence of daytime REM sleep, however, patients with daytime REM were significantly sleepier during the daytime than those patients without REM. Demographic and clinical variables, including Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores and levodopa dose equivalents, were unrelated to the presence of REM sleep. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of PD patients demonstrated REM sleep and daytime sleep tendency during daytime nap testing. These data confirm similarities in REM intrusions between narcolepsy and PD, perhaps suggesting parallel neurodegenerative conditions of hypocretin deficiency. PMID:22939103

  5. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  6. Cross-hemispheric Alternating Current Stimulation During a Nap Disrupts Slow Wave Activity and Associated Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Garside, Peter; Arizpe, Joseph; Lau, Chi-Ieong; Goh, Crystal; Walsh, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Background Slow Wave Activity (SWA), the low frequency (<4 Hz) oscillations that characterize Slow Wave Sleep (SWS) are thought to relate causally to declarative memory consolidation during nocturnal sleep. Evidence is conflicting relating SWA to memory consolidation during nap however. Objective/hypothesis We applied transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) – which, with a cross-hemispheric electrode montage (F3 and F4 – International 10:20 EEG system), is able to disrupt brain oscillations–to determine if disruption of low frequency oscillation generation during afternoon nap is causally related to disruption in declarative memory consolidation. Methods Eight human subjects each participated in stimulation and sham nap sessions. A verbal paired associate learning (PAL) task measured memory changes. During each nap period, five 5-min stimulation (0.75 Hz cross-hemispheric frontal tACS) or sham intervals were applied with 1-min post-stimulation intervals (PSI's). Spectral EEG power for Slow (0.7–0.8 Hz), Delta (1.0–4.0 Hz), Theta (4.0–8.0 Hz), Alpha (8.0–12.0 Hz), and Spindle-range (12.0–14.0) frequencies was analyzed during the 1-min preceding the onset of stimulation and the 1-min PSI's. Results As hypothesized, power reduction due to stimulation positively correlated with reduction in word-pair recall post-nap specifically for Slow (P < 0.0022) and Delta (P < 0.037) frequency bands. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence suggesting a causal and specific role of SWA in declarative memory consolidation during nap. PMID:25697588

  7. New neurons in the adult brain: the role of sleep and consequences of sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Meerlo, Peter; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Jacobs, Barry L; Heller, H Craig; McGinty, Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Research over the last few decades has firmly established that new neurons are generated in selected areas of the adult mammalian brain, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation and the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles. The function of adult-born neurons is still a matter of debate. In the case of the hippocampus, integration of new cells in to the existing neuronal circuitry may be involved in memory processes and the regulation of emotionality. In recent years, various studies have examined how the production of new cells and their development into neurons is affected by sleep and sleep loss. While disruption of sleep for a period shorter than one day appears to have little effect on the basal rate of cell proliferation, prolonged restriction or disruption of sleep may have cumulative effects leading to a major decrease in hippocampal cell proliferation, cell survival and neurogenesis. Importantly, while short sleep deprivation may not affect the basal rate of cell proliferation, one study in rats shows that even mild sleep restriction may interfere with the increase in neurogenesis that normally occurs with hippocampus-dependent learning. Since sleep deprivation also disturbs memory formation, these data suggest that promoting survival, maturation and integration of new cells may be an unexplored mechanism by which sleep supports learning and memory processes. Most methods of sleep deprivation that have been employed affect both non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Available data favor the hypothesis that decreases in cell proliferation are related to a reduction in REM sleep, whereas decreases in the number of cells that subsequently develop into adult neurons may be related to reductions in both NREM and REM sleep. The mechanisms by which sleep loss affects different aspects of adult neurogenesis are unknown. It has been proposed that adverse effects of sleep disruption may be mediated by stress and glucocorticoids. However, a number of studies clearly show that prolonged sleep loss can inhibit hippocampal neurogenesis independent of adrenal stress hormones. In conclusion, while modest sleep restriction may interfere with the enhancement of neurogenesis associated with learning processes, prolonged sleep disruption may even affect the basal rates of cell proliferation and neurogenesis. These effects of sleep loss may endanger hippocampal integrity, thereby leading to cognitive dysfunction and contributing to the development of mood disorders. PMID:18848476

  8. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ?35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  9. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  10. NOCTURNAL FLIGHT CALL OF BICKNELL'S THRUSH

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM R. EVANS

    AnsraAcr. -Audio recordings of nocturnal flight calls of migrating birds along the east- central Florida coast in May have documented calls that sound similar to those from Gray- cheeked Thrushes (Cutharus minimus). Spectrographic comparison of these \\

  11. Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia and the development of type 2 diabetes: the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Muraki; T. Tanigawa; K. Yamagishi; S. Sakurai; T. Ohira; H. Imano; A. Kitamura; M. Kiyama; S. Sato; T. Shimamoto; M. Konishi; H. Iso

    2010-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis  Although the associations between obstructive sleep apnoea and type 2 diabetes mellitus have been reported in cross-sectional\\u000a design studies, findings on the prospective association between the two conditions are limited. We examined prospectively\\u000a the association between nocturnal intermittent hypoxia as a surrogate marker of obstructive sleep apnoea and risk of type\\u000a 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A total of 4,398 community residents aged

  12. Effects of nocturnal aircraft noise on cognitive performance in the following morning: dose–response relationships in laboratory and field

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Elmenhorst; Juergen Wenzel; Julia Quehl; Uwe Mueller; Hartmut Maass; Martin Vejvoda; Mathias Basner

    2010-01-01

    Objective  Nocturnal aircraft noise disturbs sleep and impairs recuperation. We investigated in laboratory and field studies whether\\u000a noise-induced sleep fragmentation is associated with performance impairments in a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and a memory\\u000a search task.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In the laboratory, 112 participants were exposed to aircraft noise during 9 consecutive nights. In the field, 64 participants\\u000a were examined during 9 consecutive nights

  13. The sleep-improving effects of doxepin are paralleled by a normalized plasma cortisol secretion in primary insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Rodenbeck; S. Cohrs; W. Jordan; G. Huether; E. Rüther; G. Hajak

    2003-01-01

    RationaleIn primary care, sedating antidepressants are often used for treating insomnia, although their underlying sleep-promoting mechanisms are only incompletely understood. Since enhanced evening and nocturnal plasma cortisol levels are supposed to maintain insomniac sleep complaints, a functional link between sleep and cortisol secretion in the mode of action of antidepressants in insomnia might be suspected.ObjectivesWe therefore investigated the effects of

  14. Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced “neural injury.” We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae. PMID:20086074

  15. Sleeping With One Eye Open: Marital Abuse as an Antecedent of Poor Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Rauer, Amy J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    In a diverse community sample of 241 married couples, we examined received psychological abuse (PA) as a longitudinal predictor of men's and women's sleep. Participants reported on marital functioning and mental health during three assessments (T1, T2, T3) and sleep problems during two assessments (T2, T3), with 1-year lags between waves. Growth curve analyses revealed that for both spouses, higher initial levels of PA and increases in PA over time predicted greater sleep disturbances at T3. For husbands and wives, anxiety and depression mediated some of the associations between PA and sleep problems. For wives, moderation effects highlighted the importance of violence, anxiety, and depression in exacerbating sleep problems associated with PA. Results build on and contribute significantly to the scant literature implicating the importance of the marital relationship for sleep and suggest that simultaneous consideration of intrapersonal and interpersonal variables is critical when explicating sleep disruptions. PMID:21171765

  16. Deleterious Effects of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on the Heart and Vascular System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Erhan Dincer; William O’Neill

    2006-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most common form of sleep-disordered breathing, affecting 5–15% of the population. It is characterized by intermittent episodes of partial or complete obstruction of the upper airway during sleep that disrupts normal ventilation and sleep architecture, and is typically associated with excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Patients with obstructive sleep apnea present risk

  17. Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disturbed sleep and an impaired ability to learn and remember extinction of conditioned fear. Following a traumatic event, the full spectrum of PTSD symptoms typically requires several months to develop. During this time, sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nightmares, and fragmented rapid eye movement sleep predict later development of PTSD symptoms. Only a minority of individuals exposed to trauma go on to develop PTSD. We hypothesize that sleep disturbance resulting from an acute trauma, or predating the traumatic experience, may contribute to the etiology of PTSD. Because symptoms can worsen over time, we suggest that continued sleep disturbances can also maintain and exacerbate PTSD. Sleep disturbance may result in failure of extinction memory to persist and generalize, and we suggest that this constitutes one, non-exclusive mechanism by which poor sleep contributes to the development and perpetuation of PTSD. Also reviewed are neuroendocrine systems that show abnormalities in PTSD, and in which stress responses and sleep disturbance potentially produce synergistic effects that interfere with extinction learning and memory. Preliminary evidence that insomnia alone can disrupt sleep-dependent emotional processes including consolidation of extinction memory is also discussed. We suggest that optimizing sleep quality following trauma, and even strategically timing sleep to strengthen extinction memories therapeutically instantiated during exposure therapy, may allow sleep itself to be recruited in the treatment of PTSD and other trauma and stress-related disorders. PMID:26034578

  18. Movement disorders: a sleep specialist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Barbara

    2004-03-01

    This review focuses on restless legs syndrome (RLS) and Parkinson's disease (PD). These conditions are frequently encountered in clinical sleep medicine and are among the most important of the "nonapnea" sleep disorders. RLS and PD share many features, including derangement of central dopaminergic systems as the putative cause, akathisia, and nocturnal motor fluctuations. In addition, both conditions increase in prevalence with aging, exhibit a beneficial response to dopaminergic therapy, and cause marked sleep disturbances. They frequently overlap, with about 20% of patients with PD having symptoms of RLS. Both conditions appear to have a genetic predisposition that is "turned on" by environmental factors. Adverse responses to levodopa occur in both RLS and PD, manifested as rebound and augmentation in RLS and as fluctuations in motor response and dyskinesias in PD. Newer dopaminergic agents are helpful in the management of both conditions. PMID:15007159

  19. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  20. Effects of environmental noise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kenneth I; Brink, Mark; Basner, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future. PMID:23257581

  1. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  2. Effect of cessation of late-night landing noise on sleep electrophysiology in the home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Fidell, S.; Bennett, R. L.; Friedman, J.; Globus, G.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of noise exposure and sleep electrophysiology were made in homes before and after cessation of nighttime aircraft landing noise. Six people were tested, all of whom had been exposed to intense aircraft noise for at least two years. Noise measurements indicated a large reduction in the hourly noise level during nighttime hours, but no charge during the daytime hours. Sleep measures indicated no dramatic changes in sleep patterns either immediately after a marked change in nocturnal noise exposure or approximately a month thereafter. No strong relationship was observed between noise level and sleep disturbances over the range from 60 to 90 db(A).

  3. Correlations between depression behaviors and sleep parameters after repeated corticosterone injections in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-jun; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xue-qiong; Sheng, Zhao-fu; Li, Sheng-jie; Huang, Yuan-li; Cao, Qing; Cui, Xiang-yu; Cui, Su-ying; Zhang, Yong-he

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats. Methods: SD rats were injected with corticosterone (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle for 7 d. Their sleep-wake behavior was monitored through implanted EEG and EMG electrodes. Their depressive behaviors were assessed using forced swim test, open field test and sucrose preference test. Results: The corticosterone-treated rats showed significantly reduced sleep time, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and altered power spectra during non-REM sleep. All depressive behavioral tests did not show significant difference across the groups. However, individual correlation analysis revealed statistically significance: the immobility time (despair) was negatively correlated with REM sleep latency, slow wave sleep (SWS) time ratio, SWS bouts and delta power density, and it was positively correlated with REM sleep bouts and beta power density. Meanwhile, sucrose preference (anhedonia) was positively correlated with total sleep time and light sleep bouts, and it was negatively correlated with the REM sleep time ratio. Conclusion: In stress-mimicked rats, sleep disturbances are a predictor of depressive disorders, and certain symptoms of depression may be related to the disruption of several specific sleep parameters. PMID:24989251

  4. Long sleepers sleep more and short sleepers sleep less: a comparison of older adults who sleep well.

    PubMed

    Fichten, Catherine S; Libman, Eva; Creti, Laura; Bailes, Sally; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    To determine some of the risks and benefits of being a long or short sleeper, psychological adjustment, lifestyle, and sleep parameters were investigated in 239 older adults. Responses of people who slept well and who were either long or short sleepers were studied on 48 variables investigating sleep parameters and sleep-related affect and beliefs; daytime fatigue and sleepiness; demographic factors, including age, sex, and income satisfaction; sleep lifestyle factors, including naps, bedtimes, arising times, and the regularity of these; general lifestyle factors, including regularity of mealtimes, overall daytime pleasantness, perceived busyness, diversity and valence of daily activities, and potentially stressful major life events. In addition, 14 variables evaluated aspects of psychological adjustment, including cognitive and somatic arousal, nocturnal tension, anxious, negative, unpleasant and worrying self-talk, depression, anxiety, overall psychopathology, neuroticism, and life satisfaction. Overall, the results indicate that short sleepers get up earlier, spend less time in bed, and have lower sleep efficiencies than their long sleeper counterparts. They eat breakfast earlier, and of course, they sleep less. Only one of the 14 psychological adjustment variables was significant. In view of the many differences between short and long sleepers described in prior research, the lack of differences observed between long and short sleepers is noteworthy. PMID:15600221

  5. The reorganisation of memory during sleep.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Sterr, Annette; Nissen, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Sleep after learning promotes the quantitative strengthening of new memories. Less is known about the impact of sleep on the qualitative reorganisation of memory, which is the focus of this review. Studies have shown that, in the declarative system, sleep facilitates the abstraction of rules (schema formation), the integration of knowledge into existing schemas (schema integration) and creativity that requires the disbandment of existing patterns (schema disintegration). Schema formation and integration might primarily benefit from slow wave sleep, whereas the disintegration of a schema might be facilitated by rapid eye movement sleep. In the procedural system, sleep fosters the reorganisation of motor memory. The neural mechanisms of these processes remain to be determined. Notably, emotions have been shown to modulate the sleep-related reorganisation of memories. In the final section of this review, we propose that the sleep-related reorganisation of memories might be particularly relevant for mental disorders. Thus, sleep disruptions might contribute to disturbed memory reorganisation and to the development of mental disorders. Therefore, sleep-related interventions might modulate the reorganisation of memories and provide new inroads into treatment. PMID:24813468

  6. Acute Dopamine-Agonist Treatment in Restless Legs Syndrome: Effects on Sleep Architecture and NREM Sleep Instability

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Raffaele; Manconi, Mauro; Aricò, Debora; Sagrada, Carolina; Zucconi, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Oldani, Alessandro; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To analyze cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and the eventual changes induced by the acute administration of pramipexole. Setting: Sleep clinic in a scientific research institute. Interventions: Placebo or pramipexole 0.25 mg. Methods: Thirty-four patients were included: 19 patients received 0.25 mg of pramipexole and 15 were given placebo. The control group included 13 normal subjects. Nocturnal polysomnography was carried out in all subjects, and a second night was recorded after pramipexole or placebo was administered to patients with RLS. Sleep stages, CAP, and leg movement activity were scored following standard criteria. Measurements and Results: At baseline, rapid eye movement sleep latency was significantly longer in patients with RLS than in normal control subjects, and the periodic leg movement during sleep index (PLMS) was also significantly higher. On the contrary, many CAP parameters appeared to be significantly different, with a general increase in CAP rate in patients with RLS. Acute administration of pramipexole induced moderate changes in sleep architecture (increased number of stage shifts/h, sleep efficiency, and percentage of stage 2 sleep; decreased wakefulness after sleep onset; and a lower PLMS index. No effects of treatment on CAP were observed. Conclusion: Patients with RLS show significant abnormalities in sleep microstructure, represented by an excessive sleep instability/discontinuity. Acute pramipexole administration seems to exert no action on these abnormalities; the moderate effects seen on sleep architecture might be interpreted as the beneficial consequence of the removal of presleep RLS symptoms and PLMS. Citation: Ferri R; Manconi M; Aricò D; Sagrada C; Zucconi M; Bruni O; Oldani A; Ferini-Strambi L. Acute dopamine-agonist treatment in restless legs syndrome: effects on sleep architecture and NREM sleep instability. SLEEP 2010;33(6):793-800. PMID:20550020

  7. Differential acute effects of sleep on spontaneous and stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor in men.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Stoyan; Besedovsky, Luciana; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a key molecule in the regulation of sleep in health and disease. Conversely, sleep compared to sleep deprivation can modulate TNF release, but overall results are conflicting. In this study we focused on the influence of sleep on spontaneous, i.e., unstimulated TNF production, which might be involved in sleep regulation under normal non-infectious conditions, and on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TNF production, which reflects the capacity of the immune system to respond to a pathogen. To this end, we monitored 10 healthy men during a regular sleep-wake cycle and during 24h of wakefulness while blood was sampled repeatedly to analyze circulating TNF levels in serum as well as intracellular TNF production in monocytes spontaneously and after stimulation with LPS employing whole blood cell cultures. In addition we assessed numbers of monocyte subsets and levels of various hormones in blood. In comparison with nocturnal wakefulness, sleep acutely decreased serum TNF levels, with no parallel decrease in spontaneous monocytic TNF production, but was associated with a striking nighttime increase in the percentage of TNF producing monocytes after stimulation with LPS. The following day circulating TNF showed a reverse pattern with higher levels after regular sleep than after the nocturnal vigil. The mechanisms mediating the differential effects of sleep on circulating TNF (acutely decreased) vs. stimulated monocytic TNF production (acutely increased) remain unclear, although explorative correlational analyses pointed to a regulatory involvement of cortisol, norepinephrine and prolactin. The acute enhancing effect of sleep on LPS stimulated monocytic TNF production adds to the notion that nocturnal sleep favors immune defense to a microbial challenge. PMID:25500219

  8. Eosinophilic fasciitis with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Chèze, Stéphane; Chapon, Françoise; Le Mauff, Brigitte; Auzary, Christophe; Geffray, Loïk

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disorder, which can be associated with hematological complications in 10% of cases, such as aplastic anemia or acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria had never been described in a patient suffering from eosinophilic fasciitis. We report an original case of a 59-year-old patient who developed a moderate aplastic pancytopenia while he was treated for a biopsy-proven eosinophilic fasciitis. A complete set of investigations was carried out and was found to be negative, including a first research of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Two years after disease onset, while pancytopenia remained stable, occurrence of morning dark urine led to found a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone. We discuss a potential link between the two conditions and hypothesize that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria blood cells may pre-exist for a long time and take a survival advantage in the setting of marrow injury, as observed in eosinophilic fasciitis with hematological complications. We finally suggest that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria should be included as a hematological complication of eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:22999899

  9. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24 h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1? signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions. PMID:24218292

  10. Medications for the Treatment of Sleep Disorders: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, J. F.; Parnes, Bennett L.

    2001-01-01

    Sleep disorders can be divided into those producing insomnia, those causing daytime sleepiness, and those disrupting sleep. Transient insomnia is extremely common, afflicting up to 80% of the population. Chronic insomnia affects 15% of the population. Benzodiazepines are frequently used to treat insomnia; however, there may be a withdrawal syndrome with rapid eye movement (REM) rebound. Two newer benzodiazepine-like agents, zolpidem and zaleplon, have fewer side effects, yet good efficacy. Other agents for insomnia include sedating antidepressants and over-the-counter sleep products (sedating antihistamines). Nonpharmacologic behavioral methods may also have therapeutic benefit. An understanding of the electrophysiologic and neurochemical correlates of the stages of sleep is useful in defining and understanding sleep disorders. Excessive daytime sleepiness is often associated with obstructive sleep apnea or depression. Medications, including amphetamines, may be used to induce daytime alertness. Parasomnias include disorders of arousal and of REM sleep. Chronic medical illnesses can become symptomatic during specific sleep stages. Many medications affect sleep stages and can thus cause sleep disorders or exacerbate the effect of chronic illnesses on sleep. Conversely, medications may be used therapeutically for specific sleep disorders. For example, restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder may be treated with dopamine agonists. An understanding of the disorders of sleep and the effects of medications is required for the appropriate use of medications affecting sleep. PMID:15014609

  11. The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. PMID:20363166

  12. Sleep dysfunction and role of dysautonomia in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Tanya; Chaudhuri, K Ray

    2009-12-01

    Altered sleep is a common non motor symptom in Parkinson's disease. Sleep dysfunction has been reported to occur in 60-90% of all PD patients, having a detrimental impact on quality of life and increasing disability. alpha-Synuclein deposits in the lower brainstem affecting autonomic and sleep regions have been identified in the pathophysiology. The resultant non motor symptoms such as REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) can precede the motor symptoms by years. RBD is violent, enacted dreams that expose the patient or their sleeping partner to night-time injuries. Excessive daytime sleepiness, sometimes with a narcolepsy-like phenotype, is a common occurrence in PD, owing to lesions in the arousal systems of the brain. Restless legs syndrome and sleep disordered breathing can all affect daytime alertness of PD patients. Autonomic deregulation can also negatively affect sleep patterns, by adding to night-time wakening and disrupting sleep. PMID:20083018

  13. Disruption model

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, J.G.; Bronner, G.

    1982-07-01

    Calculations of disruption time and energy dissipation have been obtained by simulating the plasma as an electrical conducting loop that varies in resistivity, current density, major radius. The calculations provide results which are in good agreement with experimental observations. It is believed that this approach allows engineering designs for disruptions to be completed in large tokamaks such as INTOR or FED.

  14. Just a scary dream? A brief review of sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Mark; Sheldon, Stephen H; Loghmanee, Darius

    2013-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of sleep disorders in children is broad, ranging from primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome to complex sleep-related behaviors and movement disorders. Although snoring and OSA typically receive significant attention and discussion, other biologically based sleep disorders are as common, if not more common, in children. A general pediatrician is frequently presented with the complaint of sleep talking, sleep walking, or abnormal movements during sleep. Even more alarming is the presentation of the child suddenly and explosively screaming during sleep. Such complaints fall under the category of parasomnias. Exclusive to sleep and wake-to-sleep transitions, these parasomnias include arousals with abnormal motor, behavioral, autonomic, or sensory symptoms. Parasomnias can be noticeably dissimilar in clinical manifestations, but most share biologic characteristics. Three parasomnias associated with loud vocalizations associated with sleep that can present to general practitioners include sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although usually benign, these sleep disorders can be disruptive and even potentially dangerous to the patient and can often be threatening to quality of life. In this article, we describe the clinical features of some of these disorders and how to differentiate between their alarming presentations. PMID:24126984

  15. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed.

  16. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space.

    PubMed

    Mallis, M M; DeRoshia, C W

    2005-06-01

    Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed. PMID:15943202

  17. Neurobiology of circadian rhythm sleep disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prasanth Manthena; Phyllis C. Zee

    2006-01-01

    To adapt to a 24-hour environment, nearly all organisms, from mammals to single-celled organisms, have developed endogenous\\u000a mechanisms that generate nearly 24-hour (circadian) rhythms in physiology and behavior, the most notable being that of the\\u000a daily cycles of sleep and wake. Disruption of these circadian rhythms is often accompanied by disorders of sleep and wakefulness.\\u000a With the recent advances in

  18. EXCESSIVE DAYTIME SLEEPINESS IN MAN: MULTIPLE SLEEP LATENCY MEASUREMENT IN NARCOLEPTIC AND CONTROL SUBJECTS

    PubMed Central

    RICHARDSON, GARY S.; CARSKADON, MARY A.; FLAGG, WAYNE; VAN DEN HOED, JOHANNA; DEMENT, WILLIAM C.; MITLER, MERRILL M.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Excessive daytime sleepiness is a complaint characterizing many disorders of the wakefulness—sleep cycle. This paper addresses the complaint of sleepiness objectively by an attempt to differentiate a group of control subjects from a group of patients with unambiguous narcolepsy. Fourteen control and 27 narcoleptic subjects were evaluated by one of three protocols involving nocturnal recordings, detailed interviews, and 5 or more 20-min opportunities to sleep offered at 2-h intervals beginning at 10.00 o’clock, ±30 min. Each 20-min opportunity to sleep was given to subjects lying in a darkened quiet room and asked to try to fall asleep. Polysomnographic variables were monitored and sleep was scored in 30-sec epochs by standard criteria. The interval from the start of each test to the first epoch of NREM (including stage 1 sleep) or REM sleep was called sleep latency. In two of the protocols, the subjects were awakened immediately after sleep onset. In the third protocol, the subjects were awakened after 10 min of sleep. Narcoleptics consistently fell asleep much more readily than did control subjects. We conclude that the Multiple Sleep Latency test, in addition to providing opportunities to clinically document sleep onset REM sleep periods, can demonstrate pathological sleepiness. Based on these data, we suggest that an average sleep latency less than 5 min be set as the minimum cutoff point for pathological sleepiness. PMID:81764

  19. Effect of Bariatric Surgery on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Hypopnea Syndrome, Electrocardiogram, and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matilde Valencia-Flores; Arturo Orea; Miguel Herrera; Victoria Santiago; Verónica Rebollar; Violeta A. Castaño; Jorge Oseguera; Jorge Pedroza; Jorge Sumano; Montserrat Resendiz; Guillermo García-Ramos

    2004-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the impact of surgically-induced weight loss on Obstructive Sleep Apnea\\/Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS),\\u000a electrocardiographic changes, pulmonary arterial pressure and daytime sleepiness in morbidly obese patients. Methods: 16 women\\u000a and 13 men (n=29) underwent bariatric surgery in a 3-year period. The following tests were performed before and 1 year after\\u000a surgery: nocturnal polysomnography, daytime Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT),

  20. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek; Golan Shahar

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526–535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and

  1. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric J. Warrant; Almut Kelber; Rita Wallén; William T. Wcislo

    2006-01-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species – the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and

  2. The relationship between cocaine self-administration and actigraphy-based measures of sleep in adult rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Brutcher, Robert E.; Nader, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Clinical trials show that chronic cocaine users suffer from sleep disturbances and preclinical research has shown that acute sleep deprivation increases the rate of cocaine self-administration in rats. Objective This study examined the effect of cocaine self-administration on behavioral indices of sleep, and alternatively the effect of sleep disruption on cocaine-maintained responding by rhesus monkeys. Methods Seven adult rhesus monkeys, fitted with Actical® activity monitors, were trained to respond under a concurrent choice paradigm with food (three 1.0-g pellets) and cocaine (0.003–0.3 mg/kg) or saline presentation. For each monkey the lowest preferred dose of cocaine (> 80% cocaine choice) was determined. Activity data were analyzed during lights out (2000-0600) to determine sleep efficiency, sleep latency and total activity counts. Subsequently, the monkeys were sleep disrupted (awaken every hour during lights-out period) the night prior to food-cocaine choice sessions. Results Self-administration of the preferred dose of cocaine resulted in a significant decrease in sleep efficiency, with a significant increase in total lights-out activity. Sleep disruption significantly altered behavioral indices of sleep, similar to those seen following cocaine self-administration. However, sleep disruption did not affect cocaine self-administration under concurrent choice conditions. Conclusions Based on these findings, cocaine self-administration does appear to disrupt behavioral indices of sleep, although it remains to be determined if treatments that improve sleep measures can affect future cocaine taking. PMID:23604390

  3. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  4. Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: Detection and quantification with electrocardiogram-

    E-print Network

    Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: Detection and quantification, Boston, MA f Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Abstract Sleep disruption is an important aspect of major depressive disorder

  5. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Lapsing during Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    they are defined, lapses occurring after a normal night's sleep are thought to originate from transient disruptionsBehavioral/Systems/Cognitive Lapsing during Sleep Deprivation Is Associated with Distributed University, Singapore 639798, Singapore, and 4Division of Sleep and Chronobiology, Department of Psychiatry

  6. Sleep and Quality of Life in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alain Nicolas

    Patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) scarcely complain primarily of insomnia. However, sleep disturbance\\u000a is very common in this population as shown by epidemiological and polysomnographic studies. Clinical psychiatrists have to\\u000a check for sleep disruptions through a careful medical history of the patient. Special attention will be paid to patients with\\u000a checking of washing rituals who can delay their sleep

  7. Severe nocturnal and postexercise hypoxia in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Halphen, Isabelle; Elie, Caroline; Brousse, Valentine; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Allali, Slimane; Bonnet, Damien; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that is inconsistently associated with painful crises and acute chest syndrome. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoxia, we recorded daytime, nocturnal, and postexercise pulse oximetry (SpO2) values in 39 SCD patients with a median age of 10.8 years. Median daytime SpO2 was 97% (range, 89%-100%), and 36% of patients had daytime hypoxia defined as SpO2<96%. Median nocturnal SpO2 was 94.7% (range, 87.7%-99.5%), 50% of patients had nocturnal hypoxia defined as SpO2?93%, and 11(37%) patients spent more than 10% of their total sleep time with SpO2<90%. Median postexercise SpO2 was 94% (range, 72%-100%) and 44.7% of patients had postexercise hypoxia defined as an SpO2 decrease ?3% after a 6-minute walk test. Among patients with normal daytime SpO2, 35% had nocturnal and 42% postexercise hypoxia. Compared to 9 patients without daytime, nocturnal, or postexercise hypoxia, 25 patients with hypoxia under at least one of these three conditions had greater anemia severity (P?=?0.01), lower HbF levels (P?=?0.04), and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (P?=?0.03). Males predominated among patients with postexercise hypoxia (P?=?0.004). Hypoxia correlated neither with painful crises nor with acute chest syndrome. Of 32 evaluable patients, 6 (18.8%) had a tricuspid regurgitation velocity ?2.6 m/s, and this feature was associated with anemia (P?=?0.044). Median percentage of the predicted distance covered during a 6-minute walk test was 86% [46-120]; the distance was negatively associated with LDH (P?=?0.044) and with a past history of acute chest syndrome (P?=?0.009). In conclusion, severe episodes of nocturnal and postexercise hypoxia are common in children with SCD, even those with normal daytime SpO2. PMID:24878576

  8. EEG sleep patterns in Parkinsonian patients treated with Bromocryptine and L-Dopa: A comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vardi; H. Glaubman; J. Rabey; M. Streifler

    1979-01-01

    Summary The nocturnal sleep patterns of six Parkinsonian patients treated with Bromocryptine (2-Br-L-ergocryptine CB-154), a dopamine-like agonist, were compared with those of the same patients under L-DOPA treatment. No significant differences were found between the two groups.

  9. Original Article Quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nogueira Arrais de Souza; Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 50 patients with SCA submitted to nocturnal polysomnography and spirometry at the Brasília University Hospital. Anthropometric, polysomnographic and pulmonary function data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry

  10. The predictors of central and obstructive sleep apnoea in haemodialysis patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Tada; Kengo Fukushima Kusano; Aiko Ogawa; Jun Iwasaki; Satoru Sakuragi; Isao Kusano; Seiko Takatsu; Masashi Miyazaki; Tohru Ohe

    2007-01-01

    Background. Sleep apnoea (SA) is often observed in haemodialysis patients, but there have been few studies on types of SA and their predictors. We therefore investigated the prevalence and types of SA and the associations between types of SA and clinical factors in haemodialysis patients. Methods. We initially examined nocturnal oxygen desaturation index (ODI) (desaturation of >4%\\/ events per hour)

  11. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: Substantiation of the DLR protection concept for airport Leipzig\\/Halle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Basner

    2008-01-01

    The Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) investi- gated the influence of nocturnal aircraft noise on sleep in polysomnographical labora- tory and field studies between 1999 and 2004. The results of the field study were used by the Regional Council of Leipzig (Germany) for the establishment of a noise protection plan in the official approval process

  12. Sleep Disorders (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... anxiety and the patient's age. Stress caused by learning the cancer diagnosis often causes sleeping problems. Stress, ... control and sleep restriction to work for you. Learning good sleep habits is important. Good sleep habits ...

  13. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... awareness about sleep disorders and sleep health, promoting sleep medicine research, and providing a portal for communication between ... 18/15 - 3:31 pm Re: Clinical Psychologist (Sleep Medicine) job - Decatur, GA May/14/15 - 7:38 ...

  14. Sleep and Aging

    MedlinePLUS

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging About Sleep We all look forward to a good night's ... health and quality of life. Two Types of Sleep There are two types of sleep: non-rapid ...

  15. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Human African trypanosomiasis ... Kirchoff LV. Agents of African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolan R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ...

  16. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... that people who are experiencing even a few of these symptoms visit their doctor for evaluation. Sleep apnea is more likely to occur in men than women, and in people who are overweight or obese. ...

  17. Nocturnal oxygenation and prognosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, M F; Smith, P E; Carroll, N; Edwards, R H; Calverley, P M

    1999-07-01

    REM-related oxygen desaturation occurs in advanced Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and might be an independent predictor of disease progression. We have followed 18 patients for 10 yr after an initial respiratory sleep study or until death or onset of nasal ventilation. We measured baseline spirometry, blood gas tensions, maximal respiratory pressures, and body mass index. In 11 cases, VC was recorded serially. Median survival was 50 (range, 13 to 89) mo from initial study and unrelated to age at time of study, BMI, or mouth pressures but correlated with PaCO2 (r = -0.72, p < 0.005, n = 17), minimal nocturnal SaO2 (r = 0.62, p < 0.007, n = 18) and VC (r = 0. 65, p < 0.005, n = 17). Cox regression analysis showed a VC of less than 1 L at the time of study to be the best single predictor of subsequent survival. The only measure associated with age of death was the age at which the VC fell below 1 L (r = 0.79, p < 0.004). These data suggest measurement of PaCO2 or serial assessment of VC should be studied further as valid methods of assessing prognosis in DMD. PMID:10390400

  18. NOCTURNAL URBAN BOUNDARY LAYER OVER CINCINNATI, OHIO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN F. CLARKE

    1969-01-01

    Investigations of the nocturnal temperature and wind structure of the planetary boundary layer over a city were conducted in the Cincinnati, Ohio, metropolitan area. Temperatures near the surface were obtained by means of automobile traverses across the city, the vertical distributions of temperature were measured at several sites with a helicopter, and wind velocities were derived from pilot balloon observations.

  19. Review: Laboratory Diagnosis of Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan S Krauss

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is an uncommon acquired stem cell disorder associated with periodic hemolytic events. This benign clonal disease is caused by abnormalities of the X- linked phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA) gene and is associated with cytopenias and thrombosis. Although the trilineage of bone marrow elements is affected, involvement of the red blood cell (RBC) line was recognized

  20. Nocturnal Habits of Platyedra gossypiella Saunders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. A. Squire

    1937-01-01

    IN the course of investigational work on Platyedra gossypiella, the pink bollworm of cotton, in the West Indies, observations were made on its nocturnal habits, concerning which but little is known. On the question of light attraction, for example, there has been a stalemate of opinions. Wilcocks1 in Egypt found that both sexes came to light readily; while Busck2 in

  1. Nocturnal foraging in the American White Pelican

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BLAIR F. MCMAHON; ROGER M. EVANS

    1992-01-01

    Nocturnal foraging was examined in American White Pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos) at the Dauphin River, about 50 km from a breeding colony on Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. From two to three times as many pelicans foraged at night as in the daytime, with foraging flocks being larger at night. In contrast, more pelicans were present at adjacent loafing sites during the

  2. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  3. Cardiopulmonary consequences of obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Shepard, J W

    1990-09-01

    During sleep, oxygen consumption and systemic blood pressure decrease in normal subjects; during rapid eye movement sleep, irregular ventilation can be accompanied by brief periods of apnea. In patients with obstructive sleep apnea, alveolar ventilation during an apneic episode is immediately reduced to zero, and the metabolic demands for oxygen must be met from oxygen stores within the body. As the stores of oxygen within the lung are diminished, the rate of arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation increases. The development of alveolar hypoventilation during wakefulness seems to be based on a balance between central ventilatory drives to breathe and mechanical loads placed on the respiratory system. Coexistent cardiopulmonary or neuromuscular disease in patients with obstructive sleep apnea contributes to the development of alveolar hypoventilation. During apneic episodes, the systemic blood pressure increases while the heart rate and cardiac output decrease. Both bradycardias and increased ventricular ectopic activity have been associated with these disordered breathing episodes. Because of the possibility of apnea-associated arrhythmias, patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. The influence of these recurrent nocturnal episodes of asphyxia on cardiovascular longevity needs further investigation. PMID:2205763

  4. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

    2010-01-01

    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data. PMID:20472955

  5. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  6. [Respiratory disorders during sleep in degenerative diseases of the brain stem].

    PubMed

    Arnulf, I; Derenne, J P

    2001-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing may be present in patients with degenerative diseases affecting the brainstem. Indeed, this last structure contains the executive system of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (tegmentum of the pons), of respiratory drive (medulla oblongata and pons) and motor neurons of upper airways dilators (fifth, seventh, ninth, tenth and twelfth cranial roots). Patients with Parkinson's disease suffer frequently from insomnia, partly caused by nocturnal motor disability, and from REM sleep behavior disorder. In 20 percent of the patients, excessive daytime sleepiness is caused by a sleep apnea syndrome, with a partly levodopa-dependent upper airway dysfunction. In 40 percent of the patients, sleepiness mimics a secondary narcolepsy and may be associated with hypnagogic hallucinations. During supranuclear palsy, REM sleep is progressively curtailed with rare sleep-disordered breathing. Patients with multiple systemic atrophy may present a nocturnal stridor caused by laryngeal palsy and benefit from tracheotomy or continuous nasal positive airway pressure. Seldom sleep and respiratory studies in genetic ataxic diseases suggest a normal respiratory drive, occasional diaphragmatic dysfunction and night hypopneas. During amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the progressive loss of phrenic nerve leads to a diaphragmatic dysfunction, dyspnea and a lesser survival. Adequate ventilation is jeopardized during REM sleep with a consequent loss of this state. PMID:11924029

  7. Insomnia and sleep apnea in midlife women: prevalence and consequences to health and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common during the menopausal transition, with numerous downstream consequences to health and functioning, including reduced quality of life, impaired mental health, and increased physical health morbidity. Insomnia affects approximately 50% of midlife women and is characterized by nocturnal symptoms of difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep (or both) and daytime symptoms that impair occupational, social, or other components of functioning. In addition, approximately 20% of midlife women develop sleep-disordered breathing during the menopausal transition. This commentary summarizes the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment options for each of these sleep disorders in midlife women, with specific focus on first-line treatments for insomnia (cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia) and sleep-disordered breathing (continuous positive airway pressure) and unique considerations for treating sleep disorders in midlife women. Future directions are also discussed.

  8. Insomnia and sleep apnea in midlife women: prevalence and consequences to health and functioning.

    PubMed

    Hall, Martica H; Kline, Christopher E; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common during the menopausal transition, with numerous downstream consequences to health and functioning, including reduced quality of life, impaired mental health, and increased physical health morbidity. Insomnia affects approximately 50% of midlife women and is characterized by nocturnal symptoms of difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep (or both) and daytime symptoms that impair occupational, social, or other components of functioning. In addition, approximately 20% of midlife women develop sleep-disordered breathing during the menopausal transition. This commentary summarizes the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment options for each of these sleep disorders in midlife women, with specific focus on first-line treatments for insomnia (cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia) and sleep-disordered breathing (continuous positive airway pressure) and unique considerations for treating sleep disorders in midlife women. Future directions are also discussed. PMID:26097736

  9. Sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression and testosterone in men.

    PubMed

    Cote, Kimberly A; McCormick, Cheryl M; Geniole, Shawn N; Renn, Ryan P; MacAulay, Stacey D

    2013-02-01

    The role of sleep deprivation in aggressive behavior has not been systematically investigated, despite a great deal of evidence to suggest a relationship. We investigated the impact of 33 h of sleep loss on endocrine function and reactive aggression using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) task. PSAP performance was assessed in 24 young men and 25 women who were randomly assigned to a sleep deprivation or control condition. Sleep deprivation lowered reactive aggression and testosterone (but not cortisol) in men, and disrupted the positive relationship between a pre-post PSAP increase in testosterone and aggression that was evident in rested control men. While women increased aggression following provocation as expected, no influence of sleep deprivation was found. This is the first experimental study to demonstrate that sleep deprivation lowers reactive aggression in men. Testosterone, but not cortisol, played a role in the relationship between sleep and reactive aggression in men. PMID:23046906

  10. Pharmacologic approaches for the management of symptoms and cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea in adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. Dopp; Barbara J. Morgan

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxemia, arousals from sleep, and daytime sleepiness. Accumulating\\u000a evidence indicates that hypoxemia and sleep disruption contribute to the development of cardiovascular abnormalities in OSA.\\u000a OSA is effectively treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy that splints open the airway during sleep.\\u000a Studies have shown that CPAP therapy improves daytime sleepiness and

  11. Schizophrenia patients with predominantly positive symptoms have more disturbed sleep–wake cycles measured by actigraphy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Afonso; Sofia Brissos; Maria Luísa Figueira; Teresa Paiva

    2011-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are widespread in schizophrenia, and one important concern is to determine the impact of this disruption on self-reported sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Our aim was to evaluate the sleep–wake cycle in a sample of patients with schizophrenia (SZ), and whether sleep patterns differ between patients with predominantly negative versus predominantly positive symptoms, as well as

  12. Deep Sleep and Parietal Cortex Gene Expression Changes Are Related to Cognitive Deficits with Age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heather M. Buechel; Jelena Popovic; James L. Searcy; Nada M. Porter; Olivier Thibault; Eric M. Blalock; Stephen Ginsberg

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAge-related cognitive deficits negatively affect quality of life and can presage serious neurodegenerative disorders. Despite sleep disruption's well-recognized negative influence on cognition, and its prevalence with age, surprisingly few studies have tested sleep's relationship to cognitive aging.MethodologyWe measured sleep stages in young adult and aged F344 rats during inactive (enhanced sleep) and active (enhanced wake) periods. Animals were behaviorally characterized

  13. Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah K.; Ang, Joo Ern; Revell, Victoria L.; Holmes, Ben; Mann, Anuska; Robertson, Francesca P.; Cui, Nanyi; Middleton, Benita; Ackermann, Katrin; Kayser, Manfred; Thumser, Alfred E.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Skene, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep restriction and circadian clock disruption are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The metabolic pathways involved in human sleep, however, have yet to be investigated with the use of a metabolomics approach. Here we have used untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)/MS metabolomics to examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma metabolite rhythms. Twelve healthy young male subjects remained in controlled laboratory conditions with respect to environmental light, sleep, meals, and posture during a 24-h wake/sleep cycle, followed by 24 h of wakefulness. Two-hourly plasma samples collected over the 48 h period were analyzed by LC/MS. Principal component analysis revealed a clear time of day variation with a significant cosine fit during the wake/sleep cycle and during 24 h of wakefulness in untargeted and targeted analysis. Of 171 metabolites quantified, daily rhythms were observed in the majority (n = 109), with 78 of these maintaining their rhythmicity during 24 h of wakefulness, most with reduced amplitude (n = 66). During sleep deprivation, 27 metabolites (tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, 8 acylcarnitines, 13 glycerophospholipids, and 3 sphingolipids) exhibited significantly increased levels compared with during sleep. The increased levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and taurine may explain the antidepressive effect of acute sleep deprivation and deserve further study. This report, to our knowledge the first of metabolic profiling during sleep and sleep deprivation and characterization of 24 h rhythms under these conditions, offers a novel view of human sleep/wake regulation. PMID:25002497

  14. Adolescence & Parental History of Alcoholism: Insights from the Sleep EEG

    PubMed Central

    Van Reen, Eliza; Acebo, Christine; LeBourgeois, Monique; Seifer, Ronald; Fallone, Gahan; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Disrupted sleep is a common complaint of individuals with alcohol use disorder and in abstinent alcoholics. Furthermore, among recovering alcoholics, poor sleep predicts relapse to drinking. Whether disrupted sleep in these populations results from prolonged alcohol use or precedes the onset of drinking is not known. The aim of the present study was to examine the sleep EEG in alcohol naïve, parental history positive (PH+) and negative (PH?) boys and girls. Methods All-night sleep EEG recordings in two longitudinal cohorts (child and teen) followed at 1.5 – 3 year intervals were analyzed. The child and teen participants were 9/10 and 15/16 years old at the initial assessment, respectively. Parental history status was classified by DSM-IV criteria applied to structured interviews (CDIS-IV) resulting in 14 PH? and 10 PH+ children and 14 PH? and 10 PH+ teens. Sleep data were visually scored in 30-second epochs using standard criteria. Power spectra were calculated for EEG derivations C3/A2, C4/A1, O2/A1, O1/A2 for NREM and REM sleep. Results We found no difference between PH+ and PH? individuals in either cohort for any visually scored sleep stage variable. Spectral power declined in both cohorts across assessments for NREM and REM sleep in all derivations and across frequencies independent of parental history status. With regard to parental history, NREM sleep EEG power was lower for the delta band in PH+ teens at both assessments for the central derivations. Furthermore, power in the sigma band for the right occipital derivation in both NREM and REM sleep was lower in PH+ children only at the initial assessment. Conclusions We found no gross signs of sleep disruption as a function of parental history. Modest differences in spectral EEG power between PH+ and PH? children and teens indicate that a marker of parental alcohol history may detectable in teens at risk for problem drinking. PMID:22486223

  15. [Perioperative management of patients suffering from sleep-related breathing disorders].

    PubMed

    Dette, F; Zoremba, M; Heitmann, J; Canisius, S; Wulf, H; Koehler, U

    2009-05-01

    Sleep-related breathing disorders have been associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. The respective patients are at risk during two independent periods. Besides an early period, characterised by the influence of anaesthetics, patients are at risk also during a late period, which is characterised by nocturnal desaturation and disturbances of the cardiovascular system, caused by interference with the sleep architecture, especially of the REM sleep. To assure a safe perioperative management, a close monitoring (O2 saturation and pCO2) and the option for non-invasive ventilation have to be guaranteed. PMID:19370513

  16. Crew Schedules, Sleep Deprivation, and Aviation Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Caldwell

    2012-01-01

    Recent events have highlighted the importance of pilot fatigue in aviation operations. Because of demanding flight schedules, crew members often suffer disrupted sleep and desynchronized circadian rhythms, the combination of which threatens alertness and performance. Unfortunately, market requirements for transcontinental and transoceanic routes, as well as for nighttime departures and early-morning arrivals, continue to pose challenges to human vigilance in

  17. Sleep, immunity, and circadian clocks: a mechanistic model.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Thomas; Bollinger, Annalena; Oster, Henrik; Solbach, Werner

    2010-01-01

    The lack of sufficient amounts of sleep is a hallmark of modern living, and it is commonly perceived that in the long run this makes us sick. An increasing amount of scientific data indicate that sleep deprivation has detrimental effects on immune function. Conversely, immune responses feedback on sleep phase and architecture. Several studies have investigated the impact of short-term sleep deprivation on different immune parameters, whereas only a few studies have addressed the influence of sleep restriction on the immune system. In many cases, sleep deprivation and restriction impair immune responses by disrupting circadian rhythms at the level of immune cells, which might be a consequence of disrupted endocrine and physiological circadian rhythms. Little is known about the mechanisms underlying the circadian regulation of immunity, but recent studies have suggested that local as well as central circadian clocks drive the rhythms of immune function. In this review, we present a mechanistic model which proposes that sleep (through soluble factors and body temperature) primes immune cells on the one hand, and, on the other hand, provides a timing signal for hematopoietic circadian clocks. We hypothesize that chronic sleep disruption desynchronizes these clocks and, through this mechanism, deregulates immune responses. PMID:20130392

  18. Parasympathetic nervous system in nocturnal asthma

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, J F J; Pearson, S B; Dean, H G

    1988-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vagal blockade with atropine on nocturnal fall in peak expiratory flow rate 10 patients with asthma who had a diurnal variation in peak expiratory flow rate of >20% were given 30 ?g/kg of intravenous atropine or a placebo at 4 am and 4 pm. Vagal blockade caused significant bronchodilatation at 4 am and 4 pm (peak expiratory flow rate rose from 260 to 390 l/min at 4 am and 400 to 440 l/min at 4 pm) and significantly increased the pulse rate from 60 to 121 beats/minute at 4 am and from 76 to 122 beats/minute at 4 pm. Nocturnal asthma was almost totally reversed, implying that vagal mechanisms are fundamental in its pathophysiology. Other mechanisms—diurnal changes in plasma adrenaline concentration, the activity of non-adrenergic non-cholinergic nerves, and circadian rhythms of inflammatory mediator activity—may also be implicated. PMID:3132275

  19. In-Car Nocturnal Blue Light Exposure Improves Motorway Driving: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Sagaspe, Patricia; Anund, Anna; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Philip, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 20–50 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age ± SD: 32.9±11.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11)?=?6.64; p<0.05). Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p?=?0.001) and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p?=?0.003) than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]). Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004 PMID:23094031

  20. Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Almut Kelber; Anna Balkenius; Eric J. Warrant

    2002-01-01

    Humans are colour-blind at night, and it has been assumed that this is true of all animals. But colour vision is as useful for discriminating objects at night as it is during the day. Here we show, through behavioural experiments, that the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor uses colour vision to discriminate coloured stimuli at intensities corresponding to dim starlight (0.0001cdm-2).

  1. A HAT for sleep?: epigenetic regulation of sleep by Tip60 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pirooznia, Sheila K; Elefant, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Unfortunately, how AD is mechanistically linked with interference of the body's natural sleep rhythms remains unclear. Our recent findings provide insight into this question by demonstrating that sleep disruption associated with AD is driven by epigenetic changes mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Tip60. In this study, we show that Tip60 functionally interacts with the AD associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) to regulate axonal growth of Drosophila small ventrolateral neuronal (sLNv) pacemaker cells, and their production of neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) that stabilizes appropriate sleep-wake patterns in the fly. Loss of Tip60 HAT activity under APP neurodegenerative conditions causes decreased PDF production, retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for PDF release and disruption of sleep-wake cycles in these flies. Remarkably, excess Tip60 in conjunction with APP fully rescues these sleep-wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for Tip60 in these processes. Our studies highlight the importance of epigenetic based mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in neurodegenerative diseases like AD. PMID:23572111

  2. Sleep abnormalities during abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Landolt, H P; Gillin, J C

    2001-01-01

    Virtually every type of sleep problem occurs in alcohol-dependent patients. Typically, these individuals take a longer time to fall asleep and show decreased sleep efficiency, shorter sleep duration and reduced amounts of slow wave sleep when compared with healthy controls. Their sleep patterns are fragmented, and the typical time course of electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave activity is severely disrupted. The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be reduced or increased. Sleep changes can persist during months or years of abstinence, and recent studies indicate that certain alterations in sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep complaints, predict relapse to alcoholism. The mechanisms of action of short and long term alcohol administration on sleep are incompletely understood. They may arise from an interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), adenosine or other neurotransmitter systems. While only a few pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to improve or normalise disturbed sleep in individuals who have recovered from alcoholism have been studied, the use of benzodiazepines, other hypnosedatives or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is not recommended. Therapies include sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, meditation, relaxation methods, and other nonpharmacological approaches. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between sleep, sleep abnormalities and alcoholism, and to establish new approaches to improve sleep in alcohol-dependent patients and to prevent withdrawal reactions that affect sleep during abstinence. PMID:11475945

  3. Growth Hormone-Releasing Peptide6 Stimulates Sleep, Growth Hormone, ACTH and Cortisol Release in Normal Man

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf-Michael Frieboes; Harald Murck; Petra Maier; Thomas Schier; Florian Holsboer; Axel Steiger

    1995-01-01

    The synthetic hexapeptide growth hormone-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) stimulates growth hormone (GH) release in animals and man. GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) has the same effect. In addition, pulsatile administration of GHRH in normal men results in increased slow-wave sleep (SWS) and blunted cortisol levels. The effect of GHRP on nocturnal hormone secretion and on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) is still unknown. We

  4. Differential Sleep, Sleepiness, and Neurophysiology in the Insomnia Phenotypes of Shift Work Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Belcher, Ren; Drake, Christopher L.; Roth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize and compare insomnia symptoms within two common phenotypes of Shift Work Disorder. Design: Observational laboratory and field study. Setting: Hospital sleep center. Participants: 34 permanent night workers. Subjects were classified by Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Insomnia Severity Index into 3 subgroups: asymptomatic controls, alert insomniacs (AI), and sleepy insomniacs (SI). Measurements: Sleep parameters were assessed by sleep diary. Circadian phase was evaluated by dim-light salivary melatonin onset (DLMO). Objective sleepiness was measured using the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Brain activity was measured using the N1 event-related potential (ERP). A tandem repeat in PER3 was genotyped from saliva DNA. Results: (1) AI group showed normal MSLT scores but elevated N1 amplitudes indicating cortical hyperarousal. (2) SI group showed pathologically low MSLT scores but normal N1 amplitudes. (3) AI and SI groups were not significantly different from one another in circadian phase, while controls were significantly phase-delayed relative to both SWD groups. (4) AI showed significantly longer sleep latencies and lower sleep efficiency than controls during both nocturnal and diurnal sleep. SI significantly differed from controls in nocturnal sleep parameters, but differences during diurnal sleep periods were smaller and not statistically significant. (5) Genotype × phenotype ?2 analysis showed significant differences in the PER3 VNTR: 9 of 10 shift workers reporting sleepiness in a post hoc genetic substudy were found to carry the long tandem repeat on PER3, while 4 of 14 shift workers without excessive sleepiness carried the long allele. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the sleepy insomnia phenotype is comprehensively explained by circadian misalignment, while the alert insomnia phenotype resembles an insomnia disorder precipitated by shift work. Citation: Gumenyuk V, Belcher R, Drake CL, Roth T. Differential sleep, sleepiness, and neurophysiology in the insomnia phenotypes of shift work disorder. SLEEP 2015;38(1):119–126. PMID:25325466

  5. Novel mechanisms, treatments, and outcome measures in childhood sleep

    PubMed Central

    Colonna, Annalisa; Smith, Anna B.; Pal, Deb K.; Gringras, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night’s sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases. PMID:26029140

  6. Novel mechanisms, treatments, and outcome measures in childhood sleep.

    PubMed

    Colonna, Annalisa; Smith, Anna B; Pal, Deb K; Gringras, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disorders and sleep of insufficient duration and quality are on the increase due to changes in our lifestyle, particularly in children and adolescents. Sleep disruption is also more common in children with medical conditions, compounding their difficulties. Recent studies have focused on new mechanisms that explain how learning and cognitive performance depend on a good night's sleep. Growing alongside this latest understanding is an innovative new field of non-drug interventions that improve sleep architecture, with resulting cognitive improvements. However, we need to rigorously evaluate such potentially popular and self-administered sleep interventions with equally state-of-the-art outcome measurement tools. Animated hand-held games, that incorporate embedded sleep-dependent learning tasks, promise to offer new robust methods of measuring changes in overnight learning. Portable computing technology has the potential to offer practical, inexpensive and reliable tools to indirectly assess the quality of sleep. They may be adopted in both clinical and educational settings, providing a unique way of monitoring the effect of sleep disruption on learning, leading also to a radical rethink of how we manage chronic diseases. PMID:26029140

  7. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  8. An assessment of quality of sleep and the use of drugs with sedating properties in hospitalized adult patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Frighetto; Carlo Marra; Shakeel Bandali; Kerry Wilbur; Terryn Naumann; Peter Jewesson

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hospitalization can significantly disrupt sleeping patterns. In consideration of the previous reports of insomnia and apparent widespread use of benzodiazepines and other hypnotics in hospitalized patients, we conducted a study to assess quality of sleep and hypnotic drug use in our acute care adult patient population. The primary objectives of this study were to assess sleep disturbance and its

  9. Identifying sleep regulatory genes using a Drosophila model of insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Thimgan, Matthew; Donlea, Jeff; Gimbel, Sarah I.; Gottschalk, Laura; Duntley, Steve P.; Shaw, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that sleep must serve an essential biological function, little is known about molecules that underlie sleep regulation. Given that insomnia is a common sleep disorder that disrupts the ability to initiate and maintain restorative sleep, a better understanding of its molecular underpinning may provide crucial insights into sleep regulatory processes. Thus, we created a line of flies using laboratory selection that share traits with human insomnia. After 60 generations insomnia-like (ins-l) flies sleep 60 min a day, exhibit difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, and show evidence of daytime cognitive impairment. ins-l flies are also hyperactive and hyper responsive to environmental perturbations. In addition they have difficulty maintaining their balance, have elevated levels of dopamine, are short-lived and show increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. While their core molecular clock remains intact, ins-l flies lose their ability to sleep when placed into constant darkness. Whole genome profiling identified genes that are modified in ins-l flies. Among those differentially expressed transcripts genes involved in metabolism, neuronal activity, and sensory perception constituted over-represented categories. We demonstrate that two of these genes are upregulated in human subjects following acute sleep deprivation. Together these data indicate that the ins-l flies are a useful tool that can be used to identify molecules important for sleep regulation and may provide insights into both the causes and long-term consequences of insomnia. PMID:19494137

  10. Neuroimaging in sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thien Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Dominique Petit; Stéphanie Mazza; Jacques Montplaisir; Pierre Maquet

    2007-01-01

    The development of neuroimaging techniques has made possible the characterization of cerebral function throughout the sleep-wake cycle in normal human subjects. Indeed, human brain activity during sleep is segregated within specific cortical and subcortical areas in relation to the sleep stage, sleep physiological events and previous waking activity. This approach has allowed sleep physiological theories developed from animal data to

  11. SLEEP&CIRCADIAN NEUROBIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    . In Behavioral Sleep Medicine, Drs. Perlis and Gehrman investigate the mechanisms of insomnia and effects at the University of Pennsylvania in sleep/circadian research and in the clinical practice in sleep medicine the Peter C. Farrell Prize in Sleep Medicine from Harvard Medical School Division of Sleep Medicine

  12. Energy conservation and sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralph J. Berger; Nathan H. Phillips

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic and ontogenetic associations between sleep and endothermy are consistent with the hypothesis that sleep evolved in conjuction with endothermy to offset the high energetic cost of endothermy. The electrophysiological and thermoregulatory continuum of slow wave sleep, circadian torpor and hibernation substantiates a primordial link between sleep and energy conservation. Sleep constitutes a circadian and circannual rhythm of hypometabolic adaptation

  13. Disruptive Coloration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2009-04-01

    Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

  14. Comorbidities in Infants with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Qubty, William F.; Mrelashvili, Anna; Kotagal, Suresh; Lloyd, Robin M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: The clinical characteristics of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in infants have been insufficiently characterized. Our aim was to describe identifiable comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea, which may assist in recognizing these patients earlier in their disease course and help improve management. Methods: This was a single-center, retrospective study involving infants 0-17 months of age with a diagnosis of OSA on the basis of clinical features and nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) at the Mayo Clinic Center for Sleep Medicine between 2000 and 2011. Patients were excluded if they had central apnea accounting for greater than 50% of respiratory events. OSA severity was determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Results: One hundred thirty-nine patients were included. Based upon the AHI, they were subdivided into mild (AHI < 5; 30%), moderate (AHI 5-9; 30%), or severe (AHI > 10; 40%) categories. Comorbidities included gastroesophageal reflux in 95/139 (68%), periodic limb movements in sleep in 59/139 (42%), craniofacial abnormalities in 52/139 (37%), neuromuscular abnormalities in 47/139 (34%), prematurity in 41/139 (29%), genetic syndromes in 41/139 (29%), laryngomalacia/tracheomalacia in 38/139 (27%), and epilepsy in 23/139 (17%) of subjects. Severity of OSA correlated with prematurity, having a genetic syndrome, or neuromuscular abnormality. Multispecialty evaluation was needed for 119/139 (86%). Conclusion: Comorbidities in infants with OSA differ from those of older children. Based upon the comorbidities identified in our study population, it appears that appropriate management of infants with OSA requires a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, gastroenterology, pulmonology, otolaryngology, neurology, and general pediatrics. Citation: Qubty WF, Mrelashvili A, Kotagal S, Lloyd RM. Comorbidities in infants with obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(11):1213-1216. PMID:25325583

  15. Gender, sleep problems, and obesity in Taiwan: a propensity-score-matching approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Kuan, Ping-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has become a major health risk in industrialized countries, with disturbed sleep identified as a correlate. This study used data drawn from Taiwan's 2005 Social Development Trend Survey on Health and Safety and the propensity-score-matching method to shed light on gender-specific associations between sleep problems and obesity among 24,113 adults aged 20-64 years. The average increase in obesity prevalence among respondents with disrupted sleep was 1.85%, as compared to those who did not report disrupted sleep, with similar psycho-social attributes. Similarly, the prevalence of obesity among those who reported restless sleep was increased by an average of 1.40% compared to those who did not report restless sleep with similar psycho-social attributes. We also found gender-specific vulnerability to different types of sleep problems. Among men who reported disrupted sleep, we found a 3.12% increase in the prevalence of obesity. Among women exposed to restless sleep, the increase in obesity prevalence was 1.84%. The observed gender difference in the prevalence of increases in obesity may be attributed to gender-specific behavioral responses to poor sleep. With poor sleep, men may respond to hunger by overeating; women may respond by physical inactivity. Both can contribute to an elevated risk of obesity. PMID:25668054

  16. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Musiek, Erik S; Xiong, David D; Holtzman, David M

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in the sleep–wake cycle and circadian rhythms are common symptoms of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and they have generally been considered as late consequences of the neurodegenerative processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that sleep–wake and circadian disruption often occur early in the course of the disease and may even precede the development of cognitive symptoms. Furthermore, the sleep–wake cycle appears to regulate levels of the pathogenic amyloid-beta peptide in the brain, and manipulating sleep can influence AD-related pathology in mouse models via multiple mechanisms. Finally, the circadian clock system, which controls the sleep–wake cycle and other diurnal oscillations in mice and humans, may also have a role in the neurodegenerative process. In this review, we examine the current literature related to the mechanisms by which sleep and circadian rhythms might impact AD pathogenesis, and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting these systems for the prevention of AD. PMID:25766617

  17. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Musiek, Erik S; Xiong, David D; Holtzman, David M

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms are common symptoms of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and they have generally been considered as late consequences of the neurodegenerative processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that sleep-wake and circadian disruption often occur early in the course of the disease and may even precede the development of cognitive symptoms. Furthermore, the sleep-wake cycle appears to regulate levels of the pathogenic amyloid-beta peptide in the brain, and manipulating sleep can influence AD-related pathology in mouse models via multiple mechanisms. Finally, the circadian clock system, which controls the sleep-wake cycle and other diurnal oscillations in mice and humans, may also have a role in the neurodegenerative process. In this review, we examine the current literature related to the mechanisms by which sleep and circadian rhythms might impact AD pathogenesis, and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting these systems for the prevention of AD. PMID:25766617

  18. Effects of sleep and circadian rhythm on the human immune system.

    PubMed

    Lange, Tanja; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Born, Jan

    2010-04-01

    Many immune parameters show systematic fluctuations over the 24-h day in human blood. Circulating naive T-cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-12 (IL-12), peak during nighttime, whereas cytotoxic effector leukocytes and production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 peak during daytime. These temporal changes originate from a combined influence of the circadian system and sleep. Both brain functions act synergistically and share neuroendocrine effector mechanisms to convey control over immune functions. Sympathetic tone and cortisol levels show a circadian nadir during nighttime and are further suppressed by sleep, whereas growth hormone and prolactin show a circadian peak during nighttime and are further enhanced by sleep. Thus, the circadian system and sleep jointly evoke a unique endocrine constellation that is extremely effective in inducing changes in leukocyte traffic and a shift toward proinflammatory type 1-cytokines during the nocturnal period of sleep, that is, an action with strong clinical implications. PMID:20398008

  19. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Study Home Sleep Testing Done American Academy of Sleep Medicine | Oct 31, 2012 Email Print As a woman ... from the image Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Sleep Medicine 2510 North Frontage Road, Darien, IL 60561 Telephone: ( ...

  20. Sleep Habits and Diabetes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... news/Sleep_Habits_040215.html Sleep Habits and Diabetes HealthDay News Video - April 2, 2015 To use ... please enable JavaScript. Play video: Sleep Habits and Diabetes For closed captioning, click the CC button on ...

  1. Comparative study on sleep health and lifestyle of the elderly in the urban areas and suburbs of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Masashi; Tanaka, Hideki; Toguchi, Hiroki; Shirakawa, Shuichiro; Taira, Kazuhiko

    2002-06-01

    The sleep health and lifestyles of the elderly living in the urban and suburban areas of Okinawa prefecture, which is well known for the longevity of its inhabitants, were compared. The study revealed that sleep health and activities of daily living (ADL) were significantly better among the elderly living in suburban areas. There were more complaints of sleep problems from the elderly living in urban areas and their bedtimes were significantly later, indicating that a nocturnal lifestyle was related to sleep deterioration. In the suburbs, a significantly greater number of elderly people regularly took short naps and exercised in the evening. The study also suggested that daily habits such as short naps and taking appropriate exercise in the evenings contributed to good sleep, and that sleep health was related to the ADL of the elderly. PMID:12047578

  2. Non-circadian direct effects of light on sleep and alertness: lessons from transgenic mouse models.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Bourgin, Patrice

    2013-12-01

    Light exerts a strong non-visual influence on human physiology and behavior. Additionally light is known to affect sleep indirectly through the phase shifting of circadian rhythms, and directly, promoting alertness in humans and sleep in nocturnal species. Little attention has been paid to the direct non-image-forming influence of light until recently with the discovery and emerging knowledge on melanopsin, a photopigment which is maximally sensitive to the blue spectrum of light and expressed in a subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. Indeed, the development of transgenic mouse models targeting different phototransduction pathways has allowed researchers to decipher the mechanisms by which mammals adapt sleep to their light environment. This review summarizes the novel concepts and discrepancies from recent publications relating to the non-circadian effects of light on sleep and waking. Specifically, we discuss whether darkness, in addition to light, affects their quality. Furthermore, we seek to understand whether longer sustained periods of light exposure can influence sleep, if the direct photic regulation depends on time of day, and whether this affects the homeostatic sleep process. Moreover, the neural pathways by which light exerts a direct influence on sleep will be discussed including the respective role of rods/cones and melanopsin. Finally, we suggest that light weighs on the components of the flip-flop switch model to induce respectively sleep or waking, in nocturnal and diurnal animals. Taking these data into account we therefore propose a novel model of sleep regulation based on three processes; the direct photic regulation interacting with the circadian and homeostatic drives to determine the timing and quality of sleep and waking. An outlook of promising clinical and non-clinical applications of these findings will be considered as well as directions for future animal and human research. PMID:23602126

  3. Relative and combined effects of heat and noise exposure on sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Libert, J P; Bach, V; Johnson, L C; Ehrhart, J; Wittersheim, G; Keller, D

    1991-02-01

    In a counter-balanced design, the effects of daytime and/or nighttime exposure to heat and/or traffic noise on night sleep were studied in eight healthy young men. During the day, the subjects were exposed to baseline condition (ambient temperature = 20 degrees C; no noise) or to both heat (35 degrees C) and noise. The duration of the daytime exposure was 8 h ending 5 h before sleep onset. The following nights, the subjects slept either in undisturbed (20 degrees C; no noise) or in noise, heat, or noise plus heat-disturbed environments. During the day, the various types of traffic noise were distributed at a rate of 48/h with peak intensities ranging between 79 and 86 dB(A). The background noise level was at 45 dB(A). At night, the peak intensities were reduced by 15 dB(A), the rate was diminished to 9/h, and the background noise was at 30 dB(A). Electrophysiological measures of sleep and esophageal and mean skin temperatures were continuously recorded. The results showed that both objective and subjective measures of sleep were more disturbed by heat than by noise. The thermal load had a larger impact on sleep quality than on sleep architecture. In the nocturnal hot condition, total sleep time decreased while duration of wakefulness, number of sleep stage changes, stage 1 episodes, number of awakenings, and transitions toward waking increased. An increase in the frequency of transient activation phases was also found in slow-wave sleep and in stage 2. In the nocturnal noise condition, only total number of sleep stage changes, changes to waking, and number of stage 1 episodes increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1811316

  4. Selection of diurnal refuges by the nocturnal squirrelfish, Holocentrus rufus

    E-print Network

    Kramer, Donald L.

    Selection of diurnal refuges by the nocturnal squirrelfish, Holocentrus rufus Alexandre Me´nard Æ: 27 April 2007 Ó Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract We examined the diurnal refuges occu- pied by the nocturnal squirrelfish, Holocentrus rufus, to describe refuges and the behavior

  5. Predictors of female nocturnal orgasms: A multivariate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Wells

    1986-01-01

    Variables predicting the reported occurrence and frequency of nocturnal orgasms among women are reported. Undergraduate and graduate women (N = 245) from a large midwestern university volunteered to complete nine self?report scales and inventories. Thirty?seven percent of the sample reported they had experienced nocturnal orgasm, and 30% reported having had the experience in the past year. The predictors accounted for

  6. DO WINTERING HARLEQUIN DUCKS FORAGE NOCTURNALLY AT HIGH LATITUDES?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel J. Rizzolo; Daniel Esler; Daniel D. Roby; Robert L. Jarvis

    2005-01-01

    We monitored radio-tagged Harlequin Ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to determine whether nocturnal feeding was part of their foraging strategy during winter in south-central Alaska. Despite attri- butes of our study site (low ambient temperatures, harsh weather, short day length) and study species (small body size, high daytime foraging rates) that would be expected to favor nocturnal foraging, we found no evidence

  7. NOCTURNAL HYPOTHERMIA IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATIZED MOUNTAIN CHICKADEES AND JUNIPER TITMICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon J. Cooper; James A. Gessaman

    2005-01-01

    We measured body temperature of Moun- tain Chickadees (Poecile gambeli) and Juniper Titmice (Baeolophus ridgwayi) at different times of day and under a range of ambient temperatures in order to de- termine the use of nocturnal hypothermia in seasonally acclimatized small passerines. Our findings show both species used nocturnal hypothermia year-round. Depth of hypothermia was inversely correlated to body mass

  8. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

  9. Stress hormones and sleep disturbances - electrophysiological and hormonal aspects.

    PubMed

    Maschke, C; Hecht, K

    2004-01-01

    In noise effect research often the awakening reaction is maintained to be the only important health related reaction. The main argument is that sleep represents a trophotropic phase ("energy storing"). In contrast to this awakening reactions or lying awake belong to the ergotropic phase ("energy consuming"). Frequent or long awakening reactions endanger therefore the necessary recovery in sleep and, in the long-run, health. Findings derived from arousal and stress hormone research make possible a new access to the noise induced nightly health risk. An arousal is a short change in sleeping condition, raising the organism from a lower level of excitation to a higher one. Arousals have the function to prevent life-threatening influences or events through activation of compensation mechanisms. Frequent occurrences of arousal triggered by nocturnal noise leads to a deformation of the circadian rhythm. Additionally, the deep sleep phases in the first part of the night are normally associated with a minimum of cortisol and a maximum of growth hormone concentrations. These circadian rhythms of sleep and neuroendocrine regulation are necessary for the physical as well as for the psychic recovery of the sleeper. Noise exposure during sleep which causes frequent arousal leads to decreased performance capacity, drowsiness and tiredness during the day. Long-term disturbances of the described circadian rhythms have a deteriorating effect on health, even when noise induced awakenings are avoided. PMID:15070528

  10. Sleep: A Health Imperative

    PubMed Central

    Luyster, Faith S.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Zee, Phyllis C.; Walsh, James K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic sleep deficiency, defined as a state of inadequate or mistimed sleep, is a growing and underappreciated determinant of health status. Sleep deprivation contributes to a number of molecular, immune, and neural changes that play a role in disease development, independent of primary sleep disorders. These changes in biological processes in response to chronic sleep deficiency may serve as etiological factors for the development and exacerbation of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and, ultimately, a shortened lifespan. Sleep deprivation also results in significant impairments in cognitive and motor performance which increase the risk of motor vehicle crashes and work-related injuries and fatal accidents. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society have developed this statement to communicate to national health stakeholders the current knowledge which ties sufficient sleep and circadian alignment in adults to health. Citation: Luyster FS; Strollo PJ; Zee PC; Walsh JK. Sleep: a health imperative. SLEEP 2012;35(6):727-734. PMID:22654183

  11. Problems in automatic sleep scoring applied to sleep apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Penzel; K. Kesper; V. Gross; H. F. Becker; C. Vogelmeier

    2003-01-01

    Automatic sleep analysis is used in the daily work of sleep centers working with digital polysomnography. Automatic sleep analysis has a limited accuracy in the sleep of healthy volunteers with approximately 80% conformance depending on definition. The problem of limited accuracy is even more severe in sleep disorders. Sleep apnea is a sleep disorder with a high prevalence which requires

  12. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids.

    PubMed

    Perkin, Elizabeth K; Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  13. Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. PMID:20733292

  14. Sleep Homeostasis and Models of Sleep Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Borb; Peter Achermann

    1999-01-01

    According to the two-process model of sleep regulation, the timing and structure of sleep are determined by the interaction of a homeostatic and a circadian process. The original qualitative model was elaborated to quantitative versions that included the ultradian dynamics of sleep in relation to the non-REM-REM sleep cycle. The time course of EEG slow-wave activity, the major marker of

  15. Chronic sleep disorders in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie M. Lee; Margaret S. Herridge; Jonathan Y. Gabor; Catherine M. Tansey; Andrea Matte; Patrick J. Hanly

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Sleep disruption is well recognized in the Intensive Care Unit. Poor sleep quality likely continues following discharge from\\u000a hospital in several patients and becomes a chronic disorder in some. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of\\u000a chronic sleep complaints in survivors of ARDS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seven ARDS survivors with no previous sleep complaints who reported difficulty sleeping 6 months

  16. The Relationship between Sleep-Wake Cycle and Cognitive Functioning in Young People with Affective Disorders.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Joanne S; Robillard, Rébecca; Lee, Rico S C; Hermens, Daniel F; Naismith, Sharon L; White, Django; Whitwell, Bradley; Scott, Elizabeth M; Hickie, Ian B

    2015-01-01

    Although early-stage affective disorders are associated with both cognitive dysfunction and sleep-wake disruptions, relationships between these factors have not been specifically examined in young adults. Sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in those with affective disorders are considerably heterogeneous, and may not relate to cognitive dysfunction in a simple linear fashion. This study aimed to characterise profiles of sleep and circadian disturbance in young people with affective disorders and examine associations between these profiles and cognitive performance. Actigraphy monitoring was completed in 152 young people (16-30 years; 66% female) with primary diagnoses of affective disorders, and 69 healthy controls (18-30 years; 57% female). Patients also underwent detailed neuropsychological assessment. Actigraphy data were processed to estimate both sleep and circadian parameters. Overall neuropsychological performance in patients was poor on tasks relating to mental flexibility and visual memory. Two hierarchical cluster analyses identified three distinct patient groups based on sleep variables and three based on circadian variables. Sleep clusters included a 'long sleep' cluster, a 'disrupted sleep' cluster, and a 'delayed and disrupted sleep' cluster. Circadian clusters included a 'strong circadian' cluster, a 'weak circadian' cluster, and a 'delayed circadian' cluster. Medication use differed between clusters. The 'long sleep' cluster displayed significantly worse visual memory performance compared to the 'disrupted sleep' cluster. No other cognitive functions differed between clusters. These results highlight the heterogeneity of sleep and circadian profiles in young people with affective disorders, and provide preliminary evidence in support of a relationship between sleep and visual memory, which may be mediated by use of antipsychotic medication. These findings have implications for the personalisation of treatments and improvement of functioning in young adults early in the course of affective illness. PMID:25898321

  17. Complementary roles of slow-wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep in emotional memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Scott A; Durrant, Simon J; Power, Rebecca; Lewis, Penelope A

    2015-06-01

    Although rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is regularly implicated in emotional memory consolidation, the role of slow-wave sleep (SWS) in this process is largely uncharacterized. In the present study, we investigated the relative impacts of nocturnal SWS and REM upon the consolidation of emotional memories using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and polysomnography (PSG). Participants encoded emotionally positive, negative, and neutral images (remote memories) before a night of PSG-monitored sleep. Twenty-four hours later, they encoded a second set of images (recent memories) immediately before a recognition test in an MRI scanner. SWS predicted superior memory for remote negative images and a reduction in right hippocampal responses during the recollection of these items. REM, however, predicted an overnight increase in hippocampal-neocortical connectivity associated with negative remote memory. These findings provide physiological support for sequential views of sleep-dependent memory processing, demonstrating that SWS and REM serve distinct but complementary functions in consolidation. Furthermore, these findings extend those ideas to emotional memory by showing that, once selectively reorganized away from the hippocampus during SWS, emotionally aversive representations undergo a comparably targeted process during subsequent REM. PMID:24408956

  18. Sleep duration and cancer risk: time to use a "sleep-years" index?

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    With a focus on melatonin, a recent paper in the Journal investigated the hypothesis that endometrial cancer might be associated with the duration, and ultimately, amount of sleep. The authors found that "[s]elf-reported sleep duration may not adequately represent melatonin levels." The authors also concluded that there was "weak evidence of an association between sleep duration and endometrial cancer risk." Overall, these are interesting observations because primarily experimental and mechanistic research from many angles supports the study's notion that inappropriate sleep may be a determinant of cancer risk. To find out whether this is so in man, rather than assigning study individuals to fixed or average "baseline sleep categories" i.e., ?5, 6, 7, 8, ?9 h of habitual sleep in the present study, the accumulated amount of sleep over decades should be reconstructed in retrospective or constructed in prospective studies. To achieve this end, future epidemiological studies may want to use a sleep-years index [SYI]. This simple exposure parameter promises to be a sensible, feasible, and affordable way to approximate cumulative time spent at sleep in critical time windows over many years which we should expect to be relevant for the development of cancer. The SYI could be tested and used in observational studies which promise to be comparable and can be merged. This commentary provides roots of the index and explains why and how it should be used and how it could be interpreted in rigorous studies of biologically plausible links between sleep, on the one hand, and the development of internal cancers, on the other. This commentary also points out limitations of interpreting the SYI. It is emphasized that, where possible, the SYI should be assessed independently of (a) other sleep facets--such as quality--and of (b) known or suspected cancer risk factors. The respective contribution of (a) and (b) to risk must then be assessed during the analyses. Overall, the suggested inclusion and standardization of assessing sleep duration could be an important step forward when evaluating possible cancer risks in relation to sleep. Finally, the proposed approach may prove useful beyond sleep epidemiology per se: to exemplify, research into suggested causal links between disrupted natural sleep-wakefulness cycles and increased cancer risks in shift-workers could also benefit. PMID:22806258

  19. Sleep and mood disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth M. Benca; Masako Okawa; Makoto Uchiyama; Shigeru Ozaki; Toru Nakajima; Kayo Shibui; William H. Obermeyer

    1997-01-01

    Mood disorders are found in one-third to one-half of patients with chronic sleep problems. Likewise, most patients with mood disorders experience insomnia, but a minority obtain significantly increased amounts of sleep. Although mood disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality, they often go undiagnosed. Attention to sleep complaints could lead to better identification of mood disorders. Management of sleep problems in

  20. Sleep Disorders in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jodi A. Mindell

    1993-01-01

    Many children experience some type of sleep problem. Often, these are transient problems with no long-lasting sequelae. But in certain cases, sleep problems may significantly impact on functioning and well-being. Sleep disorders in children can be classified into two major categories. Dyssomnias include those disorders that result in difficulty either initiating or maintaining sleep or involve excessive sleepiness. Parasomnias are

  1. Measuring sleep quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew D. Krystal; Jack D. Edinger

    2008-01-01

    Despite being used commonly in sleep medicine, the term “sleep quality” has not been rigorously defined. The purpose of this article is to consider objective measures of the subjective “sleep quality” experience. In order to do so, it was necessary to choose a definition of “sleep quality” as a basis for discussion. We have chosen to employ the simple Likert-style

  2. Helping children sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara C Galland; Edwin A Mitchell

    2010-01-01

    Sleep problems in children are very common and affect both the child and parents. The common problems are bedtime resistance, delayed sleep onset and frequent night waking. This review summarises current non-pharmacological practices and intervention options to aid healthy children sleep. Children may benefit from good sleep hygiene practices, which include a consistent routine for bed and consistent bedtime, a

  3. The acute effects of light on murine sleep during the dark phase: importance of melanopsin for maintenance of light-induced sleep.

    PubMed

    Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M; Colas, Damien; Heller, H Craig

    2013-06-01

    Light exerts a direct effect on sleep and wakefulness in nocturnal and diurnal animals, with a light pulse during the dark phase suppressing locomotor activity and promoting sleep in the former. In the present study, we investigated this direct effect of light on various sleep parameters by exposing mice to a broad range of illuminances (0.2-200 ?W/cm(2) ; equivalent to 1-1000 lux) for 1 h during the dark phase (zeitgeber time 13-14). Fitting the data with a three-parameter log model indicated that ~0.1 ?W/cm(2) can generate half the sleep response observed at 200 ?W/cm(2). We observed decreases in total sleep time during the 1 h following the end of the light pulse. Light reduced the latency to sleep from ~30 min in darkness (baseline) to ~10 min at the highest intensity, although this effect was invariant across the light intensities used. We then assessed the role of melanopsin during the rapid transition from wakefulness to sleep at the onset of a light pulse and the maintenance of sleep with a 6-h 20 ?W/cm(2) light pulse. Even though the melanopsin knockout mice had robust induction of sleep (~35 min) during the first hour of the pulse, it was not maintained. Total sleep decreased by almost 65% by the third hour in comparison with the first hour of the pulse in mice lacking melanopsin, whereas only an 8% decrease was observed in wild-type mice. Collectively, our findings highlight the selective effects of light on murine sleep, and suggest that melanopsin-based photoreception is primarily involved in sustaining light-induced sleep. PMID:23510299

  4. [Sleep regulatory mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Sei, Hiroyoshi; Shimizu, Noriyuki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Chikahisa, Sachiko

    2012-07-01

    The fact that resting wakefulness does not satisfy the need for sleep suggests that sleep has a critical role for the brain, probably for its maintenance or repair. Neuronal oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, or energy insufficiency in the brain is now considered to be a trigger or cause for sleep induction. And the timing for sleep is controlled by circadian clock which also exists in the brain. Sleep is occurred in the brain, which is regulated by the brain itself. "Why do we sleep ?" Although everyone wants to know the answer for this issue, scientists should still question that "How do we sleep"? PMID:22844794

  5. Sleep apnea syndrome in endocrine clinics.

    PubMed

    Ceccato, F; Bernkopf, E; Scaroni, C

    2015-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic condition with a high prevalence (up to 7 % of the general population) characterized by frequent episodes of upper airway collapse while sleeping. Left untreated, OSAS can cause severe complications, including systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and abnormal glucose metabolism. This review aims to summarize the close links between OSAS, endocrinology, and metabolism. In patients with metabolic syndrome, OSAS is an independent risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes and a worsening glycemic control. The accumulation of adipose tissue in the neck and limited chest wall dynamics, hypoxia, and local micro-inflammation link visceral obesity closely with OSAS. There is now an abundance of convincing data indicating that promoting lifestyle changes, improving sleep hygiene, and adjusting diet can ameliorate both metabolic syndrome and OSAS, especially in obese patients. The incidence of OSAS in acromegaly is high, though GH treatments seem to be unrelated to the onset of apnea in GH-deficient individuals. Prospective studies have suggested an association between hypertension and OSAS because intermittent nocturnal hypoxia prompts an increase in sympathetic tone, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular inflammation: aldosterone excess may have a pathophysiological role, and some authors have reported that treating OSAS leads to a modest, but significant, reduction in blood pressure. PMID:26122486

  6. Nocturnal life of young songbirds well before migration

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Andrey; Kosarev, Vlad; Ktitorov, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    In songbirds, nocturnal activity is believed to be a characteristic feature of migration. However, unlike experimental conditions where the onset of nocturnal restlessness is defined as a shift of activity leading up to the dark period, this behaviour has, until now, not been observed in natural conditions. Here we studied the nocturnal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) during the pre-migratory period. The birds started nocturnal flights at the age of 38 days, whereas migration did not commence until they were at least 50 days old. The birds left their natal site by nocturnal flights and repeatedly returned to it. Such shuttle movements suggest the existence of a previously unknown period of nocturnal activity. Motivation to perform such night flights gradually increases with age. We relate the function of these nocturnal pre-migratory flights to the development of a stellar compass, necessary for detecting the compass direction towards winter quarters and for the formation of a navigational target, which will be used during return (spring) migration. PMID:16048767

  7. Hexarelin decreases slow-wave sleep and stimulates the secretion of GH, ACTH, cortisol and prolactin during sleep in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Frieboes, Ralf-Michael; Antonijevic, Irina A; Held, Katja; Murck, Harald; Pollmächer, Thomas; Uhr, Manfred; Steiger, Axel

    2004-08-01

    Ghrelin, the endogenous ligand of the growth hormone (GH) secretagogue (GHS) receptor and some GHSs exert different effects on sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and sleep-related hormone secretion in humans. Similar to GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) ghrelin promotes slow-wave sleep in humans, whereas GH-releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6) enhances stage 2 nonrapid-eye movement sleep (NREMS). As GHRP-6, hexarelin is a synthetic GHS. Hexarelin is superior to GHRH and GHRP-6 in stimulating GH release. The influence of hexarelin on sleep-endocrine activity and the immune system is unknown. We investigated simultaneously the sleep EEG and nocturnal profiles of GH, ACTH, cortisol, prolactin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and soluble TNF-alpha receptors in seven young normal volunteers after repetitive administration of 4 x 50 microg hexarelin or placebo at 22.00, 23.00, 24.00 and 01.00 h. Following hexarelin, stage 4 sleep during the first half of the night, and EEG delta power during the total night decreased significantly. Significant increases of the concentrations of GH and prolactin during the total night, and of ACTH and of cortisol during the first half of the night were found. Leptin levels, TNF-alpha and soluble TNF receptors remained unchanged. We hypothesize that sleep is impaired after hexarelin since the GHRH/corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) ratio is changed in favour of CRH. There are no hints for an interaction of hexarelin and the immune system. PMID:15177700

  8. Increased fragmentation of sleep-wake cycles in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, M; Joshi, S S; Webb, R L; Beckett, T L; Donohue, K D; Murphy, M P; O'Hara, B F; Duncan, M J

    2015-04-01

    Sleep perturbations including fragmented sleep with frequent night-time awakenings and daytime naps are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and these daily disruptions are a major factor for institutionalization. The objective of this study was to investigate if sleep-wake patterns are altered in 5XFAD mice, a well-characterized double transgenic mouse model of AD which exhibits an early onset of robust AD pathology and memory deficits. These mice have five distinct human mutations in two genes, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin1 (PS1) engineered into two transgenes driven by a neuron-specific promoter (Thy1), and thus develop severe amyloid deposition by 4 months of age. Age-matched (4-6.5 months old) male and female 5XFAD mice were monitored and compared to wild-type littermate controls for multiple sleep traits using a non-invasive, high throughput, automated piezoelectric system which detects breathing and gross body movements to characterize sleep and wake. Sleep-wake patterns were recorded continuously under baseline conditions (undisturbed) for 3 days and after sleep deprivation of 4h, which in mice produces a significant sleep debt and challenge to sleep homeostasis. Under baseline conditions, 5XFAD mice exhibited shorter bout lengths (14% lower values for males and 26% for females) as compared to controls (p<0.001). In females, the 5XFAD mice also showed 12% less total sleep than WT (p<0.01). Bout length reductions were greater during the night (the active phase for mice) than during the day, which does not model the human condition of disrupted sleep at night (the inactive period). However, the overall decrease in bout length suggests increased fragmentation and disruption in sleep consolidation that may be relevant to human sleep. The 5XFAD mice may serve as a useful model for testing therapeutic strategies to improve sleep consolidation in AD patients. PMID:25637807

  9. Sleep and mood disorders.

    PubMed

    Benca, R M; Okawa, M; Uchiyama, M; Ozaki, S; Nakajima, T; Shibui, K; Obermeyer, W H

    1997-11-01

    Mood disorders are found in one-third to one-half of patients with chronic sleep problems. Likewise, most patients with mood disorders experience insomnia, but a minority obtain significantly increased amounts of sleep. Although mood disorders cause significant morbidity and mortality, they often go undiagnosed. Attention to sleep complaints could lead to better identification of mood disorders. Management of sleep problems in patients with mood disorders should focus on treating underlying mood disorders with attention to the nature of the sleep complaint. Patients with depression show characteristic abnormalities in sleep continuity, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep patterns. Differences in sleep patterns cannot reliably distinguish patients with depression from those with other psychiatric disorders, but sleep changes may provide a window on neurobiologieal abnormalities in depression. PMID:15310523

  10. Analysis of Sleep Fragmentation and Sleep Structure in Patients With Sleep Apnea and Normal Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Penzel; C.-C. Lo; P. C. Ivanov; K. Kesper; H. F. Becker; C. Vogelmeier

    2005-01-01

    Sleep disorders have a high prevalence. Sleep disorders are recognized first by the complaint of non-restorative sleep. A quantification of the disorder is done by the investigation in a sleep laboratory. The investigation in the sleep laboratory examines the EEG, EOG and EMG to derive sleep stages. This is a labor intensive sleep scoring after the polysomnography investigation. Usually the

  11. Sleep and headaches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanetta C. Rains; J. Steven Poceta; Donald B. Penzien

    2008-01-01

    Sleep has long been recognized to both provoke and relieve headache. Epidemiologic research has associated sleep disorders\\u000a with more frequent and severe headaches. Chronic daily, awakening, and morning headache patterns are particularly suggestive\\u000a of sleep disorders, including sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorders, and parasomnias. Snoring\\u000a and other indicators of sleep-disordered breathing are the most commonly studied and are

  12. Multidisciplinary clinical management of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Fahri; Ozkan, Melda Comert; Mete, Nihal Gokmen; Yilmaz, Mumtaz; Oruc, Nevin; Gurgun, Alev; Kayikcioglu, Meral; Guler, Ayse; Gokcay, Figen; Bilgir, Ferda; Ceylan, Cengiz; Bilgir, Oktay; Sari, Ismail Hakan; Saydam, Guray

    2015-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare, acquired disease caused by clonal expansion of one or more hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) lines due to a somatic mutation of the phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor (PIG-A) gene located on Xp22.1. PNH incidence is 1.5-2 cases per million of the population per year. PNH can affect multiple systems in the body and requires multidisciplinary clinical management. Patients can manifest with severe pancytopenia, life-threatening thrombosis affecting the hepatic, abdominal, cerebral, and subdermal veins, and high requirements for blood transfusion due to haemolytic anemia. PNH can also be associated with bone marrow failure. Advances in diagnostic techniques and a targeted therapeutic approach for PNH have emerged in the last two decades. Eculizumab, a promising humanized monoclonal antibody against C5, is the first approved therapy for PNH. PMID:26171279

  13. Breastfeeding, Maternal Depressive Mood and Room Sharing as Predictors of Sleep Fragmentation in 12-Week-Old Infants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Valerie; Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Sleep fragmentation in infancy can burden a family by disrupting the sleep of all its members. However, there has been no longitudinal prospective investigation of the determinants of infant sleep fragmentation. We undertook such an investigation. New mothers (N = 106) completed questionnaires and were administered structured telephone interviews…

  14. A Genetic Variation in the Adenosine A2A Receptor Gene (ADORA2A) Contributes to Individual Sensitivity to Caffeine Effects on Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J V Rétey; M Adam; R Khatami; U F O Luhmann; H H Jung; W Berger; H-P Landolt

    2007-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely used stimulant in Western countries. Some people voluntarily reduce caffeine consumption because it impairs the quality of their sleep. Studies in mice revealed that the disruption of sleep after caffeine is mediated by blockade of adenosine A2A receptors. Here we show in humans that (1) habitual caffeine consumption is associated with reduced sleep quality in

  15. Mono-Symptomatic Nocturnal Enuresis in Lebanese Children: Prevalence, Relation with Obesity, and Psychological Effect

    PubMed Central

    Merhi, Bassem Abu; Hammoud, Ahmad; Ziade, Fouad; Kamel, Raymond; Rajab, Mariam

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Nocturnal enuresis is involuntary urination while sleeping after a certain age, usually five years, when children should have established bladder control. The prevalence has been found to be up to 20% in five year old children, and it is considered the most common urological childhood complication. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was conducted on Makassed School children aged 5–18 years. This was a two-step study, the first step was a questionnaire distributed to the children to be answered by their parents. The second step included individually meeting with every child who met the inclusion criteria and his/her parents and physically examining the child. RESULTS 11,440 questionnaires were distributed to school children aged 5–18 years, to be answered by their parents. Of the 7270 parents who responded back, 6620 reported no enuresis, 90 (1.25%) reported only diurnal enuresis, 107 (1.5%) reported diurnal and nocturnal enuresis, and 453 parents reported their child having nocturnal enuresis only. The data collected was analyzed according to age, sex, area, body mass index (BMI), and the PMQOL-SF score. The prevalence of mono-symptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) in Lebanon was found to be 5.3%. The results showed that the prevalence of MNE is inversely proportional to age. The prevalence of male to female ratio was 1.4:1. As for the prevalence according to different geographic areas, the results have shown that the North had the majority of cases with 7.6% prevalence. Results showed that 82.4% of children had a score more than 50, and only 28% of parents had a score above 50. DISCUSSION The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in Lebanon is lower than that in neighboring countries such as Turkey8 and Saudi Arabia,9 but higher than that in Italy10 and Hong Kong. Our study has managed to show the same results, with a peak in incidence at seven years then dropping back to 0% at the age of 16. Our study has shown a male to female predominance but the male to female ratio was 1.4:1, a value lower than that described in earlier studies. Our study has shown that more than 80% of children were psychologically affected whereas only less than 30% of parents were affected. CONCLUSION To our knowledge, this was the first study in Lebanon conducted to determine the prevalence of MNE. The relatively low prevalence rate found may be because of differences in genetic predisposition, psychosocial or environmental conditions, and traditional and cultural backgrounds. No relation was found between obesity and nocturnal enuresis. The psychological impact on children is significant but that on the parents is minimal. PMID:24653655

  16. Integration of human sleep-wake regulation and circadian rhythmicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Lockley, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is generated by a circadian process, originating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei, in interaction with a separate oscillatory process: the sleep homeostat. The sleep-wake cycle is normally timed to occur at a specific phase relative to the external cycle of light-dark exposure. It is also timed at a specific phase relative to internal circadian rhythms, such as the pineal melatonin rhythm, the circadian sleep-wake propensity rhythm, and the rhythm of responsiveness of the circadian pacemaker to light. Variations in these internal and external phase relationships, such as those that occur in blindness, aging, morning and evening, and advanced and delayed sleep-phase syndrome, lead to sleep disruptions and complaints. Changes in ocular circadian photoreception, interindividual variation in the near-24-h intrinsic period of the circadian pacemaker, and sleep homeostasis can contribute to variations in external and internal phase. Recent findings on the physiological and molecular-genetic correlates of circadian sleep disorders suggest that the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms is closely integrated but is, in part, regulated differentially.

  17. Arousal from sleep: The uniqueness of an individual's response and the problem of noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic nature of sleep is reviewed. Research is then presented concerning two fundamental issues: (1) does an individual react differently to auditory sounds when asleep as compared to when the individual is awake and (2) does sleep disruption necessarily involve behavioral awakening?

  18. Detrimental role of prolonged sleep deprivation on adult neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carina; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa F; Rocha, Susana; Herrera-Solís, Andrea; Salas-Pacheco, José; García-García, Fabio; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Yuan, Ti-Fei; Machado, Sergio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Adult mammalian brains continuously generate new neurons, a phenomenon called adult neurogenesis. Both environmental stimuli and endogenous factors are important regulators of adult neurogenesis. Sleep has an important role in normal brain physiology and its disturbance causes very stressful conditions, which disrupt normal brain physiology. Recently, an influence of sleep in adult neurogenesis has been established, mainly based on sleep deprivation studies. This review provides an overview on how rhythms and sleep cycles regulate hippocampal and subventricular zone neurogenesis, discussing some potential underlying mechanisms. In addition, our review highlights some interacting points between sleep and adult neurogenesis in brain function, such as learning, memory, and mood states, and provides some insights on the effects of antidepressants and hypnotic drugs on adult neurogenesis. PMID:25926773

  19. Metabolic consequences of sleep and sleep loss.

    PubMed

    Van Cauter, Eve; Spiegel, Karine; Tasali, Esra; Leproult, Rachel

    2008-09-01

    Reduced sleep duration and quality appear to be endemic in modern society. Curtailment of the bedtime period to minimum tolerability is thought to be efficient and harmless by many. It has been known for several decades that sleep is a major modulator of hormonal release, glucose regulation and cardiovascular function. In particular, slow wave sleep (SWS), thought to be the most restorative sleep stage, is associated with decreased heart rate, blood pressure, sympathetic nervous activity and cerebral glucose utilization, compared with wakefulness. During SWS, the anabolic growth hormone is released while the stress hormone cortisol is inhibited. In recent years, laboratory and epidemiologic evidence have converged to indicate that sleep loss may be a novel risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes. The increased risk of obesity is possibly linked to the effect of sleep loss on hormones that play a major role in the central control of appetite and energy expenditure, such as leptin and ghrelin. Reduced leptin and increased ghrelin levels correlate with increases in subjective hunger when individuals are sleep restricted rather than well rested. Given the evidence, sleep curtailment appears to be an important, yet modifiable, risk factor for the metabolic syndrome, diabetes and obesity. The marked decrease in average sleep duration in the last 50 years coinciding with the increased prevalence of obesity, together with the observed adverse effects of recurrent partial sleep deprivation on metabolism and hormonal processes, may have important implications for public health. PMID:18929315

  20. Epidemiological aspects of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Garvey, John F.; Pengo, Martino F.; Drakatos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is probably the most common respiratory disorder, with recent data from the United States and Europe suggesting that between 14% and 49% of middle-aged men have clinically significant OSA. The intimate relationship between OSA and obesity means that its prevalence will only increase as the global obesity epidemic evolves. At an individual level, OSA leads to a significant decrease in quality of life (QOL) and functional capacity, alongside a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Emerging data also suggest that the presence and severity of OSA and associated nocturnal hypoxemia are associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cancer. At a societal level, OSA not only leads to reduced economic productivity, but also constitutes a major treatable risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. This article addresses OSA from an epidemiological perspective, from prevalence studies to economic aspects to co-morbidity.

  1. Sleep and innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Krueger, James M

    2011-01-01

    Many pro-inflammatory molecules, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are somnogenic, while many anti-inflammatory molecules inhibit sleep. Sleep loss increases the production/release of these sleep regulatory pro-inflammatory molecules. Further, sleep changes occurring during various pathologies are mediated by these inflammatory substances in response to pathogen recognition and subsequent inflammatory cellular pathways. This review summarizes information and concepts regarding inflammatory mechanisms of the innate immune system that mediate sleep. Further, we discuss sleep-immune interactions in regards to sleep in general, pathologies, and sleep as a local phenomenon including the central role that extracellular ATP plays in the initiation of sleep. PMID:21196401

  2. Visual cues and parental favouritism in a nocturnal bird

    PubMed Central

    Parejo, Deseada; Avilés, Jesús M.; Rodríguez, Juan

    2010-01-01

    Visual signals are crucial for parent–offspring communication, although their functioning has been neglected for nocturnal birds. Here, we investigated parental preference for nestling coloration in nocturnal conditions—a question hitherto unexplored—in a nocturnal raptor, the scops owl (Otus scops). We assessed how parents allocated food during the night in relation to a manipulation of ultraviolet (UV) reflectance of the cere (skin above the beak) of their offspring. Reflectance of the cere shows a marked peak in the UV part of the spectrum, and location of the UV peak is related to nestling body mass (i.e. heavier nestlings have a UV peak at lower wavelengths). We found evidence of parental bias in favour of lighter offspring: UV-reduced nestlings gained more weight during the night than their control siblings. This study provides the first experimental evidence of the use of visual cues for parent–offspring communication in a nocturnal bird. PMID:19864276

  3. [X-Ray upper airway changes in individuals suffering from obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep].

    PubMed

    Shakhov, A A; Rabukhina, N A; Nerobeev, A I; Vasil'ev, A Iu

    2000-01-01

    Obstructive respiratory disorders during sleep present an important medical and social problem. Serious dysfunctions of cardiovascular, nervous, endocrine and other vital systems of the body reduce longevity and life quality. On the other hand, load nocturnal snore and abnormal diurnal sleepiness cause great damage to family life, reduce working capacity and induce accidents. X-ray visualization of the upper airways is essential in diagnosing obstructive upper airway states and selecting patients for surgical treatment. The paper presents the authors' own experience in using various X-ray diagnostic methods in patients with chronic snore and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. PMID:11008552

  4. Two components of nocturnal locomotor suppression by light.

    PubMed

    Morin, Lawrence P; Lituma, Pablo J; Studholme, Keith M

    2010-06-01

    In nocturnal rodents, millisecond light ("flash") stimuli can induce both a large circadian rhythm phase shift and an associated state change from highly active to quiescence followed by behavioral sleep. Suppression of locomotion ("negative masking") is an easily measured correlate of the state change. The present mouse studies used both flashes and longer light stimuli ("pulses") to distinguish initiation from maintenance effects of light on locomotor suppression and to determine whether the locomotor suppression exhibits temporal integration as is thought to be characteristic of phase shift responses to pulse, but not flash, stimuli. In experiment 1, locomotor suppression increased with irradiance (0.01-100 microW/cm( 2)), in accordance with previous reports. It also increased with stimulus duration (3-3000 sec), but interpretation of this result is complicated by the ability of light to both initiate and maintain locomotor suppression. In experiment 2, an irradiance response curve was determined using a stimulus series of 10 flashes, 2 msec each, with total flash energy varying from 0.0025 to 110.0 J/m(2). This included a test for temporal integration in which the effects of two equal energy series of flashes that differed in the number of flashes per series (10 vs 100), were compared. The 10 flash series more effectively elicited locomotor suppression than the 100 flash series, a result consistent with prior observations involving flash-induced phase shifts. In experiment 3, exposure of mice to an 11-h light stimulus yielded irradiance-dependent locomotor suppression that was maintained for the entire stimulus duration by a 100-microW/cm(2) stimulus. Light has the ability to initiate a time-limited (30-40 min) interval of locomotor suppression (initiation effect) that can be extended by additional light (maintenance effect). Temporal integration resembling that seen in phase-shifting responses to light does not exist for either phase shift or locomotor suppression responses to flashes or for locomotor suppression responses to light pulses. The authors present an alternative interpretation of data thought to demonstrate temporal integration in the regulation of phase shift responses to light pulses. PMID:20484691

  5. SLEEP FOLLOWING ALCOHOL INTOXICATION IN HEALTHY, YOUNG ADULTS: EFFECTS OF SEX AND FAMILY HISTORY OF ALCOHOLISM

    PubMed Central

    Arnedt, J. Todd; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Almeida, Alissa B.; Hunt, Sarah K.; Gokhale, Manjusha; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Howland, Jonathan H.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study evaluated sex and family history of alcoholism as moderators of subjective ratings of sleepiness/sleep quality and polysomnography following alcohol intoxication in healthy, young adults. Methods Ninety-three healthy adults (mean age 24.4 ± 2.7 years, 59 women, 29 subjects with a positive family history of alcoholism (FH+)) were recruited. Following screening polysomnography, participants consumed alcohol (sex/weight adjusted dosing) to intoxication (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0.11 ± 0.01 g% for men and women) or matching placebo between 2030 and 2200 hours. Sleep was monitored with polysomnography between 2300 and 0700 hours. Participants completed the Stanford Sleepiness Scale and Karolinska Sleepiness Scale at bedtime and on awakening and a validated post-sleep questionnaire. Results Following alcohol, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, nighttime awakenings, and wake after sleep onset were more disrupted in women than men, with no differences by family history status. Alcohol reduced sleep onset latency, sleep efficiency, and REM sleep while increasing wakefulness and Slow Wave Sleep across the entire night compared to placebo. Alcohol also generally increased sleep consolidation in the first half of the night, but decreased it during the second half. Sleepiness ratings were higher following alcohol, particularly in women at bedtime. Morning sleep quality ratings were lower following alcohol than placebo. Conclusions Alcohol intoxication increases subjective sleepiness and disrupts sleep objectively more in healthy women than in men, with no differences evident by family history of alcoholism status. Evaluating moderators of alcohol effects on sleep may provide insight into the role of sleep in problem drinking. PMID:21323679

  6. Explaining sleep duration in adolescents: the impact of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and working status.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Nagai, Roberta; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies found students who both work and attend school undergo a partial sleep deprivation that accumulates across the week. The aim of the present study was to obtain information using a questionnaire on a number of variables (e.g., socio-demographics, lifestyle, work timing, and sleep-wake habits) considered to impact on sleep duration of working (n = 51) and non-working (n = 41) high-school students aged 14-21 yrs old attending evening classes (19:00-22:30 h) at a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected for working days and days off. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. Work, sex, age, smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeine, and physical activity were considered control variables. Significant predictors of sleep duration were: work ( p < 0.01), daily work duration (8-10 h/day; p < 0.01), sex ( p = 0.04), age 18-21 yrs (0.01), smoking( p = 0.02) and drinking habits ( p = 0.03), irregular physical exercise (p < 0.01), ease of falling asleep ( p = 0.04), and the sleep-wake cycle variables of napping ( p < 0.01), nocturnal awakenings ( p < 0.01), and mid-sleep regularity ( p < 0.01). The results confirm the hypotheses that young students who work and attend school showed a reduction in night-time sleep duration. Sleep deprivation across the week, particularly in students working 8-10 h/day, is manifested through a sleep rebound (i.e., extended sleep duration) on Saturdays. However, the different roles played by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables have proven to be factors that intervene with nocturnal sleep duration. The variables related to the sleep-wake cycle-naps and night awakenings-proved to be associated with a slight reduction in night-time sleep, while regularity in sleep and wake-up schedules was shown to be associated with more extended sleep duration, with a distinct expression along the week and the weekend. Having to attend school and work, coupled with other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, creates an unfavorable scenario for satisfactory sleep duration. PMID:18533330

  7. Got Sleep? : Mobile phone application to improve sleep

    E-print Network

    Got Sleep? : Mobile phone application to improve sleep Abstract Got sleep? is an android application to help people to be aware of their sleep-related behavioral patterns and tips about how they should change their behaviors to improve their sleep. The application evaluates people's sleep habits

  8. [The effect of left ventricular dysfunction on nocturnal desaturation in patients with chronic emphysematous bronchitis and PaO2 55-70 mmHg].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, J M; Marques, A L; Moita, J; Pato, R

    1997-04-01

    The possibility of nocturnal oxygen desaturation (NOD) in patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema (CBE) even with basal hypoxemia greater that 55 mmHg is well recognised. Nocturnal hypoventilation is admitted as the main cause for this NOD. In this study we evaluate how the presence of left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) could aggravate NOD. Thirty-six patients with CBE and basal stabilised PaO2 55-70 mmHg underwent right heart catheterisation and polysomnographic study. NOD was defined as more than 30% of total sleep time with SaO2 less than 90%; LVD was defined as capillary pressure greater than 15 mmHg. Six patients were excluded from analysis because of sleep apnoea syndrome. In the remaining 30 patients (20 men, 10 women; mean age = 65.88.6 years; mean FEV1 = 0.970.31 litres; 43.316.6% predicted; mean basal PaO2 = 61.83.6 mmHg) 8 had LVD and 18 and NOD. Patients with NOD had a greater diurnal level of hypoventilation (basal PaCO2 = 44.63.8 vs. 414.1 mmHg; p = 0.025). Patients with LVD, despite identical diurnal pulmonary function, showed a significantly p < 0.05) greater degree of NOD (mean nocturnal SaO2 = 84.56.4 vs 89.52.5; minimal nocturnal SaO2= 68.517.3 vs. 79.47.8; Time spent with SaO2 < 90% = 78.833.7 vs. 43.138.7). We conclude that the presence of LVD in patients with CBE and PaO2 55-70 mmHg aggravates the intensity and the time spent with NOD, probably because of aggravation of hypoventilation or ventilation/perfusion mismatching. PMID:9341031

  9. Sleep-related eating disorder and its associated conditions.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    Sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of eating at the transition from night-time sleep to arousal. SRED patients describe eating in an out-of-control manner with preference for high-caloric foods and sometimes with inedible or toxic items. Level of consciousness during SRED episodes ranges from partial consciousness to dense unawareness typical of somnambulistic episodes. SRED is sometimes associated with psychotropic medication, in particular sedative hypnotics, and other sleep disorders, including parasomnias, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. Night eating syndrome (NES) is another important condition in the disordered night-time eating spectrum showing hyperphagia episodes at full arousal from nocturnal sleep without accompanying amnesia. NES could be considered an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing with a normal circadian timing of sleep onset. The two conditions often overlap and possibly share a common pathophysiology. Studies have suggested that central nervous system serotonin modulation may lead to an effective treatment of NES, while the anti-seizure medication topiramate may be an effective SRED treatment. PMID:25495278

  10. Cardio-Respiratory Coordination Increases during Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Maik; Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F.; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Juergen; Wessel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardio-respiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the coordigram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10?51) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10?15). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas. PMID:24718564

  11. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome in a Railroad Controller Worker.

    PubMed

    Ra?cu, Agripina; Moise, Laura; Naghi, Eugenia; Handra, Claudia; O?elea, Marina; Ra?cu, Alexandra; L?c?tu?u, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) constitutes a healthcare issue of major importance at international level with a prevalence of 5% in the active population. Consequentially to the induced co-morbidities, the mortality reaches as high as 39% at eight years time lapse from the initial diagnostic. Seldom undiagnosed, the severity spectrum of SAS, in the absence of therapy, only continues to amplify. Here below, we are presenting the case of a 49 years old patient, railroad controller worker, non-smoker and occasionally alcohol user, who was hospitalized in our Clinic for Occupational Medicine. During last year, the patient was accusing excessive daytime somnolence, breath arrests during sleep, intense snoring, morning headaches, morning oral dryness, pin point chest pain, nocturia (4-5 nocturnal urination), concentration difficulties and an overall reduced work capacity. The presumptive diagnostic of Obstructive Sleep Apnea is being considered based on the correlation between the clinical presentation and the Epworth, Stanford and Berlin questionnaire results. The key diagnostic element was the polygraph recording over an 8 hours sleep period. Positive Diagnosis: Obstructive Sleep Apnea severe form. Management and recommendations: (1) Behavioral therapy (weight loss) and (2) CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy which was instituted immediately after the positive diagnosis was made. As a consequence, the respiratory symptoms, the frequent episodes of daytime snoozing and the concentration difficulties at work place diminished considerably. PMID:26076566

  12. The effects on human sleep and circadian rhythms of 17 days of continuous bedrest in the absence of daylight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Billy, B. D.; Kennedy, K. S.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger bedrest study involving various life science experiments, a study was conducted on the effects of 17 days of continuous bedrest and elimination of daylight on circadian rectal temperature rhythms, mood, alertness, and sleep (objective and diary) in eight healthy middle-aged men. Sleep was timed from 2300 to 0700 hours throughout. Three 72-hour measurement blocks were compared: ambulatory prebedrest, early bedrest (days 5-7), and late bedrest (days 15-17). Temperature rhythms showed reduced amplitude and later phases resulting from the bedrest conditions. This was associated with longer nocturnal sleep onset latencies and poorer subjectively rated sleep but with no reliable changes in any of the other sleep parameters. Daily changes in posture and/or exposure to daylight appear to be important determinants of a properly entrained circadian system.

  13. Markers of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Valo, Misa; Wons, Annette; Moeller, Albert; Teupe, Claudius

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal myocardial ischemia is detectable by ST segment depression and elevation of high sensitive troponin T (hsTrop T) and B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with OSA and coexisting coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-one patients with OSA and CAD and 20 patients with OSA alone underwent in-hospital polysomnography. Blood samples for hsTrop T and NT-proBNP measurements were drawn before and after sleep. ST segment depression was measured at the time of maximum oxygen desaturation during sleep. The apnea-hypopnea-index (AHI), oxygen saturation nadir, and time in bed with oxygen saturation of ?80% were similar in both groups. Levels of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP did not differ significantly before and after sleep but NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in patients suffering from OSA and CAD compared to patients with OSA alone. No significant ST depression was found at the time of oxygen saturation nadir in either group. Despite the fact that patients with untreated OSA and coexisting CAD experienced severe nocturnal hypoxemia, we were unable to detect myocardial ischemia or myocyte necrosis based on significant ST segment depression or elevation of hsTrop T and NT-proBNP, respectively.

  14. Relationship Between Aplastic Anemia and Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Taroh Kinoshita; Norimitsu Inoue

    2002-01-01

    Since aplastic anemia—paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria syndrome was reported in 1967, the overlap of idiopathic aplastic\\u000a anemia (AA) and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) has been well known.The link between the 2 diseases became even\\u000a more evident when immunosuppressive therapy improved survival of patients with severe AA. More than 10% of patients with AA\\u000a develop clinically evident PNH. Moreover, flow cytometric analysis

  15. DAILY SLEEP CHANGES IN A NOISY ENVIRONMENT ASSESSED BY SUBJECTIVE AND POLYGRAPHIC SLEEP PARAMETERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Kawada; Y. Sasazawa; Y. Kiryu; S. Suzuki

    1997-01-01

    Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency,

  16. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

  17. Sleep disturbance at simulated altitude indicated by stratified respiratory disturbance index but not hypoxic ventilatory response.

    PubMed

    Kinsman, Tahnee A; Townsend, Nathan E; Gore, Christopher J; Hahn, Allan G; Clark, Sally A; Aughey, Robert J; McKenna, Michael J; Hawley, John A; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2005-08-01

    At high altitudes, the clinically defined respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and high hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) have been associated with diminished sleep quality. Increased RDI has also been observed in some athletes sleeping at simulated moderate altitude. In this study, we investigated relationships between the HVR of 14 trained male endurance cyclists with variable RDI and sleep quality responses to simulated moderate altitude. Blood oxygen saturation (SpO2%), heart rate, RDI, arousal rate, awakenings, sleep efficiency, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM sleep stages 1, 2 and slow wave sleep as percentages of total sleep time (%TST) were measured for two nights at normoxia of 600 m and one night at a simulated altitude of 2,650 m. HVR and RDI were not significantly correlated with sleep stage, arousal rate or awakening response to nocturnal simulated altitude. SpO2 was inversely correlated with total RDI (r = -0.69, P = 0.004) at simulated altitude and with the change in arousal rate from normoxia (r = -0.65, P = 0.02). REM sleep response to simulated altitude correlated with the change, relative to normoxia, in arousal (r = -0.63, P = 0.04) and heart rate (r = -0.61, P = 0.04). When stratified, those athletes at altitude with RDI >20 h(-1) (n = 4) and those with <10 h(-1) (n = 10) exhibited no difference in HVR but the former had larger falls in SpO2 (P = 0.05) and more arousals (P = 0.03). Neither RDI (without stratification) nor HVR were sufficiently sensitive to explain any deterioration in REM sleep or arousal increase. However, the stratified RDI provides a basis for determining potential sleep disturbance in athletes at simulated moderate altitude. PMID:15940534

  18. Modeling hypersomnolence in sleep-disordered breathing. A novel approach using survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Punjabi, N M; O'hearn, D J; Neubauer, D N; Nieto, F J; Schwartz, A R; Smith, P L; Bandeen-Roche, K

    1999-06-01

    The etiology of excessive daytime sleepiness in patients with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is not well defined. In this study, we examined the relationships between several clinical and polysomnographic parameters and the degree of hypersomnolence in 741 patients with SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] >/= 10 events/h). The study sample was obese (body mass index [BMI]: 35.3 +/- 8.5 kg/m2) and had evidence of moderate SDB (AHI: 47.6 +/- 29.3 events/h). Hypersomnolence was quantified with the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and survival analysis was used to assess the risk factors for hypersomnolence. In a multivariate proportional hazards model, AHI and nocturnal hypoxemia were independent predictors of hypersomnolence (MSLT < 10 min). The adjusted relative risks (RR) of hypersomnolence were 1.00, 1.30, and 1.65 for patients with an AHI of 10 to 29.9, 30 to 59.9, and >/= 60 events/h, respectively. A positive association between hypersomnolence and oxyhemoglobin desaturation (DeltaSaO2) was observed with RR of 1.00, 1.18, 1.43, and 1.94 for a DeltaSaO2 of 15%, respectively. Sleep fragmentation, as assessed by the distribution of sleep stages, was also an independent predictor of hypersomnolence. Using stage 1 sleep as a reference, an increase in stage 2 and slow wave sleep (SWS) were protective from hypersomnolence. For a 10% increase in stage 2 or SWS the adjusted RR for hypersomnolence were 0.93 and 0.79, respectively. REM sleep showed no significant association with the degree of hypersomnolence. These results suggest that AHI, nocturnal hypoxemia, and sleep fragmentation are independent determinants of hypersomnolence in SDB. PMID:10351907

  19. Quantifying light-dependent circadian disruption in humans and animal models.

    PubMed

    Rea, Mark S; Figueiro, Mariana G

    2014-12-01

    Although circadian disruption is an accepted term, little has been done to develop methods to quantify the degree of disruption or entrainment individual organisms actually exhibit in the field. A variety of behavioral, physiological and hormonal responses vary in amplitude over a 24-h period and the degree to which these circadian rhythms are synchronized to the daily light-dark cycle can be quantified with a technique known as phasor analysis. Several studies have been carried out using phasor analysis in an attempt to measure circadian disruption exhibited by animals and by humans. To perform these studies, species-specific light measurement and light delivery technologies had to be developed based upon a fundamental understanding of circadian phototransduction mechanisms in the different species. When both nocturnal rodents and diurnal humans, experienced different species-specific light-dark shift schedules, they showed, based upon phasor analysis of the light-dark and activity-rest patterns, similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption. Indeed, both rodents and humans show monotonically increasing and quantitatively similar levels of light-dependent circadian disruption with increasing shift-nights per week. Thus, phasor analysis provides a method for quantifying circadian disruption in the field and in the laboratory as well as a bridge between ecological measurements of circadian entrainment in humans and parametric studies of circadian disruption in animal models, including nocturnal rodents. PMID:25229212

  20. Sleep-related autonomic overactivity in a general elderly population and its relationship to cardiovascular regulation.

    PubMed

    Crawford-Achour, Emilie; Roche, Frédéric; Pichot, Vincent; Celle, Sébastien; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Chouchou, Florian

    2014-08-24

    Alteration in cardiac autonomic activity during sleep is a common feature of sleep disorders. Diurnal sympathetic overactivity is a possible consequence and could contribute to future cardiovascular complications. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between cardiac autonomic activity during sleep and diurnal autonomic cardiovascular control. In a large cohort (n = 1011) of subjects aged 65 years old (±0.4) free of cardiac and cerebrovascular events and of sleep-related breathing disorders, we evaluated (cross-sectional study) the prevalence of unexpected alteration in sleep-related autonomic overactivity according to the presence of a cyclical nocturnal heart rate variability [quantified using the relative power spectral density of the very low-frequency band of the heart rate increment (VLFi %) from ECG Holter monitoring]. We tested its relationship with diurnal ambulatory blood pressure and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (sBRS). An abnormal cardiac autonomic activity during sleep was retained in 34.4 % of this population according to a VLFi % >4. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the severity of the autonomic alteration was mainly correlated after adjustment with lower sBRS (p = 0.01; OR: 0.94; 95 % CI: 0.90-0.98). Diurnal baroreflex control alteration is associated with sleep-related autonomic overactivity elderly. Such alteration may contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular complications in sleep disorders. PMID:25150588

  1. Does nasal decongestion improve obstructive sleep apnea?

    PubMed

    Clarenbach, Christian F; Kohler, Malcolm; Senn, Oliver; Thurnheer, Robert; Bloch, Konrad E

    2008-12-01

    Whether nasal congestion promotes obstructive sleep apnea is controversial. Therefore, we performed a randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial on the effects of topical nasal decongestion in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and nasal congestion. Twelve OSA patients with chronic nasal congestion (mean +/- SD age 49.1 +/- 11.1 years, apnea/hypopnea index 32.6 +/- 24.5/h) were treated with nasal xylometazoline or placebo for 1 week each. At the end of treatment periods, polysomnography including monitoring of nasal conductance by an unobtrusive technique, vigilance by the OSLER test, and symptom scores were assessed. Data from xylometazoline and placebo treatments were compared. Mean nocturnal nasal conductance on xylometazoline was significantly higher than on placebo (8.6 +/- 5.3 versus 6.3 +/- 5.8 mL s(-1)Pa(-1), P < 0.05) but the apnea/hypopnea index was similar (29.3 +/- 32.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 32.8/h, P = NS). However, 30-210 min after application of xylometazoline, at the time of the maximal pharmacologic effect, the apnea/hypopnea index was slightly reduced (27.3 +/- 30.5/h versus 33.2 +/- 33.9/h, P < 0.05). Xylometazoline did not alter sleep quality, sleep resistance time (33.6 +/- 8.8 versus 33.4 +/- 10.1 min, P = NS) and subjective sleepiness (Epworth score 10.5 +/- 3.8 versus 11.8 +/- 4.4, P = NS). The reduced apnea/hypopnea index during maximal nasal decongestion by xylometazoline suggests a pathophysiologic link but the efficacy of nasal decongestion was not sufficient to provide a clinically substantial improvement of OSA. PMID:18710420

  2. Medroxyprogesterone improves nocturnal breathing in postmenopausal women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Saaresranta, Tarja; Aittokallio, Tero; Utriainen, Karri; Polo, Olli

    2005-01-01

    Background Progestins as respiratory stimulants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been investigated in males and during wakefulness. However, sleep and gender may influence therapeutic responses. We investigated the effects of a 2-week medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy on sleep and nocturnal breathing in postmenopausal women. Methods A single-blind placebo-controlled trial was performed in 15 postmenopausal women with moderate to severe COPD. A 12-week trial included 2-week treatment periods with placebo and MPA (60 mg/d/14 days). All patients underwent a polysomnography with monitoring of SaO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 (tcCO2) at baseline, with placebo, with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 60 mg/d/14 days), and three and six weeks after cessation of MPA. Results Thirteen patients completed the trial. At baseline, the average ± SD of SaO2 mean was 90.6 ± 3.2 % and the median of SaO2 nadir 84.8 % (interquartile range, IQR 6.1). MPA improved them by 1.7 ± 1.6 %-units (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56, 2.8) and by 3.9 %-units (IQR 4.9; 95% CI 0.24, 10.2), respectively. The average of tcCO2 median was 6.0 ± 0.9 kPa and decreased with MPA by 0.9 ± 0.5 kPa (95% CI -1.3, -0.54). MPA improved SaO2 nadir and tcCO2 median also during REM sleep. Three weeks after cessation of MPA, the SaO2 mean remained 1.4 ± 1.8 %-units higher than at baseline, the difference being not significant (95% CI -0.03, 2.8). SaO2 nadir was 2.7 %-units (IQR 4.9; 95% CI 0.06, 18.7) higher than at baseline. Increases in SaO2 mean and SaO2 nadir during sleep with MPA were inversely associated with baseline SaO2 mean (r = -0.70, p = 0.032) and baseline SaO2 nadir (r = -0.77, p = 0.008), respectively. Treatment response in SaO2 mean, SaO2 nadir and tcCO2 levels did not associate with pack-years smoked, age, BMI, spirometric results or sleep variables. Conclusion MPA-induced respiratory improvement in postmenopausal women seems to be consistent and prolonged. The improvement was greater in patients with lower baseline SaO2 values. Long-term studies in females are warranted. PMID:15807890

  3. Sleep disturbances in Parkinsonism.

    PubMed

    Askenasy, J J M

    2003-02-01

    The present article is meant to suggest an approach to the guidelines for the therapy of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients.The factors affecting the quality of life in PD patients are depression, sleep disturbances and dependence. A large review of the literature on sleep disturbances in PD patients, provided the basis for the following classification of the sleep-arousal disturbances in PD patients. We suggest a model based on 3 steps in the treatment of sleep disturbances in PD patients. This model allowing the patient, the spouse or the caregiver a quiet sleep at night, may postpone the retirement and the institutionalization of the PD patient. I. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders based on detailed anamnesis of the patient and of the spouse or of the caregiver. One week recording on a symptom diary (log) by the patient or the caregiver. Correct diagnosis of sleep disorders co morbidities. Selection of the most appropriate sleep test among: polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), multiple wake latency test (MWLT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale, actigraphy or video-PSG. II. The nonspecific therapeutic approach consists in: a) Checking the sleep effect on motor performance, is it beneficial, worse or neutral. b) Psycho-physical assistance. c) Dopaminergic adjustment is necessary owing to the progression of the nigrostriatal degeneration and the increased sensitivity of the terminals, which alter the normal modulator mechanisms of the motor centers in PD patients. Among the many neurotransmitters of the nigro-striatal pathway one can distinguish two with a major influence on REM and NonREM sleep. REM sleep corresponds to an increased cholinergic receptor activity and a decreased dopaminergic activity. This is the reason why REM sleep deprivation by suppressing cholinergic receptor activity ameliorates PD motor symptoms. L-Dopa and its agonists by suppressing cholinergic receptors suppress REM sleep. The permanent adjustment according to the progression of the degenerative process of the disease will diminishe aggravation. The following types of sleep-arousal disturbances have to be considered in PD patients: - Sleep Disturbances, Light Fragmented Sleep (LFS), Abnormal Motor Activity During Sleep (AMADS), REM Behavior Disorders (RBD), Sleep Related Breathing Disorders (SRBD), Sleep Related Hallucinations (SRH), Sleep Related Psychotic Behavior (SRPB). - Arousal Disturbances, Sleep Attacks (SA), Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS), Each syndrome has to receive a score according to its severity. III. The specific therapy consists in: LFS: Benzodiazepines & Nondiazepines. AMADS: Clonazepam, Opioid, Apomorphine infusion; RBD: Clonazepam and dopaminergic agonists; SRBD: CPAP, UPPP, nasal interventions, losing weight; SRH: Clozapine, Risperidone; SRPD: Nortriptyline, Clozapine, Olanzepine; SA-adjustment; EDS-arousing drugs. Each therapeutic approach must be tailored to the individual PD patient. PMID:12589574

  4. Sleep and Mental Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Sleep and Mental Health Article Body Sleep has become a casualty of ... MPH, FAAP Last Updated 5/5/2015 Source Mental Health, Naturally: The Family Guide to Holistic Care for ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Fatigue in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Braley, Tiffany J.; Segal, Benjamin M.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unknown, and little information exists regarding the relative contributions of OSA to symptoms of MS-related fatigue in the presence of other clinical and sleep-related confounders. The objectives of this study were to investigate the prevalence of diagnosed OSA and OSA risk among MS patients, and to assess relationships between fatigue severity, OSA, OSA risk, and sleep quality among persons with MS. Methods: N = 195 MS patients completed a questionnaire comprised of items regarding OSA diagnosis, sleep quality and quantity, daytime symptoms, and 4 validated scales: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, and STOP-Bang questionnaire. Medical records were also accessed to examine clinical characteristics that may predict fatigue or OSA risk. Results: N = 41 patients (21%) carried a formal diagnosis of OSA. N = 110 (56%) of all patients, and 38 (93%) of those with diagnosed OSA had STOP-Bang scores ? 3, indicating an elevated OSA risk. In regression models, the most significant predictors of higher FSS scores were higher STOP-Bang scores (p = 0.01), higher number of nocturnal symptoms (p < 0.0001), and higher disability level (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances, and OSA in particular, may be highly prevalent yet underrecognized contributors to fatigue in persons with MS. Citation: Braley TJ; Segal BM; Chervin RD. Obstructive sleep apnea and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(2):155-162. PMID:24532998

  6. Sleep Physiology in Pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ghada Bourjeily; Vahid Mohsenin

    Sleep is a universal behavior that has been convincingly shown to occur in mammalian, avian and reptilian species. Sleep is\\u000a also one of the most important of human behaviors, occupying roughly over one third of human life. Although the exact functions\\u000a of sleep are poorly understood, the antiquated idea that sleep is a purely passive state and simply reflects fatigue

  7. Sleep Disorders Treatment Survey 

    E-print Network

    Spann, Stephanie

    2014-08-18

    Administration HST= Home Sleep Test ICSD= International Classification of Sleep Disorders MAD= Mandibular Advancement Devices NRCME= National Registry of Certified Medical Examiners OSA= Obstructive Sleep Apnea vii PSG= Polysomnogram RDI... has estimated that the total sleep time for the United States population has decreased by 20% over the past century [2, 3]. The first clinically significant report of symptoms of chronic daytime sleepiness was made in 1965[2, 4]. As part of its...

  8. Cerebrovascular disease and sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Culebras

    2004-01-01

    Sleep is a function of the brain and sleep affects brain function, contributing to cerebral pathology through a diversity\\u000a of direct and indirect mechanisms. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a very common disorder and is the major sleep-related\\u000a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies have shown a dose-response relationship between the severity\\u000a of SDB and the odds ratio for development

  9. Technologies of sleep research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Deboer

    2007-01-01

    .  Sleep is investigated in many different ways, many different species and under many different circumstances. Modern sleep\\u000a research is a multidisciplinary venture. Therefore, this review cannot give a complete overview of all techniques used in\\u000a sleep research and sleep medicine. What it will try to do is to give an overview of widely applied techniques and exciting\\u000a new developments. Electroencephalography

  10. How significant is nocturnal sap flow?

    PubMed

    Forster, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Nocturnal sap flow (Qn) has been found to occur across many taxa, seasons and biomes. There is no general understanding as to how much Qn occurs and whether it is a significant contribution to total daily sap flow (Q). A synthesis of the literature and unpublished data was made to determine how significant is Qn, as a proportion of Q (%Qn), across seasons, biomes, phylogenetic groups and different thermometric sap flow methods. A total of 98 species were analysed to find that %Qn, on average, was 12.03% with the highest average dataset of 69.00%. There was significantly less %Qn in winter than in other temperate seasons, and significantly less %Qn in the wet season than in the dry season. The equatorial and tropical biomes had significantly higher %Qn than the warm temperate and nemoral biomes. The heat ratio method (HRM) and the thermal dissipation (TDP) method had significantly higher %Qn than the heat balance method. Additional analysis between HRM and TDP found HRM to have significantly higher %Qn in winter, wet season and various biomes. In all but one out of 246 cases Qn occurred, demonstrating that Qn is significant and needs to be carefully considered in sap flow and related studies. PMID:24990866

  11. Age affects photoentrainment in a nocturnal primate.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Doris; Barbosa, Alexandra; Théry, Marc; Aujard, Fabienne; Perret, Martine

    2012-04-01

    The endogenous circadian clock is entrained by external cues, mainly the light-dark cycle received by photopigments located in the retina. The authors investigated (1) the effect of aging on the synchronization of the rest-activity rhythm and (2) the physiological basis of light photoreception in the gray mouse lemur, a nocturnal Malagasy primate. Old individuals were tested at different irradiance levels under 3 different light wavelengths previously shown to trigger maximal response in young adults. Investigators analyzed animal activity and temperature waveforms and used 2 reference treatments, strong white light and continuous darkness. The investigation revealed manifold effects of aging picturing a general loss of responsiveness to light and age-related changes in activity and temperature. In addition, the investigation shows that photoentrainment is a continuous process. Short wavelengths (430 nm) are more efficient than longer wavelengths (470-540 nm) at low light levels at dawn and across all light levels at dusk. This suggests an implication of S-cones, differential at dawn and dusk. This results, surprising for several reasons, calls for further investigation. The study brings an interesting contribution to the understanding of the physiological processes underlying synchronization to light. PMID:22476777

  12. Nutrition, sleep and recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona L. Halson

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

  13. Sleeping Beauties in science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony F. J. Van Raan

    2004-01-01

    A 'Sleeping Beauty in Science' is a publication that goes unnoticed ('sleeps') for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention ('is awakened by a prince'). We here report the -to our knowledge- first extensive measurement of the occurrence of Sleeping Beauties in the science literature. We derived from the measurements an 'awakening' probability function and

  14. Sleep Disorders Treatment Survey

    E-print Network

    Spann, Stephanie

    2014-08-18

    Even though the Association of Sleep Disorders Center was founded in 1976, sleep medicine wasn’t considered a specialty until 1996. The United States population has undergone a 20% decrease in sleep time over the past century, with a concurrent...

  15. Behavioral sleep medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J Stepanski; Michael L Perlis

    2000-01-01

    As the knowledge base in sleep disorders medicine has broadened, a subspecialty that we will refer to as “behavioral sleep medicine” area is emerging. This article will define this subspecialty area, provide some historical context for its emergence, review issues related to specialty training and clinical practice, and suggest needs for future research.The term “behavioral sleep medicine” was selected because

  16. Is Sleep Essential?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiara Cirelli; Giulio Tononi

    2008-01-01

    No current hypothesis can explain why animals need to sleep. Yet, sleep is universal, tightly regulated, and cannot be deprived without deleterious consequences. This suggests that searching for a core function of sleep, particularly at the cellular level, is still a worthwhile exercise.

  17. Sleep and epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Autret; B. de Toffol; C. Hommet Corcia; C. Prunier-Levilion; B. Lucas

    1999-01-01

    This review considers the effect of sleep on seizures and interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) paroxysmal activities (PAs), as classified by the International League Against Epilepsy criteria. No type of seizure is, per se, specifically linked with non-rapid eye movement (NREM) or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. However, in some syndromes, seizures are more frequent in slow wave sleep (SWS) [partial motor

  18. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... light therapy and other ways to alter circadian cycles. Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea is a disorder of interrupted breathing during sleep. It usually occurs in association with fat buildup or loss of muscle tone with aging. These changes allow the windpipe to collapse during ...

  19. The Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on Pediatric Nocturnal Enuresis: a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Mohammad Saeed; Amirhassani, Shahriar; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sleep disorder caused by adenotonsillar hypertrophy has been implicated as a cause of primary and secondary nocturnal enuresis in children. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of adenotonsillectomy on enuresis in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted in Hamadan City in Western Iran, from April 2010 to December 2011. Ninety-seven children aged 3 to 12 years with adenotonsillar hypertrophy who were admitted to Besat Hospital for adenotonsillectomy were evaluated. The primary outcome was the number of incidents of bedwetting (nocturnal enuresis) post-operation compared with pre-operation. Patients were followed-up for 3 months. Data were collected using a questionnaire regarding number of bedwetting incidents, type of enuresis (primary or secondary), and family history of enuresis, as well as results of urine analysis. Results: Of 420 children admitted for adenotonsillectomy, 97 had a positive history of preoperative enuresis, including 42 girls and 55 boys, with mean age of 48 months. The parents of 84 (86.6%) children agreed to participate in the study. Three months after adenotonsillectomy, enuresis had resolved completely in 51 (60.7%) children and had shown relative improvement in 22 (26.2%) children. Enuresis had not improved in the remaining 11 (13.1%) children (P<0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that adenotonsillectomy can improve enuresis in the majority of children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. However, further evidence based on large multi-center randomized clinical trials is required to confirm these results. PMID:24303417

  20. The link between vitamin D metabolism and sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    McCarty, David E; Chesson, Andrew L; Jain, Sushil K; Marino, Andrew A

    2014-08-01

    Vitamin D is a hormone that interacts with intranuclear receptors to effect transcriptional changes in many cell types including those in gut, bone, breast, prostate, brain, skeletal muscle, and the immune system. Inadequacy of vitamin D is widely prevalent, and leads to the classic diseases of bone demineralization as well as to more recently recognized problems such as nonspecific pain and noninflammatory skeletal myopathy, which may disrupt sleep and directly cause daytime impairment. Emerging lines of evidence suggest that low vitamin D levels increase the risk for autoimmune disease, chronic rhinitis, tonsillar hypertrophy, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. These conditions are mediated by altered immunomodulation, increased propensity to infection, and increased levels of inflammatory substances, including those that regulate sleep, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin (IL)-1, and prostaglandin D2 (PD2). Together, the recent reports suggest a role for inadequate vitamin D in the development of symptoms of wake impairment commonly associated with sleep disorders. Persistent inadequacy of vitamin D may also increase the risk for obstructive sleep apnea via promotion of adenotonsillar hypertrophy, airway muscle myopathy, and/or chronic rhinitis. Much remains to be learned concerning the complex relationship between chronically low levels of vitamin D, normal sleep, sleep disruption, and daytime neurocognitive impairment. PMID:24075129

  1. The Consolidation of Implicit Sequence Memory in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Malecek, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Syndrome is a relatively frequent sleep disorder characterized by disrupted sleep patterns. It is a well-established fact that sleep has beneficial effect on memory consolidation by enhancing neural plasticity. Implicit sequence learning is a prominent component of skill learning. However, the formation and consolidation of this fundamental learning mechanism remains poorly understood in OSA. In the present study we examined the consolidation of different aspects of implicit sequence learning in patients with OSA. We used the Alternating Serial Reaction Time task to measure general skill learning and sequence-specific learning. There were two sessions: a learning phase and a testing phase, separated by a 10-hour offline period with sleep. Our data showed differences in offline changes of general skill learning between the OSA and control group. The control group demonstrated offline improvement from evening to morning, while the OSA group did not. In contrast, we did not observe differences between the groups in offline changes in sequence-specific learning. Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep in OSA differently affects neural circuits involved in the consolidation of sequence learning. PMID:25329462

  2. The impact of the nocturnal disabilities of Parkinson's disease on caregivers' burden: implications for interventions.

    PubMed

    Viwattanakulvanid, Pramon; Kaewwilai, Lalita; Jitkritsadakul, Onanong; Brenden, Neil R; Setthawatcharawanich, Suwanna; Boonrod, Nonglak; Mekawichai, Pawut; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2014-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) imposes a burden on those who care for the person afflicted. The objective of this study was to assess and analyze the main determinants of caregivers' burden, especially the nocturnal manifestations of PD. This multi-center, national, cross-sectional study included 89 patient-caregiver pairs. Caregiver self-assessments were performed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Zarit Caregiver Burden Interview (ZCBI). Patient self-assessments were performed with Modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (MPDSS), Nocturnal Akinesia Dystonia and Cramp Score (NADCS), HADS and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (PDQ-8). Most of the caregivers were employed women, and the majority had been permanently taking care of the patient for 6.8 ± 5.4 years. The study found that the ZCBI mean score of the caregivers significantly worsened as patients became more dependent (HY: 4-5, p = 0.036), and the mean ZCBI score of spousal caregivers (19.4; SD 15.5) was significantly higher than that of the offspring group (11.7; SD 7.9) (p = 0.008). Disease duration (r = 0.22), NADCS (r = 0.38), MPDSS (r = -0.36), PDQ-8 SI (r = 0.39) and HADS (total, anxiety and depression) scores (r = 0.46-0.49), and HADS (total, anxiety and depression scores (r = 0.37-0.52), had significant negative effect on caregivers' burden. Moderate association was found on MPDSS item 14 (r = 0.38) and NADCS akinesia score (r = 0.37). Patients' anxiety, nocturnal akinesia and the feeling of tiredness and sleepiness upon awakening in the morning were independent predictors of caregivers' burden (adjusted R2 = 0.46). Based on these findings, treatment of early mood symptoms of the patients and caregivers at risk may be helpful for the effective management of PD and it is also important to have well-designed psycho-educational and multicomponent interventions in the community for caregivers of persons with PD. PMID:24682360

  3. The impact of prolonged violent video-gaming on adolescent sleep: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    King, Daniel L; Gradisar, Michael; Drummond, Aaron; Lovato, Nicole; Wessel, Jason; Micic, Gorica; Douglas, Paul; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Video-gaming is an increasingly prevalent activity among children and adolescents that is known to influence several areas of emotional, cognitive and behavioural functioning. Currently there is insufficient experimental evidence about how extended video-game play may affect adolescents' sleep. The aim of this study was to investigate the short-term impact of adolescents' prolonged exposure to violent video-gaming on sleep. Seventeen male adolescents (mean age = 16 ± 1 years) with no current sleep difficulties played a novel, fast-paced, violent video-game (50 or 150 min) before their usual bedtime on two different testing nights in a sleep laboratory. Objective (polysomnography-measured sleep and heart rate) and subjective (single-night sleep diary) measures were obtained to assess the arousing effects of prolonged gaming. Compared with regular gaming, prolonged gaming produced decreases in objective sleep efficiency (by 7 ± 2%, falling below 85%) and total sleep time (by 27 ± 12 min) that was contributed by a near-moderate reduction in rapid eye movement sleep (Cohen's d = 0.48). Subjective sleep-onset latency significantly increased by 17 ± 8 min, and there was a moderate reduction in self-reported sleep quality after prolonged gaming (Cohen's d = 0.53). Heart rate did not differ significantly between video-gaming conditions during pre-sleep game-play or the sleep-onset phase. Results provide evidence that prolonged video-gaming may cause clinically significant disruption to adolescent sleep, even when sleep after video-gaming is initiated at normal bedtime. However, physiological arousal may not necessarily be the mechanism by which technology use affects sleep. PMID:23137332

  4. Characterisation of sleep in intensive care using 24-hour polysomnography: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many intensive care patients experience sleep disruption potentially related to noise, light and treatment interventions. The purpose of this study was to characterise, in terms of quantity and quality, the sleep of intensive care patients, taking into account the impact of environmental factors. Methods This observational study was conducted in the adult ICU of a tertiary referral hospital in Australia, enrolling 57 patients. Polysomnography (PSG) was performed over a 24-hour period to assess the quantity (total sleep time: hh:mm) and quality (percentage per stage, duration of sleep episode) of patients' sleep while in ICU. Rechtschaffen and Kales criteria were used to categorise sleep. Interrater checks were performed. Sound pressure and illuminance levels and care events were simultaneously recorded. Patients reported on their sleep quality in ICU using the Richards Campbell Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep in Intensive Care Questionnaire. Data were summarised using frequencies and proportions or measures of central tendency and dispersion as appropriate and Cohen's Kappa statistic was used for interrater reliability of the sleep data analysis. Results Patients' median total sleep time was 05:00 (IQR: 02:52 to 07:14). The majority of sleep was stage 1 and 2 (medians: 19 and 73%) with scant slow wave and REM sleep. The median duration of sleep without waking was 00:03. Sound levels were high (mean Leq 53.95 dB(A) during the day and 50.20 dB(A) at night) and illuminance levels were appropriate at night (median <2 lux) but low during the day (median: 74.20 lux). There was a median 1.7 care events/h. Patients' mean self-reported sleep quality was poor. Interrater reliability of sleep staging was highest for slow wave sleep and lowest for stage 1 sleep. Conclusions The quantity and quality of sleep in intensive care patients are poor and may be related to noise, critical illness itself and treatment events that disturb sleep. The study highlights the challenge of quantifying sleep in the critical care setting and the need for alternative methods of measuring sleep. The results suggest that a sound reduction program is required and other interventions to improve clinical practices to promote sleep in intensive care patients. Trial registration Australian New Zealand clinical trial registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au/): ACTRN12610000688088. PMID:23506782

  5. Exploring sleep-wake experiences of mothers during maintenance therapy for their child's acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Neu, Madalynn; Matthews, Ellyn; King, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative study was designed to explore sleep-wake experience of mothers of children in maintenance treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. Interviews were conducted with 20 participants using open-ended, semi-structured questions and were transcribed verbatim. Two main themes emerged: "It's a whole new cancer world" and "I don't remember what it's like to have sleep." Mothers experience difficulty sleeping during their children's treatment, and expressed several serious issues. Although the mothers were able to employ various mechanisms to address sleep deprivation and disruption, interventions such as social support, journaling, spiritual guidance, and/or self-talk may be most beneficial. PMID:24486174

  6. The nature of sleep in 10 bedridden elderly patients with disorders of consciousness in a Japanese hospital.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Sugama, Junko; Nemoto, Tetsu; Kurita, Toshiharu; Matsuo, Junko; Dai, Misako; Ueta, Miyuki; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Tabata, Keiko; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    No previous study has satisfactorily clarified the nature of sleep in elderly bedridden people with disorders of consciousness (DOC). The objective of the present study was to clarify the sleep states of 10 elderly bedridden patients with DOC in a Japanese hospital to facilitate provision of evidence-based nursing care and appropriate adjustment of patients' environments. Nocturnal polysomnography recordings were analyzed according to the standard scoring criteria, and the patients' sleep stages and quality were investigated. Of the 10 patients, 9 showed slow wave sleep (SWS), 4 showed very high values for sleep efficiency (96-100%), and in 3 of these patients, the percentage of SWS was ? 20%. Furthermore, three of these four patients had 200 or more changes in sleep stage. Although the mechanism is unknown, the amount of SWS combined with the value of sleep efficiency suggests that the quality of sleep is poor in elderly bedridden patients with DOC. Further study is needed to determine better indicators of good sleep in this population. PMID:25504946

  7. Sleep disturbances in long-term immigrants with chronic mountain sickness: a comparison with healthy immigrants at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Guan, Wei; Ga, Qin; Li, Rong; Bai, Zhen-Zhong; Wuren, Tana; Wang, Jin; Yang, Ying-Zhong; Li, Yu-Hong; Ge, Ri-Li

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to examine sleep disturbances in patients with chronic mountain sickness (CMS). The sleep of 14 patients with CMS and 11 healthy controls with or without sleep disorders (control N: without sleep disorders; control D: with sleep disorders) was studied by polysomnography. Hypopnea was the sleep disorder most commonly suffered by CMS patients and control D subjects. No major differences were observed in sleep structure between CMS and control groups, with the exception of shorter rapid eye movement latency in controls and increased deep non-rapid eye movement in the control N group. Periodic breathing was observed in only two study participants, one each in the CMS and control D groups. The level of saturated oxygen was significantly lower in the CMS group during sleep than the control groups (P<0.05). CMS scores were positively correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index, and negatively correlated with saturated oxygen levels. These results demonstrate that sleep disorders and nocturnal hypoxia are important in the development of CMS. PMID:25462013

  8. The cerebellum and sleep.

    PubMed

    DelRosso, Lourdes M; Hoque, Romy

    2014-11-01

    The importance of the cerebellum in sleep disorders, and vice versa, is only beginning to be understood. Advanced neuroimaging modalities have revealed cerebellar changes in both common and rare sleep disorders. Sleep disorders in those with genetic cerebellar disease, such as spinocerebellar ataxia, Friedreich ataxia, Joubert syndrome, and ataxia-telangiectasia, include excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements of sleep, obstructive apnea, central apnea, and rapid eye movement behavior disorder. Sleep medicine is an important and under-recognized part of the neurologic evaluation in those with cerebellar disease. PMID:25439287

  9. Eye shape and the nocturnal bottleneck of mammals

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Margaret I.; Kamilar, Jason M.; Kirk, E. Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Most vertebrate groups exhibit eye shapes that vary predictably with activity pattern. Nocturnal vertebrates typically have large corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual sensitivity. Conversely, diurnal vertebrates generally demonstrate smaller corneas relative to eye size as an adaptation for increased visual acuity. By contrast, several studies have concluded that many mammals exhibit typical nocturnal eye shapes, regardless of activity pattern. However, a recent study has argued that new statistical methods allow eye shape to accurately predict activity patterns of mammals, including cathemeral species (animals that are equally likely to be awake and active at any time of day or night). Here, we conduct a detailed analysis of eye shape and activity pattern in mammals, using a broad comparative sample of 266 species. We find that the eye shapes of cathemeral mammals completely overlap with nocturnal and diurnal species. Additionally, most diurnal and cathemeral mammals have eye shapes that are most similar to those of nocturnal birds and lizards. The only mammalian clade that diverges from this pattern is anthropoids, which have convergently evolved eye shapes similar to those of diurnal birds and lizards. Our results provide additional evidence for a nocturnal ‘bottleneck’ in the early evolution of crown mammals. PMID:23097513

  10. American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    © American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy of Sleep Medicine The following product has been developed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Copyright © 2003 American Academy of Sleep: (708) 492-0943 Visit Us at www.aasmnet.org #12;© American Academy of Sleep Medicine American Academy

  11. Family Disorganization, Sleep Hygiene, and Adolescent Sleep Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billows, Michael; Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Johnston, Anna; McCappin, Stephanie; Hudson, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The link between sleep hygiene and adolescent sleep is well documented, though evidence suggests contributions from other factors, particularly the family environment. The present study examined whether sleep hygiene mediated the relationship between family disorganization and self-reported sleep onset latency, total sleep time, and daytime…

  12. Sleep and Sleep-Wake Manipulations in Bipolar Depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dieter Riemann; Ulrich Voderholzer; Mathias Berger

    2002-01-01

    In the last 30 years, it has been convincingly demonstrated that sleep in major depression is characterized by disturbances of sleep continuity, a reduction of slow wave sleep, a disinhibition of REM sleep including a shortening of REM latency (i.e. the time between sleep onset and the occurrence of the first REM period) and an increase in REM density. Furthermore,

  13. Sleep and moral awareness.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-04-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others. PMID:25159702

  14. [Sleep and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Angela; Philippe, Jacques; Jornayvaz, François R

    2012-06-01

    Sleep needs in adults are estimated to be 7 to 8 hours per night. During the last forty years, sleep duration has decreased by about 2 hours per night, as a result of our lifestyle, workload, social activities and access to technology. There are several social, economic and public health consequences due to chronic sleep deprivation. Current data suggests that sleep deprivation as well as poor quality of sleep have an impact on the incidence and prevalence of both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Screening for sleep disorders and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) should be routinely performed in an increased number of patients, particularly those at high risk, i.e. obese, diabetic and hypertensive patients. PMID:22730615

  15. Sleep deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Svestka, Jaromir

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is a useful therapeutic option in the treatment of depressive disorders, especially in pharmacoresistant disorders. Its therapeutic efficacy in other indications has not, however, been confirmed. According to current knowledge, application of sleep therapy requires concomitant therapy to prevent early relapses of depression. Total sleep deprivation is the classic variant of its clinical use. Partial sleep deprivation has a somewhat less pronounced antidepressant effect, and the duration of sleep deprivation rather than application timing determines its therapeutic effect. The most reliable predictors of sleep deprivation efficacy are marked diurnal fluctuations of depressive mood, patient locomotor activity, and limbic hyperactivity in the central nervous system. The mechanism of the antidepressant effect of sleep deprivation remains unknown. PMID:19029872

  16. The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition optics

    E-print Network

    Yack, Jayne E.

    The eyes of Macrosoma sp. (Lepidoptera: Hedyloidea): A nocturnal butterfly with superposition 2006; accepted 7 June 2006 Abstract The visual system of nocturnal Hedyloidea butterflies eyes of true butterflies (Papilionoidea), and, to gain insights into the sensory ecology

  17. Classroom Control, Disruptive Students, Disruptive Colleagues

    E-print Network

    Howitt, Ivan

    Classroom Control, Disruptive Students, Disruptive Colleagues: Is Truth Stranger Than Fiction? Jeff taught instructor to respect others Classroom Control #12;Scenario #1 ·Instructor shared story about to take out a gun and shoot in the head?" #12;Questions 1. Why was instructor suspended? 2. Exercise

  18. Acute effects of light on the brain and behavior of diurnal Arvicanthis niloticus and nocturnal Mus musculus.

    PubMed

    Shuboni, Dorela D; Cramm, Shannon L; Yan, Lily; Ramanathan, Chidambaram; Cavanaugh, Breyanna L; Nunez, Antonio A; Smale, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Photic cues influence daily patterns of activity via two complementary mechanisms: (1) entraining the internal circadian clock and (2) directly increasing or decreasing activity, a phenomenon referred to as "masking". The direction of this masking response is dependent on the temporal niche an organism occupies, as nocturnal animals often decrease activity when exposed to light, while the opposite response is more likely to be seen in diurnal animals. Little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying these differences. Here, we examined the masking effects of light on behavior and the activation of several brain regions by that light, in diurnal Arvicanthis niloticus (Nile grass rats) and nocturnal Mus musculus (mice). Each species displayed the expected behavioral response to a 1h pulse of light presented 2h after lights-off, with the diurnal grass rats and nocturnal mice increasing and decreasing their activity, respectively. In grass rats light induced an increase in cFOS in all retinorecipient areas examined, which included the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the ventral subparaventricular zone (vSPZ), intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), lateral habenula (LH), olivary pretectal nucleus (OPT) and the dorsal lateral geniculate (DLG). In mice, light led to an increase in cFOS in one of these regions (SCN), no change in others (vSPZ, IGL and LH) and a decrease in two (OPT and DLG). In addition, light increased cFOS expression in three arousal-related brain regions (the lateral hypothalamus, dorsal raphe, and locus coeruleus) and in one sleep-promoting region (the ventrolateral preoptic area) in grass rats. In mice, light had no effect on cFOS in these four regions. Taken together, these results highlight several brain regions whose responses to light suggest that they may play a role in masking, and that the possibility that they contribute to species-specific patterns of behavioral responses to light should be explored in future. PMID:25447482

  19. REM sleep enhancement of probabilistic classification learning is sensitive to subsequent interference.

    PubMed

    Barsky, Murray M; Tucker, Matthew A; Stickgold, Robert

    2015-07-01

    During wakefulness the brain creates meaningful relationships between disparate stimuli in ways that escape conscious awareness. Processes active during sleep can strengthen these relationships, leading to more adaptive use of those stimuli when encountered during subsequent wake. Performance on the Weather Prediction Task (WPT), a well-studied measure of implicit probabilistic learning, has been shown to improve significantly following a night of sleep, with stronger initial learning predicting more nocturnal REM sleep. We investigated this relationship further, studying the effect on WPT performance of a daytime nap containing REM sleep. We also added an interference condition after the nap/wake period as an additional probe of memory strength. Our results show that a nap significantly boosts WPT performance, and that this improvement is correlated with the amount of REM sleep obtained during the nap. When interference training is introduced following the nap, however, this REM-sleep benefit vanishes. In contrast, following an equal period of wake, performance is both unchanged from training and unaffected by interference training. Thus, while the true probabilistic relationships between WPT stimuli are strengthened by sleep, these changes are selectively susceptible to the destructive effects of retroactive interference, at least in the short term. PMID:25769506

  20. Sleep and cognitive problems in patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hae Kook; Jeong, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Na-Young; Park, Min-hyeon; Kim, Tae-Won; Seo, Ho-Jun; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Hong, Seung-Chul; Han, Jin-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattentive and impulsive behavior. Many ADHD patients reportedly have cognitive dysfunction and sleep problems, including longer sleep latency, lower sleep efficiency, and shorter total sleep time. The purpose of this study was to examine neurocognitive functions and nocturnal sleep parameters in patients with ADHD, using a cognitive function test and actigraphy. Methods Subjects included 37 male patients with ADHD and 32 controls (7–12 years of age). For each participant, we determined intelligence quotient (IQ) and administered the Matching Familiar Figures Test (MFFT) and 72-hour actigraphy. The relationships between sleep parameters and cognitive functions were assessed. Results ADHD patients significantly differed from controls in several cognitive functions and sleep variables. In the MFFT, response error rate (P<0.001) and error counts (P=0.003) were significantly increased in ADHD patients compared with control children. MFFT response latency was significantly shorter in ADHD patients than in controls (P<0.001). In addition, sleep latency (P=0.01), wake after sleep onset (WASO) (P<0.001), and fragmentation index (P<0.001) were evaluated by actigraphy and found to be significantly increased in patients with ADHD compared with controls. However, no significant differences in total sleep time or sleep efficiency were observed. WASO and response error rates were positively correlated in patients with ADHD (rho =0.52, P=0.012). Furthermore, fragmentation index sleep variables were significantly positively correlated with response error (rho =0.44, P=0.008) and response latency rates (rho =0.4, P=0.018) in the MFFT. Reaction error rate was significantly associated with the fragmentation index (beta =0.94, P=0.024). Conclusion Patients with ADHD had more sleep problems, including significantly increased sleep latency, WASO, and fragmentation index, and poorer cognitive function, compared with controls. Some of these sleep problems, including WASO and the fragmentation index, were positively correlated with impulsivity, illustrated by the cognitive function tests in patients with ADHD. However, further studies with large sample sizes and the addition of polysomnography and determination of ADHD subtypes should be performed to confirm our results regarding sleep and cognitive problems in patients with ADHD. PMID:25258537

  1. Validation of a novel method to interrupt sleep in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Sinton, Christopher M; Kovakkattu, Della; Friese, Randall S

    2009-10-30

    Interrupted sleep, fragmented sleep or restricted sleep is a corollary of many psychiatric, neurological and respiratory disorders and also results from disruptive environments such as that of the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent rodent studies have revealed that sleep interruption (SI) can have more significant consequences for cognitive and neurophysiological variables than were expected and may even be equivalent to those of total sleep deprivation. Results from this research are therefore being increasingly recognized for their implications, which may include delayed recovery from critical illness in the ICU. Here we describe in detail a method for interrupting sleep in a murine model, which we had previously adopted to show an increase in mortality after septic insult. Interrupting sleep for 30s every 2 min over 48 h significantly decreased rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. The technique, which is based on using a standard laboratory orbital shaker to oscillate the cage containing the mouse, can easily be adapted to use different parameters for SI. During recovery, mice exhibited a rebound in REM sleep time and an increase in the depth of NREM sleep as measured by delta (1-4 Hz) power in the electroencephalogram. The changes in sleep both during and after SI showed some differences from those previously observed in the rat using the same SI parameters. In conclusion, the mouse may provide a useful alternative model for studying the effects of SI. PMID:19646474

  2. The impact of parents' sleep quality and hypoglycemia worry on diabetes self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Linda Jones; Monaghan, Maureen; Cogen, Fran; Streisand, Randi

    2015-07-01

    Parents of young children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) may experience poor sleep quality, possibly impacting their confidence in T1D management. This study investigated sleep characteristics among parents of children with T1D and relationships among parents' sleep quality, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. As part of baseline assessment for a randomized clinical trial (RCT) to promote parental management of T1D, 134 parents of children ? age 6 reported on demographics, parent sleep characteristics, hypoglycemia worry, and diabetes self-efficacy. Parents reported they slept less time than recommended by the National Sleep Foundation and endorsed greater global sleep problems than standardized norms of healthy adults; one third of parents reported their overall sleep quality was "fairly bad" or "very bad." Hypoglycemia worry and parents' sleep quality were both significantly related to diabetes self-efficacy, but parents' sleep quality did not mediate the relationship of hypoglycemia worry and diabetes self-efficacy. Many parents experience disrupted sleep that impacts their perceived ability to perform T1D management. Interventions designed to improve parental T1D self-efficacy should consider sleep and concerns about children's hypoglycemia. PMID:24738994

  3. Sleep from an Islamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2011-01-01

    Sleep medicine is a relatively new scientific specialty. Sleep is an important topic in Islamic literature, and the Quran and Hadith discuss types of sleep, the importance of sleep, and good sleep practices. Islam considers sleep as one of the signs of the greatness of All?h (God) and encourages followers to explore this important sign. The Quran describes different types of sleep, and these correspond with sleep stages identified by modern science. The Quran discusses the beneficial effects of sleep and emphasizes the importance of maintaining a pattern of light and darkness. A mid-day nap is an important practice for Muslims, and the Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him (pbuh) promoted naps as beneficial. In accordance with the practice and instructions of Muhammad (pbuh), Muslims have certain sleep habits and these sleep habits correspond to some of the sleep hygiene rules identified by modern science. Details during sleep include sleep position, like encouraging sleep on the right side and discouraging sleep in the prone position. Dream interpretation is an established science in the Islamic literature and Islamic scholars have made significant contributions to theories of dream interpretation. We suggest that sleep scientists examine religious literature in general and Islamic literature in particular, to understand the views, behaviors, and practices of ancient people about the sleep and sleep disorders. Such studies may help to answer some unresolved questions in sleep science or lead to new areas of inquiry. PMID:21977062

  4. Sleep, the Athlete, and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Peter Hudson

    2002-01-01

    Presents information to help athletic coaches and trainers gain a better understanding of what happens during sleep and how sleep can affect performance, outlining three practical suggestions for helping athletes improve their sleep quality (identify and obtain the amount of sleep one needs, keep a regular sleep schedule, and create an optimal…

  5. Management of sleep\\/wake cycles improves cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick N. Pallier; A. Jennifer Morton

    2009-01-01

    Normally, mice sleep during the day and are active at night. In Huntington's disease mice (R6\\/2 line) this circadian pattern disintegrates progressively over the course of their illness. Cognitive decline and apathy in R6\\/2 mice can be improved with sleeping drugs, suggesting that sleep disruption contributes to their neurological decline. We wondered if wakefulness was equally important. Here, we used

  6. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information obtained from polarised skylight (from the setting sun or the moon) that penetrates these patches. PMID:18089077

  7. Behavioral, Morphological and Physiological Correlates of Diurnal and Nocturnal Vision in Selected Wading Bird Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Rojas; R. McNeil; T. Cabana; P. Lachapelle

    1999-01-01

    We examined in selected wading bird species if diurnal or nocturnal foraging and the use of visual or tactile feeding strategies could be correlated with retinal structure and function. The selected species were the Yellow-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax violaceus), a crepuscular and nocturnal forager, the Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias), a mainly crepuscular, but also diurnal and nocturnal feeder, the

  8. Fear conditioning, safety learning, and sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Anisa J; Acheson, Dean T; Risbrough, Victoria B; Straus, Laura D; Drummond, Sean P A

    2014-08-27

    Fear conditioning is considered an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder. Such models have shown fear conditioning disrupts subsequent rapid eye movement sleep (REM). Here, we provide a translation of these models into humans. Using the fear potentiated startle (FPS) procedure, we examined the effects of fear conditioning and safety signal learning on subsequent REM sleep in healthy adults. We also examined the effects of changes in REM sleep on retention of fear and safety learning. Participants (n = 42 normal controls) spent 3 consecutive nights in the laboratory. The first was an adaptation night. Following the second night, we administered a FPS procedure that included pairing a wrist shock with a threat signal and a safety signal never paired with a shock. The next day, we administered the FPS procedure again, with no wrist shocks to any stimulus, to measure retention of fear and safety. Canonical correlations assessed the relationship between FPS response and REM sleep. Results demonstrated that increased safety signal learning during the initial acquisition phase was associated with increased REM sleep consolidation that night, with 28.4% of the variance in increased REM sleep consolidation from baseline accounted for by safety signal learning. Overnight REM sleep was, in turn, related to overnight retention of fear and safety learning, with 22.5% of the variance in startle retention accounted for by REM sleep. These data suggest that sleep difficulties, specifically REM sleep fragmentation, may play a mechanistic role in post-traumatic stress disorder via an influence on safety signal learning and/or threat-safety discrimination. PMID:25164670

  9. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation and accelerated forgetting

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, Kathryn E.; Nobre, Anna C.; Zeman, Adam Z.; Butler, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) is a form of memory impairment in which learning and initial retention of information appear normal but subsequent forgetting is excessively rapid. ALF is most commonly associated with epilepsy and, in particular, a form of late-onset epilepsy called transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). ALF provides a novel opportunity to investigate post-encoding memory processes, such as consolidation. Sleep is implicated in the consolidation of memory in healthy people and a deficit in sleep-dependent memory consolidation has been proposed as an explanation for ALF. If this proposal were correct, then sleep would not benefit memory retention in people with ALF as much as in healthy people, and ALF might only be apparent when the retention interval contains sleep. To test this theory, we compared performance on a sleep-sensitive memory task over a night of sleep and a day of wakefulness. We found, contrary to the hypothesis, that sleep benefits memory retention in TEA patients with ALF and that this benefit is no smaller in magnitude than that seen in healthy controls. Indeed, the patients performed significantly more poorly than the controls only in the wake condition and not the sleep condition. Patients were matched to controls on learning rate, initial retention, and the effect of time of day on cognitive performance. These results indicate that ALF is not caused by a disruption of sleep-dependent memory consolidation. Instead, ALF may be due to an encoding abnormality that goes undetected on behavioural assessments of learning, or by a deficit in memory consolidation processes that are not sleep-dependent. PMID:24657478

  10. Sleep and Sex: What Can Go Wrong? A Review of the Literature on Sleep Related Disorders and Abnormal Sexual Behaviors and Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Schenck, Carlos H.; Arnulf, Isabelle; Mahowald, Mark W.

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To formulate the first classification of sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. Design: A computerized literature search was conducted, and other sources, such as textbooks, were searched. Results: Many categories of sleep related disorders were represented in the classification: parasomnias (confusional arousals/sleepwalking, with or without obstructive sleep apnea; REM sleep behavior disorder); sleep related seizures; Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS); severe chronic insomnia; restless legs syndrome; narcolepsy; sleep exacerbation of persistent sexual arousal syndrome; sleep related painful erections; sleep related dissociative disorders; nocturnal psychotic disorders; miscellaneous states. Kleine-Levin syndrome (78 cases) and parasomnias (31 cases) were most frequently reported. Parasomnias and sleep related seizures had overlapping and divergent clinical features. Thirty-one cases of parasomnias (25 males; mean age, 32 years) and 7 cases of sleep related seizures (4 males; mean age, 38 years) were identified. A full range of sleep related sexual behaviors with self and/or bed partners or others were reported, including masturbation, sexual vocalizations, fondling, sexual intercourse with climax, sexual assault/rape, ictal sexual hyperarousal, ictal orgasm, and ictal automatism. Adverse physical and/or psychosocial effects from the sleepsex were present in all parasomnia and sleep related seizure cases, but pleasurable effects were reported by 5 bed partners and by 3 patients with sleep related seizures. Forensic consequences were common, occurring in 35.5% (11/31) of parasomnia cases, with most (9/11) involving minors. All parasomnias cases reported amnesia for the sleepsex, in contrast to 28.6% (2/7) of sleep related seizure cases. Polysomnography (without penile tumescence monitoring), performed in 26 of 31 parasomnia cases, documented sexual moaning from slow wave sleep in 3 cases and sexual intercourse during stage 1 sleep/wakefulness in one case (with sex provoked by the bed partner). Confusional arousals (CAs) were diagnosed as the cause of “sleepsex” (“sexsomnia”) in 26 cases (with obstructive sleep apnea [OSA] comorbidity in 4 cases), and sleepwalking in 2 cases, totaling 90.3% (28/31) of cases being NREM sleep parasomnias. REM behavior disorder was the presumed cause in the other 3 cases. Bedtime clonazepam therapy was effective in 90% (9/10) of treated parasomnia cases; nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy was effective in controlling comorbid OSA and CAs in both treated cases. All five treated patients with sleep related sexual seizures responded to anticonvulsant therapy. The hypersexuality in KLS, which was twice as common in males compared to females, had no reported effective therapy. Conclusions: A broad range of sleep related disorders associated with abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences exists, with major clinical and forensic consequences. Citation: Schenck CH; Arnulf I; Mahowald MW et al. Sleep and sex: what can go wrong? A review of the literature on sleep related disorders and abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences. SLEEP 2007;30(6):683-702. PMID:17580590

  11. Sleepiness and health in midlife women: results of the National Sleep Foundation's 2007 Sleep in America poll.

    PubMed

    Chasens, Eileen R; Twerski, Sarah R; Yang, Kyeongra; Umlauf, Mary Grace

    2010-01-01

    The 2007 Sleep in America poll, a random-sample telephone survey, provided data for this study of sleep in community-dwelling women aged 40 to 60 years. The majority of the respondents were post- or perimenopausal, overweight, married or living with someone, and reported good health. A subsample (20%) reported sleepiness that consistently interfered with daily life; the sleepy subsample reported more symptoms of insomnia, restless legs syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea, depression and anxiety, as well as more problems with health-promoting behaviors, drowsy driving, job performance, household duties, and personal relationships. Hierarchical regression showed that sleepiness along with depressive symptoms, medical comorbidities, obesity, and lower education were associated with poor self-rated health, whereas menopause status (pre-, peri- or post-) was not. These results suggest that sleep disruptions and daytime sleepiness negatively affect the daily life of midlife women. PMID:20582759

  12. Sleep and vestibular adaptation: implications for function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, J. A.; Stickgold, R.; Pace-Schott, E. F.; Leslie, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal human performance depends upon integrated sensorimotor and cognitive functions, both of which are known to be exquisitely sensitive to loss of sleep. Under the microgravity conditions of space flight, adaptation of both sensorimotor (especially vestibular) and cognitive functions (especially orientation) must occur quickly--and be maintained--despite any concurrent disruptions of sleep that may be caused by microgravity itself, or by the uncomfortable sleeping conditions of the spacecraft. It is the three-way interaction between sleep quality, general work efficiency, and sensorimotor integration that is the subject of this paper and the focus of new work in our laboratory. To record sleep under field conditions including microgravity, we utilize a novel system called the Nightcap that we have developed and extensively tested on normal and sleep-disordered subjects. To perturb the vestibular system in ground-based studies, we utilize a variety of experimental conditions including optokinetic stimulation and both minifying and reversing goggle paradigms that have been extensively studied in relation to plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using these techniques we will test the hypothesis that vestibular adaptation both provokes and is enhanced by REM sleep under both ground-based and space conditions. In this paper we describe preliminary results of some of our studies.

  13. Artigo Original Qualidade de sono e função pulmonar em adolescentes portadores de anemia falciforme clinicamente estáveis* Quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nogueira Arrais de Souza; Carlos Alberto de Assis Viegas

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate quality of sleep and pulmonary function in clinically stable adolescents with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study involving 50 patients with SCA submitted to nocturnal polysomnography and spirometry at the Brasília University Hospital. Anthropometric, polysomnographic and pulmonary function data were analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry

  14. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Alters Sleep Stage Transition Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matt T. Bianchi; Sydney S. Cash; Joseph Mietus; Chung-Kang Peng; Robert Thomas; Pedro Antonio Valdes-Sosa

    2010-01-01

    IntroductionEnhanced characterization of sleep architecture, compared with routine polysomnographic metrics such as stage percentages and sleep efficiency, may improve the predictive phenotyping of fragmented sleep. One approach involves using stage transition analysis to characterize sleep continuity.Methods and Principal FindingsWe analyzed hypnograms from Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) participants using the following stage designations: wake after sleep onset (WASO), non-rapid eye

  15. Sleep-Inducing Substances in the Regulation of Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Ramesh; Navita Kaushal; Velayudhan Mohan Kumar

    \\u000a We spend almost one-third of our life sleeping, yet very little is understood as to why we need sleep or how do we sleep.\\u000a The extrinsic and intrinsic controlling mechanisms of sleep have fascinated scientists for generations and many different\\u000a theories, networks and endogenous compounds have been proposed. Although various substances are labeled 'sleep-inducing substances'\\u000a for example, delta sleep inducing

  16. Sleep disturbances in caregivers of persons with dementia: Contributing factors and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    McCurry, Susan M.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Teri, Linda; Vitiello, Michael V.

    2007-01-01

    Estimates suggest that there are more than 10 million adult caregivers of persons with dementia, two-thirds of who experience some form of sleep disturbance during the course of their caregiving career. Health care professionals are in the best position to detect and address this significant public health problem. Three major contributors to caregiver sleep disturbance are discussed in this paper: 1) the presence of caregiver disrupted sleep routines; 2) caregiver burden and depression; and, 3) the caregiver’s physical health status. Successful treatment of a caregiver’s sleep disturbance requires careful consideration of each of these contributors. We review and analyze the scientific literature concerning the multiple complex factors associated with the development and maintenance of sleep disturbances in caregivers. We provide a clinical vignette that illustrates the interplay of these contributing factors, and close by providing recommendations for clinicians and researchers treating and investigating the development and maintenance of sleep problems in family caregivers. PMID:17287134

  17. Sleep normalization and decrease in dissociative experiences: evaluation in an inpatient sample.

    PubMed

    van der Kloet, Dalena; Giesbrecht, Timo; Lynn, Steven Jay; Merckelbach, Harald; de Zutter, André

    2012-02-01

    We conducted a longitudinal study to investigate the relation between sleep experiences and dissociative symptoms in a mixed inpatient sample at a private clinic evaluated on arrival and at discharge 6 to 8 weeks later. Using hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation modeling, we found a link between sleep experiences and dissociative symptoms and determined that specifically decreases in narcoleptic experiences rather than insomnia accompany a reduction in dissociative symptoms. Although sleep improvements were associated with a general reduction in psychopathology, this reduction could not fully account for the substantial and specific effect that we found for dissociation. Our findings are consistent with Watson's (2001) hypothesis that disruptions in the sleep-wake cycle lead to intrusions of sleep phenomena into waking consciousness, resulting in dissociative experiences. Accordingly, sleep hygiene may contribute to the treatment or prevention of dissociative symptoms. PMID:21842964

  18. Sympathetic and Catecholaminergic Alterations in Sleep Apnea with Particular Emphasis on Children

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Fahed; Gozal, David; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is involved in the regulation of major organ functions in the human body, and disruption of sleep potentially can elicit organ dysfunction. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the most prevalent sleep disorder of breathing in adults and children, and its manifestations reflect the interactions between intermittent hypoxia, intermittent hypercapnia, increased intra-thoracic pressure swings, and sleep fragmentation, as elicited by the episodic changes in upper airway resistance during sleep. The sympathetic nervous system is an important modulator of the cardiovascular, immune, endocrine and metabolic systems, and alterations in autonomic activity may lead to metabolic imbalance and organ dysfunction. Here we review how OSA and its constitutive components can lead to perturbation of the autonomic nervous system in general, and to altered regulation of catecholamines, both of which then playing an important role in some of the mechanisms underlying OSA-induced morbidities. PMID:22319509

  19. Sleep in women: Normal values for sleep stages and position and the effect of age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol and hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carin Sahlin; Karl A. Franklin; Hans Stenlund; Eva Lindberg

    2009-01-01

    ObjectivesTo define normal values for total sleep time, sleep latency, sleep efficiency, sleep stages and sleeping positions in women and to investigate how sleep is affected by age, obesity, sleep apnea, smoking, alcohol dependency and hypertension.

  20. How Much Sleep Do I Need?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enough sleep. Why Don't Teens Get Enough Sleep? Until recently, teens often got a bad rap ... noticeable sleep deficit over time. Continue Why Is Sleep Important? A sleep deficit affects everything from someone's ...

  1. Dichotic listening and sleep deprivation: vigilance effects.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Laberg, Jon Christian; Eid, Jarle; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2002-12-01

    Twelve sleep-deprived and 13 non-deprived Navy cadets were tested with the dichotic listening procedure for effects of sleep deprivation on hemispheric asymmetry and sustained attention. Consonant-vowel syllables were presented to the subjects in three different conditions, a divided (non-forced) attention condition, a forced right ear and a forced left ear attention condition. In the two forced attention conditions the subjects were instructed to focus attention only on the right or left ear stimulus. The results showed an expected right ear advantage for both groups during the non-forced and forced right attention conditions, indicating superior left hemisphere processing. During the forced left attention condition, the sleep-deprived subjects showed no ear advantage at all, while the non-deprived subjects showed an expected left ear advantage. The results are discussed within a theoretical framework of a dual process model, where sleep deprivation disrupts the ability to sustain attention, caused by a temporary failure of the right hemisphere's top-down (instruction-driven) processing to override the left hemisphere's bottom-up (stimulus-driven) processing. PMID:12500780

  2. CHAPTER SEVEN Circadian Rhythms, Sleep

    E-print Network

    Pennsylvania, University of

    ­wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertnessCHAPTER SEVEN Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance Namni Goel*, Mathias

  3. PROCESSES ORGANISMIC: SLEEP AND DREAMING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews studies relating biological and mental activity during sleep and discusses how sleep affects waking behavior. The research shows that sleep and waking behaviors—-both physiological and cognitive--are more directly related than previously imagined....

  4. Sleep Changes in Older Adults

    MedlinePLUS

    ... on your side, stop drinking alcohol or using sleep medicines. Many people who have sleep apnea need to ... legs syndrome also have periodic limb movements during sleep. Medicine may help both of these problems. What can ...

  5. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep-wake syndrome - irregular ... routine during the day. The amount of total sleep time is normal, but the body clock loses ... have a different condition, such as shift work sleep disorder or jet lag syndrome.

  6. Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mobile App Who We Are Contact Us Donate Sleep and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Sleep difficulties are common ... More: Treating Pain in IBS How to improve sleep While there are a variety of medications that ...

  7. Experiential Versus Analytical Emotion Regulation and Sleep: Breaking the Link Between Negative Events and Sleep Disturbance

    E-print Network

    Gross, James J.

    of the differential effects of these two forms of emotion regulation on sleep are discussed. Keywords: sleep, REM-sleep awakenings from REM-sleep (dream sleep characterized by REM, but also low muscle tone and rapid, low- voltage waves), less % REM-sleep, % SWS sleep (slow wave sleep or deep sleep characterized by delta waves

  8. Effects of Acute 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine on Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in MDMA Users: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Surilla; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn; Tancer, Manuel; Roehrs, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) affects monoamine neurotransmitters that play a critical role in sleep and daytime alertness. However, the acute effects of MDMA on sleep and daytime sleepiness have not been studied under placebo-controlled conditions. This study was designed to establish the effects of acute MDMA or placebo administration and sleep restriction on sleep and daytime sleepiness. Design: Participants with a history of MDMA use were studied on 3 sessions of 3 nights (baseline, treatment, and recovery) and 2 days (following night 2 and 3) per session. On treatment nights (night 2), participants received placebo or 2 mg/kg of MDMA or underwent a restricted bed schedule with placebo. Sleep restriction was a positive control to compare sleep loss and consequent sleepiness associated with MDMA use. The scheduled sleep period was 8 hours long on nonrestricted nights, and standard sleep recordings and daytime sleepiness tests were conducted. Age-matched controls received 1 night and day of standard sleep and daytime sleepiness testing. Setting: Sleep laboratory Participants: Seven recreational MDMA-users and 13 matched control subjects. Measurements and Results: Acute MDMA shortened sleep primarily by increasing sleep latency, and it reduced stage 3/4 sleep and suppressed rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The MDMA-reduced sleep time was not associated with increased daytime sleepiness the following day, as was seen in the sleep-restriction condition. Compared with control subjects, the MDMA users on the first night in the laboratory had shorter total sleep times and less stage 3/4 sleep. Average daily sleep latency on daytime sleepiness tests the day after nighttime placebo administration was increased in MDMA users compared with the control subjects, and MDMA users had an elevated number of sleep-onset REM periods on these tests, compared with control subjects. Conclusions: Acute MDMA administration disrupts sleep and REM sleep, specifically, without producing daytime sleepiness such as sleep restriction does. Compared with control subjects, recreational MDMA users showed evidence of hyperarousal and impaired REM function. The mechanism behind these effects is likely due to the deleterious effects of MDMA on catecholamines.1–3 Citation: Randall S; Johanson CE; Tancer M; Roehrs T. Effects of acute 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on sleep and daytime sleepiness in MDMA users: a preliminary study. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1513-1519. PMID:19928391

  9. The Effects of Sleep Extension on the Athletic Performance of Collegiate Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Cheri D.; Mah, Kenneth E.; Kezirian, Eric J.; Dement, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep extension over multiple weeks on specific measures of athletic performance as well as reaction time, mood, and daytime sleepiness. Setting: Stanford Sleep Disorders Clinic and Research Laboratory and Maples Pavilion, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Participants: Eleven healthy students on the Stanford University men's varsity basketball team (mean age 19.4 ± 1.4 years). Interventions: Subjects maintained their habitual sleep-wake schedule for a 2–4 week baseline followed by a 5–7 week sleep extension period. Subjects obtained as much nocturnal sleep as possible during sleep extension with a minimum goal of 10 h in bed each night. Measures of athletic performance specific to basketball were recorded after every practice including a timed sprint and shooting accuracy. Reaction time, levels of daytime sleepiness, and mood were monitored via the Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and Profile of Mood States (POMS), respectively. Results: Total objective nightly sleep time increased during sleep extension compared to baseline by 110.9 ± 79.7 min (P < 0.001). Subjects demonstrated a faster timed sprint following sleep extension (16.2 ± 0.61 sec at baseline vs. 15.5 ± 0.54 sec at end of sleep extension, P < 0.001). Shooting accuracy improved, with free throw percentage increasing by 9% and 3-point field goal percentage increasing by 9.2% (P < 0.001). Mean PVT reaction time and Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores decreased following sleep extension (P < 0.01). POMS scores improved with increased vigor and decreased fatigue subscales (P < 0.001). Subjects also reported improved overall ratings of physical and mental well-being during practices and games. Conclusions: Improvements in specific measures of basketball performance after sleep extension indicate that optimal sleep is likely beneficial in reaching peak athletic performance. Citation: Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players. SLEEP 2011;34(7):943-950. PMID:21731144

  10. Sleep apnea syndrome in Parkinson's disease. A case-control study in 49 patients.

    PubMed

    Diederich, Nico J; Vaillant, Michel; Leischen, Mike; Mancuso, Giovanna; Golinval, Serge; Nati, Romain; Schlesser, Marc

    2005-11-01

    In PD, the impact of nocturnal respiration on sleep continuity and architecture has not been systematically investigated by polysomnography (PSG). We performed a case-control study with retrospective analysis of PSG data of 49 PD patients. After classifying the PD patients according to their apnea/hypopnea index (AHI), they were matched with 49 controls in terms of age, gender, and AHI. There were 21 PD patients (43%) who had sleep apnea syndrome (SAS), classified as mild (AHI, 5-15) in 10 patients, moderate (AHI, >15-30) in 4 patients, and severe (AHI, > 30) in 7 patients. PD patients had more deep sleep (P = 0.02) and more nocturnal awakenings (P < 0.001) than the controls. Their body mass index (BMI) was lower (P = 0.04), and they maintained a more favorable respiratory profile, with higher mean and minimal oxygen saturation values (P = 0.006 and 0.01, respectively). These differences were preserved when only considering PD patients with AHI > 15. PD patients had less obstructive sleep apneas (P = 0.035), independently from the factor AHI. Only the respiratory changes of 4 PD patients with BMI > 27 and AHI > 15 (8%) approximated those seen in the controls. At an early or middle stage of the disease, non-obese PD patients frequently have AHI values suggesting SAS, however, without the oxygen desaturation profile of SAS. Longitudinal studies of patients with such "abortive" SAS are warranted to establish if this finding reflects benign nocturnal respiratory muscle dyskinesia or constitutes a precursor sign of dysautonomia in PD. PMID:16007620

  11. Altered cortical and subcortical local coherence in obstructive sleep apnea: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Sicilia, Isabella; Richiardi, Jonas; Vatti, Giampaolo; Polizzotto, Nicola Riccardo; Marino, Daniela; Rocchi, Raffaele; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Rossi, Alessandro

    2013-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome is the most common sleep-related breathing disorder, characterized by excessive snoring and repetitive apneas and arousals, which leads to fragmented sleep and, most importantly, to intermittent nocturnal hypoxaemia during apneas. Considering previous studies about morphovolumetric alterations in sleep apnea, in this study we aimed to investigate for the first time the functional connectivity profile of OSA patients and age-gender-matched healthy controls, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty severe OSA patients (mean age 43.2 ± 8 years; mean apnea-hypopnea index, 36.3 h(-1) ) and 20 non-apneic age-gender-body mass index (BMI)-matched controls underwent fMRI and polysomnographic (PSG) registration, as well as mood and sleepiness evaluation. Cerebro-cerebellar regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were calculated from fMRI acquisition, in order to identify pathology-related alterations in the local coherence of low-frequency signal (<0.1 Hz). Multivariate pattern classification was also performed using ReHo values as features. We found a significant pattern of cortical and subcortical abnormal local connectivity in OSA patients, suggesting an overall rearrangement of hemispheric connectivity balance, with a decrease of local coherence observed in right temporal, parietal and frontal lobe regions. Moreover, an increase in bilateral thalamic and somatosensory/motor cortices coherence have been found, a finding due possibly to an aberrant adaptation to incomplete sleep-wake transitions during nocturnal apneic episodes, induced by repetitive choke sensation and physical efforts attempting to restore breathing. Different hemispheric roles into sleep processes and a possible thalamus key role in OSA neurophysiopathology are intriguing issues that future studies should attempt to clarify. PMID:23171248

  12. Sleep and Food Preferences

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Elizabeth Ashley

    2011-12-31

    professionals the residents might be more conscious of the foods they eat and might not be representative of the general public. 28 This study was designed to only compare the effect of a single night of sleep deprivation to a single night of normal... States there is an estimated 50 to 70 million people 2 who do not receive adequate amounts of sleep (3). Adequate sleep is typically defined as obtaining at least 7 to 8 hours of sleep per night (3). One of the simplest possible mechanisms...

  13. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  14. Sleep, Memory & Brain Rhythms

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Brendon O.; Buzsáki, György

    2015-01-01

    Sleep occupies roughly one-third of our lives, yet the scientific community is still not entirely clear on its purpose or function. Existing data point most strongly to its role in memory and homeostasis: that sleep helps maintain basic brain functioning via a homeostatic mechanism that loosens connections between overworked synapses, and that sleep helps consolidate and re-form important memories. In this review, we will summarize these theories, but also focus on substantial new information regarding the relation of electrical brain rhythms to sleep. In particular, while REM sleep may contribute to the homeostatic weakening of overactive synapses, a prominent and transient oscillatory rhythm called “sharp-wave ripple” seems to allow for consolidation of behaviorally relevant memories across many structures of the brain. We propose that a theory of sleep involving the division of labor between two states of sleep–REM and non-REM, the latter of which has an abundance of ripple electrical activity–might allow for a fusion of the two main sleep theories. This theory then postulates that sleep performs a combination of consolidation and homeostasis that promotes optimal knowledge retention as well as optimal waking brain function. PMID:26097242

  15. Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy with a mutation in the CHRNB2 gene.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Otero, Fernando; Quesada, Mar; Morales-Corraliza, José; Martínez-Parra, Carlos; Gómez-Garre, Pilar; Serratosa, José M

    2008-03-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE; MIM 600513) has been associated with mutations in the genes coding for the alfa-4 (CHRNA4), beta-2 (CHRNB2), and alpha-2 (CHRNA2) subunits of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and for the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). A four-generation ADNFLE family with six affected members was identified. All affected members presented the clinical characteristics of ADNFLE. Interictal awake and sleep EEG recordings showed no epileptiform abnormalities. Ictal video-EEG recordings showed focal seizures with frontal lobe semiology. Mutation analysis of the CHRNB2 gene revealed a c.859G>A transition (Val287Met) within the second transmembrane domain, identical to that previously described in a Scottish ADNFLE family. To our knowledge, this is the third family reported presenting a mutation in CHRNB2. The clinical phenotype appears similar to that described with mutations in CHRNA4, suggesting that mutations in these two subunits lead to similar functional alterations of the nAChR. PMID:17900292

  16. Brief Communications Nocturnal Light Exposure Impairs Affective Responses in a

    E-print Network

    Nelson, Randy J.

    include television and computer screens, light pollution, shift work, compact fluorescent light (CFLBrief Communications Nocturnal Light Exposure Impairs Affective Responses in a Wavelength; light is the most potent entraining cue. In mammals, light is detected by (1) rods and cones, which

  17. Wild Chimpanzees on the Edge: Nocturnal Activities in Croplands

    PubMed Central

    Krief, Sabrina; Cibot, Marie; Bortolamiol, Sarah; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Jean-Michel; Masi, Shelly

    2014-01-01

    In a rapidly changing landscape highly impacted by anthropogenic activities, the great apes are facing new challenges to coexist with humans. For chimpanzee communities inhabiting encroached territories, not bordered by rival conspecifics but by human agricultural fields, such boundaries are risky areas. To investigate the hypothesis that they use specific strategies for incursions out of the forest into maize fields to prevent the risk of detection by humans guarding their field, we carried out video recordings of chimpanzees at the edge of the forest bordered by a maize plantation in Kibale National Park, Uganda. Contrary to our expectations, large parties are engaged in crop-raids, including vulnerable individuals such as females with clinging infants. More surprisingly chimpanzees were crop-raiding during the night. They also stayed longer in the maize field and presented few signs of vigilance and anxiety during these nocturnal crop-raids. While nocturnal activities of chimpanzees have been reported during full moon periods, this is the first record of frequent and repeated nocturnal activities after twilight, in darkness. Habitat destruction may have promoted behavioural adjustments such as nocturnal exploitation of open croplands. PMID:25338066

  18. Successful use of the nocturnal urine alarm for diurnal enuresis.

    PubMed Central

    Friman, P C; Vollmer, D

    1995-01-01

    We report the effects of using a urine alarm, typically employed for nocturnal enuresis, to treat chronic diurnal enuresis in a 15-year-old female resident at Boys' Town. The results of an ABAB reversal design indicate that the alarm eliminated wetting in both treatment phases and that continence was maintained at 3- and 6-month follow-up. PMID:7706154

  19. Lymphocyte and Eosinophil Influx into Alveolar Tissue in Nocturnal Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MONICA KRAFT; RICHARD J. MARTIN; SUSAN WILSON; RATKO DJUKANOVIC; STEPHEN T. HOLGATE

    1999-01-01

    We have shown in nocturnal asthma that alveolar tissue eosinophils are increased at night as com- pared with the proximal airway, and that they correlate with the overnight decrement in lung func- tion. As the CD4 1 cell is thought to be the principal orchestrating cell in eosinophil recruitment, we evaluated its presence in the proximal and distal airways in

  20. Wide-field motion tuning in nocturnal hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Theobald, Jamie C.; Warrant, Eric J.; O'Carroll, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Nocturnal hawkmoths are known for impressive visually guided behaviours in dim light, such as hovering while feeding from nectar-bearing flowers. This requires tight visual feedback to estimate and counter relative motion. Discrimination of low velocities, as required for stable hovering flight, is fundamentally limited by spatial resolution, yet in the evolution of eyes for nocturnal vision, maintenance of high spatial acuity compromises absolute sensitivity. To investigate these trade-offs, we compared responses of wide-field motion-sensitive neurons in three species of hawkmoth: Manduca sexta (a crepuscular hoverer), Deilephila elpenor (a fully nocturnal hoverer) and Acherontia atropos (a fully nocturnal hawkmoth that does not hover as it feeds uniquely from honey in bees' nests). We show that despite smaller eyes, the motion pathway of D. elpenor is tuned to higher spatial frequencies and lower temporal frequencies than A. atropos, consistent with D. elpenor's need to detect low velocities for hovering. Acherontia atropos, however, presumably evolved low-light sensitivity without sacrificing temporal acuity. Manduca sexta, active at higher light levels, is tuned to the highest spatial frequencies of the three and temporal frequencies comparable with A. atropos. This yields similar tuning to low velocities as in D. elpenor, but with the advantage of shorter neural delays in processing motion. PMID:19906663

  1. EFFECT OF OCCUPATIONAL NOISE ON THE NOCTURNAL SLEEP ARCHITECTURE OF HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. GITANJALI; R. DHAMODHARAN

    Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Abstract : Background & objectives Background & objectives Background & objectives Background & objectives Background & objectives ::::: Noise is considered to be a non-specific stressor which generally causes physiological and psychological effects in an individual. Many occupations involve workers being subjected to loud noise levels without adequate protective measures. The study was done

  2. Sleep state instabilities in major depressive disorder: Detection and quantification with electrocardiogram-based cardiopulmonary coupling analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Albert C; Yang, Cheng-Hung; Hong, Chen-Jee; Tsai, Shih-Jen; Kuo, Chung-Hsun; Peng, Chung-Kang; Mietus, Joseph E; Goldberger, Ary L; Thomas, Robert J

    2011-02-01

    Sleep disruption is an important aspect of major depressive disorder but lacks an objective and inexpensive means of assessment. We evaluated the utility of electrocardiogram (ECG)-based cardiopulmonary coupling analysis to quantify physiologic sleep stability in patients with major depression. Relative to controls, unmedicated depressed patients had a reduction in high-frequency coupling, an index of stable sleep, an increase in low-frequency coupling, an index of unstable sleep, and an increase in very-low-frequency coupling, an index of wakefulness/REM sleep. The medicated depressed group showed a restoration of stable sleep to a level comparable with that of the control group. ECG-based cardiopulmonary coupling analysis may provide a simple, cost-efficient point-of-care method to quantify sleep quality/stability and to objectively evaluate the severity of insomnia in patients with major depression. PMID:20624250

  3. Clinical validity of the descriptor. "presence of a belief that one must eat in order to get to sleep" in diagnosing the Night Eating Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vinai, Piergiuseppe; Cardetti, Silvia; Studt, Stacia; Carpegna, Gabriella; Ferrato, Noemi; Vallauri, Paola; Casey, Halpern; Vinai, Luisa; Vinai, Paolo; Ferini Strambi, Luigi; Speciale, Maurizio; Manconi, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    The diagnostic criteria for the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) published in 2010 require the presence of two core criteria: evening hyperphagia and/or nocturnal awakenings for ingestion of food and three of five diagnostic descriptors. One of the descriptors is as follows: "The belief that one must eat in order to fall asleep". In this study we evaluated whether this conviction is significantly more prominent in obese individuals suffering from insomnia and nocturnal eating, than among obese patients with insomnia who do not eat at night. Ninety-eight obese subjects afflicted by insomnia were included in this study. Eight were affected by NES, 33 by Binge Eating Disorder (BED), and 13 by both BED and NES. Subjects' insomnia and sleep disturbances were assessed using the Insomnia Severity Index and the Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire. The presence of the belief that one must eat at night in order to sleep was evaluated with the question: "Do you need to eat in order to get back to sleep when you wake up at night?" Patients affected by NES and by both BED and NES were convinced that nocturnal food intake was necessary in order to fall back asleep after a night time awakening. The presence of this belief seemed to be a critical factor in identifying the presence of the Night Eating Syndrome among obese subjects suffering from insomnia. PMID:24361311

  4. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of ? and ? waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  5. Propofol versus flunitrazepam for inducing and maintaining sleep in postoperative ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Cornelius; Wallenborn, Jan; Olthoff, Derk; Kaisers, Udo X.; Rüffert, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Context: Sleep deprivation is a common problem on intensive care units (ICUs) influencing not only cognition, but also cellular functions. An appropriate sleep-wake cycle should therefore be maintained to improve patients’ outcome. Multiple disruptive factors on ICUs necessitate the administration of sedating and sleep-promoting drugs for patients who are not analgo-sedated. Aims: The objective of the present study was to evaluate sleep quantity and sleep quality in ICU patients receiving either propofol or flunitrazepam. Settings and Design: Monocentric, randomized, double-blinded trial. Materials and Methods: A total of 66 ICU patients were enrolled in the study (flunitrazepam n = 32, propofol n = 34). Propofol was injected continuously (2 mg/kg/h), flunitrazepam as a bolus dose (0.015 mg/kg). Differences between groups were evaluated using a standardized sleep diary and the bispectral index (BIS). Statistical Analysis Used: Group comparisons were performed by Mann-Whitney U-Test. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Sleep quality and the frequency of awakenings were significantly better in the propofol group (Pg). In the same group lower BIS values were recorded (median BIS propofol 74.05, flunitrazepam 78.7 [P = 0.016]). BIS values had to be classified predominantly to slow-wave sleep under propofol and light sleep after administration of flunitrazepam. Sleep quality improved in the Pg with decreasing frequency of awakenings and in the flunitrazepam group with increasing sleep duration. Conclusions: Continuous low-dose injection of propofol for promoting and maintaining night sleep in ICU patients who are not analgo-sedated was superior to flunitrazepam regarding sleep quality and sleep structure. PMID:24872650

  6. Sleep disturbances, body fat distribution, food intake and/or energy expenditure: pathophysiological aspects.

    PubMed

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Shechter, Ari

    2014-01-01

    Data from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have illustrated a relationship between short sleep duration (SSD) and weight gain. Individuals with SSD are heavier and gain more weight over time than normal-duration sleepers. This sleep-obesity relationship may have consequences for obesity treatments, as it appears that short sleepers have reduced ability to lose weight. Laboratory-based clinical studies found that experimental sleep restriction affects energy expenditure and intake, possibly providing a mechanistic explanation for the weight gain observed in chronic short sleepers. Specifically, compared to normal sleep duration, sleep restriction increases food intake beyond the energetic costs of increased time spent awake. Reasons for this increased energy intake after sleep restriction are unclear but may include disrupted appetite-regulating hormones, altered brain mechanisms involved in the hedonic aspects of appetite, and/or changes in sleep quality and architecture. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder at the intersection of sleep and obesity, and the characteristics of the disorder illustrate many of the effects of sleep disturbances on body weight and vice versa. Specifically, while obesity is among the main risk factors for OSA, the disorder itself and its associated disturbances in sleep quality and architecture seem to alter energy balance parameters and may induce further weight gain. Several intervention trials have shown that weight loss is associated with reduced OSA severity. Thus, weight loss may improve sleep, and these improvements may promote further weight loss. Future studies should establish whether increasing sleep duration/improving sleep quality can induce weight loss. PMID:25372728

  7. Potential role of orexin and sleep modulation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jee Hoon; Jiang, Hong; Finn, Mary Beth; Stewart, Floy R; Mahan, Thomas E; Cirrito, John R; Heda, Ashish; Snider, B Joy; Li, Mingjie; Yanagisawa, Masashi; de Lecea, Luis; Holtzman, David M

    2014-12-15

    Age-related aggregation of amyloid-? (A?) is an upstream pathological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and it disrupts the sleep-wake cycle. The amount of sleep declines with aging and to a greater extent in AD. Poor sleep quality and insufficient amounts of sleep have been noted in humans with preclinical evidence of AD. However, how the amount and quality of sleep affects A? aggregation is not yet well understood. Orexins (hypocretins) initiate and maintain wakefulness, and loss of orexin-producing neurons causes narcolepsy. We tried to determine whether orexin release or secondary changes in sleep via orexin modulation affect A? pathology. Amyloid precursor protein (APP)/Presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, in which the orexin gene is knocked out, showed a marked decrease in the amount of A? pathology in the brain with an increase in sleep time. Focal overexpression of orexin in the hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice did not alter the total amount of sleep/wakefulness and the amount of A? pathology. In contrast, sleep deprivation or increasing wakefulness by rescue of orexinergic neurons in APP/PS1 mice lacking orexin increased the amount of A? pathology in the brain. Collectively, modulation of orexin and its effects on sleep appear to modulate A? pathology in the brain. PMID:25422493

  8. Potential role of orexin and sleep modulation in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Jee Hoon; Jiang, Hong; Finn, Mary Beth; Stewart, Floy R.; Mahan, Thomas E.; Cirrito, John R.; Heda, Ashish; Snider, B. Joy; Li, Mingjie; Yanagisawa, Masashi; de Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Age-related aggregation of amyloid-? (A?) is an upstream pathological event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis, and it disrupts the sleep–wake cycle. The amount of sleep declines with aging and to a greater extent in AD. Poor sleep quality and insufficient amounts of sleep have been noted in humans with preclinical evidence of AD. However, how the amount and quality of sleep affects A? aggregation is not yet well understood. Orexins (hypocretins) initiate and maintain wakefulness, and loss of orexin-producing neurons causes narcolepsy. We tried to determine whether orexin release or secondary changes in sleep via orexin modulation affect A? pathology. Amyloid precursor protein (APP)/Presenilin 1 (PS1) transgenic mice, in which the orexin gene is knocked out, showed a marked decrease in the amount of A? pathology in the brain with an increase in sleep time. Focal overexpression of orexin in the hippocampus in APP/PS1 mice did not alter the total amount of sleep/wakefulness and the amount of A? pathology. In contrast, sleep deprivation or increasing wakefulness by rescue of orexinergic neurons in APP/PS1 mice lacking orexin increased the amount of A? pathology in the brain. Collectively, modulation of orexin and its effects on sleep appear to modulate A? pathology in the brain. PMID:25422493

  9. Polysomnographic Sleep Characteristics of Generally-Anxious and Healthy Children Assessed in the Home Environment

    PubMed Central

    Patriquin, Michelle A.; Mellman, Thomas A.; Glaze, Daniel G.; Alfano, Candice A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Using laboratory-based polysomnography (PSG) we recently provided evidence of significantly prolonged sleep onset latency (SOL) and reduced latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep among non-depressed children with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) compared to healthy age-matched controls. In the current study we conducted unattended ambulatory PSG in a new sample of children with GAD and controls in order to examine sleeping characteristics in the home environment. Method Thirty-two children (ages of 7–11 years) including 16 children with primary GAD and 16 controls receiving no psychotropic medications were studied. The anxious group had a primary diagnosis of GAD without secondary mood disorders and controls were free of any medical or psychiatric diagnoses. All participants underwent structured diagnostic assessments and completed one night of home-based polysomnography (PSG). Results Children with GAD exhibited significantly higher sleep efficiency (SE) and fewer rapid eye movement (REM) sleep periods compared to controls. Self-reported somatic arousal during the pre-sleep period was negatively correlated with the percentage of total REM sleep among controls, but positively correlated with REM sleep percentage in the GAD group. Limitations A small sample size and one night of PSG only. Conclusions Home-based PSG recording do not provide evidence of disrupted sleep patterns in children with GAD. Contextual factors that better elucidate differences between laboratory and home-based sleep findings are suggested as important directions for future research. PMID:24751311

  10. Larval Population Density Alters Adult Sleep in Wild-Type Drosophila melanogaster but Not in Amnesiac Mutant Flies.

    PubMed

    Chi, Michael W; Griffith, Leslie C; Vecsey, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has many important biological functions, but how sleep is regulated remains poorly understood. In humans, social isolation and other stressors early in life can disrupt adult sleep. In fruit flies housed at different population densities during early adulthood, social enrichment was shown to increase subsequent sleep, but it is unknown if population density during early development can also influence adult sleep. To answer this question, we maintained Drosophila larvae at a range of population densities throughout larval development, kept them isolated during early adulthood, and then tested their sleep patterns. Our findings reveal that flies that had been isolated as larvae had more fragmented sleep than those that had been raised at higher population densities. This effect was more prominent in females than in males. Larval population density did not affect sleep in female flies that were mutant for amnesiac, which has been shown to be required for normal memory consolidation, adult sleep regulation, and brain development. In contrast, larval population density effects on sleep persisted in female flies lacking the olfactory receptor or83b, suggesting that olfactory signals are not required for the effects of larval population density on adult sleep. These findings show that population density during early development can alter sleep behavior in adulthood, suggesting that genetic and/or structural changes are induced by this developmental manipulation that persist through metamorphosis. PMID:25116571

  11. Alterations in Cyclic Alternating Pattern Associated with Phase Advanced Sleep are Differentially Modulated by Gaboxadol and Zolpidem

    PubMed Central

    Svetnik, Vladimir; Ferri, Raffaele; Ray, Shubhankar; Ma, Junshui; Walsh, James K.; Snyder, Ellen; Ebert, Bjarke; Deacon, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in a phase advance model of transient insomnia and the effects of gaboxadol and zolpidem. Design: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study in which habitual sleep time was advanced by 4 h. Setting: 6 sleep research laboratories in US Participants: 55 healthy subjects (18-57 y) Interventions: Gaboxadol 15 mg (GBX), zolpidem 10 mg (ZOL), and placebo (PBO). Measurements: Routine polysomnographic (PSG) measures, CAP, spectral power density, and self-reported sleep measures Results: The phase advance model of transient insomnia produced significant changes in CAP parameters. Both GBX and ZOL significantly and differentially modified CAP parameters in the direction of more stable sleep. GBX brought the CAP rate in stage 1 sleep and slow wave sleep (SWS) closer to baseline levels but did not significantly change the CAP rate in stage 2. ZOL reduced the CAP rate in stage 2 to near baseline levels, whereas the CAP rate in stage 1 and SWS was reduced substantially below baseline levels. The CAP parameter A1 index (associated with SWS and sleep continuity) showed the highest correlation with self-reported sleep quality, higher than any traditional PSG, spectral, or other self-reported measures. Conclusion: Disruptions in CAP produced by phase advanced sleep were significantly and differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem. The relative independence of CAP parameters from other electrophysiological measures of sleep, their high sensitivity to sleep disruption, and their strong association with subjective sleep quality suggest that CAP variables may serve as valuable endpoints in future insomnia research. Citation: Svetnik V; Ferri R; Ray S; Ma J; Walsh JK; Snyder E; Ebert B; Deacon S. Alterations in cyclic alternating pattern associated with phase advanced sleep are differentially modulated by gaboxadol and zolpidem. SLEEP 2010;33(11):1562-1570. PMID:21102998

  12. Characteristics of Sleep and Wakefulness inWild-Derived Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    HIYOSHI, Hideyuki; TERAO, Akira; OKAMATSU-OGURA, Yuko; KIMURA, Kazuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations in the wild-derived inbred mouse strains are more diverse than that of classical laboratory inbred mouse strains, including C57BL/6J (B6). The sleep/wake and monoamine properties of six wild-derived inbred mouse strains (PGN2, NJL, BLG2, KJR, MSM, HMI) were characterized and compared with those of B6 mice. All examined mice were nocturnal and had a polyphasic sleep pattern with a “main sleep period” identified during the light period. However, there were three sleep/wake phenotypic differences between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain. First, the amount of sleep during the dark phase was comparable with that of B6 mice. However, the amount of sleep during the light phase was more varied among strains, in particular, NJL and HMI had significantly less sleep compared with that of B6 mice. Second, PGN2, NJL, BLG2, and KJR mice showed a “highly awake period” (in which the hourly total sleep time was <10%) immediately after the onset of the dark period, which was not seen in B6 mice. Third, relative to that of B6 mice, PGN2 and KJR mice showed longer duration of wakefulness episodes during the 12-h dark phase. Differences in whole brain noradrenaline, dopamine, and 5-hydroxy-tryptamine contents between the wild-derived mouse strains and B6 strain were also found. These identified phenotypes might be potentially under strong genetic control. Hence, wild-derived inbred mice could be useful for identifying the genetic factors underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:24770646

  13. Additional categories of sleep-related eating disorders and the current status of treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenck, C H; Hurwitz, T D; O'Connor, K A; Mahowald, M W

    1993-08-01

    Sleep-related eating disorders distinct from daytime eating disorders have recently been shown to be associated with sleepwalking (SW), periodic limb movement (PLM) disorder and triazolam abuse in a series of 19 adults. We now report eight other primary or combined etiologies identified by clinical evaluations and polysomnographic monitoring of 19 additional adults (mean age 40 years; 58% female): i) obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), with eating during apnea-induced confusional arousals (n = 3); ii) OSA-PLM disorder (n = 1); iii) familial SW and sleep-related eating (n = 2); iv) SW-PLM disorder (n = 1); v) SW-irregular sleep/wake pattern disorder (n = 1); vi) familial restless legs syndrome and sleep-related eating (n = 2); vii) anorexia nervosa with nocturnal bulimia (n = 2) and viii) amitriptyline treatment of migraines (n = 1). In our cumulative series of 38 patients (excluding six with simple obesity from daytime overeating), 44% were overweight (i.e. > 20% excess weight) from sleep-related eating. Nightly sleep-related binge eating (without hunger or purging) had occurred in 84% of patients. Onset of sleep-related eating was also closely linked with i) acute stress involving reality-based concerns about the safety of family members or about relationship problems (n = 6), ii) abstinence from alcohol and opiate/cocaine abuse (n = 2) and iii) cessation of cigarette smoking (n = 2). Current treatment data indicate a primary role of dopaminergic agents (carbidopa/L-dopa; bromocriptine), often combined with codeine and clonazepam, in controlling most cases involving SW and/or PLM disorder. Fluoxetine was effective in two of three patients. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy controlled sleep-related eating in two OSA patients. PMID:8104356

  14. Animal Models of Sleep Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Linda A; Bhargava, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Problems with sleep affect a large part of the general population, with more than half of all people in the United States reporting difficulties with sleep or insufficient sleep at various times and about 40 million affected chronically. Sleep is a complex physiologic process that is influenced by many internal and environmental factors, and problems with sleep are often related to specific personal circumstances or are based on subjective reports from the affected person. Although human subjects are used widely in the study of sleep and sleep disorders, the study of animals has been invaluable in developing our understanding about the physiology of sleep and the underlying mechanisms of sleep disorders. Historically, the use of animals for the study of sleep disorders has arguably been most fruitful for the condition of narcolepsy, in which studies of dogs and mice revealed previously unsuspected mechanisms for this condition. The current overview considers animal models that have been used to study 4 of the most common human sleep disorders—insomnia, narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome, and sleep apnea—and summarizes considerations relevant to the use of animals for the study of sleep and sleep disorders. Animal-based research has been vital to the elucidation of mechanisms that underlie sleep, its regulation, and its disorders and undoubtedly will remain crucial for discovering and validating sleep mechanisms and testing interventions for sleep disorders. PMID:23582416

  15. Zaleplon and Zolpidem Objectively Alleviate Sleep Disturbances in Mountaineers at a 3,613 Meter Altitude

    PubMed Central

    Beaumont, Maurice; Batéjat, Denise; Piérard, Christophe; Van Beers, Pascal; Philippe, Matthieu; Léger, Damien; Savourey, Gustave; Jouanin, Jean-Claude

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess the effects of zolpidem and zaleplon on nocturnal sleep and breathing patterns at altitude, as well as on daytime attention, fatigue, and sleepiness. Design: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Setting: 3 day and night alpine expedition at 3,613 m altitude. Participants: 12 healthy male trekkers. Procedure: One week spent at 1,000 m altitude (baseline control), followed by 3 periods of 3 consecutive treatment nights (N1-3) at altitude, to test 10 mg zolpidem, 10 mg zaleplon, and placebo given at 21:45. Measures: Sleep from EEG, actigraphy and sleep logs; overnight arterial saturation in oxygen (SpO2) from infrared oximetry; daytime attention, fatigue and sleepiness from a Digit Symbol Substitution Test, questionnaires, and sleep logs; acute mountain sickness (AMS) from the Lake Louise questionnaire. Results: Compared to baseline control, sleep at altitude was significantly impaired in placebo subjects as shown by an increase in the amount of Wakefulness After Sleep Onset (WASO) from 17 ± 8 to 36 ± 13 min (P<0.05) and in arousals from 5 ± 3 to 20 ± 8 (P<0.01). Slow wave sleep (SWS) and stage 4 respectively decreased from 26.7% ± 5.8% to 20.6% ± 5.8% of total sleep time (TST) and from 18.2% ± 5.2% to 12.4% ± 3.1% TST (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Subjects also complained from a feeling of poor sleep quality combined with numerous O2 desaturation episodes. Subjective fatigue and AMS score were increased. Compared to placebo control, WASO decreased by ~6 min (P<0.05) and the sleep efficiency index increased by 2% (P<0.01) under zaleplon and zolpidem, while SWS and stage 4 respectively increased to 22.5% ± 5.4% TST (P<0.05) and to 15.0% ± 3.4% TST (P<0.0001) with zolpidem only; both drugs further improved sleep quality. No adverse effect on nighttime SpO2, daytime attention level, alertness, or mood was observed under either hypnotic. AMS was also found to be reduced under both medications. Conclusions: Both zolpidem and zaleplon have positive effects on sleep at altitude without adversely affecting respiration, attention, alertness, or mood. Hence, they may be safely used by climbers. Citation: Beaumont M; Batéjat D; Piérard C; Van Beers P; Philippe M; Léger D; Savourey G; Jouanin JC. Zaleplon and zolpidem objectively alleviate sleep disturbances in mountaineers at a 3,613 meter altitude. SLEEP 2007;30(11):1527-1533. PMID:18041485

  16. EFFECT OF DAYTIME EXERCISE ON SLEEP EEG AND SUBJECTIVE SLEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Sasazawa; T. Kawada; Y. Kiryu

    1997-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage

  17. Sleep Musicalization: Automatic Music Composition from Sleep Measurements

    E-print Network

    Toivonen, Hannu

    Sleep Musicalization: Automatic Music Composition from Sleep Measurements Aurora Tulilaulu1 as a novel approach to aid analysis and understanding of sleep measurement data. Data musi- calization Sleep Musicalization, a methodology that reads a signal from state-of-the-art mattress sensor, uses

  18. Sleep latency measures of caffeine effects during sleep deprivation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. L. Kelly; M. M. Mitler; M. H. Bonnet

    1997-01-01

    Studies of stimulants during sleep deprivation have used performance assessment batteries (PABs) and occasionally the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) as measures. Another type of sleep latency test, the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT), assesses ability to remain awake without assistance, rather than ability to go to sleep. The MWT previously has not been used in studies of stimulants during

  19. Genotyping Sleep Disorders Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shadan, Farhad F.; Dawson, Arthur; Cronin, John W.; Jamil, Shazia M.; Grizas, Alexandra P.; Koziol, James A.; Kline, Lawrence E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The genetic susceptibility factors underlying sleep disorders might help us predict prognoses and responses to treatment. Several candidate polymorphisms for sleep disorders have been proposed, but there has as yet inadequate replication or validation that the candidates may be useful in the clinical setting. Methods To assess the validity of several candidate associations, we obtained saliva deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples and clinical information from 360 consenting research participants who were undergoing clinical polysomnograms. Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped. These were thought to be related to depression, circadian sleep disorders, sleep apnea, restless legs syndrome (RLS), excessive sleepiness, or to slow waves in sleep. Results With multivariate generalized linear models, the association of TEF rs738499 with depressive symptoms was confirmed. Equivocal statistical evidence of association of rs1801260 (the C3111T SNP in the CLOCK gene) with morningness/eveningness and an association of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) rs429358 with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) were obtained, but these associations were not strong enough to be of clinical value by themselves. Predicted association of SNPs with sleep apnea, RLS, and slow wave sleep were not confirmed. Conclusion The SNPs tested would not, by themselves, be of use for clinical genotyping in a sleep clinic. PMID:20396431

  20. Sleep and chronic pain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanetta C Rains; Donald B Penzien

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The ?-EEG sleep anomaly has been associated with chronic benign pain syndromes. Although controversial, the anomaly is believed by some to be an important biologic correlate of certain otherwise poorly explained painful conditions (e.g., fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome). To shed further light on this phenomenon, this study compared the sleep and psychological characteristics of chronic pain patients who