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Sample records for nocturnal sleep disruption

  1. Trauma Associated Sleep Disorder: A Proposed Parasomnia Encompassing Disruptive Nocturnal Behaviors, Nightmares, and REM without Atonia in Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; O'Reilly, Brian; Polchinski, Jason; Kwon, Herbert P.; Germain, Anne; Roth, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the clinical, polysomnographic and treatment responses of patients with disruptive nocturnal behaviors (DNB) and nightmares following traumatic experiences. Methods: A case series of four young male, active duty U.S. Army Soldiers who presented with DNB and trauma related nightmares. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic, attended overnight polysomnogram (PSG) and received treatment. We report pertinent clinical and PSG findings from our patients and review prior literature on sleep disturbances in trauma survivors. Results: DNB ranged from vocalizations, somnambulism to combative behaviors that injured bed partners. Nightmares were replays of the patient's traumatic experiences. All patients had REM without atonia during polysomnography; one patient had DNB and a nightmare captured during REM sleep. Prazosin improved DNB and nightmares in all patients. Conclusions: We propose Trauma associated Sleep Disorder (TSD) as a unique sleep disorder encompassing the clinical features, PSG findings, and treatment responses of patients with DNB, nightmares, and REM without atonia after trauma. Citation: Mysliwiec V, O'Reilly B, Polchinski J, Kwon HP, Germain A, Roth BJ. Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1143-1148. PMID:25317096

  2. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J; Swick T; Zee P. Disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):955-965. PMID:23997709

  3. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired sleep homeostasis. In conclusion, we suggest that alcohol may disrupt sleep homeostasis to cause sleep disruptions. PMID:25499829

  4. Nocturnal Sleep Dynamics Identify Narcolepsy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Iloti, Martina; Franceschini, Christian; Liguori, Rocco; Mignot, Emmanuel; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the reliability of nocturnal sleep dynamics in the differential diagnosis of central disorders of hypersomnolence. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Patients: One hundred seventy-five patients with hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, n = 79), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2, n = 22), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH, n = 22), and subjective hypersomnolence (sHS, n = 52). Interventions: None. Methods: Polysomnographic (PSG) work-up included 48 h of continuous PSG recording. From nocturnal PSG conventional sleep macrostructure, occurrence of sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP), sleep stages distribution, and sleep stage transitions were calculated. Patient groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to test the diagnostic utility of nocturnal PSG data to identify NT1. Results: Sleep macrostructure was substantially stable in the 2 nights of each diagnostic group. NT1 and NT2 patients had lower latency to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and NT1 patients showed the highest number of awakenings, sleep stage transitions, and more time spent in N1 sleep, as well as most SOREMPs at daytime PSG and at multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) than all other groups. ROC curve analysis showed that nocturnal SOREMP (area under the curve of 0.724 0.041, P < 0.0001), percent of total sleep time spent in N1 (0.896 0.023, P < 0.0001), and the wakefulness-sleep transition index (0.796 0.034, P < 0.0001) had a good sensitivity and specificity profile to identify NT1 sleep, especially when used in combination (0.903 0.023, P < 0.0001), similarly to SOREMP number at continuous daytime PSG (0.899 0.026, P < 0.0001) and at MSLT (0.956 0.015, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Sleep macrostructure (i.e. SOREMP, N1 timing) including stage transitions reliably identifies hypocretin-deficient narcolepsy type 1 among central disorders of hypersomnolence. Citation: Pizza F, Vandi S, Iloti M, Franceschini C, Liguori R, Mignot E, Plazzi G. Nocturnal sleep dynamics identify narcolepsy type 1. SLEEP 2015;38(8):12771284. PMID:25845690

  5. Minimal Effect of Daytime Napping Behavior on Nocturnal Sleep in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Rebecca M.; Wood, Annette; Okun, Michele L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess whether daytime naps negatively impact nocturnal sleep. Design: Longitudinal, prospective cohort design. Participants: 161 pregnant women recruited and evaluated in early gestation (1020 weeks). Measurements and Results: Daily sleep information was collected in three 2-week periods (1012, 1416, and 1820 weeks gestation) with a daily sleep diary and an actigraph. The average number of naps, as well as the average length of each nap, were calculated from sleep diaries. Women were categorized first as non nappers (0 naps/2-week period), moderate nappers (13 naps/2-week period), or frequent nappers (? 4 naps/2-week period). Then, based on the average nap length, they were categorized as short (< 90 min) or long (? 90 min) nappers. Nocturnal sleep parameters included SOL, WASO, SE, and TST. SAS procedure MIXED was used for modeling the main effects of nap group and time, and time by nap group interactions. Women who took naps had a decrease in diary-assessed nocturnal TST, but not actigraphy-assessed TST. This observation was group- and time-specific. There were no other group differences. Women who napped ? 90 min had poorer diary-assessed SE and lower diary-assessed TST than those who took shorter naps. Length of nap was not associated with any other sleep measures. Conclusions: The number of daytime naps have minimal impact on nocturnal sleep parameters; however, long nappers did exhibit modestly impaired sleep continuity and sleep quality. Overall, we propose that daytime naps provide a beneficial countermeasure to the sleep disruption commonly reported by pregnant women. This may be clinically beneficial given that sleep continuity and quality are important correlates of pregnancy outcomes. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 593. Citation: Ebert RM, Wood A, Okun ML. Minimal effect of daytime napping behavior on nocturnal sleep in pregnant women. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):635643. PMID:25766712

  6. Nocturnal Pruritus: The Battle for a Peaceful Night's Sleep.

    PubMed

    Lavery, Michael Joseph; Stull, Carolyn; Kinney, Michael Owen; Yosipovitch, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Chronic pruritus is a debilitating condition with numerous etiologies. Many patients suffer from nocturnal pruritus, which can decrease quality of life and affect mortality in hemodialysis patients. Nocturnal pruritus may occur in all sleep stages but is most prevalent in stages N1 and N2. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiology of nocturnal itch, which will aid in the development of tailored management strategies. PMID:27011178

  7. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential injurious or bothersome to other household members. Clonazepam and melatonin (3-12 mg) are highly effective for treating RBD. PMID:20525541

  8. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  9. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  10. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; de Paola, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of So Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart) system. Results A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  11. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Professional Sleep Societies, L.L.C., Minneapolis. Bjørngaard, J. H., Bjerkeset, O., Romundstad, P., & Gunnell, D. (2011). ... 1155-1159. doi:10.5665/SLEEP.1228 Fawcett, J., Scheftner, W. A., Fogg, L., Clark, D. C., ...

  12. Nocturnal awakening and sleep efficiency estimation using unobtrusively measured ballistocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Da Woon Jung; Su Hwan Hwang; Hee Nam Yoon; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Do-Un Jeong; Kwang Suk Park

    2014-01-01

    Fragmented sleep due to frequent awakenings represents a major cause of impaired daytime performance and adverse health outcomes. Currently, the gold standard for studying and assessing sleep fragmentation is polysomnography (PSG). Here, we propose an alternative method for real-time detection of nocturnal awakening via ballistocardiography using an unobtrusive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film sensor on a bed mattress. From ballistocardiogram, heart rate and body movement information were extracted to develop an algorithm for classifying sleeping and awakening epochs. In total, ten normal subjects (mean age 38.7 ± 14.6 years) and ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (mean age 44.2 ± 16.5 years) of varying symptom severity participated in this study. Our study detected awakening epochs with an average sensitivity of 85.3% and 85.2%, specificity of 98.4% and 97.7%, accuracy of 97.4% and 96.5%, and Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.83 and 0.81 for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. Also, sleep efficiency was estimated using detected awakening epochs and then compared with PSG results. Mean absolute errors in sleep efficiency were 1.08% and 1.44% for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. The results presented here indicate that our suggested method could be reliably applied to real-time nocturnal awakening detection and sleep efficiency estimation. Furthermore, our method may ultimately be an effective tool for long-term, home monitoring of sleep-wake behavior. PMID:23955694

  13. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  14. Sleep in the nocturnal primate, Aotus trivirgatus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cycles of wakefulness and stages of sleep in owl monkeys during 24-hr periods divided into half dark and half light segments. Recordings of electrophysiological activity were used. Reversal of the sequence of light and dark served to test the influence of environmental lighting on the sleep-wakefulness cycles. The sleep patterns of owl monkeys expressed in percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) were compared with those of a closely related New World monkey species, Saimiri Sciureus.

  15. Sleep Patterns and Sleep Disruptions in School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeh, Avi; Raviv, Amiram; Gruber, Reut

    2000-01-01

    Assessed sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of second-, fourth-, and sixth-graders. Found that older children had more delayed sleep onset times and increased reported daytime sleepiness than younger; girls spent more time in sleep than boys and had increased percentage of motionless sleep; and 18 percent of children had fragmented

  16. [Nocturnal eating disorder--sleep or eating disorder?].

    PubMed

    Tzischinski, O; Lazer, Y

    2000-02-01

    Nocturnal eating disorder (NED) is a rare syndrome that includes disorders of both eating and sleeping. It is characterized by awakening in the middle of the night, getting out of bed, and consuming large quantities of food quickly and uncontrollably, then returning to sleep. This may occur several times during the night. Some patients are fully conscious during their nocturnal eating, while some indicate total amnesia. The etiology of NED is still unclear, as research findings are contradictory. Those suffering from NED exhibit various levels of anxiety and depression, and many lead stressful life-styles. Familial conflict, loneliness and personal crises are commonly found. Recently, a connection has been discovered between NED and unclear self-definition, faulty interpersonal communication, and low frustration threshold. Several authors link it to sleepwalking, leg movements during sleep, and sleep apnea. Treatment is still unclear and there have been trials of pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or a combination of both. However, pharmacological treatment has generally been found to be the most effective, although each case must be considered individually. In 1998, 7 women referred to our Eating Disorders Clinic, 5% of all referrals, were subsequently diagnosed as suffering from NED. Of these, 3 suffered from concurrent binge-eating disorder and 4 also from bulimia nervosa. 2 case studies representative of NED are presented. PMID:10883092

  17. Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d = 0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d = 0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  18. Relationship between sleeping posture and fluctuations in nocturnal scrotal temperature.

    PubMed

    Jung, Andreas; Hofstötter, Jan-Philip; Schuppe, Hans-Christian; Schill, Wolf-Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    Elevated testicular temperatures are a potential risk factor for impaired spermatogenesis and reduced semen quality. The development of portable devices for the measurement of scrotal temperatures closely correlating with testicular temperature offered the opportunity to identify periods with high scrotal temperatures during daily life. Notably, sleeping periods covering approximately 1/3 of the day are associated with increased scrotal temperatures to around 36 degrees C. Combining infrared video taping with scrotal temperature profiling, our study clarified that sudden drops of scrotal temperature during sleep are the consequence of changes of posture. Nocturnal scrotal temperatures were significantly higher during sleeping on the side compared with periods lying on the back (+0.65 degrees C, right scrotum, P<0.001; +0.54 degrees C, left scrotum, P<0.001). Median values of nocturnal scrotal temperatures did not significantly differ between 11 volunteers with normozoospermia and 22 men with oligozoospermia. Furthermore, continued scrotal temperature profiling during the following day only showed significantly higher values among men with oligozoospermia than among volunteers for the left scrotal side (+0.70 degrees C, P<0.05), but not for the right scrotal side (+0.39 degrees C, P>0.05). This difference could not be attributed to higher scrotal temperature values during periods with physical inactivity (median in both groups above 36 degrees C) but the duration of physical inactivity in men with oligozoospermia was 50% longer than in volunteers. Thus, in the setting of the present study it was not possible to demonstrate a close correlation between scrotal temperature and semen quality. PMID:12849854

  19. Sleep Disturbances and Nocturnal Agitation Behaviors in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Karen M.; Beck, Cornelia; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Liem, Pham H.; Davila, David G.; Kleban, Morton; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Kalra, Gurpreet; Richards, Kathy Culpepper

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine nighttime sleep patterns of persons with dementia showing nocturnal agitation behaviors and to determine whether restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: General community. Participants: 59 participants with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia. Participants ages ranged from 66 to 88 years (mean age 79.1; SD 6.0). Mean Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 20.1 (SD 6.6). MMSE was used to measure baseline cognitive function and not for the diagnosis of dementia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured by 2 nights of in-home, attended, portable polysomnography (PSG). Nocturnal agitation was measured over 3 additional nights using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory modified for direct observations. Two experts independently and via consensus identified probable RLS. Total sleep time in participants was 5.6 h (SD 1.8 h). Mean periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMI) was 15.29, and a high percentage (49%) had moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Probable RLS was present in 24% of participants. Those with more severe cognitive impairment had longer sleep latency. Severe cognitive impairment, low apnea hypopnea index (AHI), and probable RLS were associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors (R2 = 0.35, F3,55 = 9.40, P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that probable RLS is associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia, while OSA and PLMS are not. Further investigation is warranted to determine if treatment of RLS impacts nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia. Citation: Rose KM; Beck C; Tsai PF; Liem PH; Davila DG; Kleban M; Gooneratne NS; Kalra G; Richards KC. Sleep disturbances and nocturnal agitation behaviors in older adults with dementia. SLEEP 2011;34(6):779-786. PMID:21629366

  20. On the Influence of Freight Trains on Humans: A Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Nocturnal Low Frequency Vibration and Noise on Sleep and Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; gren, Mikael; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing vibration amplitude. Methodology/Principal Findings The impacts of various amplitudes of horizontal vibrations on sleep disturbance and heart rate were investigated in a laboratory study. Cardiac accelerations were assessed using a combination of polysomnography and ECG recordings. Sleep was assessed subjectively using questionnaires. Twelve young, healthy subjects slept for six nights in the sleep laboratory, with one habituation night, one control night and four nights with a variation of vibration exposures whilst maintaining the same noise exposure. With increasing vibration amplitude, we found a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of heart rate as well as a reduction in sleep quality and increase in sleep disturbance. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that nocturnal vibration has a negative impact on sleep and that the impact increases with greater vibration amplitude. Sleep disturbance has short- and long-term health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to define levels that protect residents against sleep disruptive vibrations that may arise from night time railway freight traffic. PMID:23409055

  1. The Relationship of Daytime Hypoxemia and Nocturnal Hypoxia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fanfulla, Francesco; Grassi, Mario; Taurino, Anna Eugenia; Lupo, Nadia D'Artavilla; Trentin, Rossella

    2008-01-01

    Question of the study: Prevalence and determinants of daytime hypoxemia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome are not well established. The aims of this study, conducted in a large series of OSA patients, were to estimate the prevalence of daytime hypoxemia, to assess the reciprocal effects between daytime PaO2 and nocturnal SpO2, and to investigate the direct and indirect role of sleep apnea severity in determining feedback gas exchange abnormalities. Materials and methods: In 456 patients a daytime hypoxemia-nocturnal hypoxia feedback structural equations model was designed. PaO2 adjusted for age (% of predicted), percent sleep time spent with SpO2 <90% (TST90), oxygen desaturation index and the apnea-hypopnea index, were determined as the measures of daytime hypoxemia, nocturnal hypoxia, and sleep apnea severity, respectively, after adjusting for the severity of obesity and lung volumes. Results: The TST90-PaO2 feed-back structural equations modeling showed that daytime PaO2 was inversely related (P<0.001) to nocturnal hypoxia (−4.0% of PaO2 per 1 SD of TST90). The severity of OSA (−1.0%) was an indirect determinant of daytime PaO2 via the TST90 pathway. In contrast, daytime PaO2 did not influence (P>0.05) the extent of nocturnal hypoxia. Conclusions: In OSA patients, the extent of nocturnal hypoxia seems to be both a direct determinant and a mediator of the indirect effect of sleep apnea on the development of daytime hypoxemia. Citation: Fanfulla F; Grassi M; Taurino AE; Lupo ND; Trentin R. The relationship of daytime hypoxemia and nocturnal hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. SLEEP 2008;31(2):249–255. PMID:18274273

  2. Preoperative Sleep Disruption and Postoperative Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Jacqueline M.; Sands, Laura P.; Newman, Stacey; Meckler, Gabriela; Xie, Yimeng; Gay, Caryl; Lee, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To describe preoperative and postoperative sleep disruption and its relationship to postoperative delirium. Design: Prospective cohort study with 6 time points (3 nights pre-hospitalization and 3 nights post-surgery). Setting: University medical center. Patients: The sample consisted of 50 English-speaking patients ? 40 years of age scheduled for major non-cardiac surgery, with an anticipated hospital stay ? 3 days. Interventions: None. Measurements and results: Sleep was measured before and after surgery for a total of 6 days using a wrist actigraph to quantify movement in a continuous fashion. Postoperative delirium was measured by a structured interview using the Confusion Assessment Method. Sleep variables for patients with (n = 7) and without (n = 43) postoperative delirium were compared using the unpaired Student t-tests or ?2 tests. Repeated measures analysis of variance for the 6 days was used to examine within-subject changes over time and between group differences. The mean age of the patients was 66 11 years (range 4391 years), and it was not associated with sleep variables or postoperative delirium. The incidence of postoperative delirium observed during any of the 3 postoperative days was 14%. For the 7 patients who subsequently developed postoperative delirium, wake after sleep onset (WASO) as a percentage of total sleep time was significantly higher (44% 22%) during the night before surgery compared to the patients who did not subsequently developed delirium (21% 20%, p = 0.012). This sleep disruption continued postoperatively, and to a greater extent, for the first 2 nights after surgery. Patients with WASO < 10% did not experience postoperative delirium. Self-reported sleep disturbance did not differ between patients with vs. without postoperative delirium. Conclusions: In this pilot study of adults over 40 years of age, sleep disruption was more severe before surgery in the patients who experienced postoperative delirium. A future larger study is necessary to confirm our results and determine if poor sleep is associated with delirium in larger samples and what specific sleep problems best predict postoperative delirium in older surgical patients. Citation: Leung JM, Sands LP, Newman S, Meckler G, Xie Y, Gay G, Lee K. Preoperative sleep disruption and postoperative delirium. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):907913. PMID:25979094

  3. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Kimberly; Cartner, Ben; Alley, Jessica R; Curry, Chelsea D; Dickinson, David L; Morris, David M; Collier, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Background During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP) “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A), 1 pm (1P), and 7 pm (7P) in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. PMID:25540588

  4. Disruption of hierarchical predictive coding during sleep

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Melanie; Sitt, Jacobo D.; King, Jean-Remi; Elbaz, Maxime; Azizi, Leila; Buiatti, Marco; Naccache, Lionel; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-01-01

    When presented with an auditory sequence, the brain acts as a predictive-coding device that extracts regularities in the transition probabilities between sounds and detects unexpected deviations from these regularities. Does such prediction require conscious vigilance, or does it continue to unfold automatically in the sleeping brain? The mismatch negativity and P300 components of the auditory event-related potential, reflecting two steps of auditory novelty detection, have been inconsistently observed in the various sleep stages. To clarify whether these steps remain during sleep, we recorded simultaneous electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic signals during wakefulness and during sleep in normal subjects listening to a hierarchical auditory paradigm including short-term (local) and long-term (global) regularities. The global response, reflected in the P300, vanished during sleep, in line with the hypothesis that it is a correlate of high-level conscious error detection. The local mismatch response remained across all sleep stages (N1, N2, and REM sleep), but with an incomplete structure; compared with wakefulness, a specific peak reflecting prediction error vanished during sleep. Those results indicate that sleep leaves initial auditory processing and passive sensory response adaptation intact, but specifically disrupts both short-term and long-term auditory predictive coding. PMID:25737555

  5. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Smith, Kelly E; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Jackson, Garrett J; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L; Miller, Diane B

    2015-08-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  6. Sleep disruption and the sequelae associated with traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P.; Smith, Kelly E.; Nguyen, Linda; Turner, Ryan C.; Logsdon, Aric F.; Jackson, Garrett J.; Huber, Jason D.; Rosen, Charles L.; Miller, Diane B.

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disruption, which includes a loss of sleep as well as poor quality fragmented sleep, frequently follows traumatic brain injury (TBI) impacting a large number of patients each year in the United States. Fragmented and/or disrupted sleep can worsen neuropsychiatric, behavioral, and physical symptoms of TBI. Additionally, sleep disruption impairs recovery and can lead to cognitive decline. The most common sleep disruption following TBI is insomnia, which is difficulty staying asleep. The consequences of disrupted sleep following injury range from deranged metabolomics and blood brain barrier compromise to altered neuroplasticity and degeneration. There are several theories for why sleep is necessary (e.g., glymphatic clearance and metabolic regulation) and these may help explain how sleep disruption contributes to degeneration within the brain. Experimental data indicate disrupted sleep allows hyperphosphorylated tau and amyloid β plaques to accumulate. As sleep disruption may act as a cellular stressor, target areas warranting further scientific investigation include the increase in endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress following acute periods of sleep deprivation. Potential treatment options for restoring the normal sleep cycle include melatonin derivatives and cognitive behavioral therapy. PMID:25956251

  7. Sleep apnea and nocturnal myoclonus in elderly persons in Vilcabamba, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Okudaira, N; Fukuda, H; Nishihara, K; Ohtani, K; Endo, S; Torii, S

    1983-07-01

    Four men (M age 90.5 years) and four women (M age 91.2 years) in Vilcabamba, Ecuador (a community noted for people with extreme longevity) volunteered for sleep recordings using four-channel Medilog portable cassette recorder. Of the eight physically healthy persons recorded, only one man displayed sleep apnea syndrome. No nocturnal myoclonus was observed. Low incidence of sleep apnea of elderly persons in Vilcabamba may be due to a low barometric pressure and/or lack of drug abuse. PMID:6863855

  8. Nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and sleep apnea: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bordier, Philippe; Lataste, Aurelia; Hofmann, Pauline; Robert, Frederic; Bourenane, Ghalia

    2016-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a public health problem which affects?>2% of the adult population, with high morbidity, mortality, and financial cost. Sleep apnea, prevalent in?>50% of patients with CHF, can aggravate vital prognosis due to worsening of heart failure. It is considered that a decrease in the apnea-hypopnea load may improve outcomes for those patients. Nocturnal non invasive ventilation can be proposed to treat sleep apnea in this situation, there being few alternatives. The present review concerns the use of nocturnal oxygen therapy (NOT) in patients suffering from both CHF and sleep apnea. The interest of NOT in this situation lies in its ability to reduce the central apnea-hypopnea index and to improve nocturnal oximetry disorders related to sleep apnea. Impact on cardiac contractility, patient tolerance, side effects, and costs of NOT are also approached as well as the underlying mechanisms of NOT. In addition, the results of the SERVE-HF trial have shown an increased death rate in patients with CHF and central sleep apnea and who were treated with adaptive servo-ventilation versus control patients. This may lead to renewed interest in NOT in those patients. PMID:26847991

  9. Isolated Sleep Paralysis: Fear, Prevention, and Disruption.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian Andrew; Grom, Jessica Lynn

    2014-10-14

    Objectives: Relatively little is known about isolated sleep paralysis (ISP), and no empirically supported treatments are available. This study aims to determine: the clinical impact of ISP, the techniques used to prevent or disrupt ISP, and the effectiveness of these techniques. Method: 156 undergraduates were assessed with lifetime ISP using a clinical interview. Results: 75.64% experienced fear during ISP, and 15.38% experienced clinically significant distress/interference, while 19.23% attempted to prevent ISP, and 79.31% of these believed their methods were successful. Regarding disruption, 69.29% made attempts, but only 54.12% reported them effective. Conclusions: Disruption was more common than prevention, but several techniques were useful. Encouraging individuals to utilize these techniques and better monitor their symptoms may be an effective way to manage problematic ISP. PMID:25315810

  10. Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... rhythms? What is REM sleep? What is the effect of sleep deprivation? What are sleep myths? What are sleep ... certain diseases/conditions disrupt sleep? What is the effect of inadequate sleep on health? Do natural products help? Other FAQs ...

  11. Effects of resistance exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Alley, Jessica R; Mazzochi, John W; Smith, Caroline J; Morris, David M; Collier, Scott R

    2015-05-01

    Short sleep duration and poor quality of sleep have been associated with health risks including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Prior research has suggested that regular aerobic exercise improves the quality of sleep; however, less is known regarding resistance exercise (RE) and how RE may affect sleep architecture. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of timing of RE on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure. College-aged subjects engaged in 5 laboratory visits. Visits 1 (C) and 2 provided a non-RE control day and established the 10-repetition maximum on each of 9 RE machines, respectively. During visits 3-5, the subjects reported at 0700 hours (7A), 1300 hours (1P), and 1900 hours (7P) in a randomized order to perform 30 minutes of RE. Ambulatory blood pressure and sleep-monitoring devices were worn during sleep after C, 7A, 1P, and 7P. Time to fall asleep was significantly different between RE conditions 7A and 1P and between 7A and 7P. All exercise conditions exhibited significantly fewer times woken than the non-RE control day, with 7P resulting in significantly less time awake after initially falling asleep as compared with C. Although timing of RE does not seem to statistically impact sleep stages or nocturnal blood pressure, these data indicate that engaging in RE at any time of the day may improve quality of sleep as compared with no RE. Resistance exercise may offer additional benefits regarding the ability to fall asleep and stay asleep to populations with osteoporosis, sarcopenia, anxiety, or depression. PMID:25426516

  12. Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases.

    PubMed

    Smolensky, Michael H; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda L; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like--now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children--is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm ?) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm ?) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light environment in which humans reside today. Never have chronobiologic or epidemiologic investigations comprehensively researched the potentially deleterious consequences of the combination of suppressed vitamin D plus melatonin synthesis due to life in today's man-made artificial light environment, which in our opinion is long overdue. PMID:26374931

  13. Sleep disturbance, nocturnal agitation behaviors, and medical comorbidity in older adults with dementia: relationship to reported caregiver burden.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Oh, Kyeung Mi; Richards, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis study was to determine whether care recipients' nighttime sleep patterns, medical comorbidity, observed nocturnal agitation behaviors, and caregivers' perceptions of nocturnal agitation behaviors in care recipients with dementia are associated with caregiver burden. Sixty care recipient-caregiver dyads, comprising older adults with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia living at home with caregivers, participated. Caregivers' perceptions of the frequency of care recipients' nocturnal agitation behaviors were associated with caregiver burden; however, objective, real-time data on the frequency of nocturnal agitation behaviors were not associated with burden. Care recipients' increased minutes of wakefulness before falling asleep and severe cognitive impairment with musculoskeletal/integument and neurological comorbidities were associated with higher caregiver burden. These results suggest that targeted interventions to reduce sleep onset latency, medical comorbidity, and caregivers' perception of frequency of nocturnal behaviors may reduce caregiver burden. PMID:24877599

  14. Minimal nocturnal oxygen saturation predicts future subclinical carotid atherosclerosis: the Wisconsin sleep cohort.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Sverrir I; Peppard, Paul E; Korcarz, Claudia E; Barnet, Jodi H; Hagen, Erika W; Hla, K Mae; Palta, Mari; Young, Terry; Stein, James H

    2015-12-01

    Previous data on the associations between nocturnal oxygen saturation parameters and carotid atherosclerosis are conflicting. We examined the prospective associations of nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2 ) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaques. We used data on 689 Wisconsin sleep cohort participants who had baseline overnight polysomnography followed by carotid ultrasonography a mean (SD) of 7.8 (2.5)years later. Far wall common carotid IMT was measured using B-mode ultrasound. Bilateral common, bifurcation and internal carotid artery segments were evaluated for plaque score. Participants (8) were aged 56years (55% male); 32% had hypertension and mean body mass index (BMI) was 31 (7)kgm(2) . Mean and minimum nocturnal SaO2 were 95% (2) and 86% (7), respectively. Mean percentage sleep time with SaO2 <90% was 2% (8). Both mean (odds ratio [OR]: 0.60 lower plaque count per 5% higher mean SaO2 , 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.38-0.96, P=0.033) and minimum SaO2 (OR: 0.88 lower plaque count per 5% higher minimum SaO2 , 95% CI: 0.80-0.97, P=0.013) predicted carotid plaque score after adjusting for age, sex and BMI. Minimum SaO2 predicted future plaque score after adding adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors (OR: 0.90 lower plaque count per 5% higher minimum SaO2 , 95% CI: 0.81-0.99, P=0.038). Mean SaO2 was not associated with carotid IMT after CVD risk factor adjustment. We conclude that minimum nocturnal SaO2 is an independent predictor of future carotid plaque burden. Other nocturnal SaO2 parameters are not associated with future carotid IMT or plaques after adjusting for traditional CVD risk factors. PMID:26096939

  15. Severity of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias correlates with intensity of sleep apnea in men.

    PubMed

    Szaboova, E; Holoubek, D; Tomori, Z; Szabo, P; Donic, V; Stancak, B

    2013-01-01

    Various cardiac arrhythmias frequently occur in patients with sleep apnea, but complex analysis of the relationship between their severity and the probable arrhythmogenic risk factors is conflicting. The question is what cardiovascular risk factors and how strongly they are associated with the severity of cardiac arrhythmias in sleep apnea. Adult males (33 with and 16 without sleep apnea), matched for cardiovascular co-morbidity were studied by polysomnography with simultaneous ECG monitoring. Arrhythmia severity was evaluated for each subject by a special 7-degree scoring system. Laboratory, clinical, echocardiographic, carotid ultrasonographic, ambulatory blood pressure, and baroreflex sensitivity values were also assessed. Moderate sleep apnea patients had benign, but more exaggerated cardiac arrhythmias than control subjects (2.53 2.49 vs. 1.13 1.64 degrees of cumulative severity, p < 0.05). We confirmed strong correlations between the arrhythmia severity and known arrhythmogenic risk factors (left ventricular ejection fraction and dimensions, right ventricular diameter, baroreflex sensitivity, carotid intima-media thickness, age, previous myocardial infarction, and also apnea-hypopnea index). In multivariate modelling only the apnea-hypopnea index indicating the sleep apnea intensity remained highly significantly correlated with the cumulative arrhythmia severity (beta = 0.548, p < 0.005). In conclusion, sleep apnea modifying cardiovascular risk factors and structures or functions provoked various nocturnal arrhythmias. The proposed scoring system allowed a complex analysis of the contribution of various triggers to arrhythmogenesis and confirmed the apnea-hypopnea index as an independent risk for nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia severity in sleep apnea. PMID:22826063

  16. Olopatadine, a non-sedating H1 antihistamine, decreases the nocturnal scratching without affecting sleep quality in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Keiichi; Motomura, Eishi; Noro, Yuichi; Umeda, Koji; Morikawa, Takuya; Umeda-Togami, Kumi; Omoto, Youichi; Isoda, Kenichi; Kondo, Makoto; Tsuda, Kenshiro; Okuda, Masahiro; Gabazza, Esteban C; Mizutani, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time that a second-generation antihistamine ameliorates nocturnal scratching behavior in atopic dermatitis patients using a modified wristwatch-type acoustic scratching counting system that we have recently developed. We also analyzed the sleep quality by simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram, and found that sleep quality was unaffected. PMID:25641045

  17. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  18. Sleepiness and nocturnal hypoxemia in Peruvian men with obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Jorge Rey; Mezones-Holgun, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia associated with sleepiness in Peruvian men with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods We carried out a secondary data analysis based on a study which includes patients with OSA who were seen in a private hospital in Lima, Peru from 2006 to 2012. We included male adults who had polysomnographic recordings and who answered the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESE). The intensity of nocturnal hypoxemia (oxygen saturation ?90 %) was classified in four new categories: 0, <1, 1 to 10 and >10 % total sleep time with nocturnal hypoxemia (NH). When the ESE score was higher than 10, we used the definitions presence or absence of sleepiness. We used Poisson regression models with robust variance to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for association between sleepiness and NH. Results 518 male patients with OSA were evaluated. Four hundred and fifty-two (87 %) patients had NH and 262 (51 %) had sleepiness. Of the 142 (27.4 %) patients who had >10 % total sleep time with NH, 98 (69.0 %) showed sleepiness and had a greater probability of sleepiness prevalence, with a crude PR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.312.53). This association persisted in the multivariate models. Conclusions We found an association between NH and sleepiness. Only patients with the major intensity of NH (over 10 % of the total sleep time) had a greater probability of sleepiness. This suggests that sleepiness probably occurs after a chronic process and after overwhelming compensatory mechanisms. PMID:24249663

  19. Morning and evening physical exercise differentially regulate the autonomic nervous system during nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Yujiro; Hashimoto, Satoko; Takasu, Nana N; Tanahashi, Yusuke; Nishide, Shin-Ya; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-Ichi

    2015-11-01

    Effects of daily physical exercise in the morning or in the evening were examined on circadian rhythms in plasma melatonin and core body temperature of healthy young males who stayed in an experimental facility for 7 days under dim light conditions (<10 lux). Sleep polysomnogram (PSG) and heart rate variability (HRV) were also measured. Subjects performed 2-h intermittent physical exercise with a bicycle ergometer at ZT3 or at ZT10 for four consecutive days, where zeitgeber time 0 (ZT0) was the time of wake-up. The rising phase of plasma melatonin rhythm was delayed by 1.1 h without exercise. Phase-delay shifts of a similar extent were detected by morning and evening exercise. But the falling phase shifted only after evening exercise by 1.0 h. The sleep PSG did not change after morning exercise, while Stage 1+2 sleep significantly decreased by 13.0% without exercise, and RE sleep decreased by 10.5% after evening exercise. The nocturnal decline of rectal temperature was attenuated by evening exercise, but not by morning exercise. HRV during sleep changed differentially. Very low frequency (VLF) waves increased without exercise. VLF, low frequency (LF), and high frequency (HF) waves increased after morning exercise, whereas HR increased after evening exercise. Morning exercise eventually enhanced the parasympathetic activity, as indicated by HRV, while evening exercise activated the sympathetic activity, as indicated by increase in heart rate in the following nocturnal sleep. These findings indicated differential effects of morning and evening exercise on the circadian melatonin rhythm, PSG, and HRV. PMID:26333783

  20. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  1. Sleep Deprivation and Circadian Disruption: Stress, Allostasis, and Allostatic Load.

    PubMed

    McEwen, Bruce S; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-03-01

    Sleep has important homeostatic functions, and circadian rhythms organize physiology and behavior on a daily basis to insure optimal function. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption can be stressors, enhancers of other stressors that have consequences for the brain and many body systems. Whether the origins of circadian disruption and sleep disruption and deprivation are from anxiety, depression, shift work, long-distance air travel, or a hectic lifestyle, there are consequences that impair brain functions and contribute to the cumulative wear and tear on body systems caused by too much stress and/or inefficient management of the systems that promote adaptation. PMID:26055668

  2. Sleep Disruption in Patients with Sleep Apnea and End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Andrea; Siemens, AnDrea; Hanly, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Sleep apnea (SA) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and such patients are likely to suffer additional sleep disruption associated with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and periodic leg movements (PLM). Our objective was to evaluate sleep quality in ESRD patients who are newly diagnosed with SA and determine the additional contribution of PLM to sleep disruption. Methods: Two groups of patients with SA (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) > 15) were compared, one with ESRD (n = 12) and the other with normal renal function (n = 18), using a sleep history questionnaire, sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, polysomnography (1 night) and actigraphy (6 nights). Results: The prevalence of RLS was higher in ESRD patients (60% vs 6%, p < 0.001). ESRD patients had shorter total sleep time (TST) (264 78 vs 330 46 min, p = 0.01), lower sleep efficiency (68 20 % vs 81 11 %, p = 0.03), and more stage 1 NREM sleep (23 18 vs 8 5 % TST, p = 0.002). ESRD patients had a higher frequency of PLM (31 37 hr-1 vs 8.0 16 hr-1, p = 0.02) and PLM-related arousals (15 18 hr-1 vs 1 2 hr-1, p = 0.003). Actigraphy demonstrated a higher movement and fragmentation index in ESRD patients (23 10 % sleep time vs 17 6 % sleep time, p = 0.04). Conclusions: The co-existence of PLM is an additional source of sleep disruption in patients with ESRD and SA. Treatment of PLM, in addition to treatment of sleep apnea, may be required to improve sleep quality in this patient population. Citation: Loewen A; Siemens A; Hanly P. Sleep disruption in patients with sleep apnea and end-stage renal disease. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(4):324-329. PMID:19968009

  3. Optogenetic disruption of sleep continuity impairs memory consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Asya; Colas, Damien; Adamantidis, Antoine; Carter, Matt; Lanre-Amos, Tope; Heller, H. Craig; de Lecea, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Memory consolidation has been proposed as a function of sleep. However, sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by several features including duration, intensity, and continuity. Sleep continuity is disrupted in different neurological and psychiatric conditions, many of which are accompanied by memory deficits. This finding has raised the question of whether the continuity of sleep is important for memory consolidation. However, current techniques used in sleep research cannot manipulate a single sleep feature while maintaining the others constant. Here, we introduce the use of optogenetics to investigate the role of sleep continuity in memory consolidation. We optogenetically targeted hypocretin/orexin neurons, which play a key role in arousal processes. We used optogenetics to activate these neurons at different intervals in behaving mice and were able to fragment sleep without affecting its overall amount or intensity. Fragmenting sleep after the learning phase of the novel object recognition (NOR) task significantly decreased the performance of mice on the subsequent day, but memory was unaffected if the average duration of sleep episodes was maintained at 62–73% of normal. These findings demonstrate the use of optogenetic activation of arousal-related nuclei as a way to systematically manipulate a specific feature of sleep. We conclude that regardless of the total amount of sleep or sleep intensity, a minimal unit of uninterrupted sleep is crucial for memory consolidation. PMID:21788501

  4. ?2 adrenergic receptor polymorphisms and nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vardeny, Orly; Peppard, Paul E.; Finn, Laurel A.; Faraco, Juliette H.; Mignot, Emmanuel; Hla, Khin Mae

    2011-01-01

    Non-dipping nocturnal blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that ?1- and ?2-AR-associated SNPs would associate with non-dipping BP patterns. Participants (N=497, age range 3074 years, 40% female) of the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study with at least one ambulatory BP monitoring test were included. Non-dipping was defined as less than a 10% dip in sleep BP compared to wake BP. Dipping ratios were calculated as sleep/wake BP. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ?1-AR (rs7076938, tagging for Gly389Arg) and ?2-AR (rs17778257 and rs2400707, tagging for Arg16Gly and Gln27Glu) were selected. ?2-AR SNP rs2400707 A-positive subjects (tagging for Glu27) had higher systolic and diastolic dipping ratios in a dose-response fashion. Systolic dipping ratios were: GG=0.846; AG=0.854; AA=0.861 (p-trend=0.015). Diastolic dip ratios were: GG=0.807; AG=0.815; AA=0.824 (p-trend=0.026). The ?2-AR rs17778257/rs2400707 A/A haplotype was associated with dipping ratios and systolic non-dipping status (non-dipping OR 2.0 [1.0, 3.8] for A/A versus A/G). Results were similar when models included participants on antihypertensive medications. Higher dipping ratios indicating a lack of nocturnal BP dipping are associated with ?2-AR polymorphisms. Nocturnal dipping patterns may be modulated by ?2-AR polymorphisms. PMID:21414566

  5. Effects of desmopressin for the treatment of nocturnal polyuria in elderly women: impact on related sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Sun-Ouck; Yu, Ho Song; Chung, Ho Suck; Kwon, Dongdeuk

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated the efficacy, safety, and impact of desmopressin on quality of sleep in treating nocturnal polyuria in elderly women. Methods: We recruited 60 women over 60 years old with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), including nocturia, and with nocturnal polyuria. Nocturnal polyuria was defined as nighttime urine production exceeding 33% of the 24-hour total urine volume determined by a frequency volume (FV) chart. All patients failed to respond to treatment of their underlying disease and evening fluid restriction. Desmopressin 0.1 mg was administered orally at bedtime for 12 weeks. The participants completed a series of questionnaires on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) sleep scale and FV chart before and after treatment. Results: The patient population had a mean age of 69.2 ± 9.4 years (range: 61–81). The mean duration of symptoms was 61.2 ± 45.1 months. Significant decreases were evident after desmopressin treatment in the number of nocturia episodes (3.63 ± 1.61 to 2.00 ± 1.13, p = 0.01), nocturnal urine volume (p = 0.01), nocturnal polyuria index (NPI) (p = 0.01), and nocturia index (NI) p = 0.01). Among the categories of the MOS sleep scale, sleep index (p = 0.003), sleep disturbance (p = 0.001), snoring (p = 0.028), and shortness of breath (p = 0.036) significantly changed, with a decreased number of nocturia episodes. Adverse events were mild. Conclusions: Desmopressin is an effective treatment for nocturnal polyuria in elderly women, where conservative treatment has failed. Sleep quality is also improved. PMID:26600882

  6. Nocturnal Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Latency for Identifying Patients With Narcolepsy/Hypocretin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Andlauer, Olivier; Moore, Hyatt; Jouhier, Laura; Drake, Christopher; Peppard, Paul E.; Han, Fang; Hong, Seung-Chul; Poli, Francesca; Plazzi, Giuseppe; OHara, Ruth; Haffen, Emmanuel; Roth, Thomas; Young, Terry; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Narcolepsy, a disorder associated with HLA-DQB1*06:02 and caused by hypocretin (orexin) deficiency, is diagnosed using the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) following nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG). In many patients, a short rapid eye movement sleep latency (REML) during the NPSG is also observed but not used diagnostically. OBJECTIVE To determine diagnostic accuracy and clinical utility of nocturnal REML measures in narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Observational study using receiver operating characteristic curves for NPSG REML and MSLT findings (sleep studies performed between May 1976 and September 2011 at university medical centers in the United States, China, Korea, and Europe) to determine optimal diagnostic cutoffs for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency compared with different samples: controls, patients with other sleep disorders, patients with other hypersomnias, and patients with narcolepsy with normal hypocretin levels. Increasingly stringent comparisons were made. In a first comparison, 516 age- and sex-matched patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were selected from 1749 patients and compared with 516 controls. In a second comparison, 749 successive patients undergoing sleep evaluation for any sleep disorders (low pretest probability for narcolepsy) were compared within groups by final diagnosis of narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. In the third comparison, 254 patients with a high pretest probability of having narcolepsy were compared within group by their final diagnosis. Finally, 118 patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency were compared with 118 age- and sex-matched patients with a diagnosis of narcolepsy but with normal hypocretin levels. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES Sensitivity and specificity of NPSG REML and MSLT as diagnostic tests for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency. This diagnosis was defined as narcolepsy associated with cataplexy plus HLA-DQB1*06:02 positivity (no cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 results available) or narcolepsy with documented low (?110 pg/mL) cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 level. RESULTS Short REML (?15 minutes) during NPSG was highly specific (99.2% [95% CI, 98.5%100.0%] of 516 and 99.6% [95% CI, 99.1%100.0%] of 735) but not sensitive (50.6% [95% CI, 46.3%54.9%] of 516 and 35.7% [95% CI, 10.6%60.8%] of 14) for patients with narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency vs population-based controls or all patients with sleep disorders undergoing a nocturnal sleep study (area under the curve, 0.799 [95% CI, 0.7710.826] and 0.704 [95% CI, 0.5240.907], respectively). In patients with central hypersomnia and thus a high pretest probability for narcolepsy, short REML remained highly specific (95.4% [95% CI, 90.4%98.3%] of 132) and similarly sensitive (57.4% [95% CI, 48.1%66.3%] of 122) for narcolepsy/hypocretin deficiency (area under the curve, 0.765 [95% CI, 0.7070.831]). Positive predictive value in this high pretest probability sample was 92.1% (95% CI, 83.6%97.0%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients being evaluated for possible narcolepsy, short REML (?15 minutes) at NPSG had high specificity and positive predictive value and may be considered diagnostic without the use of an MSLT; absence of short REML, however, requires a subsequent MSLT. PMID:23649748

  7. Metabolic effects of sleep disruption, links to obesity and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nedeltcheva, Arlet V.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review To highlight the adverse metabolic effects of sleep disruption and to open ground for research aimed at preventive measures. This area of research is especially relevant given the increasing prevalence of voluntary sleep curtailment, sleep disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Resent findings Epidemiological studies have established an association between decreased self-reported sleep duration and an increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Experimental laboratory studies have demonstrated that decreasing either the amount or quality of sleep decreases insulin sensitivity and decreases glucose tolerance. Experimental sleep restriction also causes physiological and behavioral changes that promote a positive energy balance. While sleep restriction increases energy expenditure due to increased wakefulness, it can lead to a disproportionate increase in food intake, decrease in physical activity, and weight gain. Summary Sleep disruption has detrimental effects on metabolic health. These insights may help in the development of new preventative and therapeutic approaches against obesity and T2D based on increasing the quality and/or quantity of sleep. PMID:24937041

  8. Effects of Filtering Visual Short Wavelengths During Nocturnal Shiftwork on Sleep and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shadab A.; Shapiro, Colin M.; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450480?nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480?nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age??SD: 31.3??4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2?h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p?sleep efficiency (p?=?0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p?=?0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40?min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p?sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. (Author correspondence: casper@lunenfeld.ca) PMID:23834705

  9. Effects of filtering visual short wavelengths during nocturnal shiftwork on sleep and performance.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shadab A; Shapiro, Colin M; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J; Casper, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450-480 nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480 nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age SD: 31.3 4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2 h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p = 0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40 min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p < 0.05) and middle (p < 0.01) night shifts under intervention compared with baseline. Subjective sleepiness increased throughout the night under both conditions (p < 0.01). However, reaction time and throughput on vigilance tests were similar to daytime performance under intervention but impaired under baseline on the first night shift. By the middle night shift, the difference in performance was no longer significant between day shift and either of the two night shift conditions, suggesting some adaptation to the night shift had occurred under baseline conditions. These results suggest that both daytime and nighttime sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. PMID:23834705

  10. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income

  11. Sleep Disruption in Young Foster Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tininenko, Jennifer R.; Fisher, Philip A.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Pears, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    In the current study, sleep actigraphy and parent-report measures were used to investigate differences in sleeping behavior among four groups of 3- to 7-year-olds (N = 79): children in regular foster care (n = 15); children receiving a therapeutic intervention in foster care (n = 17); low income community children (n = 18); and upper middle income…

  12. Short-term sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure alters time-dependent glucagon-like peptide-1 and insulin secretion in male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Gil-Lozano, Manuel; Hunter, Paola M; Behan, Lucy-Ann; Gladanac, Bojana; Casper, Robert F; Brubaker, Patricia L

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal L cell is the principal source of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), a major determinant of insulin release. Because GLP-1 secretion is regulated in a circadian manner in rodents, we investigated whether the activity of the human L cell is also time sensitive. Rhythmic fluctuations in the mRNA levels of canonical clock genes were found in the human NCI-H716 L cell model, which also showed a time-dependent pattern in their response to well-established secretagogues. A diurnal variation in GLP-1 responses to identical meals (850 kcal), served 12 h apart in the normal dark (2300) and light (1100) periods, was also observed in male volunteers maintained under standard sleep and light conditions. These findings suggest the existence of a daily pattern of activity in the human L cell. Moreover, we separately tested the short-term effects of sleep deprivation and nocturnal light exposure on basal and postprandial GLP-1, insulin, and glucose levels in the same volunteers. Sleep deprivation with nocturnal light exposure disrupted the melatonin and cortisol profiles and increased insulin resistance. Moreover, it also induced profound derangements in GLP-1 and insulin responses such that postprandial GLP-1 and insulin levels were markedly elevated and the normal variation in GLP-1 responses was abrogated. These alterations were not observed in sleep-deprived participants maintained under dark conditions, indicating a direct effect of light on the mechanisms that regulate glucose homeostasis. Accordingly, the metabolic abnormalities known to occur in shift workers may be related to the effects of irregular light-dark cycles on these glucoregulatory pathways. PMID:26530153

  13. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals

    PubMed Central

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (–5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness. PMID:26337732

  14. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals.

    PubMed

    Raap, Thomas; Pinxten, Rianne; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Artificial lighting can alter individual behaviour, with often drastic and potentially negative effects on biological rhythms, daily activity and reproduction. Whether this is caused by a disruption of sleep, an important widespread behaviour enabling animals to recover from daily stress, is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that light pollution disrupts sleep by recording individual sleep behaviour of great tits, Parus major, that were roosting in dark nest-boxes and were exposed to light-emitting diode light the following night. Their behaviour was compared to that of control birds sleeping in dark nest-boxes on both nights. Artificial lighting caused experimental birds to wake up earlier, sleep less (-5%) and spent less time in the nest-box as they left their nest-box earlier in the morning. Experimental birds did not enter the nest-box or fall asleep later than controls. Although individuals in lit nest-boxes did not wake up more often nor decreased the length of their sleep bouts, females spent a greater proportion of the night awake. Our study provides the first direct proof that light pollution has a significant impact on sleep in free-living animals, in particular in the morning, and highlights a mechanism for potential effects of light pollution on fitness. PMID:26337732

  15. Screening of obstructive sleep apnoea: heart rate spectral analysis of nocturnal pulse oximetric recording.

    PubMed

    Zamarrón, C; Romero, P V; Gude, F; Amaro, A; Rodriguez, J R

    2001-09-01

    Using heart rate spectral analysis of nocturnal pulse oximetry, we prospectively evaluated the utility of this methodology in patients clinically suspected of having obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). A hundred and ninety-seven outpatients referred with symptoms compatible with the diagnosis of OSA were studied. All participants had nocturnal pulse oximetry performed simultaneously with conventional polysomnography. Power density of heart rate obtained by nocturnal pulse oximetry was analysed using fast Fourier transformation of a Hamming-windowed signal. Recording test results were classified as abnormal (suspicion of OSA) in the presence of a peak in the periodogram between period boundaries 30-70 sec. A normal test result was defined as the absence of the 30-70 sec peak in the periodogram. The total area of the periodogram (S(TOT)), the area enclosed in the periodogram between the period boundaries 30-70 sec (S(30-70)), the area enclosed in the period boundaries 30-70 sec with respect to the total area of the periodogram (S) and the peak amplitude 30-70 sec (PA) were measured. The presence of a peak in the periodogram has a sensitivity of 81.3%, a specificity of 91.5% a positive predictive value of 89.1% and a negative predictive value of 85.1% for OSA diagnosis. The OSA patients were found to have higher values of S(TOT), S(30-70), S and PA than the non OSA patients. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve was constructed at different thresholds of S(TOT), S(30-70) S and PA. For a PA threshold of 10(%)2, heart rate spectra analysis sensitivity for OSA was 58% and specificity was 92%. Furthermore, the positive and negative predictive values for diagnosis of OSA were 87 and 72% respectively. Apnoea hypopnea index (AHI) correlated significantly with S(TOT) (r=0.44; P<0.001), S(30-70) (r=0.59: P<0.001), S (r=0.58; P<0.001) and PA (r=0.58; P<0.001). According to our results, heart rate spectral analys s obtained by nocturnal pulse oximetry and identification of peak in the periodogram between period boundaries 30-70 sec could be useful as a diagnostic technique for OSA patients. PMID:11575898

  16. Associations of Sleep Disordered Breathing, Nocturnal Hypoxemia and Subsequent Cognitive Decline in Older Community-Dwelling Men: The MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Laffan, Alison; Redline, Susan; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Song, Yeonsu; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a group of disorders common among older adults, characterized by breathing pauses during sleep often accompanied by hypoxemia. Few studies have examined if SDB is associated with cognitive decline. DESIGN A population-based longitudinal study. SETTING 6 centers in the United States. PARTICIPANTS 2,636 community-dwelling older men (age 76.0 ± 5.3 years) without mild cognitive impairment, followed 3.4 ± 0.5 years. MEASUREMENTS SDB, measured by in-home polysomnography: nocturnal hypoxemia [≥1% of sleep time with oxygen saturation (SaO2) <90% vs. <1%; oxygen desaturation index (ODI: number of oxygen desaturations ≥3% per hour sleep)]; apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, number of apneas and hypopneas at ≥3% desaturation per hour sleep). Cognitive decline, measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) and Trails B test at baseline and 2 follow-up timepoints. Associations of predictors and cognitive decline were examined with linear mixed models adjusted for multiple confounders. Models were further adjusted by potential mediators (sleep duration, sleep fragmentation, resting SaO2). RESULTS Nocturnal hypoxemia was related to greater decline on the 3MS. Men with ≥1% of sleep time with SaO2<90% had an adjusted annualized decline of 0.43 points compared to 0.25 for men in the referent group (P = .003). For each 5-point increase in ODI there was an average annualized decline of 0.36 points (P = .01). Results were robust to further adjustment for potential mediators. The association between AHI and cognitive decline did not reach significance. No associations were seen with SDB and decline on the Trails B test. CONCLUSION Among older community-dwelling men, there was a modest association of nocturnal hypoxemia with global cognitive decline, suggesting the importance of overnight oxygenation to cognitive function. PMID:25803785

  17. The Experiences of Sleep Disruption in Families of Technology-Dependent Children Living at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Janet; Noyes, Jane; Sloper, Patricia; Shah, Robina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the sleep disruption experienced by 36 families of technology-dependent children living at home in the United Kingdom. The paper begins with an overview of the qualitative study in which parents' experiences of sleep disruption emerged as a major theme. We then describe the nature of and reasons for the sleep disruption, the…

  18. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in neuropsychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Jagannath, Aarti; Peirson, Stuart N; Foster, Russell G

    2013-10-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is a common feature in many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression. Although the precise mechanisms remain unclear, recent evidence suggests that this comorbidity is not simply a product of medication or an absence of social routine, but instead reflects commonly affected underlying pathways and mechanisms. For example, several genes intimately involved in the generation and regulation of circadian rhythms and sleep have been linked to psychiatric illness. Further, several genes linked to mental illness have recently been shown to also play a role in normal sleep and circadian behaviour. Here we describe some of the emerging common mechanisms that link circadian rhythms, sleep and SCRD in severe mental illnesses. A deeper understanding of these links will provide not only a greater understanding of disease mechanisms, but also holds the promise of novel avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23618559

  19. Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon N; Laing, Emma E; Mller-Levet, Carla S; van der Veen, Daan R; Bucca, Giselda; Lazar, Alpar S; Santhi, Nayantara; Slak, Ana; Kabiljo, Renata; von Schantz, Malcolm; Smith, Colin P; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-02-11

    Circadian organization of the mammalian transcriptome is achieved by rhythmic recruitment of key modifiers of chromatin structure and transcriptional and translational processes. These rhythmic processes, together with posttranslational modification, constitute circadian oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, which drive rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the sleep-wake cycle. In humans, sleep is normally timed to occur during the biological night, when body temperature is low and melatonin is synthesized. Desynchrony of sleep-wake timing and other circadian rhythms, such as occurs in shift work and jet lag, is associated with disruption of rhythmicity in physiology and endocrinology. However, to what extent mistimed sleep affects the molecular regulators of circadian rhythmicity remains to be established. Here, we show that mistimed sleep leads to a reduction of rhythmic transcripts in the human blood transcriptome from 6.4% at baseline to 1.0% during forced desynchrony of sleep and centrally driven circadian rhythms. Transcripts affected are key regulators of gene expression, including those associated with chromatin modification (methylases and acetylases), transcription (RNA polymerase II), translation (ribosomal proteins, initiation, and elongation factors), temperature-regulated transcription (cold inducible RNA-binding proteins), and core clock genes including CLOCK and ARNTL (BMAL1). We also estimated the separate contribution of sleep and circadian rhythmicity and found that the sleep-wake cycle coordinates the timing of transcription and translation in particular. The data show that mistimed sleep affects molecular processes at the core of circadian rhythm generation and imply that appropriate timing of sleep contributes significantly to the overall temporal organization of the human transcriptome. PMID:24449876

  20. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  1. Degeneration in Arousal Neurons in Chronic Sleep Disruption Modeling Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Fenik, Polina; Zhan, Guanxia; Xin, Ryan; Veasey, Sigrid C

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disruption (CSD) is a cardinal feature of sleep apnea that predicts impaired wakefulness. Despite effective treatment of apneas and sleep disruption, patients with sleep apnea may have persistent somnolence. Lasting wake disturbances in treated sleep apnea raise the possibility that CSD may induce sufficient degeneration in wake-activated neurons (WAN) to cause irreversible wake impairments. Implementing a stereological approach in a murine model of CSD, we found reduced neuronal counts in representative WAN groups, locus coeruleus (LC) and orexinergic neurons, reduced by 50 and 25%, respectively. Mice exposed to CSD showed shortened sleep latencies lasting at least 4 weeks into recovery from CSD. As CSD results in frequent activation of WAN, we hypothesized that CSD promotes mitochondrial metabolic stress in WAN. In support, CSD increased lipofuscin within select WAN. Further, examining the LC as a representative WAN nucleus, we observed increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and down-regulation of anti-oxidant enzyme and brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA. Remarkably, CSD markedly increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha within WAN, and not in adjacent neurons or glia. Thus, CSD, as observed in sleep apnea, results in a composite of lasting wake impairments, loss of select neurons, a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidative mitochondrial stress response in WAN, consistent with a degenerative process with behavioral consequences. PMID:26074865

  2. Regularity analysis of nocturnal oximetry recordings to assist in the diagnosis of sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marcos, J Vctor; Hornero, Roberto; Nabney, Ian T; lvarez, Daniel; Gutirrez-Tobal, Gonzalo C; Del Campo, Flix

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome (SAHS) severity and the regularity of nocturnal oxygen saturation (SaO2) recordings was analysed. Three different methods were proposed to quantify regularity: approximate entropy (AEn), sample entropy (SEn) and kernel entropy (KEn). A total of 240 subjects suspected of suffering from SAHS took part in the study. They were randomly divided into a training set (96 subjects) and a test set (144 subjects) for the adjustment and assessment of the proposed methods, respectively. According to the measurements provided by AEn, SEn and KEn, higher irregularity of oximetry signals is associated with SAHS-positive patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Pearson correlation analyses showed that KEn was the most reliable predictor of SAHS. It provided an area under the ROC curve of 0.91 in two-class classification of subjects as SAHS-negative or SAHS-positive. Moreover, KEn measurements from oximetry data exhibited a linear dependence on the apnoea-hypopnoea index, as shown by a correlation coefficient of 0.87. Therefore, these measurements could be used for the development of simplified diagnostic techniques in order to reduce the demand for polysomnographies. Furthermore, KEn represents a convincing alternative to AEn and SEn for the diagnostic analysis of noisy biomedical signals. PMID:26719242

  3. Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol on nocturnal sleep and early-morning behavior in young adults.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anthony N; Turner, Claire; Stone, Barbara M; Robson, Philip J

    2004-06-01

    The effects of cannabis extracts on nocturnal sleep, early-morning performance, memory, and sleepiness were studied in 8 healthy volunteers (4 males, 4 females; 21 to 34 years). The study was double-blind and placebo-controlled with a 4-way crossover design. The 4 treatments were placebo, 15 mg Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 5 mg THC combined with 5 mg cannabidiol (CBD), and 15 mg THC combined with 15 mg CBD. These were formulated in 50:50 ethanol to propylene glycol and administered using an oromucosal spray during a 30-minute period from 10 pm. The electroencephalogram was recorded during the sleep period (11 pm to 7 am). Performance, sleep latency, and subjective assessments of sleepiness and mood were measured from 8:30 am (10 hours after drug administration). There were no effects of 15 mg THC on nocturnal sleep. With the concomitant administration of the drugs (5 mg THC and 5 mg CBD to 15 mg THC and 15 mg CBD), there was a decrease in stage 3 sleep, and with the higher dose combination, wakefulness was increased. The next day, with 15 mg THC, memory was impaired, sleep latency was reduced, and the subjects reported increased sleepiness and changes in mood. With the lower dose combination, reaction time was faster on the digit recall task, and with the higher dose combination, subjects reported increased sleepiness and changes in mood. Fifteen milligrams THC would appear to be sedative, while 15 mg CBD appears to have alerting properties as it increased awake activity during sleep and counteracted the residual sedative activity of 15 mg THC. PMID:15118485

  4. Sleep disruption increases seizure susceptibility: Behavioral and EEG evaluation of an experimental model of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Hrnčić, Dragan; Grubač, Željko; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Šutulović, Nikola; Šušić, Veselinka; Bjekić-Macut, Jelica; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2016-03-01

    Sleep disruption accompanies sleep apnea as one of its major symptoms. Obstructive sleep apnea is particularly common in patients with refractory epilepsy, but causing factors underlying this are far from being resolved. Therefore, translational studies regarding this issue are important. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sleep disruption on seizure susceptibility of rats using experimental model of lindane-induced refractory seizures. Sleep disruption in male Wistar rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by treadmill method (belt speed set on 0.02m/s for working and 0.00m/s for stop mode, respectively). Animals were assigned to experimental conditions lasting 6h: 1) sleep disruption (sleep interrupted, SI; 30s working and 90s stop mode every 2min; 180cycles in total); 2) activity control (AC, 10min working and 30min stop mode, 9cycles in total); 3) treadmill chamber control (TC, only stop mode). Afterwards, the animals were intraperitoneally treated with lindane (L, 4mg/kg, SI+L, AC+L and TC+L groups) or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, SIc, ACc and TCc groups). Convulsive behavior was assessed by seizure incidence, latency time to first seizure, and its severity during 30min after drug administration. Number and duration of ictal periods were determined in recorded EEGs. Incidence and severity of lindane-induced seizures were significantly increased, latency time significantly decreased in animals undergoing sleep disruption (SI+L group) compared with the animals from TC+L. Seizure latency was also significantly decreased in SI+L compared to AC+L groups. Number of ictal periods were increased and duration of it presented tendency to increase in SI+L comparing to AC+L. No convulsive signs were observed in TCc, ACc and SIc groups, as well as no ictal periods in EEG. These results indicate sleep disruption facilitates induction of epileptic activity in rodent model of lindane-epilepsy enabling translational research of this phenomenon. PMID:26705666

  5. Sleep Disruption in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Prevalence, Severity, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Jim, Heather S.L.; Evans, Bryan; Jeong, Jiyeon M.; Gonzalez, Brian D.; Johnston, Laura; Nelson, Ashley M.; Kesler, Shelli; Phillips, Kristin M.; Barata, Anna; Pidala, Joseph; Palesh, Oxana

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, with over 50% of patients experiencing sleep disruption pre-transplant, up to 82% experiencing moderate to severe sleep disruption during hospitalization for transplant, and up to 43% in the post-transplant period. These rates of sleep disruption are substantially higher than the general population. Although sleep disruption can be distressing to patients and contribute to diminished quality of life, it is rarely discussed during clinical visits. The goal of the current review is to draw attention to sleep disruption as a clinical problem in HCT in order to facilitate patient education, intervention, and research. The review opens with a discussion of sleep disruption measurement and clinical diagnosis of sleep disorders. An overview of the prevalence, severity, and chronicity of sleep disruption and disorders in patients receiving HCT follows. Current evidence regarding sociodemographic and clinical predictors of sleep disruption and disorders is summarized. The review concludes with suggestions for behavioral and pharmacologic management of sleep disruption and disorders as well as directions for future research. PMID:24747335

  6. [Structure of nocturnal sleep if there is a violation of the blood supply in the territory of internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Berezina, I Iu; Sumski?, L I; Kudriashova, N E

    2013-01-01

    The work examines the influence of degree ofstenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of noc- turnal sleep and discusses possible neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders when blood flow in ca- rotid system. 24 patients (19 male and 5 female) were examined. The mean age of men was 49.75 6.55; women--46.67 5.86. Six patients with a single unilateral internal carotid stenosis (ICA) 50%; seven patients--stenosis of ICA 50-70%; eleven patients--occlusion of ICA completed the study. Polysomnography was recorded with "Neuro-Spectr-5/EP" ("NeuroSoft", Russia) and "Delta Flash" ("Deltamed", France) according to international recommendation. Stages of sleep were identified according to Re- chtschaffen A., Kales A. (1968) criteria. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaire prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Regional cerebral blood flow (mL/100g/min) with 99mTechnetium (Gamma-camera, DST-Xli "General electric", USA) was study by single photon emission CT imaging. The result of this study showed that with stenosis of the ICA to 50% structure of nocturnal sleep is not changed: records all phases and stages of sleep, quantitative parameters that match the normative data; or decline in the representation of only the stage II sleep; at stenosis ICA of 50-70% is violation of mostly stage II sleep and slow-wave sleep, and with occlusion ICA violation slow-wave sleep and in 45% of cases--REM-sleep. PMID:25509172

  7. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and…

  8. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and

  9. [Influence of sleep habit and nocturnal lifestyle on circadian rhythm of blood pressure among workers in Okinawa].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Mayo; Higashiuesato, Yasushi; Yamane, Nobuhisa

    2012-11-01

    We estimated the influence of sleep habit and nocturnal lifestyle on circadian rhythm of blood pressure by use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) and self-estimating questionnaire formats. A total of 30 workers aged 21 to 58 years old voluntarily participated. None had any chronic diseases or regular medication. The average subject daily worked for 8 hours, waked-up at 6:00, went-to-bed at 23:45, and had 6.25-hour sleep (median). The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to % dipping of sleep blood pressure; 10 to 20% dipping as a dipper, <10% as a non-dipper, and > or = 20% as an extreme-dipper. This characterization resulted in 15 dippers (50%), 8 non-dippers(27%) and 7 extreme-dippers (23%). Of the parameters estimated, (1) sleeping hours of non-dippers were significantly shorter than those of dippers (p=0.02), (2) nighttime blood pressure of extreme-dippers were significantly lower than dippers (p=0.04), (3) the lowest blood pressure in nighttime of non-dippers were significantly higher when compared with the remaining 2 groups, (4) morning surges of blood pressure of non-dippers were the significantly smallest, whereas those of extreme-dippers were the greatest, and (5)refreshing scores of OSA sleep inventory MA version of non-dippers were significantly poorer when compared to extreme-dippers. This study could indicate the significant influence of nocturnal lifestyle with short sleep on circadian rhythm of blood pressure, and the extended prospective-study might be promising for a precise conclusion. PMID:23383574

  10. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption and recognition memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tam, Shu K E; Pritchett, David; Brown, Laurence A; Foster, Russell G; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients often show irregularities in sleep and circadian rhythms and deficits in recognition memory. Similar phenotypes are seen in schizophrenia-relevant genetic mouse models, such as synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (Snap-25) point mutant mice, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (Vipr2) knockout mice, and neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)-deficient mice. Sleep and circadian abnormalities and impaired recognition memory may be causally related in both schizophrenia patients and schizophrenia-relevant mouse models, since sleep deprivation, abnormal photic input, and the manipulation of core clock genes (cryptochrome 1/2) can all disrupt object recognition memory in rodent models. The recognition deficits observed in patients and mouse models (both schizophrenia-related and -unrelated) are discussed here in terms of the dual-process theory of recognition, which postulates that there are two recognition mechanisms-recollection versus familiarity-that can be selectively impaired by brain lesions, neuropsychiatric conditions, and putatively, sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. However, based on this view, the findings from patient studies and studies using genetic mouse models (Nrg1 deficiency) seem to be inconsistent with each other. Schizophrenia patients are impaired at recollection (and to a lesser extent, familiarity judgments), but Nrg1-deficient mice are impaired at familiarity-based object recognition, raising concerns regarding the validity of using these genetically modified mice to model recognition phenotypes observed in patients. This issue can be resolved in future animal studies by examining performance in different variants of the spontaneous recognition task-the standard, perirhinal cortex-dependent, object recognition task versus the hippocampus-dependent object-place recognition task-in order to see which of the two recognition mechanisms is more disrupted. PMID:25707284

  11. Association of Smoking, Sleep Apnea, and Plasma Alkalosis With Nocturnal Ventricular Arrhythmias in Men With Systolic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Rakesh; Wexler, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Background: Excess sudden death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias remains a major mode of mortality in patients with systolic heart failure. The aim of this study was to determine the association of nocturnal ventricular arrhythmias in patients with low ejection fraction heart failure. We incorporated a large number of known pathophysiologic triggers to identify potential targets for therapy to reduce the persistently high incidence of sudden death in this population despite contemporary treatment. Methods: Eighty-six ambulatory male patients with stable low (? 45%) ejection fraction heart failure underwent full-night attendant polysomnography and simultaneous Holter recordings. Patients were divided into groups according to the presence or absence of couplets (paired premature ventricular excitations) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) (at least three consecutive premature ventricular excitations) during sleep. Results: In multiple regression analysis, four variables (current smoking status, increased number of arousals, plasma alkalinity, and old age) were associated with VT and two variables (apnea-hypopnea index and low right ventricular ejection fraction) were associated with couplets during sleep. Conclusions: We speculate that cessation of smoking, effective treatment of sleep apnea, and plasma alkalosis could collectively decrease the incidence of nocturnal ventricular tachyarrhythmias and the consequent risk of sudden death, which remains high despite the use of ? blockades. PMID:22172636

  12. Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stwhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stwhas AC; Grimm M; Stadelmann K; Tesler N; Achermann P; Huber R; Kohler M; Bloch KE. Are nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance impaired at moderate altitude (1,630-2,590 m)? SLEEP 2013;36(12):1969-1976. PMID:24293773

  13. Association Between the Severity of Nocturnal Hypoxia in Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Damage

    PubMed Central

    Cakmak, Erol; Duksal, Faysal; Altinkaya, Engin; Acibucu, Fettah; Dogan, Omer Tamer; Yonem, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Abdulkerim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major disease that can cause significant mortality and morbidity. Chronic intermittent hypoxia is a potential causal factor in the progression from fatty liver to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Objectives: This study evaluated the association between the degree of liver steatosis and severity of nocturnal hypoxia. Patients and Methods: In this study, between December 2011 and December 2013, patients with ultrasound-diagnosed NAFLD evaluated by standart polysomnography were subsequentally recorded. Patients with alcohol use, viral hepatitis and other chronic liver diseases were excluded. We analyzed polysomnographic parameters, steatosis level and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in consideration of body mass index (BMI), biochemical tests and ultrasonographic liver data of 137 subjects. Patients with sleep apnea and AHI scores of < 5, 5 - 14, 15 - 29 and ?30 are categorized as control, mild, moderate and severe, respectively. Results: One hundred and thirty-seven patients (76 women, 61 men) with a mean age of 55.75 10.13 years who underwent polysomnography were included in the study. Of 118 patients diagnosed with OSA, 19 (16.1%) had mild OSA, 39 (33.1%) moderate OSA and 60 (50.8%) severe OSA. Nineteen cases formed the control group. Apnea/hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index (ODI) values were significantly higher in moderate and severe non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) compared to the non-NAFLD group. Mean nocturnal SpO2 values were significantly lower in mild NAFLD and severe NAFLD compared to the non-NAFLD group. Lowest O2 saturation (LaSO2) was found low in mild, moderate and severe NAFLD compared to the non-NAFLD group in a statistically significant manner. Conclusions: We assessed polysomnographic parameters of AHI, ODI, LaSO2 and mean nocturnal SpO2 levels, which are especially important in the association between NAFLD and OSAS. We think that it is necessary to be attentive regarding NAFLD development and progression in patients with OSA whose nocturnal hypoxia is severe. PMID:26834793

  14. The Effects of Sleep Disruption on the Treatment of a Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Dolezal, Danielle N.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep disruption on the mealtime behavior of a young boy with developmental disabilities. Results showed that bite acceptance was less likely to persist during meals following disrupted sleep, but only when escape extinction was not implemented. Findings are discussed in terms of establishing operations and the effects…

  15. Nocturnal Awakening & Sleep Duration in Veterans with PTSD: An Actigraphic Study

    PubMed Central

    S. Khawaja, Imran; M. Hashmi, Ali; Westermeyer, Joseph; Thuras, Paul; Hurwitz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether awakenings from sleep and sleep duration in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were related to demography, posttraumatic or depressive symptoms, subjective sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Sample consisted of 23 veterans with lifetime PTSD and current sleep disturbance not due to apnea or other diagnosable conditions. Data collection included demography, two weeks of actigraphy, Beck Depression Inventory, Posttraumatic Checklist, Clinical Assessment of Posttraumatic Symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: The study revealed that awakenings increased with younger age. Variability in awakenings also increased with younger age (p = 0.002). More awakenings were associated with shorter sleep duration. Conclusions: These paradoxical observations regarding younger age and more awakening may be related to increased sleep symptoms early in the course and then gradual waning of posttraumatic symptoms over time, since awakenings tend to increase with age in normals (rather than decrease, as we observed). PMID:24353674

  16. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children's BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Börnhorst, Claudia; Hebestreit, Antje; Moreno, Luis; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Siani, Alfonso; Molnar, Dénes; Sioen, Isabelle; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-12-01

    Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future. PMID:26670249

  17. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R.; Schmitt, Luke I.; Halassa, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.54 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  18. Pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea in hypertensive patients: role of fluid retention and nocturnal rostral fluid shift.

    PubMed

    White, L H; Bradley, T D; Logan, A G

    2015-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is highly prevalent in hypertensive patients, particularly those with drug resistance. Evidence from animal experiments, epidemiologic studies and clinical trials strongly suggest a causal link. Mechanistic studies argue for increased sympathetic neural activity and endothelial dysfunction. However, disturbances in fluid volume regulation and distribution may also be involved in the pathogenesis of these two conditions. Several studies have shown a high prevalence of OSA in fluid-retaining states including hypertension, a direct relationship between the severity of OSA and the volume of fluid displaced from the legs to the neck during sleep, and a decrease in upper airway cross-sectional area in response to graded lower body positive pressure. Treatments targeting fluid retention and redistribution, including diuretics, mineralocorticoid antagonists, exercise, and possibly renal denervation lower blood pressure and reduce the apnoea-hypopnoea index, a measure of OSA severity. From these observations, it has been postulated that during the daytime, excess fluid collects in the lower extremities due to gravity, and on lying down overnight is redistributed rostrally to the neck, where it may narrow the upper airway and increase its collapsibility, predisposing to OSA when pharyngeal dilator muscle activity decreases during sleep. This article discusses the associations between OSA and hypertension and reviews the evidence for fluid accumulation and its nocturnal rostral redistribution in the pathogenesis of OSA in hypertensive patients. PMID:25339298

  19. Environmental disruption of the circadian clock leads to altered sleep and immune responses in mouse.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Derrick J; Savenkova, Marina I; Karatsoreos, Ilia N

    2015-07-01

    In mammals, one of the most salient outputs of the circadian (daily) clock is the timing of the sleep-wake cycle. Modern industrialized society has led to a fundamental breakdown in the relationship between our endogenous timekeeping systems and the solar day, disrupting normal circadian rhythms. We have argued that disrupted circadian rhythms could lead to changes in allostatic load, and the capacity of organisms to respond to other environmental challenges. In this set of studies, we apply a model of circadian disruption characterized in our lab in which mice are housed in a 20h long day, with 10h of light and 10h of darkness. We explored the effects of this environmental disruption on sleep patterns, to establish if this model results in marked sleep deprivation. Given the interaction between circadian, sleep, and immune systems, we further probed if our model of circadian disruption also alters the innate immune response to peripheral bacterial endotoxin challenge. Our results demonstrate that this model of circadian disruption does not lead to marked sleep deprivation, but instead affects the timing and quality of sleep. We also show that while circadian disruption does not lead to basal changes in the immune markers we explored, the immune response is affected, both in the brain and the periphery. Together, our findings further strengthen the important role of the circadian timing system in sleep regulation and immune responses, and provide evidence that disrupting the circadian clock increases vulnerability to further environmental stressors, including immunological challenges. PMID:25542734

  20. Sleep Disruption Medical Intervention Forecasting (SDMIF) Module for the Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Brooker, John; Mallis, Melissa; Hursh, Steve; Caldwell, Lynn; Myers, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fatigue due to sleep disruption is a condition that could lead to operational errors, potentially resulting in loss of mission or crew. Pharmacological consumables are mitigation strategies used to manage the risks associated with sleep deficits. The likelihood of medical intervention due to sleep disruption was estimated with a well validated sleep model and a Monte Carlo computer simulation in an effort to optimize the quantity of consumables. METHODS: The key components of the model are the mission parameter program, the calculation of sleep intensity and the diagnosis and decision module. The mission parameter program was used to create simulated daily sleep/wake schedules for an ISS increment. The hypothetical schedules included critical events such as dockings and extravehicular activities and included actual sleep time and sleep quality. The schedules were used as inputs to the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) Model (IBR Inc., Baltimore MD), which calculated sleep intensity. Sleep data from an ISS study was used to relate calculated sleep intensity to the probability of sleep medication use, using a generalized linear model for binomial regression. A human yes/no decision process using a binomial random number was also factored into sleep medication use probability. RESULTS: These probability calculations were repeated 5000 times resulting in an estimate of the most likely amount of sleep aids used during an ISS mission and a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: These results were transferred to the parent IMM for further weighting and integration with other medical conditions, to help inform operational decisions. This model is a potential planning tool for ensuring adequate sleep during sleep disrupted periods of a mission.

  1. Disrupted rapid eye movement sleep predicts poor declarative memory performance in post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Lipinska, Malgorzata; Timol, Ridwana; Kaminer, Debra; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2014-06-01

    Successful memory consolidation during sleep depends on healthy slow-wave and rapid eye movement sleep, and on successful transition across sleep stages. In post-traumatic stress disorder, sleep is disrupted and memory is impaired, but relations between these two variables in the psychiatric condition remain unexplored. We examined whether disrupted sleep, and consequent disrupted memory consolidation, is a mechanism underlying declarative memory deficits in post-traumatic stress disorder. We recruited three matched groups of participants: post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 16); trauma-exposed non-post-traumatic stress disorder (n = 15); and healthy control (n = 14). They completed memory tasks before and after 8 h of sleep. We measured sleep variables using sleep-adapted electroencephalography. Post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants experienced significantly less sleep efficiency and rapid eye movement sleep percentage, and experienced more awakenings and wake percentage in the second half of the night than did participants in the other two groups. After sleep, post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed participants retained significantly less information on a declarative memory task than controls. Rapid eye movement percentage, wake percentage and sleep efficiency correlated with retention of information over the night. Furthermore, lower rapid eye movement percentage predicted poorer retention in post-traumatic stress disorder-diagnosed individuals. Our results suggest that declarative memory consolidation is disrupted during sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder. These data are consistent with theories suggesting that sleep benefits memory consolidation via predictable neurobiological mechanisms, and that rapid eye movement disruption is more than a symptom of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:24467663

  2. Prevalence and mental health correlates of sleep disruption among military members serving in a combat zone.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Marcus K; Hilton, Susan M; Campbell, Justin S; Beckerley, Shiloh E; Shobe, Katharine K; Drummond, Sean P A

    2014-07-01

    Sleep disruption is an emergent military health issue, but remarkably little is known of its prevalence or comorbidities in the combat zone. This study was designed to quantify the prevalence and mental health correlates of sleep disruption among military personnel serving within a ground combat zone during Operation Enduring Freedom. This was a large, cross-sectional survey of active duty and reserve U.S. Navy personnel (N = 3,175). Self-reported sleep measures included total hours of sleep per day, total hours of sleep required to feel well-rested, difficulty falling asleep, and difficulty staying asleep. The survey also measured mental health symptoms, including post-traumatic stress symptoms, anxiety, and depression. Participants reported an average of 5.9 hours of sleep per day despite requiring on average 6.8 hours to feel well rested. More than half (56%) were classified as sleep deficient, and 67% reported 6 or fewer hours of sleep per day. Adjusted for covariates, individuals endorsing sleep disruption were at substantially elevated risk of meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive disorder. This study documents the prevalence of sleep disruption in a very large and difficult-to-access sample of military members serving in a combat zone, and details robust associations with mental health. PMID:25003859

  3. Nocturnal Hypoxemia and Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea are Associated with Incident Type 2 Diabetes in a Population Cohort of Men

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, Sarah L.; Vakulin, Andrew; McEvoy, R. Doug; Wittert, Gary A.; Martin, Sean A.; Grant, Janet F.; Taylor, Anne W.; Antic, Nick A.; Catcheside, Peter G.; Adams, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Studies examining the longitudinal association of untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with diabetes in population samples are limited. This study therefore examined the relationship between previously undiagnosed OSA with incident type 2 diabetes in community-dwelling men aged ? 40 y. Methods: The Men Androgen Inflammation Lifestyle Environment and Stress (MAILES) Study is a longitudinal population-based cohort in Adelaide, South Australia. Clinic assessments at baseline and follow-up identified diabetes (self-reported doctor diagnosed, fasting plasma glucose ? 7.0 mmol/L, glycated hemoglobin ? 6.5% or diabetes medication use) and included anthropometry. At cohort follow-up (20102012), n = 837 underwent full in-home unattended polysomnography (PSG, Embletta X100, Broomfield, CO). Results: Of 736 men free of diabetes at baseline, incident diabetes occurred in 66 (9.0%) over a mean follow-up time of 56 mo (standard deviation = 5, range: 4874 mo). Incident diabetes was associated with current oxygen desaturation index (3%) ? 16 events/h (odds ratio [OR]: 1.85 [1.063.21]), and severe OSA [OR: 2.6 (1.16.1)], in adjusted models including age, percentage total body fat, and weight gain (> 5 cm waist circumference). An age-adjusted association of incident diabetes with percentage of total sleep time with oxygen saturation < 90% did not persist after adjustment for percentage of body fat. No modification of these relationships by excessive daytime sleepiness was observed. Conclusions: Severe undiagnosed OSA and nocturnal hypoxemia were independently associated with the development of diabetes. A reduction in the burden of undiagnosed OSA and undiagnosed diabetes is likely to occur if patients presenting with one disorder are assessed for the other. Citation: Appleton SL, Vakulin A, McEvoy RD, Wittert GA, Martin SA, Grant JF, Taylor AW, Antic NA, Catcheside PG, Adams RJ. Nocturnal hypoxemia and severe obstructive sleep apnea are associated with incident type 2 diabetes in a population cohort of men. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(6):609614. PMID:25766697

  4. Sleep Loss and Circadian Rhythm Disruption in the Intensive Care Unit.

    PubMed

    Knauert, Melissa P; Haspel, Jeffrey A; Pisani, Margaret A

    2015-09-01

    Critical illness is associated with profound sleep disruption. Causality is diverse and includes physiologic, psychological, and environmental factors. There are limited pharmacologic interventions available to treat sleep disturbances in critical illness; however, multidisciplinary strategies that alter the intensive care unit (ICU) environment and cluster care delivery have shown promise in sleep and circadian promotion and delirium reduction. With the appropriate administrative support and involvement of diverse ICU stakeholders, effective strategies could be created, implemented, and maintained to improve sleep disruption in critically ill patients. PMID:26304279

  5. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    PubMed

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. PMID:25355211

  6. Apnea-Induced Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Disruption Impairs Human Spatial Navigational Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P.; Osorio, Ricardo S.; Rapoport, David M.; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. PMID:25355211

  7. Differential effects of hydrocortisone, fluocortolone, and aldosterone on nocturnal sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Born, J; Zwick, A; Roth, G; Fehm-Wolfsdorf, G; Fehm, H L

    1987-09-01

    Previous experiments have suggested that sleep processes are sensitive to influences of corticosteroids. The present experiment was designed to compare effects of three different corticosteroids on human sleep: fluocortolone (a synthetic pure glucocorticoid), cortisol which possesses glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid activity, and aldosterone (the major mineralocorticoid). Ten male adult subjects were tested in four experimental nights according to a double-blind latin-square design under conditions of either 1.0 mg of aldosterone, 20 mg of fluocortolone, 80 mg of hydrocortisone, or placebo. Substances were administered orally (fluocortolone, 23.00 h) or infused iv throughout the night (hydrocortisone, aldosterone) starting at 23.00 h. Hydrocortisone and fluocortolone induced a substantial reduction of rapid eye movement sleep. Hydrocortisone increased slow wave sleep activity. No such effect was observed after fluocortolone. Effects on sleep processes of aldosterone, in general, seemed to be neglegible. The results demonstrate differential effects of synthetic glucocorticoid, cortisol, and aldosterone on sleep in humans, which may be attributed to the heterogeneity of corticosteroid receptors in the brain. PMID:3661052

  8. Circadian Disruption, Sleep Loss and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sigurdardottir, Lara G.; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Fall, Katja; Rider, Jennifer R.; Lockley, Steven W.; Schernhammer, Eva S.; Mucci, Lorelei A.

    2012-01-01

    Disruption of the circadian system has been hypothesized to increase cancer risk, either due to direct disruption of the molecular machinery generating circadian rhythms or due to disruption of parameters controlled by the clock such as melatonin levels or sleep duration. This hypothesis has been studied in hormone-dependent cancers among women, but data are sparse regarding potential effects of circadian disruption on the risk of prostate cancer. This review systematically examines available data evaluating the effects of light at night, sleep patterns, and night shift work on prostate cancer risk. PMID:22564869

  9. Effects of Nocturnal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Patients with Resistant Hypertension and Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Dernaika, Tarek A.; Kinasewitz, Gary T.; Tawk, Maroun M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine the long-term effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy on blood pressure (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension. Methods: Study subjects were 98 patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and hypertension who had 3 or more documented daytime BP measurements taken within 3 months of enrollment and every 3 months after CPAP initiation for 1 year. Resistant hypertension was defined as daytime BP of at least 140 mm Hg systolic or 90 mm Hg diastolic, despite the use of 3 or more antihypertensive medications. Patients in the resistant hypertension group (n = 42) were compared with subjects with controlled hypertension (n = 56). Results: Mean difference in mean arterial pressure was ?5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] ?2.0 to ?8.7 mm Hg; p = 0.03) in the resistant group and ?0.8 mm Hg (95% CI ?2.9 to 3.3 mm Hg; p = 0.53) in patients with controlled BP at the end of follow up period. CPAP permitted de-escalation of antihypertensive treatment in 71% of subjects with resistant hypertension but did not significantly alter the antihypertensive regimen in the controlled group. Multivariate regression analysis showed that baseline BP (odds ratio 5.4, 95% CI 2.3 to 8.9; p = 0.01) and diuretic therapy (odds ratio = 3.2, 95% CI 1.8 to 6.1; p = 0.02), but not apnea-hypopnea index or hours of CPAP use, were independently associated with a decrease in mean arterial pressure after 12 months of CPAP therapy. Conclusion: In this observational study, CPAP was associated with different effects on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients with sleep apnea. A beneficial response to CPAP therapy was found mainly in subjects with the most severe hypertensive disease. Citation: Dernaika TA; Kinasewitz GT; Tawk MM. Effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure therapy in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(2):103107. PMID:19968040

  10. Sleep disruption in older adults. Harmful and by no means inevitable, it should be assessed for and treated.

    PubMed

    Cole, Catherine; Richards, Kathy

    2007-05-01

    Insomnia is not a normal part of aging, but nighttime sleep in older adults is often disrupted, leading to excessive daytime sleepiness and other physical, psychological, and cognitive changes that affect overall health. Even so, clinicians often pay little attention to sleep in this population. The sleep of older adults tends to be less deep than that of younger people, and coexisting conditions and treatment effects can more easily disrupt sleep. This article reviews the current literature on sleep disruption in older adults and suggests ways that nurses can apply the information in intervening to improve sleep in their older patients. PMID:17443076

  11. Sleep disruption impairs haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Asya; Pang, Wendy W; Ibarra, Ingrid; Colas, Damien; Bonnavion, Patricia; Korin, Ben; Heller, H Craig; Weissman, Irving L; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting the success of haematopoietic cell transplantation are still unknown. Here we show in mice that donor sleep deprivation reduces the ability of its haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to engraft and reconstitute the blood and bone marrow of an irradiated recipient by more than 50%. We demonstrate that sleep deprivation downregulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-19b, a negative regulator of the suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) genes, which inhibit HSC migration and homing. Accordingly, HSCs from sleep-deprived mice have higher levels of SOCS genes expression, lower migration capacity in vitro and reduced homing to the bone marrow in vivo. Recovery of sleep after sleep deprivation restored the reconstitution potential of the HSCs. Taken together, this study provides insights into cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of sleep deprivation on HSCs, emphasizing the potentially critical role of donor sleep in the success of bone marrow transplantation. PMID:26465715

  12. Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea: CHF-HOT study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Yasuno, Shinji; Sasayama, Shigetake

    2016-02-01

    It was previously reported that nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) significantly improved not only sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but also quality of life (QOL) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in two trials. To strengthen the statistical reliability of the above efficacies of HOT and to assess the effects of 12-week nocturnal HOT on suppression of ventricular arrhythmias, we combined the two trials and undertook a post hoc analysis. Ninety-seven patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and central sleep apnea were assigned to receive HOT (45 patients) or not (52 patients). HOT resulted in greater reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (-11.4 ± 11.0 vs. -0.2 ± 7.6 events/h, p < 0.01), which is associated with greater improvement in the Specific Activity Scale (0.8 ± 1.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.6, p < 0.01), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (p < 0.01), and LVEF (p = 0.06). Median number of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) at baseline was 17 beats per hour in both the HOT and the control groups. Overall improvements of PVCs were not different either in the HOT group or in the control. However, in 12 patients with NYHA >III and AHI >20 events/h, PVC was significantly improved by HOT with a marked reduction in AHI and a substantial increase in LVEF. In conclusion, among patients with CHF and CSA, HOT improves SDB, QOL, and cardiac function. The effectiveness of HOT for ventricular arrhythmias was not observed in the overall analysis, but only in a limited number of patients with severe CHF and SDB. To clarify the effects of HOT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CHF and SDB, a further study is needed. PMID:25348726

  13. Assessment of Sleep Disruption and Sleep Quality in Naval Special Warfare Operators.

    PubMed

    Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K; Drummond, Sean P A; Larson, Gerald E; Potterat, Eric G

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about sleep in elite military populations who are exposed to higher operational demands, unpredictable training, deployment, and mission cycles. Twenty-nine Naval Special Warfare (NSW) Operators wore an actiwatch for an 8-day/7-night period for objective sleep assessment and completed a nightly sleep log. A total of 170 nights of actigraphically recorded sleep were collected. When comparing objectively versus subjectively recorded sleep parameter data, statistically significant differences were found. Compared with sleep log data, actigraphy data indicate NSW Operators took longer to fall asleep (an average of 25.82 minutes), spent more time awake after sleep onset (an average of 39.55 minutes), and demonstrated poorer sleep efficiency (83.88%) (ps < 0.05). Self-reported sleep quality during the study period was 6.47 (maximum score = 10). No relationships existed between the objectively derived sleep indices and the self-reported measure of sleep quality (rs = -0.29 to 0.09, all ps > 0.05). Strong inter-relationships existed among the subjectively derived sleep indices (e.g., between self-reported sleep quality and sleep efficiency; r = 0.61, p < 0.001). To our knowledge, this is the first study to objectively and subjectively quantify sleep among NSW Operators. These findings suggest sleep maintenance and sleep efficiency are impaired when compared to normative population data. PMID:26126252

  14. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep.

    PubMed

    Studholme, Keith M; Gompf, Heinrich S; Morin, Lawrence P

    2013-03-15

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (T(c)) drops substantially (about 1.5C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and T(c) begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in T(c) is very small; 3) T(c) recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon T(c) increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated T(c) persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when T(c) or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in T(c) suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low T(c). PMID:23364525

  15. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  16. Are Absence Epilepsy and Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy System Epilepsies of the Sleep/Wake System?

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter

    2015-01-01

    System epilepsy is an emerging concept interpreting major nonlesional epilepsies as epileptic dysfunctions of physiological systems. I extend here the concept of reflex epilepsy to epilepsies linked to input dependent physiological systems. Experimental and clinical reseach data were collected to create a coherent explanation of underlying pathomechanism in AE and NFLE. We propose that AE should be interpreted as epilepsy linked to the corticothalamic burst-firing mode of NREM sleep, released by evoked vigilance level oscillations characterized by reactive slow wave response. In the genetic variation of NFLE the ascending cholinergic arousal system plays an essential role being in strong relationship with a gain mutation of the nicotinic acethylcholin receptors, rendering the arousal system hyperexcitable. I try to provide a more unitary interpretation for the variable seizure manifestation integrating them as different degree of pathological arosuals and alarm reactions. As a supporting hypothesis the similarity between arousal parasomnias and FNLE is shown, underpinned by overlaping pathomechanism and shared familiarity, but without epileptic features. Lastly we propose that both AE and NFLE are system epilepsies of the sleep-wake system representing epileptic disorders of the antagonistic sleep/arousal network. This interpretation may throw new light on the pathomechanism of AE and NFLE. PMID:26175547

  17. Importance of hypertension and social isolation in causing sleep disruption in dementia.

    PubMed

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), heart disease, social isolation, and sociodemographic factors on sleep in the elderly patients with dementia. Samples included 1210 noninstitutionalized, Malaysian elderly patients with dementia. The multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to estimate the risk of sleep disturbances among respondents. Approximately 41% of the patients experienced sleep problems. The results showed that age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02), social isolation (OR = 1.33), and HT (OR = 1.53) significantly increased sleep disruption in respondents (P <.05). Furthermore, education (OR =.63) and non-Malay ethnicity (OR = 0.63) significantly decreased sleep problems (P <.05). It was found that DM, heart disease, sex differences, and marital status were not significant predictors of sleep disturbances (P >.05). It was concluded that age, social isolation, and HT increased sleep disruption but education and ethnic non-Malay reduced the risk of sleep problems. Moreover, HT was the most important variable to increase sleep disturbances in the elderly patients with dementia. PMID:24085252

  18. Neonatal Maternal Separation Disrupts Regulation of Sleep and Breathing in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kinkead, Richard; Montandon, Gaspard; Bairam, Aida; Lajeunesse, Yves; Horner, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Neonatal maternal separation (NMS) disrupts development of cardiorespiratory regulation. Adult male rats previously subjected to NMS are hypertensive and show a hypoxic ventilatory response greater than that of controls. These results have been obtained in awake or anesthetised animals, and the consequences of NMS on respiratory control during normal sleep are unknown. This study tested the following hypotheses: NMS augments respiratory variability across sleep-wake states, and NMS-related enhancement of the hypoxic ventilatory response occurs during sleep. Methods: Two groups of adult rats were used: controls (no treatment) and rats subjected to NMS. Ventilatory activity, coefficient of variation, and hypoxic ventilatory response were compared between groups and across sleep-wake states. Subjects: Male Sprague Dawley ratsNMS: n = 11; controls: n = 10. Pups subjected to NMS were isolated from their mother for 3 hours per day from postnatal days 3 to 12. Controls were undisturbed. Measurements and results: At adulthood, sleep-wake states were monitored by telemetry, and ventilatory activity was measured using whole-body plethysmography. Sleep and breathing were measured for 2.5 hours (in the morning) while the rats were breathing room air. Data were analysed in 20-second epochs. Rats were then exposed to a brief (90-sec) hypoxic episode (nadir = 12% O2) to measure the hypoxic ventilatory response. The coefficient of variability for tidal volume and breathing frequency decreased during sleep but remained more elevated in NMS rats than in controls. During non-rapid eye movement sleep, the breathing-frequency response to hypoxia of NMS rats was significantly greater than that of controls. Conclusion: Neonatal maternal seperation results in persistent disruption of respiratory control during sleep. Citation: Kinkead R; Montandon G; Bairam A; Lajeunesse Y; Horner R. Neonatal maternal separation disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in adult male rats. SLEEP 2009;32(12):1611-1620. PMID:20041597

  19. A Preliminary Study of New Parents, Sleep Disruption, and Driving: A Population at Risk?

    PubMed

    Malish, Sterling; Arastu, Fatema; O'Brien, Louise M

    2016-02-01

    Background Drowsy driving is estimated to be a causal factor in 2-16 % of vehicular crashes. Several populations are reported to be at high risk for drowsy driving accidents, including shift workers, teenage drivers, medical residents, and pilots. Although new parents are known to have significant sleep disruption, no study has investigated vehicular accidents or near miss accidents in this population. Methods A preliminary cross-sectional, anonymous survey of parents who had given birth within the previous 12 months. Participants were asked about their sleep, including validated measures of sleep disruption, their driving patterns, and information about near miss traffic accidents and actual crashes. Results Overall, 72 participants were enrolled. A large proportion of participants had poor sleep including approximately 30 % with daytime sleepiness, 60 % with poor daytime function and two-thirds with poor sleep quality. The mean sleep duration was only 6.4 h. Although most participants drove <100 miles per week, 22.2 % reported at least one near miss accident and 5.6 % reported a crash. Sleep problems were more common in those with near miss accidents and actual crashes than in those without. Of note, poor sleep quality was associated with a sixfold increase in near miss accidents even after accounting for other factors. Conclusion Poor sleep is common in new parents and we provide preliminary evidence that sleep disruption in this population is associated with near miss motor vehicle accidents. Drowsy driving results in thousands of unnecessary serious injuries and fatalities each year; raising public awareness that new parents are a high-risk group is important. PMID:26541593

  20. Sleep loss and the inflammatory response in mice under chronic environmental circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Brager, Allison J; Ehlen, J Christopher; Castanon-Cervantes, Oscar; Natarajan, Divya; Delisser, Patrick; Davidson, Alec J; Paul, Ketema N

    2013-01-01

    Shift work and trans-time zone travel lead to insufficient sleep and numerous pathologies. Here, we examined sleep/wake dynamics during chronic exposure to environmental circadian disruption (ECD), and if chronic partial sleep loss associated with ECD influences the induction of shift-related inflammatory disorder. Sleep and wakefulness were telemetrically recorded across three months of ECD, in which the dark-phase of a light-dark cycle was advanced weekly by 6 h. A three month regimen of ECD caused a temporary reorganization of sleep (NREM and REM) and wake processes across each week, resulting in an approximately 10% net loss of sleep each week relative to baseline levels. A separate group of mice were subjected to ECD or a regimen of imposed wakefulness (IW) aimed to mimic sleep amounts under ECD for one month. Fos-immunoreactivity (IR) was quantified in sleep-wake regulatory areas: the nucleus accumbens (NAc), basal forebrain (BF), and medial preoptic area (MnPO). To assess the inflammatory response, trunk blood was treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and subsequent release of IL-6 was measured. Fos-IR was greatest in the NAc, BF, and MnPO of mice subjected to IW. The inflammatory response to LPS was elevated in mice subjected to ECD, but not mice subjected to IW. Thus, the net sleep loss that occurs under ECD is not associated with a pathological immune response. PMID:23696854

  1. Adolescent Problematic Social Networking and School Experiences: The Mediating Effects of Sleep Disruptions and Sleep Quality.

    PubMed

    Vernon, Lynette; Barber, Bonnie L; Modecki, Kathryn L

    2015-07-01

    An important developmental task for adolescents is to become increasingly responsible for their own health behaviors. Establishing healthy sleep routines and controlling media use before bedtime are important for adequate, quality sleep so adolescents are alert during the day and perform well at school. Despite the prevalence of adolescent social media use and the large percentage of computers and cell phones in adolescents' bedrooms, no studies to date have investigated the link between problematic adolescent investment in social networking, their sleep practices, and associated experiences at school. A sample of 1,886 students in Australia aged between 12 and 18 years of age completed self-report data on problematic social networking use, sleep disturbances, sleep quality, and school satisfaction. Structural equation modeling (SEM) substantiated the serial mediation hypothesis: for adolescents, problematic social networking use significantly increased sleep disturbances, which adversely affected perceptions of sleep quality that, in turn, lowered adolescents' appraisals of their school satisfaction. This significant pattern was largely driven by the indirect effect of sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that adolescents are vulnerable to negative consequences from social networking use. Specifically, problematic social networking is associated with poor school experiences, which result from poor sleep habits. Promoting better sleep routines by minimizing sleep disturbances from social media use could improve school experiences for adolescents with enhanced emotional engagement and improved subjective well-being. PMID:26167837

  2. A personal light-treatment device for improving sleep quality in the elderly: dynamics of nocturnal melatonin suppression at two exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Bierman, Andrew; Bullough, John D; Rea, Mark S

    2009-05-01

    Light treatment has been used as a non-pharmacological tool to help mitigate poor sleep quality frequently found in older people. In order to increase compliance to non-pharmacological light treatments, new, more efficacious light-delivery systems need to be developed. A prototype personal light-treatment device equipped with low brightness blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) (peak wavelength near 470 nm) was tested for its effectiveness in suppressing nocturnal melatonin, a measure of circadian stimulation. Two levels of corneal irradiance were set to deliver two prescribed doses of circadian light exposure. Eleven older subjects, between 51 and 80 yrs of age who met the selection criteria, were exposed to a high and a low level of light for 90 min on separate nights from the personal light-treatment device. Blood and saliva samples were collected at prescribed times for subsequent melatonin assay. After 1 h of light exposure, the light-induced nocturnal melatonin suppression level was about 35% for the low-light level and about 60% for the high-light level. The higher level of blue light suppressed melatonin more quickly, to a greater extent over the course of the 90 min exposure period, and maintained suppression after 60 min. The constant exposure of the low-light level resulted in a decrease in nocturnal melatonin suppression for the last sampling time, whereas for the high-light level, suppression continued throughout the entire exposure period. The present study performed with healthy adults suggests that the tested personal light-treatment device might be a practical, comfortable, and effective way to deliver light treatment to those suffering from circadian sleep disorders; however, the acceptance and effectiveness of personal light-treatment devices by older people and by other segments of the population suffering from sleep disorders in a real-life situation need to be directly tested. PMID:19444752

  3. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Cline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

  4. [Sleep and movement disorders].

    PubMed

    Poryazova, R; Bassetti, C L

    2007-01-01

    The three different states of being (wakefulness, NREM and REM sleep) are associated with profound neurophysiological and neurochemical changes in the brain. These changes explain the existence of movement disorders appearing only or preferentially during sleep, and the effects of sleep on movement disorders. Sleep-related movement disorders are of clinical relevance for multiple reasons: 1) high frequency (e.g. restless legs syndrome (RLS)); 2) diagnostic relevance (e.g. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as first manifestation of Parkinson disorder); 3) diagnostic uncertainty (e.g. parasomnias vs nocturnal epilepsy); 4) association with injuries (e.g. RBD, sleepwalking), sleep disruption/daytime sleepiness (e.g. RLS), and psycho-social burden (e.g. enuresis); 5) requirement of specific treatments (e.g. nocturnal epilepsy, stridor, RBD). This article gives an overview on clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, work-up and treatment of sleep-related movement disorders (e.g. RLS, bruxism), parasomnias (e.g. sleepwalking, RBD), sleep-related epilepsies, and on sleep-associated manifestations of movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson disease, multiple system atrophy). PMID:17221827

  5. Age-Related Sleep Disruption and Reduction in the Circadian Rhythm of Urine Output: Contribution to Nocturia?

    PubMed

    Duffy, Jeanne F; Scheuermaier, Karine; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    Aging is associated with a marked increase in sleep complaints, and one factor causing sleep disruption is waking to void (nocturia). Urological surveys have found that few young adults report nocturia symptoms, but about half of those in their 60's and nearly 80% of older age groups are affected. Sleep surveys have found nocturia is a major cause of sleep disruption, with a majority of older adults with sleep disruption citing the need to void as the cause of their awakening. While much of the urological literature implies that nocturia causes sleep disruption, age-related changes in sleep depth and continuity may make it more likely that an older adult will wake in response to a filling bladder, or that an older adult will wake for another reason and then decide to void. There is also evidence that age-related changes in the amplitude of circadian rhythms contribute to nocturia. There is a well-described circadian rhythm in urine output, and evidence of circadian rhythmicity in some diuretic and anti-diuretic hormones. In this article, we describe how age-related changes in sleep depth and continuity and age-related changes in circadian rhythm amplitude may contribute to nocturia, and how nocturia in turn leads to sleep disruption. Better understanding of how changes in sleep and circadian rhythmicity impact nocturia may lead to improved treatments and better quality of life for older adults. PMID:26632430

  6. Chronic Snoring and Sleep in Children: A Demonstration of Sleep Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, M. Cecilia; Guilleminault, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chronic snoring that does not adhere to the criteria for a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may be associated with learning and behavioral problems. We investigated the sleep structure of chronic snorers who had an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 1 event per hour and analyzed the cyclic alternating pattern. Methods:

  7. Environmental noise and sleep disturbances: A threat to health?

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Demian

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise, especially that caused by transportation means, is viewed as a significant cause of sleep disturbances. Poor sleep causes endocrine and metabolic measurable perturbations and is associated with a number of cardiometabolic, psychiatric and social negative outcomes both in adults and children. Nocturnal environmental noise also provokes measurable biological changes in the form of a stress response, and clearly affects sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep quality. These sleep perturbations are similar in their nature to those observed in endogenous sleep disorders. Apart from these measurable effects and the subjective feeling of disturbed sleep, people who struggle with nocturnal environmental noise often also suffer the next day from daytime sleepiness and tiredness, annoyance, mood changes as well as decreased well-being and cognitive performance. But there is also emerging evidence that these short-term effects of environmental noise, particularly when the exposure is nocturnal, may be followed by long-term adverse cardiometabolic outcomes. Nocturnal environmental noise may be the most worrying form of noise pollution in terms of its health consequences because of its synergistic direct and indirect (through sleep disturbances acting as a mediator) influence on biological systems. Duration and quality of sleep should thus be regarded as risk factors or markers significantly influenced by the environment and possibly amenable to modification through both education and counseling as well as through measures of public health. One of the means that should be proposed is avoidance at all costs of sleep disruptions caused by environmental noise. PMID:26483931

  8. Sleep disruption and its effect on lymphocyte redeployment following an acute bout of exercise.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Lesley A; Simpson, Richard J; Malone, Eva; Florida-James, Geraint D

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption and deprivation are common in contemporary society and have been linked with poor health, decreased job performance and increased life-stress. The rapid redeployment of lymphocytes between the blood and tissues is an archetypal feature of the acute stress response, but it is not known if short-term perturbations in sleep architecture affect lymphocyte redeployment. We examined the effects of a disrupted night sleep on the exercise-induced redeployment of lymphocytes and their subtypes. 10 healthy male cyclists performed 1h of cycling at a fixed power output on an indoor cycle ergometer, following a night of undisrupted sleep (US) or a night of disrupted sleep (DS). Blood was collected before, immediately after and 1h after exercise completion. Lymphocytes and their subtypes were enumerated using direct immunofluorescence assays and 4-colour flow cytometry. DS was associated with elevated concentrations of total lymphocytes and CD3(-)/CD56(+) NK-cells. Although not affecting baseline levels, DS augmented the exercise-induced redeployment of CD8(+) T-cells, with the naïve/early differentiated subtypes (KLRG1(-)/CD45RA(+)) being affected most. While the mobilisation of cytotoxic lymphocyte subsets (NK cells, CD8(+) T-cells γδ T-cells), tended to be larger in response to exercise following DS, their enhanced egress at 1h post-exercise was more marked. This occurred despite similar serum cortisol and catecholamine levels between the US and DS trials. NK-cells redeployed with exercise after DS retained their expression of perforin and Granzyme-B indicating that DS did not affect NK-cell 'arming'. Our findings indicate that short-term changes in sleep architecture may 'prime' the immune system and cause minor enhancements in lymphocyte trafficking in response to acute dynamic exercise. PMID:25582807

  9. AB037. Role of nocturnal penile erection test on response to daily sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jian; Peng, Jing; Zhang, Zhichao; Cui, Wanshou; Yuan, Yiming; Gao, Bing; Song, Weidong; Tang, Yan; Xin, Zhongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the results of nocturnal penile erection test and response to daily sildenafil in patients with erectile dysfunction (ED) due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption. Methods In the past three years, we included 38 patients with ED due to pelvic fracture urethral disruption. The mean age was 33.1 years (range, 22-49 years). All were evaluated subjectively and objectively by the International Index of Erectile Function-5, nocturnal penile tumescence and rigidity (NPTR) test, and penile Doppler ultrasonography. Patients received daily sildenafil 50 mg for 3 months. Results Thirty-one patients were followed up: 54.8% showed response to sildenafil defined as reporting successful vaginal penetration and intercourse. Patients with neurogenic, arterial, and venous EDs did not differ in efficiency rates (P .587). However, the penile erectile rigidity recorded by NPTR test affected efficiency significantly (P .046). Patients with tip rigidity >40% had the highest response rate (76.9%), but the response rate for patients with tip rigidity <20% was only 22.2%. Conclusions NPTR recording can reveal resident erectile function in patients with ED due to trauma and is significant for selecting pharmacologic treatment as optimal therapy.

  10. Impact of nocturnal sleep deprivation on declarative memory retrieval in students at an orphanage: a psychoneuroradiological study

    PubMed Central

    Tantawy, Ahmed O; Tallawy, Hamdy N El; Farghaly, Hussein RS; Farghaly, Wafaa M; Hussein, Amr S

    2013-01-01

    Background and methods This study investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on total and partial (early and late) declarative memory and activation in the areas of the brain involved in these activities. The study included two experiments. Experiment 1 included 40 male residents of an orphanage aged 1619 years, who were divided into four groups (n = 10 each) and subjected to total sleep deprivation, normal sleep, early-night sleep deprivation, or late-night sleep deprivation. Experiment 2 included eight students from the same institution who were divided into the same four groups (n = 2) as in experiment 1. Declarative memory was tested using lists of associated word pairs in both experiments, and activation of the relevant brain regions was measured before and after retrieval by single-photon emission computed tomography for subjects in experiment 2 only. Results Students subjected to normal sleep had significantly higher scores for declarative memory retrieval than those subjected to total sleep deprivation (P = 0.002), early-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.005), or late-night sleep deprivation (P = 0.02). The left temporal lobe showed the highest rate of activity during memory retrieval after normal sleep, whereas the frontal, parietal, and right temporal lobes were more active after sleep deprivation. Conclusion Both slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep play an active role in consolidation of declarative memory, which in turn allows memory traces to be actively reprocessed and strengthened during sleep, leading to improved performance in memory recall. PMID:23569380

  11. Dietary Carbohydrate and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Relation to Children’s BMI: Findings from the IDEFICS Study in Eight European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Monica; Mehlig, Kirsten; Börnhorst, Claudia; Hebestreit, Antje; Moreno, Luis; Veidebaum, Toomas; Kourides, Yiannis; Siani, Alfonso; Molnar, Dénes; Sioen, Isabelle; Lissner, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found an association between being overweight and short sleep duration. We hypothesized that this association could be modified by a high carbohydrate (HC) diet and that the timing and type (starch or sugar) of intake may be an important factor in this context. Participants in the prospective, eight-country European study IDEFICS were recruited from September 2007 to June 2008, when they were aged two to nine years. Data on lifestyle, dietary intake and anthropometry were collected on two occasions. This study included 5944 children at baseline and 4301 at two-year follow-up. For each meal occasion (morning, midday, and evening), starch in grams and sugar in grams were divided by total energy intake (EI), and quartiles calculated. HC-starch and HC-sugar intake categories were defined as the highest quartile for each meal occasion. In a mutually adjusted linear regression model, short sleep duration as well as HC-starch in the morning were positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores at baseline. HC-starch at midday was positively associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores in children with short sleep duration, and negatively associated with BMI z-scores in those with normal sleep. After adjustment for baseline BMI z-scores, associations between total HC from starch or sugar and high BMI z-scores at two-year follow-up did not persist. Our observations offer a perspective on optimal timing for macronutrient consumption, which is known to be influenced by circadian rhythms. Reduced carbohydrate intake, especially during morning and midday meals, and following nocturnal sleep duration recommendations are two modifiable factors that may protect children from being overweight in the future. PMID:26670249

  12. Estimating the Need for Medical Intervention due to Sleep Disruption on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Hurst, S. R.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Caldwell, J. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    During ISS and shuttle missions, difficulties with sleep affect more than half of all US crews. Mitigation strategies to help astronauts cope with the challenges of disrupted sleep patterns can negatively impact both mission planning and vehicle design. The methods for addressing known detrimental impacts for some mission scenarios may have a substantial impact on vehicle specific consumable mass or volume or on the mission timeline. As part of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) task, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading the development of a Monte Carlo based forecasting tool designed to determine the consumables required to address risks related to sleep disruption. The model currently focuses on the International Space Station and uses an algorithm that assembles representative mission schedules and feeds this into a well validated model that predicts relative levels of performance, and need for sleep (SAFTE Model, IBR Inc). Correlation of the resulting output to self-diagnosed needs for hypnotics, stimulants, and other pharmaceutical countermeasures, allows prediction of pharmaceutical use and the uncertainty of the specified prediction. This paper outlines a conceptual model for determining a rate of pharmaceutical utilization that can be used in the IMM model for comparison and optimization of mitigation methods with respect to all other significant medical needs and interventions.

  13. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S A; Ross, Ian L; Thomas, Kevin G F

    2015-11-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  14. Poor quality of life, depressed mood, and memory impairment may be mediated by sleep disruption in patients with Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Henry, Michelle; Wolf, Pedro S.A.; Ross, Ian L.; Thomas, Kevin G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Standard replacement therapy for Addison's disease (AD) does not restore a normal circadian rhythm. In fact, hydrocortisone replacement in AD patients likely induces disrupted sleep. Given that healthy sleep plays an important role in improving quality of life, optimizing cognition, and ensuring affect regulation, the aim of this study was to investigate whether poor quality of life, mood alterations, and memory complaints reported by AD patients are associated with their disrupted sleep patterns. Sixty patients with AD and 60 matched healthy controls completed a battery of self-report questionnaires assessing perceived physical and mental health (Short-Form 36), mood (Beck Depression Inventory—II), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), and cognition (Cognitive Failures Questionnaire). A latent variable model revealed that although AD had a significant direct effect on quality of life, the indirect effect of sleep was significantly greater. Furthermore, although AD had no direct effect on cognitive functioning, the indirect effect of sleep was significant. The overall model showed a good fit (comparative fit index = 0.91, root mean square of approximation = 0.09, and standardized root mean square residual = 0.05). Our findings suggest that disrupted sleep, and not the disease per se, may induce poor quality of life, memory impairment, and affect dysregulation in patients with AD. We think that improving sleep architecture may improve cognitive, affective, and physical functioning. PMID:26256520

  15. Nocturnal Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... News View Daily Pollen Count Doctors Who Treat Asthma Rohit K. Katial Richard W. Weber Gary R. ...

  16. Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological function despite immediate sleep disruption following diffuse brain injury in the mouse: clinical relevance to medically untreated concussion. SLEEP 2014;37(4):743-752. PMID:24899763

  17. Sleep in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  18. Sleep in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Beltrami, Flávia Gabe; Nguyen, Xuân-Lan; Pichereau, Claire; Maury, Eric; Fleury, Bernard; Fagondes, Simone

    2015-12-01

    Poor sleep quality is a consistently reported by patients in the ICU. In such a potentially hostile environment, sleep is extremely fragmented and sleep architecture is unconventional, with a predominance of superficial sleep stages and a limited amount of time spent in the restorative stages. Among the causes of sleep disruption in the ICU are factors intrinsic to the patients and the acute nature of their condition, as well as factors related to the ICU environment and the treatments administered, such as mechanical ventilation and drug therapy. Although the consequences of poor sleep quality for the recovery of ICU patients remain unknown, it seems to influence the immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological systems. There is evidence that multifaceted interventions focused on minimizing nocturnal sleep disruptions improve sleep quality in ICU patients. In this article, we review the literature regarding normal sleep and sleep in the ICU. We also analyze sleep assessment methods; the causes of poor sleep quality and its potential implications for the recovery process of critically ill patients; and strategies for sleep promotion. PMID:26785964

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep disruption and sleep fragmentation are associated with increased orexin-A cerebrospinal-fluid levels in mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liguori, Claudio; Nuccetelli, Marzia; Izzi, Francesca; Sancesario, Giuseppe; Romigi, Andrea; Martorana, Alessandro; Amoroso, Chiara; Bernardini, Sergio; Marciani, Maria Grazia; Mercuri, Nicola Biagio; Placidi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The orexin system has been investigated in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) by measuring orexin-A concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and correlated to subjective and objective sleep parameters, quantified by questionnaires and polysomnography, respectively. Twenty drug-naïve patients with MCI due to AD were studied and compared with a population of 26 age and/or sex matched controls, divided into subgroups on the basis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) score. Increased CSF-orexin levels were detected in patients with MCI due to AD in comparison with controls (p < 0.05). In particular, CSF-orexin concentrations were higher in MCI patients suffering from sleep complaints (PSQI ≥5, n = 10) compared with MCI patients with a regular sleep-wake cycle (PSQI <5, n = 10, p < 0.001) and compared with both control groups (with sleep complaints, PSQI ≥5, n = 11, p < 0.001; without sleep complaints, PSQI <5, n = 15, p < 0.001). Moreover, REM sleep was reduced in MCI patients compared with controls (p < 0.01), and had a negative correlation coupled with a reciprocal influence at the multiple regression analysis with CSF-orexin levels (R = -0.65; β = -8.90). REM sleep disruption and sleep fragmentation are related to higher CSF-orexin levels in patients with MCI due to AD, thus suggesting that the orexin system may be involved even in the earliest stages of AD, resulting in prolonged sleep latency, reduced sleep efficiency, and REM sleep impairment. PMID:26973111

  20. Changes in sleep disruption in the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hilario, E Yvette; Weiss, Roger D; Hien, Denise A

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, ?(2) (1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  1. Changes in Sleep Disruption in the Treatment of Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Weiss, Roger D.; Hien, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, χ2(1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  2. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A; Tam, Shu K E; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Foster, Russell G; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  3. Deletion of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors 2 and 3 (mGlu2 & mGlu3) in Mice Disrupts Sleep and Wheel-Running Activity, and Increases the Sensitivity of the Circadian System to Light

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett, David; Jagannath, Aarti; Brown, Laurence A.; Tam, Shu K. E.; Hasan, Sibah; Gatti, Silvia; Harrison, Paul J.; Bannerman, David M.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and/or circadian rhythm disruption (SCRD) is seen in up to 80% of schizophrenia patients. The co-morbidity of schizophrenia and SCRD may in part stem from dysfunction in common brain mechanisms, which include the glutamate system, and in particular, the group II metabotropic glutamate receptors mGlu2 and mGlu3 (encoded by the genes Grm2 and Grm3). These receptors are relevant to the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia, and have also been implicated in sleep and circadian function. In the present study, we characterised the sleep and circadian rhythms of Grm2/3 double knockout (Grm2/3-/-) mice, to provide further evidence for the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in the regulation of sleep and circadian rhythms. We report several novel findings. Firstly, Grm2/3-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in immobility-determined sleep time and an increase in immobility-determined sleep fragmentation. Secondly, Grm2/3-/- mice showed heightened sensitivity to the circadian effects of light, manifested as increased period lengthening in constant light, and greater phase delays in response to nocturnal light pulses. Greater light-induced phase delays were also exhibited by wildtype C57Bl/6J mice following administration of the mGlu2/3 negative allosteric modulator RO4432717. These results confirm the involvement of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors in photic entrainment and sleep regulation pathways. Finally, the diurnal wheel-running rhythms of Grm2/3-/- mice were perturbed under a standard light/dark cycle, but their diurnal rest-activity rhythms were unaltered in cages lacking running wheels, as determined with passive infrared motion detectors. Hence, when assessing the diurnal rest-activity rhythms of mice, the choice of assay can have a major bearing on the results obtained. PMID:25950516

  4. The effects of simvastatin and pravastatin on objective and subjective measures of nocturnal sleep: a comparison of two structurally different HMG CoA reductase inhibitors in patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Eckerns, S A; Roos, B E; Kvidal, P; Eriksson, L O; Block, G A; Neafus, R P; Haigh, J R

    1993-01-01

    1. It has been suggested that HMG CoA reductase inhibitors which are administered as inactive, lipophilic lactones (e.g. simvastatin) have a greater propensity to evoke nocturnal sleep disturbances than pravastatin, an inhibitor given in the active, hydrophilic, open-acid form. 2. The effects of 4 weeks treatment with equipotent doses of simvastatin (20 mg day-1) and pravastatin (40 mg day-1) have been compared using polysomnography and subjective sleep assessments in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period, incomplete block design study involving 24 male patients with primary moderate hypercholesterolaemia (mean LDL cholesterol 5.11 mmol l-1). 3. Analysis of sleep EEG measures relevant to insomnia provided no evidence of significant differences between pravastatin, simvastatin and placebo, except in terms of entries and latency to stage I sleep. The number of entries to stage I sleep was significantly greater after simvastatin treatment than after either pravastatin or placebo (P < 0.05), but by contrast the latency to stage I sleep was significantly prolonged only in the pravastatin group (P < 0.05 vs placebo). 4. Subjective ratings of sleep initiation, maintenance and quality made during and after therapy were not significantly different between the three treatment groups. 5. It appears that the inherent hydrophobicity of simvastatin does not increase the occurrence of sleep disturbances in this patient population at a dose shown to elicit a characteristic hypolipidaemic response. PMID:8471404

  5. Toward optimizing lighting as a countermeasure to sleep and circadian disruption in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucci, Robert L.; Gardner, James; Hanifin, John P.; Jasser, Samar; Byrne, Brenda; Gerner, Edward; Rollag, Mark; Brainard, George C.

    2005-05-01

    Light is being used as a pre-launch countermeasure to circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts. The effect of light on the circadian system is readily monitored by measurement of plasma melatonin. Our group has established an action spectrum for human melatonin regulation and determined the region of 446-477 nm to be the most potent for suppressing plasma melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 460 and 555 nm for suppressing melatonin using a within-subjects design. Subjects ( N=12) were exposed to equal photon densities ( 7.181012photons/cm2/s) at 460 and 555 nm. Melatonin suppression was significantly stronger at 460 nm ( p<0.02). An extension to the action spectrum showed that 420 nm light at 16 and 32?W/cm2 significantly suppressed melatonin ( p<0.04 and p<0.002). These studies will help optimize lighting countermeasures to circadian and sleep disruption during spaceflight.

  6. Toward optimizing lighting as a countermeasure to sleep and circadian disruption in space flight.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Robert L; Gardner, James; Hanifin, John P; Jasser, Samar; Byrne, Brenda; Gerner, Edward; Rollag, Mark; Brainard, George C

    2005-01-01

    Light is being used as a pre-launch countermeasure to circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts. The effect of light on the circadian system is readily monitored by measurement of plasma melatonin. Our group has established an action spectrum for human melatonin regulation and determined the region of 446-477 nm to be the most potent for suppressing plasma melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 460 and 555 nm for suppressing melatonin using a within-subjects design. Subjects (N=12) were exposed to equal photon densities (7.18 x 10(12) photons/cm2/s) at 460 and 555 nm. Melatonin suppression was significantly stronger at 460 nm (p<0.02). An extension to the action spectrum showed that 420 nm light at 16 and 32 microW/cm2 significantly suppressed melatonin (p<0.04 and p<0.002). These studies will help optimize lighting countermeasures to circadian and sleep disruption during spaceflight. PMID:15838948

  7. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  8. Circadian regulation gene polymorphisms are associated with sleep disruption and duration, and circadian phase and rhythm in adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl; Byun, Eeeseung; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in circadian regulation, such as circadian locomotor output cycles kaput [CLOCK], cryptochrome [CRY1] and period [PER], have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. However, it is unclear whether polymorphisms in these genes are associated with the sleep disturbances commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe polymorphisms in selected circadian genes that are associated with sleep duration or disruption as well as the sleep-wake rhythm strength and phase timing among adults living with HIV/AIDS. A convenience sample of 289 adults with HIV/AIDS was recruited from HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay Area. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72?h on weekdays to estimate sleep duration or total sleep time (TST), sleep disruption or percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO) and several circadian rhythm parameters: mesor, amplitude, the ratio of mesor to amplitude (circadian quotient), and 24-h autocorrelation. Circadian phase measures included clock time for peak activity (acrophase) from actigraphy movement data, and bed time and final wake time from actigraphy and self-report. Genotyping was conducted for polymorphisms in five candidate genes involved in circadian regulation: CLOCK, CRY1, PER1, PER2 and PER3. Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. Interactions between genotype and HIV variables (i.e. viral load, years since HIV diagnosis) were also evaluated. Controlling for potentially confounding variables (e.g. race, gender, CD4+ T-cell count, waist circumference, medication use, smoking and depressive symptoms), CLOCK was associated with WASO, 24-h autocorrelation and objectively-measured bed time; CRY1 was associated with circadian quotient; PER1 was associated with mesor and self-reported habitual wake time; PER2 was associated with TST, mesor, circadian quotient, 24-h autocorrelation and bed and wake times; PER3 was associated with amplitude, 24-h autocorrelation, acrophase and bed and wake times. Most of the observed associations involved a significant interaction between genotype and HIV. In this chronic illness population, polymorphisms in several circadian genes were associated with measures of sleep disruption and timing. These findings extend the evidence for an association between genetic variability in circadian regulation and sleep outcomes to include the sleep-wake patterns experienced by adults living with HIV/AIDS. These results provide direction for future intervention research related to circadian sleep-wake behavior patterns. PMID:26512752

  9. Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among military veterans

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135

  10. H1N1 influenza virus induces narcolepsy-like sleep disruption and targets sleep-wake regulatory neurons in mice.

    PubMed

    Tesoriero, Chiara; Codita, Alina; Zhang, Ming-Dong; Cherninsky, Andrij; Karlsson, Håkan; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bertini, Giuseppe; Harkany, Tibor; Ljungberg, Karl; Liljeström, Peter; Hökfelt, Tomas G M; Bentivoglio, Marina; Kristensson, Krister

    2016-01-19

    An increased incidence in the sleep-disorder narcolepsy has been associated with the 2009-2010 pandemic of H1N1 influenza virus in China and with mass vaccination campaigns against influenza during the pandemic in Finland and Sweden. Pathogenetic mechanisms of narcolepsy have so far mainly focused on autoimmunity. We here tested an alternative working hypothesis involving a direct role of influenza virus infection in the pathogenesis of narcolepsy in susceptible subjects. We show that infection with H1N1 influenza virus in mice that lack B and T cells (Recombinant activating gene 1-deficient mice) can lead to narcoleptic-like sleep-wake fragmentation and sleep structure alterations. Interestingly, the infection targeted brainstem and hypothalamic neurons, including orexin/hypocretin-producing neurons that regulate sleep-wake stability and are affected in narcolepsy. Because changes occurred in the absence of adaptive autoimmune responses, the findings show that brain infections with H1N1 virus have the potential to cause per se narcoleptic-like sleep disruption. PMID:26668381

  11. Feasibility of an interval, inspiration-triggered nocturnal odorant application by a novel device: a patient-blinded, randomised crossover, pilot trial on mood and sleep quality of depressed female inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vitinius, Frank; Hellmich, Martin; Matthies, Annalena; Bornkessel, Fabian; Burghart, Heiner; Albus, Christian; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Vent, Julia

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that certain odorants positively affect mood, but this has not yet been scientifically tested in humans. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new odorant applicator and to assess the effects of nocturnal intermittent rose odorant application on mood, and quality of sleep and dreams in depressed female inpatients. We hypothesised that mood as primary outcome will improve. Twenty-seven normosmic, 18- to 49-year-old female, depressed inpatients were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Exclusion criteria were rhinitis, hyp- or anosmia. During sleep, an interval-controlled, inspiration-triggered applicator added rose concentrate to the inspirated air. There were three consecutive nights of each odorant and placebo application and a wash-out phase. Patients completed standardised questionnaires on mood, dreams, and sleep quality. Four patients dropped out (n = 1: non-compliance in filling in the questionnaires, n = 3: intolerance of nasal tube). Otherwise, this novel odorant applicator was well tolerated. Application of the odorant showed no significant mood differences between rose and placebo, however, some subdomains of sleep quality and mood showed a positive trend towards improvement by rose application. The feasibility of this new device and of nasal tubes could be shown. Odorant application is well tolerated. It may have a positive influence on quality of mood and sleep in depressed patients. A longer application phase is planned to obtain convincing evidence for our hypothesis. PMID:24390040

  12. The Influence of Sleep Disruption and Pain Perception on Indicators of Quality of Life in Individuals Living with Dementia at Home

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N.; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of sleep quality and pain perceptions on different dimensions of quality of life in community-dwelling persons with dementia. Evaluations of pain were collected using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), sleep disruption using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) items, and quality of life indicators using the DemQOL-Proxy in 88 persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Lower overall quality of life was associated with the presence of pain and symptoms of sleep disruption when controlling for mental status, age, and number of health conditions. Pain and sleep symptoms were differentially associated with different aspects of QoL. As symptoms negatively impact quality of life but are modifiable, better clinical procedures are needed to prevent and also identify and treat symptoms of pain and sleep disturbance in community-dwelling persons with dementia. PMID:25193739

  13. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs.

    PubMed

    Frau, Roberto; Orrù, Marco; Puligheddu, Monica; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Mereu, Giampaolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to induce perceptual impairments, ranging from perceptual distortion to hallucinatory states. Although this phenomenon has been extensively described in the literature, its neurobiological underpinnings remain elusive. In rodents, SD induces a series of behavioural patterns that might be reflective of psychosis and mania, such as hyperlocomotion and sensitization to psychotogenic drugs. Notably, such changes are accompanied by transitory alterations of dopaminergic signalling. Based on the hypothesis that both psychotic and manic disorders reflect gating impairments, the present study was aimed at the assessment of the impact of SD on the behavioural model of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex, a reliable paradigm for the study of informational filtering. Rats subjected to SD (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) exhibited a time-dependent increase in startle reflex and a dramatic deficit in PPI. Both alterations were reversed 24 h after termination of the SD period. Interestingly, PPI disruption was efficiently prevented by haloperidol (0.1 mg/kg i.p.) clozapine (5 mg/kg i.p.) and risperidone (1 mg/kg i.p.). Conversely, neither the anxiolytic diazepam (5 mg/kg i.p.) nor the antidepressant citalopram (5 mg/kg i.p) affected the PPI disruption mediated by SD, although diazepam reversed the enhancement in startle reflex magnitude induced by this manipulation. Our data suggest that SD induces gating deficits that might be relevant to the hallucinatory phenomena observed in humans, and provide a novel reliable animal model where such relationship can be studied. PMID:18477413

  14. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  15. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-01-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  16. The Impact of Sleep Disruption on Executive Function in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-C.; Spano, G.; Edgin, J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, is well established in children with Down syndrome. However, only a few studies have focused on older children and young adults in this population. Given the presence of sleep disorders and the early emergence of Alzheimer's disease, more work is needed to examine the

  17. The Impact of Sleep Disruption on Executive Function in Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, C.-C.; Spano, G.; Edgin, J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of sleep disorders, particularly obstructive sleep apnea, is well established in children with Down syndrome. However, only a few studies have focused on older children and young adults in this population. Given the presence of sleep disorders and the early emergence of Alzheimer's disease, more work is needed to examine the…

  18. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Greg; Davenne, Damien

    2009-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap. PMID:17067643

  19. Sleep under extreme environments: effects of heat and cold exposure, altitude, hyperbaric pressure and microgravity in space.

    PubMed

    Buguet, Alain

    2007-11-15

    Human sleep is sensitive to the individual's environment. The present review examines current knowledge of human sleep patterns under different environments: heat exposure, cold exposure, altitude, high pressure and microgravity in space. Heat exposure has two effects. In people living in temperate conditions, moderate heat loads (hot bath, sauna) prior to sleep provoke a delayed reaction across time (diachronic reaction) whereby slow-wave sleep (SWS) augments in the following night (neurogenic adaptive pathway). Melanoids and Caucasians living in the Sahel dry tropical climate experience diachronic increases in SWS throughout seasonal acclimatization. Such increases are greater during the hot season, being further enhanced after daytime exercise. On the contrary, when subjects are acutely exposed to heat, diachronic decreases in total sleep time and SWS occur, being often accompanied by synchronic (concomitant) diminution in REM sleep. Stress hormones increase. Nocturnal cold exposure provokes a synchronic decrease in REM sleep along with an activation of stress hormones (synchronic somatic reaction). SWS remains undisturbed as it still occurs at the beginning of the night before nocturnal body cooling. Altitude and high pressure are deleterious to sleep, especially in non-acclimatized individuals. In their controlled environment, astronauts can sleep well in microgravity. Exercise-induced sleep changes help to understand environmental effects on sleep: well-tolerated environmental strains may improve sleep through a neurogenic adaptive pathway; when this "central" adaptive pathway is overloaded or bypassed, diachronic and synchronic sleep disruptions occur. PMID:17706676

  20. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3–56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  1. Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia in narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Dauvilliers, Yves; Jennum, Poul; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Narcolepsy is a rare disabling hypersomnia disorder that may include cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations, and sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, but also disrupted nighttime sleep by nocturnal awakenings, and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). RBD is characterized by dream-enacting behavior and impaired motor inhibition during REM sleep (REM sleep without atonia, RSWA). RBD is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinsonisms, but is also reported in narcolepsy in up to 60% of patients. RBD in patients with narcolepsy is, however, a distinct phenotype with respect to other RBD patients and characterized also by absence of gender predominance, elementary rather than complex movements, less violent behavior and earlier age at onset of motor events, and strong association to narcolepsy with cataplexy/hypocretin deficiency. Patients with narcolepsy often present dissociated sleep features including RSWA, increased density of phasic chin EMG and frequent shift from REM to NREM sleep, with or without associated clinical RBD. Most patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy lack the hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Tonic and phasic motor activities in REM sleep and dream-enacting behavior are mostly reported in presence of cataplexy. Narcolepsy without cataplexy is a condition rarely associated with hypocretin deficiency. We proposed that hypocretin neurons are centrally involved in motor control during wakefulness and sleep in humans, and that hypocretin deficiency causes a functional defect in the motor control involved in the development of cataplexy during wakefulness and RBD/RSWA/phasic motor activity during REM sleep. PMID:23219054

  2. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sofia B.; Ronksley, Paul E.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Tsai, Willis H.; Manns, Braden J.; Tonelli, Marcello; Klarenbach, Scott W.; Chin, Rick; Clement, Fiona M.; Hanly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ?12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ?4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67). Conclusion Nocturnal hypoxia was independently associated with an increased risk of accelerated kidney function loss. Further studies are required to determine whether treatment and correction of nocturnal hypoxia reduces loss of kidney function. PMID:21559506

  3. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation disrupts consolidation but not reconsolidation of novel object recognition memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Tian, Shaowen; Ke, Jie

    2014-03-20

    There is increasing evidence that sleep plays a critical role in memory consolidation. However, there are comparatively few studies that have assessed the relationship between sleep and memory reconsolidation. In the present study, we explored the effects of rapid eye movement sleep deprivation (RSD) on the consolidation (experiment 1) and reconsolidation (experiment 2) of novel object recognition memory in rats. In experiment 1 behavioral procedure involved two training phases: sample and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after sample (exposed to 2 objects) or 6h later. In experiment 2 behavioral procedure involved three training phases: sample, reactivation and test. Rats were subjected to 6h RSD starting either immediately after reactivation (exposed to the same 2 sample objects to reactivate the memory trace) or 6h later. Results from experiment 1 showed that post-sample RSD from 0 to 6h but not 6 to 12h disrupted novel object recognition memory consolidation. However, we found that post-reactivation RSD whether from 0 to 6h or 6 to 12h had no effect on novel object recognition memory reconsolidation in experiment 2. The results indicated that RSD selectively disrupted consolidation of novel object recognition memory, suggesting a dissociation effect of RSD on consolidation and reconsolidation. PMID:24472565

  4. Pain Disrupts Sleep in Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Both chronic pain and sleep problems are common for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although one study has revealed a relationship between having a medical condition and sleep problems in this population, the role of pain was not examined independently. Thus, the goal of this study was to clarify the specific role…

  5. Pain Disrupts Sleep in Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Both chronic pain and sleep problems are common for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although one study has revealed a relationship between having a medical condition and sleep problems in this population, the role of pain was not examined independently. Thus, the goal of this study was to clarify the specific role

  6. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age

  7. Sleep deprivation selectively disrupts top-down adaptation to cognitive conflict in the Stroop test.

    PubMed

    Gevers, Wim; Deliens, Gaetane; Hoffmann, Sophie; Notebaert, Wim; Peigneux, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to exert detrimental effects on various cognitive domains, including attention, vigilance and working memory. Seemingly at odds with these findings, prior studies repeatedly failed to evidence an impact of prior sleep deprivation on cognitive interference in the Stroop test, a hallmark paradigm in the study of cognitive control abilities. The present study investigated further the effect of sleep deprivation on cognitive control using an adapted version of the Stroop test that allows to segregate top-down (attentional reconfiguration on incongruent items) and bottom-up (facilitated processing after repetitions in responses and/or features of stimuli) components of performance. Participants underwent a regular night of sleep or a night of total sleep deprivation before cognitive testing. Results disclosed that sleep deprivation selectively impairs top-down adaptation mechanisms: cognitive control no longer increased upon detection of response conflict at the preceding trial. In parallel, bottom-up abilities were found unaffected by sleep deprivation: beneficial effects of stimulus and response repetitions persisted. Changes in vigilance states due to sleep deprivation selectively impact on cognitive control in the Stroop test by affecting top-down, but not bottom-up, mechanisms that guide adaptive behaviours. PMID:26173051

  8. Sleep Disruption as a Correlate to Cognitive and Adaptive Behavior Problems in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Matthew A.; Schreck, Kimberly A.; Mulick, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age…

  9. Chronic Decrease in Wakefulness and Disruption of Sleep-Wake Behavior after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Skopin, Mark D.; Kabadi, Shruti V.; Viechweg, Shaun S.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause sleep-wake disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. The pathobiology of sleep disorders in TBI, however, is not well understood, and animal models have been underused in studying such changes and potential underlying mechanisms. We used the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model to analyze sleep-wake patterns as a function of time after injury. Rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and wake bouts during light and dark phases were measured with electroencephalography and electromyography at an early as well as chronic time points after LFP. Moderate TBI caused disturbances in the ability to maintain consolidated wake bouts during the active phase and chronic loss of wakefulness. Further, TBI resulted in cognitive impairments and depressive-like symptoms, and reduced the number of orexin-A-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:25242371

  10. Sleep and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Peter-Derex, Laure; Yammine, Pierre; Bastuji, Hlne; Croisile, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a significant impact on patients and caregivers and a major risk factor for early institutionalization. Micro-architectural sleep alterations, nocturnal sleep fragmentation, decrease in nocturnal sleep duration, diurnal napping and even inversion of the sleep-wake cycle are the main disorders observed in patients with AD. Experimental and epidemiological evidence for a close reciprocal interaction between cognitive decline and sleep alterations is growing. Management of sleep disorders in AD is pre-eminently behavioral. Association of melatonin and bright light treatment seems to be promising as well. The presence of sleep complaints, especially excessive somnolence in demented patients, should draw attention to possible associated sleep pathologies such as sleep apnea syndrome or restless legs syndrome. PMID:24846773

  11. Sleep disruption as a correlate to cognitive and adaptive behavior problems in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Matthew A; Schreck, Kimberly A; Mulick, James A

    2012-01-01

    Sleep problems associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been well documented, but less is known about the effects of sleep problems on day-time cognitive and adaptive performance in this population. Children diagnosed with autism or pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) (N = 335) from 1 to 10 years of age (M = 5.5 years) were evaluated for the relationships of Behavioral Evaluation of Disorders of Sleep (BEDS; Schreck, 1998) scores to measures of intelligence and adaptive behavior. Results suggested that children who slept fewer hours per night had lower overall intelligence, verbal skills, overall adaptive functioning, daily living skills, socialization skills, and motor development. Children who slept fewer hours at night with waking during the night had more communication problems. Breathing related sleep problems and fewer hours of sleep related most often to problems with perceptual tasks. The results indicate that quality of sleep--especially sleep duration--may be related to problems with day-time cognitive and adaptive functioning in children with autism and PDD-NOS. However, future research must be conducted to further understand these relationships. PMID:22522199

  12. Are there distinctive sleep problems in Angelman syndrome?

    PubMed

    Pelc, Karine; Cheron, Guy; Boyd, Stewart G; Dan, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    Angelman syndrome is a neurogenetic condition characterized by developmental delay, absence of speech, motor impairment, epilepsy and a peculiar behavioral phenotype that includes sleep problems. It is caused by lack of expression of the UBE3A gene on the maternal chromosome 15q11-q13. Although part of the diagnostic description, 'sleep problems' are not well characterized. A pattern emerges from the available reports. It includes reduced total sleep time, increased sleep onset latency, disrupted sleep architecture with frequent nocturnal awakenings, reduced rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and periodic leg movements. Poor sleep does not significantly interfere with daytime alertness and sleep problems commonly diminish by late childhood, with continuing improvement through adolescence and adulthood. Sleep problems in Angelman syndrome reflect abnormal neurodevelopmental functioning presumably involving dysregulation of GABA-mediated inhibitory influences in thalamocortical interactions. Management may be difficult, particularly in young children; it primarily involves behavioral approaches, though pharmacological treatment may be required. The relationship between sleep and seizure disorder, and between sleep and learning raises critical questions, but more studies are needed to address these relationships adequately. PMID:17765640

  13. In Utero Exposure to Valproic Acid Changes Sleep in Juvenile Rats: A Model for Sleep Disturbances in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cusmano, Danielle M.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether sleep disturbances are found in the valproic acid model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Design: Comparative study for sleep behavior, sleep architecture, electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65/67 protein expression in juvenile rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA), sodium salt, or saline in utero. Setting: N/A. Participants: Juvenile (postnatal day 32) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: In utero exposure to either saline or 400 mg/kg VPA administered intraperitoneally to the dams on gestational day 12.5. On postnatal days 22-24, all rats were implanted with transmitters to record EEG and electromyogram (EMG) activity. Measurements and Results: During the light phase, when nocturnal animals are typically quiescent, the VPA-exposed animals spent significantly more time in wake (?35 min) and significantly less time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (?26 min) compared to the saline controls. Furthermore, spectral analysis of the EEG reveled that VPA-exposed animals exhibited increased high-frequency activity during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced theta power across all vigilance states. Interestingly, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which modulates the induction and maintenance of sleep states, was also disrupted, with reduced levels of both GAD 65 and GAD67 in the cortical tissue of VPA-exposed animals compared to saline controls. Conclusions: To date, the current animal models of ASD have been underutilized in the investigation of associated sleep disturbances. The VPA animal model recapitulates aspects of sleep disruptions reported clinically, providing a tool to investigate cellular and molecular dysregulation contributing to sleep disruptions in ASD. Citation: Cusmano DM, Mong JA. In utero exposure to valproic acid changes sleep in juvenile rats: a model for sleep disturbances in autism. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1489-1499. PMID:25142574

  14. Sleep-wake disorders and dermatology.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Madhulika A; Gupta, Aditya K

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is an active process that occupies about one-third of the lives of humans; however, there are relatively few studies of skin disorders during sleep. Sleep disruption in dermatologic disorders can significantly affect the quality of life and mental health of the patient and in some situations may even lead to exacerbations of the dermatologic condition. Sleep and skin disorders interface at several levels: (1) the role of the skin in normal sleep physiology, such as thermoregulation, core body temperature control, and sleep onset; (2) the effect of endogenous circadian rhythms and peripheral circadian "oscillators" on cutaneous symptoms, such as the natural trough in cortisol levels during the evening in patients with inflammatory dermatoses, which most likely results in increased pruritus during the evening and night; (3) the effect of symptoms such as pruritus, hyperhidrosis, and problems with thermoregulation, on sleep and sleep-related quality of life of the patients and their families; (4) the possible effect of primary sleep disorders, such as insomnia, sleep apnea, sleep deprivation, and circadian rhythm disorders, on dermatologic disorders; for example, central nervous system arousals from sleep in sleep apnea can result in increased sympathetic neural activity and increased inflammation; and (5) comorbidity of some dermatologic disorders with stress and psychiatric disorders, for example, major depressive disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) that are also associated with sleep-related complaints. Sleep loss in atopic dermatitis (AD) is likely involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD-like symptoms in AD. Scratching during sleep, which may be proportional to the overall level of sympathetic nervous activity during the respective stages of sleep, usually occurs most frequently during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) stages 1 and 2 (vs stages 3 and 4 which are the deeper stages of sleep), and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, where the severity of scratching is similar to stage 2 sleep. Patient and parental reports of nocturnal itch and scratching in AD typically do not correlate with objective measures of scratching. PMID:23245983

  15. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. PMID:26972038

  16. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  17. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a

  18. REM sleep deprivation generates cognitive and neurochemical disruptions in the intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ana Carolina D; Castro, Marcela Alexandra V; Jose, Elis Angela K; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Dombrowski, Patrícia A; Da Cunha, Claudio; Ferraz, Anete C; Lima, Marcelo M S

    2013-11-01

    The recently described intranigral rotenone model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in rodents provides an interesting model for studying mechanisms of toxin-induced dopaminergic neuronal injury. The relevance of this model remains unexplored with regard to sleep disorders that occur in PD. On this basis, the construction of a PD model depicting several behavioral and neurochemical alterations related to sleep would be helpful in understanding the association between PD and sleep regulation. We performed bilateral intranigral injections of rotenone (12 μg) on day 0 and the open-field test initially on day 20 after rotenone. Acquisition phase of the object-recognition test, executed also during day 20, was followed by an exact period of 24 hr of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (REMSD; day 21). In the subsequent day (22), the rats were re-exposed to the open-field test and to the object-recognition test (choice phase). After the last session of behavioral tests, the rat brains were immediately dissected, and their striata were collected for neurochemical purposes. We observed that a brief exposure to REMSD was able to impair drastically the object-recognition test, similarly to a nigrostriatal lesion promoted by intranigral rotenone. However, the combination of REMSD and rotenone surprisingly did not inflict memory impairment, concomitant with a moderate compensatory mechanism mediated by striatal dopamine release. In addition, we demonstrated the existence of changes in serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmissions within the striatum mostly as a function of REMSD and REMSD plus rotenone, respectively. PMID:23908011

  19. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  20. Domiciliary nocturnal nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive lung disease: effects on sleep and quality of life.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, M W; Simonds, A K; Carroll, M P; Wedzicha, J A; Branthwaite, M A

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Domiciliary assisted ventilation, using negative or positive pressure devices, is an effective treatment for respiratory failure due to chest wall deformity and neuromuscular disease. Negative pressure ventilators have been used with some success in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease in hospital, but attempts to continue treatment at home have been disappointing. This study evaluates the practicalities of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation at home in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and the effect on sleep and quality of life. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twelve patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and hypercapnic respiratory failure received nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation at home during sleep. At six months eight were continuing with the ventilation. One patient had died and three had withdrawn because they were unable to sleep with the equipment. Full polysomnography performed during ventilation in patients continuing treatment at six months showed an increase in mean PaO2 of 11% (+2% to +23%) and lower mean transcutaneous carbon dioxide tensions (by -2.7 (-1.3 to -5.1) kPa) overnight compared with spontaneous breathing before the start of nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Total sleep time and sleep efficiency changed during ventilation by +72.5 (+21 to +204) minutes and +5% (-3% to +30%) respectively; sleep architecture and the number of arousals were unchanged. Quality of life did not change but was no worse during ventilation. At one year seven patients were still using the ventilator and PaCO2 and bicarbonate ion concentration during the day had improved further by comparison with the values at six months (change from baseline -1.7 (-2.1 to -0.6) kPa, p less than 0.05, and -6.3 (-11.9 to -4) mmol/l, p less than 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation can be used effectively at home during sleep in selected patients with chronic obstructive lung disease. Its future place in management can be established only by formal comparison with long term oxygen therapy. PMID:1609376

  1. Development and Evaluation of a Sleep Education Program for Older Adults with Dementia Living in Adult Family Homes

    PubMed Central

    McCurry, Susan M.; LaFazia, David M.; Pike, Kenneth C.; Logsdon, Rebecca G.; Teri, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of implementing a Sleep Education Program (SEP) for improving sleep in adult family home (AFH) residents with dementia, and the relative efficacy of SEP compared to usual care control in a pilot randomized controlled trial. Participants Thirty-seven AFH staff-caregivers and 47 residents with co-morbid dementia and sleep disturbances. Intervention SEP consisted of four training sessions with staff-caregivers to develop and implement individualized resident behavioral sleep plans. Measurements Treatment fidelity to the SEP was assessed following the NIH Behavior Change Consortium model utilizing trainer observations and staff-caregiver reports. Resident sleep was assessed by wrist actigraphy at baseline, 1-month post-treatment, and 6-month follow-up. Caregiver reports of resident daytime sleepiness, depression, and disruptive behaviors were also collected. Results Each key area of treatment fidelity (SEP delivery, receipt, enactment) was identified, measured, and yielded significant outcomes. Staff-caregivers learned how to identify sleep scheduling, daily activity, and environmental factors that could contribute to nocturnal disturbances, and developed and implemented strategies for modifying these factors. SEP decreased the frequency and disturbance level of target resident nocturnal behaviors, and improved actigraphically-measured sleep percent and total sleep time over the 6-month follow-up period compared to the control condition. Conclusion Results suggest behavioral interventions to improve sleep are feasible to implement in adult family homes, and merit further investigation as a promising intervention for use with AFH residents with dementia. PMID:22367233

  2. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solarewicz, Julia Z; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2(+/+)) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2(-/-)). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  3. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition and induces psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Petrovsky, Nadine; Ettinger, Ulrich; Hill, Antje; Frenzel, Leonie; Meyhöfer, Inga; Wagner, Michael; Backhaus, Jutta; Kumari, Veena

    2014-07-01

    Translational biomarkers, such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, are playing an increasingly important role in the development of antipsychotic drugs for schizophrenia and related conditions. However, attempts to reliably induce a PPI deficit by psychotomimetic drugs have not been successful, leaving an unmet need for a cross-species psychosis model sensitive to this widely studied surrogate treatment target. Sleep deprivation (SD) might be such a model as it has previously been shown to induce PPI deficits in rats, which could be selectively prevented with antipsychotic but not anxiolytic or antidepressant compounds. Here, in a first proof-of-concept study we tested whether SD induces a deficit in PPI and an increase in psychosis-like symptoms in healthy humans. In two counterbalanced sessions, acoustic PPI and self-reported psychosis-like symptoms (Psychotomimetic States Inventory) were measured in 24 healthy human volunteers after a normal night's sleep and after a night of total SD. SD decreased PPI (p = 0.001) without affecting the magnitude or habituation of the startle response (all p > 0.13). SD also induced perceptual distortions, cognitive disorganization, and anhedonia (all p < 0.02). Thus, extending previous rodent work, we conclude that SD, in combination with the PPI biomarker, might be a promising translational surrogate model for psychosis as this method represents a possibility to partially and reversibly mimic the pathogenesis of psychotic states. PMID:24990933

  4. Review of Disrupted Sleep Patterns in Smith-Magenis Syndrome and Normal Melatonin Secretion in a Patient with an Atypical Interstitial 17p11.2 Deletion

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Eilis A.; Johnson, Kyle P.; Jackman, Angela R.; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, MaryPat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C.; Lewy, Alfred J.; Smith, Ann C. M.; Magenis, R. Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body’s signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hour melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US & France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion (∼6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.1p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  5. Review of disrupted sleep patterns in Smith-Magenis syndrome and normal melatonin secretion in a patient with an atypical interstitial 17p11.2 deletion.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Eilis A; Johnson, Kyle P; Jackman, Angela R; Blancato, Jan; Huizing, Marjan; Bendavid, Claude; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Lewy, Alfred J; Smith, Ann C M; Magenis, R Ellen

    2009-07-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a disorder characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and behavior problems, including abnormal sleep patterns. It is most commonly due to a 3.5 Mb interstitial deletion of chromosome 17 band p11.2. Secretion of melatonin, a hormone produced by the pineal gland, is the body's signal for nighttime darkness. Published reports of 24-hr melatonin secretion patterns in two independent SMS cohorts (US and France) document an inverted endogenous melatonin pattern in virtually all cases (96%), suggesting that this finding is pathognomic for the syndrome. We report on a woman with SMS due to an atypical large proximal deletion ( approximately 6Mb; cen<->TNFRSFproteinB) of chromosome band (17)(p11.2p11.2) who presents with typical sleep disturbances but a normal pattern of melatonin secretion. We further describe a melatonin light suppression test in this patient. This is the second reported patient with a normal endogenous melatonin rhythm in SMS associated with an atypical large deletion. These two patients are significant because they suggest that the sleep disturbances in SMS cannot be solely attributed to the abnormal diurnal melatonin secretion versus the normal nocturnal pattern. PMID:19530184

  6. Isolated sleep paralysis elicited by sleep interruption.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, T; Miyasita, A; Sasaki, Y; Inugami, M; Fukuda, K

    1992-06-01

    We elicited isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) from normal subjects by a nocturnal sleep interruption schedule. On four experimental nights, 16 subjects had their sleep interrupted for 60 minutes by forced awakening at the time when 40 minutes of nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep had elapsed from the termination of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the first or third sleep cycle. This schedule produced a sleep onset REM period (SOREMP) after the interruption at a high rate of 71.9%. We succeeded in eliciting six episodes of ISP in the sleep interruptions performed (9.4%). All episodes of ISP except one occurred from SOREMP, indicating a close correlation between ISP and SOREMP. We recorded verbal reports about ISP experiences and recorded the polysomnogram (PSG) during ISP. All of the subjects with ISP experienced inability to move and were simultaneously aware of lying in the laboratory. All but one reported auditory/visual hallucinations and unpleasant emotions. PSG recordings during ISP were characterized by a REM/W stage dissociated state, i.e. abundant alpha electroencephalographs and persistence of muscle atonia shown by the tonic electromyogram. Judging from the PSG recordings, ISP differs from other dissociated states such as lucid dreaming, nocturnal panic attacks and REM sleep behavior disorders. We compare some of the sleep variables between ISP and non-ISP nights. We also discuss the similarities and differences between ISP and sleep paralysis in narcolepsy. PMID:1621022

  7. Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep in Critical Illness and its Impact on Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Dengler, Viola; Westphalen, Kristin; Koeppen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The earth rotates on its axis around the sun, creating a day and night cycle, that caused the development of circadian rhythms. The circadian rhythm is primarily entrained by light, which is detected by the retina. Retinal ganglion cells project to a part of the hypothalamus termed suprachiasmatic nucleus. Here, we find the master molecular clock, composed of a transcription-translation-loop at its core. The master clock indirectly influences the innate immune system via different biological systems. Also, the master clock controls the peripheral clocks, which are present in innate immune cells. Here, circadian rhythm proteins influence the response of immune cells to pathogens. Furthermore, the master clock influences our sleep-pattern, the most important restorative physiological function. In critically ill patients the circadian rhythm is substantially altered, supporting a dysfunctional innate immune response. This review discusses recent basic science findings on the interaction of the circadian rhythm and the innate immune system. Furthermore we give an outlook on potential future therapeutic strategies. PMID:26144943

  8. Regulation of adult neurogenesis by stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation: Implications for depression and antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, P J; Meerlo, P; Naylor, A S; van Dam, A M; Dayer, A G; Fuchs, E; Oomen, C A; Czh, B

    2010-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis, a once unorthodox concept, has changed into one of the most rapidly growing fields in neuroscience. The present report results from the ECNP targeted expert meeting in 2007 during which cellular plasticity changes were addressed in the adult brain, focusing on neurogenesis and apoptosis in hippocampus and frontal cortex. We discuss recent studies investigating factors that regulate neurogenesis with special emphasis on effects of stress, sleep disruption, exercise and inflammation, a group of seemingly unrelated factors that share at least two unifying properties, namely that they all regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis and have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. We conclude that although neurogenesis has been implicated in cognitive function and is stimulated by antidepressant drugs, its functional impact and contribution to the etiology of depression remains unclear. A lasting reduction in neurogenesis following severe or chronic stress exposure, either in adult or early life, may represent impaired hippocampal plasticity and can contribute to the cognitive symptoms of depression, but is, by itself, unlikely to produce the full mood disorder. Normalization of reductions in neurogenesis appears at least partly, implicated in antidepressant action. PMID:19748235

  9. The effect of histidine on mental fatigue and cognitive performance in subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores.

    PubMed

    Sasahara, Ikuko; Fujimura, Naoko; Nozawa, Yoshizu; Furuhata, Yasufumi; Sato, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Our previous study reported that a dried bonito broth known in Japan as 'dashi' improved or ameliorated mood states, including fatigue, during the daily lives of human subjects. Histidine is an amino acid that is present in dried bonito broth, and we sought to evaluate whether histidine would affect feelings of fatigue in humans. We investigated the effects of histidine intake on the feeling of fatigue, mood states and mental task performance by performing a placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover trial. Twenty subjects with high fatigue and sleep disruption scores were asked to ingest histidine or a placebo every day for two weeks. The subjects' mood states were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale and a visual analog scale (VAS) for eight feelings (fatigue, depression, carelessness, drowsiness, clear thinking, motivation, attentiveness and concentration). We also measured subjects' cognitive performance using the CogHealth test battery. The fatigue T-scores on the POMS test decreased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). After two weeks of histidine ingestion, the reaction time for the working memory task in the CogHealth test battery was significantly shorten compared to placebo ingestion. The VAS scores for clear thinking and for attentiveness were increased significantly following histidine ingestion compared to placebo ingestion (p<0.05). These results suggest that daily ingestion of histidine may ameliorate feelings of fatigue, increase performance during working memory tasks, and improve the clear thinking and attentiveness. PMID:25921948

  10. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hgli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  11. [Diagnosis of sleep apnea].

    PubMed

    Kesper, Karl; Cassel, Werner; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinically significant condition associated with an increase in cardiovascular risk, daytime sleepiness and in risk of accidents. Diagnosis usually relies on a detailed anamnesis and an ambulatory nocturnal polygraphy. Suspecting the presence of OSA or a persisting unclear daytime sleepiness in need of treatment further polysomnographic diagnosis should be performed in a specialized sleep center. Cardiorespiratory polysomnography is the diagnostic gold standard in differentiating sleep-related breathing and movement disorders. PMID:26710202

  12. Sleeping with an electric blanket: effects on core temperature, sleep, and melatonin in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, A; van den Heuvel, C; Dawson, D

    1999-05-01

    Previous studies have inferred a relationship between core temperature and sleep disruption from manipulations of core temperature such as heating prior to sleep or administration of hyperthermic substances. To examine the relationship more directly, this study aimed to produce a direct increase in core temperature during the sleep period. Following an adaptation night, 16 subjects underwent counter-balanced baseline and experimental conditions, on non-consecutive nights between 1900 and 0800h. In the experimental condition, subjects were heated between 0230h and wake up, which significantly increased mean core temperature from baseline levels between 0400 and 0700h by 0.18 +/- 0.03 degree C (mean +/- SEM, p < 0.05). This increase in core temperature was associated with a significant decrease in sleep efficiency between 0330 and 0730h of 5.5 +/- 0.9% (mean +/- SD, p < 0.05). Polysomnographic measures indicated a significant increase in the number of stage changes and the amounts of stage 0 and stage 1 sleep (p < 0.05). Other stages of sleep and the number and duration of arousals were not significantly effected by heating. There was a strong trend toward and increase in the number of arousals (p = 0.054), however, core body temperature did not increase across arousals. Also, melatonin output was not effected by heating. Taken together, these results suggest that increased nocturnal core temperature alone may disrupt sleep. Additionally, the results support evidence suggesting that the circadian regulation of the sleep/wake cycle may be mediated via core temperature. PMID:10341381

  13. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  14. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern. This can include problems falling or staying asleep, ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  15. Nocturnal leg cramps.

    PubMed

    Allen, Richard E; Kirby, Karl A

    2012-08-15

    Up to 60 percent of adults report that they have had nocturnal leg cramps. The recurrent, painful tightening usually occurs in the calf muscles and can cause severe insomnia. The exact mechanism is unknown, but the cramps are probably caused by muscle fatigue and nerve dysfunction rather than electrolyte or other abnormalities. Nocturnal leg cramps are associated with vascular disease, lumbar canal stenosis, cirrhosis, hemodialysis, pregnancy, and other medical conditions. Medications that are strongly associated with leg cramps include intravenous iron sucrose, conjugated estrogens, raloxifene, naproxen, and teriparatide. A history and physical examination are usually sufficient to differentiate nocturnal leg cramps from other conditions, such as restless legs syndrome, claudication, myositis, and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory evaluation and specialized testing usually are unnecessary to confirm the diagnosis. Limited evidence supports treating nocturnal leg cramps with exercise and stretching, or with medications such as magnesium, calcium channel blockers, carisoprodol, or vitamin B(12). Quinine is no longer recommended to treat leg cramps. PMID:22963024

  16. Sleep in the Intensive Care Unit: A Review.

    PubMed

    Pulak, Lisa M; Jensen, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are susceptible to sleep deprivation. Disrupted sleep is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the critically ill patients. The etiology of sleep disruption is multifactorial. The article reviews the literature on sleep in the ICU, the effects of sleep deprivation, and strategies to promote sleep in the ICU. Until the impact of disrupted sleep is better explained, it is appropriate to provide critically ill patients with consolidated, restorative sleep. PMID:24916753

  17. Supplemental oxygen needs during sleep. Who benefits?

    PubMed

    Owens, Robert L

    2013-01-01

    The physiologic changes that occur in ventilation during sleep contribute to nocturnal oxygen desaturation in those with lung disease. Nocturnal supplemental oxygen is often used as therapy, although convincing data exist only for those who are hypoxemic both during sleep and wake. Ongoing trials may help address whether oxygen should be used in those with only desaturation during sleep. If used, oxygen should be dosed as needed, and patients should be monitored for hypercapnia. Because of its prevalence, obstructive sleep apnea may commonly overlap with lung disease in many patients and have important consequences. Patients with overlap syndromes may be good candidates for noninvasive ventilation during sleep. PMID:23271818

  18. Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Santana, Maria Anglica Pinheiro; Almeida, Priscila de Carvalho; Machado, Almrio de Souza; Arajo-Filho, Jos Bouzas; Salles, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. RESULTS: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75 6.29 vs. 86.38 8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = ?0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = ?0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:24473760

  19. Gender differences in subjective sleep after trauma and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2013-08-01

    Women are at higher risk than men for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following certain types of trauma such as accidents and assaults. Sleep disturbances have been implicated in the development of PTSD. Although gender differences in objective sleep soon after trauma have been found in a prior polysomnographic study, gender differences in subjective sleep soon after trauma and their associations to the development of PTSD have not been examined. This pilot study prospectively examined whether gender moderated the relationship between subjective sleep soon after trauma and PTSD symptom development. Injury patients (17 women, 28 men) completed a sleep questionnaire and a 1-week sleep diary 2 weeks after their injuries, and the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale at 7-weeks postinjury. Results showed that women reported greater frequency of nightmares and disruptive nocturnal behaviors (e.g., hot flashes, memories/nightmares about trauma) following the trauma and more severe PTSD symptoms at 7 weeks. Further, gender moderated the relationship between sleep-onset latency and PTSD symptom severity, such that longer sleep-onset latency predicted more severe PTSD symptoms in men, but less severe PTSD symptoms in women. These findings suggest that gender-specific mechanisms may underlie the relationship between sleep impairment and the development of PTSD. PMID:23861181

  20. Nocturnality and species survival.

    PubMed

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1996-10-15

    Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers a dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. PMID:8876201

  1. Nocturnality and species survival.

    PubMed Central

    Daily, G C; Ehrlich, P R

    1996-01-01

    Surveys of butterfly and moth diversity in tropical forest fragments suggest that nocturnality confers a dispersal, and possibly a survival, advantage. The butterfly faunas of smaller fragments were depauperate; in contrast, the species richness of nocturnal moths was similar in all fragments and even in pasture. The lack of correlation between butterfly and moth species richness among fragments (r2 = 0.005) is best explained by movements of moths at night when ambient conditions in forest and pasture are most similar; butterflies face substantial daytime temperature, humidity, and solar radiation barriers. This interpretation is supported by information on birds, beetles, and bats. PMID:8876201

  2. Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PSQI-A) in Male Military Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J.; Germain, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), yet they bear less stigma than other PTSD symptoms. Given the growing number of returning military veterans, brief, valid assessments that identify PTSD in a minimally stigmatizing way may be highly useful in both research and clinical practice. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A) was examined for the ability to identify cases of PTSD among male military veterans. Male military veterans (N = 119) completed the PSQI-A, as well as measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Veterans with PTSD had higher PSQI-A identified disruptive nocturnal behaviors than veterans without PTSD. The PSQI-A had good internal consistency and had convergent validity with sleep quality, combat exposure, PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. A cutoff score ? 4 provided an area-under-the-curve = .81, with 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 60% positive and 83% negative predictive value for a clinical diagnosis of PTSD; correct classification was 74%. The PSQI-A is a valid measure to possibly detect PTSD among male military veterans without directly probing trauma reactions. Assessment of disruptive nocturnal behaviors may provide a cost-effective, non-stigmatizing approach to PTSD screening among male military veterans. PMID:23512653

  3. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  4. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2012-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  5. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    PubMed

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  6. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  7. Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Thumfart, Julia; Mller, Dominik

    2015-05-01

    Preemptive renal transplantation is the method of choice for end stage renal disease in childhood and adolescence. However, without preemptive transplantation, waiting time for kidney transplantation might exceed several years. The poor quality of life and the extremely high morbidity and mortality rates of dialysis patients have led to the development of intensified hemodialysis programs in which the modes of dialysis (short daily, nocturnal intermittent or daily nocturnal) are different. Such programs have been shown to significantly improve several uremia-associated parameters, such as blood pressure, phosphate control, anemia and growth retardation, in both adult and pediatric (children and adolescents) patients and lead to a reduction in medications, including phosphate binders, erythropoietin and antihypertensive agents. Fluid limitations and dietary restrictions can also be lifted. With respect to psychosocial rehabilitation and quality of life, nocturnal intermittent dialysis programs provide a reasonable compromise of all forms of intensified programs. Experiences and practical approaches of our own in-center nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis program in the light of the recent publications are described in this review. PMID:25103600

  8. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:26912959

  9. Sleep Apnea Devices Lower Blood Pressure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155984.html Sleep Apnea Devices Lower Blood Pressure Researchers find both ... 1, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- For those suffering from sleep apnea, the disrupted sleep and reduction of oxygen ...

  10. Age-related changes in sleep spindles characteristics during daytime recovery following a 25-hour sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Rosinvil, T.; Lafortune, M.; Sekerovic, Z.; Bouchard, M.; Dub, J.; Latulipe-Loiselle, A.; Martin, N.; Lina, J. M.; Carrier, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The mechanisms underlying sleep spindles (~1115 Hz; >0.5 s) help to protect sleep. With age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain sleep at a challenging time (e.g., daytime), even after sleep loss. This study compared spindle characteristics during daytime recovery and nocturnal sleep in young and middle-aged adults. In addition, we explored whether spindles characteristics in baseline nocturnal sleep were associated with the ability to maintain sleep during daytime recovery periods in both age groups. Methods: Twenty-nine young (15 women and 14 men; 27.3 y 5.0) and 31 middle-aged (19 women and 13 men; 51.6 y 5.1) healthy subjects participated in a baseline nocturnal sleep and a daytime recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Spindles were detected on artifact-free Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep epochs. Spindle density (nb/min), amplitude (?V), frequency (Hz), and duration (s) were analyzed on parasagittal (linked-ears) derivations. Results: In young subjects, spindle frequency increased during daytime recovery sleep as compared to baseline nocturnal sleep in all derivations, whereas middle-aged subjects showed spindle frequency enhancement only in the prefrontal derivation. No other significant interaction between age group and sleep condition was observed. Spindle density for all derivations and centro-occipital spindle amplitude decreased whereas prefrontal spindle amplitude increased from baseline to daytime recovery sleep in both age groups. Finally, no significant correlation was found between spindle characteristics during baseline nocturnal sleep and the marked reduction in sleep efficiency during daytime recovery sleep in both young and middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between homeostatic and circadian pressure modulates spindle frequency differently in aging. Spindle characteristics do not seem to be linked with the ability to maintain daytime recovery sleep. PMID:26089788

  11. Transient total sleep loss in cerebral Whipple's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Riemann, Dieter; Gann, Horst; Hornyak, Magdolna; Juengling, Freimut; Schumacher, Martin; Reincke, Martin; Von Herbay, Axel; Nishino, Seiji; Mignot, Emmanuel; Berger, Mathias; Lieb, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    A case with transient, almost complete sleep loss caused by cerebral manifestation of Whipple's disease (WD) is presented. Cerebral WD is rare and in most cases occurs after gastrointestinal infection. In our case, a progressive and finally almost complete sleep loss was the initial and predominant symptom. Polysomnographic studies in several consecutive nights and over 24 h showed a total abolition of the sleep-wake cycle with nocturnal sleep duration of less than 15 min. Endocrine tests revealed hypothalamic dysfunction with flattening of circadian rhythmicity of cortisol, TSH, growth hormone and melatonin. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin was reduced. [18F]Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed hypermetabolic areas in cortical and subcortical areas including the brainstem, which might explain sleep pathology and vertical gaze palsy. In the course of treatment with antibiotics and additional carbamazepine for 1 year, insomnia slowly and gradually improved. Endocrine investigations at 1-year follow-up showed persistent flattening of circadian rhythmicity. The FDG-PET indicated normalized metabolism in distinct regions of the brain stem which paralleled restoration of sleep length. The extent of sleep disruption in this case of organic insomnia was similar to cases of familial fatal insomnia, but was at least partially reversible with treatment. PMID:12464100

  12. d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Hasan, Sibah; Tam, Shu K E; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-05-01

    d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Convergent evidence implicates DAO in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia. To better understand the functional role of DAO, we characterized the behaviour of the first genetically engineered Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mouse. Our primary objective was to assess both spatial and non-spatial short-term memory performance. Relative to wildtype (Dao(+/+) ) littermate controls, Dao(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced spatial recognition memory performance, improved odour recognition memory performance, and enhanced spontaneous alternation in the T-maze. In addition, Dao(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in five tests of approach/avoidance conflict: the open field test, elevated plus maze, successive alleys, light/dark box and novelty-suppressed feeding. Despite evidence of a reciprocal relationship between anxiety and sleep and circadian function in rodents, we found no evidence of sleep or circadian rhythm disruption in Dao(-/-) mice. Overall, our observations are consistent with, and extend, findings in the natural mutant ddY/Dao(-) line. These data add to a growing body of preclinical evidence linking the inhibition, inactivation or deletion of DAO with enhanced cognitive performance. Our results have implications for the development of DAO inhibitors as therapeutic agents. PMID:25816902

  13. Sleep Disorders in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Jehan, Shazia; Masters-Isarilov, Alina; Salifu, Idoko; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Gupta, Ravi; Brzezinski, Amnon; McFarlane, Samy I

    2015-01-01

    One of the core symptoms of the menopausal transition is sleep disturbance. Peri-menopausal women often complain of difficulties initiating and/or maintaining sleep with frequent nocturnal and early morning awakenings. Factors that may play a role in this type of insomnia include vasomotor symptoms, changing reproductive hormone levels, circadian rhythm abnormalities, mood disorders, coexistent medical conditions, and lifestyle. Other common sleep problems in this age group, such as obstructive sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome, can also worsen the sleep quality. Exogenous melatonin use reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age and the menopausal transition. Recently, more potent melatonin analogs (selective melatonin-1 (MT1) and melatonin-2 (MT2) receptor agonists) with prolonged effects and slow-release melatonin preparations have been developed. They were found effective in increasing total sleep time and sleep efficiency as well as in reducing sleep latency in insomnia patients. The purpose of this review is to give an overview on the changes in hormonal status to sleep problems among menopausal and postmenopausal women. PMID:26512337

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jayesh; Virdi, Sundeep; Winokur, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the illness. Subjective and objective assessments of sleep in patients with schizophrenia have identified certain consistent findings. Findings related to the sleep structure abnormalities have shown correlations with important clinical aspects of the illness. Disruption of specific neurotransmitter systems and dysregulation of clock genes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related sleep disturbances. Antipsychotic medications play an important role in the treatment of sleep disturbances in these patients and have an impact on their sleep structure. PMID:26600108

  15. A Mixed-Method Examination of Maternal and Paternal Nocturnal Caregiving

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Craig, Garfield F.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The study objectives were to describe and compare causes of, and activities during, postpartum parents nocturnal awakenings. Methods Twenty-one primiparous postpartum couples were studied for one week with qualitative and quantitative methods. Results Mothers reported more awakenings per night (3.31.1) and more wake after sleep onset (116.060.0 minutes) compared to fathers (2.40.5 and 42.739.4 minutes, respectively). Actions taken during maternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily for infant feeding (49.0%), general infant care (18.5%), and infant changing (12.0%). Actions taken during paternal nocturnal awakenings were primarily passive awakenings (35.9%), for self-care (18.4%), and for infant feeding (9.4%). Conclusions Qualitative analyses revealed ways that new families can optimize the sleep of both parents while also providing optimal nocturnal infant care. PMID:24007974

  16. Disruption of behavioral circadian rhythms induced by psychophysiological stress affects plasma free amino acid profiles without affecting peripheral clock gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Katsutaka; Yamamoto, Saori; Itoh, Nanako; Miyazaki, Koyomi; Nemoto, Tadashi; Nakakita, Yasukazu; Kaneda, Hirotaka

    2014-07-18

    Disordered circadian rhythms are associated with various psychiatric conditions and metabolic diseases. We recently established a mouse model of a psychophysiological stress-induced chronic sleep disorder (CSD) characterized by reduced amplitude of circadian wheel-running activity and sleep-wake cycles, sleep fragmentation and hyperphagia. Here, we evaluate day-night fluctuations in plasma concentrations of free amino acids (FAA), appetite hormones and prolactin as well as the hepatic expression of circadian clock-related genes in mice with CSD (CSD mice). Nocturnal increases in wheel-running activity and circadian rhythms of plasma prolactin concentrations were significantly disrupted in CSD mice. Hyperphagia with a decreased leptin/ghrelin ratio was found in CSD mice. Day-night fluctuations in plasma FAA contents were severely disrupted without affecting total FAA levels in CSD mice. Nocturnal increases in branched-chain amino acids such as Ile, Leu, and Val were further augmented in CSD mice, while daytime increases in Gly, Ala, Ser, Thr, Lys, Arg, His, Tyr, Met, Cys, Glu, and Asn were significantly attenuated. Importantly, the circadian expression of hepatic clock genes was completely unaffected in CSD mice. These findings suggest that circadian clock gene expression does not always reflect disordered behavior and sleep rhythms and that plasma FFA profiles could serve as a potential biomarker of circadian rhythm disorders. PMID:24971530

  17. Daytime sleep in myotonic dystrophy is not caused by sleep apnoea.

    PubMed Central

    van der Mech, F G; Bogaard, J M; van der Sluys, J C; Schimsheimer, R J; Ververs, C C; Busch, H F

    1994-01-01

    Daytime sleepiness is common in myotonic dystrophy and might be attributed to disturbed nocturnal breathing. Seventeen out of 22 patients complained of excessive daytime sleepiness, resembling "idiopathic hypersomnolence". Sleep apnoea might have contributed to daytime sleepiness in only three of 17 patients. Treatment with the central stimulant methylphenidate produced sustained benefit in seven out of 11 patients tested. Daytime sleepiness in myotonic dystrophy is usually caused by dysfunction of central sleep regulation and not by disturbed nocturnal breathing. PMID:8201339

  18. In search of objective components for sleep quality indexing in normal sleep.

    PubMed

    Rosipal, Roman; Lewandowski, Achim; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of nocturnal human sleep can provide information about sleep quality in terms of correlation with a set of daytime measures. These measures were designed with the aim of comprising selected quality of night sleep and consist of subjective sleep quality ratings, neuropsychological tests and physiological parameters. First, a factor analysis model was applied to the large number of daytime measures of sleep quality in order to detect their latent structure. Secondly, in addition to the gold standard sleep staging method to arrive at variables about sleep architecture from PSG, we applied a recently developed continuous sleep representation by considering the probabilistic sleep model (PSM) describing the microstructure of sleep. Significant correlations between sleep architecture and daytime variables of sleep quality were found. Both the factor analysis and the PSM helped maximize the information about this relationship. PMID:23751915

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chervin, R D; Guilleminault, C

    1996-08-01

    OSAS, a common cause of disrupted sleep and EDS, result from repetitive closure of the upper airway during sleep. It probably represents the most severe syndrome related to obstruction of the upper airway; less severe forms include UARS, a syndrome characterized by the need for increased effort to breath but no prominent apneas or hypopneas, and primary snoring. Initial clues to the presence of OSAS and related disorders are derived from the history and include loud snoring, EDS or insomnia, and witnessed apneas. Some patients, especially women, may complain mostly of tiredness or fatigue, and children may present with behavioral abnormalities. Obesity, a large neck circumference, and a crowded oropharynx are common on physical examination. Nonobese patients, in particular, often have retrognathia, a high-arched narrow palate, macroglossia, enlarged tonsils, temporomandibular joint abnormalities, or chronic nasal obstruction. The clinical suspicion of obstructed nocturnal breathing is confirmed by overnight polysomnography, and an MSLT may be used to assess sleepiness. Esophageal manometry during polysomnography facilitates diagnosis of UARS. Treatment most commonly consists of nasal CPAP or BPAP, although problems with compliance make surgical treatment preferable in some cases. Although UPPP eliminates sleep apnea only in a minority of patients, combining UPPP with maxillofacial procedures appears to improve outcomes. Other treatments such as the use of dental appliances or medications, weight loss, and positional therapy may be useful as adjunctive therapy for moderate to severe OSAS or as primary treatments for UARS or mild OSAS. PMID:8871978

  20. Response Surface Mapping of Neurobehavioral Performance: Testing the Feasibility of Split Sleep Schedules for Space Operations.

    PubMed

    Mollicone, Daniel J; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Rogers, Naomi L; Dinges, David F

    2008-01-01

    The demands of sustaining high levels of neurobehavioral performance during space operations necessitate precise scheduling of sleep opportunities in order to best preserve optimal performance. We report here the results of the first split-sleep, dose-response experiment involving a range of sleep/wake scenarios with chronically reduced nocturnal sleep, augmented with a diurnal nap. To characterize performance over all combinations of split sleep in the range studied, we used response surface mapping methodology. Waking neurobehavioral performance was studied in N=90 subjects each assigned to one of 18 sleep regimens consisting of a restricted nocturnal anchor sleep period and a diurnal nap. Psychomotor vigilance task performance and subjective assessments of sleepiness were found to be primarily a function of total time in bed per 24 h regardless of how sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap periods. Digit symbol substitution task performance was also found to be primarily a function of total time in bed per 24 h; however, accounting for nocturnal sleep duration and nap duration separately provided a small but significant enhancement in the variance explained. The results suggest that reductions in total daily sleep result in a near-linear accumulation of impairment regardless of whether sleep is scheduled as a consolidated nocturnal sleep period or split into a nocturnal anchor sleep period and a diurnal nap. Thus, split sleep schedules are feasible and can be used to enhance the flexibility of sleep/work schedules for space operations involving restricted nocturnal sleep due to mission-critical task scheduling. These results are generally applicable to any continuous industrial operation that involves sleep restriction, night operations, and shift work. PMID:19194521

  1. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    PubMed Central

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  2. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  3. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  4. The Relationship between Thermoregulation and REM Sleep Behaviour Disorder in Parkinsons Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, George; Bolitho, Samuel; Grunstein, Ronald; Naismith, Sharon Linda; Lewis, Simon John Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background This study explored the relationship between symptoms of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, thermoregulation and sleep in Parkinsons Disease. Methods The study group comprised 12 patients with Parkinsons Disease and 11 healthy age-matched controls. We investigated markers of thermoregulation (core-body temperature profile), circadian rhythm (locomotor actigraphy) and sleep (polysomnography). Results The mesor (the mean value around which the core temperature rhythm oscillates) of the core-body temperature in patients with Parkinsons Disease was significantly lower than that of controls. In addition, the nocturnal fall in CBT (the difference between the mesor and the nadir temperature) was also significantly reduced in PD patients relative to controls. Furthermore, in patients the reduction in the amplitude of their core-body temperature profile was strongly correlated with the severity of self-reported rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder symptom, reduction in the percentage of REM sleep and prolonged sleep latency. By contrast, these disturbances of thermoregulation and sleep architecture were not found in controls and were not related to other markers of circadian rhythm or times of sleep onset and offset. Conclusions These findings suggest that the brainstem pathology associated with disruption of thermoregulation in Parkinsons disease may also contribute to rapid eye movement sleep behavioural disorder. It is possible that detailed analysis of the core-body temperature profile in at risk populations such as those patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder might help identify those who are at high risk of transitioning to Parkinsons Disease. PMID:23991135

  5. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed during the STS-90 (Neurolab) and STS-95 missions in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. In both flight-based experiments, the effects of melatonin on sleep stages and spectral composition of the EEG during sleep will be determined as well as its effects on daytime alertness and performance; (5) the impact of space flight on sleep and waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance in 30-45-year-old astronauts is compared with its impact in a 77-year-old astronaut. This case study is the first to assess the effects of space flight on an older individual. Because the investigators are still blind to the treatment in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, preliminary results will be presented independent of the drug condition.

  6. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Sleep in Children.

    PubMed

    Herman, John H

    2015-06-01

    Basic assumptions about ADHD in children and sleep are not supported by research. It is unclear that children with hyperactivity or inattention have disrupted sleep. Parents of children with ADHD consistently report more bedtime resistance, but there is no objective evidence that sleep is subsequently disrupted. Treatment of ADHD with stimulants may disrupt sleep. Studies of comorbid sleep or psychiatric disorders consistently show that they disrupt sleep. Melatonin is an effective treatment of sleep problems in children with ADHD. Before any child is placed on stimulants, the pediatrician or other health care professional should insure that the child is obtaining adequate sleep. PMID:26055862

  7. Agomelatine improves sleep in a patient with fatal familial insomnia.

    PubMed

    Froböse, T; Slawik, H; Schreiner, R; Veselý, Z; Wiegand, M; Bäuml, J; Förstl, H

    2012-01-01

    A young patient with FFI was started on agomelatine 25 mg to medicate nocturnal insomnia. Under this treatment sleep efficiency was improved, slow wave sleep was high and awakenings during sleep period time were far less than before. Clinically the patient was less restless during nighttime. PMID:21979926

  8. Sleep benefits subsequent hippocampal functioning.

    PubMed

    Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Altena, Ellemarije; Schoonheim, Menno M; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto J; Vis, José C; De Rijke, Wim; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2009-02-01

    Sleep before learning benefits memory encoding through unknown mechanisms. We found that even a mild sleep disruption that suppressed slow-wave activity and induced shallow sleep, but did not reduce total sleep time, was sufficient to affect subsequent successful encoding-related hippocampal activation and memory performance in healthy human subjects. Implicit learning was not affected. Our results suggest that the hippocampus is particularly sensitive to shallow, but intact, sleep. PMID:19151712

  9. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders

    PubMed Central

    Depner, Christopher M.; Stothard, Ellen R.; Wright, Kenneth P.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  10. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders.

    PubMed

    Depner, Christopher M; Stothard, Ellen R; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-07-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  11. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in

  12. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  13. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total non-REM sleep described by traditional parameters was statistically unaffected during the disturbed nights, but the perturbing effects of noise on non-REM sleep stability and continuity were revealed by a significant increase in the CAP rate. The perspectives for a wide-ranging exploitation of this sleep parameter are discussed.

  14. Behavioral Treatment for Nocturnal Enuresis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Jones, Kevin M.

    2005-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is one of the most prevalent and distressing of all childhood problems. The treatment of nocturnal enuresis has shifted in the past few decades from a strictly psychopathological perspective to a biobehavioral perspective. Although the primary clinical features of this disorder are medical/organic, there is currently strong

  15. Diurnal and nocturnal drooling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kalf, J G; Bloem, B R; Munneke, M

    2012-01-01

    Drooling as symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) has thus far been poorly defined. This uncertainty is reflected by high variations in published prevalence rates. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of saliva loss versus accumulation of saliva as a possible preliminary stage, and diurnal drooling versus nocturnal drooling. In addition, we evaluated the association between drooling severity and the severity of facial and oral motor disorders. We collected age, disease duration, UPDRS III and Hoehn & Yahr stage from 104 consecutive outpatients with PD. Diurnal and nocturnal drooling was evaluated with a validated questionnaire (ROMP-saliva). A speech pathologist, blinded for drooling severity, rated facial expression, involuntary mouth opening and difficulty with nose breathing and also interviewed patients about sleeping position and nose-breathing during the night. Thirty patients (29%) had no complaints with saliva control ('non-droolers'), 45 patients (43%) experienced accumulation of saliva or only nocturnal drooling ('pre-droolers'), and 29 (28%) had diurnal drooling (24 of which also drooled during the night; 'droolers'). The droolers had longer disease duration (10 vs. 7 years, p = 0.01) and drooling was independently associated with involuntary mouth opening (OR = 2.0; 95% CI 1.02-3.99) and swallowing complaints (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.03-1.31). Diurnal drooling-defined as dribbling of saliva while awake-is present in about 28% of PD patients. This is less than usually reported. Diurnal drooling typically appeared later in the disease course. The association with oral motor behavior should encourage the development of behavioral treatment approaches. PMID:21698387

  16. Short-term sleep deprivation disrupts the molecular composition of ionotropic glutamate receptors in entorhinal cortex and impairs the rat spatial reference memory.

    PubMed

    Xie, Meilan; Li, Chao; He, Chao; Yang, Li; Tan, Gang; Yan, Jie; Wang, Jiali; Hu, Zhian

    2016-03-01

    Numerous studies reported that sleep deprivation (SD) causes impairment in spatial cognitive performance. However, the molecular mechanisms affected by SD underlying this behavioral phenomenon remain elusive. Here, we focused on the entorhinal cortex (EC), the gateway of the hippocampus, and investigated how SD affected the subunit expression of AMPARs and NMDARs, the main ionotropic glutamategic receptors serving a pivotal role in spatial cognition. In EC, we found 4h SD remarkably reduced surface expression of GluA1, while there was an increase in the surface expression of GluA2 and GluA3. As for NMDARs, SD with short duration significantly reduced the surface expression levels of GluN1 and GluN2B without effect on the GluN2A. In parallel with the alterations in AMPARs and NMDARs, we found the 4h SD impaired rat spatial reference memory as assessed by Morris water maze task. Overall, these data indicate that brief SD differently affects the AMPAR and NMDAR subunit expressions in EC and might consequently disrupt the composition and functional properties of these receptors. PMID:26455878

  17. [Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH)].

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Jun-ichi; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2008-03-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder. The most common clinical manifestations of PNH include intravascular hemolysis, venous thrombosis, and bone marrow failure. Hematopoietic stems cells with mutant PIG-A are present in normal marrow, but they are not noticed because they have no advantage under normal circumstances. In the setting of immune-mediated bone marrow injury, such as that seen in aplastic anemia, PIG-A mutant cells are selected because they have a survival advantage based on deficiency of one or more GPI-anchored proteins. Expansion of the PIG-A-mutant clones occurs when other events that enhance the growth properties of the cells work together with the effects of the PIG-A mutation to enhance further the growth properties of the mutant cells. PMID:18330025

  18. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Geetanjali; Larsen, Paul; Parakh, Manish; Fernandez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively in sleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE). NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved. PMID:24383033

  19. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in a Community Sample of Young Children: The Role of Obesity, Asthma, Anxiety/Depression, and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Susan L.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Mayes, Susan D.; Tsaoussoglou, Marina; Basta, Maria; Bixler, Edward O.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated the prevalence and association of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) with a wide range of factors (e.g., medical complaints, obesity, objective sleep [including sleep disordered breathing], and parent-reported anxiety/depression and sleep difficulties) in a large general population sample of children. Few studies have researched the prevalence and predictors of EDS in young children, none in a general population sample of children, and the results are inconsistent. Design: Cross-sectional Setting: Population -based. Participants: 508 school-aged children from the general population. Interventions: N/A Measurements and Results: Children underwent a 9-hour polysomnogram (PSG), physical exam, and parent completed health, sleep and psychological questionnaires. Children were divided into 2 groups: those with and without parent reported EDS. The prevalence of subjective EDS was approximately 15%. Significant univariate relationships were found between children with EDS and BMI percentile, waist circumference, heartburn, asthma, and parent reported anxiety/depression, and sleep difficulties. The strongest predictors of EDS were waist circumference, asthma, and parent-reported symptoms of anxiety/depression and trouble falling asleep. All PSG sleep variables including apnea/hypopnea index, caffeine consumption, and allergies were not significantly related to EDS. Conclusions: It appears that the presence of EDS is more strongly associated with obesity, asthma, parent reported anxiety/depression, and trouble falling asleep than with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) or objective sleep disruption per se. Our findings suggest that children with EDS should be thoroughly assessed for anxiety/depression, nocturnal sleep difficulties, asthma, obesity, and other metabolic factors, whereas objective sleep findings may not be as clinically useful. Citation: Calhoun SL; Vgontzas AN; Fernandez-Mendoza J; Mayes SD; Tsaoussoglou M; Basta M; Bixler EO. Prevalence and risk factors of excessive daytime sleepiness in a community sample of young children: the role of obesity, asthma, anxiety/depression, and sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(4):503-507. PMID:21461329

  20. The function of nocturnal transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Loik, Michael; Tissue, David

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal transpiration is an important source of water loss, accounting for up to 25% of daytime transpiration in some species. Nocturnal water losses cannot be explained under the prevailing 'paradigm' of optimizing carbon gain while minimizing water loss because carbon fixation does not occur at night. Alternative explanations regarding the function and potential evolutionary advantage of nocturnal transpiration have been proposed, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and transport or delivery of O2 to parenchyma cells for respiration. However, recent evidence suggests that the role of nocturnal transpiration in supplementing the overall plant nutrient budget is relatively small, and the O2 hypothesis is difficult to test experimentally. Here, we propose that the main function of nocturnal transpiration (and water transport) is to prevent catastrophic xylem failure by restoring depleted stem 'capacitors' and enhancing early morning CO2 uptake, as stomata 'prepare' for daytime conditions. Nocturnal sap flux was highest in Eucalyptus grandis trees in the field following a heat wave (reaching 47C with VPDs > 8kPa in the daytime) generating maximal daytime water losses compared with cooler and lower VPD periods, indicating the importance of nocturnal stomatal conductance for stem refilling. Moreover, we observed that the time for stomata to respond to light early in the morning (dawn) across 25 different genotypes of E. camaldulensis in a glasshouse was shortest in those genotypes with highest nocturnal stomatal conductance, which was also correlated with higher daytime photosynthesis. This observation is consistent with previous observations that nocturnal stomatal conductance is partially controlled by the clock, which is utilised to anticipate daytime conditions. Data from the literature suggests that eucalypts respond similarly to other C3 species, suggesting that mechanisms regulating night-time transpiration may be universal.

  1. [Sleep and sleep disorders in the elderly. Part 2: therapy].

    PubMed

    Schlitzer, J; Heubaum, S; Frohnhofen, H

    2014-11-01

    Sleep disorders need to be treated if they affect the quality of life, lead to functional problems in daily life or unfavorably affect self-sufficiency. The large number of sleep disorders is reflected in the number of different and varied available therapeutic procedures. The basic therapeutic procedure for any sleep disorder is the use of sleep hygiene. Sleeplessness (insomnia) is most effectively treated through behavioral therapy, with stimulus control and sleep restriction as the most effective measures, whereas pharmacotherapy is considerably less effective and has side effects. Sleep-disordered breathing is also the most common cause of hypersomnia in the elderly and is most effectively treated by nocturnal positive pressure breathing. PMID:25277109

  2. Effects of Night-Time Use of Rotigotine on Nocturnal Symptoms in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vallderiola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Aparicio, Javier; Tarradellas, Jaume; Salazar, Gabriel; Oliver, Josep María; Callén, Antonio; Delgado, Tania; Nobbe, Fritz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of exclusive night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine in patients with nocturnal and early morning PD symptoms. Methods. Patients with PD and nocturnal and early morning symptoms received transdermal rotigotine patches (2–16 mg/24 h) applied in the evening and removed in the morning for 3 months. Sleep disturbance was assessed with modified Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS-2). Other outcomes included a pain visual analogue scale (VAS) and short-form Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-8) for quality of life. Results. 74 patients completed treatment in this study. At the end of treatment, PDSS-2 total score had improved by mean 10.9 points from baseline (p < 0.001). All three PDSS-2 domain scores (sleep disturbances, nocturnal motor symptoms, and nocturnal symptoms) were also significantly improved by 41%, 56%, and 48%, respectively (p < 0.001). VAS-pain score decreased from 3.2 to 2.3 (p < 0.001). PDQ-8 score decreased from 23.8 to 18.1 (p < 0.001). The most frequently reported adverse events included nausea (9%), anxiety (4%), and dizziness (4%). Conclusions. Night-time administration of transdermal rotigotine is an effective and well tolerated treatment for nocturnal symptoms in patients with PD. PMID:26576319

  3. Texting After Dark May Harm Teens' Sleep, Grades

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harm Teens' Sleep, Grades Disruptive effects of 'blue light' on sleep are intensified in the dark, researchers ... but new research shows that texting after the lights go out takes a toll on students' sleep ...

  4. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates in Palestine. Association between self-reported sleep quality and self-reported academic achievement was also investigated. Methods Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from An-Najah National University, Palestine. The study was carried out during spring semester, 2009. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Results 400 students with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.3 were studied. Reported mean duration of night sleep in the study sample was 6.4 ± 1.1 hours. The majority (58.3%) of students went to bed before midnight and 18% of the total sample woke up before 6 am. Sleep latency of more than one hour was present in 19.3% of the students. Two thirds (64.8%) of the students reported having at least one nocturnal awakening per night. Nightmares were the most common parasomnia reported by students. Daytime naps were common and reported in 74.5% of the study sample. Sleep quality was reported as "poor" in only 9.8% and was significantly associated with sleep latency, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, time of going to bed, nightmares but not with academic achievement. Conclusion Sleep habits among Palestinian undergraduates were comparable to those reported in European studies. Sleep problems were common and there was no significant association between sleep quality and academic achievement. PMID:21762479

  5. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder. People who have sleep apnea stop breathing for ... doctor may ask you to go to a sleep disorder center for a sleep study. Tests done at ...

  6. Circadian and Melatonin Disruption by Exposure to Light at Night Drives Intrinsic Resistance to Tamoxifen Therapy in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dauchy, Robert T.; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A.; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G.; Blask, David E.; Hill, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to anti-estrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of ER?+ MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speeds the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characters were not produced in animals where circadian rhythms were not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to re-establish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

  7. Sleep and sleep disorders in Don Quixote.

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Alex; Santamaria, Joan; de Riquer, Martn

    2004-01-01

    In Don Quijote de la Mancha, Miguel de Cervantes presents Don Quixote as an amazing character of the 17th century who suffers from delusions and illusions, believing himself to be a medieval knight errant. Besides this neuropsychiatric condition, Cervantes included masterful descriptions of several sleep disorders such as insomnia, sleep deprivation, disruptive loud snoring and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. In addition, he described the occurrence of physiological, vivid dreams and habitual, post-prandial sleepiness--the siesta. Cervantes' concept of sleep as a passive state where all cerebral activities are almost absent is in conflict with his description of abnormal behaviours during sleep and vivid, fantastic dreams. His concept of sleep was shared by his contemporary, Shakespeare, and could have been influenced by the reading of the classical Spanish book of psychiatry Examen de Ingenios (1575). PMID:14725836

  8. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  9. Sleep Timing Moderates the Concurrent Sleep Duration-Body Mass Index Association in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Kaciroti, Niko; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Chen, Yu Pu; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity, however, the role of sleep timing is understudied, particularly in young children. Objective To test the independent main and moderating effects of sleep timing on body mass index (BMI) in low-income preschool-aged children (M=4.11 years, SD=0.54). Methods Parents reported demographics and children’s sleep concurrently, and a subset of children was followed longitudinally. Child height and weight were measured and BMI z-score (BMIz) calculated. Regression analysis evaluated main effects of sleep timing (bedtime, weekday-to-weekend schedule shifting, napping) on concurrent BMIz and future rate of change, and their moderating effects on the sleep duration-BMIz association. Results Of 366 children (longitudinal subsample=273), 50% were male, 57% white, and 37% overweight or obese. Nocturnal sleep duration predicted concurrent BMIz, but not rate of change in BMIz over time. Bedtime was a moderator; the sleep duration-BMIz association was present only among children with bedtimes after 9pm (−0.44; 95% CI −0.69, −0.18). Schedule shifting was a moderator; the association between greater nocturnal sleep duration and lesser rate of future BMIz increase was present only among children with the most consistent sleep schedules (<45 minute delay in weekend bedtime: β = −0.12; 95% CI −0.23, −0.01). Daytime napping did not moderate the nocturnal sleep duration-BMIz association. Covariates (sleep-disordered breathing; soda consumption; home chaos) did not explain these associations. Conclusions Among low-income preschoolers, sleep timing moderated the nocturnal sleep duration-BMIz association. Understanding how sleep timing, as well as sleep duration, relates to childhood obesity is important for prevention efforts. PMID:24602585

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma*

    PubMed Central

    Salles, Cristina; Terse-Ramos, Regina; Souza-Machado, Adelmir; Cruz, Álvaro A

    2013-01-01

    Symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing, especially obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), are common in asthma patients and have been associated with asthma severity. It is known that asthma symptoms tend to be more severe at night and that asthma-related deaths are most likely to occur during the night or early morning. Nocturnal symptoms occur in 60-74% of asthma patients and are markers of inadequate control of the disease. Various pathophysiological mechanisms are related to the worsening of asthma symptoms, OSAS being one of the most important factors. In patients with asthma, OSAS should be investigated whenever there is inadequate control of symptoms of nocturnal asthma despite the treatment recommended by guidelines having been administered. There is evidence in the literature that the use of continuous positive airway pressure contributes to asthma control in asthma patients with obstructive sleep apnea and uncontrolled asthma. PMID:24310634

  11. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrign Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gmez Escobar, Valentn

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies. PMID:24548881

  12. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare bone marrow failure disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, thrombosis, and peripheral blood cytopenias. The absence of two glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins, CD55 and CD59, leads to uncontrolled complement activation that accounts for hemolysis and other PNH manifestations. GPI anchor protein deficiency is almost always due to somatic mutations in phosphatidylinositol glycan class A (PIGA), a gene involved in the first step of GPI anchor biosynthesis; however, alternative mutations that cause PNH have recently been discovered. In addition, hypomorphic germ-line PIGA mutations that do not cause PNH have been shown to be responsible for a condition known as multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome 2. Eculizumab, a first-in-class monoclonal antibody that inhibits terminal complement, is the treatment of choice for patients with severe manifestations of PNH. Bone marrow transplantation remains the only cure for PNH but should be reserved for patients with suboptimal response to eculizumab. PMID:25237200

  13. Nocturnal hypoxemia, night-day arterial pressure changes and left ventricular geometry in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Zoccali, C; Benedetto, F A; Tripepi, G; Cambareri, F; Panuccio, V; Candela, V; Mallamaci, F; Enia, G; Labate, C; Tassone, F

    1998-04-01

    It is well established that nocturnal hypoxemia in sleep apnea causes an inversion of the circadian arterial pressure rhythm and triggers nocturnal hypertension. Since sleep apnea is very frequent in dialysis patients, we hypothesized that nocturnal hypoxemia may be a factor that contributes to alter the 24-hour arterial pressure profile in these patients. To test the hypothesis 32 dialysis patients underwent 24-hour blood pressure (BP) monitoring and continuous monitoring of arterial O2 saturation during the night-time. Hemodialysis patients were studied during the non-dialysis day. All patients underwent an echocardiographic study. Thirteen patients had no episode of nocturnal hypoxemia (group I), 7 had at least one episode overnight but less than 2 episodes/hr (group II) and 12 had > or = 2 episodes/hr (group III). The average daytime systolic pressure was similar in the three groups. However, the average nocturnal systolic pressure fell in the first group (-2.5 +/- 4.2%) and rose in the second (+2.0 +/- 3.6%) and in the third (+3.9 +/- 2.2%) group (one way ANOVA, P < 0.005). The relative wall thickness of the left ventricle (RWT) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in group III than in group I, and in the aggregate (N = 32) there was an inverse relationship between average nocturnal SaO2 and RWT (r = -0.43, P = 0.015). The proportion of patients with concentric remodeling or concentric hypertrophy was higher (P = 0.05) in the group with a more severe degree of nocturnal hypoxemia (group III, 8 of 12) than in the other two groups (group I, 3 of 13; group II, 2 of 7). Nocturnal hypoxemia is associated with the "non-dipping" arterial pressure profile in dialysis patients. Disturbed respiratory control during the night may represent an important cardiovascular risk factor in dialysis patients. PMID:9551420

  14. Disruption of Circadian Rhythms and Delirium, Sleep Impairment and Sepsis in Critically ill Patients. Potential Therapeutic Implications for Increased Light-Dark Contrast and Melatonin Therapy in an ICU Environment.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Navarro, Carlos J; Sanchez-Galvez, Rosa; Martinez-Nicolas, Antonio; Marina, Ros; Garcia, Jose A; Madrid, Juan A; Rol, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    The confinement of critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICU) imposes environmental constancy throughout both day and night (continuous light, noise, caring activities medications, etc.), which has a negative impact on human health by inducing a new syndrome known as circadian misalignment, circadian disruption or chronodisruption (CD). This syndrome contributes to poor sleep quality and delirium, and may impair septic states frequently observed in critically ill patients. However, and although the bidirectional crosstalk between CD with sleep impairment, delirium and inflammation in animal models has been known for years and has been suspected in ICU patients, few changes have been introduced in the environment and management of ICU patients to improve their circadian rhythmicity. Delirium, the most serious condition because it has a severe effect on prognosis and increases mortality, as well as sleep impairment and sepsis, all three of them linked to disorganization of the circadian system in critically ill patients, will be revised considering the functional organization of the circadian system, the main input and output signals that synchronize the clock, including a brief description of the molecular circadian clock machinery, the non-visual effects of light, and the ICU light environment. Finally, the potential usefulness of increased light/dark contrast and melatonin treatment in this context will be analyzed, including some practical countermeasures to minimize circadian disruption and improve circadian system chronoenhancement, helping to make these units optimal healing environments for patients. PMID:26144941

  15. Usefulness of a Nocturnal SOREMP for Diagnosing Narcolepsy with Cataplexy in a Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Joel; Katz, Eliot; Scammell, Thomas E.; Maski, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of a nocturnal sleep onset rapid eye movement sleep period (nSOREMP) for the identification of narcolepsy with cataplexy (N+C) among children and adolescents referred to the sleep laboratory for an overnight polysomnography (PSG) and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT). Design: Retrospective chart review of sleep clinic notes and PSG and MSLT reports. Setting: Boston Children's Hospital sleep laboratory and outpatient clinics. Patients: All patients 618 y old, referred for consecutive PSG and MSLT for the evaluation of central hypersomnias, between January 2005 and January 2014. Measurements and Results: We analyzed the records of 148 patients and established diagnostic categories using the International Classification of Sleep Disorders, 2nd Edition. Patient diagnoses included narcolepsy with cataplexy (28.4%), narcolepsy without cataplexy (8.1%), other hypersomnia conditions (9.5%), delayed sleep phase syndrome (12.2%), behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome (4.1%), other sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, periodic limb movements of sleep; 6.8%), isolated cataplexy (2%), and various diagnoses (29.1%). There were 54.8% of the N+C patients who had an nSOREMP, but only 2.4% of all other patients had an nSOREMP. The specificity of an nSOREMP for detection of N+C was high at 97.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 92.299.4%), but the sensitivity was moderate at 54.8% (95% CI: 38.770.2%). Overall, the positive predictive value of an nSOREMP for the diagnosis of N+C was 88.5% (95% CI: 69.897.4%). Conclusions: In children, the presence of an nocturnal sleep onset rapid eye movement sleep period is highly suggestive of narcolepsy with cataplexy and provides further evidence of rapid eye movement sleep dysregulation in this condition. Citation: Reiter J, Katz E, Scammell TE, Maski K. Usefulness of a nocturnal SOREMP for diagnosing narcolepsy with cataplexy in a pediatric population. SLEEP 2015;38(6):859865. PMID:25325489

  16. Sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Casey, Kenneth R; Cantillo, Kathia Ortiz; Brown, Lee K

    2007-06-01

    The latest edition of The International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual subsumes a broad range of disorders under the heading "Sleep Related Hypoventilation/Hypoxemic Syndromes." Some are quite common, such as COPD with worsening gas exchange during sleep; while some are exceedingly rare, such as congenital central hypoventilation syndrome. All share the attribute of abnormal gas exchange that worsens, or may only be present, during sleep. The sleep state, the sleeping posture, and the circadian rhythm driving sleep all may affect respiration by altering control of breathing and/or pulmonary mechanics. These changes are largely inconsequential in the normal individual but interact with respiratory, neurologic, or neuromuscular disease to manifest as the sleep-related hypoventilation/hypoxemic syndromes. In addition to optimal treatment of the underlying disorder (when known and when possible), treatment usually involves nocturnal ventilatory support that is now most commonly provided by noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. PMID:17565028

  17. Evaluation of short-term use of nocturnal nasal continuous positive airway pressure for a clinical profile and exercise capacity in adult patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Amrit K; Talwar, Deepak; Jain, Sushil K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: The obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is a common chronic respiratory disease, characterized by repetitive complete or partial collapse of the upper airway during sleep. The clinical spectrum extends between stoppage of breathing, snoring, daytime somnolence, and fatigue, to serious cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic syndrome, increased morbidity, and mortality. We aim to evaluate the short-term use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy for the clinical profile and exercise capacity of patients with OSAHS. Patient Selection: Twenty patients diagnosed with moderate-to-severe OSAHS were enrolled in the study (study group — 15; clinically and PSG-matched control group — 5). Materials and Methods: Each patient was clinically evaluated for sleep-related symptoms, and also assessed with spirometry, the six-minute walk test (6MWT), and a symptom-limited incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). The study group patients were administered nCPAP therapy for eight hours each night for four weeks, while the control group patients were just observed. They were re-assessed after four weeks and the data were statistically analyzed between the two groups. Results: The study group patients showed a significant (P- < 0.05) improvement in the OSAHS symptoms—the Epworth sleepiness score, six-minute walk distance; duration of exercise, power output, peak oxygen uptake, anaerobic threshold, diastolic blood pressure, dyspnea, and fatigue—in comparison with the control group patients. The improvement in exercise capacity following nCPAP therapy was attributed to the relief of disabling the OSAHS symptoms and improved cardiovascular, ventilator, and musculoskeletal functions. Conclusion: All OSAHS patients must be treated with nCPAP. PMID:25983407

  18. Rationale, study design, and implementation of the ACS1 study: effect of azilsartan on circadian and sleep blood pressure as compared with amlodipine

    PubMed Central

    Hoshide, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Objective The ACS1 (Azilsartan Circadian and Sleep Pressure the first study) is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, two parallel-group study carried out to investigate the efficacy of an 8-week oral treatment with azilsartan 20 mg in comparison with amlodipine 5 mg. Materials and methods The patients with stage I or II primary hypertension will be randomly assigned to either an azilsartan group (n=350) or an amlodipine group (n=350). The primary endpoint is a change in nocturnal systolic blood pressure (BP) as measured by ambulatory BP monitoring at the end of follow-up relative to the baseline level during the run-in period. In addition, we will carry out the same analysis after dividing four different nocturnal BP dipping statuses (extreme-dippers, dippers, nondipper, and risers). Conclusion The findings of this study will help in establishing an appropriate antihypertensive treatment for hypertensive patients with a disrupted circadian BP rhythm. PMID:24637789

  19. Nocturnal enuresis and nocturia, differences and similarities - lessons to learn?

    PubMed

    Goessaert, A-S; Everaert, K; Hoebeke, P; Kapila, A; Walle, J Vande

    2015-04-01

    This review highlights the current views on and differences and similarities between nocturnal enuresis (NE) in children and nocturia in adults, which might be a guidance to elucidate the missing links in our knowledge. In both conditions, a genetic factor is suspected. Reduced bladder capacity and nocturnal polyuria are the main underlying lower urinary tract-related conditions. There is a link with sleep disorders, although it is not clear whether this is a cause or consequence. Physical and mental health are comprised in both conditions, however, in different ways. In NE, constipation and attention deficit disorder are the most important comorbidities and the effect on mental health and quality of life is mainly through the negative impact on self-esteem. In nocturia, cardiovascular disease and fall injuries are important comorbidities, mainly affecting the older nocturia population; personal distress and depression are consequences of the related poor sleep quality. For both conditions, treatment is often inadequate and a more individualized approach seems to be necessary. The main difference between NE and nocturia seems to be the difference in arousal to bladder stimuli, suggesting that sleep characteristics might be a key factor in these conditions. PMID:25379877

  20. [Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

    PubMed

    Meneses, R de P

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) plays a very important role in the practice of pediatrics due to its high prevalence, its psychosocial impact, and its controversial etiology and treatment. Our objective was to show that MNE can be a well-defined clinical entity (monosymptomatic), but it can also be a symptom of urinary disorder, thus requiring a completely different therapeutic approach. METHODS: The literature presents numerous publications related to the matter of MNE, thus we tried to select, for this review, the classical and the most recent publications from internationally recognized authors; in addition, we also have a 13-year work experience at the Unit for Urinary Disorders of the Pediatric Nephrology Center of the state of Paran (Unidade de Distrbios Miccionais - Centro de Nefrologia Pediatrica do Paran). RESULTS: The lack of a well-defined, international consensus on the concept, terminology, and classification of MNE is an obstacle for the assessment of the numerous studies found in the literature. The individualization of the MNE clinical entity is the fundamental starting point for providing appropriate guidance for patients. Enuresis can be found in most societies and, thus, it gives way to several interpretations and forms of treatment. There is a consensus, however, on the damage to the self-esteem of enuretic children, and consequently, on the advantage of proper treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, MNE is kept as a family secret while children remain without proper guidance and treatment and suffering with the lack of understanding and damage to their self-esteem. Doctors should survey patients extensively for MNE during pediatric appointments. It is possible to discard other diagnoses with a detailed survey of habits, quality of the urination, and history of urinary infection and a meticulous physical examination. MNE should be faced as a medical problem worthy of the attention of professionals and patient? families. PMID:14647579

  1. Autism and sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Devnani, Preeti A; Hegde, Anaita U

    2015-01-01

    "Autism Spectrum Disorders" (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included. PMID:26962332

  2. Autism and sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Devnani, Preeti A.; Hegde, Anaita U.

    2015-01-01

    “Autism Spectrum Disorders” (ASDs) are neurodevelopment disorders and are characterized by persistent impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication. Sleep problems in ASD, are a prominent feature that have an impact on social interaction, day to day life, academic achievement, and have been correlated with increased maternal stress and parental sleep disruption. Polysomnography studies of ASD children showed most of their abnormalities related to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which included decreased quantity, increased undifferentiated sleep, immature organization of eye movements into discrete bursts, decreased time in bed, total sleep time, REM sleep latency, and increased proportion of stage 1 sleep. Implementation of nonpharmacotherapeutic measures such as bedtime routines and sleep-wise approach is the mainstay of behavioral management. Treatment strategies along with limited regulated pharmacotherapy can help improve the quality of life in ASD children and have a beneficial impact on the family. PubMed search was performed for English language articles from January 1995 to January 2015. Following key words: Autism spectrum disorder, sleep disorders and autism, REM sleep and autism, cognitive behavioral therapy, sleep-wise approach, melatonin and ASD were used. Only articles reporting primary data relevant to the above questions were included.

  3. Experimental Pain and Opioid Analgesia in Volunteers at High Risk for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Doufas, Anthony G.; Tian, Lu; Padrez, Kevin A.; Suwanprathes, Puntarica; Cardell, James A.; Maecker, Holden T.; Panousis, Periklis

    2013-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent nocturnal hypoxia and sleep disruption. Sleep fragmentation caused hyperalgesia in volunteers, while nocturnal hypoxemia enhanced morphine analgesic potency in children with OSA. This evidence directly relates to surgical OSA patients who are at risk for airway compromise due to postoperative use of opioids. Using accepted experimental pain models, we characterized pain processing and opioid analgesia in male volunteers recruited based on their risk for OSA. Methods After approval from the Intitutional Review Board and informed consent, we assessed heat and cold pain thresholds and tolerances in volunteers after overnight polysomnography (PSG). Three pro-inflammatory and 3 hypoxia markers were determined in the serum. Pain tests were performed at baseline, placebo, and two effect site concentrations of remifentanil (1 and 2 g/ml), an ?-opioid agonist. Linear mixed effects regression models were employed to evaluate the association of 3 PSG descriptors [wake after sleep onset, number of sleep stage shifts, and lowest oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) during sleep] and all serum markers with pain thresholds and tolerances at baseline, as well as their changes under remifentanil. Results Forty-three volunteers (12 normal and 31 with a PSG-based diagnosis of OSA) were included in the analysis. The lower nadir SaO2 and higher insulin growth factor binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) were associated with higher analgesic sensitivity to remifentanil (SaO2, P?=?0.0440; IGFBP-1, P?=?0.0013). Other pro-inflammatory mediators like interleukin-1? and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) were associated with an enhanced sensitivity to the opioid analgesic effect (IL-1?, P?=?0.0218; TNF-?, P?=?0.0276). Conclusions Nocturnal hypoxemia in subjects at high risk for OSA was associated with an increased potency of opioid analgesia. A serum hypoxia marker (IGFBP-1) was associated with hypoalgesia and increased potency to opioid analgesia; other pro-inflammatory mediators also predicted an enhanced opioid potency. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00672737. PMID:23382975

  4. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  5. Sleepwalking and other ambulatory behaviours during sleep.

    PubMed

    Plazzi, G; Vetrugno, R; Provini, F; Montagna, P

    2005-12-01

    Different pathological conditions may lead to somnambulic automatisms arising from nocturnal sleep. Video polysomnography represents the diagnostic tool but, due to the difficulty of capturing complex episodes in the sleep laboratory, audio-video recordings at home of the episodes may help in the differential diagnosis also. Sleepwalking is a disorder of arousal in which the subject arises from deep sleep, even displaying long complex behaviour, including leaving the bed and walking, with memory impairment of the event. Disordered arousal mechanisms with an inability of the brain to fully awaken from slow-wave sleep are thought to lead to these motor automatisms. REM sleep behaviour disorders begin during REM sleep and are accompanied by features of REM sleep. The motor behaviour may be violent and injurious to the patient and/or bed partner. In some patients, however, the behaviour may be similar to that observed in sleepwalking and some patients have an overlap syndrome. In nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy in particular, and in complex partial seizures in general, stereotypic and repetitive motor attacks may recur, at any time, on the same night and on different nights, with a continuum between minimal or minor attacks and major or prolonged episodes up to agitated epileptic nocturnal wanderings. PMID:16331395

  6. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... infection; and platelets (thrombocytes), which are involved in blood clotting. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria affects both sexes equally, and ... paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria can cause problems in the blood clotting process. As a result, people with this disorder ...

  8. Experiences of Sleep and Benzodiazepine Use among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older women; however, little is known about sleep experiences among chronic benzodiazepine users. The experience of sleep, sleep troubles, and management of sleep problems were explored through semi-structured interviews with 12 women aged 65 to 92 who had used a benzodiazepine for three months or longer to treat a sleep disturbance. Themes that emerged from an interpretive phenomenological analysis included multiple reasons for sleep disruptions (health problems, mental disturbances, and sleeping arrangements); opposing effects of benzodiazepines on sleep (helps or does not work); and several supplemental sleep strategies (modification of the environment, distraction, and consumption). PMID:25581296

  9. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  10. Midlife Decline in Declarative Memory Consolidation Is Correlated with a Decline in Slow Wave Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backhaus, Jutta; Born, Jan; Hoeckesfeld, Ralf; Fokuhl, Sylvia; Hohagen, Fritz; Junghanns, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Sleep architecture as well as memory function are strongly age dependent. Slow wave sleep (SWS), in particular, decreases dramatically with increasing age, starting already beyond the age of 30. SWS normally predominates during early nocturnal sleep and is implicated in declarative memory consolidation. However, the consequences of changes in

  11. Frequent nocturnal awakening in early life is associated with nonatopic asthma in children.

    PubMed

    Kozyrskyj, A L; Kendall, G E; Zubrick, S R; Newnham, J P; Sly, P D

    2009-12-01

    Sleep deprivation has become a common phenomenon of the Western world and is associated with a variety of medical problems in children. This retrospective longitudinal analysis of a community-based birth cohort was undertaken to determine whether frequent nocturnal awakening during early life was associated with the development of childhood asthma. 2,398 children born to mothers recruited from the antenatal clinics of a single hospital in Perth, Australia during 1989-1991 were followed up at years 1, 2, 3, 6, 8, 10 and 14. Parent-completed questionnaires were analysed. The odds ratio for asthma at age 6 and 14 yrs in children with frequent nocturnal awakening during the first 3 yrs after birth was determined from multiple logistic regression. Following adjustment for asthma risk factors, co-sleeping and family stress, persistent nocturnal awakening was associated with nonatopic asthma at age 6 and 14 yrs (at age 14 yrs: OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.15-4.13) but not with atopic asthma. We found an increased risk of nonatopic asthma in children following frequent nocturnal awakening during the first 3 yrs of life. These hypothesis-generating data suggest the need for further systematic study of the effects of disordered sleep in early life on the development of asthma. PMID:19948910

  12. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway

  13. Sleep Disruption and Daytime Sleepiness Correlating with Disease Severity and Insulin Resistance in Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Comparison with Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bernsmeier, Christine; Weisskopf, Diego M.; Pflueger, Marlon O.; Mosimann, Jan; Campana, Benedetta; Terracciano, Luigi; Beglinger, Christoph; Heim, Markus H.; Cajochen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims Sleep disturbance is associated with the development of obesity, diabetes and hepatic steatosis in murine models. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation oscillates in a circadian rhythm regulated by clock genes, light-dark cycle and feeding time in mice. The role of the sleep-wake cycle in the pathogenesis of human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is indeterminate. We sought to detail sleep characteristics, daytime sleepiness and meal times in relation to disease severity in patients with NAFLD. Methods Basic Sleep duration and latency, daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale), Pittsburgh sleep quality index, positive and negative affect scale, Munich Chronotype Questionnaire and an eating habit questionnaire were assessed in 46 patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD and 22 healthy controls, and correlated with biochemical and histological parameters. Results In NAFLD compared to healthy controls, time to fall asleep was vastly prolonged (26.9 vs. 9.8 min., p = 0.0176) and sleep duration was shortened (6.3 vs. 7.2 hours, p = 0.0149). Sleep quality was poor (Pittsburgh sleep quality index 8.2 vs. 4.7, p = 0.0074) and correlated with changes in affect. Meal frequency was shifted towards night-times (p = 0.001). In NAFLD but not controls, daytime sleepiness significantly correlated with liver enzymes (ALAT [r = 0.44, p = 0.0029], ASAT [r = 0.46, p = 0.0017]) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR [r = 0.5, p = 0.0009]) independent of cirrhosis. In patients with fibrosis, daytime sleepiness correlated with the degree of fibrosis (r = 0.364, p = 0.019). Conclusions In NAFLD sleep duration was shortened, sleep onset was delayed and sleep quality poor. Food-intake was shifted towards the night. Daytime sleepiness was positively linked to biochemical and histologic surrogates of disease severity. The data may indicate a role for sleep-wake cycle regulation and timing of food-intake in the pathogenesis of human NAFLD as suggested from murine models. PMID:26576055

  14. Doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer is driven by light at night-induced disruption of the circadian melatonin signal.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Shulin; Dauchy, Robert T; Hauch, Adam; Mao, Lulu; Yuan, Lin; Wren, Melissa A; Belancio, Victoria P; Mondal, Debasis; Frasch, Tripp; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

    2015-08-01

    Chemotherapeutic resistance, particularly to doxorubicin (Dox), represents a major impediment to successfully treating breast cancer and is linked to elevated tumor metabolism and tumor over-expression and/or activation of various families of receptor- and non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian time structure and suppression of nocturnal melatonin production by dim light exposure at night (dLEN), as occurs with shift work, and/or disturbed sleep-wake cycles, is associated with a significantly increased risk of an array of diseases, including breast cancer. Melatonin inhibits human breast cancer growth via mechanisms that include the suppression of tumor metabolism and inhibition of expression or phospho-activation of the receptor kinases AKT and ERK1/2 and various other kinases and transcription factors. We demonstrate in tissue-isolated estrogen receptor alpha-positive (ER?+) MCF-7 human breast cancer xenografts, grown in nude rats maintained on a light/dark cycle of LD 12:12 in which dLEN is present during the dark phase (suppressed endogenous nocturnal melatonin), a significant shortening of tumor latency-to-onset, increased tumor metabolism and growth, and complete intrinsic resistance to Dox therapy. Conversely, a LD 12:12 dLEN environment incorporating nocturnal melatonin replacement resulted in significantly lengthened tumor latency-to-onset, tumor regression, suppression of nighttime tumor metabolism, and kinase and transcription factor phosphorylation, while Dox sensitivity was completely restored. Melatonin acts as both a tumor metabolic inhibitor and circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to Dox and drive tumor regression, indicating that dLEN-induced circadian disruption of nocturnal melatonin production contributes to a complete loss of tumor sensitivity to Dox chemotherapy. PMID:25857269

  15. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Benefits Side Effects Variations Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper ... Work SIDS Sleep apnea Sleep Debt Sleep Deprivation Sleep Disorders Sleep history Sleep hygiene sleep length Sleep Need ...

  16. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  17. A visit to Absurdistan: a nightmare of a sleep specialist.

    PubMed

    Rodenstein, Daniel; Duran Cantolla, Joaquin

    2013-12-01

    During a nocturnal dream, the authors discover a strange and unknown country, Absurdistan. Absurdistanis main concern appears to be sleep, whether nocturnal or diurnal, rather than wakefulness. They are fond of sleeping in any form, and devote much time to this activity. The authors follow a guide that shows them all kinds of strange sleep habits and keeps explaining the complex as well as the obvious. As the journey evolves, the explanations turn more and more confusing, becoming also amazingly surrealistic. The dream ends with a welcome wakefulness leaving the authors unsure of which is the waking state and which the dream. PMID:24091209

  18. A new model of chronic intermittent hypoxia in humans: effect on ventilation, sleep, and blood pressure

    PubMed Central

    Tamisier, R.; Gilmartin, G. S.; Launois, S. H.; Ppin, J. L.; Nespoulet, H.; Thomas, R.; Lvy, P.; Weiss, J. W.

    2009-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by repetitive nocturnal upper airway obstructions that are associated with sleep disruption and cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) The cyclic oscillations in O2 saturation are thought to contribute to cardiovascular and other morbidity, but animal and patient studies of the pathogenic link between CIH and these diseases have been complicated by species differences and by the effects of confounding factors such as obesity, hypertension, and impaired glucose metabolism. To minimize these limitations, we set up a model of nocturnal CIH in healthy humans. We delivered O2 for 15 s every 2 min during sleep while subjects breathed 13% O2 in a hypoxic tent to create 30 cycles/h of cyclic desaturation-reoxygenation [saturation of peripheral O2 (SpO2) range: 9585%]. We exposed subjects overnight for 89 h/day for 2 wk (10 subjects) and 4 wk (8 subjects). CIH exposure induced respiratory disturbances (central apnea hypopnea index: 3.0 1.9 to 31.1 9.6 events/h of sleep at 2 wk). Exposure to CIH for 14 days induced an increase in slopes of hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses (1.5 0.6 to 3.1 1.2 lmin?1% drop in SpO2 and 2.2 1.0 to 3.3 0.9 lmin?1mmHg CO2?1, respectively), consistent with hypoxic acclimatization. Waking normoxic arterial pressure increased significantly at 2 wk at systolic (114 2 to 122 2 mmHg) and for diastolic at 4 wk (71 1.3 to 74 1.7 mmHg). We propose this model as a new technique to study the cardiovascular and metabolic consequences of CIH in human volunteers. PMID:19228987

  19. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  20. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal.

    PubMed

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J; Gorter, Jenke A; Eijer, Willem G; Sellix, Michael T; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A

    2014-10-21

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light-dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light-dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep-wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

  1. Sexual behavior in sleep, sleepwalking and possible REM behavior disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alves, R; Alóe, F; Tavares, S; Vidrio, S; Yáñez, L; Aguilar-Roblero, R; Rosenthal, L; Villalobos, L; Fernández-Cancino, F; Drucker-Colín, R; Chagoya De Sanchez, V

    1999-01-01

    Seven cases of sexual behavior during sleep (SBS) have been recently reported. The subjects had histories of behavioral parasomnias as well as positive family histories of parasomnia. A 27 year-old man with a history of sexual behavior during sleep was reported. His sleep history disclosed sleepwalking (SW) since 9 years of age. He also developed episodes of highly disruptive and violent nocturnal behavior with dream enactment at age 20 years, which often resulted in physical injuries either to himself or his wife and infant. His wife also reported episodes of amnestic sexual behavior that began 4 years before referral. During the episodes, the patient typically procured his wife, achieving complete sexual intercourse with total amnesia. Physical and neurological diagnostic workups were unremarkable. Family history disclosed sleepwalking in his brother. He was put on 2mg/day of bedtime clonazepam with a remarkable clinical improvement. This case involves either the combination of violent and non-violent sleepwalking with SBS, or the superimposition of presumed REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) on top of preexisting SW in a man who also developed SBS in adulthood. Thus, this is a case report of probable parasomnia overlap syndrome. PMID:11382885

  2. [Sleep disorders in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kotterba, S

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorders can be diagnosed in approximately 15?% of the population and have been shown to increase with age. The relationship between sleep disorders and neurological disorders, however, is still insufficiently considered in the clinical practice. Sleep disorders can be an early symptom of the disease, such as the presence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as an early indicator of neurodegeneration. Sleep disorders have also been shown to be a main symptom of various neurological syndromes, such as in restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and narcolepsy. The international classification of sleep disorders 2nd edition (ICSD 2) describes the main diagnoses, insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders and hypersomnia but all of these can also appear as symptoms in various neurological diseases. Parasomnias are largely considered a differential diagnosis to nocturnal epilepsy. In this review, the main sleep disorders are described with a particular focus on how they relate to neurological diseases; in particular, how they influence disease-related symptoms and how they affect the course of the disease. PMID:26062945

  3. Trichotillomania and Non-Epileptic Seizures as Sleep-Related Dissociative Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Angulo-Franco, Melina; Bush-Martnez, Alejandra; Nenclares-Portocarrero, Alejandro; Jimnez-Genchi, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The occurrence of non-epileptic seizures (NES) and trichotillomania during sleep is rare. We describe the case of an adult woman with a personal history of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric morbidity (major depression, trichotillomania, and conversion disorder), who was referred to the sleep unit because of nocturnal hair-pulling and psychomotor agitation during sleep. An all-night PSG recording with audiovisual monitoring documented seven episodes of trichotillomania and one NES, all of which arose from unequivocal wakefulness. Improvement of nocturnal behaviors was observed after long-term psychotherapy. This case illustrates that nocturnal trichotillomania and NES may be symptoms of a sleep-related dissociative disorder. Citation: Angulo-Franco M, Bush-Martnez A, Nenclares-Portocarrero A, Jimnez-Genchi A. Trichotillomania and non-epileptic seizures as sleep-related dissociative phenomena. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):271273. PMID:25515284

  4. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L; Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A; Gnerlich, Amanda C

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552

  5. Artificial light pollution increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens

    PubMed Central

    Chisholm, Sarah; Byerley, Sydney D; Coy, Jeanee R.; Aziz, Aisyah; Wolf, Jamie A.; Gnerlich, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Artificial light pollution is drastically changing the sensory environments of animals. Even though many animals are now living in these changed environments, the effect light pollution has on animal behavior is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of light pollution on nocturnal vigilance in peahens (Pavo cristatus). Captive peahens were exposed to either artificial lighting or natural lighting at night. We employed a novel method to record their vigilance behavior by attaching accelerometers to their heads and continuously monitoring their large head movements. We found that light pollution significantly increases nocturnal vigilance in peahens. Furthermore, the birds faced a trade-off between vigilance and sleep at night: peahens that were more vigilant spent less time sleeping. Given the choice, peahens preferred to roost away from high levels of artificial lighting but showed no preference for roosting without artificial lighting or with low levels of artificial lighting. Our study demonstrates that light pollution can have a substantial impact on animal behavior that can potentially result in fitness consequences. PMID:26339552

  6. Sustained Sleep Fragmentation Induces Sleep Homeostasis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baud, Maxime O.; Magistretti, Pierre J.; Petit, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep fragmentation (SF) is an integral feature of sleep apnea and other prevalent sleep disorders. Although the effect of repetitive arousals on cognitive performance is well documented, the effects of long-term SF on electroencephalography (EEG) and molecular markers of sleep homeostasis remain poorly investigated. To address this question, we developed a mouse model of chronic SF and characterized its effect on EEG spectral frequencies and the expression of genes previously linked to sleep homeostasis including clock genes, heat shock proteins, and plasticity-related genes. Design: N/A. Setting: Animal sleep research laboratory. Participants : Sixty-six C57BL6/J adult mice. Interventions: Instrumental sleep disruption at a rate of 60/h during 14 days Measurements and Results: Locomotor activity and EEG were recorded during 14 days of SF followed by recovery for 2 days. Despite a dramatic number of arousals and decreased sleep bout duration, SF minimally reduced total quantity of sleep and did not significantly alter its circadian distribution. Spectral analysis during SF revealed a homeostatic drive for slow wave activity (SWA; 1–4 Hz) and other frequencies as well (4–40 Hz). Recordings during recovery revealed slow wave sleep consolidation and a transient rebound in SWA, and paradoxical sleep duration. The expression of selected genes was not induced following chronic SF. Conclusions: Chronic sleep fragmentation (SF) increased sleep pressure confirming that altered quality with preserved quantity triggers core sleep homeostasis mechanisms. However, it did not induce the expression of genes induced by sleep loss, suggesting that these molecular pathways are not sustainably activated in chronic diseases involving SF. Citation: Baud MO, Magistretti PJ, Petit JM. Sustained sleep fragmentation induces sleep homeostasis in mice. SLEEP 2015;38(4):567–579. PMID:25325477

  7. Excessive sleep need following traumatic brain injury: a case-control study of 36 patients.

    PubMed

    Sommerauer, Michael; Valko, Philipp O; Werth, Esther; Baumann, Christian R

    2013-12-01

    Increased sleep need following traumatic brain injury, referred to in this study as post-traumatic pleiosomnia, is common, but so far its clinical impact and therapeutic implications have not been characterized. We present a case-control study of 36 patients with post-traumatic pleiosomnia, defined by an increased sleep need of at least 2h per 24h after traumatic brain injury, compared to 36 controls. We assessed detailed history, sleep-activity patterns with sleep logs and actigraphy, nocturnal sleep with polysomnography and daytime sleep propensity with multiple sleep latency tests. Actigraphy recordings revealed that traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients had longer estimated sleep durations than controls (10.8h per 24h, compared to 7.3h). When using sleep logs, TBI patients underestimated their sleep need. During nocturnal sleep, patients had higher amounts of slow-wave sleep than controls (20 versus 13.8%). Multiple sleep latency tests revealed excessive daytime sleepiness in 15 patients (42%), and 10 of them had signs of chronic sleep deprivation. We conclude that post-traumatic pleiosomnia may be even more frequent than reported previously, because affected patients often underestimate their actual sleep need. Furthermore, these patients exhibit an increase in slow-wave sleep which may reflect recovery mechanisms, intrinsic consequences of diffuse brain damage or relative sleep deprivation. PMID:23837871

  8. Sleep Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... PDF 474KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  9. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  10. Effects of maxillary expansion and placebo effect of appliances on nocturnal enuresis preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Oshagh, Morteza; Aminsharifi, Ali Reza; Fallahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Ghodrati, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Nocturnal enuresis has been found a common symptom among children with breathing problems and sleep apnea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and placebo effects of slow maxillary expansion on nocturnal enuresis. Material and methods Four children with enuresis aged 712 years were selected. Rigid acrylic expansion appliances were fabricated and delivered to them. Frequency of enuresis was recorded by the parents during three stages: 1) before appliance delivery; 2) after appliance insertion without expansion; and 3) during expansion and retention. Results The frequency of wetting decreased significantly during the period of appliance use without expansion. During the expansion and retention phase, two patients became completely dry, and two patients improved significantly. Conclusions Maxillary expansion can have a positive effect on the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Also, the placebo effect of the expansion appliance has significant effects on enuresis. PMID:24982782

  11. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.

  12. A HAT for sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Pirooznia, Sheila K.; Elefant, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Unfortunately, how AD is mechanistically linked with interference of the body’s natural sleep rhythms remains unclear. Our recent findings provide insight into this question by demonstrating that sleep disruption associated with AD is driven by epigenetic changes mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Tip60. In this study, we show that Tip60 functionally interacts with the AD associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) to regulate axonal growth of Drosophila small ventrolateral neuronal (sLNv) pacemaker cells, and their production of neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) that stabilizes appropriate sleep-wake patterns in the fly. Loss of Tip60 HAT activity under APP neurodegenerative conditions causes decreased PDF production, retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for PDF release and disruption of sleep-wake cycles in these flies. Remarkably, excess Tip60 in conjunction with APP fully rescues these sleep-wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for Tip60 in these processes. Our studies highlight the importance of epigenetic based mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in neurodegenerative diseases like AD. PMID:23572111

  13. Differential diagnoses of nocturnal fear and movement paroxysm: a case report.

    PubMed

    Weber, Peter; Jngling, Freimut; Datta, Alexandre Niklaus

    2012-09-01

    Recurrent nocturnal behavioural and movement paroxysms are a diagnostic challenge for the clinical pediatrician. We report on an adolescent girl who presents recurrent stereotypical nightmare-like episodes occurring during non-REM sleep stages 1-2 (N1 and N2). We discuss the differential diagnoses between epileptic and nonepileptic events and between nocturnal frontal and temporal seizures. The pathophysiological and unusual electroencephalographical features are discussed with respect to clinical features and results of interictal FDG-PET. Conclusion In case of stereotypical nightmare-like episodes in children or adolescents, an epileptic origin has to be ruled out before a parasomnia is diagnosed. In addition, a normal awake EEG or interictal sleep EEG in the diagnostic workup may not exclude an epileptic disorder. In case of nightly stereotypic motor or affective events, an epileptic disorder should be discussed. PMID:22466609

  14. Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood: a new case with unusual findings.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Salvatore; Fontana, Antonina; Spitaleri, Chiara; Mangano, Giuseppa Renata

    2014-05-01

    It has been described a neuro developmental disorder labelled "Benign nocturnal alternating hemiplegia of childhood" (BNAHC) characterized by recurrent attacks of nocturnal hemiplegia without progression to neurological or intellectual impairment. We report a female patient who at 11months revealed a motionless left arm, unusual crying without impairment of consciousness and obvious precipitating factors. The attacks occur during sleep in the early morning with lack of ictal and interictal electroencephalographic abnormalities, progressive neurological deficit, and cognitive impairment. Unlike previous reports of BNAHC our patient come from a family with a history of both migraine, hemiplegic migraine, and sleep disorders. Our study remarks on the typical features described in previous studies and stresses the uncommon aspects that could help to identify the disorder which is likely to have been underestimated. Despite some clinical similarities between BNAHC and familiar hemiplegic migraine and alternating hemiplegia of childhood, the genetic analyses of our patient did not reveal genetic mutations found in both disorders. PMID:23820111

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in Turkish children

    PubMed Central

    Özkan, Seçil; Durukan, Elif; Iseri, Elvan; Gürocak, Serhat; Maral, Işil; Ali Bumin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) and assess risk factors that can cause this disease. Methods After the determination of 15 primary schools in the provincial center of Ankara, questionnaires were given to 15,150 students to be answered by their parents. Detailed urologic history was obtained and physical examination applied to the students whose parents answered the questionnaire. After excluding children with polysymptomatic NE, 14060 questionnaires of MNE patients were evaluated. Demographic features with social and medical history of students and their parents, general approach of family to the children, school success of the students and general behavioral attitudes, method of toilet training and the presence of nocturnal enuresis were questioned. Results MNE was determined in 9.0% (n: 1266) of the students and nocturnal enuresis frequency was higher in boys than girls (P<0.05). Univariate analysis revealed gender, method of toilet training, sleep problems, school success, and general approach of the family to children and general behavioral attitudes of the children as significant factors. In logistic regression analysis; age, male gender, toilette training with threatening method, deep sleeper, sleep walking, being introverted and shy, significantly increases the risk of nocturnal enuresis. Conclusions The current study suggests that the methods of toilet training are extremely important to prevent bedwetting and behavioral disorders due to enuresis. Parents should be well-informed about the appropriate toilet training method. PMID:20877597

  16. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-02-10

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems. PMID:26208951

  17. Sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: A consecutive series of 8 cases

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shih-Bin; Schenck, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present findings on a series of cases of sporadic nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE), a form of NFLE that is infrequently reported, in contrast to familial (autosomal dominant) NFLE. Both forms of NFLE need to be distinguished from parasomnias, nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy, and other nocturnal disorders. Methods Eight consecutive cases of sporadic NFLE were evaluated at a sleep clinic in Taiwan. All patients had clinical evaluations, daytime waking and sleeping EEGs, brain MRIs, and overnight video-polysomnography (vPSG) with seizure montage. Results Gender was equal (four males, four females); mean age was 18.4 yrs (range, 7–41 yrs). Age of NFLE onset was by puberty. Premorbid history was negative for any neurologic, medical or psychiatric disorder. NFLE subtypes: nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia, n=6; paroxysmal arousals, n=2. MRI brain scan abnormalities with clinical correlates were found in one patient. Daytime awake EEGs were negative for ictal/interictal activity in all patients, but two patients had daytime sleep EEGs with interictal epileptiform EEG activity. During vPSG studies, three of eight patients with NFLE seizure events had concurrent epileptiform EEG activity, and two patients had interictal epileptiform EEG activity during their vPSG studies. No case had a spontaneous remission. Anticonvulsant therapy was highly effective in all eight cases (>75% reduction in seizure frequency). Discussion These cases confirm that sporadic NFLE closely resembles familial NFLE, and comprises a set of distinct clinical manifestations, with variable intensity, and variable scalp EEG epileptiform abnormalities across sleep and wakefulness, which have previously been identified in Caucasian patients from Europe and North America. PMID:26483923

  18. [Non-epileptic paroxysmal sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Malagn-Valdez, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    Non-epileptic paroxysmal disorders during sleep are a great challenge for the clinician. It is important to know the various clinical manifestations for appropriate differential diagnosis, since alterations in sleep, mostly motor, are part of these disorders. Our paper describes the normal sleep stages and electroencephalographic characteristics and polysomnography basic data. The confusions especially with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy are frequent and cause unnecessary drugs administered, the emotional burden of the parents or caretakers, which is the diagnosis of epilepsy. We discuss the possible causes of diagnostic errors. PMID:23897138

  19. CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

  20. Circadian Desynchrony Promotes Metabolic Disruption in a Mouse Model of Shiftwork

    PubMed Central

    Barclay, Johanna L.; Husse, Jana; Bode, Brid; Naujokat, Nadine; Meyer-Kovac, Judit; Schmid, Sebastian M.; Lehnert, Hendrik; Oster, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Shiftwork is associated with adverse metabolic pathophysiology, and the rising incidence of shiftwork in modern societies is thought to contribute to the worldwide increase in obesity and metabolic syndrome. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, but may involve direct physiological effects of nocturnal light exposure, or indirect consequences of perturbed endogenous circadian clocks. This study employs a two-week paradigm in mice to model the early molecular and physiological effects of shiftwork. Two weeks of timed sleep restriction has moderate effects on diurnal activity patterns, feeding behavior, and clock gene regulation in the circadian pacemaker of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. In contrast, microarray analyses reveal global disruption of diurnal liver transcriptome rhythms, enriched for pathways involved in glucose and lipid metabolism and correlating with first indications of altered metabolism. Although altered food timing itself is not sufficient to provoke these effects, stabilizing peripheral clocks by timed food access can restore molecular rhythms and metabolic function under sleep restriction conditions. This study suggests that peripheral circadian desynchrony marks an early event in the metabolic disruption associated with chronic shiftwork. Thus, strengthening the peripheral circadian system by minimizing food intake during night shifts may counteract the adverse physiological consequences frequently observed in human shift workers. PMID:22629359

  1. The Role of Sleep and Sleep Disorders in the Development, Diagnosis, and Management of Neurocognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that sleep plays an important role in the maintenance, disease prevention, repair, and restoration of both mind and body. The sleep and wake cycles are controlled by the pacemaker activity of the superchiasmic nucleus in the hypothalamus but can be disrupted by diseases of the nervous system causing disordered sleep. A lack of sleep has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality. Likewise, sleep disturbances and sleep disorders may disrupt neuronal pathways and have an impact on neurological diseases. Sleep deprivation studies in normal subjects demonstrate that a lack of sleep can cause attention and working memory impairment. Moreover, untreated sleep disturbances and sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnoe (OSA) can also lead to cognitive impairment. Poor sleep and sleep disorders may present a significant risk factor for the development of dementia. In this review, the underlying mechanisms and the role of sleep and sleep disorders in the development of neurocognitive disorders [dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI)] and how the presence of sleep disorders could direct the process of diagnosis and management of neurocognitive disorders will be discussed. PMID:26557104

  2. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disturbance, and Fasting Glucose Variability: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, Patrizio; Strollo, Felice; Passali, Desiderio

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed sleep and nocturnal altered breathing are related to disturbances of glucose metabolism. The present uncontrolled observational study explores the role of these factors on the variability of fasting glycemia. Methods The number and duration of nocturnal awakenings and the fasting glycemia of 97 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with diet, metformin, or gliptins were recorded over seven consecutive days. During the same time period, the main respiratory indexesoxygen disturbance index, apnea/hypopnea index, and respiratory disturbance indexwere recorded for one night. Results The three respiratory indexes and the number of nocturnal awakenings are highly correlated with the coefficient of variation of the fasting blood glucose recorded over the 7-day period at p <.005 level. A multiple regression analysis showed that the variables in the model explained 86% of the variability. Results Respiratory/sleep disturbances appear to be modulators superimposed on blood glucose levels determined by other factors. PMID:23759408

  3. Rotigotine Objectively Improves Sleep in Parkinson's Disease: An Open-Label Pilot Study with Actigraphic Recording

    PubMed Central

    Calandra-Buonaura, Giovanna; Guaraldi, Pietro; Doria, Andrea; Zanigni, Stefano; Nassetti, Stefania; Favoni, Valentina; Cevoli, Sabina; Provini, Federica; Cortelli, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances represent important predictors of poor quality of life (QoL) in Parkinson's disease (PD). This open-label pilot study aimed to objectively assess, by means of actigraphic recording, effect of rotigotine on sleep in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. 15 PD patients underwent one-week actigraphic recording before (T0) and during (T1) rotigotine treatment, which was titrated to the dose subjectively improving motor symptoms (4–8 mg/24 h). Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, QoL, and depression were also evaluated with questionnaires. Actigraphic recordings showed a significant reduction in nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes after sleep onset during rotigotine treatment compared to baseline. In 10 patients presenting objective evidence of poor sleep quality at T0 (sleep efficiency ≤ 85%), rotigotine also significantly improved other sleep parameters and further reduced nocturnal motor activity and mean duration of wake episodes. A significant decrease in number and duration of daytime sleep episodes was also observed at T1. Finally we confirmed that rotigotine significantly improves perceived sleep quality and QoL. Our study showed for the first time that rotigotine is associated with an objective improvement of nocturnal and diurnal sleep disturbances in PD patients with self-reported sleep complaints. This study is registered with AIFA-observational study registry number 12021.

  4. To sleep, perchance to enrich learning?

    PubMed

    Hill, Catherine M; Hogan, Alexandra M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2007-07-01

    There is evidence that sleep enhances memory and learning. Childhood is a critical period for neurodevelopment, and minor but persistent disruption of sleep may have long-term implications for cognitive performance. Sleep is critical for health and is undervalued both in our 24 h society and in paediatric clinical practice. Paediatricians need to understand the neurodevelopmental consequences of poor quality sleep in children. PMID:17588978

  5. MBD5 haploinsufficiency is associated with sleep disturbance and disrupts circadian pathways common to Smith-Magenis and fragile X syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Pugliesi, Loren; Burns, Brooke; Shah, Zalak; Tahir, Raiha; Gu, Yanghong; Nelson, David L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2015-06-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have an identifiable single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as fragile X syndrome (FXS, FMR1), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, RAI1), or 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (del 2q23.1, MBD5) share phenotypic features, including a high prevalence of sleep disturbance. We describe the circadian deficits in del 2q23.1 through caregiver surveys in which we identify several frequent sleep anomalies, including night/early awakenings, coughing/snoring loudly, and difficulty falling asleep. We couple these findings with studies on the molecular analysis of the circadian deficits associated with haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in which circadian gene mRNA levels of NR1D2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were altered in del 2q23.1 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), signifying that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 can result in dysregulation of circadian rhythm gene expression. These findings were further supported by expression microarrays of MBD5 siRNA knockdown cells that showed significantly altered expression of additional circadian rhythm signaling pathway genes. Based on the common sleep phenotypes observed in del 2q23.1, SMS, and FXS patients, we explored the possibility that MBD5, RAI1, and FMR1 function in overlapping circadian rhythm pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified conserved putative E boxes in MBD5 and RAI1, and expression levels of NR1D2 and CRY2 were significantly reduced in patient LCLs. Circadian and mTOR signaling pathways, both associated with sleep disturbance, were altered in both MBD5 and RAI1 knockdown microarray data, overlapping with findings associated with FMR1. These data support phenotypic and molecular overlaps across these syndromes that may be exploited to provide therapeutic intervention for multiple disorders. PMID:25271084

  6. Transdermal Rotigotine Improves Sleep Fragmentation in Parkinson's Disease: Results of the Multicenter, Prospective SLEEP-FRAM Study

    PubMed Central

    Pagonabarraga, Javier; Piol, Gerard; Cardozo, Adriana; Sanz, Pilar; Puente, Vctor; Otermn, Pilar; Legarda, Ins; Delgado, Tania; Serrano, Carmen; Balaguer, Ernest; Aguirregomozcorta, Mara; lvarez, Ramiro; Kulisevsky, Jaime J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rotigotine on sleep fluctuations in a sample of PD patients with self-reported complaints of nocturnal awakenings. This prospective, open-label, observational, and multicenter study enrolled consecutive outpatients with PD and administered rotigotine (mean dose 8.9?mg/day) for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in sleep fragmentation, assessed using the sleep maintenance subscale score of the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). The newly designed Parkinson's Disease Sleep Fragmentation Questionnaire (PD-SFQ) was used to measure other sleep parameters. A total of 62 patients were enrolled (mean age 70.2 years; 66% male). At 3 months, rotigotine significantly improved sleep fragmentation from baseline on the PDSS-2 sleep maintenance subscale (from 3.4 0.9 to 1.9 1.4; P < 0.0001). Rotigotine also significantly improved nocturnal motor symptoms (P < 0.0001), restless legs-like symptoms (P < 0.005), and nocturia (P = 0.004). Rotigotine significantly improved self-reported complaints of sleep fragmentation in PD patients and could be a useful treatment to improve this specific sleep problem in PD. However, these results are based on a small and clinically heterogeneous sample so they must be taken cautiously. PMID:25793143

  7. [Sleep in children with episodic sleep phenomena: a comparison with the normal child].

    PubMed

    Benoit, O; Goldenberg-Leygonie, F; Lacombe, J; Marc, M E

    1978-04-01

    (1) The sleep pattern of 23 children, aged 5-12 years, with episodic nocturnal phenomena (night-terrors, somnambulism, rhythmic movements) was recorded during two successive nights. It was compared with that of a group of 21 normal children of the same age. (2) In the pathological group, slow wave sleep (SLP, stages 3 and 4) was significantly shortened during the 2 nights. This deficit mainly involved the first 3h of sleep. (3) As for the slow wave sleep, REM sleep (SP) modifications prevailed during the first hours of sleep. The first REM period was delayed and preceded by more numerous and atypical partial REM periods. The duration of the first REM period increased faster as a function of its latency than in the normal child. (4) In contrast with this difficulty for REM sleep to occur during the first part of the night, the subsequent REM sleep pattern was similar in the 2 groups (total REM sleep duration, mean REM period duration, mean REM cycle duration). For equal latencies, REM periods had similar duration. Finally, the total REM sleep amount was a linear function of the total sleep time, with more or less identical coefficients for the two groups. (5) The part played by these modifications during the first hours of sleep in the occurrence of night terrors and somnambulism is discussed. PMID:76558

  8. Sleep-Related Declarative Memory Consolidation and Verbal Replay during Sleep Talking in Patients with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Methods Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Results Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Conclusion Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level. PMID:24349492

  9. Determining Sleep Quality in Children with Sleep Disordered Breathing: EEG Spectral Analysis Compared with Conventional Polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joel S.C.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Nixon, Gillian M.; Davey, Margot J.; Anderson, Vicki; Walker, Adrian M.; Trinder, John A.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify the extent of sleep disruption in children with various severities of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) using both conventional visually scored assessment of sleep stages and arousal indices together with EEG power spectral analysis. Design: Sleep stages and power spectral analysis of the sleep EEG in children with varying severities of SDB with matched control subjects with no history of snoring were compared across the whole night, across sequential hours from sleep onset, and across sleep stages. Measurements: Overnight polysomnography was performed on 90 children (49M/41F) aged 7-12 y with SDB and 30 age-matched healthy controls (13M/17F). Sleep stages were visually scored and the EEG spectra were analyzed in 5-s epochs. Results: Conventional visual scoring indicated that, although sleep duration was reduced in severely affected children, sleep quality during the essential stages of SWS and REM was preserved, as evidenced by the lack of any significant decrease in their duration in SDB severity groups. This finding was supported by the lack of substantial differences in EEG spectral power between the groups over the whole night, within specific hours, and in individual sleep stages. Conclusions: Both conventional scoring and EEG spectral analysis indicated only minor disruptions to sleep quality in children with SDB when assessed across the night, in any specific hour of the night, or in any specific sleep stage. These results suggest that reduced daytime functioning previously reported in children with SDB may not be due to sleep disruption. We speculate that in children, in contrast to adults, a stronger sleep drive may preserve sleep quality even in severe SDB. Citation: Yang JSC; Nicholas CL; Nixon GM; Davey MJ; Anderson V; Walker AM; Trinder JA; Horne RSC. Determining sleep quality in children with sleep disordered breathing: EEG spectral analysis compared with conventional polysomnography. SLEEP 2010;33(9):1165-1172. PMID:20857862

  10. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy S; McSharry, David G; Malhotra, Atul

    2014-02-22

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, leading to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Features include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60-70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  11. The Effectiveness of Silodosin for Nocturnal Polyuria in Elderly Men With Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Won; Park, Jinsung; Chung, Hong; Kim, Hong-Wook; Kim, Hyung Joon; Jung, Jae Hung; Kim, Won Tae

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate improvement in nocturia and nocturnal polyuria in nocturnal polyuria patients after silodosin administration by using a 3-day frequency volume chart. Methods: This was a prospective multicenter study. We enrolled nocturnal polyuria patients (nocturnal polyuria index [NPi]>0.33), aged ?60 years, diagnosed with the 3-day frequency volume charts of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia taking ?-blockers. Of the 54 patients, 30 (55.6%) completed the study according to the study protocol (per-protocol group), and 24 dropped out (dropout group). Results: Of the 24 patients in the dropout group, 5 withdrew consent due to side effects or lack of efficacy, 7 were lost to follow-up at 4 weeks, 8 were lost to follow-up at 12 weeks, and 4 dropped out due to failure to complete 3-day frequency volume charts at 12 weeks. In the per-protocol group, there was significant improvement in the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), especially question numbers 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and the quality of life question (P=0.001, P=0.007, P<0.001, P=0.003, P=0.049, P<0.001, and P<0.001, respectively). The Leeds sleep evaluation questionnaire (LSEQ) score for the sleep question improved from 64.36 to 70.43 (P=0.039). The NPi reduced from 0.4005 to 0.3573 (P=0.027); however, in many cases, there was no improvement in nocturnal polyuria itself. In intention-to-treat analysis, there were significant improvements in IPSS and LSEQ in 45 patients. Conclusions: In elderly nocturnal polyuria patients, silodosin monotherapy exhibits good efficacy in improving nocturia and nocturnal polyuria; however, the mean NPi was still >0.33. Considering the high dropout rate of our study due to no implementation of 3-day frequency volume charts, prospective and large-scale studies are needed to confirm our results. PMID:26620902

  12. Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Elkhayat, Hamed A; Hassanein, Sahar M; Tomoum, Hoda Y; Abd-Elhamid, Iman A; Asaad, Tarek; Elwakkad, Amany S

    2010-04-01

    Children with epilepsy have high rates of sleep problems. Melatonin has been advocated in treatment of sleep disorders, and its beneficial effect has been confirmed in insomnia. The aim of this study was to assess melatonin levels in children with intractable epilepsy and its relation to pattern of sleep and characteristics of seizure disorder, as well as the effect of melatonin therapy on those parameters. The study was conducted on 23 children with intractable epilepsy and 14 children with controlled seizures. Patients were evaluated by psychometric sleep assessment and assay of diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels. Children with intractable epilepsy received oral melatonin before bedtime. They were reassessed after 3 months. Children with intractable epilepsy had higher scores for each category of sleep walking, forcible teeth grinding, and sleep apnea. At the end of therapeutic trial, patients with intractable epilepsy exhibited significant improvement in bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep latency, frequent nocturnal arousals, sleep walking, excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal enuresis, forcible teeth grinding, sleep apnea, and Epworth sleepiness scores. There was also significant reduction in seizure severity. Thus, use of melatonin in patients with intractable seizures was associated with improvement of both many sleep-related phenomena and the severity of seizures. PMID:20304327

  13. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  14. The cognitive cost of sleep lost

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, John G.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses primarily on the cognitive impairments produced by sleep disruption in rodent models of several human patterns of sleep loss/sleep disturbance. Though not an exclusive list, this review will focus on four specific types of sleep disturbance: total sleep deprivation, experimental sleep fragmentation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic sleep restriction. The use of rodent models can provide greater opportunities to understand the neurobiological changes underlying sleep loss induced cognitive impairments. Thus, this review concludes with a description of recent neurobiological findings concerning the neuroplastic changes and putative brain mechanisms that may underlie the cognitive deficits produced by sleep disturbances. PMID:21875679

  15. Circadian Variation of Heart Rate Variability Across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Philippe; Yeh, Wei-Hsien; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nocturnal cardiovascular events are more frequent at the beginning and end of the night. It was proposed that this pattern reflects the nocturnal distribution of sleep and sleep stages. Using heart rate variability (HRV), we recently showed an interaction between the circadian system and vigilance states on the regulation of cardiac rhythmicity. Here, we further investigate this interaction in order to clarify the specific effects of sleep stages on the regulation of the heart. Design: Participants underwent a 72-h ultradian sleep-wake cycle procedure in time isolation consisting of alternating 60-min wake episodes in dim light and 60-min nap opportunities in total darkness. Setting: Time isolation suite. Patients or participants: Fifteen healthy young participants; two were subsequently excluded. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The current study revealed that sleep onset and progression to deeper sleep stages was associated with a shift toward greater parasympathetic modulation, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a shift toward greater sympathetic modulation. We found a circadian rhythm of heart rate (HR) and high-frequency power during wakefulness and all non-REM sleep stages. A significant circadian rhythm of HR and sympathovagal balance of the heart was also observed during REM sleep. During slow wave sleep, maximal parasympathetic modulation was observed at ∼02:00, whereas during REM sleep, maximal sympathetic modulation occurred in the early morning. Conclusion: The circadian and sleep stage-specific effects on heart rate variability are clinically relevant and contribute to the understanding of the degree of cardiovascular vulnerability during sleep. Citation: Boudreau P; Yeh WH; Dumont GA; Boivin DB. Circadian variation of heart rate variability across sleep stages. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1919-1928. PMID:24293767

  16. One day of overfeeding impairs nocturnal glucose but not fatty acid homeostasis in overweight men

    PubMed Central

    Magkos, Faidon; Smith, Gordon I.; Reeds, Dominic N.; Okunade, Adewole; Patterson, Bruce W.; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Objective Overfeeding is associated with insulin resistance. Studies on animals suggest this is likely due to disruption of fatty acid metabolism and increased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability during the night. We tested the hypothesis that overfeeding induces insulin resistance and increases nocturnal but not daytime plasma FFA availability in human subjects. Design and Methods We measured plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations hourly for 24 hours during a day of isocaloric feeding and a day of hypercaloric feeding (30% calorie excess) in 8 overweight and obese, non-diabetic men (age: 383 years; body mass index: 342 kg/m2). Results Overfeeding had no effect on daytime plasma glucose, insulin, and FFA concentrations compared to isocaloric feeding, but increased nocturnal glucose (P=0.007) and insulin (P=0.003) concentrations and decreased nocturnal FFA concentration (P=0.006). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance score was ~30% greater the morning after hypercaloric than isocaloric feeding (P=0.040). Conclusions One day of overfeeding has no effect on daytime plasma glucose and FFA concentrations but increases nocturnal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, whereas nocturnal plasma FFA availability is reduced. The acute overfeeding-induced development of insulin resistant glucose metabolism therefore does not appear to be directly mediated by plasma FFA availability. PMID:23836730

  17. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mostacci, Barbara; Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Licchetta, Laura; Di Vito, Lidia; Rinaldi, Claudia; Trippi, Irene; Ferri, Lorenzo; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) follow a seizure, and most deaths occur while people are in bed, presumably sleeping. Nocturnal seizures are reported to be a risk factor for SUDEP. People with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) have seizures predominantly or exclusively during sleep, often many times per night. The present study aimed to assess whether NFLE represents a high-risk condition for SUDEP. Methods The present study retrospectively assessed the incidence of SUDEP in a cohort reconstructed from a dedicated database of consecutive patients referred to the Epilepsy and Sleep Centres of the Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna from 1980 to 2012 with: (1) a diagnosis of NFLE, (2) at least 90% of seizures during sleep, and (3) at least one-year of follow-up. Results One hundred and three people were included. The median time from seizure onset to last observation was 26 years, equal to a follow-up of 2789 person-years. One person died of SUDEP during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of SUDEP was 0.36 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.01 to 2.0). Conclusions The incidence of SUDEP in the participant population was not higher than the rates previously reported in prevalent epilepsy populations (0.4 to 2.3 per 1000 person-years). The low prevalence of SUDEP might reflect the low occurrence of generalised tonic-clonic seizures in people with NFLE. PMID:25600783

  18. Effects of Sleep Fragmentation on Sleep and Markers of Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Verhulst, Steve; Toth, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Many people in our society experience curtailment and disruption of sleep due to work responsibilities, care-giving, or life style choice. Delineating the health effect of acute and chronic disruptions in sleep is essential to raising awareness of and creating interventions to manage these prevalent concerns. To provide a platform for studying the health impact and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with inadequate sleep, we developed and characterized an approach to creating chronic disruption of sleep in laboratory mice. We used this method to evaluate how 3 durations of sleep fragmentation (SF) affect sleep recuperation and blood and lung analyte concentrations in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice housed in environmentally controlled chambers were exposed to automated SF for periods of 6, 12, or 24 h or for 12 h daily during the light (somnolent) phase for 4 sequential days. Sleep time, slow-wave amplitude, or bout lengths were significantly higher when uninterrupted sleep was permitted after each of the 3 SF durations. However, mice did not recover all of the lost slow-wave sleep during the subsequent 12- to 24-h period and maintained a net loss of sleep. Light-phase SF was associated with significant changes in serum and lung levels of some inflammatory substances, but these changes were not consistent or sustained. The data indicate that acute light-phase SF can result in a sustained sleep debt in mice and may disrupt the inflammatory steady-state in serum and lung. PMID:24512957

  19. The diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost with sofZia (Travatan Z [TZ]) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods Twenty-seven subjects with NTG were admitted to an inpatient sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate every 2 hours in the habitual position (diurnal period: upright; nocturnal period: supine). Baseline IOP and OPP levels were compared to those during active treatment with TZ and 3 days after stopping the medication. OPP was calculated as 2/3 [diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP diastolic BP)] IOP. Results TZ significantly reduced the mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels compared to baseline at all time points. During treatment, mean IOP decreased from 17.13.4 to 14.73.0 mmHg during the diurnal period (P<0.01) and from 19.93.6 to 18.83.5 mmHg during the nocturnal period (P<0.01). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (15.63.2 mmHg) and nocturnal (18.73.7 mmHg) periods. Mean OPP was not significantly changed with treatment during either period. Conclusion In this population of NTG patients, TZ significantly lowers IOP at all time points throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods. The treatment effect on IOP endures for up to 3 days after the last dose. Treatment did not significantly improve OPP. PMID:25382969

  20. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep disruption in microgravity is not the result of respiratory factors.

  1. Atypical sleep architecture and the autism phenotype.

    PubMed

    Limoges, Elyse; Mottron, Laurent; Bolduc, Christianne; Berthiaume, Claude; Godbout, Roger

    2005-05-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that people with autism frequently experience sleep disorders and exhibit atypical sleep architecture. In order to establish whether sleep disorders truly belong to the autism spectrum disorder (ASD) phenotype, we conducted a subjective and objective study of sleep in a group of high-functioning adults with ASD but without sleep complaints, psychiatric disorders or neurological comorbidity. We compared the subjective data of 27 ASD participants with those of 78 healthy controls matched for chronological age and gender. Subjective measures of sleep in the clinical group were compatible with insomnia and/or a tolerable phase advance of the sleep-wake cycle. Subjective data were confirmed by objective laboratory sleep recordings in a subset of 16 patients and 16 controls. Persons with autism presented with a longer sleep latency (P < 0.04), more frequent nocturnal awakenings (P < 0.03), lower sleep efficiency (P < 0.03), increased duration of stage 1 sleep (P < 0.02), decreased non-REM sleep (stages 2 + 3 + 4, P < 0.04) and slow-wave sleep (stages 3 + 4, P < 0.05), fewer stage 2 EEG sleep spindles (P < 0.004), and a lower number of rapid eye movements during REM sleep (P < 0.006) than did control participants. On clinical scales, the scores of persons with ASD on the Beck Depression Inventory were similar to those of persons without, but their trait anxiety scores on the Spielberger Anxiety Scale were higher (P < 0.02). The state anxiety scores of the Spielberger scale and cortisol levels were the same in the two groups. Objective total sleep time correlated negatively with the Social (-0.52, P < 0.05) and Communication (-0.54, P < 0.02) scales of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. The sleep of clinical subgroups (10 with high-functioning autism, six with Asperger syndrome) did not differ, except for the presence of fewer EEG sleep spindles in the Asperger syndrome subgroup (P < 0.05). In conclusion, these findings indicate that atypicalities of sleep constitute a salient feature of the adult ASD phenotype and this should be further investigated in younger patients. Moreover, the results are consistent with an atypical organization of neural networks subserving the macro- and microstructure of sleep in ASD. We are furthering this research with quantified analysis of sleep EEG. PMID:15705609

  2. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  3. Noninvasive ventilatory support during sleep improves respiratory failure in kyphoscoliosis.

    PubMed

    Ellis, E R; Grunstein, R R; Chan, S; Bye, P T; Sullivan, C E

    1988-10-01

    We investigated the effect on daytime respiratory function and quality of sleep, of providing adequate ventilation either by intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) or by continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) both administered through a nose mask in a group of seven patients with severe thoracic kyphoscoliosis. All night control sleep studies were performed with and without ventilatory assistance. Patients underwent standard polysomnography including all night measurements of transcutaneous CO2 (tcCO2) and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2). Awake arterial blood gas tensions (ABGs), respiratory muscle strength (Pmus), and lung function tests were measured in the sitting position. Follow-up studies after three months of treatment showed normal sleep patterns, improvement in daytime ABGs, lung volumes, and respiratory muscle strength. We concluded that maintenance of nocturnal ventilation by either nasal CPAP or nasal IPPV in patients with nocturnal respiratory failure does significantly improve clinical measurements of respiratory function and quality of sleep. PMID:3139373

  4. Cytotoxic chemotherapy increases sleep and sleep fragmentation in non-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disruption ranks among the most common complaints of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Because of the complex interactions among cancer, treatment regimens, and life-history traits, studies to establish a causal link between chemotherapy and sleep disruption are uncommon. To investigate how chemotherapy acutely influences sleep, adult female c57bl/6 mice were ovariectomized and implanted with wireless biotelemetry units. EEG/EMG biopotentials were collected over the course of 3days pre- and post-injection of 13.5mg/kg doxorubicin and 135mg/kg cyclophosphamide or the vehicle. We predicted that cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin would disrupt sleep and increase central proinflammatory cytokine expression in brain areas that govern vigilance states (i.e., hypothalamus and brainstem). The results largely support these predictions; a single chemotherapy injection increased NREM and REM sleep during subsequent active (dark) phases; this induced sleep was fragmented and of low quality. Mice displayed marked increases in low theta (5-7Hz) to high theta (7-10Hz) ratios following chemotherapy treatment, indicating elevated sleep propensity. The effect was strongest during the first dark phase following injection, but mice displayed disrupted sleep for the entire 3-day duration of post-injection sleep recording. Vigilance state timing was not influenced by treatment, suggesting that acute chemotherapy administration alters sleep homeostasis without altering sleep timing. qPCR analysis revealed that disrupted sleep was accompanied by increased IL-6 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Together, these data implicate neuroinflammation as a potential contributor to sleep disruption after chemotherapy. PMID:25449581

  5. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-02-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase. PMID:26758201

  6. Hypoxia During Sleep and the Risk of Falls and Fractures in Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fracture in Men Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A.; Blackwell, Terri L.; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Fink, Howard A.; Orwoll, Eric S.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sleep disturbances are common and have been linked to a greater risk of fractures and falls but whether nocturnal hypoxia contributes is unknown. Design, Setting, Participants To test the hypothesis that low arterial oxygen saturation during sleep is associated with a greater risk of falls and fractures, we studied 2911 men age 67 or older. Measurements The primary exposure measure was percentage of sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation<90% measured by polysomnography. The main outcome measures were incident falls within 1 year and incident non-spine fractures over an average follow-up of 6.8 years. Results Men with ?10% sleep time at arterial oxygen saturation<90% were older, reported more comorbidities, had poorer physical function and were more likely to have sleep disordered breathing than men with <10% sleep time at arterial oxygen saturation<90%. After multivariate adjustment, men with ?10% of sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation<90% had an increased risk of having ?1 and ?2 falls compared to those with <1% of sleep time with <90% arterial oxygen saturation (relative risk =1.25; 95% confidence interval =1.04, 1.51) and (relative risk=1.43; 95% CI=1.06, 1.92), respectively. Men with an increasing percentage of sleep time with arterial oxygen saturation <90% had a 30-40% increased risk of non-spine fracture compared to those with normal nocturnal hypoxia in models adjusting for sleep disorder breathing. Conclusion Increasing hypoxia during sleep may represent a novel risk factor for falls and fractures in older men. Interventions aimed at decreasing nocturnal hypoxia may decrease falls and fractures. PMID:25283237

  7. Maternal Postpartum Sleepiness and Fatigue: Associations with Objectively Measured Sleep Variables

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To explore whether standardized survey instruments and objective performance measures differentiate traditional constructs of sleepiness and fatigue among a sample of postpartum mothers. Additionally, we wanted to explore the independent associations among these measures with actigraphically measured nocturnal sleep variables. Method Seventy-nine postpartum mothers subjective sleepiness, fatigue, and performance measures (Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS], Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Visual Analogue of Fatigue Scale [VAS], Profile of Mood States [POMS] subscale items, and the Psychomotor Vigilance Test [PVT]) and objective actigraphically measured sleep were collected during postpartum week 11. A Principal Components Analysis was calculated, then regressions were calculated among resulting factors and among individual measures with total sleep time and sleep efficiency. Results Three factors accounted for 83.84% of model variance. Factor 1 (41.41%) included the SSS, ESS, and the VAS. Factor 2 (28.13%) included only PVT variables. Factor 3 (14.30%) included the two POMS subscale items. Factor 1 was associated with nocturnal sleep time and Factor 2 was associated with sleep efficiency. The ESS was independently associated with nocturnal sleep time, whereas, POMS-Vigor subscale and median reaction time, together, were associated with sleep efficiency. Conclusion Among postpartum mothers, standard instruments used to measure sleepiness, fatigue, and performance were distributed among three distinct factors that did not clearly identify traditional sleepiness and fatigue constructs. Objectively measured sleep time and sleep efficiency were associated with specific factors, as well as specific measures, that correspond to sleepiness and fatigue states. PMID:20955866

  8. The Association between Sleep Patterns and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Blackwell, Terri; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Wing, Yun K.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep duration has been increasingly reported to predict obesity. However, timing and regularity of sleep may also be important. In this study, the cross-sectional association between objectively measured sleep patterns and obesity was assessed in two large cohorts of older individuals. Methods Wrist actigraphy was performed in 3053 men (mean age: 76.4 years) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) and 2985 women (mean age: 83.5 years) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Timing and regularity of sleep patterns were assessed across nights, as well as daytime napping. Results Greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean nocturnal sleep duration in both men and women. Each 1 hour increase in the variability of nocturnal sleep duration increased the odds of obesity 1.63-fold (95% CI [1.31-2.02]) among men and 1.22-fold (95% CI [1.01-1.47]) among women. Each 1 hour increase in napping increased the odds of obesity 1.23-fold (95%CI [1.12-1.37]) in men and 1.29-fold (95%CI [1.17-1.41]) in women. In contrast, associations between later sleep timing and night-to-night variability in sleep timing with obesity were less consistent. Conclusions In both older men and women, variability in nightly sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean sleep duration. These findings suggest that characteristics of sleep beyond mean sleep duration may play a role in weight homeostasis, highlighting the complex relationship between sleep and metabolism. PMID:24458262

  9. Retino-hypothalamic regulation of light-induced murine sleep

    PubMed Central

    Muindi, Fanuel; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Heller, Horace Craig

    2014-01-01

    The temporal organization of sleep is regulated by an interaction between the circadian clock and homeostatic processes. Light indirectly modulates sleep through its ability to phase shift and entrain the circadian clock. Light can also exert a direct, circadian-independent effect on sleep. For example, acute exposure to light promotes sleep in nocturnal animals and wake in diurnal animals. The mechanisms whereby light directly influences sleep and arousal are not well understood. In this review, we discuss the direct effect of light on sleep at the level of the retina and hypothalamus in rodents. We review murine data from recent publications showing the roles of rod-, cone- and melanopsin-based photoreception on the initiation and maintenance of light-induced sleep. We also present hypotheses about hypothalamic mechanisms that have been advanced to explain the acute control of sleep by light. Specifically, we review recent studies assessing the roles of the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). We also discuss how light might differentially promote sleep and arousal in nocturnal and diurnal animals respectively. Lastly, we suggest new avenues for research on this topic which is still in its early stages. PMID:25140132

  10. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  11. Excessive daytime sleepiness in sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Steier, Joerg

    2012-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness is a significant public health problem, with prevalence in the community estimated to be as high as 18%. Sleepiness is caused by abnormal sleep quantity or sleep quality. Amongst others, multiple neurological, psychological, cardiac and pulmonary disorders may contribute. Risk factors for excessive sleepiness include obesity, depression, extremes of age and insufficient sleep. In the clinical setting, two of the most commonly encountered causes are obstructive sleep apnoea and periodic limb movement disorder. There is continuing discussion of the mechanisms by which these disorders cause daytime symptoms, with intermittent nocturnal hypoxia, sleep fragmentation and autonomic dysregulation identified as important factors. The increased prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea in obese subjects does not fully account for the increased rates of daytime sleepiness in this population and there is evidence to suggest that it is caused by metabolic factors and chronic inflammation in obese individuals. Sleepiness is also more common in those reporting symptoms of depression or anxiety disorders and significantly impacts their quality of life. Clinicians should be aware of factors which put their patients at high risk of daytime sleepiness, as it is a debilitating and potentially dangerous symptom with medico-legal implications. Treatment option should address underlying contributors and promote sleep quantity and sleep quality by ensuring good sleep hygiene. However, stimulant medication may be indicated in some cases to allow for more normal daytime functioning. PMID:23205286

  12. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Youngmin; Williamson, Ariel A; Seo, Hyun-Joo; Sadeh, Avi; Mindell, Jodi A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominately Asian (P-A) and predominately Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children's sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  13. Sleep Patterns among South Korean Infants and Toddlers: Global Comparison

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine sleep patterns in a large sample of infants and toddlers (ages birth to 36 months) in Korea, and to compare sleep patterns, sleep problems, sleep ecology, and parental behaviors to global sleep data on young children in both predominately Asian (P-A) and predominately Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. We additionally examined parent and child demographic information, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology as predictors of sleep patterns among infants and toddlers in Korea. Parents/caregivers of 1,036 Korean infants and toddlers completed an expanded, internet-based version of the brief infant sleep questionnaire. Consistent with other studies of sleep in early childhood, sleep/wake patterns became increasingly consolidated with older child age for the Korea sample. Compared to both P-A and P-C infants and toddlers, children in Korea had the latest bedtimes, shortest total sleep and daytime sleep durations, and the least frequent rates of napping. Even though half of parents perceive their children’s sleep problematic, parental perceptions of severe child sleep problems were the lowest. Within Korea, breastfeeding and bottle-feeding at sleep resumption were associated with increased nocturnal awakenings. Evening television viewing was associated with later bedtimes, which may have implications for sleep hygiene recommendations in clinical practice. The current study provides important information about sleep/wake patterns, parental behaviors, and aspects of the sleep ecology for infants and toddlers for physicians to support healthy sleep in Korea. PMID:26839481

  14. High-intensity endurance training increases nocturnal heart rate variability in sedentary participants

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2015-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated during two 4-week training periods. After the first 4-week training period (3 x 40 min per week, at 75% of HRR) the subjects were divided into HIGH group (n = 7), who performed three high-intensity endurance training sessions per week; and CONTROL group (n = 8) who did not change their training. An incremental treadmill test was performed before and after the two 4-week training periods. Furthermore, nocturnal RR-intervals were recorded after each training day. In the second 4-week training period HIGH group increased their VO2max (P = 0.005) more than CONTROL group. At the same time, nocturnal HR decreased (P = 0.039) and high-frequency power (HFP) increased (P = 0.003) in HIGH group while no changes were observed in CONTROL group. Furthermore, a correlation was observed between the changes in nocturnal HFP and changes in VO2max during the second 4-week training period (r = 0.90, P < 0.001). The present study showed that the increased HFP is related to improved VO2max in sedentary subjects suggesting that nocturnal HFP can provide a useful method in monitoring individual responses to endurance training. PMID:26985128

  15. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age standard deviation = 66.6 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made remember/know and new judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced remember responses, but not know responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  16. Effect of diabetes mellitus on sleep quality

    PubMed Central

    Surani, Salim; Brito, Veronica; Surani, Asif; Ghamande, Shekhar

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a highly prevalent condition affecting about 347 million people worldwide. In addition to its numerous clinical implications, DM also exerts a negative effect on patients sleep quality. Impaired sleep quality disrupts the adequate glycemic control regarded as corner stone in DM management and also lead to many deleterious effects causing a profound impact on health related quality of life. This article outlines various factors leading to impaired sleep quality among diabetics and delineates how individual factor influences sleep. The article also discusses potential interventions and lifestyle changes to promote healthy sleep among diabetics. PMID:26131327

  17. Sleep-Dependent Memory Consolidation in Children.

    PubMed

    Maski, Kiran P

    2015-06-01

    In the past 30 years, much research has been conducted elucidating the role of sleep in memory and learning; however, the interaction between sleep and cognitive functioning may be unknown in clinical realms. This article serves to provide a primer on sleep-dependent memory consolidation, a process in which memory is stabilized or even enhanced over a period of sleep. Given the increased amounts of sleep needed in infancy and childhood, the link between sleep and neuronal plasticity is highlighted in this article. Furthermore, sleep disruptions are common to children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder; thus, recent studies showing direct relationships between sleep and memory functioning in such vulnerable groups are discussed. PMID:26072343

  18. Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale 2: application in an Italian population.

    PubMed

    Arnaldi, Dario; Cordano, Christian; De Carli, Fabrizio; Accardo, Jennifer; Ferrara, Michela; Picco, Agnese; Tamburini, Tiziano; Brugnolo, Andrea; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Nobili, Flavio

    2016-02-01

    Sleep disturbances and nocturnal disabilities are common in Parkinson's Disease (PD). The PD sleep scale, second version (PDSS-2), has been proposed as a helpful tool for measuring sleep disorders in PD. We aimed to validate the Italian version of the PDSS-2. One hundred and twenty-three consecutive PD outpatients (76 males) were evaluated by means of PDSS-2, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire (self-administered scales), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating (motor section) and Hoehn and Yahr Scales, and Mini Mental State Examination. PDSS-2 internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's α: 0.77) with significant item to total score correlation and high intra-class correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability (0.943). Total PDSS-2 score was correlated with the scores on all other clinical scales. The factor analysis identified five factors, related to five areas of nocturnal disturbances, similarly as the original PDSS-2. The five factors mainly reflected: (1) nocturnal movement-related problems, (2) quality of sleep, (3) dreaming distress, (4) fragmentation of sleep and (5) insomnia symptoms. The PDSS-2 scale has confirmed its usefulness in evaluating sleep problems in Italian PD patients. PMID:26520846

  19. [Diagnostic criteria for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Beydon, N; Aubertin, G

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is 1-4 % in school-aged children. Adenotonsillar hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSAS in children. Other causes are obesity; facial or skeletal malformations; and neuromuscular, respiratory, or metabolic diseases. OSAS has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), which can both result in negative health outcomes. The analysis of clinical symptoms and physical examination cannot always distinguish between children with primary snoring and children with OSAS. However, the association of at least one sign of nocturnal upper airway obstruction with other diurnal or nocturnal symptoms can be sufficient to establish OSAS diagnosis in a child more than 3 years of age with clear enlarged tonsils but who is otherwise healthy. In all other cases, polysomnography (the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep-disordered breathing) must be performed either to declare the diagnosis when clinical assessment is not conclusive or when risk factors are present, or to follow up children with an associated health condition or initial severe OSAS. The equipment used to record sleep and the interpretation criteria are all pediatric-specific. Other methods, such as respiratory polygraphy, are simpler to implement, but further studies are warranted to validate the interpretation criteria of these methods in children. However, in centers with experienced personnel, polygraphy can be used in place of polysomnography. In all cases, the analysis of sleep traces must be manual and performed by personnel under the supervision of medical staff trained to interpret pediatric sleep studies. PMID:26968302

  20. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep, and Disorders of Aging.

    PubMed

    Mattis, Joanna; Sehgal, Amita

    2016-04-01

    Sleep-wake cycles are known to be disrupted in people with neurodegenerative disorders. These findings are now supported by data from animal models for some of these disorders, raising the question of whether the disrupted sleep/circadian regulation contributes to the loss of neural function. As circadian rhythms and sleep consolidation also break down with normal aging, changes in these may be part of what makes aging a risk factor for disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Mechanisms underlying the connection between circadian/sleep dysregulation and neurodegeneration remain unclear, but several recent studies provide interesting possibilities. While mechanistic analysis is under way, it is worth considering treatment of circadian/sleep disruption as a means to alleviate symptoms of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26947521

  1. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children].

    PubMed

    Aubertin, G

    2013-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent in school-aged children. Tonsillar and/or adenoids hypertrophy is the most common etiology of OSA in children. OSA has been associated with sleep quality disturbance (frequent arousals) and nocturnal gas-exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia and sometimes hypercapnia), complicated with a large array of negative health outcomes. The clinical symptoms are not able to distinguish primary snoring from OSA. Polysomnography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing, but the demand is increasing for this highly technical sleep test. So, some other simpler diagnostic methods are available, as respiratory polygraphy, but need to be validated in children. Treatment of OSA in children must be based on a mutlidisciplinary approach with pediatricians, ENT surgeons and orthodontists. PMID:23870386

  2. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2015-08-01

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  3. The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157

  4. Sleep apnea syndrome in the morbidly obese as an indication for weight reduction surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, J; Lavie, P; Ovnat, A; Charuzi, I

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen morbidly obese patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome (SAS) were studied during nocturnal sleep before and between 2 to 4 months after a weight reduction surgery. Six patients were also recorded between 4 to 8 months after surgery. Postoperative recordings revealed a dramatic reduction in the sleep apnea index and an improvement in sleep motility and daytime vigilance levels. A further decrease in apneas and sleep motility was seen in the late post-treatment recording. These results indicate that weight reduction surgery is an effective definitive treatment for obesity associated SAS. PMID:6691724

  5. Benefits of a sleep disorders clinic in a Veterans Administration Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Ancoli-Israel, S; Kripke, D F; Menn, S J; Messin, S

    1981-07-01

    The Sleep Disorders Clinic at the San Diego Veterans Administration Medical Center provides a diagnostic service within a public hospital. Case records of the first 117 patients receiving polysomnograms in our clinic were reviewed. Of these patients, 44 percent were found to have sleep apnea, 24 percent nocturnal myoclonus and 8 percent narcolepsy. Our experience shows that in a health maintenance organization, a sleep disorders clinic provides diagnostic information (based on a polysomnogram and a sleep history) which is very helpful in the final diagnosis of medical disorders. Very few recordings were noncontributory. In this setting, a sleep disorders clinic is justified by its rich diagnostic yield. PMID:7257375

  6. Benefits of a Sleep Disorders Clinic in a Veterans Administration Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Kripke, Daniel F.; Menn, Stuart J.; Messin, Sam

    1981-01-01

    The Sleep Disorders Clinic at the San Diego Veterans Administration Medical Center provides a diagnostic service within a public hospital. Case records of the first 117 patients receiving polysomnograms in our clinic were reviewed. Of these patients, 44 percent were found to have sleep apnea, 24 percent nocturnal myoclonus and 8 percent narcolepsy. Our experience shows that in a health maintenance organization, a sleep disorders clinic provides diagnostic information (based on a polysomnogram and a sleep history) which is very helpful in the final diagnosis of medical disorders. Very few recordings were noncontributory. In this setting, a sleep disorders clinic is justified by its rich diagnostic yield. PMID:7257375

  7. Sleep disturbances in drug nave Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and effect of levodopa on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Teresa; Prabhakar, Sudesh; Kharbanda, Parampreet S.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with sleep disturbances, attributed to the neurodegenerative process and therapeutic drugs. Studies have found levodopa to increase wakefulness in some patients while increasing sleepiness in others. Aims: To confirm sleep disturbances in drug nave PD patients and understand the impact of levodopa on their sleep. Materials and Methods: Twenty-three drug nave PD patients and 31 age-gender matched controls were compared using the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A polysomnogram objectively compared sleep quality. Of the 23 patients, the 12 initiated on levodopa were reassessed subjectively and through polysomnography after 2 months of therapy. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as mean standard deviation, median, and range. Continuous variables were analyzed by Student's T test for normally distributed data and MannWhitney U test for skewed data. Discrete variables were compared by Chi Square tests (Pearson Chi square Test or Fisher's Exact Test). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was applied in the analysis of paired data pre- and post-levodopa. A P value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Statistical analysis of the data was done using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12. Results: Drug nave PD patients had lower PDSS scores than controls. The sleep architecture changes observed on polysomnogram were reduced NREM Stage III and REM sleep and increased sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time. Following levodopa, improved sleep efficiency with reduced sleep latency and wake after sleep onset time was noted, coupled with improved PDSS scores. However, NREM Stage III and REM sleep duration did not increase. Discussion: PD patients take longer to fall asleep and have difficulty in sleep maintenance. Sleep maintenance is affected by nocturia, REM behavioral disorder, nocturnal cramps, akinesia, and tremors, as observed in PDSS scores. Levodopa improves sleep efficiency by improving motor scores without altering sleep architecture. Conclusions: Poor sleep quality and sleep architecture changes occur secondary to the neurodegenerative process in PD patients. Though levodopa improves sleep quality by reducing rigidity and tremor, it does not reverse sleep architecture changes. PMID:25506163

  8. Sleep disturbances in Angelman syndrome: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Bruni, Oliviero; Ferri, Raffaele; D'Agostino, Gaetana; Miano, Silvia; Roccella, Michele; Elia, Maurizio

    2004-06-01

    Only few studies are available on sleep disorders in Angelman syndrome (AS), a neurodevelopmental disorder with several behavior disturbances. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sleep disorders in a relatively large group of AS subjects, compared to that of age-matched controls. Forty-nine consecutive parents of patients with AS (26 males and 23 females aged 2.3-26.2 years) were interviewed and filled out a comprehensive sleep questionnaire. Based on their genetic etiology, four groups were defined: deletion of chromosome 15q11-13 (25 subjects); methylation imprinting mutation (six subjects), UBE3A mutations (seven subjects) and paternal uniparental disomy (five subjects). In the remaining cases genetic testings were negative. A significantly high frequency of disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep, prolonged sleep latency, prolonged wakefulness after sleep onset, high number of night awakenings and reduced total sleep time were found in our AS patients, as compared to age-matched controls. We also found other types of sleep disorders, never reported before, such as enuresis, bruxism, sleep terrors, somnambulism, nocturnal hyperkinesia, and snoring. No differences were found between the four genetic aetiology groups. Moreover, we did not find important improvement of sleep disturbances from pre-pubertal to post-pubertal ages. Our data confirm the significant presence of sleep/wake rhythms fragmentation, peculiar of AS, and also demonstrate the presence of several other types of sleep disturbances in this syndrome. PMID:15130689

  9. Patterns and problems of sleep in school going children.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Kashyap, Sapna

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the sleep habits and problems of 103 young school going healthy children (3-10 yr) during their visit to hospital for minor illnesses or routine health visits for immunization. The average duration of daily sleep (nocturnal and daytime nap) was 10.32 and the percentage of children who took regular daytime nap was 28.2%. Co- sleeping, a traditional cultural practice in India was found in 93% of the children. Sleep related problems were reported in 42.7% children that included nocturnal enuresis (18.4%), sleep talking (14.6%), bruxism (11.6%) nightmares (6.8%), night terrors (2.9%) snoring (5.8%) and sleepwalking (1.9%). On univariate analysis, sleep related problems were notably common if it was nuclear family (Fishers exact test; P = 0.01), mother was younger in age (Mann Whitney U test; P= .04) and less educated (Mann Whitney U test; P=.04). However, when these predictors were entered simultaneously into a logistic regression model, only nuclear family remained as significant predictor of sleep related disorders (odds ratio 2.41; CI; 1.04-5.57). We conclude that sleep problems are frequent among healthy school going children seen at general pediatric practice. PMID:16465004

  10. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    AYAS, Najib T.; HIRSCH, Allen A. J.; LAHER, Ismail; BRADLEY, T. Douglas; MALHOTRA, Atul; POLOTSKY, Vsevolod Y.; TASALI, Esra

    2015-01-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  11. Treatment issues related to sleep and depression.

    PubMed

    Thase, M E

    2000-01-01

    In the management of depression, the role of sleep and sleep disturbances is important for several reasons. The same neurotransmitter systems that regulate mood, interest, energy, and other functions that may be disturbed in depression also regulate sleep. Sleep disturbances may be responsive to treatment with some antidepressants and may be worsened during treatment with other antidepressants. Serotonergic neurons play a critical role in modulating the onset and maintenance of sleep, and it is thought that insomnia in depression is caused by dysfunction of serotonergic systems. For a significant minority, SSRIs can have negative effects on sleep patterns resulting in insomnia that requires concomitant sedatives or anxiolytics. By contrast, agents that block the serotonin type 2 (5-HT2) receptor have beneficial effects on depressive insomnia. For example, a recent 8-week study comparing the effects of nefazodone and fluoxetine on sleep disturbances in outpatients with nonpsychotic depression and insomnia found that fluoxetine was associated with approximately a 30% increase in the number of nocturnal awakenings whereas nefazodone was associated with about a 15% decrease, a net difference of 45%. Long-term studies must be conducted to determine whether sleep benefits provided by the newer antidepressants will continue past the acute treatment phase. PMID:10926055

  12. Spatial patterning in nocturnal prosimians: a review of methods and relevance to studies of sociality.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Nguyen, N; Fashing, P J

    2000-05-01

    Patterns of home range overlap between individuals are key parameters used in discussions of sociality in nocturnal prosimians. Despite the importance of space use variables in defining social structure in nocturnal prosimians, researchers have yet to reach a consensus concerning the most reliable techniques for measuring patterns of home range use. In this paper, we review the methods used in 27 studies of nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior published since 1977. We discuss the usefulness and limitations of the various methods of data collection (radio tracking, trap mark, and identification of sleeping site locations) and data analysis (minimum convex polygon method, minimum concave polygon method, and quadrat analysis) used in these studies. We conclude that the most effective method for gathering data on individual movements and social interactions is direct observation of individual radio tagged animals during all-night follows. In those cases where radio tracking and/or all-night follows are not possible, trap mark techniques can be used, although they tend to greatly underestimate home range size. We recommend that data collected on nocturnal prosimian ranging behavior be analyzed using the minimum convex polygon method, quadrat analysis, and, perhaps, one other of the more mathematically sophisticated techniques popular in studies of non-primate mammals. Finally, we urge researchers to employ standardized methods of data collection and data analysis in future studies of range use in nocturnal prosimians. Without standardization of methods, quantitative comparisons of the findings from different studies are biologically meaningless and prevent cross-species comparisons of space use and its relation to sociality. PMID:10811437

  13. Sleep and Adjustment in Preschool Children: Sleep Diary Reports by Mothers Relate to Behavior Reports by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, John E.; Viken, Richard J.; Alexander, Douglas B.; Beyers, Jennifer; Stockton, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral adjustment with 4- to 5-year-old children from low-income families. Found that disrupted child sleep patterns, including variability in parentally reported amount of sleep, variability in bedtime, and lateness of bedtime, predicted less optimal adjustment in preschool, even after

  14. Sleep and Adjustment in Preschool Children: Sleep Diary Reports by Mothers Relate to Behavior Reports by Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, John E.; Viken, Richard J.; Alexander, Douglas B.; Beyers, Jennifer; Stockton, Lesley

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between sleep patterns and behavioral adjustment with 4- to 5-year-old children from low-income families. Found that disrupted child sleep patterns, including variability in parentally reported amount of sleep, variability in bedtime, and lateness of bedtime, predicted less optimal adjustment in preschool, even after…

  15. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  16. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  17. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Lger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  18. Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Is Independently Associated with Reduced Postoperative Opioid Consumption in Bariatric Patients Suffering from Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Alparslan; You, Jing; Egan, Cameron; Fu, Alex; Khanna, Ashish; Eshraghi, Yashar; Ghosh, Raktim; Bose, Somnath; Qavi, Shahbaz; Arora, Lovkesh; Sessler, Daniel I.; Doufas, Anthony G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that recurrent nocturnal hypoxemia may affect pain response and/or the sensitivity to opioid analgesia. We tested the hypothesis that nocturnal hypoxemia, quantified by sleep time spent at an arterial saturation (SaO2) < 90% and minimum nocturnal SaO2 on polysomnography, are associated with decreased pain and reduced opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours in patients having laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Methods With Institutional Review Board approval, we examined the records of all patients who underwent laparoscopic bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2010 and had an available nocturnal polysomnography study. We assessed the relationships between the time-weighted average of pain score and total opioid consumption during the initial 72 postoperative hours, and: (a) the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90%, (b) the minimum nocturnal SaO2, and (c) the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. We used multivariable regression models to adjust for both clinical and sleep-related confounders. Results Two hundred eighteen patients were included in the analysis. Percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was inversely associated with total postoperative opioid consumption; a 5-%- absolute increase in the former would relatively decrease median opioid consumption by 16% (98.75% CI: 2% to 28%, P = 0.006). However, the percentage of total sleep time spent at SaO2 < 90% was not associated with pain. The minimum nocturnal SaO2 was associated neither with total postoperative opioid consumption nor with pain. In addition, neither pain nor total opioid consumption was significantly associated with the number of apnea/hypopnea episodes per hour of sleep. Conclusions Preoperative nocturnal intermittent hypoxia may enhance sensitivity to opioids. PMID:26010491

  19. Sleep Quality and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and behavioural difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. Mothers often wake and tend to their child when their child is having sleep difficulties. Therefore, mothers of children with developmental disabilities can have poor sleep quality due to these disruptions. The present study investigated the impact of sleep

  20. Description of a Sleep-Restriction Program to Reduce Bedtime Disturbances and Night Waking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, V. Mark; Christodulu, Kristin V.

    2004-01-01

    The authors describe a behavioral intervention designed to reduce sleep problems without increasing disruption at bedtime or throughout the evening. Sleep restriction was used to reduce the bedtime and nighttime sleep problems of two children, a 4-year-old girl with autism and a 4-year-old girl with developmental delay. Sleep restriction involved

  1. The effect of nocturia on sleep

    PubMed Central

    Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Bliwise, Donald L.; Nørgaard, Jens Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in physical and mental functioning. It is increasingly recognized that disturbed sleep is a highly prevalent and chronic condition that merits greater awareness due to the wide-ranging and serious repercussions associated with it. Nocturia is one of the causes of sleep disturbance and has been shown to impair functioning, quality of life, health and productivity, with those experiencing two or more voids per night reporting significant ‘bother’. Nocturia warrants full consideration as a significant target for intervention, aiming to reduce the burden of disturbed sleep on individuals, families and society. Currently however, a definitive evaluation of the most relevant sleep endpoints in nocturia therapy is lacking. One endpoint often used is the duration of the initial sleep period, which when evaluated in combination with the number of voiding episodes per night might be an indication of the severity of sleep disruption in patients with nocturia. PMID:20965130

  2. Scaling behavior of EEG amplitude and frequency time series across sleep stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Tismer, Sebastian; Gans, Fabian; Schumann, Aicko Y.; Penzel, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    We study short-term and long-term persistence properties (related with auto-correlations) of amplitudes and frequencies of EEG oscillations in 176 healthy subjects and 40 patients during nocturnal sleep. The amplitudes show scaling from 2 to 500 seconds (depending on the considered band) with large fluctuation exponents during (nocturnal) wakefulness (0.73-0.83) and small ones during deep sleep (0.50-0.69). Light sleep is similar to deep sleep, while REM sleep (0.64-0.76) is closer to wakefulness except for the EEG γ band. Some of the frequency time series also show long-term scaling, depending on the selected bands and stages. Only minor deviations are seen for patients with depression, anxiety, or Parkinson's disease.

  3. Nocturnal Risk of Gout Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon K.; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara A.; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several plausible mechanisms and anecdotal descriptions suggest that gout attacks often occur at night, although there are no scientific data supporting this. We undertook this study to evaluate the hypothesis that gout attacks occur more frequently at night. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study to examine the risk of acute gout attacks in relation to the time of the day. Gout patients were prospectively recruited and followed up via the internet for 1 year. Participants were asked about the following information concerning their gout attacks: the date and hour of attack onset, symptoms and signs, medication use, and purported risk factors during the 24- and 48-hour periods prior to the gout attack. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) of gout attacks (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) according to three 8-hour time blocks of the day (i.e., 12:00 am to 7:59 am, 8:00 am to 3:59 pm [reference], and 4:00 pm to 11:59 pm) using conditional logistic regression. Results Our study included 724 gout patients who experienced a total of 1,433 attacks (733, 310, and 390 attacks during the first, second, and third 8-hour time blocks, respectively) over 1 year. The risk of gout flares in the 8-hour overnight time block (12:00 am to 7:59 am) was 2.36 times higher than in the daytime (8:00 am to 3:59 pm) (OR 2.36 [95% CI 2.052.73]). The corresponding OR in the evening (4:00 pm to 11:59 pm) was 1.26 (95% CI 1.071.48). These associations persisted among those with no alcohol use and in the lowest quintile of purine intake in the 24 hours prior to attack onset. Furthermore, these associations persisted in subgroups according to sex, age group, obesity status, diuretic use, and use of allopurinol, colchicine, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Conclusion These findings provide the first prospective evidence that the risk of gout attacks during the night and early morning is 2.4 times higher than in the daytime. Further, these data support the purported mechanisms and historical descriptions of the nocturnal onset of gout attacks and may have implications for antigout prophylactic measures. PMID:25504842

  4. Probabilistic sleep architecture models in patients with and without sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Matt T.; Eiseman, Nathaniel A.; Cash, Sydney S.; Mietus, Joseph; Peng, Chung-Kang; Thomas, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sleep fragmentation of any cause is disruptive to the rejuvenating value of sleep. However, methods to quantify sleep architecture remain limited. We have previously shown that human sleepwake stage distributions exhibit multi-exponential dynamics, which are fragmented by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), suggesting that Markov models may be a useful method to quantify architecture in health and disease. Sleep stage data were obtained from two subsets of the Sleep Heart Health Study database: control subjects with no medications, no OSA, no medical co-morbidities and no sleepiness (n = 374); and subjects with severe OSA (n = 338). Sleep architecture was simplified into three stages: wake after sleep onset (WASO); non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The connectivity and transition rates among eight generator states of a first-order continuous-time Markov model were inferred from the observed (phenotypic) distributions: three exponentials each of NREM sleep and WASO; and two exponentials of REM sleep. Ultradian REM cycling was accomplished by imposing time-variation to REM state entry rates. Fragmentation in subjects with severe OSA involved faster transition probabilities as well as additional state transition paths within the model. The Markov models exhibit two important features of human sleep architecture: multi-exponential stage dynamics (accounting for observed bout distributions); and probabilistic transitions (an inherent source of variability). In addition, the model quantifies the fragmentation associated with severe OSA. Markov sleep models may prove important for quantifying sleep disruption to provide objective metrics to correlate with endpoints ranging from sleepiness to cardiovascular morbidity. PMID:21955148

  5. A comparison of idiopathic hypersomnia and narcolepsy-cataplexy using self report measures and sleep diary data.

    PubMed

    Bruck, D; Parkes, J D

    1996-05-01

    Eighteen patients with idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) were compared with 50 patients with the narcoleptic syndrome of cataplexy and daytime sleepiness (NLS) using self report questionnaires and a diary of sleep/wake patterns. The IH group reported more consolidated nocturnal sleep, a lower propensity to nap, greater refreshment after naps, and a greater improvement in excessive daytime sleepiness since onset than the NLS group. In IH, the onset of excessive daytime sleepiness was predominantly associated with familial inheritance or a viral illness. Two variable--number of reported awakenings during nocturnal sleep and the reported change in sleepiness since onset--provided maximum discrimination between the IH and NLS groups. Confusional arousals, extended naps or nocturnal sleep, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, low ratings of medication effectiveness, or side effects of medication were not associated differentially with either IH or NLS. PMID:8778267

  6. Noninvasive Ventilation Improves Sleep in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Prospective Polysomnographic Study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijsen, Bart; Buyse, Bertien; Belge, Catharina; Robberecht, Wim; Van Damme, Philip; Decramer, Marc; Testelmans, Dries

    2015-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the effects of noninvasive ventilation (NIV) on sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after meticulous titration with polysomnography (PSG). Methods: In this prospective observational study, 24 ALS patients were admitted to the sleep laboratory during 4 nights for in-hospital NIV titration with PSG and nocturnal capnography. Questionnaires were used to assess subjective sleep quality and quality of life (QoL). Patients were readmitted after one month. Results: In the total group, slow wave sleep and REM sleep increased and the arousal-awakening index improved. The group without bulbar involvement (non-bulbar) showed the same improvements, together with an increase in sleep efficiency. Nocturnal oxygen and carbon dioxide levels improved in the total and non-bulbar group. Except for oxygen saturation during REM sleep, no improvement in respiratory function or sleep structure was found in bulbar patients. However, these patients showed less room for improvement. Patient-reported outcomes showed improvement in sleep quality and QoL for the total and non-bulbar group, while bulbar patients only reported improvements in very few subscores. Conclusions: This study shows an improvement of sleep architecture, carbon dioxide, and nocturnal oxygen saturation at the end of NIV titration and after one month of NIV in ALS patients. More studies are needed to identify the appropriate time to start NIV in bulbar patients. Our results suggest that accurate titration of NIV by PSG improves sleep quality. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 511. Citation: Vrijsen B, Buyse B, Belge C, Robberecht W, Van Damme P, Decramer M, Testelmans D. Noninvasive ventilation improves sleep in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a prospective polysomnographic study. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(5):559–566. PMID:25766713

  7. Consequences of Circadian Disruption on Cardiometabolic Health.

    PubMed

    Reutrakul, Sirimon; Knutson, Kristen L

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity are highly prevalent diseases associated with reduced quality of life and life expectancy. We discuss a novel risk factor for these cardiometabolic diseases: circadian disruption. Circadian disruption occurs when the internal circadian (?24-hour) rhythms are not in synchrony with the environment or each other. This paper reviews (1) cardiometabolic health of shift work, which often leads to circadian disruption, (2) effects of experimentally disrupted circadian rhythms on cardiometabolic function, (3) observational studies of sleep timing and behavioral chronotype, and (4) potential mediators linking chronotype and shift work to circadian disruption and cardiometabolic health. PMID:26568122

  8. Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs when inadequate sleep leads to decreased performance, inadequate alertness, and deterioration in health. It is incompletely understood why humans need sleep, although some theories include energy conservation, restoration, and information processing. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious health effects. Residency programs have enacted strict work restrictions because of medically related errors due to sleep deprivation. Because obstetrics is an unpredictable specialty with long irregular hours, enacting a hospitalist program enhances patient safety, decreases malpractice risk, and improves the physician's quality of life by allowing obstetricians to get sufficient rest. PMID:26333639

  9. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlbergs Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlbergs epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ?35C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  10. Headaches and their relationship to sleep.

    PubMed

    Biondi, D M

    2001-10-01

    Despite the complex influences of normal sleep physiology and sleep disorders on the development or presentation of headache, it is important to recognize and understand these relationships. Successful outcomes depend on the provision of treatment interventions specifically directed toward each condition. Nocturnal or early morning headaches that are associated with OSA are often eradicated after the sleep disorder is successfully managed with CPAP, oral appliances, or surgery. Substantial improvement in headache can also result from the successful management of other sleep disorders that may incite headaches such as heavy snoring, PLMS, or the various forms of insomnia. To improve headache patterns associated with bruxism and TMD, it is often necessary to formulate a multidisciplinary treatment approach that combines oral appliance therapy, stress management, biofeedback, oromandibular physical therapy, and, at times, pharmacologic treatment (i.e., tricyclic antidepressant, intramuscular botulinum toxin injections). There are still many gaps in the understanding of the interrelationships of sleep physiology and headache pathophysiology. More well-designed clinical trials are needed so that enough data can be amassed for the formulation of evidence-based guidelines or consensus statements that can better delineate the identification, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of sleep-related headache disorders and headaches that develop as a consequence of disordered sleep. PMID:11699236

  11. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  12. New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... historical) New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients People with rheumatoid ... in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism. In addition, sleep disruptions, which are common among people with RA, ...

  13. Deprivation and Recovery of Sleep in Succession Enhances Reflexive Motor Behavior.

    PubMed

    Sprenger, Andreas; Weber, Frederik D; Machner, Bjoern; Talamo, Silke; Scheffelmeier, Sabine; Bethke, Judith; Helmchen, Christoph; Gais, Steffen; Kimmig, Hubert; Born, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Sleep deprivation impairs inhibitory control over reflexive behavior, and this impairment is commonly assumed to dissipate after recovery sleep. Contrary to this belief, here we show that fast reflexive behaviors, when practiced during sleep deprivation, is consolidated across recovery sleep and, thereby, becomes preserved. As a model for the study of sleep effects on prefrontal cortex-mediated inhibitory control in humans, we examined reflexive saccadic eye movements (express saccades), as well as speeded 2-choice finger motor responses. Different groups of subjects were trained on a standard prosaccade gap paradigm before periods of nocturnal sleep and sleep deprivation. Saccade performance was retested in the next morning and again 24 h later. The rate of express saccades was not affected by sleep after training, but slightly increased after sleep deprivation. Surprisingly, this increase augmented even further after recovery sleep and was still present 4 weeks later. Additional experiments revealed that the short testing after sleep deprivation was sufficient to increase express saccades across recovery sleep. An increase in speeded responses across recovery sleep was likewise found for finger motor responses. Our findings indicate that recovery sleep can consolidate motor disinhibition for behaviors practiced during prior sleep deprivation, thereby persistently enhancing response automatization. PMID:26048955

  14. The impact of nocturnal disturbances on daily quality of life in patients with Parkinsons disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Rwei-Ling; Tan, Chun-Hsiang; Wu, Ruey-Meei

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to explore nocturnal disturbances in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD) and to assess their impact on quality of life (QoL). Methods A total of 211 patients with PD were recruited for this study, and each participant was evaluated using the mini-mental state examination, PD sleep scale second version (PDSS-2), pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), PD QoL questionnaire (PDQ), Epworth sleepiness scale, Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) staging, and unified Parkinsons disease rating scale (UPDRS). Multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the contribution of the predictive variables on QoL. Results There were 56.4% males (mean age: 64.08 years; disease duration: 6.02 years; H&Y stage: 2.25; and UPDRS: 33.01) in this study. Our patients actual sleep time was 5.961.16 hours and the average sleep efficiency was 82.93%12.79%. Up to 64.4% of patients were classified as poor sleepers and 23.8% suffered from daytime sleepiness. The final stepwise regression model revealed that UPDRS parts I and II, the sleep disturbance and daytime dysfunction components of the PSQI, the PD symptoms at night subscale of the PDSS-2, and the levodopa equivalent dose were significant predictors of the PDQ score (R2=53, F7,165=28.746; P<0.001). Conclusion Most of the PD patients have sleep problems, and nearly one-quarter of them have abnormal daytime somnolence. The nocturnal disturbances were found to result in worse QoL in PD patients. Ethnicity-specific effects of susceptibility to sleep disturbances were discussed, and these results also highlighted the direction for further studies to explore when examining effective management programs toward these disturbances. PMID:26273203

  15. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  16. Human Puberty SIMULTANEOUS AUGMENTED SECRETION OF LUTEINIZING HORMONE AND TESTOSTERONE DURING SLEEP

    PubMed Central

    Boyar, R. M.; Rosenfeld, R. S.; Kapen, S.; Finkelstein, J. W.; Roffwarg, H. P.; Weitzman, E. D.; Hellman, Leon

    1974-01-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay in nine pubertal boys and three sexually mature young men at 20-min intervals for 24 h. Plasma LH and T were also measured in one boy during a delayed sleep onset study. Polygraphic monitoring was carried out to identify precisely sleep onset. Wakefulness, and specific sleep stages. In all nine pubertal boys the plasma T concentration fluctuated and was significantly higher during normal nocturnal sleep as compared to daytime waking. This increased T secretion during sleep was temporally linked to the characteristic pubertal sleep augmentation of LH secretion. To define further the relationship of this increased T secretion to sleep, plasma LH and T were also measured in three of the pubertal boys after acute (1-day) reversal of the sleep-wake cycle. One of these boys was also studied after 3 days of sleep-wake cycle reversal. The results of these studies showed that plasma T was now augmented during the reversed daytime sleep period; the mean T concentrations during this period were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than during nocturnal waking in all four studies. Measurement of plasma LH and T in the three sexually mature young men showed episodic secretion of LH and T during both waking and sleep periods; there was no consistent significant augmentation of LH or T secretion during sleep. This study demonstrates that (a) in normal pubertal boys and sexually mature young men plasma T fluctuates episodically; (b) there is marked augmentation of T secretion during sleep in pubertal boys, which is dependent on increased LH secretion; (c) this pubertal LH-T secretory program is dependent on sleep, since it shifts with delayed sleep onset and reversal of the sleep-wake cycle; and (d) this demonstrable tropic effect of LH on T is evident only during puberty, since sexually mature young men fail to show any consistent relationship between LH and T secretion either awake or asleep. PMID:4852310

  17. Factors influencing phototaxis in nocturnal migrating birds.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xuebing; Chen, Mingyan; Wu, Zhaolu; Wang, Zijiang

    2014-12-01

    Many migratory bird species fly during the night (nocturnal migrants) and have been shown to display some phototaxis to artificial light. During 2006 to 2009, we investigated phototaxis in nocturnal migrants at Jinshan Yakou in Xinping County (N23°56', E101°30'; 2400 m above sea-level), and at the Niaowang Mountain in Funing County (N23°30', E105°35'; 1400 m above sea-level), both in the Yunnan Province of Southwest China. A total of 5069 birds, representing 129 species, were captured by mist-netting and artificial light. The extent of phototaxis effect on bird migration was examined during all four seasons, three phases of the moon, and under two weather conditions (mist and wind). Data were statistically analyzed to determine the extent to which these factors may impact phototaxis of nocturnal migrants. The results point to phototaxis in birds migrating in the spring and autumn, especially in the autumn. Furthermore, migrating birds were more readily attracted to artificial lights during nights with little moonlight, mist, and a headwind. Regardless of the initial orientation in which birds flew, either following the wind or against the wind, birds would always fly against the wind when flying towards the light. This study broadens our understanding of the nocturnal bird migration, potentially resulting in improved bird ringing practices, increased awareness, and better policies regarding bird protection. PMID:25483789

  18. Nocturnal faecal soiling and anal masturbation.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A F; Tayler, P J; Bhate, S R

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of late onset faecal soiling as a result of anal masturbation in children who were neither mentally handicapped nor psychotic were studied. The role of soiling in aiding the young person and his family to avoid separating and maturing is highlighted. We suggest that the association of anal masturbation and resistant nocturnal soiling may be unrecognised. PMID:2270946

  19. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other normal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< or = 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> or = 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated response (performance decrement) to sleep loss compared to subjects who have high MSLT scores (Alert subjects) on a nominal sleep schedule. When permitted to extend sleep-thus discharging their sleep debt-the Sleepy subjects will show a sleep-loss response resembling that of the Alert subjects.

  20. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. Roth and colleagues (1993) have shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep (Roth et al., 1993), as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended (Roehrs et al., 1996). We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated response (performance decrement) to sleep loss compared to subjects who have high MSLT scores (Alert subjects) on a nominal sleep schedule. when permitted to extend sleep-thus discharging their sleep debt-the Sleepy subjects will show a sleep-loss response resembling that of the Alert subjects.

  1. Individual Differences in Response to Sleep Deprivation: Assessment of Fatigue Following Sleep Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carskadon, Mary A.

    1997-01-01

    Previous work has indicated that a small but significant number of participants in sleep deprivation studies or in simulated shift work experiments manifests an exaggerated performance decrement when they reach a critical point in the experiment, usually near the trough of the circadian cycle or the middle of the night. Those who show this exaggerated response do not appear to differ from other non-nal volunteers in any substantial way according to usual screening criteria or baseline values. The present study aims to examine factors that may provide the basis for this extreme response. We propose that a preexisting sleep deficit-as manifested by low values on the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT)-may account for extreme responders. It has been shown that among normal volunteers screened for a variety of studies, approximately 20 to 25 percent show low (< 6 minutes) MSLT scores on a consistent basis, whereas a like proportion shows consistently high MSLT scores (> 13 minutes). Additionally, studies by this group have indicated that subjects with low MSLT scores may suffer from chronic insufficient sleep, as further substantiated by the finding that they have consistently higher nocturnal sleep efficiency and that their MSLT scores rise to normal values when sleep is extended. We hypothesize that the short MSLT subjects have a significant long-term sleep deficit that leads to a marked intolerance for sleep deprivation or shift work. We further suggest that this sleep debt may signify an increased sleep need in these individuals that is not met either due to personal preference or to societal pressures (or both). If this speculation is accurate, then we predict that the tolerance for sleep deprivation in such individuals can be increased by "pretreatment" with sleep extension. Thus, the present study is designed to test the following two hypotheses: (1) subjects with nominal sleep patterns who have low MSLT scores (e.g., Sleepy subjects) will show an exaggerated response (performance decrement) to sleep loss compared to subjects who have high MSLT scores (Alert subjects) on a nominal sleep schedule; (2) when permitted to extend sleep--thus discharging their sleep debt-the Sleepy subjects will show a sleep-loss response resembling that of the Alert subjects.

  2. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of Iness or self in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  3. REM sleep rescues learning from interference.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A; Duggan, Katherine A; Mednick, Sara C

    2015-07-01

    Classical human memory studies investigating the acquisition of temporally-linked events have found that the memories for two events will interfere with each other and cause forgetting (i.e., interference; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, sleep helps consolidate memories and protect them from subsequent interference (Ellenbogen, Hulbert, Stickgold, Dinges, & Thompson-Schill, 2006). We asked whether sleep can also repair memories that have already been damaged by interference. Using a perceptual learning paradigm, we induced interference either before or after a consolidation period. We varied brain states during consolidation by comparing active wake, quiet wake, and naps with either non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), or both NREM and REM sleep. When interference occurred after consolidation, sleep and wake both produced learning. However, interference prior to consolidation impaired memory, with retroactive interference showing more disruption than proactive interference. Sleep rescued learning damaged by interference. Critically, only naps that contained REM sleep were able to rescue learning that was highly disrupted by retroactive interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of rescued learning was correlated with the amount of REM sleep. We demonstrate the first evidence of a process by which the brain can rescue and consolidate memories damaged by interference, and that this process requires REM sleep. We explain these results within a theoretical model that considers how interference during encoding interacts with consolidation processes to predict which memories are retained or lost. PMID:25498222

  4. Pathophysiology of Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Veasey, Sigrid C.; Morgan, Barbara J.; O'Donnell, Christopher P.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep-induced apnea and disordered breathing refers to intermittent, cyclical cessations or reductions of airflow, with or without obstructions of the upper airway (OSA). In the presence of an anatomically compromised, collapsible airway, the sleep-induced loss of compensatory tonic input to the upper airway dilator muscle motor neurons leads to collapse of the pharyngeal airway. In turn, the ability of the sleeping subject to compensate for this airway obstruction will determine the degree of cycling of these events. Several of the classic neurotransmitters and a growing list of neuromodulators have now been identified that contribute to neurochemical regulation of pharyngeal motor neuron activity and airway patency. Limited progress has been made in developing pharmacotherapies with acceptable specificity for the treatment of sleep-induced airway obstruction. We review three types of major long-term sequelae to severe OSA that have been assessed in humans through use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment and in animal models via long-term intermittent hypoxemia (IH): 1) cardiovascular. The evidence is strongest to support daytime systemic hypertension as a consequence of severe OSA, with less conclusive effects on pulmonary hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and cardiac arrhythmias. The underlying mechanisms mediating hypertension include enhanced chemoreceptor sensitivity causing excessive daytime sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity, combined with overproduction of superoxide ion and inflammatory effects on resistance vessels. 2) Insulin sensitivity and homeostasis of glucose regulation are negatively impacted by both intermittent hypoxemia and sleep disruption, but whether these influences of OSA are sufficient, independent of obesity, to contribute significantly to the “metabolic syndrome” remains unsettled. 3) Neurocognitive effects include daytime sleepiness and impaired memory and concentration. These effects reflect hypoxic-induced “neural injury.” We discuss future research into understanding the pathophysiology of sleep apnea as a basis for uncovering newer forms of treatment of both the ventilatory disorder and its multiple sequelae. PMID:20086074

  5. Sleep disturbances in sexual abuse victims: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Harvey, Allison G; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne M; Grønli, Janne; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger H; Eid, Jarle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2012-02-01

    An impressive body of research has investigated whether sexual abuse is associated with sleep disturbances. Across studies there are considerable differences in methods and results. The aim of this paper was to conduct the first systematic review of this area, as well as to clarify existing results and to provide guidelines for future research. We conducted searches in the electronic databases PsycINFO and PubMed up until October 2010 for studies on sleep disturbances in sexually abused samples. Thirty-two studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria (reported empirical data, included sexually abused subjects, employed some form of sleep measurement, English language and published in peer reviewed journals). Across the studies included, sleep disturbances were widespread and more prevalent in sexually abused subjects as compared to in non-abused samples. Symptoms reported more frequently by sexually abused samples included nightmare related distress, sleep paralysis, nightly awakenings, restless sleep, and tiredness. Results were divergent with regards to sleep onset difficulties, nightmare frequency, nocturnal activity, sleep efficiency, and concerning the proportion of each sample reporting sleep disturbances as such. Potential sources of these divergences are examined. Several methodological weaknesses were identified in the included studies. In order to overcome limitations, future researchers are advised to use standardized and objective measurements of sleep, follow-up or longitudinal designs, representative population samples, large sample sizes, adequate comparison groups, as well as comparison groups with other trauma experiences. PMID:21600813

  6. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... safety. Rate This Content: Updated: February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  7. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Youtube Google + Blog Instagram LinkedIn RSS Choose a Sleep Topic sleep.org Sleep Disorders View More Items ... Syndicate More Join Now Become a Professional Member Sleep.org Footer Redirect Learn about how sleep impacts ...

  8. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Sleep and Chronic Disease As chronic diseases have assumed an increasingly common role in premature ... sleep health in the development and management of chronic diseases has grown. Notably, insufficient sleep has been linked ...

  9. Effects of environmental noise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kenneth I; Brink, Mark; Basner, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future. PMID:23257581

  10. Nocturnal penile tumescence monitoring with stamps in impotent diabetics.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; Hirata, Y

    1988-02-19

    The usefulness of nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) monitoring with stamps was evaluated in diabetic males with impotence. The stamps, which were similar in paper and size to Japanese 10-yen postage stamps, were wrapped around the penis before sleep and the stamp ring was checked for breakage the next morning. Clinical features of the subjects were investigated by penile blood pressure index (PBPI), neurological examinations, psychological tests, and hormonal measurements. Nineteen out of 37 patients with impotence had a breakage of the stamp rings on one or more of 3 nights. The patients with non-breakage of stamp rings had significantly more serious diabetic neuropathy (peripheral and autonomic), depressive tendency, loss of libido, and a higher prevalence of heavy smoking than those with breakage of the stamp rings. PBPI and hormonal findings showed no difference between the breakage and non-breakage patients. These results show that the diagnostic value of this method is nearly the same as that of NPT recording with a strain gauge. PMID:3359920

  11. Effect of cessation of late-night landing noise on sleep electrophysiology in the home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Fidell, S.; Bennett, R. L.; Friedman, J.; Globus, G.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of noise exposure and sleep electrophysiology were made in homes before and after cessation of nighttime aircraft landing noise. Six people were tested, all of whom had been exposed to intense aircraft noise for at least two years. Noise measurements indicated a large reduction in the hourly noise level during nighttime hours, but no charge during the daytime hours. Sleep measures indicated no dramatic changes in sleep patterns either immediately after a marked change in nocturnal noise exposure or approximately a month thereafter. No strong relationship was observed between noise level and sleep disturbances over the range from 60 to 90 db(A).

  12. Periodic limb movements and other movement disorders in sleep: neuropsychiatric dimensions.

    PubMed

    Reutens, Sharon; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2005-08-01

    Movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Tourette's syndrome, primarily manifest during wakefulness, intrude into sleep. There are some disorders, however, such as periodic limb movements in sleep, restless legs syndrome, paroxysmal nocturnal dystonia, bruxism, and somnambulism, which occur primarily during sleep. The diagnosis and management of these disorders pose a challenge to neuropsychiatric practice, not only because they may be difficult to distinguish from other neuropsychiatric disorders, but also because psychiatric disorders are often co-morbid with them. Study of these disorders is necessary for an understanding of the interaction of sleep and movement, and how disturbance in one may affect the other. PMID:16194801

  13. REM and NREM sleep as natural accompaniments of the evolution of warm-bloodedness.

    PubMed

    Lee Kavanau, J

    2002-12-01

    Divergence of primitive sleep into REM and NREM states is thought to have occurred in the nocturnal Triassic ancestors of mammals as a natural accompaniment of the evolution of warm-bloodedness. As ambient temperatures during twilight portions of primitive sleep traversed these evolving ancestors' core temperature, mechanisms of thermoregulatory control that employ muscle contractions became superfluous. The resulting loss of need for such contractions during twilight sleep led to muscle atonia. With muscle tone absent, selection favored the persistence of the fast waves of nocturnal activity during twilight sleep. Stimulations by these waves reinforce motor circuits at the increasing temperatures of evolving warm-bloodedness without leading to sleep-disturbing muscle contractions. By these and related interlinked adaptations, twilight sleep evolved into REM sleep. The daytime period of sleep became NREM sleep. The evolution of NREM and REM sleep following this scenario has implications for sleep's maintenance processes for long-term memories. During NREM sleep, there is an unsynchronized, uncoordinated stimulation and reinforcement of individual distributed component circuits of consolidated memories by slow wave potentials, a process termed 'uncoordinated reinforcement'. The corresponding process during REM sleep is the coordinated stimulation and reinforcement of these circuits by fast wave potentials. This action temporally binds the individual component circuit outputs into fully formed memories, a process termed 'coordinated reinforcement'. Sequential uncoordinated and coordinated reinforcement, that is, NREM followed by REM sleep, emerges as the most effective mechanism of long-term memory maintenance in vertebrates. With the evolution of this two-stage mechanism of long-term memory maintenance, it became adaptive to partition sleep into several NREM-REM cycles, thereby achieving a more lengthy application of the cooperative sequential actions. PMID:12667495

  14. Sleep and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory BP studies indicate that even small increases in BP, particularly nighttime BP levels, are associated with significant increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, sleep-related diseases that induce increases in BP would be anticipated to substantially affect cardiovascular risk. Both sleep deprivation and insomnia have been linked to increases in incidence and prevalence of hypertension. Likewise, sleep disruption attributable to restless legs syndrome increases the likelihood of having hypertension. Observational studies demonstrate a strong correlation between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk and severity of hypertension, whereas prospective studies of patients with OSA demonstrate a positive relationship between OSA and risk of incident hypertension. Intervention trials with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicate a modest, but inconsistent effect on BP in patients with severe OSA and a greater likelihood of benefit in patients with most CPAP adherence. Additional prospective studies are needed to reconcile observational studies suggesting that OSA is a strong risk factor for hypertension with the modest antihypertensive effects of CPAP observed in intervention studies. PMID:20682533

  15. Severe Nocturnal and Postexercise Hypoxia in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Halphen, Isabelle; Elie, Caroline; Brousse, Valentine; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Allali, Slimane; Bonnet, Damien; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that is inconsistently associated with painful crises and acute chest syndrome. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoxia, we recorded daytime, nocturnal, and postexercise pulse oximetry (SpO2) values in 39 SCD patients with a median age of 10.8 years. Median daytime SpO2 was 97% (range, 89%100%), and 36% of patients had daytime hypoxia defined as SpO2<96%. Median nocturnal SpO2 was 94.7% (range, 87.7%99.5%), 50% of patients had nocturnal hypoxia defined as SpO2?93%, and 11(37%) patients spent more than 10% of their total sleep time with SpO2<90%. Median postexercise SpO2 was 94% (range, 72%100%) and 44.7% of patients had postexercise hypoxia defined as an SpO2 decrease ?3% after a 6-minute walk test. Among patients with normal daytime SpO2, 35% had nocturnal and 42% postexercise hypoxia. Compared to 9 patients without daytime, nocturnal, or postexercise hypoxia, 25 patients with hypoxia under at least one of these three conditions had greater anemia severity (P?=?0.01), lower HbF levels (P?=?0.04), and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (P?=?0.03). Males predominated among patients with postexercise hypoxia (P?=?0.004). Hypoxia correlated neither with painful crises nor with acute chest syndrome. Of 32 evaluable patients, 6 (18.8%) had a tricuspid regurgitation velocity ?2.6 m/s, and this feature was associated with anemia (P?=?0.044). Median percentage of the predicted distance covered during a 6-minute walk test was 86% [46120]; the distance was negatively associated with LDH (P?=?0.044) and with a past history of acute chest syndrome (P?=?0.009). In conclusion, severe episodes of nocturnal and postexercise hypoxia are common in children with SCD, even those with normal daytime SpO2. PMID:24878576

  16. Ventilatory, hemodynamic, sympathetic nervous system, and vascular reactivity changes after recurrent nocturnal sustained hypoxia in humans

    PubMed Central

    Gilmartin, Geoffrey S.; Tamisier, Renaud; Curley, Matthew; Weiss, J. Woodrow

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent and intermittent nocturnal hypoxia is characteristic of several diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, congestive heart failure, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea. The contribution of hypoxia to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these disease states is unclear, however. To investigate the impact of recurrent nocturnal hypoxia on hemodynamics, sympathetic activity, and vascular tone we evaluated 10 normal volunteers before and after 14 nights of nocturnal sustained hypoxia (mean oxygen saturation 84.2%, 9 h/night). Over the exposure, subjects exhibited ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia as evidenced by an increase in resting ventilation (arterial Pco2 41.8 1.5 vs. 37.5 1.3 mmHg, mean SD; P < 0.05) and in the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response (slope 0.49 0.1 vs. 1.32 0.2 l/min per 1% fall in saturation; P < 0.05). Subjects exhibited a significant increase in mean arterial pressure (86.7 6.1 vs. 90.5 7.6 mmHg; P < 0.001), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (20.8 2.8 vs. 28.2 3.3 bursts/min; P < 0.01), and forearm vascular resistance (39.6 3.5 vs. 47.5 4.8 mmHgml?1100 g tissuemin; P < 0.05). Forearm blood flow during acute isocapnic hypoxia was increased after exposure but during selective brachial intra-arterial vascular infusion of the alpha-blocker phentolamine it was unchanged after exposure. Finally, there was a decrease in reactive hyperemia to 15 min of forearm ischemia after the hypoxic exposure. Recurrent nocturnal hypoxia thus increases sympathetic activity and alters peripheral vascular tone. These changes may contribute to the increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk associated with clinical diseases that are associated with chronic recurrent hypoxia. PMID:18539753

  17. Sleep and REM sleep disturbance in the pathophysiology of PTSD: the role of extinction memory.

    PubMed

    Pace-Schott, Edward F; Germain, Anne; Milad, Mohammed R

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is accompanied by disturbed sleep and an impaired ability to learn and remember extinction of conditioned fear. Following a traumatic event, the full spectrum of PTSD symptoms typically requires several months to develop. During this time, sleep disturbances such as insomnia, nightmares, and fragmented rapid eye movement sleep predict later development of PTSD symptoms. Only a minority of individuals exposed to trauma go on to develop PTSD. We hypothesize that sleep disturbance resulting from an acute trauma, or predating the traumatic experience, may contribute to the etiology of PTSD. Because symptoms can worsen over time, we suggest that continued sleep disturbances can also maintain and exacerbate PTSD. Sleep disturbance may result in failure of extinction memory to persist and generalize, and we suggest that this constitutes one, non-exclusive mechanism by which poor sleep contributes to the development and perpetuation of PTSD. Also reviewed are neuroendocrine systems that show abnormalities in PTSD, and in which stress responses and sleep disturbance potentially produce synergistic effects that interfere with extinction learning and memory. Preliminary evidence that insomnia alone can disrupt sleep-dependent emotional processes including consolidation of extinction memory is also discussed. We suggest that optimizing sleep quality following trauma, and even strategically timing sleep to strengthen extinction memories therapeutically instantiated during exposure therapy, may allow sleep itself to be recruited in the treatment of PTSD and other trauma and stress-related disorders. PMID:26034578

  18. Insulinoma Masquerading as Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Akiko; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Kanbayashi, Takashi; Sato, Masatoshi; Shimizu, Tetsuo; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Insulinoma is a rare endocrine tumor that can cause a wide variety of symptoms, including abnormal nocturnal behavior. We report on 3 patients with insulinoma who presented with abnormal nocturnal behavior and injury during sleep, which simulated rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD). In case 1, the fasting glucose level was 15?mg/dL, and insulin levels were elevated (15??U/mL). In case 3, when the patient was transferred to the hospital because of a disturbance of consciousness, hypoglycemia (29?mg/dL) was detected. In contrast, in case 2, fasting glucose sampling did not indicate hypoglycemia, but continuous glucose monitoring revealed nocturnal hypoglycemia. The time from initial symptoms to a diagnosis of insulinoma ranged from 7 months to 2 years. All 3 patients had previously received anticonvulsant drugs for suspected epilepsy, but the medications were ineffective. Polysomnography showed no evidence of REM sleep without atonia in any of the 3 patients. No patient remembered any events that occurred during sleep. When a patient manifests abnormal behavior during the night and early morning, glucose monitoring should be performed, especially during the night and early morning. Clinicians should be aware that although insulinomas are rare, they can mimic parasomnias, such as RBD. PMID:26107678

  19. Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening: translation and linguistic validation of a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Komada, Yoko; Breugelmans, Raoul; Fulda, Stephany; Nakano, Sae; Watanabe, Aya; Noda, Chieri; Nishida, Shingo; Inoue, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is no broad screening instrument that can comprehensively assess parasomnias and sleep-related movement disorders listed in the International Classification of Sleep Disorders. The aim of this study was to develop the Japanese version of the Munich Parasomnia Screening (MUPS), a screening instrument for parasomnias and nocturnal behaviors, which was developed and validated at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry. Methods A multi-step translation methodology consisting of forward translation, back translation, expert review, and cognitive debriefing interviews was performed between June and November 2011. Results The English version of the MUPS was translated into Japanese, and the original author performed an expert review on the basis of a detailed report on the forward and back translation steps. The cognitive debriefing was carried out in five patients with parasomnia. The mean time to fill out the questionnaire was 8 minutes (ranging from 2 to 17 minutes). The authors reviewed and discussed the results of the cognitive debriefing interviews and modified the Japanese version. The final Japanese version was confirmed to be conceptually equivalent to the original English version. Conclusion The Japanese version of the MUPS is an easy-to-use self-rating instrument for parasomnia and nocturnal behavior screening, consistent with the original version. The usage of this instrument would enable clinicians to quickly screen the past history and current frequency of nocturnal behaviors. PMID:26648727

  20. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  1. Gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms are related to the presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Kelly L; James, Alan L; Musk, Arthur W; Hunter, Michael L; Hillman, David R; Eastwood, Peter R

    2011-03-01

    Repetitive airway occlusion during sleep in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) results in the generation of negative intrathoracic pressures and ends in arousal, both of which may predispose to reflux during sleep (nocturnal reflux). We aimed to determine and compare the prevalence of nocturnal reflux symptoms and their sleep-associated risk factors in untreated OSA patients, OSA patients using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, and the general population. Gastro-oesophageal reflux and sleep questionnaires were completed by 1116 patients with polysomnography diagnosed OSA and by 1999 participants of the 2007 Busselton population health survey. Of the OSA patients, 137 completed the reflux questionnaire before and after treatment. Risk of OSA in the general population was assessed using the Berlin score. The prevalence of frequent (>weekly) nocturnal reflux symptoms was increased (P<0.001) in OSA patients (10.2%) versus the general population (5.5%), in individuals from the general population at high (8.7%) versus low risk (4.3%) of OSA and in patients with severe (13.9%) versus mild OSA (5.1%). Frequent nocturnal reflux symptoms were associated with high risk (general population) (OR 1.9, P<0.01) and severity of OSA (OSA population) OR 3.0, severe versus mild OSA, P<0.001) after correcting for age, gender and body mass index. Treatment with CPAP decreased the prevalence of reflux symptoms significantly. In conclusion, the prevalence of nocturnal reflux symptoms is increased in those with or suspected of having OSA. This association is independent of other risk factors including age, gender and body mass index, suggesting a causal relationship between OSA and nocturnal reflux. PMID:20545839

  2. A case of sleep-related painful erections with chronic daytime genital discomfort.

    PubMed

    Mellado, Miguel

    2015-09-18

    Sleep-related painful erections (SRPE) are an uncommon condition characterized by recurrent nocturnal penile tumescence accompanied by penile pain without penile pathology, which occurs during the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage. A report of a 59-year-old patient with SRPE is described. Turgid painful erections (five to seven episodes of tumescence) during the sleep hours caused pain together with burning and tingling sensations in the penis and perineal zone during the daytime hours. Swelling of the pubic and perineal area was recurrent. Sleep loss, chronic fatigue, mild anxiety, lack of concentration and decreased work occurred along with this condition. Polysomnographic findings indicated REM sleep fragmentation. Attempts to treat this condition with muscle relaxants or anxiolytics did not prompt an improvement of this disorder, but a single daily dose of gabapentin 300 mg in combination with 1 mg clonazepam at bedtime improved total sleep time and reduced full sleep erections. PMID:24803352

  3. Differential acute effects of sleep on spontaneous and stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor in men.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Stoyan; Besedovsky, Luciana; Born, Jan; Lange, Tanja

    2015-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a key molecule in the regulation of sleep in health and disease. Conversely, sleep compared to sleep deprivation can modulate TNF release, but overall results are conflicting. In this study we focused on the influence of sleep on spontaneous, i.e., unstimulated TNF production, which might be involved in sleep regulation under normal non-infectious conditions, and on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TNF production, which reflects the capacity of the immune system to respond to a pathogen. To this end, we monitored 10 healthy men during a regular sleep-wake cycle and during 24h of wakefulness while blood was sampled repeatedly to analyze circulating TNF levels in serum as well as intracellular TNF production in monocytes spontaneously and after stimulation with LPS employing whole blood cell cultures. In addition we assessed numbers of monocyte subsets and levels of various hormones in blood. In comparison with nocturnal wakefulness, sleep acutely decreased serum TNF levels, with no parallel decrease in spontaneous monocytic TNF production, but was associated with a striking nighttime increase in the percentage of TNF producing monocytes after stimulation with LPS. The following day circulating TNF showed a reverse pattern with higher levels after regular sleep than after the nocturnal vigil. The mechanisms mediating the differential effects of sleep on circulating TNF (acutely decreased) vs. stimulated monocytic TNF production (acutely increased) remain unclear, although explorative correlational analyses pointed to a regulatory involvement of cortisol, norepinephrine and prolactin. The acute enhancing effect of sleep on LPS stimulated monocytic TNF production adds to the notion that nocturnal sleep favors immune defense to a microbial challenge. PMID:25500219

  4. Sleep Hygiene and Recovery Strategies in Elite Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nédélec, Mathieu; Halson, Shona; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaidia, Abd-Elbasset; Ahmaidi, Said; Dupont, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    In elite soccer, players are frequently exposed to various situations and conditions that can interfere with sleep (e.g., playing night matches interspersed with 3 days; performing activities demanding high levels of concentration close to bedtime; use of products containing caffeine or alcohol in the period preceding bedtime; regular daytime napping throughout the week; variable wake-up times or bedtime), potentially leading to sleep deprivation. We outline simple, practical, and pharmaceutical-free sleep strategies that are coordinated to the constraints of elite soccer in order to promote sleep. Sleep deprivation is best alleviated by sleep extension; however, sleep hygiene strategies (i.e., consistent sleep pattern, appropriate napping, and active daytime behaviors) can be utilized to promote restorative sleep. Light has a profound impact on sleep, and sleep hygiene strategies that support the natural environmental light-dark cycle (i.e., red-light treatment prior to sleep, dawn-simulation therapy prior to waking) and prevent cycle disruption (i.e., filtering short wavelengths prior to sleep) may be beneficial to elite soccer players. Under conditions of inordinate stress, techniques such as brainwave entrainment and meditation are promising sleep-promoting strategies, but future studies are required to ascertain the applicability of these techniques to elite soccer players. Consuming high-electrolyte fluids such as milk, high-glycemic index carbohydrates, some forms of protein immediately prior to sleep, as well as tart cherry juice concentrate and tryptophan may promote rehydration, substrate stores replenishment, muscle-damage repair and/or restorative sleep. The influence of cold water immersion performed close to bedtime on subsequent sleep is still debated. Conversely, the potential detrimental effects of sleeping medication must be recognized. Sleep initiation is influenced by numerous factors, reinforcing the need for future research to identify such factors. Efficient and individualized sleep hygiene strategies may consequently be proposed. PMID:26275673

  5. Cell Injury and Repair Resulting from Sleep Loss and Sleep Recovery in Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Everson, Carol A.; Henchen, Christopher J.; Szabo, Aniko; Hogg, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Increased cell injury would provide the type of change in constitution that would underlie sleep disruption as a risk factor for multiple diseases. The current study was undertaken to investigate cell injury and altered cell fate as consequences of sleep deprivation, which were predicted from systemic clues. Design: Partial (35% sleep reduction) and total sleep deprivation were produced in rats for 10 days, which was tolerated and without overtly deteriorated health. Recovery rats were similarly sleep deprived for 10 days, then allowed undisturbed sleep for 2 days. The plasma, liver, lung, intestine, heart, and spleen were analyzed and compared to control values for damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids; apoptotic cell signaling and death; cell proliferation; and concentrations of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements and Results: Oxidative DNA damage in totally sleep deprived rats was 139% of control values, with organ-specific effects in the liver (247%), lung (166%), and small intestine (145%). Overall and organ-specific DNA damage was also increased in partially sleep deprived rats. In the intestinal epithelium, total sleep deprivation resulted in 5.3-fold increases in dying cells and 1.5-fold increases in proliferating cells, compared with control. Two days of recovery sleep restored the balance between DNA damage and repair, and resulted in normal or below-normal metabolic burdens and oxidative damage. Conclusions: These findings provide physical evidence that sleep loss causes cell damage, and in a manner expected to predispose to replication errors and metabolic abnormalities; thereby providing linkage between sleep loss and disease risk observed in epidemiological findings. Properties of recovery sleep include biochemical and molecular events that restore balance and decrease cell injury. Citation: Everson CA, Henchen CJ, Szabo A, Hogg N. Cell injury and repair resulting from sleep loss and sleep recovery in laboratory rats. SLEEP 2014;37(12):1929-1940. PMID:25325492

  6. An event-related analysis of awakening reactions due to nocturnal church bell noise.

    PubMed

    Brink, Mark; Omlin, Sarah; Mller, Christian; Pieren, Reto; Basner, Mathias

    2011-11-15

    The sleep disturbing effects of nocturnal ambient non-traffic related noises such as bell strokes emitted from church bell towers on nearby residents are presently unknown. Nonetheless, this specific noise source is suspected to cause sleep disturbances in a small but qualified minority of people living in the vicinity of the bell towers that throughout the night indicate the time with bell ringings. A field study was carried out to elucidate whether acoustic properties of such bell strokes relate to awakening and to provide event-related exposure-effect functions between acoustical predictors and awakening probability. Awakening reactions were determined in 27 voluntary subjects, measured in their home setting for four consecutive nights with ambulatory polysomnography (PSG) and concurrent acoustic recordings in- and outside the dwelling. Results indicate that the bell ringing events increase awakenings in a similar fashion as has previously been reported with transportation noise events and that awakening probability first and foremost depends on maximum sound pressure level of an event. The number of bell strokes and the personal variables gender, age, and noise sensitivity did not influence awakening probability significantly. Awakening probability by tendency increased with elapsed time after sleep onset, and was decreased during slow wave sleep and REM sleep compared to S2 sleep. The results suggest that a reduction of the maximum sound pressure level or an interruption of ringings during nighttime might reduce awakenings. The determined exposure-effect relationships are compared with similar functions for impulsive noise and transportation noise, more specifically, aircraft noise. The paper concludes with a few considerations regarding nighttime noise regulation. PMID:21978615

  7. A polysomnographic and clinical report on sleep-related injury in 100 adult patients.

    PubMed

    Schenck, C H; Milner, D M; Hurwitz, T D; Bundlie, S R; Mahowald, M W

    1989-09-01

    In 100 consecutive adults who came to a sleep disorders center complaining of repeated nocturnal injury, polysomnographic study identified five disorders: night terrors/sleepwalking (N = 54), REM sleep behavior disorder (N = 36), dissociative disorders (N = 7), nocturnal seizures (N = 2), and sleep apnea (N = 1). Ninety-five patients sustained ecchymoses, 30 had lacerations, and nine had fractures. DSM-III axis I disorders (past or current) were found in 48.1% of the group with night terrors/sleepwalking and in 30.6% of the group with REM sleep behavior disorder; these were mainly affective disorders. In these two groups, clonazepam controlled the symptoms of 51 of the 61 patients to whom it was given. PMID:2764174

  8. Altered Sleep Stage Transitions of REM Sleep: A Novel and Stable Biomarker of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaping; Zhang, Jihui; Lam, Venny; Ho, Crover Kwok Wah; Zhou, Junying; Li, Shirley Xin; Lam, Siu Ping; Yu, Mandy Wai Man; Tang, Xiangdong; Wing, Yun-Kwok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the diagnostic values, longitudinal stability, and HLA association of the sleep stage transitions in narcolepsy. Methods: To compare the baseline differences in the sleep stage transition to REM sleep among 35 patients with type 1 narcolepsy, 39 patients with type 2 narcolepsy, 26 unaffected relatives, and 159 non-narcoleptic sleep patient controls, followed by a reassessment at a mean duration of 37.4 months. Results: The highest prevalence of altered transition from stage non-N2/N3 to stage R in multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) was found in patients with type 1 narcolepsy (92.0% and 57.1%), followed by patients with type 2 narcolepsy (69.4% and 12.8%), unaffected relatives (46.2% and 0%), and controls (39.3% and 1.3%). Individual sleep variables had varied sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing narcolepsy. By incorporating a combination of sleep variables, the decision tree analysis improved the sensitivity to 94.3% and 82.1% and enhanced specificity to 82.4% and 83% for the diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 narcolepsy, respectively. There was a significant association of DBQ1*0602 with the altered sleep stage transition (OR = 16.0, 95% CI: 1.7149.8, p = 0.015). The persistence of the altered sleep stage transition in both MSLT and NPSG was high for both type 1 (90.5% and 64.7%) and type 2 narcolepsy (92.3% and 100%), respectively. Conclusions: Altered sleep stage transition is a significant and stable marker of narcolepsy, which suggests a vulnerable wake-sleep dysregulation trait in narcolepsy. Altered sleep stage transition has a significant diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of hypersomnias, especially when combined with other diagnostic sleep variables in decision tree analysis. Citation: Liu Y, Zhang J, Lam V, Ho CK, Zhou J, Li SX, Lam SP, Yu MW, Tang X, Wing YK. Altered sleep stage transitions of REM sleep: a novel and stable biomarker of narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(8):885894. PMID:25979093

  9. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  10. The Diurnal and Nocturnal Effect of Travoprost with SofZia on Intraocular Pressure and Ocular Perfusion Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the 24-hour effects of travoprost with sofZia on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure as well as the endurance of IOP lowering after last dosing. Design Prospective, open-label study Methods Forty subjects with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were admitted to our sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate. The first baseline session occurred after medication washout or immediately after enrollment for treatment naive patients. A second 24-hour monitoring session was performed after four weeks of once nightly treatment of travoprost with sofZia. The medication was then discontinued and a third 24-hour session was completed 60-84 hours after the last dose taken. IOP measurements were taken using a pneumotonometer every two hours in the sitting position during the 16-hour diurnal period and in the supine position during the 8-hour nocturnal period. Ocular perfusion pressure was defined as 2/3[diastolic BP + 1/3(systolic BP - diastolic BP)] - IOP. Results Treatment with travoprost with sofZia significantly lowered mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels from baseline (Diurnal 18.13.9 to 15.33.3 mm Hg; Nocturnal 20.63.6 to 19.43.4 mm Hg, p<0.01 for both). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (16.63.8 mm Hg) and nocturnal periods (19.43.5 mm Hg). Mean baseline ocular perfusion pressure was significantly increased during the diurnal but not the nocturnal period (Diurnal 73.711.4 to 76.510.3 mm Hg, p=0.01; Nocturnal 64.412.6 to 64.211.1 mm Hg, p=0.67). Conclusion Travoprost with sofZia significantly lowers IOP throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods, and increases ocular perfusion pressure in the diurnal, but not the nocturnal period in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The treatment effect on IOP endures for at least 84 hours after the last dose. PMID:24182742

  11. MCH levels in the CSF, brain preproMCH and MCHR1 gene expression during paradoxical sleep deprivation, sleep rebound and chronic sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Dias Abdo Agamme, Ana Luiza; Aguilar Calegare, Bruno Frederico; Fernandes, Leandro; Costa, Alicia; Lagos, Patricia; Torterolo, Pablo; D'Almeida, Vnia

    2015-12-01

    Neurons that utilize melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) as neuromodulator are located in the lateral hypothalamus and incerto-hypothalamic area. These neurons project throughout the central nervous system and play a role in sleep regulation. With the hypothesis that the MCHergic system function would be modified by the time of the day as well as by disruptions of the sleep-wake cycle, we quantified in rats the concentration of MCH in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), the expression of the MCH precursor (Pmch) gene in the hypothalamus, and the expression of the MCH receptor 1 (Mchr1) gene in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. These analyses were performed during paradoxical sleep deprivation (by a modified multiple platform technique), paradoxical sleep rebound and chronic sleep restriction, both at the end of the active (dark) phase (lights were turned on at Zeitgeber time zero, ZT0) and during the inactive (light) phase (ZT8). We observed that in control condition (waking and sleep ad libitum), Mchr1 gene expression was larger at ZT8 (when sleep predominates) than at ZT0, both in frontal cortex and hippocampus. In addition, compared to control, disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle produced the following effects: paradoxical sleep deprivation for 96 and 120 h reduced the expression of Mchr1 gene in frontal cortex at ZT0. Sleep rebound that followed 96 h of paradoxical sleep deprivation increased the MCH concentration in the CSF also at ZT0. Twenty-one days of sleep restriction produced a significant increment in MCH CSF levels at ZT8. Finally, sleep disruptions unveiled day/night differences in MCH CSF levels and in Pmch gene expression that were not observed in control (undisturbed) conditions. In conclusion, the time of the day and sleep disruptions produced subtle modifications in the physiology of the MCHergic system. PMID:26456505

  12. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (p<0.025). The laboratory study revealed a decrease of 2.4% in nocturnal sleep efficiency in the nap condition (p<0.025), a reduction of nocturnal Total Sleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (p<0.001) which resulted primarily from significantly earlier waketimes (p<0.005), but no reliable effects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT (nap: 15.6 mins., no nap: 11.5 mins., p<0.005). No significant change in circadian rhythm parameters was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy seniors were able to adopt a napping regimen involving a 90-minute siesta nap each day between 13:30 and 15:00, achieving about one hour of actual sleep per nap. There were some negative consequences for nocturnal sleep in terms of reduced sleep efficiency and earlier waketimes, but also some positive consequences for objective evening performance and (in the diary study) 24-hour sleep totals. Subjective alertness measures and performance measures showed no reliable effects and circadian phase parameters appeared unchanged.

  13. Gastrointestinal motility during sleep assessed by tracking of telemetric capsules combined with polysomnography a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Anne-Mette; Fallet, Sibylle; Otto, Marit; Scott, S Mark; Schlageter, Vincent; Krogh, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Studies of gastrointestinal function during sleep are hampered by lack of applicable techniques. Recent development of a novel ambulatory telemetric capsule system, which can be used in conjunction with polysomnography, offers a solution to this problem. The 3D-Transit system consists of ingestible electromagnetic capsules traceable through a portable extracorporeal receiver while traversing the gut. During sleep monitored by polysomnography, gastrointestinal motility was concurrently investigated using 3D-Transit in nine healthy subjects. Overall, the amplitude of gastric contractions decreased with depth of sleep (light sleep, N2 versus deep sleep, N3; P<0.05). Progression through the small intestine did not change with depth of sleep (KruskalWallis probability =0.1), and there was no association between nocturnal awakenings or arousals and the occurrence of colonic or small intestinal propagating movements. Basal colonic activity was suppressed during both deep sleep (P<0.05) and light sleep (P<0.05) when compared with nocturnal wake periods. In conclusion, the novel ambulatory 3D-Transit system combined with polysomnography allows minimally invasive and completely ambulatory investigation of associations between sleep patterns and gastrointestinal motility. PMID:26677340

  14. Sleep and Impulsivity in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Scullin, Michael K.; Sollinger, Ann B.; Land, Julia; Wood-Siverio, Cathy; Zanders, Lavezza; Lee, Raven; Freeman, Alan; Goldstein, Felicia C.; Bliwise, Donald L.; Factor, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impulsive behavior and poor sleep are important non-motor features of Parkinson’s disease (PD) that negatively impact the quality of life of patients and their families. Previous research suggests a higher level of sleep complaints in PD patients who demonstrate impulsive behaviors, but the nature of the sleep disturbances has yet to be comprehensively tested. Methods Consecutive idiopathic PD patients (N=143) completed the Minnesota Impulse Disorder Interview and a sleep questionnaire that assessed sleep efficiency, excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs symptoms, snoring, dreams/nightmares, and nocturia. Patients were also given a Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor examination and they completed cognitive testing. Results Impulsive PD patients endorsed more sleep complaints than non-impulsive PD patients. The group difference was primarily attributable to poor sleep efficiency (e.g., greater nocturnal awakenings), p < .01, and greater daytime sleepiness, p < .01, in the impulsive PD patients. Interestingly, restless legs symptoms were also greater in the impulsive PD patients, p < .05. The results could not be explained by medications or disease severity. Conclusions Poor sleep efficiency, restless legs symptoms, and increased daytime sleepiness are associated with impulsivity in PD. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether sleep disturbances precede impulsivity in PD. PMID:23880026

  15. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for screening and intervention to reduce the adverse health and emotional consequences of these conditions in Hmong. PMID:22832325

  16. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-02-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for screening and intervention to reduce the adverse health and emotional consequences of these conditions in Hmong. PMID:22832325

  17. Severe Central Sleep Apnea in Vici Syndrome.

    PubMed

    El-Kersh, Karim; Jungbluth, Heinz; Gringras, Paul; Senthilvel, Egambaram

    2015-11-01

    Vici syndrome is a rare congenital multisystem disorder due to recessive mutations in the key autophagy regulator EPG5. Vici syndrome is characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, hypopigmentation, immunodeficiency, cataracts, and cardiomyopathy, with variable additional multisystem involvement. Here we report on a 5-year-old girl who presented with global developmental delay, seizures, callosal agenesis, cataracts, sensorineural hearing loss, hypopigmentation, and immunodeficiency with a low CD4 count and recurrent infections. EPG5 sequencing (prompted by suggestive clinical features) revealed a homozygous missense mutation, c.1007A>G (p.Gln336Arg). The patient was referred to our center for evaluation of nocturnal apnea. Overnight polysomnography showed severe central sleep apnea (CSA) with an overall apnea-hypopnea index of 100.5 events per hour of sleep (central apnea index of 97.5, mixed apnea index of 2, and obstructive hypopnea index of 1). The patient responded to bilevel positive airway pressure therapy with a backup rate with normalization of the apnea-hypopnea index and maintenance of oxygen saturation >90%. Despite successful control of the severe CSA, the patient was eventually started on nocturnal oxygen therapy due to excessive upper airway secretions and the high risk of possible aspiration with positive airway pressure therapy. This is the first report of EPG5-related Vici syndrome associated with CSA. We discuss the polysomnographic findings in our patient in the context of a brief literature review of the reported sleep abnormalities in Vici syndrome. PMID:26482670

  18. Influence on Human Sleep Patterns of Lowering and Delaying the Minimum Core Body Temperature by Slow Changes in the Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Aizawa, Seika; Arai, Jun-ichiro; Yoshikawa, Shoko; Ishiwata, Takayuki; Shephard, Roy J.; Aoyagi, Yukitoshi

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: We hypothesized that appropriate changes in thermal environment would enhance the quality of sleep. Design/Setting: Controlled laboratory study. Participants: Healthy young men (n = 7, mean age 26 years). Interventions: Nocturnal sleep structures in i-nude subjects were compared between a condition where an ambient temperature (Ta) of 29.5°C was maintained throughout the night (constant Ta), and a second condition (dynamic Ta) where Ta changed slowly within the thermoneutral range (from 27.5°C to 29.5°C). Measurements and Results: Statistically significant (P < 0.05) results included a lower and a later occurrence of minimum core body temperature (Tc), and a longer duration of slow-wave (stages 3+4) sleep in dynamic versus constant Ta. However, total sleep time, sleep efficiency, the total durations of light (stages 1+2) and rapid eye movement sleep, and the latencies to sleep onset, slow-wave sleep, and rapid eye movement sleep did not differ between conditions. Conclusions: Lowering the minimum and delaying the nadir of nocturnal Tc increases slow-wave sleep (probably by an increase of dry heat loss); use of this tactic might improve the overall quality of sleep. Citation: Togo F; Aizawa S; Arai J et al. Influence on Human Sleep Patterns of Lowering and Delaying the Minimum Core Body Temperature by Slow Changes in the Thermal Environment. SLEEP 2007;30(6):797-802. PMID:17580602

  19. Actual and Perceived Sleep: Associations with Daytime Functioning among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Stacom, Elizabeth E.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and wake have a homeostatic relation that influences most aspects of physiology and waking behavior. Sleep disturbance has a detrimental effect on sleepiness and psychomotor vigilance. The purpose of this study was to identify which actual or perceived sleep characteristics accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning among postpartum mothers. Seventy first-time postpartum mothers' actual sleep (actigraphically estimated: total sleep time, number of wake bouts, length of nocturnal wake, and sleep efficiency) and perceived sleep (self-reported: number of awakenings, wake time, and sleep quality) was measured along with their daytime functioning (Stanford Sleepiness Scale [SSS], Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS], Visual Analogue of Fatigue Scale [VAFS], and morning Psychomotor Vigilance Test [PVT]). Data were repeatedly collected from the same sample during postpartum weeks 2, 7, and 13. Four stepwise linear regressions were calculated for each postpartum week to examine which objective and/or subjective variable(s) accounted for the most variance in daytime functioning. The SSS and VAFS were both most consistently associated with perceived sleep quality. The ESS was most consistently associated with actual total sleep time. PVT performance was most consistently associated with estimates of actual and perceived sleep efficiency. Actual and perceived sleep profiles were differentially associated with specific daytime functions. These results from postpartum mothers may indicate that populations who experience specific forms of sleep disturbance (e.g. fragmentation, deprivation) may also experience specific daytime conditions. PMID:21095200

  20. Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ja; Baek, Joon Hyun; Shin, Dong Jin; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Kee-Hyung; Shin, Dong Hoon; Noh, Young; Sung, Young Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients. Methods A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years) were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K) to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS). Results The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K. Conclusions We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients. PMID:24926405

  1. Assessment and treatment of common pediatric sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that chronically disrupted sleep in children and adolescents can lead to problems in cognitive functioning. Behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep problems (e.g., graduated extinction, parent education, positive bedtime routines), especially in young children, have been shown to produce clinically significant improvements. This review describes a few pertinent conditions of sleep disorders in children and adolescents as well as provides clinically useful approaches to sleep complaints and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacological treatments of some common pediatric sleep disorders. PMID:20622943

  2. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment - Methodology and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Delucchi, M. R.; Shumate, W. H.; Booher, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The sleep monitoring experiment permitted an objective evaluation of sleep characteristics during the first two manned Skylab flights. Hardware located onboard the spacecraft accomplished data acquisition, analysis, and preservation, thereby permitting near-real-time evaluation of sleep during the flights and more detailed postmission analysis. The crewman studied during the 28-Day Mission showed some decrease in total sleep time and an increase in the percentage of Stage 4 sleep, while the subject in the 59-Day Mission exhibited little change in total sleep time and a small decrease in Stage 4 and REM sleep. Some disruption of sleep characteristics was seen in the final days of both missions, and both subjects exhibited decreases in REM-onset latency in the immediate postflight period. The relatively minor changes seen were not of the type nor magnitude which might be expected to be associated with significant degradation of performance capability.

  3. Sleep and adult neurogenesis: implications for cognition and mood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Anka D; Meerlo, Peter; McGinty, Dennis; Mistlberger, Ralph E

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal dentate gyrus plays a critical role in learning and memory throughout life, in part by the integration of adult-born neurons into existing circuits. Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is regulated by numerous environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors known to affect learning and memory. Sleep is also important for learning and memory. Here we critically examine evidence from correlation, deprivation, and stimulation studies that sleep may be among those factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis. There is mixed evidence for correlations between sleep variables and rates of hippocampal cell proliferation across the day, the year, and the lifespan. There is modest evidence that periods of increased sleep are associated with increased cell proliferation or survival. There is strong evidence that disruptions of sleep exceeding 24h, by total deprivation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic restriction or fragmentation, significantly inhibit cell proliferation and in some cases neurogenesis. The mechanisms by which sleep disruption inhibits neurogenesis are not fully understood. Although sleep disruption procedures are typically at least mildly stressful, elevated adrenal corticosterone secretion is not necessary for this effect. However, procedures that prevent both elevated corticosterone and interleukin 1? signaling have been found to block the effect of sleep deprivation on cell proliferation. This result suggests that sleep loss impairs hippocampal neurogenesis by the presence of wake-dependent factors, rather than by the absence of sleep-specific processes. This would weigh against a hypothesis that regulation of neurogenesis is a function of sleep. Nonetheless, impaired neurogenesis may underlie some of the memory and mood effects associated with acute and chronic sleep disruptions. PMID:24218292

  4. Just a scary dream? A brief review of sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    Haupt, Mark; Sheldon, Stephen H; Loghmanee, Darius

    2013-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of sleep disorders in children is broad, ranging from primary snoring and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome to complex sleep-related behaviors and movement disorders. Although snoring and OSA typically receive significant attention and discussion, other biologically based sleep disorders are as common, if not more common, in children. A general pediatrician is frequently presented with the complaint of sleep talking, sleep walking, or abnormal movements during sleep. Even more alarming is the presentation of the child suddenly and explosively screaming during sleep. Such complaints fall under the category of parasomnias. Exclusive to sleep and wake-to-sleep transitions, these parasomnias include arousals with abnormal motor, behavioral, autonomic, or sensory symptoms. Parasomnias can be noticeably dissimilar in clinical manifestations, but most share biologic characteristics. Three parasomnias associated with loud vocalizations associated with sleep that can present to general practitioners include sleep terrors, nightmares, and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Although usually benign, these sleep disorders can be disruptive and even potentially dangerous to the patient and can often be threatening to quality of life. In this article, we describe the clinical features of some of these disorders and how to differentiate between their alarming presentations. PMID:24126984

  5. [Correlation between eating disorders and sleep disturbances].

    PubMed

    Eiber, R; Friedman, S

    2001-01-01

    Anorectics and bulimics often complain sleep onset insomnia and disrupted sleep. During awakenings bulimics can have binges. Conversely, eating disorders can be a clinical expression of a concomitantly occurring sleep disorder. Two clinical entities have been recently described: the Night Eating Syndrome (NES) and the Sleep Related Eating Disorders. The main goal of this literature review was to better characterize the relationships between eating disorders and sleep disturbances. No specific EEG sleep pattern emerges in anorectic and bulimic patients. However, all studies include several methodological limitations: a few number of patients, heterogeneous patient groups, various diagnostic criteria. The results of studies evaluating the impact of depression on sleep EEG in eating disorder patients are also subject to controversy. The only study examining the relationship between sleep EEG and morphological alterations in anorectics and normal weight bulimics shows that patients with enlarged cerebrospinal fluid spaces spent more time in slow wave sleep and that the duration of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was reduced. The ventricular brain ratio was negatively correlated with REM sleep. The Night Eating Syndrome consists in insomnia, binge eating and morning anorexia. Other criteria are proposed to characterize the NES: more than 50% of the daily energy intake is consumed after the last evening meal, awakenings at least once a night, repetition of the provisional criteria for more than 3 months, subjects do not meet criteria for bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder. Patients have no amnesia nor alteration of alertness, and no other sleep disorder. There is no modification of sleep EEG except sleep maintenance. The prevalence of the NES is 1.5% in the general population. Some neuroendocrine disturbances have been found in the NES. The delimitation with eating disorders is not yet clearly established. If it shares the compulsive features with eating disorders, particularly the "Binge Eating Disorder", and occurs during full awakenings, the night eating syndrome may be recognized as a specific eating disorder. The sleep related eating syndrome is also characterized by compulsive binge eating during awakenings. But in this case, night eating is linked with a reduced consciousness and sleep disorders, mainly somnambulism. Patients never experience hunger, abdominal pain, nausea or hypoglycemia. Night-eating takes place invariant across weekdays, weekend and vacations. Patients consumed high caloric foods and fluids but never alcohol and purging does not occur. Diurnal bulimia is frequently associated with the sleep-related eating disorder. In conclusion, the sleep related eating disorder seems rather be a clinical subtype of sleep disorders whereas the NES could be considered as an eating disorder. PMID:11760692

  6. In-Car Nocturnal Blue Light Exposure Improves Motorway Driving: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Taillard, Jacques; Capelli, Aurore; Sagaspe, Patricia; Anund, Anna; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Philip, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged wakefulness greatly decreases nocturnal driving performance. The development of in-car countermeasures is a future challenge to prevent sleep-related accidents. The aim of this study is to determine whether continuous exposure to monochromatic light in the short wavelengths (blue light), placed on the dashboard, improves night-time driving performance. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 48 healthy male participants (aged 2050 years) drove 400 km (250 miles) on motorway during night-time. They randomly and consecutively received either continuous blue light exposure (GOLite, Philips, 468 nm) during driving or 2*200 mg of caffeine or placebo of caffeine before and during the break. Treatments were separated by at least 1 week. The outcomes were number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) and mean standard deviation of the lateral position (SDLP). Eight participants (17%) complained about dazzle during blue light exposure and were removed from the analysis. Results from the 40 remaining participants (mean age SD: 32.911.1) showed that countermeasures reduced the number of inappropriate line crossings (ILC) (F(2,91.11)?=?6.64; p<0.05). Indeed, ILC were lower with coffee (12.51 [95% CI, 5.86 to 19.66], p?=?0.001) and blue light (14.58 [CI, 8.75 to 22.58], p?=?0.003) than with placebo (26.42 [CI, 19.90 to 33.71]). Similar results were found for SDLP. Treatments did not modify the quality, quantity and timing of 3 subsequent nocturnal sleep episodes. Despite a lesser tolerance, a non-inferior efficacy of continuous nocturnal blue light exposure compared with caffeine suggests that this in-car countermeasure, used occasionally, could be used to fight nocturnal sleepiness at the wheel in blue light-tolerant drivers, whatever their age. More studies are needed to determine the reproducibility of data and to verify if it can be generalized to women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01070004 PMID:23094031

  7. Sleep, recovery, and metaregulation: explaining the benefits of sleep.

    PubMed

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V

    2015-01-01

    A commonly held view is that extended wakefulness is causal for a broad spectrum of deleterious effects at molecular, cellular, network, physiological, psychological, and behavioral levels. Consequently, it is often presumed that sleep plays an active role in providing renormalization of the changes incurred during preceding waking. Not surprisingly, unequivocal empirical evidence supporting such a simple bi-directional interaction between waking and sleep is often limited or controversial. One difficulty is that, invariably, a constellation of many intricately interrelated factors, including the time of day, specific activities or behaviors during preceding waking, metabolic status and stress are present at the time of measurement, shaping the overall effect observed. In addition to this, although insufficient or disrupted sleep is thought to prevent efficient recovery of specific physiological variables, it is also often difficult to attribute specific changes to the lack of sleep proper. Furthermore, sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by a multitude of processes, whose unique and distinct contributions to the purported functions of sleep are difficult to determine, because they are interrelated. Intensive research effort over the last decades has greatly progressed current understanding of the cellular and physiological processes underlying the regulation of vigilance states. Notably, it also highlighted the infinite complexity within both waking and sleep, and revealed a number of fundamental conceptual and technical obstacles that need to be overcome in order to fully understand these processes. A promising approach could be to view sleep not as an entity, which has specific function(s) and is subject to direct regulation, but as a manifestation of the process of metaregulation, which enables efficient moment-to-moment integration between internal and external factors, preceding history and current homeostatic needs. PMID:26719733

  8. Sleep, recovery, and metaregulation: explaining the benefits of sleep

    PubMed Central

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V

    2015-01-01

    A commonly held view is that extended wakefulness is causal for a broad spectrum of deleterious effects at molecular, cellular, network, physiological, psychological, and behavioral levels. Consequently, it is often presumed that sleep plays an active role in providing renormalization of the changes incurred during preceding waking. Not surprisingly, unequivocal empirical evidence supporting such a simple bi-directional interaction between waking and sleep is often limited or controversial. One difficulty is that, invariably, a constellation of many intricately interrelated factors, including the time of day, specific activities or behaviors during preceding waking, metabolic status and stress are present at the time of measurement, shaping the overall effect observed. In addition to this, although insufficient or disrupted sleep is thought to prevent efficient recovery of specific physiological variables, it is also often difficult to attribute specific changes to the lack of sleep proper. Furthermore, sleep is a complex phenomenon characterized by a multitude of processes, whose unique and distinct contributions to the purported functions of sleep are difficult to determine, because they are interrelated. Intensive research effort over the last decades has greatly progressed current understanding of the cellular and physiological processes underlying the regulation of vigilance states. Notably, it also highlighted the infinite complexity within both waking and sleep, and revealed a number of fundamental conceptual and technical obstacles that need to be overcome in order to fully understand these processes. A promising approach could be to view sleep not as an entity, which has specific function(s) and is subject to direct regulation, but as a manifestation of the process of metaregulation, which enables efficient moment-to-moment integration between internal and external factors, preceding history and current homeostatic needs. PMID:26719733

  9. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed.

  10. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  11. Cough in obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kevin; Ing, Alvin; Birring, Surinder S

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnoea (OSA) has recently been reported to be a cause of chronic cough. It should be considered when cough remains unexplained following investigations and treatments for common causes. The presence of nocturnal cough, snoring and gastro-oesophageal reflux may be helpful in identifying patients who require further investigation. Daytime somnolence is often absent. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy has been reported to be effective in alleviating cough. Therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, if present, should be optimised. The mechanism of the association between OSA and cough is not clear, but airway inflammation, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, increased cough reflex sensitivity and tracheobronchomalacia are possible explanations. Further studies should identify clinical predictors of OSA-cough, establish mechanisms and the optimal therapy. PMID:26068465

  12. Acute Versus Chronic Partial Sleep Deprivation in Middle-Aged People: Differential Effect on Performance and Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Prague, Mlanie; Tassi, Patricia; Capelli, Aurore; Bioulac, Bernard; Commenges, Daniel; Taillard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate the effects of acute sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction on vigilance, performance, and self-perception of sleepiness. Design: Habitual night followed by 1 night of total sleep loss (acute sleep deprivation) or 5 consecutive nights of 4 hr of sleep (chronic sleep restriction) and recovery night. Participants: Eighteen healthy middle-aged male participants (age [( standard deviation] = 49.7 2.6 yr, range 46-55 yr). Measurements: Multiple sleep latency test trials, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores, simple reaction time test (lapses and 10% fastest reaction times), and nocturnal polysomnography data were recorded. Results: Objective and subjective sleepiness increased immediately in response to sleep restriction. Sleep latencies after the second and third nights of sleep restriction reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation, whereas Karolinska Sleepiness Scale scores did not reach these levels. Lapse occurrence increased after the second day of sleep restriction and reached levels equivalent to those observed after acute sleep deprivation. A statistical model revealed that sleepiness and lapses did not progressively worsen across days of sleep restriction. Ten percent fastest reaction times (i.e., optimal alertness) were not affected by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Recovery to baseline levels of alertness and performance occurred after 8-hr recovery night. Conclusions: In middle-aged study participants, sleep restriction induced a high increase in sleep propensity but adaptation to chronic sleep restriction occurred beyond day 3 of restriction. This sleepiness attenuation was underestimated by the participants. One recovery night restores daytime sleepiness and cognitive performance deficits induced by acute or chronic sleep deprivation. Citation: Philip P; Sagaspe P; Prague M; Tassi P; Capelli A; Bioulac B; Commenges D; Taillard J. Acute versus chronic partial sleep deprivation in middle-aged people: differential effect on performance and sleepiness. SLEEP 2012;35(7):9971002. PMID:22754046

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea - adults

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea - obstructive - adults; Apnea - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - adults; Sleep-disordered breathing - adults; OSA - adults ... When you sleep, all of the muscles in your body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep your ...

  14. Sleep Apnea Information Page

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sleep Apnea Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... en Español Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder ...

  15. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  16. Sleep and Newborns

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Caring for Your Child All About Food Allergies Sleep and Newborns KidsHealth > For Parents > Sleep and Newborns ... night it is. How Long Will My Newborn Sleep? A newborn may sleep up to 18 hours ...

  17. Pediatric sleep apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... During sleep, all of the muscles in the body become more relaxed. This includes the muscles that help keep ...

  18. Relationships among dietary nutrients and subjective sleep, objective sleep, and napping in women

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Naidoo, Nirinjini; Langer, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To describe which dietary nutrient variables are related to subjective and objective habitual sleep and subjective and objective napping. Methods Participants were 459 postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative. Objective sleep was estimated using one week of actigraphy. Subjective sleep was prospectively estimated with a daily sleep diary. Dietary nutrients were calculated from food frequency questionnaires. Results The most significant correlations were with subjective napping, including (from strongest to weakest): total fat, calories, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, trans fat, water, proline, serine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, cholesterol, leucine, glutamic acid, ash, isoleucine, histidine, sodium, tryptophan, protein, threonine, cystine, methionine, phosphorous, polyunsaturated fat, animal protein, aspartic acid, arginine, lysine, alanine, caffeine, riboflavin, gamma-tocopherol, glycine, retinol, delta-tocopherol, vitamin D, and selenium. Actigraphic nocturnal sleep duration was negatively associated with total fat, monounsaturated fat, trans fat, saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, calories, gamma-tocopherol, cholesterol, and alpha-tocopherol-eq. Conclusions Actigraphic total sleep time was negatively associated with intake of fats. Subjective napping, which may be a proxy for subjective sleepiness, was significantly related to fat intake as well as intake of meat. PMID:20005774

  19. A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: improvement of muscular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zi-Jian

    2015-05-15

    Previously I demonstrated that the slow wave sleep (SWS) functioned to adjust the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role. Many experimental results have unambiguously shown that various emotional memories are processed during REM sleep. In this article, it is attempted to combine this confirmed function of REM sleep with the atonic state unique to REM sleep, and to integrate a new theory suggesting that improvement of muscular efficiency be a new function of REM sleep. This new function of REM sleep is more advantageous than the function of REM sleep in emotional memories and disinhibited drives to account for the phylogenetic variations of REM sleep, especially the absence of REM sleep in dolphins and short duration of REM sleep in birds in contrary to that in humans and rodents, the absence of penile erections in REM sleep in armadillo, as well as the higher voltage in EEG during REM sleep in platypus and ostrich. Besides, this new function of REM sleep is also advantageous to explain the association of REM sleep with the atonic episodes in SWS, the absence of drastic menopausal change in duration of REM sleep, and the effects of ambient temperature on the duration of REM sleep. These comparative and experimental evidences support the improvement of muscular efficiency as a new and major function of REM sleep. PMID:25770701

  20. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  1. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    PubMed Central

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  2. Sleep Fragmentation Exacerbates Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Alters Subsequent Sleep-Wake Behavior in a Mouse Model of Musculoskeletal Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. Design: This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Methods: Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Results: Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased numbers of sleep-wake state transitions during the light and dark periods; changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness; and altered delta power during NREM sleep. These effects persisted for at least 3 weeks postsensitization. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization exacerbates the physiological and behavioral responses of mice to musculoskeletal sensitization, including mechanical hypersensitivity and sleep-wake behavior. These data contribute to increasing literature demonstrating bidirectional relationships between sleep and pain. The prevalence and incidence of insufficient sleep and pathologies characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain are increasing in the United States. These demographic data underscore the need for research focused on insufficient sleep and chronic pain so that the quality of life for the millions of individuals with these conditions may be improved. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization. SLEEP 2014;37(3):515-524. PMID:24587574

  3. Sleep in Schizophrenia: Pathology and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Benson, Kathleen L

    2015-03-01

    Both subjective and objective assessments of sleep patterns in schizophrenia include a wide range of dyssomnias, with insomnia being the most frequently cited. Early and middle insomnia can range from mild disruption to total sleeplessness. Severe insomnia is a prodromal sign of clinical exacerbation or relapse. In general, most antipsychotic agents (APs) ameliorate this insomnia. However, in some schizophrenics APs can be associated with residual insomnia or with significant daytime somnolence. Furthermore, in some schizophrenics APs can induce or exacerbate comorbid sleep disorders such as restless legs syndrome, sleep-disordered breathing, and parasomnias such as sleepwalking. PMID:26055673

  4. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: natural history, diagnosis, and emerging treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Gharibeh, Tarek; Mehra, Reena

    2010-01-01

    Sleep apnea is an entity characterized by repetitive upper airway obstruction resulting in nocturnal hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. It is estimated that 2%–4% of the middle-aged population has sleep apnea with a predilection in men relative to women. Risk factors of sleep apnea include obesity, gender, age, menopause, familial factors, craniofacial abnormalities, and alcohol. Sleep apnea has been increasingly recognized as a major health burden associated with hypertension and increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. Increased airway collapsibility and derangement in ventilatory control responses are the major pathological features of this disorder. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold-standard method for diagnosis of sleep apnea and assessment of sleep apnea severity; however, portable sleep monitoring has a diagnostic role in the setting of high pretest probability sleep apnea in the absence of significant comorbidity. Positive pressure therapy is the mainstay therapy of sleep apnea. Other treatment modalities, such as upper airway surgery or oral appliances, may be used for the treatment of sleep apnea in select cases. In this review, we focus on describing the sleep apnea definition, risk factor profile, underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, associated adverse consequences, diagnostic modalities, and treatment strategies. PMID:23616712

  5. Estimating sleep from multisensory armband measurements: validity and reliability in teens.

    PubMed

    Roane, Brandy M; Van Reen, Eliza; Hart, Chantelle N; Wing, Rena; Carskadon, Mary A

    2015-12-01

    Given the recognition that sleep may influence obesity risk, there is increasing interest in measuring sleep parameters within obesity studies. The goal of the current analyses was to determine whether the SenseWear(®) Pro3 Armband (armband), typically used to assess physical activity, is reliable at assessing sleep parameters. The armband was compared with the AMI Motionlogger(®) (actigraph), a validated activity monitor for sleep assessment, and with polysomnography, the gold standard for assessing sleep. Participants were 20 adolescents (mean age = 15.5 years) with a mean body mass index percentile of 63.7. All participants wore the armband and actigraph on their non-dominant arm while in-lab during a nocturnal polysomnographic recording (600 min). Epoch-by-epoch sleep/wake data and concordance of sleep parameters were examined. No significant sleep parameter differences were found between the armband and polysomnography; the actigraph tended to overestimate sleep and underestimate wake compared with polysomnography. Both devices showed high sleep sensitivity, but lower wake detection rates. Bland-Altman plots showed large individual differences in armband sleep parameter concordance rates. The armband did well estimating sleep overall, with group results more similar to polysomnography than the actigraph; however, the armband was less accurate at an individual level than the actigraph. PMID:26126746

  6. Cued Memory Reactivation During Sleep Influences Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Antony, James W.; Gobel, Eric W.; O'Hare, Justin K.; Reber, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Information acquired during waking can be reactivated during sleep, promoting memory stabilization. After people learned to produce two melodies in time with moving visual symbols, we produced a relative improvement in performance by presenting one melody during an afternoon nap. Electrophysiological signs of memory processing during sleep corroborated the notion that appropriate auditory stimulation that does not disrupt sleep can nevertheless bias memory consolidation in relevant brain circuitry. PMID:22751035

  7. Circadian Misalignment Augments Markers of Insulin Resistance and Inflammation, Independently of Sleep Loss

    PubMed Central

    Leproult, Rachel; Holmbck, Ulf; Van Cauter, Eve

    2014-01-01

    Shift workers, who are exposed to irregular sleep schedules resulting in sleep deprivation and misalignment of circadian rhythms, have an increased risk of diabetes relative to day workers. In healthy adults, sleep restriction without circadian misalignment promotes insulin resistance. To determine whether the misalignment of circadian rhythms that typically occurs in shift work involves intrinsic adverse metabolic effects independently of sleep loss, a parallel group design was used to study 26 healthy adults. Both interventions involved 3 inpatient days with 10-h bedtimes, followed by 8 inpatient days of sleep restriction to 5 h with fixed nocturnal bedtimes (circadian alignment) or with bedtimes delayed by 8.5 h on 4 of the 8 days (circadian misalignment). Daily total sleep time (SD) during the intervention was nearly identical in the aligned and misaligned conditions (4 h 48 min [5 min] vs. 4 h 45 min [6 min]). In both groups, insulin sensitivity (SI) significantly decreased after sleep restriction, without a compensatory increase in insulin secretion, and inflammation increased. In male participants exposed to circadian misalignment, the reduction in SI and the increase in inflammation both doubled compared with those who maintained regular nocturnal bedtimes. Circadian misalignment that occurs in shift work may increase diabetes risk and inflammation, independently of sleep loss. PMID:24458353

  8. [Indications in sleep-apnea syndrome. When and why is further assessment meaningful?].

    PubMed

    Bloch, K E; Russi, E W

    1997-03-11

    Forms of sleep apnea syndrome: Interrupted breathing and hypoventilation during sleep lead to sleep disorders and to cardiovascular sequelae. In the common obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) apneas are related to intermittent obstruction of the upper airways. In the rarer central sleep apnea syndrome certain cardiovascular or central nervous system disorders lead to disturbed regulation of respiration connected with periodic breathing. Signs indicating OSAS: Loud, cyclic snoring, interrupted by cessation of breathing during sleep observed by relatives and excessive daytime to diurnal sleepiness indicate OSAS. Furthermore alteration of personality, headache in the morning, non-refreshing sleep and nocturnal choking sensations may indicate OSAS. When is evaluation necessary? Patients with complaints possibly induced by OSAS should be further evaluated since nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) by means of a nose mask and other treatment forms often lead to significant improvement of OSAS. In addition patients with untreated OSAS have an increased risk for car accidents and premature death as consequence of cardiovascular diseases. The type and extent of a supposed respiratory disorder is evaluated by means of a sleep study. PMID:9190646

  9. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  10. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a Novel Model for the Study of Sleep and Waking in Diurnal Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Jeffrey; Ruppert, Elisabeth; Calvel, Laurent; Robin-Choteau, Ludivine; Gropp, Claire-Marie; Allemann, Caroline; Reibel, Sophie; Sage-Ciocca, Dominique; Bourgin, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep neurobiology studies use nocturnal species, mainly rats and mice. However, because their daily sleep/wake organization is inverted as compared to humans, a diurnal model for sleep studies is needed. To fill this gap, we phenotyped sleep and waking in Arvicanthis ansorgei, a diurnal rodent widely used for the study of circadian rhythms. Design: Video-electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and electrooculogram (EOG) recordings. Setting: Rodent sleep laboratory. Participants: Fourteen male Arvicanthis ansorgei, aged 3 mo. Interventions: 12 h light (L):12 h dark (D) baseline condition, 24-h constant darkness, 6-h sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed similar electrophysiological characteristics as nocturnal rodents. On average, animals spent 12.9 h 0.4 awake per 24-h cycle, of which 6.88 h 0.3 was during the light period. NREM sleep accounted for 9.63 h 0.4, which of 5.13 h 0.2 during dark period, and REM sleep for 89.9 min 6.7, which of 52.8 min 4.4 during dark period. The time-course of sleep and waking across the 12 h light:12 h dark was overall inverted to that observed in rats or mice, though with larger amounts of crepuscular activity at light and dark transitions. A dominant crepuscular regulation of sleep and waking persisted under constant darkness, showing the lack of a strong circadian drive in the absence of clock reinforcement by external cues, such as a running wheel. Conservation of the homeostatic regulation was confirmed with the observation of higher delta power following sustained waking periods and a 6-h sleep deprivation, with subsequent decrease during recovery sleep. Conclusions: Arvicanthis ansorgei is a valid diurnal rodent model for studying the regulatory mechanisms of sleep and so represents a valuable tool for further understanding the nocturnality/diurnality switch. Citation: Hubbard J, Ruppert E, Calvel L, Robin-Choteau L, Gropp CM, Allemann C, Reibel S, Sage-Ciocca D, Bourgin P. Arvicanthis ansorgei, a novel model for the study of sleep and waking in diurnal rodents. SLEEP 2015;38(6):979988. PMID:25409107

  11. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Spanò, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n = 19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including…

  12. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  13. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide

  14. Sleep Disturbance and Expressive Language Development in Preschool-Age Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgin, Jamie O.; Tooley, Ursula; Demara, Bianca; Nyhuis, Casandra; Anand, Payal; Span, Goffredina

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that sleep may facilitate language learning. This study examined variation in language ability in 29 toddlers with Down syndrome (DS) in relation to levels of sleep disruption. Toddlers with DS and poor sleep (66%, n=19) showed greater deficits on parent-reported and objective measures of language, including

  15. Insomnia and sleep apnea in midlife women: prevalence and consequences to health and functioning

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Christopher E.; Nowakowski, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbance is common during the menopausal transition, with numerous downstream consequences to health and functioning, including reduced quality of life, impaired mental health, and increased physical health morbidity. Insomnia affects approximately 50% of midlife women and is characterized by nocturnal symptoms of difficulties initiating or maintaining sleep (or both) and daytime symptoms that impair occupational, social, or other components of functioning. In addition, approximately 20% of midlife women develop sleep-disordered breathing during the menopausal transition. This commentary summarizes the prevalence, risk factors, and treatment options for each of these sleep disorders in midlife women, with specific focus on first-line treatments for insomnia (cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia) and sleep-disordered breathing (continuous positive airway pressure) and unique considerations for treating sleep disorders in midlife women. Future directions are also discussed. PMID:26097736

  16. Sleeping Well, Aging Well: A Descriptive and Cross-Sectional Study of Sleep in Successful Agers 75 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Henry C.; Serody, Linda; Patrick, Susan; Maurer, Jennifer; Bensasi, Salem; Houck, Patricia R.; Mazumdar, Sati; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Bell, Bethany; Nebes, Robert D.; Miller, Mark D.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine diary-based, laboratory-based, and actigraphic measures of sleep in a group of healthy older women and men (?75 years of age) without sleep/wake complaints and to describe sleep characteristics which may be correlates of health-related quality of life in old age. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting University-based sleep and chronobiology program. Intervention None. Participants Sixty-four older adults (30 women, 34 men; mean age 79) Measurements We used diary-, actigraphic-, and laboratory-based measures of sleep, health-related quality of life, mental health, social support, and coping strategies. We used two-group t-tests to compare baseline demographic and clinical measures between men and women, followed by ANOVA on selected EEG measures to examine first-night effects as evidence of physiological adaptability. Finally, we examined correlations between measure of sleep and health-related quality of life. Results We observed that healthy men and women aged 75 and older can experience satisfactory nocturnal sleep quality and daytime alertness, especially as reflected in self-report and diary-based measures. Polysomnography (psg) suggested the presence of a first-night effect, especially in men, consistent with continued normal adaptability in this cohort of healthy older adults. Continuity and depth of sleep in older women were superior to that of men. Diary-based measures of sleep quality (but not psg measures) correlated positively (small to moderate effect sizes) with physical and mental health-related quality of life. Conclusions Sleep quality and daytime alertness in late life may be more important aspects of successful aging than previously appreciated. Good sleep may be a marker of good functioning across a variety of domains in old age. Our observations suggest the need to study interventions which protect sleep quality in older adults to determine if doing so fosters continued successful aging. PMID:18070833

  17. What keeps low-SES children from sleeping well: the role of presleep worries and sleep environment

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Erika J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Children in families of low socioeconomic status (SES) have been found to have poor sleep, yet the reasons for this finding are unclear. Two possible mediators, presleep worries and home environment conditions, were investigated as indirect pathways between SES and children’s sleep. Participants/Methods The participants consisted of 271 children (M (age) = 11.33 years; standard deviation (SD) = 7.74 months) from families varying in SES as indexed by the income-to-needs ratio. Sleep was assessed with actigraphy (sleep minutes, night waking duration, and variability in sleep schedule) and child self-reported sleep/wake problems (e.g., oversleeping and trouble falling asleep) and sleepiness (e.g., sleeping in class and falling asleep while doing homework). Presleep worries and home environment conditions were assessed with questionnaires. Results Lower SES was associated with more subjective sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness, and increased exposure to disruptive sleep conditions and greater presleep worries were mediators of these associations. In addition, environmental conditions served as an intervening variable linking SES to variability in an actigraphy-derived sleep schedule, and, similarly, presleep worry was an intervening variable linking SES to actigraphy-based night waking duration. Across sleep parameters, the model explained 5–29% of variance. Conclusions Sleep environment and psychological factors are associated with socioeconomic disparities, which affect children’s sleep. PMID:25701537

  18. Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n?=?56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x?: 5.8hrs vs. x?: 7.8hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

  19. Polysomnographic Assessment of Sleep Comorbidities in Drug-Nave Narcolepsy-Spectrum DisordersA Japanese Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This is a large cross-sectional study which aimed to investigate comorbidity rate, degree of sleep-related breathing disorder, polysomnigraphically diagnosible rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder/rapid eye movement sleep without atonia and periodic limb movements during sleep in Japanese drug-nave patients with narcolepsy-spectrum disorders. A total of 158 consecutive drug nave patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy, 295 patients with narcolepsy without cataplexy and 395 patients with idiopathic hypersomnia without long sleep time were enrolled. From retrospectively analyzed data of nocturnal polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test, higher rates of periodic limb movements during sleep (> = 15 h-1) (10.2%) and polysomnographically diagnosable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (1.9%) were found in patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy. They had more severe periodic limb movements during sleep especially during rapid eye movement sleep and higher percentages of rapid eye movement sleep without atonia than the other two patient groups. In the present large sample study, Japanese drug nave patients with narcolepsy with cataplexy showed the highest comorbidity rates of periodic limb movements during sleep, polysomnographically diagnosable rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and rapid eye movement sleep without atonia among those with the other narcolepsy-spectrum disorders; the rates were lower than those for Western patients. PMID:26322978

  20. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested. PMID:25914438

  1. Panic disorder with nocturnal panic attacks: symptoms and comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Sarsoy, Gkhan; Bke, Omer; Ark, Ali C; Sahin, Ahmet R

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between nocturnal panic attacks and comorbidities, clinical variables and panic attack symptoms. One hundred and six consecutive patients with DSM-IV panic disorder were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups depending on the presence of nocturnal panic attacks. Comorbidities were diagnosed with the help of SCID-I and SCID-II. The groups were compared using the Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Symptom Checklist. Nocturnal panic attacks were not related to comorbidities or age at the onset of the disease. The scores from the Beck Depression Inventory, general scores from the Symptom Checklist, somatization, obsession-compulsion, interpersonal sensitivity and anger-hostility sub-scale scores were higher in the nocturnal panic attack group. Patients with nocturnal panic attacks experience more frequent respiratory symptoms, suggesting that nocturnal panic attacks may be related to respiratory symptoms. Our findings demonstrate that patients with nocturnal panic attacks have more respiratory symptoms of panic, depressive and other psychiatric symptoms than the no nocturnal panic group. PMID:17937981

  2. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    PubMed Central

    Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  3. Nocturnal Hypertension and Attenuated Nocturnal Blood Pressure Dipping is Common in Pediatric Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J. Fallon; Swartz, Sarah J.; Wenderfer, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) but reports of prevalence vary between 20-70% in published reports of adult and pediatric patients. For both children and adults with SLE, the clinical diagnosis and management of hypertension has traditionally been based on guidelines developed for the general population. In clinical trials, the criteria used for defining participants with hypertension are mostly undefined. As a first step towards formally assessing the blood pressure (BP) patterns of children diagnosed with SLE, 24-hr ambulatory BP monitoring data was analyzed on clinic patients who presented with prehypertension or stage I hypertension. In this pediatric SLE cohort (n=10), 20% met daytime criteria for a diagnosis of hypertension. Patterns of BP elevation varied widely with white coat, masked, isolated systolic, and diastolic nocturnal hypertension all identified. Nocturnal hypertension was detected in 60% and attenuated nocturnal BP dipping in 90% of both hypertensive and normotensive SLE patients. In SLE patients, the median nighttime systolic and diastolic loads were 25% and 15.5% compared with median daily loads of 12.5% and 11.5%. Daytime and nighttime systolic and diastolic BP load and nocturnal dipping was compared to a control population consisting of 85 non-SLE patients under 21 years old with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension presenting to hypertension clinic. Median systolic BP dipped 5.3 mmHg in SLE patients compared to 11.9 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.001). Median diastolic BP dipped 12.9 mmHg versus 18.5 mmHg in non-lupus ( p-value = 0.003). Patterns of BP dysregulation in pediatric SLE merit further exploration. Children with or without SLE displaying prehypertensive or stage 1 casual BP measurements had similar rates of hypertension by ambulatory BP monitoring. However, regardless of BP diagnosis, and independent of kidney involvement, there was an increased proportion with attenuated nocturnal dipping and nocturnal hypertension in SLE patients. PMID:26664705

  4. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  5. Advances in the management of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent incontinence of urine in a sleeping child who has previously been dry for less than 6 months without any other lower urinary tract symptoms is considered to be primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). Although, most children outgrow PMNE with age, the psychological impact on the child warrants parental education and patient motivation and treatment. Motivational therapy, alarm therapy and drug therapy are the mainstay of treatment. Motivational and alarm therapy have better success rates than drug therapy alone. Desmopressin is the commonly used first-line drug and is best for short-term relief. Other drugs such as anti-cholinergics, imipramine and sertraline are used in resistant cases. This review focuses on the assessment and treatment of PMNE. PMID:25936863

  6. Advances in the management of primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in children.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shikha; Bhatt, Girish Chandra

    2016-02-01

    Intermittent incontinence of urine in a sleeping child who has previously been dry for less than 6 months without any other lower urinary tract symptoms is considered to be primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE). Although, most children outgrow PMNE with age, the psychological impact on the child warrants parental education and patient motivation and treatment. Motivational therapy, alarm therapy and drug therapy are the mainstay of treatment. Motivational and alarm therapy have better success rates than drug therapy alone. Desmopressin is the commonly used first-line drug and is best for short-term relief. Other drugs such as anti-cholinergics, imipramine and sertraline are used in resistant cases. This review focuses on the assessment and treatment of PMNE. PMID:26825219

  7. The acoustic environment of intensive care wards based on long period nocturnal measurements.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian

    2012-01-01

    The patients in the Intensive Care Units are often exposed to excessive levels of noise and activities. They can suffer from sleep disturbance, especially at night, but they are often too ill to cope with the poor environment. This article investigates the acoustic environment of typical intensive care wards in the UK, based on long period nocturnal measurements, and examines the differences between singlebed and multibed wards, using statistical analysis. It has been shown that the acoustic environment differs significantly every night. There are also significant differences between the noise levels in the singlebed and multibed wards, where acoustic ceilings are present. Despite the similar background noises in both ward types, more intrusive noises tend to originate from the multibed wards, while more extreme sounds are likely to occur in the single wards. The sound levels in the measured wards for each night are in excess of the World Health Organization's (WHO) guide levels by at least 20 dBA, dominantly at the middle frequencies. Although the sound level at night varies less than that in the daytime, the nocturnal acoustic environment is not dependant on any specific time, thus neither the noisiest nor quietest period can be determined. It is expected that the statistical analysis of the collected data will provide essential information for the development of relevant guidelines and noise reduction strategies. PMID:23117538

  8. Circadian rhythms in glucose and lipid metabolism in nocturnal and diurnal mammals.

    PubMed

    Kumar Jha, Pawan; Challet, Etienne; Kalsbeek, Andries

    2015-12-15

    Most aspects of energy metabolism display clear variations during day and night. This daily rhythmicity of metabolic functions, including hormone release, is governed by a circadian system that consists of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus (SCN) and many secondary clocks in the brain and peripheral organs. The SCN control peripheral timing via the autonomic and neuroendocrine system, as well as via behavioral outputs. The sleep-wake cycle, the feeding/fasting rhythm and most hormonal rhythms, including that of leptin, ghrelin and glucocorticoids, usually show an opposite phase (relative to the light-dark cycle) in diurnal and nocturnal species. By contrast, the SCN clock is most active at the same astronomical times in these two categories of mammals. Moreover, in both species, pineal melatonin is secreted only at night. In this review we describe the current knowledge on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism by central and peripheral clock mechanisms. Most experimental knowledge comes from studies in nocturnal laboratory rodents. Nevertheless, we will also mention some relevant findings in diurnal mammals, including humans. It will become clear that as a consequence of the tight connections between the circadian clock system and energy metabolism, circadian clock impairments (e.g., mutations or knock-out of clock genes) and circadian clock misalignments (such as during shift work and chronic jet-lag) have an adverse effect on energy metabolism, that may trigger or enhancing obese and diabetic symptoms. PMID:25662277

  9. Evaluation of scratch movements by a new scratch-monitor to analyze nocturnal itching in atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Endo, K; Sumitsuji, H; Fukuzumi, T; Adachi, J; Aoki, T

    1997-11-01

    Itching is very important in atopic dermatitis, but the details of itching or scratch movements, especially during sleep at night, have not yet been fully comprehended. We designed a new, simple device, the Scratch-Monitor (SM), to evaluate scratch movements at night and assessed the usefulness of this device by a comparison involving 26 patients and 17 healthy controls. The SM, a box weighing only 25 g with a pressure sensor on the bottom, is attached to the back of each hand under a cotton glove and records the number as scratch movements per minute in the case of more than three successive changes of pressure. The SM indicated that patients with atopic dermatitis scratched more frequently and suffered more severe sleep disturbance than healthy controls. Although the SM had several problems related to specificity and sensitivity, we conclude that the SM is a useful tool for evaluating nocturnal itching. PMID:9394975

  10. Melatonin and melatonergic drugs on sleep: possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujan; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Trahkt, Ilya; Spence, D Warren; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Hardeland, Ruediger; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized and secreted in close association with the light/dark cycle. The temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the "opening of the sleep gate" (i.e., the increase in sleep propensity at the beginning of the night), coupled with the sleep-promoting effects of exogenous melatonin, suggest that melatonin is involved in the regulation of sleep. The sleep-promoting and sleep/wake rhythm regulating effects of melatonin are attributed to its action on MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Animal experiments carried out in rats, cats, and monkeys have revealed that melatonin has the ability to reduce sleep onset time and increase sleep duration. However, clinical studies reveal inconsistent findings, with some of them reporting beneficial effects of melatonin on sleep, whereas in others only marginal effects are documented. Recently a prolonged-release 2-mg melatonin preparation (Circadin(TM)) was approved by the European Medicines Agency as a monotherapy for the short-term treatment of primary insomnia in patients who are aged 55 or above. Several melatonin derivatives have been shown to increase nonrapid eye movement (NREM) in rats and are of potential pharmacological importance. So far only one of these melatonin derivatives, ramelteon, has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be used as a sleep promoter. Ramelteon is a novel MT(1) and MT(2) melatonergic agonist that has specific effects on melatonin receptors in the SCN and is effective in promoting sleep in experimental animals such as cats and monkeys. In clinical trials, ramelteon reduced sleep onset latency and promoted sleep in patients with chronic insomnia, including an older adult population. Both melatonin and ramelteon promote sleep by regulating the sleep/wake rhythm through their actions on melatonin receptors in the SCN, a unique mechanism of action not shared by any other hypnotics. Moreover, unlike benzodiazepines, ramelteon causes neither withdrawal effects nor dependence. Agomelatine, another novel melatonergic antidepressant in its final phase of approval for clinical use, has been shown to improve sleep in depressed patients and to have an antidepressant efficacy that is partially attributed to its effects on sleep-regulating mechanisms. PMID:19326288

  11. Musculoskeletal Sensitization and Sleep: Chronic Muscle Pain Fragments Sleep of Mice without Altering Its Duration

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Musculoskeletal pain in humans is often associated with poor sleep quality. We used a model in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced by injection of acidified saline into muscle to study the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of mice. Design: A one month pre-clinical study was designed to determine the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of C57BL/6J mice. Methods: We instrumented mice with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature. We used an established model of musculoskeletal sensitization in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0). The injections were given into the gastrocnemius muscle and spaced five days apart. EEG and body temperature recordings started prior to injections (baseline) and continued for three weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization was induced by the second injection. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed using von Frey filaments at baseline (before any injections) and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the second injection. Results: Mice injected with acidified saline developed bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity at the hind paws as measured by von Frey testing and as compared to control mice and baseline data. Sleep during the light period was fragmented in experimental mice injected with acidified saline, and EEG spectra altered. Musculoskeletal sensitization did not alter the duration of time spent in wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep, or rapid eye movement sleep. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal sensitization in this model results in a distinct sleep phenotype in which sleep is fragmented during the light period, but the overall duration of sleep is not changed. This study suggests the consequences of musculoskeletal pain include sleep disruption, an observation that has been made in the clinical literature but has yet to be studied using preclinical models. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Musculoskeletal sensitization and sleep: chronic muscle pain fragments sleep of mice without altering its duration. SLEEP 2014;37(3):505-513.