Sample records for nocturnal sleep disruption

  1. Trauma Associated Sleep Disorder: A Proposed Parasomnia Encompassing Disruptive Nocturnal Behaviors, Nightmares, and REM without Atonia in Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mysliwiec, Vincent; O'Reilly, Brian; Polchinski, Jason; Kwon, Herbert P.; Germain, Anne; Roth, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize the clinical, polysomnographic and treatment responses of patients with disruptive nocturnal behaviors (DNB) and nightmares following traumatic experiences. Methods: A case series of four young male, active duty U.S. Army Soldiers who presented with DNB and trauma related nightmares. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation in a sleep medicine clinic, attended overnight polysomnogram (PSG) and received treatment. We report pertinent clinical and PSG findings from our patients and review prior literature on sleep disturbances in trauma survivors. Results: DNB ranged from vocalizations, somnambulism to combative behaviors that injured bed partners. Nightmares were replays of the patient's traumatic experiences. All patients had REM without atonia during polysomnography; one patient had DNB and a nightmare captured during REM sleep. Prazosin improved DNB and nightmares in all patients. Conclusions: We propose Trauma associated Sleep Disorder (TSD) as a unique sleep disorder encompassing the clinical features, PSG findings, and treatment responses of patients with DNB, nightmares, and REM without atonia after trauma. Citation: Mysliwiec V, O'Reilly B, Polchinski J, Kwon HP, Germain A, Roth BJ. Trauma associated sleep disorder: a proposed parasomnia encompassing disruptive nocturnal behaviors, nightmares, and REM without atonia in trauma survivors. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1143-1148. PMID:25317096

  2. The Nightly Use of Sodium Oxybate Is Associated with a Reduction in Nocturnal Sleep Disruption: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Patients with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jed; Pardi, Daniel; Hornfeldt, Carl S.; Inhaber, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To further explore the effects of sodium oxybate (SXB) administration on nocturnal sleep in narcolepsy patients during a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study conducted with 228 adult patients with narcolepsy/cataplexy in the United States, Canada, and Europe. Method: Patients were withdrawn from antidepressants and sedative/hypnotics, and then randomized to receive 4.5, 6, or 9 g SXB or placebo nightly for 8 weeks. Patients receiving 6 and 9 g/night doses were titrated to their final dose in weekly 1.5 g increments, while patients receiving placebo were randomized to undergo a similar mock dose titration. The use of stimulant therapy continued unchanged. Changes in sleep architecture were measured using centrally scored nocturnal polysomnograms. Daily diaries were used to record changes in narcolepsy symptoms and adverse events. Results: Following 8 weeks of SXB treatment, study patients demonstrated significant dose-related increases in the duration of stage 3 and 4 sleep, reaching a median increase of 52.5 minutes in patients receiving 9 g nightly. Compared to placebo-treated patients, delta power was significantly increased in all dose groups. Stage 1 sleep and the frequency of nocturnal awakenings were each significantly decreased at the 6 and 9 g/night doses. The changes in nocturnal sleep coincided with significant decreases in the severity and frequency of narcolepsy symptoms. Conclusions: The nightly administration of SXB to narcolepsy patients significantly impacts measures of slow wave sleep, wake after sleep onset, awakenings, total sleep time, and stage 1 sleep in a dose-related manner. The frequency and severity of narcolepsy symptoms decreased with treatment. Citation: Black J; Pardi D; Hornfeldt CS; Inhaber N. The nightly use of sodium oxybate is associated with a reduction in nocturnal sleep disruption: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2010;6(6):596-602. PMID:21206549

  3. Disrupted Nighttime Sleep in Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Thomas; Dauvilliers, Yves; Mignot, Emmanuel; Montplaisir, Jacques; Paul, Josh; Swick, Todd; Zee, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Characterize disrupted nighttime sleep (DNS) in narcolepsy, an important symptom of narcolepsy. Methods: A panel of international narcolepsy experts was convened in 2011 to build a consensus characterization of DNS in patients with narcolepsy. A literature search of the Medline (1965 to date), Medline In-Process (latest weeks), Embase (1974 to date), Embase Alert (latest 8 weeks), and Biosis (1965 to date) databases was conducted using the following search terms: narcolepsy and disrupted nighttime sleep, disturbed nighttime sleep, fragmented sleep, consolidated sleep, sleep disruption, and narcolepsy questionnaire. The purpose of the literature search was to identify publications characterizing the nighttime sleep of patients with narcolepsy. The panel reviewed the literature. Nocturnal sleep can also be disturbed by REM sleep abnormalities such as vivid dreaming and REM sleep behavior disorder; however, these were not reviewed in the current paper, as we were evaluating for idiopathic sleep disturbances. Results: The literature reviewed provide a consistent characterization of nighttime sleep in patients with narcolepsy as fragmented, with reports of frequent, brief nightly awakenings with difficulties returning to sleep and associated reports of poor sleep quality. Polysomnographic studies consistently report frequent awakenings/arousals after sleep onset, more stage 1 (S1) sleep, and more frequent shifts to S1 sleep or wake from deeper stages of sleep. The consensus of the International Experts' Panel on Narcolepsy was that DNS can be distressing for patients with narcolepsy and that treatment of DNS warrants consideration. Conclusions: Clinicians involved in the management of patients with narcolepsy should investigate patients' quality of nighttime sleep, give weight and consideration to patient reports of nighttime sleep experience, and consider DNS a target for treatment. Citation: Roth T; Dauvilliers Y; Mignot E; Montplaisir J; Paul J; Swick T; Zee P. Disrupted nighttime sleep in narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(9):955-965. PMID:23997709

  4. Pathology of the brain and the structure of nocturnal sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veyn, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    An electropolygraphic comparison series of the nocturnal sleep of 126 patients with neurological disorders and 10 persons who were normally healthy is reported. Perturbations in sleep duration are noted in various neurological disorders, with alteration in the length of sleep, however, insignificant. In narcolepsy, stage perturbation is noted.

  5. Sensory processing during early and late nocturnal sleep.

    PubMed

    Plihal, W; Weaver, S; Mölle, M; Fehm, H L; Born, J

    1996-09-01

    The present experiments in 10 healthy men compared auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) and heart rate (HR) indicators of stimulus processing during early and late phases of nocturnal stage 2 sleep. Definition of early and late sleep relied on endocrine pituitary-adrenal secretory activity which is known to be inhibited during early nocturnal sleep but sharply increases during late sleep. AEPs and HR responses were recorded to trains of 10 tone pips (1000 Hz; interstimulus interval 15 s; intertrain interval > 3 min). On one night, tone pips were presented in the first part of sleep, on the other night tone presentation took place in the second part, with the order of conditions balanced across subjects. Amplitudes of N150 and N550 components of the AEP, and of acceleratory and deceleratory HR responses, were higher during the first than second part of nocturnal sleep (P < 0.05). Moreover, habituation of P240 and N550 amplitudes was slower during the first than second part of sleep (P < 0.05). In supplementary experiments, AEP and HR responses to the same stimuli did not differ between the first and second part of the night when subjects were waking during stimulation. Results indicate a reduced inhibitory control over cortical stimulus processing during early nocturnal sleep. This diminished inhibition of cortical processing together with other concomitant changes during early sleep (such as the enhanced inhibition of pituitary-adrenal secretion) may reflect a coordinated regulatory function of sleep possibly mediated by hippocampal mechanisms. PMID:8862114

  6. Nocturnal sleep architecture disturbances in early methadone treatment patients.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Le; Tang, Yi-lang; Smith, Alicia K; Xiang, Yu-tao; Sheng, Li-xia; Chi, Yong; Du, Wan-jun; Guo, Song; Jiang, Zuo-ning; Zhang, Guo-fu; Luo, Xiao-nian

    2010-08-30

    The subjective and objective sleep patterns of patients with opioid dependence have been previously reported, but the sleep characteristics of patients in early methadone treatment, especially the objective sleep patterns, remain largely unexamined. This study was designed to explore the nocturnal sleep structure of patients on early methadone treatment. Twenty male methadone treatment (MT) patients and 20 male age- and body mass index-matched controls were assessed with overnight limited polysomnography. Subjective sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Compared with healthy controls, MT patients had lower sleep efficiency, shorter total sleep time, more awakenings and shorter slow wave sleep (SWS). The PSQI and ESS scores in MT patients were significantly higher than in the controls. ESS scores of the patients were significantly associated with the SWS. The findings indicate that patients in early MT have poor sleep quality and abnormal sleep architecture. PMID:20483171

  7. [Disruptive nocturnal behavior in elderly subjects: could it be a parasomnia?].

    PubMed

    Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2010-06-01

    Parasomnias are sleep-related abnormal behaviors. They are frequent and overlooked causes of nocturnal disruptive behavior in the elderly, especially when patients are cognitively impaired. Confusion and violence can result in sleep disruption, injuries for the patients or their bed partners, caregivers distress, and they can be a motive for institutionalization. Parasomnias include the NonREM sleep disorders of arousal (sleepwalking, sleep terrors, confusional arousals and sleep-related eating disorder), the REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and more rarely the parasomnia overlap syndrome, which associates both NREM and REM parasomnias. Patients with NREM sleep parasomnias are confused, eyes open, with a glazed look during their nocturnal behaviors, and they have a post-episode amnesia. They shout and bolt from the bed (night terrors), look about in a confused manner, walk and speak (sleepwalking), and eat peculiar or inedible food (sleep-related eating disorders). These behaviors, which are frequent in young adults, may be triggered by short-half live hypnotics in elderly. During the parasomnia, the brain is partially awake (enough to perform complex motor and verbal action), and partially asleep (without conscious awareness or responsibility). RBD is characterized by a loss of the normal muscle atonia that accompanies REM sleep. Patients have excessive motor activity such as punching, kicking, or crying out in association with dream content. RBD are frequent in Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies and may precede the cognitive or motor symptoms of these diseases by 5 to 10 years. RBD can also be promoted by antidepressants. When combined with thorough clinical interviews, the video-polysomnography is a powerful tool, especially for discriminating the parasomnia from nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, sleep apneas and periodic leg movements. Ensuring safety and withdrawing deleterious treatments are useful in patients with violent activities, potential injurious or bothersome to other household members. Clonazepam and melatonin (3-12 mg) are highly effective for treating RBD. PMID:20525541

  8. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  9. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; de Paola, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  10. Sleep Apnea and Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmia: A Populational Study.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Fatima Dumas; Leite, Renata Pimentel; Storti, Luciana Julio; Bittencourt, Lia Azeredo; Poyares, Dalva; Castro, Laura de Siqueira; Tufik, Sergio; Paola, Angelo de

    2014-11-01

    Background: The mechanisms associated with the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea include abrupt changes in autonomic tone, which can trigger cardiac arrhythmias. The authors hypothesized that nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Objective: To analyze the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and abnormal heart rhythm during sleep in a population sample. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 1,101 volunteers, who form a representative sample of the city of São Paulo. The overnight polysomnography was performed using an EMBLA® S7000 digital system during the regular sleep schedule of the individual. The electrocardiogram channel was extracted, duplicated, and then analyzed using a Holter (Cardio Smart®) system. Results: A total of 767 participants (461 men) with a mean age of 42.00 ± 0.53 years, were included in the analysis. At least one type of nocturnal cardiac rhythm disturbance (atrial/ventricular arrhythmia or beat) was observed in 62.7% of the sample. The occurrence of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias was more frequent with increased disease severity. Rhythm disturbance was observed in 53.3% of the sample without breathing sleep disorders, whereas 92.3% of patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea showed cardiac arrhythmia. Isolated atrial and ventricular ectopy was more frequent in patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea when compared to controls (p < 0.001). After controlling for potential confounding factors, age, sex and apnea-hypopnea index were associated with nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia. Conclusion: Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmia occurs more frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and the prevalence increases with disease severity. Age, sex, and the Apnea-hypopnea index were predictors of arrhythmia in this sample. PMID:25252161

  11. Correlates among nocturnal agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in dementia.

    PubMed

    Rose, Karen; Specht, Janet; Forch, Windy

    2015-02-01

    Family caregivers of elders with dementia often face the challenging behaviors of nighttime agitation, sleep disturbances, and urinary incontinence. To date, no study has examined the interrelationships of these behaviors in community-dwelling persons. This single group, descriptive study employs wireless body sensors to objectively collect data on nighttime agitation, sleep, and urinary incontinence in patients with dementia in their homes over a 5- to 7-day period. The aims are to (1) examine the feasibility and acceptability of the use of body sensors in community-dwelling persons with dementia; (2) describe patterns of nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence; and (3) examine the relationships among nocturnal agitation, sleep continuity and duration, and nighttime urinary incontinence. Data collection is in early stages and is still in progress. Challenges and advantages from preliminary data collection are reported. PMID:24670931

  12. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    MedlinePLUS

    What is insomnia? Insomnia is defined as a difficulty in falling asleep and/or staying asleep resulting in poorquality sleep or few hours of sleep (Medline Plus). Insomnia has repercussions in the daytime, such as sleepiness ...

  13. Nocturnal awakening and sleep efficiency estimation using unobtrusively measured ballistocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Da Woon Jung; Su Hwan Hwang; Hee Nam Yoon; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Do-Un Jeong; Kwang Suk Park

    2014-01-01

    Fragmented sleep due to frequent awakenings represents a major cause of impaired daytime performance and adverse health outcomes. Currently, the gold standard for studying and assessing sleep fragmentation is polysomnography (PSG). Here, we propose an alternative method for real-time detection of nocturnal awakening via ballistocardiography using an unobtrusive polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) film sensor on a bed mattress. From ballistocardiogram, heart rate and body movement information were extracted to develop an algorithm for classifying sleeping and awakening epochs. In total, ten normal subjects (mean age 38.7 ± 14.6 years) and ten patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) (mean age 44.2 ± 16.5 years) of varying symptom severity participated in this study. Our study detected awakening epochs with an average sensitivity of 85.3% and 85.2%, specificity of 98.4% and 97.7%, accuracy of 97.4% and 96.5%, and Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.83 and 0.81 for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. Also, sleep efficiency was estimated using detected awakening epochs and then compared with PSG results. Mean absolute errors in sleep efficiency were 1.08% and 1.44% for normal subjects and OSA patients, respectively. The results presented here indicate that our suggested method could be reliably applied to real-time nocturnal awakening detection and sleep efficiency estimation. Furthermore, our method may ultimately be an effective tool for long-term, home monitoring of sleep-wake behavior. PMID:23955694

  14. Nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew after transmeridian flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Anthony N.; Pascoe, Peta A.; Spencer, Michael B.; Stone, Barbara M.; Green, Roger L.

    1986-01-01

    The nocturnal sleep and daytime alertness of aircrew were studied by electroencephalography and the multiple sleep latency test. After a transmeridian flight from London To San Francisco, sleep onset was faster and, although there was increased wakefulness during the second half of the night, sleep duration and efficiency over the whole night were not changed. The progressive decrease in sleep latencies observed normally in the multiple sleep latency test during the morning continued throughout the day after arrival. Of the 13 subjects, 12 took a nap of around 1-h duration in the afternoon preceding the return flight. These naps would have been encouraged by the drowsiness at this time and facilitated by the departure of the aircraft being scheduled during the early evening. An early evening departure had the further advantage that the circadian increase in vigilance expected during the early part of the day would occur during the latter part of the return flight.

  15. Role of respiratory sleep disorders in the pathogenesis of nocturnal angina and arrhythmias.

    PubMed Central

    Liston, R.; Deegan, P. C.; McCreery, C.; McNicholas, W. T.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents how respiratory sleep disorders can adversely effect ischaemic heart disease. Three male patients (aged 60-67 years) with proven ischaemic heart disease are described. They illustrate a spectrum of nocturnal cardiac dysfunction, two with nocturnal angina and one with nocturnal arrhythmias. Full sleep studies were performed in a dedicated sleep laboratory on all patients, and one patient had 48 hours of continuous Holter monitoring. Two patients were found to have obstructive sleep apnoea with apnoea/hypopnoea indices of 57 and 36 per hour, respectively, the former with nocturnal arrhythmias and the latter with nocturnal angina. In both cases, nasal continuous positive airways pressure successfully treated the sleep apnoea, with an associated improvement in nocturnal arrhythmias and angina. The third patient who presented with nocturnal angina, did not demonstrate obstructive sleep apnoea (apnoea/hypopnoea index = 7.2) but had significant oxygen desaturation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. This patient responded to a combination of nocturnal oxygen and protriptyline, an agent known to suppress REM sleep, and had no further nocturnal angina. All patients were considered to be an optimum cardiac medication and successful symptom resolution only occurred with the addition of specific therapy aimed at their sleep-related respiratory problem. We conclude that all patients with nocturnal angina or arrhythmias should have respiratory sleep abnormalities considered in their assessment. PMID:8183772

  16. Sleep in the nocturnal primate, Aotus trivirgatus.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perachio, A. A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurement of the cycles of wakefulness and stages of sleep in owl monkeys during 24-hr periods divided into half dark and half light segments. Recordings of electrophysiological activity were used. Reversal of the sequence of light and dark served to test the influence of environmental lighting on the sleep-wakefulness cycles. The sleep patterns of owl monkeys expressed in percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) were compared with those of a closely related New World monkey species, Saimiri Sciureus.

  17. Nocturnal seizures and the effects of anticonvulsants on sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl W. Bazil

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common condition that affects up to 1% of the population. Patients with epilepsy are particularly sensitive\\u000a to the adverse effects of sleep disruption. Failure to recognize and treat sleep disturbances can lead to worsening of attention,\\u000a cognitive functioning, and quality of life, and can increase seizures. Anticonvulsant agents have the potential to either\\u000a improve or worsen sleep

  18. Sleep Disruption Due to Hospital Noises

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the most sleep disruption and to investigate the effects of sound according to the stage of sleep. Who was ... were transmitted into the volunteers’ rooms, and the effect of the speci?c type ... that electronic sounds from medical equipment were more disruptive than the ...

  19. Comparing the Effects of Nocturnal Sleep and Daytime Napping on Declarative Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen’s d?=?0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen’s d?=?0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  20. Comparing the effects of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping on declarative memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Groeger, John A

    2014-01-01

    Nocturnal sleep and daytime napping facilitate memory consolidation for semantically related and unrelated word pairs. We contrasted forgetting of both kinds of materials across a 12-hour interval involving either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness (experiment 1) and a 2-hour interval involving either daytime napping or wakefulness (experiment 2). Beneficial effects of post-learning nocturnal sleep and daytime napping were greater for unrelated word pairs (Cohen's d=0.71 and 0.68) than for related ones (Cohen's d=0.58 and 0.15). While the size of nocturnal sleep and daytime napping effects was similar for unrelated word pairs, for related pairs, the effect of nocturnal sleep was more prominent. Together, these findings suggest that sleep preferentially facilitates offline memory processing of materials that are more susceptible to forgetting. PMID:25229457

  1. Sleep patterns and sleep disruptions in school-age children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avi Sadeh; Amiram Raviv; Reut Gruber

    2000-01-01

    This study assessed the sleep patterns, sleep disruptions, and sleepiness of school-age children. Sleep patterns of 140 children (72 boys and 68 girls; 2nd-, 4th-, and 6th-grade students) were evaluated with activity monitors (actigraphs). In addition, the children and their parents completed complementary sleep questionnaires and daily reports. The findings reflected significant age differences, indicating that older children have more

  2. Nocturnal sweating—a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnoea: the Icelandic sleep apnoea cohort

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Erna Sif; Janson, Christer; Bjornsdottir, Erla; Benediktsdottir, Bryndis; Juliusson, Sigurdur; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Gislason, Thorarinn

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of frequent nocturnal sweating in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients compared with the general population and evaluate the possible changes with positive airway pressure (PAP) treatment. Nocturnal sweating can be very bothersome to the patient and bed partner. Design Case–control and longitudinal cohort study. Setting Landspitali—The National University Hospital, Iceland. Participants The Icelandic Sleep Apnea Cohort consisted of 822 untreated patients with OSA, referred for treatment with PAP. Of these, 700 patients were also assessed at a 2-year follow-up. The control group consisted of 703 randomly selected subjects from the general population. Intervention PAP therapy in the OSA cohort. Main outcome measures Subjective reporting of nocturnal sweating on a frequency scale of 1–5: (1) never or very seldom, (2) less than once a week, (3) once to twice a week, (4) 3–5 times a week and (5) every night or almost every night. Full PAP treatment was defined objectively as the use for ?4?h/day and ?5?days/week. Results Frequent nocturnal sweating (?3× a week) was reported by 30.6% of male and 33.3% of female OSA patients compared with 9.3% of men and 12.4% of women in the general population (p<0.001). This difference remained significant after adjustment for demographic factors. Nocturnal sweating was related to younger age, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, sleepiness and insomnia symptoms. The prevalence of frequent nocturnal sweating decreased with full PAP treatment (from 33.2% to 11.5%, p<0.003 compared with the change in non-users). Conclusions The prevalence of frequent nocturnal sweating was threefold higher in untreated OSA patients than in the general population and decreased to general population levels with successful PAP therapy. Practitioners should consider the possibility of OSA in their patients who complain of nocturnal sweating. PMID:23674447

  3. The Effect of Dexlansoprazole MR on Nocturnal Heartburn and GERD-Related Sleep Disturbances in Patients With Symptomatic GERD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronnie Fass; David A Johnson; William C Orr; Cong Han; Reema Mody; Kathleen N Stern; Betsy L Pilmer; M Claudia Perez

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:Nocturnal heartburn and related sleep disturbances are common among patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This study evaluated the efficacy of dexlansoprazole MR 30 mg in relieving nocturnal heartburn and GERD-related sleep disturbances, improving work productivity, and decreasing nocturnal symptom severity in patients with symptomatic GERD.METHODS:Patients (N=305) with frequent, moderate-to-very severe nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep disturbances were randomized 1:1

  4. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in schizophrenia†

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Katharina; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Middleton, Benita; Foster, Russell G.; Joyce, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances comparable with insomnia occur in up to 80% of people with schizophrenia, but very little is known about the contribution of circadian coordination to these prevalent disruptions. Aims A systematic exploration of circadian time patterns in individuals with schizophrenia with recurrent sleep disruption. Method We examined the relationship between sleep-wake activity, recorded actigraphically over 6 weeks, along with ambient light exposure and simultaneous circadian clock timing, by collecting weekly 48 h profiles of a urinary metabolite of melatonin in 20 out-patients with schizophrenia and 21 healthy control individuals matched for age, gender and being unemployed. Results Significant sleep/circadian disruption occurred in all the participants with schizophrenia. Half these individuals showed severe circadian misalignment ranging from phase-advance/delay to non-24 h periods in sleep-wake and melatonin cycles, and the other half showed patterns from excessive sleep to highly irregular and fragmented sleep epochs but with normally timed melatonin production. Conclusions Severe circadian sleep/wake disruptions exist despite stability in mood, mental state and newer antipsychotic treatment. They cannot be explained by the individuals' level of everyday function. PMID:22194182

  5. Nocturnal Sleep–Wake Parameters of Adolescents at Home Following Cancer Chemotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy J. Walker; Kyle P. Johnson; Christine Miaskowski; Vivian Gedaly-Duff

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive, longitudinal study was to describe objective nocturnal sleep–wake parameters of adolescents at home after receiving chemotherapy in the hospital or outpatient clinic and explore differences in sleep variables by age, gender, and corticosteroid use. Methods: We collected 7 days of wrist actigraphy and sleep diary data from 48 adolescents (10–19 years) who were receiving

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Nocturnal Agitation Behaviors in Older Adults with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Karen M.; Beck, Cornelia; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Liem, Pham H.; Davila, David G.; Kleban, Morton; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Kalra, Gurpreet; Richards, Kathy Culpepper

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine nighttime sleep patterns of persons with dementia showing nocturnal agitation behaviors and to determine whether restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS), and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: General community. Participants: 59 participants with geriatrician-diagnosed dementia. Participants ages ranged from 66 to 88 years (mean age 79.1; SD 6.0). Mean Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score was 20.1 (SD 6.6). MMSE was used to measure baseline cognitive function and not for the diagnosis of dementia. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep was measured by 2 nights of in-home, attended, portable polysomnography (PSG). Nocturnal agitation was measured over 3 additional nights using the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory modified for direct observations. Two experts independently and via consensus identified probable RLS. Total sleep time in participants was 5.6 h (SD 1.8 h). Mean periodic limb movements in sleep index (PLMI) was 15.29, and a high percentage (49%) had moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea. Probable RLS was present in 24% of participants. Those with more severe cognitive impairment had longer sleep latency. Severe cognitive impairment, low apnea hypopnea index (AHI), and probable RLS were associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors (R2 = 0.35, F3,55 = 9.40, P < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that probable RLS is associated with nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia, while OSA and PLMS are not. Further investigation is warranted to determine if treatment of RLS impacts nocturnal agitation behaviors in persons with dementia. Citation: Rose KM; Beck C; Tsai PF; Liem PH; Davila DG; Kleban M; Gooneratne NS; Kalra G; Richards KC. Sleep disturbances and nocturnal agitation behaviors in older adults with dementia. SLEEP 2011;34(6):779-786. PMID:21629366

  7. Disruption of hierarchical predictive coding during sleep.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Melanie; Sitt, Jacobo D; King, Jean-Remi; Elbaz, Maxime; Azizi, Leila; Buiatti, Marco; Naccache, Lionel; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2015-03-17

    When presented with an auditory sequence, the brain acts as a predictive-coding device that extracts regularities in the transition probabilities between sounds and detects unexpected deviations from these regularities. Does such prediction require conscious vigilance, or does it continue to unfold automatically in the sleeping brain? The mismatch negativity and P300 components of the auditory event-related potential, reflecting two steps of auditory novelty detection, have been inconsistently observed in the various sleep stages. To clarify whether these steps remain during sleep, we recorded simultaneous electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic signals during wakefulness and during sleep in normal subjects listening to a hierarchical auditory paradigm including short-term (local) and long-term (global) regularities. The global response, reflected in the P300, vanished during sleep, in line with the hypothesis that it is a correlate of high-level conscious error detection. The local mismatch response remained across all sleep stages (N1, N2, and REM sleep), but with an incomplete structure; compared with wakefulness, a specific peak reflecting prediction error vanished during sleep. Those results indicate that sleep leaves initial auditory processing and passive sensory response adaptation intact, but specifically disrupts both short-term and long-term auditory predictive coding. PMID:25737555

  8. The Multidimensional Correlates Associated With Short Nocturnal Sleep Duration and Subjective Insomnia Among Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Participants: Eight thousand four adolescent students. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using ?2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia. Citation: Yen CF; Ko CH; Yen JY; Cheng CP. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents. SLEEP 2008;31(11):1515–1525. PMID:19014071

  9. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    PubMed Central

    Fairbrother, Kimberly; Cartner, Ben; Alley, Jessica R; Curry, Chelsea D; Dickinson, David L; Morris, David M; Collier, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Background During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP) “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A), 1 pm (1P), and 7 pm (7P) in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. PMID:25540588

  10. Effects of exercise intensity and duration on nocturnal heart rate variability and sleep quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tero Myllymäki; Heikki Rusko; Heidi Syväoja; Tanja Juuti; Marja-Liisa Kinnunen; Heikki Kyröläinen

    Acute physical exercise may affect cardiac autonomic modulation hours or even days during the recovery phase. Although sleep\\u000a is an essential recovery period, the information on nocturnal autonomic modulation indicated by heart rate variability (HRV)\\u000a after different exercises is mostly lacking. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of exercise intensity and duration\\u000a on nocturnal HR, HRV, HR, and HRV-based relaxation,

  11. Effect of Short-Term Acclimatization to High Altitude on Sleep and Nocturnal Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Nussbaumer-Ochsner, Yvonne; Ursprung, Justyna; Siebenmann, Christoph; Maggiorini, Marco; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Objective physiologic data on sleep and nocturnal breathing at initial exposure and during acclimatization to high altitude are scant. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to high altitude induces quantitative and qualitative changes in sleep and that these changes are partially reversed with acclimatization. Design: Prospective observation. Setting: One night in a sleep laboratory at 490 meters, the first and the third night in a mountain hut at 4559 meters. Participants: Sixteen healthy mountaineers. Intervention: Altitude exposure. Measurements: Polysomnography, questionnaire evaluation of sleep and acute mountain sickness. Results: Compared to 490 m, median nocturnal oxygen saturation decreased during the 1st night at 4559 m from 96% to 67%, minute ventilation increased from 4.4 to 6.3 L/min, and the apnea-hypopnea index increased from 0.1 to 60.9/h; correspondingly, sleep efficiency decreased from 93% to 69%, and slow wave sleep from 18% to 6% (P < 0.05, all instances). During the 3rd night at 4559 m, oxygen saturation was 71%, slow wave sleep 11% (P < 0.05 vs. 1st night, both instances) and the apnea/hypopnea index was 86.5/h (P = NS vs. 1st night). Symptoms of AMS and of disturbed sleep were significantly reduced in the morning after the 3rd vs. the 1st night at 4559 m. Conclusions: In healthy mountaineers ascending rapidly to high altitude, sleep quality is initially impaired but improves with acclimatization in association with improved oxygen saturation, while periodic breathing persists. Therefore, high altitude sleep disturbances seem to be related predominantly to hypoxemia rather than to periodic breathing. Citation: Nussbaumer-Ochsner Y; Ursprung J; Siebenmann C; Maggiorini M; Bloch KE. Effect of short-term acclimatization to high altitude on sleep and nocturnal breathing. SLEEP 2012;35(3):419-423. PMID:22379248

  12. Dim light at night does not disrupt timing or quality of sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Weil, Zachary M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-10-01

    Artificial nighttime illumination has recently become commonplace throughout the world; however, in common with other animals, humans have not evolved in the ecological context of chronic light at night. With prevailing evidence linking the circadian, endocrine, immune, and metabolic systems, understanding these relationships is important to understanding the etiology and progression of several diseases. To eliminate the covariate of sleep disruption in light at night studies, researchers often use nocturnal animals. However, the assumption that light at night does not affect sleep in nocturnal animals remains unspecified. To test the effects of light at night on sleep, we maintained Swiss-Webster mice in standard light/dark (LD) or dim light at night (DLAN) conditions for 8-10 wks and then measured electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) biopotentials via wireless telemetry over the course of two consecutive days to determine differences in sleep timing and homeostasis. Results show no statistical differences in total percent time, number of episodes, maximum or average episode durations in wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. No differences were evident in SWS delta power, an index of sleep drive, between groups. Mice kept in DLAN conditions showed a relative increase in REM sleep during the first few hours after the dark/light transition. Both groups displayed normal 24-h circadian rhythms as measured by voluntary running wheel activity. Groups did not differ in body mass, but a marked negative correlation of body mass with percent time spent awake and a positive correlation of body mass with time spent in SWS was evident. Elevated body mass was also associated with shorter maximum wake episode durations, indicating heavier animals had more trouble remaining in the wake vigilance state for extended periods of time. Body mass did not correlate with activity levels, nor did activity levels correlate with time spent in different sleep states. These data indicate that heavier animals tend to sleep more, potentially contributing to further weight gain. We conclude that chronic DLAN exposure does not significantly affect sleep timing or homeostasis in mice, supporting the use of dim light with nocturnal rodents in chronobiology research to eliminate the possible covariate of sleep disruption. PMID:23837748

  13. Isolated Sleep Paralysis: Fear, Prevention, and Disruption.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian Andrew; Grom, Jessica Lynn

    2014-10-14

    Objectives: Relatively little is known about isolated sleep paralysis (ISP), and no empirically supported treatments are available. This study aims to determine: the clinical impact of ISP, the techniques used to prevent or disrupt ISP, and the effectiveness of these techniques. Method: 156 undergraduates were assessed with lifetime ISP using a clinical interview. Results: 75.64% experienced fear during ISP, and 15.38% experienced clinically significant distress/interference, while 19.23% attempted to prevent ISP, and 79.31% of these believed their methods were successful. Regarding disruption, 69.29% made attempts, but only 54.12% reported them effective. Conclusions: Disruption was more common than prevention, but several techniques were useful. Encouraging individuals to utilize these techniques and better monitor their symptoms may be an effective way to manage problematic ISP. PMID:25315810

  14. Lifestyle Practices and Nocturnal Sleep in Midlife Women with and without Insomnia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita E. Cheek; Joan L. Shaver; Martha J. Lentz

    2004-01-01

    Relationships between common lifestyle practices important to sleep hygiene (e.g., smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, ingesting caffeine, exercising, bedtimes, getting-up times) and nocturnal sleep have not been documented for women with insomnia in their home environments. This community-based sample of 121 women, ages 40 to 55 years, included 92 women who had experienced insomnia for at least 3 months and 29womenwith

  15. Children and nocturnal snoring: Evaluation of the effects of sleep related respiratory resistive load and daytime functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ch. Guilleminault; R. Winkle; R. Korobkin; B. Simmons

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five children, age range 2 to 14 years (mean age=7), were referred to the Stanford University Sleep Disorders Clinic for various clinical symptoms, including excessive daytime somnolence, heavy nocturnal snoring, and abnormal daytime behavior. All children (10 girls and 15 boys) were polygraphically monitored during sleep. No sleep apnea syndrome or oxygen desaturation was revealed. However, each child presented significant

  16. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katharina Wulff; Silvia Gatti; Joseph G. Wettstein; Russell G. Foster

    2010-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption are frequently observed in patients with psychiatric disorders and neurodegenerative disease. The abnormal sleep that is experienced by these patients is largely assumed to be the product of medication or some other influence that is not well defined. However, normal brain function and the generation of sleep are linked by common neurotransmitter systems and regulatory

  17. Nighttime Breastfeeding Behavior Is Associated with More Nocturnal Sleep among First-Time Mothers at One Month Postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Therese; Gay, Caryl L.; Kennedy, Holly P.; Newman, Jack; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: To describe sleep duration and quality in the first month postpartum and compare the sleep of women who exclusively breastfed at night to those who used formula. Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study in a predominantly low-income and ethnically diverse sample of 120 first-time mothers. Both objective and subjective measures of sleep were obtained using actigraphy, diary, and self-report data. Measures were collected in the last month of pregnancy and at one month postpartum. Infant feeding diaries were used to group mothers by nighttime breastfeeding behavior. Results: Mothers who used at least some formula at night (n = 54) and those who breastfed exclusively (n = 66) had similar sleep patterns in late pregnancy. However, there was a significant group difference in nocturnal sleep at one month postpartum as measured by actigraphy. Total nighttime sleep was 386 ± 66 minutes for the exclusive breastfeeding group and 356 ± 67 minutes for the formula group. The groups did not differ with respect to daytime sleep, wake after sleep onset (sleep fragmentation), or subjective sleep disturbance at one month postpartum. Conclusion: Women who breastfed exclusively averaged 30 minutes more nocturnal sleep than women who used formula at night, but measures of sleep fragmentation did not differ. New mothers should be encouraged to breastfeed exclusively since breastfeeding may promote sleep during postpartum recovery. Further research is needed to better understand how infant feeding method affects maternal sleep duration and fragmentation. Citation: Doan T; Gay CL; Kennedy HP; Newman J; Lee KA. Nighttime breastfeeding behavior is associated with more nocturnal sleep among first-time mothers at one month postpartum. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):313-319. PMID:24634630

  18. Effect of inducing nocturnal serum melatonin concentrations in daytime on sleep, mood, body temperature, and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollins, A. B.; Zhdanova, I. V.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lynch, H. J.; Deng, M. H.

    1994-01-01

    We examined effects of very low doses of melatonin (0.1-10 mg, orally) or placebo, administered at 1145 h, on sleep latency and duration, mood, performance, oral temperature, and changes in serum melatonin levels in 20 healthy male volunteers. A repeated-measure double-blind Latin square design was used. Subjects completed a battery of tests designed to assess mood and performance between 0930 and 1730 h. The sedative-like effects of melatonin were assessed by a simple sleep test: at 1330 h subjects were asked to hold a positive pressure switch in each hand and to relax with eyes closed while reclining in a quiet darkened room. Latency and duration of switch release, indicators of sleep, were measured. Areas under the time-melatonin concentration curve varied in proportion to the different melatonin doses ingested, and the 0.1- and 0.3-mg doses generated peak serum melatonin levels that were within the normal range of nocturnal melatonin levels in untreated people. All melatonin doses tested significantly increased sleep duration, as well as self-reported sleepiness and fatigue, relative to placebo. Moreover, all of the doses significantly decreased sleep-onset latency, oral temperature, and the number of correct responses on the Wilkinson auditory vigilance task. These data indicate that orally administered melatonin can be a highly potent hypnotic agent; they also suggest that the physiological increase in serum melatonin levels, which occurs around 2100 h daily, may constitute a signal initiating normal sleep onset.

  19. Sleep in children with disruptive behavioral disorders.

    PubMed

    Aronen, Eeva T; Lampenius, Tuulikki; Fontell, Tuija; Simola, Petteri

    2014-09-01

    This study compared sleep in patients with Conduct Disorder/Oppositional Defiant Disorder (CD/ODD) and normative children and evaluated the associations between sleep and behavioral symptoms in patients. Participants were 30 patients, aged 7 to 12 years, with diagnoses of CD/ODD and their age and gender matched controls. Patients with CD/ODD and their parents reported significantly more sleep problems than did the control children and their parents (p values < 0.01). By actigraphy, CD/ODD children with comorbid ADHD slept significantly less than did the patients with CD/ODD alone and the controls. In patients, low sleep amount and efficiency associated with increased amount of parent-reported externalizing symptoms (r = -0.72, 0.66, p values < 0.001). Results highlight the need of evaluating sleep in children with CD/ODD. Improving their sleep may ease their symptoms. PMID:24180372

  20. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography. PMID:7676165

  1. Teledyne Sleep Sentry: evaluation in pediatric patients for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K A; Duck, S C

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-four insulin-dependent diabetic pediatric subjects were studied for 1444 nights for detection of nocturnal hypoglycemia with the Teledyne Sleep Sentry (Teledyne Avionics, Charlottesville, Virginia): a wristwatch-like unit that measures absolute changes in skin temperature and decreases in galvanic skin resistance, indicators of hypoglycemia. The device detected 42 of 46 recognized hypoglycemic episodes. One hundred fifty alarms were sounded without evidence of hypoglycemia, probably due to night sweating. Twenty-five percent of the subjects experienced unacceptable cutaneous reactions, presumably due to metallic iontophoresis. PMID:6653316

  2. Daytime melatonin infusions induce sleep in pigeons without altering subsequent amounts of nocturnal sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric M Mintz; Nathan H Phillips; Ralph J Berger

    1998-01-01

    Daily infusions of melatonin restore sleep suppressed by continuous bright light in pigeons. To test whether melatonin could also induce sleep in pigeons on a 12:12 h light-dark cycle (LD), pigeons received 12-h intravenous melatonin infusions during the day. Melatonin induced sleep during the day, increased EEG slow wave activity, and decreased body temperature and locomotor activity. None of these

  3. Effects of filtering visual short wavelengths during nocturnal shiftwork on sleep and performance.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shadab A; Shapiro, Colin M; Wang, Flora; Ainlay, Hailey; Kazmi, Syeda; Brown, Theodore J; Casper, Robert F

    2013-10-01

    Circadian phase resetting is sensitive to visual short wavelengths (450-480 nm). Selectively filtering this range of wavelengths may reduce circadian misalignment and sleep impairment during irregular light-dark schedules associated with shiftwork. We examined the effects of filtering short wavelengths (<480 nm) during night shifts on sleep and performance in nine nurses (five females and four males; mean age ± SD: 31.3 ± 4.6 yrs). Participants were randomized to receive filtered light (intervention) or standard indoor light (baseline) on night shifts. Nighttime sleep after two night shifts and daytime sleep in between two night shifts was assessed by polysomnography (PSG). In addition, salivary melatonin levels and alertness were assessed every 2 h on the first night shift of each study period and on the middle night of a run of three night shifts in each study period. Sleep and performance under baseline and intervention conditions were compared with daytime performance on the seventh day shift, and nighttime sleep following the seventh daytime shift (comparator). On the baseline night PSG, total sleep time (TST) (p < 0.01) and sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) were significantly decreased and intervening wake times (wake after sleep onset [WASO]) (p = 0.04) were significantly increased in relation to the comparator night sleep. In contrast, under intervention, TST was increased by a mean of 40 min compared with baseline, WASO was reduced and sleep efficiency was increased to levels similar to the comparator night. Daytime sleep was significantly impaired under both baseline and intervention conditions. Salivary melatonin levels were significantly higher on the first (p < 0.05) and middle (p < 0.01) night shifts under intervention compared with baseline. Subjective sleepiness increased throughout the night under both conditions (p < 0.01). However, reaction time and throughput on vigilance tests were similar to daytime performance under intervention but impaired under baseline on the first night shift. By the middle night shift, the difference in performance was no longer significant between day shift and either of the two night shift conditions, suggesting some adaptation to the night shift had occurred under baseline conditions. These results suggest that both daytime and nighttime sleep are adversely affected in rotating-shift workers and that filtering short wavelengths may be an approach to reduce sleep disruption and improve performance in rotating-shift workers. PMID:23834705

  4. Nocturnal CPAP improves walking capacity in COPD patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise limitation is an important issue in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and it often co-exists with obstructive sleep apnoea (overlap syndrome). This study examined the effects of nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on walking capacity in COPD patients with or without obstructive sleep apnoea. Methods Forty-four stable moderate-to-severe COPD patients were recruited and completed this study. They all underwent polysomnography, CPAP titration, accommodation, and treatment with adequate pressure. The incremental shuttle walking test was used to measure walking capacity at baseline and after two nights of CPAP treatment. Urinary catecholamine and heart rate variability were measured before and after CPAP treatment. Results After two nights of CPAP treatment, the apnoea-hypopnoea index and oxygen desaturation index significantly improved in both overlap syndrome and COPD patients, however these changes were significantly greater in the overlap syndrome than in the COPD group. Sleep architecture and autonomic dysfunction significantly improved in the overlap syndrome group but not in the COPD group. CPAP treatment was associated with an increased walking capacity from baseline from 226.4?±?95.3 m to 288.6?±?94.6 m (P?Nocturnal CPAP may improve walking capacity in COPD patients with overlap syndrome. Trial registration NCT00914264 PMID:23782492

  5. Timing of Exercise Within the Waking Period Does Not Alter Blood Pressure During Subsequent Nocturnal Sleep in Normotensive Individuals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Jones; Keith George; Greg Atkinson

    2009-01-01

    Exercise can cause a reduction in blood pressure (BP) that is prolonged enough to extend into nocturnal sleep. This post-exercise hypotension has been found to be less apparent in the morning when the immedi- ate (during the 20 minutes after exercise) responses are considered. However, it is currently unknown if the timing of exercise (morning vs. afternoon) mediates different BP

  6. Effect of non-invasive mechanical ventilation on sleep and nocturnal ventilation in patients with chronic respiratory failure

    PubMed Central

    Schonhofer, B.; Kohler, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Chronic respiratory failure (CRF) is associated with nocturnal hypoventilation. Due to the interaction of sleep and breathing, sleep quality is reduced during nocturnal hypoventilation. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NMV), usually performed overnight, relieves symptoms of hypoventilation and improves daytime blood gas tensions in patients with CRF. The time course of the long term effect of NMV on sleep and breathing during both spontaneous ventilation (withdrawing the intervention) and NMV was investigated in patients with CRF due to thoracic restriction.?METHODS—Fifteen consecutive patients (13 women) of mean (SD) age 57.9 (12.0) years with CRF due to thoracic restriction were included in the study. During the one year observation period four polysomnographic studies were performed: three during spontaneous breathing without NMV—before initiation of NMV (T0) and after withdrawing NMV for one night at six months (T6) and 12 months (T12-)—and the fourth during NMV after 12 months (T12+). Daytime blood gas tensions and lung function were also measured.?RESULTS—Spontaneous ventilation (in terms of mean oxygen saturation) progressively improved (from T0 to T12-) during both REM sleep (24.8%, 95% CI 12.9 to 36.9) and NREM sleep (21.5%, 95% CI 12.4to 30.6). Sleep quality during spontaneous ventilation also improved in terms of increased total sleep time (26.8%, 95% CI 11.6 to 42.0) and sleep efficiency (17.5%, 95% CI 5.4 to 29.6) and decreased awakenings (54.0%, 95% CI 70.3 to 37.7). Accordingly, REM and NREM sleep stages 3 and 4 significantly improved. However, the most significant improvements in both nocturnal ventilation and sleep quality were seen during NMV at 12months.?CONCLUSIONS—After long term NMV both spontaneous ventilation during sleep and sleep quality in patients with CRF due to thoracic restriction showed evidence of progressive improvement compared with baseline after withdrawal of NMV for a single night at six and 12 months. However, the greatest improvements in nocturnal ventilation and sleep were achieved during NMV at 12months.?? PMID:10722771

  7. The Experiences of Sleep Disruption in Families of Technology-Dependent Children Living at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Janet; Noyes, Jane; Sloper, Patricia; Shah, Robina

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the sleep disruption experienced by 36 families of technology-dependent children living at home in the United Kingdom. The paper begins with an overview of the qualitative study in which parents' experiences of sleep disruption emerged as a major theme. We then describe the nature of and reasons for the sleep disruption, the…

  8. Electronic Devices May Disrupt Teen Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 19, who were asked how much screen time (computer, smartphone, tablet, video game console, television, MP3 player) they got during the day outside of school, and about the amount and quality of their sleep. The ... the use of a computer, smartphone or MP3 player in the hour before ...

  9. Mistimed sleep disrupts circadian regulation of the human transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Archer, Simon N; Laing, Emma E; Möller-Levet, Carla S; van der Veen, Daan R; Bucca, Giselda; Lazar, Alpar S; Santhi, Nayantara; Slak, Ana; Kabiljo, Renata; von Schantz, Malcolm; Smith, Colin P; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2014-02-11

    Circadian organization of the mammalian transcriptome is achieved by rhythmic recruitment of key modifiers of chromatin structure and transcriptional and translational processes. These rhythmic processes, together with posttranslational modification, constitute circadian oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues, which drive rhythms in physiology and behavior, including the sleep-wake cycle. In humans, sleep is normally timed to occur during the biological night, when body temperature is low and melatonin is synthesized. Desynchrony of sleep-wake timing and other circadian rhythms, such as occurs in shift work and jet lag, is associated with disruption of rhythmicity in physiology and endocrinology. However, to what extent mistimed sleep affects the molecular regulators of circadian rhythmicity remains to be established. Here, we show that mistimed sleep leads to a reduction of rhythmic transcripts in the human blood transcriptome from 6.4% at baseline to 1.0% during forced desynchrony of sleep and centrally driven circadian rhythms. Transcripts affected are key regulators of gene expression, including those associated with chromatin modification (methylases and acetylases), transcription (RNA polymerase II), translation (ribosomal proteins, initiation, and elongation factors), temperature-regulated transcription (cold inducible RNA-binding proteins), and core clock genes including CLOCK and ARNTL (BMAL1). We also estimated the separate contribution of sleep and circadian rhythmicity and found that the sleep-wake cycle coordinates the timing of transcription and translation in particular. The data show that mistimed sleep affects molecular processes at the core of circadian rhythm generation and imply that appropriate timing of sleep contributes significantly to the overall temporal organization of the human transcriptome. PMID:24449876

  10. Sleep disorders in Alzheimer's disease and other dementias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L Bliwise

    2004-01-01

    Patients with dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), often have nocturnally disrupted sleep. Clinically, this may present as agitation during the nighttime hours, which may affect as many as a quarter of AD patients during some stage of their illness. Sleep disturbance in AD may be multifactorial and involve sleep-disordered breathing and disrupted chronobiology, both often characterized by excessive daytime

  11. Severe nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias caused by sleep apnea-induced hypoxemia in males

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias (NCA) were analyzed in patients with sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) and controls. Occurrence and severity of NCA were compared in 33 SAHS patients and 16 control subjects, matched for cardiovascular risk factors. Continuous overnight polysomnography provided ECG, respiratory and sleep parameters for a comparative analysis. Various types and severity of NCA were detected already in moderate SAHS (apnea/hypopnea index = 26 ± 15.6/h), reflecting the respiratory and atherosclerotic changes. Moderately severe arrhythmias, represented with benign and 2 complex types were caused by hypoxemia characterized by AHI, minimal SaO2, and lower values after desaturation. Three-time higher prevalence of complex arrhythmias in SAHS patients was not significantly different by usual statistical comparison, likely due to a low number of controls and a joint occurrence of various types and complex severity of arrhythmias in some patients. Therefore, a complex assessment of different types and varying severity of arrhythmias would require a scale specifically constructed for their evaluation. PMID:21147650

  12. Sleep Disruptions and Emotional Insecurity Are Pathways of Risk for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; Cummings, E. Mark; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are prevalent in American children. A critical need is to identify sources and processes related to sleep disruptions and their sequelae. We examined a model linking parental marital conflict and children's emotional insecurity, sleep disruptions, and their adjustment and academic problems. Method: One hundred and…

  13. Nocturnal Continuous Glucose and Sleep Stage Data in Adults with Type 1 Diabetes in Real-World Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Feupe, Stephanie Feudjio; Frias, Patrick F.; Mednick, Sara C.; McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Heintzman, Nathaniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep plays an important role in health, and poor sleep is associated with negative impacts on diabetes management, but few studies have objectively evaluated sleep in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Nocturnal glycemia and sleep characteristics in T1DM were evaluated using body-worn sensors in real-world conditions. Methods Analyses were performed on data collected by the Diabetes Management Integrated Technology Research Initiative pilot study of 17 T1DM subjects: 10 male, 7 female; age 19–61 years; T1DM duration 14.9 ± 11.0 years; hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) 7.3% ± 1.3% (mean ± standard deviation). Each subject was equipped with a continuous glucose monitor and a wireless sleep monitor (WSM) for four nights. Sleep stages [rapid eye movement (REM), light, and deep sleep] were continuously recorded by the WSM. Nocturnal glycemia (mg/dl) was evaluated as hypoglycemia (<50 mg/dl), low (50–69 mg/dl), euglycemia (70–120 mg/dl), high (121–250 mg/dl), and hyperglycemia (>250 mg/dl) and by several indices of glycemic variability. Glycemia was analyzed within each sleep stage. Results Subjects slept 358 ± 48 min per night, with 85 ± 27 min in REM sleep, 207 ± 42 min in light sleep, and 66 ± 30 min in deep sleep (mean ±standard deviation). Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c (R2 = 0.42; F = 9.37; p < .01). Nocturnal glycemia varied widely between and within subjects. Glycemia during REM sleep was hypoglycemia 5.5% ± 18.1%, low 6.6% ± 18.5%, euglycemia 44.6% ± 39.5%, high 37.9% ± 39.7%, and hyperglycemia 5.5% ± 21.2%; glycemia during light sleep was hypoglycemia 4.8% ± 12.4%, low 7.3% ± 12.9%, euglycemia 42.1% ± 33.7%, high 39.2% ± 34.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.5% ± 20.5%; and glycemia during deep sleep was hypoglycemia 0.5% ± 2.2%, low 5.8% ± 14.3%, euglycemia 48.0% ± 37.5%, high 39.5% ± 37.6%, and hyperglycemia 6.2% ± 19.5%. Significantly less time was spent in the hypoglycemic range during deep sleep compared with light sleep (p = .02). Conclusions Increased time in deep sleep was associated with lower HbA1c, and less hypoglycemia occurred in deep sleep in T1DM, though this must be further evaluated in larger subsequent studies. Furthermore, the consumer-grade WSM device was useful for objectively studying sleep in a real-world setting. J Diabetes Sci Technol 2013;7(5):1337–1345 PMID:24124962

  14. Role of nocturnal rostral fluid shift in the pathogenesis of obstructive and central sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    White, Laura H; Bradley, T Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is common in the general population and increases the risk of motor vehicle accidents due to hypersomnolence from sleep disruption, and risk of cardiovascular diseases owing to repetitive hypoxia, sympathetic nervous system activation, and systemic inflammation. In contrast, central sleep apnoea (CSA) is rare in the general population. Although their pathogenesis is multifactorial, the prevalence of both OSA and CSA is increased in patients with fluid retaining states, especially heart failure, where they are associated with increased mortality risk. This observation suggests that fluid retention may contribute to the pathogenesis of both OSA and CSA. According to this hypothesis, during the day fluid accumulates in the intravascular and interstitial spaces of the legs due to gravity, and upon lying down at night redistributes rostrally, again owing to gravity. Some of this fluid may accumulate in the neck, increasing tissue pressure and causing the upper airway to narrow, thereby increasing its collapsibility and predisposing to OSA. In heart failure patients, with increased rostral fluid shift, fluid may additionally accumulate in the lungs, provoking hyperventilation and hypocapnia, driving below the apnoea threshold, leading to CSA. This review article will explore mechanisms by which overnight rostral fluid shift, and its prevention, can contribute to the pathogenesis and therapy of sleep apnoea. PMID:23230237

  15. Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption and recognition memory in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tam, Shu K E; Pritchett, David; Brown, Laurence A; Foster, Russell G; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia patients often show irregularities in sleep and circadian rhythms and deficits in recognition memory. Similar phenotypes are seen in schizophrenia-relevant genetic mouse models, such as synaptosomal associated protein of 25kDa (Snap-25) point mutant mice, vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (Vipr2) knockout mice, and neuregulin 1 (Nrg1)-deficient mice. Sleep and circadian abnormalities and impaired recognition memory may be causally related in both schizophrenia patients and schizophrenia-relevant mouse models, since sleep deprivation, abnormal photic input, and the manipulation of core clock genes (cryptochrome 1/2) can all disrupt object recognition memory in rodent models. The recognition deficits observed in patients and mouse models (both schizophrenia-related and -unrelated) are discussed here in terms of the dual-process theory of recognition, which postulates that there are two recognition mechanisms-recollection versus familiarity-that can be selectively impaired by brain lesions, neuropsychiatric conditions, and putatively, sleep and circadian rhythm disruption. However, based on this view, the findings from patient studies and studies using genetic mouse models (Nrg1 deficiency) seem to be inconsistent with each other. Schizophrenia patients are impaired at recollection (and to a lesser extent, familiarity judgments), but Nrg1-deficient mice are impaired at familiarity-based object recognition, raising concerns regarding the validity of using these genetically modified mice to model recognition phenotypes observed in patients. This issue can be resolved in future animal studies by examining performance in different variants of the spontaneous recognition task-the standard, perirhinal cortex-dependent, object recognition task versus the hippocampus-dependent object-place recognition task-in order to see which of the two recognition mechanisms is more disrupted. PMID:25707284

  16. [Structure of nocturnal sleep if there is a violation of the blood supply in the territory of internal carotid artery].

    PubMed

    Berezina, I Iu; Sumski?, L I; Kudriashova, N E

    2013-01-01

    The work examines the influence of degree ofstenosis or occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) of noc- turnal sleep and discusses possible neurophysiological mechanisms of sleep disorders when blood flow in ca- rotid system. 24 patients (19 male and 5 female) were examined. The mean age of men was 49.75 ± 6.55; women--46.67 ± 5.86. Six patients with a single unilateral internal carotid stenosis (ICA) 50%; seven patients--stenosis of ICA 50-70%; eleven patients--occlusion of ICA completed the study. Polysomnography was recorded with "Neuro-Spectr-5/EP" ("NeuroSoft", Russia) and "Delta Flash" ("Deltamed", France) according to international recommendation. Stages of sleep were identified according to Re- chtschaffen A., Kales A. (1968) criteria. Patients were asked to fill in the questionnaire prior to clinical and polysomnographic evaluation. Regional cerebral blood flow (mL/100g/min) with 99mTechnetium (Gamma-camera, DST-Xli "General electric", USA) was study by single photon emission CT imaging. The result of this study showed that with stenosis of the ICA to 50% structure of nocturnal sleep is not changed: records all phases and stages of sleep, quantitative parameters that match the normative data; or decline in the representation of only the stage II sleep; at stenosis ICA of 50-70% is violation of mostly stage II sleep and slow-wave sleep, and with occlusion ICA violation slow-wave sleep and in 45% of cases--REM-sleep. PMID:25509172

  17. The Effects of Sleep Disruption on the Treatment of a Feeding Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Gregory K.; Dolezal, Danielle N.; Cooper-Brown, Linda J.; Wacker, David P.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of sleep disruption on the mealtime behavior of a young boy with developmental disabilities. Results showed that bite acceptance was less likely to persist during meals following disrupted sleep, but only when escape extinction was not implemented. Findings are discussed in terms of establishing operations and the effects…

  18. Sleep Influences the Severity of Memory Disruption in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    E-print Network

    Reber, Paul J.

    Sleep Influences the Severity of Memory Disruption in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment Results From Sleep Self-assessment and Continuous Activity Monitoring Carmen E. Westerberg, PhD, Eric MD, and Ken A. Paller, PhD Abstract: Sleep is important for declarative memory consolidation in healthy adults

  19. Are Nocturnal Breathing, Sleep, and Cognitive Performance Impaired at Moderate Altitude (1,630-2,590 m)?

    PubMed Central

    Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Grimm, Mirjam; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Achermann, Peter; Huber, Reto; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Newcomers at high altitude (> 3,000 m) experience periodic breathing, sleep disturbances, and impaired cognitive performance. Whether similar adverse effects occur at lower elevations is uncertain, although numerous lowlanders travel to moderate altitude for professional or recreational activities. We evaluated the hypothesis that nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance of lowlanders are impaired at moderate altitude. Design: Randomized crossover trial. Setting: University hospital at 490 m, Swiss mountain villages at 1,630 m and 2,590 m. Participants: Fifty-one healthy men, median (quartiles) age 24 y (20-28 y), living below 800 m. Interventions: Studies at Zurich (490 m) and during 4 consecutive days at 1,630 m and 2,590 m, respectively, 2 days each. The order of altitude exposure was randomized. Polysomnography, psychomotor vigilance tests (PVT), the number back test, several other tests of cognitive performance, and questionnaires were evaluated. Measurements and Results: The median (quartiles) apnea-hypopnea index at 490 m was 4.6/h (2.3; 7.9), values at 1,630 and 2,590 m, day 1 and 2, respectively, were 7.0/h (4.1; 12.6), 5.4/h (3.5; 10.5), 13.1/h (6.7; 32.1), and 8.0/h (4.4; 23.1); corresponding values of mean nocturnal oxygen saturation were 96% (95; 96), 94% (93; 95), 94% (93; 95), 90% (89; 91), 91% (90; 92), P < 0.05 versus 490 m, all instances. Slow wave sleep on the first night at 2,590 m was 21% (18; 25) versus 24% (20; 27) at 490 m (P < 0.05). Psychomotor vigilance and various other measures of cognitive performance did not change significantly. Conclusions: Healthy men acutely exposed during 4 days to hypoxemia at 1,630 m and 2,590 m reveal a considerable amount of periodic breathing and sleep disturbances. However, no significant effects on psychomotor reaction speed or cognitive performance were observed. Clinical Trials Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01130948. Citation: Latshang TD; Lo Cascio CM; Stöwhas AC; Grimm M; Stadelmann K; Tesler N; Achermann P; Huber R; Kohler M; Bloch KE. Are nocturnal breathing, sleep, and cognitive performance impaired at moderate altitude (1,630-2,590 m)? SLEEP 2013;36(12):1969-1976. PMID:24293773

  20. Abnormal Sleep\\/Wake Cycles and the Effect of Environmental Noise on Sleep Disruption in the Intensive Care Unit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NEIL S. FREEDMAN; JOOST GAZENDAM; LACHELLE LEVAN; ALLAN I. PACK; RICHARD J. SCHWAB

    Little is known about sleep\\/wake abnormalities in intensive care and less is known about the mechanisms responsible for these ab- normalities. We studied 22 (20 mechanically ventilated) medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with continuous polysomnogra- phy (PSG) and environmental noise measurements for 24-48 h to characterize sleep-wake patterns and objectively determine the effect of environmental noise on sleep disruption.

  1. Chronic sleep restriction disrupts sleep homeostasis and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol by reducing the extracellular accumulation of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I; Halassa, Michael M; Haydon, Philip G

    2014-01-29

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5-4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  2. Sleep Disruption Medical Intervention Forecasting (SDMIF) Module for the Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Brooker, John; Mallis, Melissa; Hursh, Steve; Caldwell, Lynn; Myers, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Integrated Medical Model (IMM) assesses the risk, including likelihood and impact of occurrence, of all credible in-flight medical conditions. Fatigue due to sleep disruption is a condition that could lead to operational errors, potentially resulting in loss of mission or crew. Pharmacological consumables are mitigation strategies used to manage the risks associated with sleep deficits. The likelihood of medical intervention due to sleep disruption was estimated with a well validated sleep model and a Monte Carlo computer simulation in an effort to optimize the quantity of consumables. METHODS: The key components of the model are the mission parameter program, the calculation of sleep intensity and the diagnosis and decision module. The mission parameter program was used to create simulated daily sleep/wake schedules for an ISS increment. The hypothetical schedules included critical events such as dockings and extravehicular activities and included actual sleep time and sleep quality. The schedules were used as inputs to the Sleep, Activity, Fatigue and Task Effectiveness (SAFTE) Model (IBR Inc., Baltimore MD), which calculated sleep intensity. Sleep data from an ISS study was used to relate calculated sleep intensity to the probability of sleep medication use, using a generalized linear model for binomial regression. A human yes/no decision process using a binomial random number was also factored into sleep medication use probability. RESULTS: These probability calculations were repeated 5000 times resulting in an estimate of the most likely amount of sleep aids used during an ISS mission and a 95% confidence interval. CONCLUSIONS: These results were transferred to the parent IMM for further weighting and integration with other medical conditions, to help inform operational decisions. This model is a potential planning tool for ensuring adequate sleep during sleep disrupted periods of a mission.

  3. Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Blask

    2009-01-01

    summary The pineal hormone melatonin is involved in the circadian regulation and facilitation of sleep, the inhibition of cancer development and growth, and the enhancement of immune function. Individuals, such as night shift workers, who are exposed to light at night on a regular basis experience biological rhythm (i.e., circadian) disruption including circadian phase shifts, nocturnal melatonin suppression, and sleep

  4. Prevalence of and impact of pantoprazole on nocturnal heartburn and associated sleep complaints in patients with erosive esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kindt, S; Imschoot, J; Tack, J

    2011-11-01

    Studies in the United States have revealed that gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients often suffer from nocturnal symptoms, sleep disturbance, and impaired quality of life. In a large subset of patients, these symptoms persist in spite of acid suppressive therapy. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of heartburn and associated sleep complaints and the response to standard medical therapy with pantoprazole in primary and secondary care esophagitis patients in Belgium. Questionnaires were provided to consecutive patients presenting to primary and secondary care physicians with esophagitis. The questionnaire evaluated the presence of typical reflux symptoms, alarm symptoms, risk factors, and sleep quality impairment as a result of reflux episodes. Results are shown as mean ± standard deviation and compared by Student's t-test or chi-square test. A total of 4061 primary and 5261 secondary care patients (50% female, mean age 53 ± 0.2 years, body mass index of 25.7 ± 0.1?kg/m(2) ) were recruited. Eighty-four percent of patients reported sleep disturbance attributable to nighttime reflux, including typical nighttime supine reflux symptoms (72%), difficulties to fall asleep (39%), waking up during the night (45%), morning fatigue (35%), and reflux symptoms when waking up in the morning (47%). Mild, moderate, or severe nighttime heartburn were reported by, respectively, 30, 35, and 12%, and these numbers were 26, 28, and 6% for nighttime regurgitation. Alcohol (19%), smoking (22%), higher esophagitis grades (grades 2, 3, and 4 in, respectively, 31, 7, and, 7%), alarm symptoms (27%), and more severe heartburn and regurgitation during daytime were all significantly associated with all dimensions of sleep disturbance (P < 0.0001). Obesity was only related to symptoms in supine position and when waking up (P < 0.0001). After 1.4 ± 0.0 months of treatment with pantoprazole, any sleep disturbance had improved in more than 75% of patients, with resolution of nighttime heartburn and regurgitation in, respectively, 75 and 83%. The majority of patients presenting with reflux symptoms and esophagitis in primary or secondary care experience nighttime heartburn and regurgitation, and sleep disturbance by nighttime symptoms is present in 84%. Smoking, alcohol use, higher grades of esophagitis, more severe typical reflux symptoms during daytime, and the presence of alarm symptoms are risk factors for GERD-related sleep disturbance. On standard therapy with pantoprazole, nighttime symptoms improved in more than 75%. These observations support a direct relationship between GERD and sleep disturbance. PMID:21418126

  5. Pediatric Pulmonology 42:374379 (2007) Nocturnal Body Position in Sleeping Children With

    E-print Network

    with OSAS are more likely to sleep prone, suggesting that this position may promote upper airway patency upper airway obstruc- tion during sleep, and affects approximately 1­3% of children.1 With and Without Obstructive Sleep Apnea Ehab Dayyat, MD,1 Muna M.A. Maarafeya, MD,1,2 Oscar Sans Capdevila, MD,1

  6. Nocturnal Awakening & Sleep Duration in Veterans with PTSD: An Actigraphic Study

    PubMed Central

    S. Khawaja, Imran; M. Hashmi, Ali; Westermeyer, Joseph; Thuras, Paul; Hurwitz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether awakenings from sleep and sleep duration in Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were related to demography, posttraumatic or depressive symptoms, subjective sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness. Methods: Sample consisted of 23 veterans with lifetime PTSD and current sleep disturbance not due to apnea or other diagnosable conditions. Data collection included demography, two weeks of actigraphy, Beck Depression Inventory, Posttraumatic Checklist, Clinical Assessment of Posttraumatic Symptoms, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Results: The study revealed that awakenings increased with younger age. Variability in awakenings also increased with younger age (p = 0.002). More awakenings were associated with shorter sleep duration. Conclusions: These paradoxical observations regarding younger age and more awakening may be related to increased sleep symptoms early in the course and then gradual waning of posttraumatic symptoms over time, since awakenings tend to increase with age in normals (rather than decrease, as we observed). PMID:24353674

  7. [Continuous nocturnal automassage of an acupuncture point modifies sleep in healthy subjects].

    PubMed

    Buguet, A; Sartre, M; Le Kerneau, J

    1995-01-01

    To test the somnogenic properties of the automassage of point 7 heart of acupuncture, polygraphic night sleep was studied in six healthy volunteers (age: 27.8 +/- 1.6 years) from 23:00 h to 07:00 h. After one night of adaptation, two PEBA cones (Polyether Block Amides; Isocones) were fixed bilaterally at both points 7 heart (active application, AA) or on the back of hand (placebo application, AP). The alternate application was used 2 weeks later, using a randomized, double-blind, and cross-over protocol. Cyclic alternating patterns (CAP) were also analysed on the electroencephalogram during non-REM sleep. Sleep efficiency increased in AA, due to a decrease in wakefulness, and an increase in total sleep time due to an increase in non-REM sleep. The number of CAP decreased in AA, as did the number of CAP sequences and the ratio of CAP duration to total sleep time (CAP rate) and to the duration of slow-wave sleep. In conclusion, the application of Isocones at point 7 heart during the night induced a decrease in wakefulness and an increase in non-REM sleep during night sleep in healthy subjects. PMID:7603415

  8. Effects of nocturnal oxygen therapy in patients with chronic heart failure and central sleep apnea: CHF-HOT study.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Yoko M; Ueshima, Kenji; Yasuno, Shinji; Sasayama, Shigetake

    2014-10-28

    It was previously reported that nocturnal home oxygen therapy (HOT) significantly improved not only sleep disordered breathing (SDB), but also quality of life (QOL) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in two trials. To strengthen the statistical reliability of the above efficacies of HOT and to assess the effects of 12-week nocturnal HOT on suppression of ventricular arrhythmias, we combined the two trials and undertook a post hoc analysis. Ninety-seven patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and central sleep apnea were assigned to receive HOT (45 patients) or not (52 patients). HOT resulted in greater reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) (-11.4 ± 11.0 vs. -0.2 ± 7.6 events/h, p < 0.01), which is associated with greater improvement in the Specific Activity Scale (0.8 ± 1.2 vs. 0.0 ± 0.6, p < 0.01), New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class (p < 0.01), and LVEF (p = 0.06). Median number of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) at baseline was 17 beats per hour in both the HOT and the control groups. Overall improvements of PVCs were not different either in the HOT group or in the control. However, in 12 patients with NYHA >III and AHI >20 events/h, PVC was significantly improved by HOT with a marked reduction in AHI and a substantial increase in LVEF. In conclusion, among patients with CHF and CSA, HOT improves SDB, QOL, and cardiac function. The effectiveness of HOT for ventricular arrhythmias was not observed in the overall analysis, but only in a limited number of patients with severe CHF and SDB. To clarify the effects of HOT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with CHF and SDB, a further study is needed. PMID:25348726

  9. Isolated sleep paralysis linked to impaired nocturnal sleep quality and health-related quality of life in Chinese-Taiwanese patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun-Wung Hsieh; Chiou-Lian Lai; Ching-Kuan Liu; Sheng-Hsing Lan; Chung-Yao Hsu

    2010-01-01

    Purpose  Isolated sleep paralysis (ISP) is a rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnia and has a special meaning in Chinese population.\\u000a Worsening of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs especially during REM sleep. The relationship between ISP and OSA is unclear.\\u000a The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of ISP on sleep and life quality in Chinese-Taiwanese OSA patients.

  10. Tablets and E-Readers May Disrupt Your Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... bright light from these devices appears to suppress melatonin, a sleep-promoting hormone that normally increases during the evening ... of sleep associated with dreaming and deep, restorative sleep, the researchers ... nightly increase in their melatonin levels by more than an hour and a ...

  11. The acute effects of levetiracetam on nocturnal sleep and daytime sleepiness in patients with partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun-Ying; Tang, Xiang-Dong; Huang, Li-Li; Zhong, Ze-Qi; Lei, Fei; Zhou, Dong

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of the novel antiepileptic drug levetiracetam (LEV) on sleep in eleven patients with partial epilepsy. At baseline and one week after therapy with LEV (1000 mg/day), patients underwent polysomnography (PSG) and the Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT). Patients also rated their own degree of sleep disturbance and daytime sleepiness with the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). A group of 10 age- and gender-matched control participants were also included in the study. Patients had decreased total sleep time and increased daytime sleepiness compared to baseline, as evaluated by AIS subscales. Furthermore, LEV therapy significantly decreased the rapid eye movement sleep time and percentage as measured by PSG. Patients reported a significant increase in ESS score but did not exhibit changes in MSLT performance after LEV treatment. The study demonstrated that short-course LEV treatment can affect subjective sleep time and objective sleep architecture. Furthermore, LEV treatment affected subjective daytime sleepiness but did not influence objective mean daytime sleep latencies in patients with partial epilepsy. PMID:22595355

  12. Effect of Sustained Nocturnal Transbuccal Melatonin Administration on Sleep and Temperature in Elderly Insomniacs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew Dawson; Naomi L. Rogers; Cameron J. van den Heuvel; David J. Kennaway; Kurt Lushington

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested a role for the pineal hormone melatonin in the control of the body's sleep-wake and thermoregulatory systems. In the elderly population, there have been reports of decreased nighttime secretion of melatonin and suggestions that this may, in turn, be responsible for the increased incidence of sleep disorders reported by this age group. On this basis, it

  13. Living alongside railway tracks: Long-term effects of nocturnal noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Tassi, Patricia; Rohmer, Odile; Schimchowitsch, Sarah; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Bonnefond, Anne; Margiocchi, Florence; Poisson, Franck; Muzet, Alain

    2010-10-01

    Very few studies were devoted to permanent effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular reactivity. We investigated the effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep and cardiovascular response in young and middle-aged adults living for many years either near a railway track or in a quiet area. Forty subjects (50% males) divided into two age groups (juniors: 26.2+/-3.6 and seniors: 56.2+/-4.2) participated in this experiment. Half of them lived near a railway track (RW group: 2.6 to 19 years) and the other half in a quiet environment (QE group: 8.1 to 14.2 years). After an adaptation night, all subjects underwent two nights in the laboratory: one control night and one noisy night (30 by-passes of a freight train). Sleep and cardiovascular modifications were assessed in response to noise. Sleep fragmentation indices were lower in RW subjects compared to QE whatever their age. In response to noise, there was a higher cardiovascular response rate to noise in RW juniors and a lower cardiovascular response rate in RW seniors compared to their age-paired QE counterparts. In conclusion, permanent exposure to nocturnal railway noise leads to decreased sleep fragmentation and to cardiovascular habituation. It is suggested that during the initial period experienced by residents living near railway tracks, nocturnal railway noise could induce a sensitization process on the autonomic response to noise reflecting a startle/defense reflex due to its functional significance, which progressively turns to habituation in the long-term if no adverse effect is experienced. PMID:20569986

  14. Nocturnal intermittent hypoxia predicts prevalent hypertension in the European Sleep Apnoea Database cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tkacova, Ruzena; McNicholas, Walter T; Javorsky, Martin; Fietze, Ingo; Sliwinski, Pawel; Parati, Gianfranco; Grote, Ludger; Hedner, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Systemic hypertension is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) but the pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood. A collaborative European network of 24 sleep centres established a European Sleep Apnoea Database to evaluate cardiovascular morbidity associated with OSAS. 11 911 adults referred with suspected OSAS between March 2007 and September 2013 underwent overnight sleep studies, either cardiorespiratory polygraphy or polysomnography. We compared the predictive value of the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and 4% oxygen desaturation index (ODI) for prevalent hypertension, adjusting for relevant covariates including age, smoking, obesity, dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Among patients (70% male, mean±sd age 52±12 years), 78% had AHI>5 events·h(-1) and 41% systemic hypertension. Both AHI and ODI independently related to prevalent hypertension after adjustment for relevant covariates (p<0.0001 for linear trend across quartiles (Q) of severity for both variables). However, in multiple regression analysis with both ODI and AHI in the model, ODI was, whereas AHI was not, independently associated with prevalent hypertension: odds ratios (95% CI) for Q4 versus Q1 regarding ODI were 2.01 (1.61-2.51) and regarding AHI were 0.92 (0.74-1.15) (p<0.0001 and p=0.3054, respectively). This cross sectional study suggests that chronic intermittent hypoxia plays an important role in OSAS-related hypertension. PMID:25102963

  15. Brief light stimulation during the mouse nocturnal activity phase simultaneously induces a decline in core temperature and locomotor activity followed by EEG-determined sleep

    PubMed Central

    Studholme, Keith M.; Gompf, Heinrich S.

    2013-01-01

    Light exerts a variety of effects on mammals. Unexpectedly, one of these effects is the cessation of nocturnal locomotion and the induction of behavioral sleep (photosomnolence). Here, we extend the initial observations in several ways, including the fundamental demonstration that core body temperature (Tc) drops substantially (about 1.5°C) in response to the light stimulation at CT15 or CT18 in a manner suggesting that the change is a direct response to light rather than simply a result of the locomotor suppression. The results show that 1) the decline of locomotion and Tc begin soon after nocturnal light stimulation; 2) the variability in the magnitude and onset of light-induced locomotor suppression is very large, whereas the variability in Tc is very small; 3) Tc recovers from the light-induced decline in advance of the recovery of locomotion; 4) under entrained and freerunning conditions, the daily late afternoon Tc increase occurs in advance of the corresponding increase in wheel running; and 5) toward the end of the subjective night, the nocturnally elevated Tc persists longer than does locomotor activity. Finally, EEG measurements confirm light-induced sleep and, when Tc or locomotion was measured, show their temporal association with sleep onset. Both EEG- and immobility-based sleep detection methods confirm rapid induction of light-induced sleep. The similarities between light-induced loss of locomotion and drop in Tc suggest a common cause for parallel responses. The photosomnolence response may be contingent upon both the absence of locomotion and a simultaneous low Tc. PMID:23364525

  16. Aligning work and circadian time in shift workers improves sleep and reduces circadian disruption.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Céline; Fischer, Dorothee; Matera, Joana L; Roenneberg, Till

    2015-03-30

    Sleep loss and circadian disruption-a state of misalignment between physiological functions and imposed sleep/wake behavior-supposedly play central roles in the etiology of shift work-related pathologies [1-4]. Circadian entrainment is, however, highly individual [5], resulting in different chronotypes [6, 7]. Chronotype in turn modulates the effects of working times: compared to late chronotypes, earlier ones sleep worse and shorter and show higher levels of circadian misalignment during night shifts, while late types experience more sleep and circadian disruption than early types when working morning shifts [8]. To promote sleep and reduce the mismatch between circadian and working time, we implemented a chronotype-adjusted (CTA) shift schedule in a factory. We abolished the most strenuous shifts for extreme chronotypes (i.e., mornings for late chronotypes, nights for early ones) and examined whether sleep duration and quality, social jetlag [9, 10], wellbeing, subjective stress perception, and satisfaction with leisure time improved in this schedule. Intermediate chronotypes (quartiles 2 and 3) served as a control group, still working morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00), and night (22:00-6:00) shifts, with two strenuous shifts (out of twelve per month) replaced by evening ones. We observed a significant increase of self-reported sleep duration and quality, along with increased wellbeing ratings on workdays among extreme chronotypes. The CTA schedule reduced overall social jetlag by 1 hr, did not alter stress levels, and increased satisfaction with leisure time (early types only). Chronotype-based schedules thus can reduce circadian disruption and improve sleep; potential long-term effects on health and economic indicators need to be elucidated in future studies. PMID:25772446

  17. Sleep Is Not Disrupted by Exercise in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndromes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FUMIHARU TOGO; BENJAMIN H. NATELSON; MARC KLAPHOLZ; DAVID M. RAPOPORT; DANE B. COOK

    2010-01-01

    TOGO, F., B. H. NATELSON, N. S. CHERNIACK, M. KLAPHOLZ, D. M. RAPOPORT, and D. B. COOK. Sleep Is Not Disrupted by Exercise in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndromes. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 16-22, 2010. Purpose: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) report that exertion produces dramatic symptom worsening. We hypothesized this might be due

  18. Cold Hands, Warm Feet: Sleep Deprivation Disrupts Thermoregulation and Its Association with Vigilance

    PubMed Central

    Romeijn, Nico; Verweij, Ilse M.; Koeleman, Anne; Mooij, Anne; Steimke, Rosa; Virkkala, Jussi; van der Werf, Ysbrand; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Vigilance is affected by induced and spontaneous skin temperature fluctuations. Whereas sleep deprivation strongly affects vigilance, no previous study examined in detail its effect on human skin temperature fluctuations and their association with vigilance. Design: In a repeated-measures constant routine design, skin temperatures were assessed continuously from 14 locations while performance was assessed using a reaction time task, including eyes-open video monitoring, performed five times a day for 2 days, after a normal sleep or sleep deprivation night. Setting: Participants were seated in a dimly lit, temperature-controlled laboratory. Patients or Participants: Eight healthy young adults (five males, age 22.0 ± 1.8 yr (mean ± standard deviation)). Intervention: One night of sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Mixed-effect regression models were used to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on skin temperature gradients of the upper (ear-mastoid), middle (hand-arm), and lower (foot-leg) body, and on the association between fluctuations in performance and in temperature gradients. Sleep deprivation induced a marked dissociation of thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients, indicative of attenuated heat loss from the hands co-occurring with enhanced heat loss from the feet. Sleep deprivation moreover attenuated the association between fluctuations in performance and temperature gradients; the association was best preserved for the upper body gradient. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation disrupts coordination of fluctuations in thermoregulatory skin temperature gradients. The dissociation of middle and lower body temperature gradients may therefore be evaluated as a marker for sleep debt, and the upper body gradient as a possible aid in vigilance assessment when sleep debt is unknown. Importantly, our findings suggest that sleep deprivation affects the coordination between skin blood flow fluctuations and the baroreceptor-mediated cardiovascular regulation that prevents venous pooling of blood in the lower limbs when there is the orthostatic challenge of an upright posture. Citation: Romeijn N; Verweij IM; Koeleman A; Mooij A; Steimke R; Vikkala J; van der Werg Y; Van Someren EJW. Cold hands, warm feet: sleep deprivation disrupts thermoregulation and its association with vigilance. SLEEP 2012;35(12):1673-1683. PMID:23204610

  19. Chronic Snoring and Sleep in Children: A Demonstration of Sleep Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, M. Cecilia; Guilleminault, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Chronic snoring that does not adhere to the criteria for a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome may be associated with learning and behavioral problems. We investigated the sleep structure of chronic snorers who had an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 1 event per hour and analyzed the cyclic alternating pattern. Methods:…

  20. The sleep history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita K. Simonds

    2008-01-01

    When identifying sleep-related problems, the aim is to establish whether the patient has a disorder of breathing during sleep (e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), central sleep apnoea, nocturnal hypoventilation), an intrinsic sleep disorder (e.g. narcolepsy, insomnia, REM sleep behaviour disorder, restless leg syndrome, sleep terrors) or a condition that may affect sleep quality and quantity (e.g. nocturnal asthma, cardiac failure,

  1. Association Between Childhood Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Disruptive Behavior Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Constantin, Evelyn; Low, Nancy C P; Dugas, Erika; Karp, Igor; O'Loughlin, Jennifer

    2014-08-01

    We examined the association between sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) and disruptive behavior disorders in 605 children participating in a population-based cohort study. Nineteen percent of children snored (sometimes or often) and 10% had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) symptoms. Thirteen percent had an ADHD diagnosis or symptoms and 5-9% had behavioral problems or a conduct disorder. Snoring or OSA symptoms were associated with a twofold difference in the odds of ADHD diagnosis or symptoms. OSA symptoms were associated with a threefold to fourfold difference in the odds of behavioral problems or conduct disorder. Clinicians should consider inquiring about SDB in children with disruptive behavior disorders and should also consider disruptive behavior disorders as potential sequelae of SDB. PMID:25102357

  2. Ethosuximide reduces ethanol withdrawal-mediated disruptions in sleep-related EEG patterns

    PubMed Central

    Wiggins, Walter F.; Graef, John D.; Huitt, Tiffany W.; Godwin, Dwayne W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic ethanol leads to disruptions in resting EEG activity and in sleep patterns that can persist into the withdrawal period. These disruptions have been suggested to be predictors of relapse. The thalamus is a key structure involved in both normal brain oscillations, such as sleep-related oscillations, and abnormal rhythms found in disorders such as epilepsy and Parkinson’s disease. Previously, we have shown progressive changes in mouse thalamic T-type Ca2+ channels during chronic, intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposures that occurred in parallel with alterations in theta (4–8Hz) EEG patterns. METHODS Two groups of eight-week old male C57BL/6 mice were implanted with wireless EEG/EMG telemetry and subjected to 4 weeks of CIE vapor exposure and withdrawal. During the week after the final withdrawal, mice were administered ethosuximide (200 mg/kg) or saline. EEG data were analyzed via discrete Fourier transform and sleep scored for further analysis. RESULTS CIE exposure produced changes in the diurnal rhythms of the delta (0.5–4Hz) and theta bands that persisted into a subsequent week of sustained withdrawal. These disruptions were restored with the T-channel blocker ethosuximide. Repeated ethanol exposures preferentially increased the relative proportion of lower frequency power (delta and theta), whereas higher frequencies (8–24Hz) were decreased. The ethanol-induced decreases in relative power for the higher frequencies continued into the sustained withdrawal week for both groups. Increases in absolute delta and theta power were observed in averaged NREM and REM sleep spectral data during withdrawal in ethosuximide-treated animals, suggesting increased sleep intensity. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that persistent alterations in delta and theta EEG rhythms during withdrawal from chronic intermittent ethanol exposure can be ameliorated with ethosuximide and that this treatment might also increase sleep intensity during withdrawal. PMID:23078554

  3. Mechanisms of Nocturnal Asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krzysztof Kowal; Lawrence Du Buske

    Nocturnal deterioration of lung function frequently occurs in asthma patients. It results in sleep depravation and impaired\\u000a quality of life but is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Several mechanisms such as endogenous circadian\\u000a rhythm disturbances, concomitant disorders, behavioral and environmental factors have been implicated in the pathophysiology\\u000a of nocturnal asthma symptoms. Appropriately used, currently available asthma medications, including

  4. Respiratory disorders in ALS: sleep and exercise studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anabela C. Pinto; Teresinha Evangelista; Mamede de Carvalho; Teresa Paiva; Maria de Lurdes Sales-Lu??s

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption in ALS\\/MND is related to hypoventilation and nocturnal O2 saturation. Maximal inspiratory pressure (PImax) proved sensitive in predicting nocturnal O2 saturation. However, PImax is highly dependent on patient collaboration; on the other hand Mouth Occlusion Pressure (MOP) is a reliable, non-volitional parameter index of central respiratory drive. Since exercise testing (ET) is also part of the assessment of

  5. The sleep history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita K Simonds

    2004-01-01

    When identifying sleep-related problems, the aim is to establish whether the patient has:•a disorder of breathing during sleep (e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), central sleep apnoea, nocturnal hypoventilation)•an intrinsic sleep disorder (e.g. narcolepsy, insomnia)•a condition that may affect sleep quality and quantity (e.g. nocturnal asthma, cardiac failure, periodic leg movement syndrome, arthritis, depression).This contribution focuses on sleep-disordered breathing, but physicians

  6. Disrupted chronobiology of sleep and cytoprotection in obesity: possible therapeutic value of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Pagano, Eleonora S; Scacchi Bernasconi, Pablo A; Reynoso, Roxana; Scacchi, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    From a physiological perspective the sleep-wake cycle can be envisioned as a sequence of three physiological states (wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement, NREM, sleep and REM sleep) which are defined by a particular neuroendocrine-immune profile regulating the metabolic balance, body weight and inflammatory responses. Sleep deprivation and circadian disruption in contemporary "24/7 Society" lead to the predominance of pro-orexic and proinflammatory mechanisms that contribute to a pandemic metabolic syndrome (MS) including obesity, diabetes and atherosclerotic disease. Thus, a successful management of MS may require a drug that besides antagonizing the trigger factors of MS could also correct a disturbed sleep-wake rhythm. This review deals with the analysis of the therapeutic validity of melatonin in MS. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent changing the phase and amplitude of the sleep/wake rhythm and having cytoprotective and immunomodulatory properties useful to prevent a number of MS sequels. Several studies support that melatonin can prevent hyperadiposity in animal models of obesity. Melatonin at a low dose (2-5 mg/day) has been used for improving sleep in patients with insomnia and circadian rhythm sleep disorders. More recently, attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects (ramelteon, agomelatine, tasimelteon, TK 301). In clinical trials these analogs were employed in doses considerably higher than those usually employed for melatonin. In view that the relative potencies of the analogs are higher than that of the natural compound, clinical trials employing melatonin doses in the range of 50-100 mg/day are needed to assess its therapeutic value in MS. PMID:22167135

  7. Estimating the Need for Medical Intervention due to Sleep Disruption on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Jerry G.; Lewandowski, Beth E.; Brooker, John E.; Hurst, S. R.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Caldwell, J. Lynn

    2008-01-01

    During ISS and shuttle missions, difficulties with sleep affect more than half of all US crews. Mitigation strategies to help astronauts cope with the challenges of disrupted sleep patterns can negatively impact both mission planning and vehicle design. The methods for addressing known detrimental impacts for some mission scenarios may have a substantial impact on vehicle specific consumable mass or volume or on the mission timeline. As part of the Integrated Medical Model (IMM) task, NASA Glenn Research Center is leading the development of a Monte Carlo based forecasting tool designed to determine the consumables required to address risks related to sleep disruption. The model currently focuses on the International Space Station and uses an algorithm that assembles representative mission schedules and feeds this into a well validated model that predicts relative levels of performance, and need for sleep (SAFTE Model, IBR Inc). Correlation of the resulting output to self-diagnosed needs for hypnotics, stimulants, and other pharmaceutical countermeasures, allows prediction of pharmaceutical use and the uncertainty of the specified prediction. This paper outlines a conceptual model for determining a rate of pharmaceutical utilization that can be used in the IMM model for comparison and optimization of mitigation methods with respect to all other significant medical needs and interventions.

  8. Recovery of Neurological Function Despite Immediate Sleep Disruption Following Diffuse Brain Injury in the Mouse: Clinical Relevance to Medically Untreated Concussion

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Rachel K.; Harrison, Jordan L.; O'Hara, Bruce F.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective: We investigated the relationship between immediate disruption of posttraumatic sleep and functional outcome in the diffuse brain-injured mouse. Design: Adult male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to moderate midline fluid percussion injury (n = 65; 1.4 atm; 6-10 min righting reflex time) or sham injury (n = 44). Cohorts received either intentional sleep disruption (minimally stressful gentle handling) or no sleep disruption for 6 h following injury. Following disruption, serum corticosterone levels (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and posttraumatic sleep (noninvasive piezoelectric sleep cages) were measured. For 1-7 days postinjury, sensorimotor outcome was assessed by Rotarod and a modified Neurological Severity Score (NSS). Cognitive function was measured using Novel Object Recognition (NOR) and Morris water maze (MWM) in the first week postinjury. Setting: Neurotrauma research laboratory. Measurements and Results: Disrupting posttraumatic sleep for 6 h did not affect serum corticosterone levels or functional outcome. In the hour following the first dark onset, sleep-disrupted mice exhibited a significant increase in sleep; however, this increase was not sustained and there was no rebound of lost sleep. Regardless of sleep disruption, mice showed a time-dependent improvement in Rotarod performance, with brain-injured mice having significantly shorter latencies on day 7 compared to sham. Further, brain-injured mice, regardless of sleep disruption, had significantly higher NSS scores postinjury compared with sham. Cognitive behavioral testing showed no group differences among any treatment group measured by MWM and NOR. Conclusion: Short-duration disruption of posttraumatic sleep did not affect functional outcome, measured by motor and cognitive performance. These data raise uncertainty about posttraumatic sleep as a mechanism of recovery from diffuse brain injury. Citation: Rowe RK; Harrison JL; O'Hara BF; Lifshitz J. Recovery of neurological function despite immediate sleep disruption following diffuse brain injury in the mouse: clinical relevance to medically untreated concussion. SLEEP 2014;37(4):743-752. PMID:24899763

  9. Changes in Sleep Disruption in the Treatment of Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N. C.; Hilario, E. Yvette; Weiss, Roger D.; Hien, Denise A.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, ?2(1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  10. Changes in sleep disruption in the treatment of co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    McHugh, R Kathryn; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hilario, E Yvette; Weiss, Roger D; Hien, Denise A

    2014-02-01

    Sleep disruption appears not only to reflect a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but also a unique vulnerability for its development and maintenance. Studies examining the impact of psychosocial treatments for PTSD on sleep symptoms are few and no studies to date of which we are aware have examined this question in samples with co-occurring substance use disorders. The current study is a secondary analysis of a large clinical trial comparing 2 psychological treatments for co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Women (N = 353) completed measures of PTSD at baseline, end of treatment, and 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups. Results indicated that the prevalence of insomnia, but not nightmares, decreased during treatment, and that 63.8% of participants reported at least 1 clinical-level sleep symptom at the end of treatment. Improvement in sleep symptoms during treatment was associated with better overall PTSD outcomes over time, ?(2) (1) = 33.81, p < .001. These results extend the existing literature to suggest that residual sleep disruption following PTSD treatment is common in women with co-occurring PTSD and substance use disorders. Research on the benefits of adding sleep-specific intervention for those with residual sleep disruption in this population may be a promising future direction. PMID:24473926

  11. Magnetic fields and pineal function in humans: Evaluation of nocturnal acute exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields on serum melatonin and urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin circadian rhythms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Selmaoui; Jacques Lambrozo; Yvan Touitou

    1996-01-01

    Exposure to a 5060-Hz electromagnetic field can decrease the nocturnal production of melatonin in rodents. Melatonin is considered to be a marker of circadian rhythms, and abnormalities in its secretion are associated with clinical disorders, including fatigue, sleep disruption, mood swings, impaired performance, and depression, which are consequences of desynchronisation. Interestingly, some epidemiological studies have been reported finding most of

  12. Sleep and allergic disease: A summary of the literature and future directions for research

    PubMed Central

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Craig, Timothy; Esteban, Cynthia A.; Klein, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Atopic diseases, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis, are common conditions that can influence sleep and subsequent daytime functioning. Children and patients with allergic conditions from ethnic minority groups might be particularly vulnerable to poor sleep and compromised daytime functioning because of the prevalence of these illnesses in these groups and the high level of morbidity. Research over the past 10 years has shed light on the pathophysiologic mechanisms (eg, inflammatory mediators) involved in many atopic diseases that can underlie sleep disruptions as a consequence of the presence of nocturnal symptoms. Associations between nocturnal symptoms and sleep and poorer quality of life as a result of missed sleep have been demonstrated across studies. Patients with severe illness and poor control appear to bear the most burden in terms of sleep impairment. Sleep-disordered breathing is also more common in patients with allergic diseases. Upper and lower airway resistance can increase the risk for sleep-disordered breathing events. In patients with allergic rhinitis, nasal congestion is a risk factor for apnea and snoring. Finally, consistent and appropriate use of medications can minimize nocturnal asthma or allergic symptoms that might disrupt sleep. Despite these advances, there is much room for improvement in this area. A summary of the sleep and allergic disease literature is reviewed, with methodological, conceptual, and clinical suggestions presented for future research. PMID:22867694

  13. Toward optimizing lighting as a countermeasure to sleep and circadian disruption in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucci, Robert L.; Gardner, James; Hanifin, John P.; Jasser, Samar; Byrne, Brenda; Gerner, Edward; Rollag, Mark; Brainard, George C.

    2005-05-01

    Light is being used as a pre-launch countermeasure to circadian and sleep disruption in astronauts. The effect of light on the circadian system is readily monitored by measurement of plasma melatonin. Our group has established an action spectrum for human melatonin regulation and determined the region of 446-477 nm to be the most potent for suppressing plasma melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 460 and 555 nm for suppressing melatonin using a within-subjects design. Subjects ( N=12) were exposed to equal photon densities ( 7.18×1012photons/cm2/s) at 460 and 555 nm. Melatonin suppression was significantly stronger at 460 nm ( p<0.02). An extension to the action spectrum showed that 420 nm light at 16 and 32?W/cm2 significantly suppressed melatonin ( p<0.04 and p<0.002). These studies will help optimize lighting countermeasures to circadian and sleep disruption during spaceflight.

  14. Nocturnal Asthma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Nocturnal Asthma Worsening of asthma at night, or nocturnal asthma, ... Calendar Read the News View Daily Pollen Count Asthma Treatment Program At National Jewish Health, we offer ...

  15. The effect of nap frequency on daytime sleep architecture

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt, Elizabeth A.; Alaynick, William A.; Mednick, Sara C.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that the quality and quantity of prior sleep influences future sleep. For instance, nocturnal sleep restriction leads to an increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) (i.e. SWS rebound) during a subsequent sleep period. However, few studies have examined how prior napping affects daytime sleep architecture. Becuase daytime naps are recommended for management of disrupted sleep, understanding the impact of napping on subsequent sleep may be important. We monitored sleep-wake patterns for one week with actigraphy followed by a 75-minute polysomnographically-recorded nap. We found that greater nap frequency was correlated with increased Stage 1 and decreased SWS. We categorized subjects based on nap frequency during the prior week (0 naps, 1 to 2 naps, and 3 to 4 naps) and found differences in Stage 1, Stage 2, and SWS between groups. Subjects who took no naps had the greatest amount of SWS, those who took 1 to 2 naps had the most Stage 2 sleep, and those who took 3 to 4 naps had the most Stage 1. While correlations were not found between nap frequency and nocturnal sleep measures, frequent napping was associated with increased subjective sleepiness. Therefore, frequent napping appears to be associated with lighter daytime sleep and increased sleepiness during the day. Speculatively, low levels of daytime sleepiness and increased SWS in non-nappers may help explain why these individuals choose not to nap. PMID:22659474

  16. Electroencephalographic studies of sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.; Agnew, H. W., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Various experimental studies on sleep are described. The following areas are discussed: (1) effect of altered day length on sleep, (2) effect of a partial loss of sleep on subsequent nocturnal sleep; (3) effect of rigid control over sleep-wake-up times; (4) sleep and wakefulness in a time-free environment; (5) distribution of spindles during a full night of sleep; and (6) effect on sleep and performance of swiftly changing shifts of work.

  17. Sleep Disruptions Mediate the Relationship Between Early Postoperative Pain and Later Functioning Following Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie K. Cremeans-Smith; Kendra Millington; Eve Sledjeski; Kenneth Greene; Douglas L. Delahanty

    2006-01-01

    Despite relatively standardized surgical procedures, patients undergoing total knee replacement (TKR) surgery differ dramatically in the speed of their recovery. Previous research has suggested a relationship between the experience of pain and sleep disruptions among patients with chronic pain or those undergoing surgery, such that more severe pain is associated with more frequent awakenings throughout the night. This study examined

  18. Nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia.

    PubMed

    Lugaresi, E; Cirignotta, F; Montagna, P

    1986-04-01

    Sleep-related seizures characterised by choreoathetoid, dystonic and ballic movements occurred in 12 patients, repeatedly each night and over a period of years. The nocturnal attacks were short-lasting, responded well to carbamazepine and were sometimes associated with clearly or possibly epileptic seizures during night- or daytime. They resembled the paroxysmal kinesigenic dystonias of wakefulness. Similar dystonic-dyskinetic attacks, but of long duration and unresponsive to medication, were also observed in two other patients, in one 20 years before the onset of clinically apparent Huntington's chorea. Nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia represents a syndrome of sleep-related motor attacks which comprises two variants, respectively characterised by short and long-lasting seizures. Its precise nosological definition still awaits elucidation. PMID:2939199

  19. Children's Sleep and Autonomic Function: Low Sleep Quality Has an Impact on Heart Rate Variability

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Nathalie; Clays, Els; De Buyzere, Marc; Vanaelst, Barbara; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality in children have been associated with concentration, problem behavior, and emotional instability, but recently also with disrupted autonomic nervous function, which predicts cardiovascular health. Heart rate variability (HRV) was used as noninvasive indicator of autonomic function to examine the influence of sleep. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal observational study on the effect of sleep on HRV Participants: Belgian children (5-11 years) of the ChiBS study in 2010 (N = 334) and 2011 (N = 293). Interventions: N/A. Methods: Sleep duration was reported and in a subgroup sleep quality (efficiency, latency, awakenings) was measured with accelerometry. High-frequency (HF) power and autonomic balance (LF/HF) were calculated on supine 5-minute HRV measurements. Stress was measured by emotion and problem behavior questionnaires. Sleep duration and quality were used as HRV predictors in corrected cross-sectional and longitudinal regressions. Stress was tested as mediator (intermediate pathway) or moderator (interaction) in sleep-HRV associations. Results: In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, long sleep latency could predict lower HF (parasympathetic activity), while nocturnal awakenings, sleep latency, low sleep efficiency, and low corrected sleep duration were related to higher LF/HF (sympathetic/parasympathetic balance). Parental reported sleep duration was not associated with HRV. The significances remained after correction for stress. Stress was not a mediator, but a moderator (enhancer) in the relationship between sleep quality and HRV. Conclusions: Low sleep quality but not parent-reported low sleep duration leads to an unhealthier heart rate variability pattern (sympathetic over parasympathetic dominance). This stresses the importance of good sleep quality for cardiovascular health in children. Citation: Michels N; Clays E; De Buyzere M; Vanaelst B; De Henauw S; Sioen I. Children's sleep and autonomic function: low sleep quality has an impact on heart rate variability. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1939-1946. PMID:24293769

  20. Early-life trauma is associated with rapid eye movement sleep fragmentation among military veterans

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Kolko, David J.; Germain, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The role of sleep in the relations between early-life trauma and the development of adverse psychological trajectories is relatively unknown and was the primary aim of the present study. Military veterans were evaluated for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, combat exposure, trauma history, sleep quality, disruptive nocturnal behaviors, and a subsample completed overnight polysomnography that yielded objectively measured sleep parameters. When relevant variables were controlled, increased earlier-life traumatic event exposure was associated with increased rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMs) fragmentation, and increased REMs fragmentation was associated with increased later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. REMs fragmentation carried an indirect relation between earlier-life trauma and later-life disruptive nocturnal behaviors. Objectively measured sleep parameters were used to describe REMs fragmentation physiology. The current findings elucidate the important role that earlier-life trauma exposure may have in the development of REM sleep physiology, and how this altered sleep physiology may have dynamic influences on subsequent posttraumatic stress symptoms in adulthood. PMID:22266135

  1. Nocturnal Hypoxia and Loss of Kidney Function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia B. Ahmed; Paul E. Ronksley; Brenda R. Hemmelgarn; Willis H. Tsai; Braden J. Manns; Marcello Tonelli; Scott W. Klarenbach; Rick Chin; Fiona M. Clement; Patrick J. Hanly

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundAlthough obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown.MethodsWe studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ?12% of

  2. Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications En Español Sleep: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is sleep? Sleep is a period of unconsciousness during which ...

  3. Associations of sleep disturbance with ADHD: implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Hvolby, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly associated with disordered or disturbed sleep. The relationships of ADHD with sleep problems, psychiatric comorbidities and medications are complex and multidirectional. Evidence from published studies comparing sleep in individuals with ADHD with typically developing controls is most concordant for associations of ADHD with: hypopnea/apnea and peripheral limb movements in sleep or nocturnal motricity in polysomnographic studies; increased sleep onset latency and shorter sleep time in actigraphic studies; and bedtime resistance, difficulty with morning awakenings, sleep onset difficulties, sleep-disordered breathing, night awakenings and daytime sleepiness in subjective studies. ADHD is also frequently coincident with sleep disorders (obstructive sleep apnea, peripheral limb movement disorder, restless legs syndrome and circadian-rhythm sleep disorders). Psychostimulant medications are associated with disrupted or disturbed sleep, but also 'paradoxically' calm some patients with ADHD for sleep by alleviating their symptoms. Long-acting formulations may have insufficient duration of action, leading to symptom rebound at bedtime. Current guidelines recommend assessment of sleep disturbance during evaluation of ADHD, and before initiation of pharmacotherapy, with healthy sleep practices the first-line option for addressing sleep problems. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the relationships between ADHD and sleep, and presents a conceptual model of the modes of interaction: ADHD may cause sleep problems as an intrinsic feature of the disorder; sleep problems may cause or mimic ADHD; ADHD and sleep problems may interact, with reciprocal causation and possible involvement of comorbidity; and ADHD and sleep problems may share a common underlying neurological etiology. PMID:25127644

  4. The influence of sleep disruption and pain perception on indicators of quality of life in individuals living with dementia at home.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Nancy; Gitlin, Laura N; Huang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of sleep quality and pain perceptions on different dimensions of quality of life in community-dwelling persons with dementia. Evaluations of pain were collected using Visual Analog Scale (VAS), sleep disruption using Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) items, and quality of life indicators using the DemQOL-Proxy in 88 persons with dementia and their family caregivers. Lower overall quality of life was associated with the presence of pain and symptoms of sleep disruption when controlling for mental status, age, and number of health conditions. Pain and sleep symptoms were differentially associated with different aspects of QoL. As symptoms negatively impact quality of life but are modifiable, better clinical procedures are needed to prevent and also identify and treat symptoms of pain and sleep disturbance in community-dwelling persons with dementia. PMID:25193739

  5. Sleep-like behavior and 24-h rhythm disruption in the Tc1 mouse model of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heise, I; Fisher, S P; Banks, G T; Wells, S; Peirson, S N; Foster, R G; Nolan, P M

    2015-02-01

    Down syndrome is a common disorder associated with intellectual disability in humans. Among a variety of severe health problems, patients with Down syndrome exhibit disrupted sleep and abnormal 24-h rest/activity patterns. The transchromosomic mouse model of Down syndrome, Tc1, is a trans-species mouse model for Down syndrome, carrying most of human chromosome 21 in addition to the normal complement of mouse chromosomes and expresses many of the phenotypes characteristic of Down syndrome. To date, however, sleep and circadian rhythms have not been characterized in Tc1 mice. Using both circadian wheel-running analysis and video-based sleep scoring, we showed that these mice exhibited fragmented patterns of sleep-like behaviour during the light phase of a 12:12-h light/dark (LD) cycle with an extended period of continuous wakefulness at the beginning of the dark phase. Moreover, an acute light pulse during night-time was less effective in inducing sleep-like behaviour in Tc1 animals than in wild-type controls. In wheel-running analysis, free running in constant light (LL) or constant darkness (DD) showed no changes in the circadian period of Tc1 animals although they did express subtle behavioural differences including a reduction in total distance travelled on the wheel and differences in the acrophase of activity in LD and in DD. Our data confirm that Tc1 mice express sleep-related phenotypes that are comparable with those seen in Down syndrome patients with moderate disruptions in rest/activity patterns and hyperactive episodes, while circadian period under constant lighting conditions is essentially unaffected. PMID:25558895

  6. Bidirectional Communication between the Brain and the Immune System: Implications for Physiological Sleep and Disorders with Disrupted Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dianne Lorton; Cheri L. Lubahn; Chris Estus; Brooke A. Millar; Jeffery L. Carter; Carlo A. Wood; Denise L. Bellinger

    2006-01-01

    This review describes mechanisms of immune-to-brain and brain-to-immune signaling involved in mediating physiological sleep and altered sleep with disease. The central nervous system (CNS) modulates immune function by signaling target cells of the immune system through autonomic and neuroendocrine pathways. Neurotransmitters and hormones produced and released by these pathways interact with immune cells to alter immune functions, including cytokine production.

  7. Sleep budgets in a globalizing world: biocultural interactions influence sleep sufficiency among Egyptian families

    PubMed Central

    Worthman, Carol M.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    Declines in self-reported sleep quotas with globalizing lifestyle changes have focused attention on their possible role in rising global health problems such as obesity or depression. Cultural factors that act across the life course and support sleep sufficiency have received scant attention, nor have the potential interactions of cultural and biological factors in age-related changes in sleep behavior been systematically investigated. This study examines the effects of cultural norms for napping and sleeping arrangements along with sleep schedules, age, and gender on sleep budgets among Egyptian households. Data were collected in 2000 from 16 households with 78 members aged 3–56 years at two sites in Egypt (Cairo and an agrarian village). Each participant provided one week of continuous activity records and details of each sleep event. Records showed that nighttime sleep onsets were late and highly variable. Napping was common and, along with wake time flexibility, played a key role in maintaining sleep sufficiency throughout the life course into later middle age. Cosleeping was prevalent and exhibited contrasting associations with reduced duration and sufficiency of both nocturnal and total sleep, and with earlier, more regular, and less disrupted sleep. Daily sleep quotas met published guidelines and showed age-related changes similar to existing reports, but differed in how they were achieved. Cultural norms organizing sleep practices by age and gender appear to tap their intrinsic biological properties as well. Moreover, flexibility in how sleep was achieved contributed to sleep sufficiency. The findings suggest how biocultural dynamics can play key roles in sleep patterns that sustain favorable sleep quotas from infancy onwards in populations pursuing globalizing contemporary lifestyles. PMID:22651897

  8. Feasibility of an interval, inspiration-triggered nocturnal odorant application by a novel device: a patient-blinded, randomised crossover, pilot trial on mood and sleep quality of depressed female inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vitinius, Frank; Hellmich, Martin; Matthies, Annalena; Bornkessel, Fabian; Burghart, Heiner; Albus, Christian; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Vent, Julia

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that certain odorants positively affect mood, but this has not yet been scientifically tested in humans. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the feasibility of a new odorant applicator and to assess the effects of nocturnal intermittent rose odorant application on mood, and quality of sleep and dreams in depressed female inpatients. We hypothesised that mood as primary outcome will improve. Twenty-seven normosmic, 18- to 49-year-old female, depressed inpatients were investigated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Exclusion criteria were rhinitis, hyp- or anosmia. During sleep, an interval-controlled, inspiration-triggered applicator added rose concentrate to the inspirated air. There were three consecutive nights of each odorant and placebo application and a wash-out phase. Patients completed standardised questionnaires on mood, dreams, and sleep quality. Four patients dropped out (n = 1: non-compliance in filling in the questionnaires, n = 3: intolerance of nasal tube). Otherwise, this novel odorant applicator was well tolerated. Application of the odorant showed no significant mood differences between rose and placebo, however, some subdomains of sleep quality and mood showed a positive trend towards improvement by rose application. The feasibility of this new device and of nasal tubes could be shown. Odorant application is well tolerated. It may have a positive influence on quality of mood and sleep in depressed patients. A longer application phase is planned to obtain convincing evidence for our hypothesis. PMID:24390040

  9. Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ozsancak, Aylin; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn; Hill, Nicholas S

    2008-05-01

    Nocturnal noninvasive ventilation (NNV), the provision of ventilatory assistance via a noninvasive interface mainly during sleep, has assumed an important role in the management of chronic hypoventilatory syndromes. This review focuses on recent developments related to the use of NNV to treat various forms of chronic respiratory failure or insufficiency. In the past, NNV has been used mainly to treat respiratory insufficiency in patients with neuromuscular disease (NMD) or chest wall deformity; it should be instituted when these patients have orthopnea or daytime symptoms associated with nocturnal hypoventilation. An emerging application is to treat obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, particularly in continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) failures. Additionally, it has a role in managing some patients with obstructive sleep apnea who are hypoventilating or find the lower expiratory pressure with bilevel positive pressure ventilators more tolerable than with CPAP alone. NNV to treat severe, stable COPD remains controversial, although a subgroup of patients with hypercapnea and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) seems most likely to respond favorably. NNV to treat central SDB in patients with congestive heart failure continues to be investigated. Recent findings from a Canadian CPAP trial were disappointing, but preliminary results on a novel adaptive NNV mode are promising. PMID:18460530

  10. Nightwatch: Sleep Disruption of Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit

    PubMed Central

    Cheezum, Rebecca R.; Parker, Edith A.; Sampson, Natalie R.; Lewis, Toby C.; O’Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Robins, Thomas G.; Keirns, Carla C.

    2014-01-01

    Caregiving for ill loved ones can affect sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep has been associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, and it is known to affect work performance and ability to accomplish necessary tasks. While some research has looked at the sleep of caregivers of loved ones with chronic illness and found that they experience poorer sleep, little is known about the impact of caring for a child with asthma on the caregiver’s sleep and the ways in which their sleep may be affected. Community Action Against Asthma, a community-based participatory research partnership, conducted interviews with semistructured and open-ended questions with 40 caregivers of children with asthma who live in Detroit. Findings showed that caregivers regularly experience poor quality sleep because of sleeping lightly in order to listen for the child’s symptoms, wake multiple times to check on the child because of worry, and provide care for child when he or she experiences symptoms in the middle of the night. Results of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicate that 12.5% of caregivers received a score of 16 or more, the score on the scale used to indicate likely presence of a sleep disorder, and 42.5% had a score of 10 or more, indicating excessive sleepiness. Sleep disturbance in caregivers is an underrecognized consequence of childhood asthma, with implications for providers caring for children with asthma. PMID:25419470

  11. Nightwatch: Sleep Disruption of Caregivers of Children With Asthma in Detroit.

    PubMed

    Cheezum, Rebecca R; Parker, Edith A; Sampson, Natalie R; Lewis, Toby C; O'Toole, Ashley; Patton, Jean; Robins, Thomas G; Keirns, Carla C

    2013-10-01

    Caregiving for ill loved ones can affect sleep quality and quantity. Insufficient sleep has been associated with worse physical and mental health outcomes, and it is known to affect work performance and ability to accomplish necessary tasks. While some research has looked at the sleep of caregivers of loved ones with chronic illness and found that they experience poorer sleep, little is known about the impact of caring for a child with asthma on the caregiver's sleep and the ways in which their sleep may be affected. Community Action Against Asthma, a community-based participatory research partnership, conducted interviews with semistructured and open-ended questions with 40 caregivers of children with asthma who live in Detroit. Findings showed that caregivers regularly experience poor quality sleep because of sleeping lightly in order to listen for the child's symptoms, wake multiple times to check on the child because of worry, and provide care for child when he or she experiences symptoms in the middle of the night. Results of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale indicate that 12.5% of caregivers received a score of 16 or more, the score on the scale used to indicate likely presence of a sleep disorder, and 42.5% had a score of 10 or more, indicating excessive sleepiness. Sleep disturbance in caregivers is an underrecognized consequence of childhood asthma, with implications for providers caring for children with asthma. PMID:25419470

  12. Longitudinal Change in Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness in Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Filtness, Ashleigh J.; MacKenzie, Janelle; Armstrong, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disruption strongly influences daytime functioning; resultant sleepiness is recognised as a contributing risk-factor for individuals performing critical and dangerous tasks. While the relationship between sleep and sleepiness has been heavily investigated in the vulnerable sub-populations of shift workers and patients with sleep disorders, postpartum women have been comparatively overlooked. Thirty-three healthy, postpartum women recorded every episode of sleep and wake each day during postpartum weeks 6, 12 and 18. Although repeated measures analysis revealed there was no significant difference in the amount of nocturnal sleep and frequency of night-time wakings, there was a significant reduction in sleep disruption, due to fewer minutes of wake after sleep onset. Subjective sleepiness was measured each day using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; at the two earlier time points this was significantly correlated with sleep quality but not to sleep quantity. Epworth Sleepiness Scores significantly reduced over time; however, during week 18 over 50% of participants were still experiencing excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Score ?12). Results have implications for health care providers and policy makers. Health care providers designing interventions to address sleepiness in new mothers should take into account the dynamic changes to sleep and sleepiness during this initial postpartum period. Policy makers developing regulations for parental leave entitlements should take into consideration the high prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness experienced by new mothers, ensuring enough opportunity for daytime sleepiness to diminish to a manageable level prior to reengagement in the workforce. PMID:25078950

  13. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  14. Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... by "sleep attacks." _____6. The primary cause of insomnia is worry. _____7. One cause of not getting ... and disrupted nighttime sleep. 6. False is correct. Insomnia has many different causes, including physical and mental ...

  15. Randomized controlled trial of pharmacological replacement of melatonin for sleep disruption in individuals with tetraplegia

    PubMed Central

    Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Ku, Ban; Ota, Doug; Kiratli, B. Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness of a melatonin agonist for treating sleep disturbances in individuals with tetraplegia. Design Placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover, randomized control trial. Setting At home. Participants Eight individuals with tetraplegia, having an absence of endogenous melatonin production and the presence of a sleep disorder. Interventions Three weeks of 8 mg of ramelteon (melatonin agonist) and 3 weeks of placebo (crossover, randomized order) with 2 weeks of baseline prior to and 2 weeks of washout between active conditions. Outcome Change in objective and subjective sleep. Measures Wrist actigraphy, post-sleep questionnaire, Stanford sleepiness scale, SF-36. Results We observed no consistent changes in either subjective or objective measures of sleep, including subjective sleep latency (P = 0.55, Friedman test), number of awakenings (P = 0.17, Friedman test), subjective total sleep time (P = 0.45, Friedman test), subjective morning alertness (P = 0.35, Friedman test), objective wake after sleep onset (P = 0.70, Friedman test), or objective sleep efficiency (P = 0.78, Friedman test). There were significant increases in both objective total sleep time (P < 0.05, Friedman test), subjective time in bed (P < 0.05, Friedman test), and subjective sleep quality (P < 0.05, Friedman test), although these occurred in both arms. There were no significant changes in any of the nine SF-36 subscale scores (Friedman test, Ps >Bonferroni adjusted ? of 0.005). Conclusion In this pilot study, we were unable to show effectiveness of pharmacological replacement of melatonin for the treatment of self-reported sleep problems in individuals with tetraplegia. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00507546. PMID:24090266

  16. Sleep deprivation disrupts prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex: reversal by antipsychotic drugs

    E-print Network

    Frau, Roberto; Orrù , Marco; Puligheddu, Monica; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Mereu, Giampaolo; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is known to induce perceptual impairments, ranging from perceptual distortion to hallucinatory states. Although this phenomenon has been extensively described in the literature, its neurobiological ...

  17. Nocturnal Animals

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Over time, human beings have blazed their way into the night with fire and artificial light, but we are not true creatures of the night. This Topic in Depth explores the world of nocturnal animals. From Island Discovery & Training, the first site allows visitors to listen to the sounds of several nocturnal animals. After guessing who made the sound, visitors can link to information pages for all but one of the mystery animals (1). Next is an information sheet (2) from BioMedia that answers the question: How Do Animals See In the Dark? The third site, from Enchanted Learning, provides coloring sheets and brief profiles for many nocturnal animals including the Amur Tiger, Badger, Crocodile, and Kinkajou-just to name a few (3). From the Fairbanks Museum & Planetarium in Vermont, the fourth website contains a six-page lesson plan (for students in grades one to eight) emphasizing different senses; and the roles and adaptations of nocturnal species (4). The fifth site, from Science News Online, contains an article addressing research on the ecological impact of artificial nighttime light on nocturnal animals (5). From Wild Asia, the next site contains an article by travel writer and environmental educator David Bowden, that describes his experience watching a marine turtle lay her eggs on Malaysia's Turtle Island (6). The seventh site, from PBS-Nova Online, briefly describes the work of zoologists who study nocturnal and burrowing animals of the Kalahari (7). From this site visitors can also link to a section that discusses how several different animals see at night. The final site, from the University of Utah-John Moran Eye Center, contains information about the role of photoreceptors in vision (8). This Photoreceptors section is part of a comprehensive electronic tutorial regarding neural organization of the mammalian retina.

  18. Sleep and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Peter-Derex, Laure; Yammine, Pierre; Bastuji, Hélène; Croisile, Bernard

    2015-02-01

    Sleep disorders are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a significant impact on patients and caregivers and a major risk factor for early institutionalization. Micro-architectural sleep alterations, nocturnal sleep fragmentation, decrease in nocturnal sleep duration, diurnal napping and even inversion of the sleep-wake cycle are the main disorders observed in patients with AD. Experimental and epidemiological evidence for a close reciprocal interaction between cognitive decline and sleep alterations is growing. Management of sleep disorders in AD is pre-eminently behavioral. Association of melatonin and bright light treatment seems to be promising as well. The presence of sleep complaints, especially excessive somnolence in demented patients, should draw attention to possible associated sleep pathologies such as sleep apnea syndrome or restless legs syndrome. PMID:24846773

  19. Pain Disrupts Sleep in Children and Youth with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breau, Lynn M.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2011-01-01

    Both chronic pain and sleep problems are common for children with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Although one study has revealed a relationship between having a medical condition and sleep problems in this population, the role of pain was not examined independently. Thus, the goal of this study was to clarify the specific role…

  20. Determinants of shortened, disrupted, and mistimed sleep and associated metabolic health consequences in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Recent increases in the prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in modern societies have been paralleled by reductions in the time their denizens spend asleep. Epidemiological studies have shown that disturbed sleep-comprising short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep-increases the risk of metabolic diseases, especially obesity and T2DM. Supporting a causal role of disturbed sleep, experimental animal and human studies have found that sleep loss can impair metabolic control and body weight regulation. Possible mechanisms for the observed changes comprise sleep loss-induced changes in appetite-signaling hormones (e.g., higher levels of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin) or hedonic brain responses, altered responses of peripheral tissues to metabolic signals, and changes in energy intake and expenditure. Even though the overall consensus is that sleep loss leads to metabolic perturbations promoting the development of obesity and T2DM, experimental evidence supporting the validity of this view has been inconsistent. This Perspective aims at discussing molecular to behavioral factors through which short, low-quality, and mistimed sleep may threaten metabolic public health. In this context, possible factors that may determine the extent to which poor sleep patterns increase the risk of metabolic pathologies within and across generations will be discussed (e.g., timing and genetics). PMID:25805757

  1. Chronic decrease in wakefulness and disruption of sleep-wake behavior after experimental traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Skopin, Mark D; Kabadi, Shruti V; Viechweg, Shaun S; Mong, Jessica A; Faden, Alan I

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause sleep-wake disturbances and excessive daytime sleepiness. The pathobiology of sleep disorders in TBI, however, is not well understood, and animal models have been underused in studying such changes and potential underlying mechanisms. We used the rat lateral fluid percussion (LFP) model to analyze sleep-wake patterns as a function of time after injury. Rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, non-REM (NREM) sleep, and wake bouts during light and dark phases were measured with electroencephalography and electromyography at an early as well as chronic time points after LFP. Moderate TBI caused disturbances in the ability to maintain consolidated wake bouts during the active phase and chronic loss of wakefulness. Further, TBI resulted in cognitive impairments and depressive-like symptoms, and reduced the number of orexin-A-positive neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:25242371

  2. Sleep and ADHD

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric Konofal; Michel Lecendreux; Samuele Cortese

    2010-01-01

    This paper, intended to provide useful insights for the clinical management of sleep disturbances in attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), presents a critical, updated overview of the most relevant studies on the prevalence, etiopathophysiology and treatment strategies of sleep problems associated with ADHD, including restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movements in sleep, sleep-onset delay, increased nocturnal motor activity, sleep-disordered breathing, deficit in

  3. Duration of Nocturnal Hypoglycemia Before Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Bruce; Wilson, Darrell M.; Lecher, Todd; Hanas, Ragnar; Kaiserman, Kevin; Cameron, Fergus

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Despite a high incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia documented by the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), there are no reports in the literature of nocturnal hypoglycemic seizures while a patient is wearing a CGM device. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In this article, we describe four such cases and assess the duration of nocturnal hypoglycemia before the seizure. RESULTS—In the cases where patients had a nocturnal hypoglycemic seizure while wearing a CGM device, sensor hypoglycemia (<60 mg/dl) was documented on the CGM record for 2.25–4 h before seizure activity. CONCLUSIONS—Even with a subcutaneous glucose lag of 18 min when compared with blood glucose measurements, glucose sensors have time to provide clinically meaningful alarms. Current nocturnal hypoglycemic alarms need to be improved, however, since patients can sleep through the current alarm systems. PMID:18694975

  4. Dual-tasking alleviated sleep deprivation disruption in visuomotor tracking: An fMRI study

    E-print Network

    such as the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) to the cognitively challenging Wombat, in which tracking task alternated with several bonus tasks. Performance on vigilance tests suffered after sleep deprivation but Wombat

  5. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. PMID:20630799

  6. Sleeping soundly should come easy after a hard day at school or work. But, for many of us, nighttime slumber is disrupted by thoughts of our "to-do" list, worries about our studies or workload, or interruptions

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    an occasional or persistent sleep disturbance known as insomnia. According to modest estimates, at least 20-30 million Americans suffer from insomnia. Dangers of Sleep Deprivation The term "insomnia" describes trouble falling asleep, disrupted sleep or waking up too early. There are three types of insomnia: 1) transient

  7. In Utero Exposure to Valproic Acid Changes Sleep in Juvenile Rats: A Model for Sleep Disturbances in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Cusmano, Danielle M.; Mong, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether sleep disturbances are found in the valproic acid model of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Design: Comparative study for sleep behavior, sleep architecture, electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral analysis, and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 65/67 protein expression in juvenile rats exposed to valproic acid (VPA), sodium salt, or saline in utero. Setting: N/A. Participants: Juvenile (postnatal day 32) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: In utero exposure to either saline or 400 mg/kg VPA administered intraperitoneally to the dams on gestational day 12.5. On postnatal days 22-24, all rats were implanted with transmitters to record EEG and electromyogram (EMG) activity. Measurements and Results: During the light phase, when nocturnal animals are typically quiescent, the VPA-exposed animals spent significantly more time in wake (?35 min) and significantly less time in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep (?26 min) compared to the saline controls. Furthermore, spectral analysis of the EEG reveled that VPA-exposed animals exhibited increased high-frequency activity during wake and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and reduced theta power across all vigilance states. Interestingly, the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system, which modulates the induction and maintenance of sleep states, was also disrupted, with reduced levels of both GAD 65 and GAD67 in the cortical tissue of VPA-exposed animals compared to saline controls. Conclusions: To date, the current animal models of ASD have been underutilized in the investigation of associated sleep disturbances. The VPA animal model recapitulates aspects of sleep disruptions reported clinically, providing a tool to investigate cellular and molecular dysregulation contributing to sleep disruptions in ASD. Citation: Cusmano DM, Mong JA. In utero exposure to valproic acid changes sleep in juvenile rats: a model for sleep disturbances in autism. SLEEP 2014;37(9):1489-1499. PMID:25142574

  8. Sleep and neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema.

    PubMed

    Camfferman, Danny; Kennedy, J Declan; Gold, Michael; Simpson, Carol; Lushington, Kurt

    2013-08-01

    Sleep disruption in childhood is associated with clearly defined deficits in neurocognition and behaviour. Childhood eczema is also a potent cause of sleep disruption though it is unknown whether it too results in neurocognitive deficits. To test this hypothesis, neurocognitive (WISC-IV), parental-reported sleep quality (Sleep Disturbance Scale of Children (SDSC)) and overnight polysomnographic (PSG) data were collected in 21 children with eczema and 20 healthy controls (age range 6-16 years). Children with eczema had worse sleep quality on both PSG (notably increased nocturnal wakefulness, a higher number of stage shifts and a longer latency to REM onset) and parental report. In addition, they demonstrated significant neurocognitive deficits (especially verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning and to a lesser extent working memory) with a composite Full Scale IQ 16 points lower than controls. Parental reported sleep problems but not PSG parameters were correlated with reduced neurocognitive performance. However, hierarchical regression analyses revealed that eczema status was predictive while sleep fragmentation (parental or PSG) was not predictive of neurocognitive performance. As this is the first study to systematically examine neurocognitive functioning in children with eczema and given the finding of significant deficits it merits replication especially given the prevalence of the condition. The unanswered question is whether these cognitive deficits normalise with effective eczema treatment and if this is mediated by improvements in sleep architecture. PMID:23353660

  9. Disrupted directed connectivity along the cingulate cortex determines vigilance after sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Cheung, Bing Leung P.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Romeijn, Nico; Riedner, Brady A.; Tononi, Giulio; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The cingulate cortex is regarded as the backbone of structural and functional connectivity of the brain. While its functional connectivity has been intensively studied, little is known about its effective connectivity, its modulation by behavioral states, and its involvement in cognitive performance. Given their previously reported effects on cingulate functional connectivity, we investigated how eye-closure and sleep deprivation changed cingulate effective connectivity, estimated from resting-state high-density electroencephalography (EEG) using a novel method to calculate Granger Causality directly in source space. Effective connectivity along the cingulate cortex was dominant in the forward direction. Eyes-open connectivity in the forward direction was greater compared to eyes-closed, in well-rested participants. The difference between eyes-open and eyes-closed connectivity was attenuated and no longer significant after sleep deprivation. Individual variability in the forward connectivity after sleep deprivation predicted subsequent task performance, such that those subjects who showed a greater increase in forward connectivity between the eyes-open and the eyes-closed periods also performed better on a sustained attention task. Effective connectivity in the opposite, backward, direction was not affected by whether the eyes were open or closed or by sleep deprivation. These findings indicate that the effective connectivity from posterior to anterior cingulate regions is enhanced when a well-rested subject has his eyes open compared to when they are closed. Sleep deprivation impairs this directed information flow, proportional to its deleterious effect on vigilance. Therefore, sleep may play a role in the maintenance of waking effective connectivity. PMID:23643925

  10. Effects of nocturnal railway noise on sleep fragmentation in young and middle-aged subjects as a function of type of train and sound level.

    PubMed

    Saremi, Mahnaz; Grenèche, Jérôme; Bonnefond, Anne; Rohmer, Odile; Eschenlauer, Arnaud; Tassi, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    Due to undisputable effects of noise on sleep structure, especially in terms of sleep fragmentation, the expected development of railway transportation in the next few years might represent a potential risk factor for people living alongside the rail tracks. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different types of train (freight, automotive, passenger) on arousal from sleep and to determine any differential impact as a function of sound level and age. Twenty young (16 women, 4 men; 25.8 years+/-2.6) and 18 middle-aged (15 women, 3 men; 52.2 years+/-2.5) healthy subjects participated in three whole-night polysomnographic recordings including one control night (35 dBA), and two noisy nights with equivalent noise levels of 40 or 50 dB(A), respectively. Arousal responsiveness increased with sound level. It was the highest in S2 and the lowest in REM sleep. Micro-arousals (3-10 s) occurred at a rate of 25-30%, irrespective of the type of train. Awakenings (>10 s) were produced more frequently by freight train than by automotive and passenger trains. Normal age-related changes in sleep were observed, but they were not aggravated by railway noise, thus questioning whether older persons are less sensitive to noise during sleep. These evidences led to the conclusion that microscopic detection of sleep fragmentation may provide advantageous information on sleep disturbances caused by environmental noises. PMID:18773929

  11. Dual-Tasking Alleviated Sleep Deprivation Disruption in Visuomotor Tracking: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazes, Yunglin; Rakitin, Brian C.; Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; Butterfield, Brady; Basner, Robert C.; Ghez, Claude; Stern, Yaakov

    2012-01-01

    Effects of dual-responding on tracking performance after 49-h of sleep deprivation (SD) were evaluated behaviorally and with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Continuous visuomotor tracking was performed simultaneously with an intermittent color-matching visual detection task in which a pair of color-matched stimuli constituted a…

  12. Nocturnal Temazepam in the Treatment of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kansagra, Sujay; Walter, Robert; Vaughn, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by fragmented nighttime sleep and frequent arousals. One treatment approach to improve daytime symptoms is to consolidate nighttime sleep through decreasing arousals. Sodium oxybate is the first FDA-approved medication that follows this approach. Benzodiazepines are known to also decrease arousals at night and have been proposed to help with sleep fragmentation. In one report, clonazepam was shown to improve cataplexy in 10 of 14 patients with narcolepsy although no improvement in daytime sleepiness was reported. The purpose of this case review was to share our experience of nocturnal temazepam on daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Citation: Kansagra S; Walter R; Vaughn B. Nocturnal temazepam in the treatment of narcolepsy. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):499-500. PMID:23674942

  13. [Sleep psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Chiba, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders are serious issues in modern society. There has been marked scientific interest in sleep for a century, with the discoveries of the electrical activity of the brain (EEG), sleep-wake system, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and circadian rhythm system. Additionally, the advent of video-polysomnography in clinical research has revealed some of the consequences of disrupted sleep and sleep deprivation in psychiatric disorders. Decades of clinical research have demonstrated that sleep disorders are intimately tied to not only physical disease (e. g., lifestyle-related disease) but psychiatric illness. According to The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2005), sleep disorders are classified into 8 major categories: 1) insomnia, 2) sleep-related breathing disorders, 3) hypersomnias of central origin, 4) circadian rhythm sleep disorders, 5) parasomnias, 6) sleep-related movement disorders, 7) isolated symptoms, and 8) other sleep disorders. Several sleep disorders, including obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleepwalking, REM sleep behavior disorder, and narcolepsy, may be comorbid or possibly mimic numerous psychiatric disorders, and can even occur due to psychiatric pharmacotherapy. Moreover, sleep disorders may exacerbate underlying psychiatric disorders when left untreated. Therefore, psychiatrists should pay attention to the intimate relationship between sleep disorders and psychiatric symptoms. Sleep psychiatry is an academic field focusing on interrelations between sleep medicine and psychiatry. This mini-review summarizes recent findings in sleep psychiatry. Future research on the bidirectional relation between sleep disturbance and psychiatric symptoms will shed light on the pathophysiological view of psychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. PMID:24050022

  14. [NPT: nocturnal penile tumescence test].

    PubMed

    Colombo, F; Fenice, O; Austoni, E

    1994-09-01

    The recording of the variations of penile tumescence and rigidity during nocturnal unconscious erections that usually occur with the REM phases of sleep, has been considered the diagnostic tool of choice in the workup of erectile disturbances for a number of years. Such a success is partly due to its absence of invasiveness. Moreover this test was believed to allow to differentiate between the psychogenic and organic origin of impotence. As some authors have recently reported, anxiety state (common among patients who undergo invasive andrological procedure in the office) can at times influence the content of the dream state, thus negatively affecting the spontaneous nocturnal erections. Besides, sleep disturbances such as apnea and motor agitation can also induce erroneous interpretations of NPT graphs. Further, dysfunctions at the level of the cortex and the spine still allow the occurrence of nocturnal tumescence but determine an erectile deficit in the awake state. Clinically, all this poses new questions about the effectiveness of the NPT test in the study of the origin of impotence. The diagnostic methods, despite its world-wide diffusion, remains, under certain aspects, obscure: the operative details and, above all, its interpretative criteria. All this impedes the achievement of uniformity in the evaluation of the results obtained thanks to this test (e.g. the number and duration of erectile episodes, the interpretation of tumescence on its own, of the basal-apical dissociation, of the erectile episodes occurring immediately before waking, and of those of short duration). PMID:7951352

  15. Gabapentin in the treatment of dementia-associated nocturnal agitation

    PubMed Central

    Buskova, Jitka; Busek, Petr; Nevsimalova, Sona

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Nocturnal sleep of patients suffering from various forms of dementia is often impaired by nocturnal agitation or nocturnal wandering. Anticonvulsives such as carbamazepine or valproate are reported to have some therapeutic efficacy, but there is little information about other drugs suitable for treatment of this condition. Case Report Our patient, a 77-year-old Czech woman with incipient vascular dementia, received gabapentin 400mg at bedtime for 6 months and showed convincing improvement. Conclusions Gabapentin was very effective in treating nocturnal agitation. PMID:22129906

  16. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. PMID:23137527

  17. The sleep-wake cycle and motor activity, but not temperature, are disrupted over the light-dark cycle in mice genetically depleted of serotonin.

    PubMed

    Solarewicz, Julia Z; Angoa-Perez, Mariana; Kuhn, Donald M; Mateika, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    We examined the role that serotonin has in the modulation of sleep and wakefulness across a 12-h:12-h light-dark cycle and determined whether temperature and motor activity are directly responsible for potential disruptions to arousal state. Telemetry transmitters were implanted in 24 wild-type mice (Tph2(+/+)) and 24 mice with a null mutation for tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2(-/-)). After surgery, electroencephalography, core body temperature, and motor activity were recorded for 24 h. Temperature for a given arousal state (quiet and active wake, non-rapid eye movement, and paradoxical sleep) was similar in the Tph2(+/+) and Tph2(-/-) mice across the light-dark cycle. The percentage of time spent in active wakefulness, along with motor activity, was decreased in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice at the start and end of the dark cycle. This difference persisted into the light cycle. In contrast, the time spent in a given arousal state was similar at the remaining time points. Despite this similarity, periods of non-rapid-eye-movement sleep and wakefulness were less consolidated in the Tph2(+/+) compared with the Tph2(-/-) mice throughout the light-dark cycle. We conclude that the depletion of serotonin does not disrupt the diurnal variation in the sleep-wake cycle, motor activity, and temperature. However, serotonin may suppress photic and nonphotic inputs that manifest at light-dark transitions and serve to shorten the ultraradian duration of wakefulness and non-rapid-eye-movement sleep. Finally, alterations in the sleep-wake cycle following depletion of serotonin are unrelated to disruptions in the modulation of temperature. PMID:25394829

  18. Nocturnal temazepam in the treatment of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Kansagra, Sujay; Walter, Robert; Vaughn, Bradley

    2013-05-15

    Narcolepsy is characterized by fragmented nighttime sleep and frequent arousals. One treatment approach to improve daytime symptoms is to consolidate nighttime sleep through decreasing arousals. Sodium oxybate is the first FDA-approved medication that follows this approach. Benzodiazepines are known to also decrease arousals at night and have been proposed to help with sleep fragmentation. In one report, clonazepam was shown to improve cataplexy in 10 of 14 patients with narcolepsy although no improvement in daytime sleepiness was reported. The purpose of this case review was to share our experience of nocturnal temazepam on daytime sleepiness in patients with narcolepsy as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). PMID:23674942

  19. EFFECT OF SHIP NOISE ON SLEEP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Tamura; T. Kawada; Y. Sasazawa

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a steady sound level of 65 dB(A) from a diesel ship engine on nocturnal sleep were studied using polygraphic and subjective sleep parameters. Three healthy men, aged 29 to 33 years, participated in the experiment. Sleep polygrams and the sound level in a sleep laboratory were recorded for each subject for five exposure nights and five control

  20. Reduced nocturnal asthma by improved nasal breathing.

    PubMed

    Petruson, B; Theman, K

    1996-05-01

    The nose and not the mouth should be used for breathing as the nose has better air conditioning capacity. When air is inhaled through the mouth it may dry and cool the respiratory mucosa, which can lead to bronchoconstriction in sensitive patients with asthma. By dilating the nostrils you can increase nasal breathing in most subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sleeping with dilated nostrils reduces nocturnal asthma. At the Asthma and Allergy Research Centre, Gothenburg, 15 out-patients with nocturnal asthma were selected. Every other night for 10 nights the test subjects slept with the nasal dilator Nozovent which has been shown to increase the nasal air-flow and decrease the need for mouthbreathing. Every morning the patients self-reported on a form whether they had woken with asthma during the night or if they had had to take asthma medication. When sleeping with the nasal dilator the patients woke up with asthma on 17 of 75 nights as compared with 32 of 75 when sleeping without the device (p < 0.01). Reduced nocturnal asthma was observed by 12 patients and less need for asthma medication at night by 7. None of the patients noted any side-effects due to the device. In conclusion, the easy-to-use and cheap medical device, Nozovent, which mechanically dilates the nostrils and improves nasal breathing, can reduce nocturnal asthma. PMID:8790753

  1. Nocturnal cortisol and melatonin secretion in primary insomnia.

    PubMed

    Riemann, Dieter; Klein, Torsten; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Feige, Bernd; Horny, Andrea; Hummel, Ruth; Weske, Gesa; Al-Shajlawi, Anam; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2002-12-15

    The present study investigated evening and nocturnal serum cortisol and melatonin concentrations in patients with primary insomnia to test if this clinical condition is accompanied by an increase of cortisol secretion and a simultaneous decrease of nocturnal melatonin production. Ten drug-free patients (4 males, 6 females) with primary insomnia (mean age+/-S.D.: 39.2+/-9.1 years) and 10 age- and gender-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All subjects spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Measurement of cortisol and melatonin (from 19:00 h to 09:00 h) was performed prior to and during the last laboratory night. Contrary to expectation, cortisol secretion did not differ between healthy controls and insomniac patients. On the other hand, nocturnal melatonin production was significantly diminished in insomniac patients. Polysomnographically determined sleep patterns, in contrast to subjective ratings of sleep, demonstrated only minor alterations of sleep in the insomniac group. The lack of increased cortisol secretion in the patients with primary insomnia indicates that results from studies on the biological consequences of experimental sleep loss in healthy subjects cannot be applied to primary insomnia in general, especially if there are only minor objective sleep alterations. In spite of the negligible objective sleep disturbances in the present sample, nocturnal melatonin production was reduced, which tentatively suggests a role for this hormone in primary insomniacs. The pathophysiological significance of this finding is, however, still a matter of debate. PMID:12467942

  2. Sleep disorders in the elderly

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep disorders in the elderly involve any disrupted sleep pattern, such as problems falling or staying asleep, too ... for medical causes and determine which type of sleep disorder is causing the problem.

  3. Research on sleep, circadian rhythms and aging - Applications to manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Chiasera, August J.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    1991-01-01

    Disorders of sleep and circadian rhythmicity are characteristic of both advancing age and manned spaceflight. Sleep fragmentation, reduced nocturnal sleep tendency and sleep efficiency, reduced daytime alertness, and increased daytime napping are common to both of these conditions. Recent research on the pathophysiology and treatment of disrupted sleep in older people has led to a better understanding of how the human circadian pacemaker regulates the timing of the daily sleep-wake cycle and how it responds to the periodic changes in the light-dark cycle to which we are ordinarily exposed. These findings have led to new treatments for some of the sleep disorders common to older individuals, using carefully timed exposure to bright light and darkness to manipulate the phase and/or amplitude of the circadian timing system. These insights and treatment approaches have direct applications in the design of countermeasures allowing astronauts to overcome some of the challenges which manned spaceflight poses for the human circadian timing system. We have conducted an operational feasibility study on the use of scheduled exposure to bright light and darkness prior to launch in order to facilitate adaptation of the circadian system of a NASA Space Shuttle crew to the altered sleep-wake schedule required for their mission. The results of this study illustrate how an understanding of the properties of the human circadian timing system and the consequences of circadian disruption can be applied to manned spaceflight.

  4. Human apolipoprotein E4 targeted replacement in mice reveals increased susceptibility to sleep disruption and intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Kaushal, Navita; Ramesh, Vijay

    2012-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia (IH) and sleep fragmentation (SF) are major manifestations of sleep apnea, a frequent condition in aging humans. Sleep perturbations are frequent in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may underlie the progression of disease. We hypothesized that acute short-term IH, SF, and their combination (IH+SF) may reveal unique susceptibility in sleep integrity in a murine model of AD. The effects of acute IH, SF, and IH+SF on sleep architecture, delta power, sleep latency, and core body temperature were assessed in adult male human ApoE4-targeted replacement mice (hApoE4) and wild-type (WT) controls. Slow wave sleep (SWS) was significantly reduced, and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was almost abolished during acute exposure to IH alone and IH+SF for 6 h in hApoE4, with milder effects in WT controls. Decreased delta power during SWS did not show postexposure rebound in hApoE4 unlike WT controls. IH and IH+SF induced hypothermia, which was more prominent in hApoE4 than WT controls. Mice subjected to SF also showed sleep deficits but without hypothermia. hApoE4 mice, unlike WT controls, exhibited increased sleep propensity, especially following IH and IH+SF, suggesting limited ability for sleep recovery in hApoE4 mice. These findings substantiate the potential impact of IH and SF in modulating sleep architecture and sleep homeostasis including maintenance of body temperature. Furthermore, the increased susceptibility and limited recovery ability of hApoE4 mice to sleep apnea suggests that early recognition and treatment of the latter in AD patients may restrict the progression and clinical manifestations of this frequent neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:22573105

  5. Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy Presenting as Excessive Daytime Sleepiness

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jocelyn Y.; Wallace, Douglas M.; Lopez, Maria R.; Carrazana, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is common in the general population. Etiologies include insufficient sleep and primary sleep disorders. Due to its high prevalence, physicians often overlook EDS as a significant problem. However, EDS may also be the presenting symptom of seizures, in particular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy (NFLE). Due to the clinical similarity between the nocturnal behaviors of NFLE and parasomnias, and poor patient-related history, NFLE remains a challenging diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with NFLE who presented with a primary complaint of EDS, and discuss the differential diagnosis and evaluation of patients with EDS associated with nocturnal behaviors. In the context of a patient presenting with EDS and stereotyped nocturnal events, clinical suspicion should be high for NFLE. PMID:24479058

  6. Circadian regulation of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms of human breast cancer growth by the nocturnal melatonin signal and the consequences of its disruption by light at night.

    PubMed

    Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M; Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Yuan, Lin; Duplessis, Tamika; Mao, Lulu; Dauchy, Erin; Sauer, Leonard A

    2011-10-01

    This review article discusses recent work on the melatonin-mediated circadian regulation and integration of molecular, dietary, and metabolic signaling mechanisms involved in human breast cancer growth and the consequences of circadian disruption by exposure to light at night (LAN). The antiproliferative effects of the circadian melatonin signal are mediated through a major mechanism involving the activation of MT(1) melatonin receptors expressed in human breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. In estrogen receptor (ER?+) human breast cancer cells, melatonin suppresses both ER? mRNA expression and estrogen-induced transcriptional activity of the ER? via MT(1) -induced activation of G(?i2) signaling and reduction of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels. Melatonin also regulates the transactivation of additional members of the steroid hormone/nuclear receptor super-family, enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism, expression/activation of telomerase, and the expression of core clock and clock-related genes. The anti-invasive/anti-metastatic actions of melatonin involve the blockade of p38 phosphorylation and the expression of matrix metalloproteinases. Melatonin also inhibits the growth of human breast cancer xenografts via another critical pathway involving MT(1) -mediated suppression of cAMP leading to blockade of linoleic acid uptake and its metabolism to the mitogenic signaling molecule 13-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE). Down-regulation of 13-HODE reduces the activation of growth factor pathways supporting cell proliferation and survival. Experimental evidence in rats and humans indicating that LAN-induced circadian disruption of the nocturnal melatonin signal activates human breast cancer growth, metabolism, and signaling provides the strongest mechanistic support, thus far, for population and ecological studies demonstrating elevated breast cancer risk in night shift workers and other individuals increasingly exposed to LAN. PMID:21605163

  7. Delay in the Recovery of Normal Sleep-Wake Cycle after Disruption of the Light-Dark Cycle in Mice: A Bipolar Disorder-Prone Animal Model?

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sun Hwa; Moon, Eunsoo; Chung, Young In; Lee, Byung Dae; Lee, Young Min; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Jeong, Hee Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Objective Disruption of the circadian rhythm is known as a provoking factor for manic episodes. Individual differences exist in the recovery rate from disruption in the general population. To develop a screening method to detect individuals vulnerable to bipolar disorder, the authors observed the relationship between the recovery of the normal sleep-wake cycle after switching the light-dark (LD) cycle and quinpirole-induced hyperactivity in mice. Methods Sixteen male mice (age of 5 weeks, weight 28-29 gm) were subjected to a circadian rhythm disruption protocol. Sleep-wake behaviors were checked every 5 min for a total duration of 15 days, i.e., 2 days of baseline observations, 3 days of LD cycle changes, and 10 days of recovery. During the dark cycle on the 16th experimental day, their general locomotor activities were measured in an open field for 120 minutes after an injection of quinpirole (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.). Results The individual differences in the recovery rate of the baseline sleep-wake cycle were noted after 3 days of switching the LD cycle. Fifty percent (n=8) of the mice returned to the baseline cycle within 6 days after normalizing the LD cycle (early recovery group). The locomotor activities of mice that failed to recover within 6 days (delayed recovery group) were significantly higher (mean rank=12.25) than those of the early recovery group (mean rank=4.75, u=62.0, p=0.001, Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion Given that the quinpirole-induced hyperactivity is an animal model of bipolar disorder, our results suggest individuals who have difficulties in recovery from circadian rhythm disruption may be vulnerable to bipolar disorder. PMID:25395982

  8. Smoking and Sleep

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Smoking and Sleep (0:56) Dr. Lawrence Epstein describes how nicotine in cigarettes can prevent or disrupt sleep. choose settings to watch video: Windows Media Player - high | low QuickTime - high | low

  9. A pilot study to compare the cerebral hemodynamics between patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS) during nocturnal sleep with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongxing; Schneider, Maja; Laures, Marco; Fritschi, Ursula; Hügli, Gordana; Lehner, Isabella; Qi, Ming; Khatami, Ramin

    2014-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) and periodic limb movement in sleep syndrome (PLMS) are two common sleep disorders. Previous studies showed that OSA and PLMS share common features, such as increased cardio-vascular risk, both apnea events and limb movements occur periodically, they are usually associated with cortical arousals, and both of them can induce declines in peripheral oxygen saturation measured with pulse oximetry. However, the question whether apnea events and limb movements also show similar characteristics in cerebral hemodynamic and oxygenation has never been addressed. In this pilot study, we will first time compare the cerebral hemodynamic changes induced by apnea events and limb movements in patients with OSA (n=4) and PLMS (n=4) with NIRS. In patients with OSA, we found periodic oscillations in HbO2, HHb, and blood volume induced by apnea/hypopnea events, HbO2 and HHb showed reverse changing trends. By contrast, the periodic oscillations linked to limb movements were only found in HbO2 and blood volume in patients with PLMS. These findings of different cerebral hemodynamics patterns between apnea events and limb movements may indicate different regulations of nervous system between these two sleep disorders.

  10. Nocturnal choking episodes: under-recognized and misdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Elkay, Muruvet; Poduri, Annapurna; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Bergin, Ann M; Kothare, Sanjeev V

    2010-11-01

    Causes of nocturnal paroxysmal events include a variety of disorders such as epileptic seizures, parasomnias, sleep-related movement disorders, and psychiatric disturbances. Timing and semiology of the events, simultaneous video-electroencephalographic observation, presence of any daytime events, and relevant psychiatric and medical history may help in sorting out various possibilities considered in the differential diagnosis of such events. Timely diagnosis of these events is crucial for appropriate management; under-recognition and misdiagnosis of nonepileptic events is not uncommon. Described here are two cases within the spectrum of nocturnal paroxysmal events, one with nocturnal panic attacks and the other with frontal lobe epilepsy, each presenting with choking episodes. PMID:20933181

  11. Heart Rate Variability During Sleep and Subsequent Sleepiness in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Togo, Fumiharu; Natelson, Benjamin H.

    2013-01-01

    We determined whether alterations in heart rate dynamics during sleep in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) differed from controls and/or correlated with changes of sleepiness before and after a night in the sleep laboratory. We compared beat-to-beat RR intervals (RRI) during nocturnal sleep, sleep structure, and subjective scores on visual analog scale for sleepiness in 18 CFS patients with 19 healthy controls aged 25–55 after excluding subjects with sleep disorders. A short-term fractal scaling exponent (?1) of RRI dynamics, analyzed by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, was assessed after stratifying patients into those who reported more or less sleepiness after the night’s sleep (a.m. sleepier or a.m. less sleepy, respectively). Patients in the a.m. sleepier group showed significantly (p < 0.05) higher fractal scaling index ?1 during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep (Stages 1, 2, and 3 sleep) than healthy controls, although standard polysomnographic measures did not differ between the groups. The fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that during awake periods after sleep onset for healthy controls and patients in the a.m. less sleepy group, but did not differ between sleep stages for patients in the a.m. sleepier group. For patients, changes in self-reported sleepiness before and after the night correlated positively with the fractal scaling index ?1 during non-REM sleep (p < 0.05). These results suggest that RRI dynamics or autonomic nervous system activity during non-REM sleep might be associated with disrupted sleep in patients with CFS. PMID:23499514

  12. The effect of levetiracetam on focal nocturnal epileptiform activity during sleep--a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Pål Gunnar; Bakke, Kristin A; Bjørnæs, Helge; Heminghyt, Einar; Rytter, Elisif; Brager-Larsen, Line; Eriksson, Ann-Sofie

    2012-05-01

    Electric Status Epilepticus during Sleep (ESES) occurs in children with and without epilepsy. It may be related to disturbances as autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and acquired aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome). Antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment has been reported in small studies without placebo control. This study was designed to assess AED effect in a placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Levetiracetam (LEV) was chosen based on clinical evidence. Eighteen patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean spike index at baseline was 56, falling to a mean of 37 at the end of the LEV treatment period. Assessed with a 2-way ANOVA, there is a significant treatment effect (p<0.0002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study for any AED in patients with ESES. The effect of LEV is comparable with its effect in treatment of epileptic seizures. PMID:22494796

  13. Influences of twilight on diurnal variation of core temperature, its nadir, and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate during nocturnal sleep and morning drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Masayuki; Tokura, Hiromi; Wakamura, Tomoko; Hyun, Ki-Ja; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Morita, Takeshi; Oishi, Tadashi

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed at elucidating the physiological significance of dusk and dawn in the circadian rhythm of core temperature (T(core)) and urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in humans during sleep and the waking sensation just after rising. Seven female and four male students served as participants. Participants retired at 2300 h and rose at 0700 h. They were requested to sit on a chair and spend time as quietly as possible during wakefulness, reading a book or listening to recorded light music. Two lighting conditions were provided for each participant: 1) Light-Dark (LD)-rectangular light change with abrupt decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx at 1800 h, abrupt increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx at 0700 h. 2) LD-twilight light change with gradual decrease from 3,000 lx to 100 lx starting at 1700 h (twilight period about 2 h), with gradual increase from 0 lx to 3,000 lx starting at 0500 h (twilight period about 2 h). The periods of 0 lx at night were from 2300 h to 0700 h on the first day and from 2300 to 0500 h on the second day. Nadir time advanced significantly under the influence of the LD-twilight condition. The amount of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in urine collected at 0200 h was significantly higher under LD-twilight in comparison with LD-rectangular light. Morning drowsiness tended to be lower under LD-twilight. Our results suggest that in architectural design of indoor illumination it is important to provide LD-twilight in the evening and early morning for sleep promotion in healthy normal people and/or light treatment in elderly patients with advanced dementia. PMID:19408625

  14. The A to Zzzz's of Exercise: Treating Sleep Disruptions with Exercise Prescriptions For PostMenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Oprean

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to improving overall health, few activities are cited as frequently as exercising regularly and getting enough sleep. These activities are not only important in their own right, but now appear to be connected. Research in recent years has uncovered exercise’s ability to help people fall asleep faster and stay in deeper stages of sleep longer, revealing that

  15. Disrupted Sleep and Delayed Recovery from Chronic Peripheral Neuropathy are Distinct Phenotypes in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Muncey, Aaron R.; Saulles, Adam R.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Baghdoyan, Helen A.; Lydic, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Background Sleep apnea, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and obesity are features of metabolic syndrome associated with decreased restorative sleep and increased pain. These traits are relevant for anesthesiology because they confer increased risks of a negative anesthetic outcome. This study tested the one-tailed hypothesis that rats bred for low intrinsic aerobic capacity have enhanced nociception and disordered sleep. Methods Rats were from a breeding strategy that selected for low aerobic capacity runners (LCR) and high aerobic capacity runners (HCR). Four different phenotypes were quantified. Rats (n=12) underwent von Frey sensory testing, thermal nociceptive testing (n=12), electrographic recordings of sleep and wakefulness (n=16), and thermal nociceptive testing before and for six weeks after a unilateral chronic neuropathy of the sciatic nerve (n=14). Results Paw withdrawal latency to a thermal nociceptive stimulus was significantly (P<0.01) less in LCR than HCR rats. There were significant differences in sleep. LCR rats spent significantly (P<0.01) more time awake (18%) and less time in non-rapid eye movement sleep (?19%) than HCR rats. Non-rapid eye movement sleep episodes were of shorter duration (?34%) in LCR than HCR rats. Rapid eye movement sleep of LCR rats was significantly more fragmented than Rapid eye movement sleep of HCR rats. LCR rats required two weeks longer than HCR rats to recover from peripheral neuropathy. Conclusions Rodents with low aerobic capacity exhibit features homologous to human metabolic syndrome. This rodent model offers a novel tool for characterizing the mechanisms through which low aerobic function and obesity might confer increased risks for anesthesia. PMID:20938334

  16. Melatonin and sleep in aging population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Pandi-Perumal; N. Zisapel; V. Srinivasan; D. P. Cardinali

    2005-01-01

    The neurohormone melatonin is released from the pineal gland in close association with the light–dark cycle. There is a temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the ‘opening of the sleep gate’ at night. This association, as well as the sleep promoting effect of exogenous melatonin, implicates the pineal product in the physiological regulation of sleep. Aging

  17. Is Nocturnal Panic a Distinct Disease Category? Comparison of Clinical Characteristics among Patients with Primary Nocturnal Panic, Daytime Panic, and Coexistence of Nocturnal and Daytime Panic

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Masaki; Sugiura, Tatsuki; Nishida, Shingo; Komada, Yoko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Many patients with panic disorder (PD) experience nocturnal panic attacks. We investigated the differences in demographic variables and symptom characteristics as well as response to treatment among patients with primary day panic (DP), primary nocturnal panic (NP), and the coexistence of DP and NP (DP/NP), and discuss whether NP is a distinct disease category. Method: One hundred one consecutive untreated patients with PD were enrolled and subsequently divided into the NP, DP, and DP/NP groups. The presence of 13 panic attack symptom items as well as scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were compared among the groups. After 3 months of regular treatment, PDSS scores were assessed again to evaluate treatment response. Results: Nocturnal panic attacks of the participants were mostly reported to occur in the first tertile of nocturnal sleep. The number of males, onset age, and presence of choking sensation were significantly higher, and the PDSS score was significantly lower in the NP group compared with the other groups. The DP/NP group showed the highest PDSS score, and participants in this group were prescribed the highest doses of medication among all groups. Only diagnostic sub-category was significantly associated with treatment response. The total score for PDSS and PSQI correlated significantly only in the NP group. Conclusions: DP/NP could be a severe form of PD, while primary NP could be a relatively mild subcategory that may partially share common pathophysiology with adult type night terror. Citation: Nakamura M; Sugiura T; Nishida S; Komada Y; Inoue Y. Is nocturnal panic a distinct disease category? Comparison of clinical characteristics among patients with primary nocturnal panic, daytime panic, and coexistence of nocturnal and daytime panic. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(5):461-467. PMID:23674937

  18. Quality of life consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Ward Flemons; Willis Tsai

    1997-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing occurs in approximately 2% to 4% of the adult population and includes conditions in which patients stop breathing completely (apnea) or have marked reductions in airflow (hypopnea) during sleep. Typical symptoms of sleep apnea include snoring, restless sleep, excessive daytime somnolence, nocturnal enuresis, irritability, depression, memory deficits, inability to concentrate, and decreased alertness. The clinically relevant outcomes of

  19. Melatonin promotes sleep in three species of diurnal nonhuman primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina V. Zhdanova; David A. Geiger; Anthony L. Schwagerl; Ojingwa U. Leclair; Ronald Killiany; Judy A. Taylor; Douglas L. Rosene; Mark B. Moss; Bertha K. Madras

    2002-01-01

    Nocturnal melatonin secretion is concurrent with consolidated sleep episodes in diurnal mammals and physiological melatonin levels can promote sleep onset in humans and in pigtail macaques. In order to further investigate the effects of melatonin treatment on sleep parameters in diurnal nonhuman primates, three macaque species have been studied: Macaca nemestrina, Macaca fascicularis, and Macaca mulatta. Sleep was assessed using

  20. Understanding sleep during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wiggins, Shirley A; Freeman, Jackie L

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents have unique sleep behaviors related to physiological and developmental differences. Research suggests that sleep debt related to these adolescent differences contributes to risk for accidents, behavioral changes, and other health concerns. In addition, the impact of pain related to trauma, surgery, and chronic illness can further alter the sleep patterns of this age group. Limited normative parameters describe the sleep of healthy adolescents. A comparative study of 26 adolescents from 12 through 18 years of age was designed to describe the sleep patterns of two groups of adolescents. Sleep parameters, including actual sleep time, sleep efficiency, nighttime awakenings, and other sleep patterns of adolescents following post-operative tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A), were compared with an age and gender-matched sample of healthy adolescents. All adolescents wore wrist-actigraphy and documented sleep information in a diary for three continuous days. Healthy adolescents had significantly less (p = 0.003) actual hours of night time sleep and significantly less (p = 0.039) sleep efficiency than adolescents in the post-operative sample during the three days. None of the adolescents in this study had sufficient actual hours of nighttime sleep. Findings support the need for nurses to assess adolescent sleep patterns and to educate teens and their families about the importance of adequate sleep. Further research is needed to establish sleep interventions that will improve the sleep hygiene of both healthy adolescents and those who experience sleep disruption due to painful conditions. PMID:24941511

  1. Troubled sleep

    PubMed Central

    Haig, David

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted sleep is probably the most common complaint of parents with a new baby. Night waking increases in the second half of the first year of infant life and is more pronounced for breastfed infants. Sleep-related phenotypes of infants with Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes suggest that imprinted genes of paternal origin promote greater wakefulness whereas imprinted genes of maternal origin favor more consolidated sleep. All these observations are consistent with a hypothesis that waking at night to suckle is an adaptation of infants to extend their mothers’ lactational amenorrhea, thus delaying the birth of a younger sib and enhancing infant survival. PMID:24610432

  2. Nocturnal hypoxemia in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Santana, Maria Angélica Pinheiro; Almeida, Priscila de Carvalho; Machado, Almério de Souza; Araújo-Filho, José Bouzas; Salles, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of nocturnal hypoxemia and its association with pulmonary function, nutritional status, sleep macrostructure, and obstructive respiratory events during sleep in a population of clinically stable children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 67 children and adolescents with CF between 2 and 14 years of age. All of the participants underwent polysomnography, and SpO2 was measured by pulse oximetry. We also evaluated the Shwachman-Kulczycki (S-K) scores, spirometry findings, and nutritional status of the patients. RESULTS: The study involved 67 patients. The mean age of the patients was 8 years. The S-K scores differed significantly between the patients with and without nocturnal hypoxemia, which was defined as an SpO2 < 90% for more than 5% of the total sleep time (73.75 ± 6.29 vs. 86.38 ± 8.70; p < 0.01). Nocturnal hypoxemia correlated with the severity of lung disease, FEV1 (rs = ?0.42; p = 0.01), FVC (rs = ?0.46; p = 0.01), microarousal index (rs = 0.32; p = 0.01), and apnea-hypopnea index (rs = 0.56; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of patients with CF and mild-to-moderate lung disease, nocturnal oxygenation correlated with the S-K score, spirometry variables, sleep macrostructure variables, and the apnea-hypopnea index. PMID:24473760

  3. Neuroimmunologic aspects of sleep and sleep loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, N. L.; Szuba, M. P.; Staab, J. P.; Evans, D. L.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    The complex and intimate interactions between the sleep and immune systems have been the focus of study for several years. Immune factors, particularly the interleukins, regulate sleep and in turn are altered by sleep and sleep deprivation. The sleep-wake cycle likewise regulates normal functioning of the immune system. Although a large number of studies have focused on the relationship between the immune system and sleep, relatively few studies have examined the effects of sleep deprivation on immune parameters. Studies of sleep deprivation's effects are important for several reasons. First, in the 21st century, various societal pressures require humans to work longer and sleep less. Sleep deprivation is becoming an occupational hazard in many industries. Second, to garner a greater understanding of the regulatory effects of sleep on the immune system, one must understand the consequences of sleep deprivation on the immune system. Significant detrimental effects on immune functioning can be seen after a few days of total sleep deprivation or even several days of partial sleep deprivation. Interestingly, not all of the changes in immune physiology that occur as a result of sleep deprivation appear to be negative. Numerous medical disorders involving the immune system are associated with changes in the sleep-wake physiology--either being caused by sleep dysfunction or being exacerbated by sleep disruption. These disorders include infectious diseases, fibromyalgia, cancers, and major depressive disorder. In this article, we will describe the relationships between sleep physiology and the immune system, in states of health and disease. Interspersed will be proposals for future research that may illuminate the clinical relevance of the relationships between sleeping, sleep loss and immune function in humans. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company.

  4. Sleep and sleep disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Guidozzi, F

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disorders in the menopause are common. Although these disorders may be due to the menopause itself and/or the associated vasomotor symptoms, the etiology is multifactorial and includes a number of other associated conditions. They may simply arise as part of the aging process and not be specifically related to the decrease in estrogen levels or, alternatively, because of breathing or limb movement syndromes, depression, anxiety, co-morbid medical diseases, medication, pain and/or psychosocial factors. The most commonly encountered sleep disorders in menopausal women include insomnia, nocturnal breathing disturbances and the associated sleep disorders that accompany the restless leg syndrome, periodic leg movement syndrome, depression and anxiety. This review article addresses sleep and the sleep disorders associated with menopause and briefly the role that hormone therapy may play in alleviating these disorders. PMID:23205646

  5. Sleep and Sleep Disorders in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nancy Collop

    2010-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of death in the US. Numerous studies have demonstrated that sleep disturbances are common in COPD patients, with more prominent complaints in patients with more severe disease and with increasing age. Sleep disturbances may occur due to the effects of breathing abnormalities on sleep and sleep disruption. However, other

  6. Transient total sleep loss in cerebral Whipple's disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Voderholzer, Ulrich; Riemann, Dieter; Gann, Horst; Hornyak, Magdolna; Juengling, Freimut; Schumacher, Martin; Reincke, Martin; Von Herbay, Axel; Nishino, Seiji; Mignot, Emmanuel; Berger, Mathias; Lieb, Klaus

    2002-12-01

    A case with transient, almost complete sleep loss caused by cerebral manifestation of Whipple's disease (WD) is presented. Cerebral WD is rare and in most cases occurs after gastrointestinal infection. In our case, a progressive and finally almost complete sleep loss was the initial and predominant symptom. Polysomnographic studies in several consecutive nights and over 24 h showed a total abolition of the sleep-wake cycle with nocturnal sleep duration of less than 15 min. Endocrine tests revealed hypothalamic dysfunction with flattening of circadian rhythmicity of cortisol, TSH, growth hormone and melatonin. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hypocretin was reduced. [18F]Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) revealed hypermetabolic areas in cortical and subcortical areas including the brainstem, which might explain sleep pathology and vertical gaze palsy. In the course of treatment with antibiotics and additional carbamazepine for 1 year, insomnia slowly and gradually improved. Endocrine investigations at 1-year follow-up showed persistent flattening of circadian rhythmicity. The FDG-PET indicated normalized metabolism in distinct regions of the brain stem which paralleled restoration of sleep length. The extent of sleep disruption in this case of organic insomnia was similar to cases of familial fatal insomnia, but was at least partially reversible with treatment. PMID:12464100

  7. Sleep and protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity: impacts of sleep loss and stress

    PubMed Central

    Grønli, Janne; Soulé, Jonathan; Bramham, Clive R.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has been ascribed a critical role in cognitive functioning. Several lines of evidence implicate sleep in the consolidation of synaptic plasticity and long-term memory. Stress disrupts sleep while impairing synaptic plasticity and cognitive performance. Here, we discuss evidence linking sleep to mechanisms of protein synthesis-dependent synaptic plasticity and synaptic scaling. We then consider how disruption of sleep by acute and chronic stress may impair these mechanisms and degrade sleep function. PMID:24478645

  8. In search of objective components for sleep quality indexing in normal sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Rosipal, Roman; Lewandowski, Achim; Dorffner, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate to what extent polysomnographic (PSG) recordings of nocturnal human sleep can provide information about sleep quality in terms of correlation with a set of daytime measures. These measures were designed with the aim of comprising selected quality of night sleep and consist of subjective sleep quality ratings, neuropsychological tests and physiological parameters. First, a factor analysis model was applied to the large number of daytime measures of sleep quality in order to detect their latent structure. Secondly, in addition to the gold standard sleep staging method to arrive at variables about sleep architecture from PSG, we applied a recently developed continuous sleep representation by considering the probabilistic sleep model (PSM) describing the microstructure of sleep. Significant correlations between sleep architecture and daytime variables of sleep quality were found. Both the factor analysis and the PSM helped maximize the information about this relationship. PMID:23751915

  9. Validation of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for posttraumatic stress disorder (PSQI-A) in U.S. male military veterans.

    PubMed

    Insana, Salvatore P; Hall, Martica; Buysse, Daniel J; Germain, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disturbances are core symptoms of posttraumatic-stress disorder (PTSD), yet they bear less stigma than other PTSD symptoms. Given the growing number of returning military veterans, brief, valid assessments that identify PTSD in a minimally stigmatizing way may be useful in research and clinical practice. The study purpose was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Addendum for PTSD (PSQI-A), and to examine its ability to identify PTSD cases among U.S. male military veterans. Male military veterans (N = 119) completed the PSQI-A, as well as measures of sleep quality, combat exposure, posttraumatic stress, depression, and anxiety. Veterans with PTSD had higher PSQI-A identified disruptive nocturnal behaviors than veterans without PTSD. The PSQI-A had good internal consistency and convergent validity with sleep quality, combat exposure, PTSD symptoms, depression, and anxiety. A cutoff score ? 4 provided an area under the curve = .81, with 71% sensitivity, 82% specificity, and 60% positive and 83% negative predictive value for a clinical diagnosis of PTSD; correct classification was 74%. The PSQI-A is a valid measure to possibly detect PTSD among male military veterans. Assessment of disruptive nocturnal behaviors may provide a cost-effective, nonstigmatizing approach to PTSD screening without directly probing for trauma exposure(s). PMID:23512653

  10. Response Surface Mapping of Neurobehavioral Performance: Testing the Feasibility of Split Sleep Schedules for Space Operations

    PubMed Central

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P.A.; Rogers, Naomi L.; Dinges, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The demands of sustaining high levels of neurobehavioral performance during space operations necessitate precise scheduling of sleep opportunities in order to best preserve optimal performance. We report here the results of the first split-sleep, dose-response experiment involving a range of sleep/wake scenarios with chronically reduced nocturnal sleep, augmented with a diurnal nap. To characterize performance over all combinations of split sleep in the range studied, we used response surface mapping methodology. Waking neurobehavioral performance was studied in N=90 subjects each assigned to one of 18 sleep regimens consisting of a restricted nocturnal anchor sleep period and a diurnal nap. Psychomotor vigilance task performance and subjective assessments of sleepiness were found to be primarily a function of total time in bed per 24 h regardless of how sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap periods. Digit symbol substitution task performance was also found to be primarily a function of total time in bed per 24 h; however, accounting for nocturnal sleep duration and nap duration separately provided a small but significant enhancement in the variance explained. The results suggest that reductions in total daily sleep result in a near-linear accumulation of impairment regardless of whether sleep is scheduled as a consolidated nocturnal sleep period or split into a nocturnal anchor sleep period and a diurnal nap. Thus, split sleep schedules are feasible and can be used to enhance the flexibility of sleep/work schedules for space operations involving restricted nocturnal sleep due to mission-critical task scheduling. These results are generally applicable to any continuous industrial operation that involves sleep restriction, night operations, and shift work. PMID:19194521

  11. Ambient Light Intensity, Actigraphy, Sleep and Respiration, Circadian Temperature and Melatonin Rhythms and Daytime Performance of Crew Members During Space Flight on STS-90 and STS-95 Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, D.-J.; Neri, D. F.; Hughes, R. J.; Ronda, J. M.; Wyatt, J. K.; West, J. B.; Prisk, G. K.; Elliott, A. R.; Young, L. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sleep disruption and associated waking sleepiness and fatigue are common during space flight. A survey of 58 crew members from nine space shuttle missions revealed that most suffered from sleep disruption, and reportedly slept an average of only 6.1 hours per day of flight as compared to an average of 7.9 hours per day on the ground. Nineteen percent of crewmembers on single shift missions and 50 percent of the crewmembers in dual shift operations reported sleeping pill usage (benzodiazepines) during their missions. Benzodiazepines are effective as hypnotics, however, not without adverse side effects including carryover sedation and performance impairment, anterograde amnesia, and alterations in sleep EEG. Our preliminary ground-based data suggest that pre-sleep administration of 0.3 mg of the pineal hormone melatonin may have the acute hypnotic properties needed for treating the sleep disruption of space flight without producing the adverse side effects associated with benzodiazepines. We hypothesize that pre-sleep administration of melatonin will result in decreased sleep latency, reduced nocturnal sleep disruption, improved sleep efficiency, and enhanced next-day alertness and cognitive performance both in ground-based simulations and during the space shuttle missions. Specifically, we have carried out experiments in which: (1) ambient light intensity aboard the space shuttle is assessed during flight; (2) the impact of space flight on sleep (assessed polysomnographically and actigraphically), respiration during sleep, circadian temperature and melatonin rhythms, waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance is assessed in crew members of the Neurolab and STS-95 missions; (3) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed independently of its effects on the phase of the endogenous circadian pacemaker in ground-based studies, using a powerful experimental model of the dyssomnia of space flight; (4) the effectiveness of melatonin as a hypnotic is assessed during the STS-90 (Neurolab) and STS-95 missions in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. In both flight-based experiments, the effects of melatonin on sleep stages and spectral composition of the EEG during sleep will be determined as well as its effects on daytime alertness and performance; (5) the impact of space flight on sleep and waking neurobehavioral alertness and performance in 30-45-year-old astronauts is compared with its impact in a 77-year-old astronaut. This case study is the first to assess the effects of space flight on an older individual. Because the investigators are still blind to the treatment in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, preliminary results will be presented independent of the drug condition.

  12. Sleep Problems, Sleepiness and Daytime Behavior in Preschool-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodlin-Jones, Beth; Tang, Karen; Liu, Jingyi; Anders, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Sleep problems are a common complaint of parents of preschool children. Children with neurodevelopmental disorders have even more disrupted sleep than typically developing children. Although disrupted nighttime sleep has been reported to affect daytime behavior, the pathway from sleep disruption to sleep problems, to impairments in…

  13. Metabolic consequences of sleep and circadian disorders.

    PubMed

    Depner, Christopher M; Stothard, Ellen R; Wright, Kenneth P

    2014-07-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms modulate or control daily physiological patterns with importance for normal metabolic health. Sleep deficiencies associated with insufficient sleep schedules, insomnia with short-sleep duration, sleep apnea, narcolepsy, circadian misalignment, shift work, night eating syndrome, and sleep-related eating disorder may all contribute to metabolic dysregulation. Sleep deficiencies and circadian disruption associated with metabolic dysregulation may contribute to weight gain, obesity, and type 2 diabetes potentially by altering timing and amount of food intake, disrupting energy balance, inflammation, impairing glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Given the rapidly increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases, it is important to recognize the role of sleep and circadian disruption in the development, progression, and morbidity of metabolic disease. Some findings indicate sleep treatments and countermeasures improve metabolic health, but future clinical research investigating prevention and treatment of chronic metabolic disorders through treatment of sleep and circadian disruption is needed. PMID:24816752

  14. Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greg Atkinson; Damien Davenne

    2007-01-01

    Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep.

  15. Effect of dexfenfluramine on sleep in healthy subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Wiegand; Sabine Bossert; Ronald Kinney; Karl-Martin Pirke; Jiirgen-Christian Krieg

    1991-01-01

    The acute effects of dexfenfluramine on nocturnal sleep were studied in ten healthy male subjects by means of sleep EEG recordings and ratings of subjective sleep quality. Four different dosages (3 mg, 7 mg, 15 mg, and 30 mg) were tested, administered over a period of 3 days each. Under 15 mg and 30 mg dexfenfluramine, only slight effects on

  16. Relationship Between Child Sleep Disturbances and Maternal Sleep, Mood, and Parenting Stress: A Pilot Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J. Meltzer; Jodi A. Mindell

    2007-01-01

    Although sleep disturbances in children are common, little is known about the relationship between children's sleep disruptions and maternal sleep and daytime functioning. Forty-seven mothers completed measures of sleep, depression, parenting stress, fatigue, and sleepiness. Significant differences in maternal mood and parenting stress were found between mothers of children with and without significant sleep disturbances. Regression analyses showed that the

  17. Assessment Of Noise-induced Sleep Fragility In Two Age Ranges By Means Of Polysomnographic Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terzano, M. G.; Parrino, L.; Spaggiari, M. C.; Buccino, G. P.; Fioriti, G.; Depoortere, H.

    1993-04-01

    The microstructure of sleep, which translates the short-lived fluctuations of the arousal level, is a commonly neglected feature in polysomnographic studies. Specifically arranged microstructural EEG events may provide important information on the dynamic characteristics of the sleep process. CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) and non-CAP are complementary modalities in which arousal-related "phasic" EEG phenomena are organized in non-REM sleep, and they correspond to opposite conditions of unstable and stable sleep depth, respectively. Thus, arousal instability can be measured by the CAP rate, the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total non-REM sleep time. The CAP rate, an age-related physiological variable that increases in several pathological conditions, is highly sensitive to acoustic perturbation. In the present study, two groups of healthy subjects without complaints about sleep, belonging to different age ranges (six young adults, three males and three females, between 20 and 30 years, and six middle-aged individuals, three males and three females, between 40 and 55 years) slept, after adaptation to the sleep laboratory, in a random sequence for two non-consecutive nights either under silent baseline (27·3 dB(A) Lcq) or noise-disturbed (continuous 55 dB(A) white noise) conditions. Age-related and noise-related effects on traditional sleep parameters and on the CAP rate were statistically evaluated by a split-plot test. Compared to young adults, the middle-aged individuals showed a significant reduction of total sleep time, stage 2 and REM sleep and significantly higher values of nocturnal awakenings and the CAP rate. The noisy nights were characterized by similar alterations. The disruptive effects of acoustic perturbation were greater on the more fragile sleep architecture of the older group. The increased fragility of sleep associated with aging probably reflects the decreased capacity of the sleeping brain to maintain steady states of vigilance. Total non-REM sleep described by traditional parameters was statistically unaffected during the disturbed nights, but the perturbing effects of noise on non-REM sleep stability and continuity were revealed by a significant increase in the CAP rate. The perspectives for a wide-ranging exploitation of this sleep parameter are discussed.

  18. Nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Thumfart, Julia; Müller, Dominik

    2015-05-01

    Preemptive renal transplantation is the method of choice for end stage renal disease in childhood and adolescence. However, without preemptive transplantation, waiting time for kidney transplantation might exceed several years. The poor quality of life and the extremely high morbidity and mortality rates of dialysis patients have led to the development of intensified hemodialysis programs in which the modes of dialysis (short daily, nocturnal intermittent or daily nocturnal) are different. Such programs have been shown to significantly improve several uremia-associated parameters, such as blood pressure, phosphate control, anemia and growth retardation, in both adult and pediatric (children and adolescents) patients and lead to a reduction in medications, including phosphate binders, erythropoietin and antihypertensive agents. Fluid limitations and dietary restrictions can also be lifted. With respect to psychosocial rehabilitation and quality of life, nocturnal intermittent dialysis programs provide a reasonable compromise of all forms of intensified programs. Experiences and practical approaches of our own in-center nocturnal intermittent hemodialysis program in the light of the recent publications are described in this review. PMID:25103600

  19. Bedwetting (Nocturnal Enuresis)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... expands (gets bigger) as urine enters and then contracts (gets smaller) to push the urine out. In a person with normal bladder ... What Causes Enuresis? Doctors don't always know the exact cause of nocturnal enuresis. They do have some theories, though, on what may contribute to someone developing ...

  20. Effect of Ship Noise on Sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Y.; Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.

    1997-08-01

    The effects of a steady sound level of 65 dB(A) from a diesel ship engine on nocturnal sleep were studied using polygraphic and subjective sleep parameters. Three healthy men, aged 29 to 33 years, participated in the experiment. Sleep polygrams and the sound level in a sleep laboratory were recorded for each subject for five exposure nights and five control nights. The following morning, the subjects answered a self-rating sleep questionnaire (called the OSA) and underwent simple reaction time tests. The percentage of S2, SREM latency and the REM interval increased, while %SREM decreased during the noise-exposed nights as compared with corresponding values on the control nights. Other parameters of sleep EEG were unchanged. Five scale scores for OSA, sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation deteriorated significantly on the noise-exposed nights as compared with the control nights. Canonical discriminant analysis was conducted using 19 sleep parameters. The standard partial regression coefficients of %SREM, %S2 and %S1 were somewhat higher than other parameters. It was suggested that exposure to the 65 dB(A) ship noise exerted adverse effects on nocturnal sleep, subjectively and in part polygraphically (REM sleep and shallow sleep).

  1. Parasomnias and nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE): lights and shadows--controversial points in the differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Provini, Federica; Leta, Chiara; Lugaresi, Elio; Tinuper, Paolo

    2011-12-01

    Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) is characterized by seizures with complex, often bizarre, violent behaviour arising only or mainly during sleep. These unusual seizures and their occurrence during sleep are often accompanied by normal EEG tracings and neuroradiological findings, making it difficult to distinguish NFLE seizures from other non-epileptic nocturnal paroxysmal events, namely parasomnias. NFLE was described for the first time in 1981, but, as its epileptic origin was controversial, the condition was called nocturnal paroxysmal dystonia. Even though many aspects of parasomnias and NFLE have been clarified in the last two decades, the problem of differential diagnosis remains a challenge for clinicians. This paper discusses some controversial points still under debate. The difficulties in distinguishing nocturnal epileptic seizures from parasomnias reflect just one aspect of the intriguing issue of the pathophysiological relationships between all types of paroxysmal motor behaviours during sleep. PMID:22136895

  2. Prevalence of Nocturnal Enuresis and Its Associated Factors in Primary School and Preschool Children of Khorramabad in 2013

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  3. Prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in primary school and preschool children of khorramabad in 2013.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiar, Katayoun; Pournia, Yadollah; Ebrahimzadeh, Farzad; Farhadi, Ali; Shafizadeh, Fathollah; Hosseinabadi, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nocturnal enuresis refers to an inability to control urination during sleep. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and its associated factors in children in the city of Khorramabad. Materials and Methods. In this descriptive-analytic, cross-sectional study, 710 male and female children were divided into two groups with equal numbers. The samples were selected from the schools of Khorramabad using the multistage cluster and stratified random sampling methods based on the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV. The data was analyzed using the logistic regression. Results. The results showed that 8% of the children had nocturnal enuresis, including 5.2% of primary nocturnal enuresis and 2.8% of secondary nocturnal enuresis. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys (10.7%) was higher compared with that in the girls (5.4%) (P = 0.009). There were statistically significant relationships between nocturnal enuresis and history of nocturnal enuresis in siblings (P = 0.023), respiratory infections (P = 0.036), deep sleep (P = 0.007), corporal punishment at school (P = 0.036), anal itching (P = 0.043), and history of seizures (P = 0.043). Conclusion. This study showed that the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis in the boys was higher compared with that in the girls. PMID:25374608

  4. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is sleep apnea? Sleep apnea is a serious sleep disorder. People who have sleep apnea stop breathing for ... doctor may ask you to go to a sleep disorder center for a sleep study. Tests done at ...

  5. Sleep Studies

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Studies? Sleep studies are tests that measure how ... Sleep." Rate This Content: Next >> March 29, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  6. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Can Impair Driving Drugs to Treat Sleep Problems Sleep Problems Print and Share (PDF 474KB) En Español ... Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep Most adults need 7-8 hours of sleep ...

  7. Sleep habits and sleep problems among Palestinian students

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates in Palestine. Association between self-reported sleep quality and self-reported academic achievement was also investigated. Methods Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from An-Najah National University, Palestine. The study was carried out during spring semester, 2009. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Results 400 students with a mean age of 20.2 ± 1.3 were studied. Reported mean duration of night sleep in the study sample was 6.4 ± 1.1 hours. The majority (58.3%) of students went to bed before midnight and 18% of the total sample woke up before 6 am. Sleep latency of more than one hour was present in 19.3% of the students. Two thirds (64.8%) of the students reported having at least one nocturnal awakening per night. Nightmares were the most common parasomnia reported by students. Daytime naps were common and reported in 74.5% of the study sample. Sleep quality was reported as "poor" in only 9.8% and was significantly associated with sleep latency, frequency of nocturnal awakenings, time of going to bed, nightmares but not with academic achievement. Conclusion Sleep habits among Palestinian undergraduates were comparable to those reported in European studies. Sleep problems were common and there was no significant association between sleep quality and academic achievement. PMID:21762479

  8. Circadian and melatonin disruption by exposure to light at night drives intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Robert T; Xiang, Shulin; Mao, Lulu; Brimer, Samantha; Wren, Melissa A; Yuan, Lin; Anbalagan, Muralidharan; Hauch, Adam; Frasch, Tripp; Rowan, Brian G; Blask, David E; Hill, Steven M

    2014-08-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to antiestrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of estrogen receptor (ER?(+)) MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speed the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characteristics were not observed in animals in which the circadian melatonin rhythm was not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen. PMID:25062775

  9. Early adverse rearing experiences alter sleep-wake patterns and plasma cortisol levels in juvenile rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Catherine E; Noble, Pamela; Hanson, Erin; Pine, Daniel S; Winslow, James T; Nelson, Eric E

    2009-08-01

    Monkeys separated from their mothers soon after birth and raised with peers display many disturbances in emotional behavior that are similar to human mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to emotional disturbances, both mood and anxiety disorders are often characterized by disruptions in normal sleep-wake cycles, a behavior that has not been well characterized in adversely reared non-human primates. Because polysomnographic measures are difficult to obtain in unrestrained monkeys we used 24-h actigraphy measures to assess probable sleep-wake patterns in juvenile nursery- and mother-reared rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, N=16) over several days in the home cage. In addition we assayed plasma cortisol in the morning, afternoon, and evening. Relative to mother-reared (MR) monkeys, actigraphic algorithms indicated that nursery-reared (NR) animals had shorter durations of nocturnal sleep, earlier morning waking, and longer periods of sleep during the active period, specifically in the mid morning. No shift in diurnal patterns of cortisol was observed, but NR animals displayed an overall elevation in cortisol. Finally a significant interaction was found between cortisol and actigraphic determination of sleep efficiency in the two groups. A strong positive relationship (r(2)>0.8) was found between mean cortisol levels and sleep efficiency for the MR monkeys, but a significant negative relationship was found between these same variables for the NR monkeys, indicating a fundamentally different relationship between waking cortisol and actigraphy patterns in these two groups. PMID:19268477

  10. Nocturia × disturbed sleep: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniele Furtado; Helena Hachul; Monica L. Andersen; Rodrigo A. Castro; Manoel B. Girão; Sergio Tufik

    In this article, we provide a concise review of the literature on nocturia and its interference with sleep and, consequently,\\u000a on quality of life. There are few studies addressing the possible influences of nocturia on sleep disruption. Nocturia is\\u000a a potential contributor to sleep disorders because affected individuals experience nonrestorative sleep due to frequent interruptions.\\u000a We also attempted to determine

  11. Sleep Timing Moderates the Concurrent Sleep Duration-Body Mass Index Association in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Alison L.; Kaciroti, Niko; LeBourgeois, Monique K.; Chen, Yu Pu; Sturza, Julie; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity, however, the role of sleep timing is understudied, particularly in young children. Objective To test the independent main and moderating effects of sleep timing on body mass index (BMI) in low-income preschool-aged children (M=4.11 years, SD=0.54). Methods Parents reported demographics and children’s sleep concurrently, and a subset of children was followed longitudinally. Child height and weight were measured and BMI z-score (BMIz) calculated. Regression analysis evaluated main effects of sleep timing (bedtime, weekday-to-weekend schedule shifting, napping) on concurrent BMIz and future rate of change, and their moderating effects on the sleep duration-BMIz association. Results Of 366 children (longitudinal subsample=273), 50% were male, 57% white, and 37% overweight or obese. Nocturnal sleep duration predicted concurrent BMIz, but not rate of change in BMIz over time. Bedtime was a moderator; the sleep duration-BMIz association was present only among children with bedtimes after 9pm (?0.44; 95% CI ?0.69, ?0.18). Schedule shifting was a moderator; the association between greater nocturnal sleep duration and lesser rate of future BMIz increase was present only among children with the most consistent sleep schedules (<45 minute delay in weekend bedtime: ? = ?0.12; 95% CI ?0.23, ?0.01). Daytime napping did not moderate the nocturnal sleep duration-BMIz association. Covariates (sleep-disordered breathing; soda consumption; home chaos) did not explain these associations. Conclusions Among low-income preschoolers, sleep timing moderated the nocturnal sleep duration-BMIz association. Understanding how sleep timing, as well as sleep duration, relates to childhood obesity is important for prevention efforts. PMID:24602585

  12. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Geetanjali; Larsen, Paul; Parakh, Manish; Fernandez, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively in sleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE). NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved. PMID:24383033

  13. Vulnerability due to Nocturnal Tornadoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walker S. Ashley; Andrew J. Krmenec; Rick Schwantes

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the human vulnerability caused by tornadoes that occurred between sunset and sunrise from 1880 to 2007. Nocturnal tornadoes are theorized to enhance vulnerability because they are difficult to spot and occur when the public tends to be asleep and in weak building structures. Results illustrate that the nocturnal tornado death rate over the past century has not

  14. Comparison of Subjective and Objective Assessments of Sleep in Healthy Older Subjects Without Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Deirdre; Silva, Edward J.; Munch, Mirjam; Ronda, Joseph M.; Wang, Wei; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Older adults have reduced sleep quality compared to younger adults when sleeping at habitual times, and greater sleep disruption when their sleep is at adverse times. The purpose of this analysis was to investigate how subjective measures of sleep relate to objectively-recorded sleep in older subjects scheduled to sleep at all times of day. We analyzed data from 24 healthy older (55–74 years) subjects who took part in a 32-day inpatient study where polysomnography (PSG) was recorded each night and subjective sleep was assessed after each scheduled wake time. The study included baseline nights and a forced desynchrony (FD) protocol when the subjects lived on a 20-hr rest-activity schedule. Our post-sleep questionnaire both included quantitative and qualitative questions about the prior sleep. Under baseline and FD conditions, objective and subjective sleep latency were correlated, subjective sleep duration was related to slow wave sleep and wake after sleep onset, subjective sleep quality was related to Stage 1 and 2 sleep, and sleepiness and refreshment at wake time were related to duration of premature awakening. During FD, most measures of objective and subjective sleep varied with circadian phase, and many additional correlations between objective and subjective sleep were present. Our findings show that when sleeping at habitual times, these healthy older subjects did not perceive their generally poor sleep quality, but under FD conditions where sleep quality changed from day-to-day their subjective sleep ratings were more associated with their objective sleep. PMID:19645969

  15. Sickle Cell Anemia: Iron Availability and Nocturnal Oximetry

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Sharon E.; L'Esperance, Veline; Makani, Julie; Soka, Deogratius; Prentice, Andrew M.; Hill, Catherine M.; Kirkham, Fenella J.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that low iron availability, measured as transferrin saturation, is associated with low nocturnal hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) in children with homozygous sickle cell anemia (SCA; hemoglobin SS). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of Tanzanian children with SCA who were not receiving regular blood transfusions. Thirty-two children (16 boys) with SCA (mean age 8.0, range 3.6-15.3 years) underwent motion-resistant nocturnal oximetry (Masimo Radical) and had steady state serum transferrin saturation and hematological indices assessed. Results: Higher transferrin saturation, adjusted for age and ?-thalassemia deletion, was associated with lower nocturnal mean SpO2 (p = 0.013, r2 = 0.41), number of SpO2 dips/h > 3% from baseline (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.19) and with min/h with SpO2 < 90% (p = 0.026 r2 = 0.16). Transferrin saturation < 16% (indicative of iron deficiency) was associated with a 2.2% higher nocturnal mean SpO2. Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, higher iron availability, assessed by transferrin saturation, is associated with nocturnal chronic and intermittent hemoglobin oxygen desaturation in SCA. Whether these associations are causal and are driven by hypoxia-inducible factor and hepcidin-mediated upregulation of demand for iron warrants further investigation. Citation: Cox SE; L'Esperance V; Makani J; Soka D; Prentice AM; Hill CM; Kirkham FJ. Sickle cell anemia: iron availability and nocturnal oximetry. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(5):541-545. PMID:23066366

  16. Nocturnal Systemic Hypotension Increases the Risk of Glaucoma Progression

    PubMed Central

    Charlson, Mary E.; de Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Link, Alissa; Wells, Martin T.; Harmon, Gregory; Peterson, Janey C.; Ritch, Robert; Liebmann, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this prospective, longitudinal study of patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) was to determine whether patients with nocturnal hypotension are at greater risk for visual field (VF) loss over 12 months than those without nocturnal hypotension. Design Prospective, longitudinal study. Participants Consecutive patients with NTG with at least 5 prior VF tests were screened for eligibility. Methods The baseline evaluation assessed demographic and clinical characteristics, covering systemic comorbid conditions, including systemic hypertension. All oral and ophthalmologic medications were recorded. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed at baseline and follow-up. Patients had their blood pressure (BP) monitored every 30 minutes for 48 hours with an ambulatory recording device at baseline and 6 and 12 months. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was based on the global rates of VF progression by linear regression of the mean VF threshold sensitivity over time (decibels/year). Results Eighty-five patients with NTG (166 eyes; mean age, 65 years; 67% were women) were included. Of the 85 patients, 29% had progressed in the 5 VFs collected before study enrollment. The nocturnal mean arterial pressure (MAP) was compared with the daytime MAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the total time that sleep MAP was 10 mmHg below the daytime MAP was a significant predictor of subsequent VF progression (P<0.02). Conclusions Cumulative nocturnal hypotension predicted VF loss in this cohort. Our data suggest that the duration and magnitude of decrease in nocturnal blood pressure below the daytime MAP, especially pressures that are 10 mmHg lower than daytime MAP, predict progression of NTG. Low nocturnal blood pressure, whether occurring spontaneously or as a result of medications, may lead to worsening of VF defects. PMID:24869467

  17. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  18. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  19. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Sleep Apnea Information Page Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Sleep Apnea? Is there ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Sleep Apnea? Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder ...

  20. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    PubMed

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects. PMID:23556992

  1. Experiences of Sleep and Benzodiazepine Use among Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older women; however, little is known about sleep experiences among chronic benzodiazepine users. The experience of sleep, sleep troubles, and management of sleep problems were explored through semi-structured interviews with 12 women aged 65 to 92 who had used a benzodiazepine for three months or longer to treat a sleep disturbance. Themes that emerged from an interpretive phenomenological analysis included multiple reasons for sleep disruptions (health problems, mental disturbances, and sleeping arrangements); opposing effects of benzodiazepines on sleep (helps or does not work); and several supplemental sleep strategies (modification of the environment, distraction, and consumption). PMID:25581296

  2. Experiences of Sleep and Benzodiazepine Use among Older Women.

    PubMed

    Canham, Sarah L; Rubinstein, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among older women; however, little is known about sleep experiences among chronic benzodiazepine users. The experience of sleep, sleep troubles, and management of sleep problems were explored through semistructured interviews with 12 women aged 65-92 who had used a benzodiazepine for three months or longer to treat a sleep disturbance. Themes that emerged from an interpretive phenomenological analysis included multiple reasons for sleep disruptions (health problems, mental disturbances, and sleeping arrangements), opposing effects of benzodiazepines on sleep (helps or does not work), and several supplemental sleep strategies (modification of the environment, distraction, and consumption). PMID:25581296

  3. Nocturnal Orgasm in College Women: Its Relation to Dreams and Anxiety Associated with Sexual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henton, Comradge L.

    1976-01-01

    A total of 774 female undergraduates were administered a structured questionnaire and an anxiety scale. It was found that women do experience nocturnal orgasms during sleep. Differences were found according to year at school as well as a positive correlation between level of anxiety and sexual excitement. (MS)

  4. Nocturnal penile tumescence and penile responses in the waking state in diabetic and nondiabetic sexual dysfunctionals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Zuckerman; Michael Neeb; Miguel Ficher; Ralph E. Fishkin; Arlene Goldman; Paul J. Fink; Stanley N. Cohen; Joseph A. Jacobs; Martin Weisberg

    1985-01-01

    This study compared diabetics with sexual dysfunction, nondiabetics with sexual dysfunction, and a group of controls on nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) during three nights in a sleep laboratory, and penile response to erotic stimulation in the waking state on one of the nights. Both diabetic and nondiabetic dysfunctionals showed less erectile response to erotic films and tape than controls but

  5. The Effects of Current-Concern- and Nonconcern-Related Waking Suggestions on Nocturnal Dream Content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles D. Nikles; David L. Brecht; Eric Klinger; Amy L. Bursell

    1998-01-01

    In previous research, presleep suggestions influenced nocturnal dream content. It was hypothesized that suggesting topics associated with participants’ current concerns would influence dream content more than suggesting other topics. Ten students spent 4 nights in a sleep laboratory: an adaptation night, a baseline night, and 2 nights under suggestions to dream about a concern-related or other topic. Concern-related suggestions influenced

  6. Nocturnal and respiratory disturbances in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome (progressive supranuclear palsy).

    PubMed Central

    De Bruin, V. S.; Machado, C.; Howard, R. S.; Hirsch, N. P.; Lees, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Respiratory and sleep disturbances may be important causes of morbidity in Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome but the frequency and character of nocturnal abnormalities remains uncertain. A prospective study of 11 patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome and age-matched control subjects was undertaken using clinical assessments, a structured sleep questionnaire, spirometry, static maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures and nocturnal oximetry. The mean age of the Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome patients was 63.2 (52-70) years and mean disease duration was 4.0 (2-6) years. There was moderate to severe motor disability in nine and mild to moderate dementia in eight. In the patients with Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome the following abnormalities contributed to sleep disturbances significantly more frequently than in normal controls: depression, dysphagia, frequent nocturnal awakenings (usually associated with urinary frequency), immobility in bed, difficulty with transfers, impaired dressing and feeding. There was profound impairment of voluntary respiratory control whilst automatic and limbic control were well maintained. Nocturnal respiratory abnormalities were not present even in the most severely disabled. In Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome sleep abnormalities are common; they relate to the cognitive, pseudobulbar and extrapyramidal disturbances and may therefore be amenable to symptomatic control. PMID:8761503

  7. Aging, rhythms of physical performance, and adjustment to changes in the sleep-activity cycle.

    PubMed Central

    Reilly, T; Waterhouse, J; Atkinson, G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Shiftwork causes disturbances of the normal sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythm. There is concern that aging workers have more problems than younger counterparts when the human body clock is disrupted. This review considers issues relating to aging, the circadian body clock, and adjustment to altered sleep-wake schedules. METHODS: Reports on effects of aging on the human body clock were reviewed. Research concerned with adjustment to circadian phase shifts (as occurs in night work) was considered. RESULTS: With aging there is an increased tendency towards morningness which is linked with difficulties in sleeping. The peak time and amplitude of normal circadian rhythms are altered. Tolerance of shiftwork can be linked with social factors as well as adaptation of the body clock. CONCLUSIONS: People habituated to night work seem to have developed mechanisms which allow them to cope with disruptions to lifestyle and the endogenous body clock. Elderly people are more suited to phase advances, as occur in morning workshifts, than to phase delays such as nocturnal work. PMID:9538354

  8. The function of nocturnal transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfautsch, Sebastian; Resco de Dios, Víctor; Loik, Michael; Tissue, David

    2014-05-01

    Nocturnal transpiration is an important source of water loss, accounting for up to 25% of daytime transpiration in some species. Nocturnal water losses cannot be explained under the prevailing 'paradigm' of optimizing carbon gain while minimizing water loss because carbon fixation does not occur at night. Alternative explanations regarding the function and potential evolutionary advantage of nocturnal transpiration have been proposed, such as enhanced nutrient uptake and transport or delivery of O2 to parenchyma cells for respiration. However, recent evidence suggests that the role of nocturnal transpiration in supplementing the overall plant nutrient budget is relatively small, and the O2 hypothesis is difficult to test experimentally. Here, we propose that the main function of nocturnal transpiration (and water transport) is to prevent catastrophic xylem failure by restoring depleted stem 'capacitors' and enhancing early morning CO2 uptake, as stomata 'prepare' for daytime conditions. Nocturnal sap flux was highest in Eucalyptus grandis trees in the field following a heat wave (reaching 47C with VPDs > 8kPa in the daytime) generating maximal daytime water losses compared with cooler and lower VPD periods, indicating the importance of nocturnal stomatal conductance for stem refilling. Moreover, we observed that the time for stomata to respond to light early in the morning (dawn) across 25 different genotypes of E. camaldulensis in a glasshouse was shortest in those genotypes with highest nocturnal stomatal conductance, which was also correlated with higher daytime photosynthesis. This observation is consistent with previous observations that nocturnal stomatal conductance is partially controlled by the clock, which is utilised to anticipate daytime conditions. Data from the literature suggests that eucalypts respond similarly to other C3 species, suggesting that mechanisms regulating night-time transpiration may be universal.

  9. Sleep Related Breathing Disorders in Adults with Down Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Onofrio; Barbaro, Maria Pia Foschino; Giliberti, Tiziana; Caratozzolo, Gennaro; Cagnazzo, Maria Grazia; Scarpelli, Franco; Nocerino, Maria Cristina

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated sleep-related breathing disorders in six adults with Down syndrome. Five were found to have respiratory events justifying the diagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome. Results suggest that the nocturnal respiratory pattern of adults with Down syndrome depends on several pathogenetic factors such as age, severity of upper airway…

  10. Effects of exogenous melatonin on sleep: a meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amnon Brzezinski; Mark G. Vangel; Richard J. Wurtman; Gillian Norrie; Irina Zhdanova; Abraham Ben-Shushan; Ian Ford

    2005-01-01

    Exogenous melatonin reportedly induces drowsiness and sleep, and may ameliorate sleep disturbances, including the nocturnal awakenings associated with old age. However, existing studies on the soporific efficacy of melatonin have been highly heterogeneous in regard to inclusion and exclusion criteria, measures to evaluate insomnia, doses of the medication, and routes of administration. We reviewed and analyzed (by meta-analysis) available information

  11. Sleep-Disordered Breathing

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dimitri; Doghramji, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Sleep disorders are becoming more prevalent. There is an overlap of symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and many psychiatric conditions. Complaints of excessive sleepiness, insomnia, cognitive dysfunction, and depressive symptoms can be related to both disease states. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repetitive disruption of sleep by cessation of breathing and was first described in the 19th century by bedside observation during sleep. Physicians observed this cessation of breathing while the patient slept and postulated that these episodes were responsible for subsequent complaints of sleepiness. OSAS can coexist with major depressive disorder, exacerbate depressive symptoms, or be responsible for a large part of the symptom complex of depression. Additionally, in schizophrenia, sleep apnea may develop as a result of chronic neuroleptic treatment and its effect on gains in body weight, a major risk factor for the development of OSAS. It is important to recognize the signs and symptoms of sleep apnea, namely excessive daytime sleepiness, snoring, and witnessed apneas. Recognition of the existence of sleep apnea, prompt referral to a sleep specialist, and ultimately treatment of an underlying sleep disorder, such as OSAS, can ameliorate symptoms of psychiatric disease. PMID:20975818

  12. Neuroimmunology of Pregnancy-Related Sleep Disturbances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele L. Okun; Mary E. Coussons-Read

    Sleep is undoubtedly disturbed during pregnancy. The disturbances include an increase in nocturnal awakenings and greater\\u000a periods of time spent awake during the night, as well as complaints of fatigue during the day. Although nausea (i.e., morning\\u000a sickness) is most commonly expected in the first trimester, an increase in fatigue, which is often a consequence of disturbed\\u000a sleep, is actually

  13. An Overview of Sleep in the CF Literature Nanci Yuan, MD, FAAP, D ABSM

    E-print Network

    Kay, Mark A.

    sleepiness, inadequate sleep time, insomnia, or sleep disordered breathing is associated with an increase are associated with sleep disruption such as drowsiness or insomnia. In addition, the scheduling of medications

  14. Tuned in Parenting and Infant Sleep Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priddis, Lynn E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on infant sleep behaviour that is of concern to mothers of young infants, and disruptive to families. It reports on the incidence of sleep problems in dyads that self-referred to a specialist clinic, and the relationship between the mother's sensitive responsiveness and infant sleep patterns in a sample of 65 Australian infants.…

  15. Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  16. Exercise and Subsequent Sleep in Male Runners: Failure to Support the Slow Wave Sleep-Mood-Exercise Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Kupfer; Deborah E. Sewitch; Leonard H. Epstein; Cynthia Bulik; Colleen R. McGowen; Robert J. Robertson

    1985-01-01

    10 male joggers participated in a 3-week experimental protocol designed to look at the effects of three levels of energy expenditure (no exercise, regular exercise, and double exercise) on mood and subsequent nocturnal sleep focusing on REM sleep and delta sleep parameters. Exercise conditions were well discriminated by daily (F(2,18) = 65.8, p < 0.0000) mean hip activity counts during

  17. A BRIEF HX OF BEHAVIORAL SLEEP MEDICINE

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    &D · TREATMENT EFFICACY · THEORY RE: ETIOLOGY · EVIDENCE RE: INSOMNIA AS A RISK FACTOR IN GENERAL: INSOMNIA-n-Pad Technique for Nocturnal Enuresis 1960s First Clinical Trials for insomnia (Relaxation) 1972 Bootzin applies stimulus control principles to Insomnia 1977 Hauri publishes Sleep Hygiene Rules in Current Concepts

  18. Stress, Arousal, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Larry D; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter

    2014-05-23

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with at least a brief period of arousal and wakefulness, the subsequent amount and architecture of recovery sleep can vary dramatically across conditions even though classical markers of acute stress such as corticosterone are virtually the same. Sleep after stress appears to be highly influenced by situational variables including whether the stressor was controllable and/or predictable, whether the individual had the possibility to learn and adapt, and by the relative resilience and vulnerability of the individual experiencing stress. There are multiple brain regions and neurochemical systems linking stress and sleep, and the specific balance and interactions between these systems may ultimately determine the alterations in sleep-wake architecture. Factors that appear to play an important role in stress-induced wakefulness and sleep changes include various monominergic neurotransmitters, hypocretins, corticotropin releasing factor, and prolactin. In addition to the brain regions directly involved in stress responses such as the hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, and the amygdala, differential effects of stressor controllability on behavior and sleep may be mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. These various brain regions interact and influence each other and in turn affect the activity of sleep-wake controlling centers in the brain. Also, these regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and sleep. Finally, stress-induced changes in sleep-architecture may affect sleep-related neuronal plasticity processes and thereby contribute to cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24852799

  19. The effect of sleep deprivation on pain.

    PubMed

    Kundermann, Bernd; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian; Schreiber, Wolfgang; Lautenbacher, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Chronic pain syndromes are associated with alterations in sleep continuity and sleep architecture. One perspective of this relationship, which has not received much attention to date, is that disturbances of sleep affect pain. To fathom this direction of cause, experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing were reviewed. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can counteract analgesic effects of pharmacological treatments involving opioidergic and serotoninergic mechanisms of action. The heterogeneity of the human data and the exclusive interest in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation in animals so far do not allow us to draw firm conclusions as to whether the hyperalgesic effects are due to the deprivation of specific sleep stages or whether they result from a generalized disruption of sleep continuity. The significance of opioidergic and serotoninergic processes as mediating mechanisms of the hyperalgesic changes produced by sleep deprivation are discussed. PMID:15007400

  20. Do asthmatics suffer bronchoconstriction during rapid eye movement sleep?

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, C M; Catterall, J R; Montgomery, I; Raab, G M; Douglas, N J

    1986-01-01

    Many patients with asthma are troubled by nocturnal wheeze. The cause of this symptom is unknown, but sleep is an important factor. A study was carried out to determine whether nocturnal bronchoconstriction is related to any specific stage of sleep. Eight asthmatics with nocturnal wheeze and eight control subjects performed forced expiratory manoeuvres immediately after being woken from rapid eye movement (REM) or non-REM sleep, wakings being timed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. The control subjects showed no significant temporal bronchoconstriction or bronchoconstriction related to the stage of sleep. All patients showed bronchoconstriction overnight, the mean peak expiratory flow rate falling from 410 (SEM 50) 1/min before sleep to 186 (49)1/min after sleep. After the patients had been woken from REM sleep the forced expiratory volume in one second was on average 300 ml lower (p less than 0.02) and peak expiratory flow rate 45 1/min lower (p less than 0.03) than after they had been woken from non-REM sleep. As wakenings from REM sleep were 21(8) minutes later in the night than those from non-REM sleep multivariate analysis was performed to differentiate temporal effects from those related to the stage of sleep. This showed that the overnight decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second and peak expiratory flow rate were significantly related both to time and to REM sleep. This study suggests that asthmatics may suffer bronchoconstriction during REM sleep. Images FIG 1 PMID:3085766

  1. Multi-Modal Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Caroline; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    1988-01-01

    The article reports a multimodal treatment of nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior in a mildly mentally retarded woman. Behavioral treatment and removal of caffeine from the subject's diet eliminated both nocturnal enuresis and anxious behavior. (Author/DB)

  2. Electroencephalographic and behavioral effects of nocturnally occurring jet aircraft sounds.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Bartus, R. T.; Hart, F. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present research presents data relative to the objective evaluation of the effects of a specific complex auditory stimulus presented during sleep. The auditory stimulus was a jet aircraft flyover of approximately 20-sec duration and a peak intensity level of approximately 80 dB (A). Our specific interests were in terms of how this stimulus would interact with the frequency pattern of the sleeping EEG and whether there would be any carry-over effects of the nocturnally presented stimuli to the waking state. The results indicated that the physiological effects (changes in electroencephalographic activity) produced by the jet aircraft stimuli outlasted the physical presence of the auditory stimuli by a considerable degree. Further, it was possible to note both behavioral and electroencephalographic changes during waking performances subsequent to nights disturbed by the jet aircraft flyovers which were not apparent during performances subsequent to undisturbed nights.

  3. Sleep disorders in children with Attention-Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) recorded overnight by video-polysomnography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosalia Silvestri; Antonella Gagliano; Irene Aricò; Tiziana Calarese; Clemente Cedro; Oliviero Bruni; Rosaria Condurso; Eva Germanò; Giuseppe Gervasi; Rosamaria Siracusano; Giuseppe Vita; Placido Bramanti

    2009-01-01

    ObjectiveTo outline specific sleep disturbances in different clinical subsets of Attention Deficit\\/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and to confirm, by means of nocturnal video-polysomnography (video-PSG), a variety of sleep disorders in ADHD besides the classically described periodic leg movement disorder (PLMD), restless legs syndrome (RLS) and sleep related breathing disorder (SRBD).

  4. [Sleep apnea syndrome: SAS].

    PubMed

    Osada, Naohiko

    2014-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. OSA is the frequent underlying disease of secondary hypertension and resistant hypertension. In 2003, the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure recognized sleep apnea as a common and identifiable cause of hypertension and suggested blood pressure screening among patients with OSA. OSA increases both daytime and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressures through the activation of various neurohumoral factors including the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Randomized, controlled trials have evaluated the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to reduce BP among persons with OSA. The benefits of OSA treatment are related to implications for hypertension management. PMID:25167750

  5. Can improving sleep influence sleep-disordered breathing?

    PubMed

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) encompasses a group of disorders that include obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), central sleep apnoea (CSA) and nocturnal hypoventilation. SDB commonly coexists with sleep disorders such as insomnia and restless legs syndrome, and sleep deprivation has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of SDB. Participants of a workshop, held at the 6th annual meeting of The International Sleep Disorders Forum: The Art of Good Sleep in 2008, evaluated whether the effective management of sleep disorders could result in a reduction in SDB. Following the workshop, a critical review of the literature in the field of sleep and SDB was conducted in order to assess the impact of improving sleep on SDB, and to determine whether measures taken to improve sleep result in a subsequent improvement in SDB. Results showed that studies evaluating the influence of improved sleep on respiratory abnormalities in patients with SDB are lacking. Studies in patients with OSA, with or without obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, show that therapy with continuous positive airways pressure and non-invasive ventilation improves sleep parameters with beneficial effects on SDB. Studies involving small numbers of patients have shown that the antidepressants fluoxetine and mirtazapine produce improvements in sleep parameters and the apnoea-hypopnoea index, and that acetazolamide may improve CSA. The benzodiazepines flurazepam, temazepam and nitrazepam, the hypnotic zolpidem, the melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon and gamma-hydroxybutyrate have all been shown to improve sleep, but are not associated with reductions or worsening in SDB. It is clear that there is a distinct knowledge gap with regard to the benefit of improving sleep disturbances for subsequent improvements in SDB. Randomized controlled clinical trials investigating the effect of pharmacological and non-pharmacological improvement of sleep disorders focusing on whether there is improvement in coexisting OSA/SDB are clearly needed. Furthermore, well-designed clinical trials investigating the role of hypnotic agents in improving SDB in certain phenotypes will enable the development of treatment recommendations for primary care physicians managing these patients in routine clinical practice. PMID:20047352

  6. CONTROL OF SLEEP AND WAKEFULNESS

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ritchie E.; Basheer, Radhika; McKenna, James T.; Strecker, Robert E.; McCarley, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the brain mechanisms controlling sleep and wakefulness. Wakefulness promoting systems cause low-voltage, fast activity in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Multiple interacting neurotransmitter systems in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain converge onto common effector systems in the thalamus and cortex. Sleep results from the inhibition of wake-promoting systems by homeostatic sleep factors such as adenosine and nitric oxide and GABAergic neurons in the preoptic area of the hypothalamus, resulting in large-amplitude, slow EEG oscillations. Local, activity-dependent factors modulate the amplitude and frequency of cortical slow oscillations. Non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep results in conservation of brain energy and facilitates memory consolidation through the modulation of synaptic weights. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation. Strong activation of limbic regions during REM sleep suggests a role in regulation of emotion. Genetic studies suggest that brain mechanisms controlling waking and NREM sleep are strongly conserved throughout evolution, underscoring their enormous importance for brain function. Sleep disruption interferes with the normal restorative functions of NREM and REM sleep, resulting in disruptions of breathing and cardiovascular function, changes in emotional reactivity, and cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and decision making. PMID:22811426

  7. Under cover of darkness: nocturnal life of diurnal birds.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, Andrey; Grinkevich, Vitaly; Helm, Barbara

    2009-06-01

    Songbirds are generally considered diurnal, although many species show periodic nocturnal activity during migration seasons. From a breeding-range perspective, such migratory species appear to be diurnal because they are observed to nest and feed their young during the day. But are they really exclusively diurnal? The authors tested how a passerine long-distance migrant, the Eurasian reed warbler, schedules movements during the breeding period by tracking birds in 2 experimental situations: 1) Birds experienced simulated nest loss and were monitored during their search for alternative locations, and 2) birds were translocated to reed beds at distances from 2 to 21 km and tracked during homing. The simulated unpredictable events disrupted normal breeding, forced birds to move over relatively long distances, and triggered rapid change in diel activity. In all but 1 case, birds resorted to nocturnality to find their way home and to search for new places to breed. Nocturnality during the breeding season indicates that songbird schedules are far more flexible than previously assumed. The reasons for nocturnal movements are poorly understood. Among the presumed advantages, the reduced predation pressure at night stands out because it is advantageous for movements on local as well as global scales. Predation may be particularly relevant for inhabitants of fragmented habitats, which encounter unfavorable conditions when crossing gaps in their preferred habitat. Therefore, similar selection pressures around the year may have favored the evolution of a general circadian mechanism for switches to nocturnality. Furthermore, the novel finding of homing and dispersal at night may give leads toward understanding the still enigmatic navigational abilities of songbirds. PMID:19465699

  8. Sleep deprivation and pain perception.

    PubMed

    Lautenbacher, Stefan; Kundermann, Bernd; Krieg, Jürgen-Christian

    2006-10-01

    Chronically painful conditions are frequently associated with sleep disturbances, i.e. changes in sleep continuity and sleep architecture as well as increased sleepiness during daytime. A new hypothesis, which has attracted more and more attention, is that disturbances of sleep cause or modulate acute and chronic pain. Since it is well-known that pain disturbs sleep the relationship between the two has since recently been seen as reciprocal. To fathom the causal direction from sleep to pain we have reviewed experimental human and animal studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on pain processing. According to the majority of the studies, sleep deprivation produces hyperalgesic changes. Furthermore, sleep deprivation can interfere with analgesic treatments involving opioidergic and serotoninergic mechanisms of action. The still existing inconsistency of the human data and the exclusive focus on REM sleep deprivation in animals so far do not allow us to draw firm conclusions as to whether the hyperalgesic effects are due to the deprivation of specific sleep stages or whether they result from a generalized disruption of sleep continuity. PMID:16386930

  9. Nocturnal oxygen saturation profiles of healthy term infants

    PubMed Central

    Terrill, Philip Ian; Dakin, Carolyn; Hughes, Ian; Yuill, Maggie; Parsley, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pulse oximetry is used extensively in hospital and home settings to measure arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). Interpretation of the trend and range of SpO2 values observed in infants is currently limited by a lack of reference ranges using current devices, and may be augmented by development of cumulative frequency (CF) reference-curves. This study aims to provide reference oxygen saturation values from a prospective longitudinal cohort of healthy infants. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Setting Sleep-laboratory. Patients 34 healthy term infants were enrolled, and studied at 2?weeks, 3, 6, 12 and 24?months of age (N=30, 25, 27, 26, 20, respectively). Interventions Full overnight polysomnography, including 2?s averaging pulse oximetry (Masimo Radical). Main outcome measurements Summary SpO2 statistics (mean, median, 5th and 10th percentiles) and SpO2 CF plots were calculated for each recording. CF reference-curves were then generated for each study age. Analyses were repeated with sleep-state stratifications and inclusion of manual artefact removal. Results Median nocturnal SpO2 values ranged between 98% and 99% over the first 2?years of life and the CF reference-curves shift right by 1% between 2?weeks and 3?months. CF reference-curves did not change with manual artefact removal during sleep and did not vary between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM sleep. Manual artefact removal did significantly change summary statistics and CF reference-curves during wake. Conclusions SpO2 CF curves provide an intuitive visual tool for evaluating whether an individual's nocturnal SpO2 distribution falls within the range of healthy age-matched infants, thereby complementing summary statistics in the interpretation of extended oximetry recordings in infants. PMID:25063836

  10. Lunar Philia in a Nocturnal Primate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon Gursky

    2003-01-01

    The influence of moonlight on behavior has been well documented for many nocturnal mammals, including rodents, lagomorphs, badgers and bats. These studies have consistently shown that nocturnal mammals respond to bright moonlight by reducing their foraging activity, restricting their movement, and reducing their vocalizations. Lunar phobia among nocturnal mammals is generally believed to be a form of predator avoidance: numerous

  11. Cold and hunger induce diurnality in a nocturnal mammal

    PubMed Central

    van der Vinne, Vincent; Riede, Sjaak J.; Gorter, Jenke A.; Eijer, Willem G.; Sellix, Michael T.; Menaker, Michael; Daan, Serge; Pilorz, Violetta; Hut, Roelof A.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian circadian system synchronizes daily timing of activity and rest with the environmental light–dark cycle. Although the underlying molecular oscillatory mechanism is well studied, factors that influence phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns (temporal niche switching, chronotype) are presently unknown. Molecular evidence suggests that metabolism may influence the circadian molecular clock, but evidence at the level of the organism is lacking. Here we show that a metabolic challenge by cold and hunger induces diurnality in otherwise nocturnal mice. Lowering ambient temperature changes the phase of circadian light–dark entrainment in mice by increasing daytime and decreasing nighttime activity. This effect is further enhanced by simulated food shortage, which identifies metabolic balance as the underlying common factor influencing circadian organization. Clock gene expression analysis shows that the underlying neuronal mechanism is downstream from or parallel to the main circadian pacemaker (the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus) and that the behavioral phenotype is accompanied by phase adjustment of peripheral tissues. These findings indicate that nocturnal mammals can display considerable plasticity in circadian organization and may adopt a diurnal phenotype when energetically challenged. Our previously defined circadian thermoenergetics hypothesis proposes that such circadian plasticity, which naturally occurs in nocturnal mammals, reflects adaptive maintenance of energy balance. Quantification of energy expenditure shows that diurnality under natural conditions reduces thermoregulatory costs in small burrowing mammals like mice. Metabolic feedback on circadian organization thus provides functional benefits by reducing energy expenditure. Our findings may help to clarify relationships between sleep–wake patterns and metabolic phenotypes in humans. PMID:25288753

  12. Healthy Sleep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Who doesn't love a good night's sleep? The Division of Sleep Medicine at Harvard and WGBH have collaborated to produce the Healthy Sleep website to help "illuminate the relevance of sleep, explain the underlying science of sleep, and, most importantly, provide practical information for getting the sleep you need." Visitors interested in getting the sleep they need will find the many videos and interactive features here well worth their time. Under the "Why Sleep Matters" link, visitors will find an interactive timeline entitled "Historical and Cultural Perspectives of Sleep". The "Consequences of Insufficient Sleep" gives visitors the choice of several short videos to watch, including those that address the consequences of driving while drowsy, the link between disease risk and poor sleep, and the public safety and performance issues that arise due to insufficient sleep. The "Getting the Sleep You Need" link has many tips for visitors on how to approach poor sleep habits, including when to seek treatment.

  13. [Dream recall and sleep disorders].

    PubMed

    Schredl, M; Bozzer, A; Morlock, M

    1997-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between dream recall and sleep disorders. The sample comprised 762 patients who were diagnosed in the sleep laboratory. In the course of the examination they completed the sleep questionnaire SF-B (Görtelmeyer 1986). The results showed a heightened dream recall frequency (DRF) in insomniacs and patients with myoclonia. This result as well as the findings in the control group supports the arousal-retrieval model of dream recall (Koulack u. Goodenough 1976) which emphasizes the importance of nocturnal awakenings. However, this model seems only to be valid for males. In females, DRF is mainly influenced by emotional stress which is best explained by the salience hypothesis of Cohen and MacNeilage (1974). They pointed out that intensive dream emotions lead to high recallability of dream experience. The data gives evidence to the hypothesis of Ermann et al. (1993, 1994) which states that reduced DRF in terms of unsuccessful dream work is accompanied by frequent nocturnal awakenings. DRF of patients with sleep apnea syndrome did not differ from DRF in healthy controls. In addition, sleep apnea parameters did not correlate substantially with DRF. The finding that insomniacs reported more negatively toned dreams in comparison to persons who were examined for sleep apnea but did not showed a pathological apnea index. This may be an hint to increased emotional stress in this patient group. To summarize, the results are promising in clarifying the relationship between sleep disorders and dream life. The next step is to investigate dream reports of these patients by means of content analysis. PMID:9206791

  14. National Sleep Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sleep Topics Melatonin and Sleep Teens and Sleep Insomnia and Sleep Children and Sleep Backgrounder: School Start ... and Bedtime Fears Sleep and Teens Stress and Insomnia Sleep, Infants and Parents Sleep and Parasomnias National ...

  15. Transdermal Rotigotine Improves Sleep Fragmentation in Parkinson's Disease: Results of the Multicenter, Prospective SLEEP-FRAM Study

    PubMed Central

    Pagonabarraga, Javier; Piñol, Gerard; Cardozo, Adriana; Sanz, Pilar; Puente, Víctor; Otermín, Pilar; Legarda, Inés; Delgado, Tania; Serrano, Carmen; Balaguer, Ernest; Aguirregomozcorta, María; Álvarez, Ramiro; Kulisevsky, Jaime J.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances occur frequently in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of rotigotine on sleep fluctuations in a sample of PD patients with self-reported complaints of nocturnal awakenings. This prospective, open-label, observational, and multicenter study enrolled consecutive outpatients with PD and administered rotigotine (mean dose 8.9?mg/day) for 3 months. The primary endpoint was the change from baseline in sleep fragmentation, assessed using the sleep maintenance subscale score of the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale (PDSS). The newly designed Parkinson's Disease Sleep Fragmentation Questionnaire (PD-SFQ) was used to measure other sleep parameters. A total of 62 patients were enrolled (mean age 70.2 years; 66% male). At 3 months, rotigotine significantly improved sleep fragmentation from baseline on the PDSS-2 sleep maintenance subscale (from 3.4 ± 0.9 to 1.9 ± 1.4; P < 0.0001). Rotigotine also significantly improved nocturnal motor symptoms (P < 0.0001), restless legs-like symptoms (P < 0.005), and nocturia (P = 0.004). Rotigotine significantly improved self-reported complaints of sleep fragmentation in PD patients and could be a useful treatment to improve this specific sleep problem in PD. However, these results are based on a small and clinically heterogeneous sample so they must be taken cautiously.

  16. Neuronal Machinery of Sleep Homeostasis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Donlea, Jeffrey M.; Pimentel, Diogo; Miesenböck, Gero

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep is under homeostatic control, but the mechanisms that sense sleep need and correct sleep deficits remain unknown. Here, we report that sleep-promoting neurons with projections to the dorsal fan-shaped body (FB) form the output arm of Drosophila’s sleep homeostat. Homeostatic sleep control requires the Rho-GTPase-activating protein encoded by the crossveinless-c (cv-c) gene in order to transduce sleep pressure into increased electrical excitability of dorsal FB neurons. cv-c mutants exhibit decreased sleep time, diminished sleep rebound, and memory deficits comparable to those after sleep loss. Targeted ablation and rescue of Cv-c in sleep-control neurons of the dorsal FB impair and restore, respectively, normal sleep patterns. Sleep deprivation increases the excitability of dorsal FB neurons, but this homeostatic adjustment is disrupted in short-sleeping cv-c mutants. Sleep pressure thus shifts the input-output function of sleep-promoting neurons toward heightened activity by modulating ion channel function in a mechanism dependent on Cv-c. PMID:24559676

  17. A Systematic Review of Patient-Reported Outcome Instruments Measuring Sleep Dysfunction in Adults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily Beth Devine; Zafar Hakim; Jesse Green

    2005-01-01

    Sleep dysfunction can manifest in several ways, ranging from insomnia to somnolence, and from disrupted sleep to lack of restful sleep. Measuring sleep dysfunction is an area of active research and there exist a number of patient-reported outcome instruments that measure various aspects of sleep dysfunction. However, these instruments have not been evaluated systematically. We used a conceptual model of

  18. Aging and sleep in Williams syndrome: accelerated sleep deterioration and decelerated slow wave sleep decrement.

    PubMed

    Bódizs, Róbert; Gombos, Ferenc; Gerván, Patrícia; Sz?cs, Katalin; Réthelyi, János M; Kovács, Ilona

    2014-12-01

    Specific developmental and aging trajectories characterize sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) of typically developing (TD) subjects. Williams syndrome (WS) is marked by sleep alterations and accelerated aging of several anatomo-functional and cognitive measures. Here we test the hypothesis of a premature aging of sleep in WS. Age-related changes of home recorded sleep EEG of 42 subjects (21 WS, 21 age- and gender matched TD subjects, age: 6-29 years) were tested by Pearson correlations and homogeneity-of-slopes analysis. Typical developmental/aging effects of sleep EEGs were observed in TD subjects. Accelerated aging in WS was confirmed by overall sleep/wake measures. Specifically, premature aging was evident in accelerated age-dependent declines in WS subjects' sleep efficiency, as well as in steeper age-related rises in wakefulness and wake after sleep onset (WASO) of the WS group. In contrast, NREM sleep-related measures indicated atypical decelerations of the developmental trends of WS subjects, characterized by the slowing down of the age-related slow wave sleep (SWS) declines mirrored by the lack of age-dependent increase in Stage 2 (S2) sleep. Age-effects in sleep EEG power spectra were not different among the groups. Objectively measured sleep disruption of subjects with WS is age-dependent and increasing with age. Moreover, these data suggest atypical pre- and postpubertal neural development in WS, with sleep/wake balance and REM sleep time indicating accelerated aging while NREM sleep composition revealing signs of an as yet unidentified, perhaps compensatory developmental delay. PMID:25178705

  19. MBD5 haploinsufficiency is associated with sleep disturbance and disrupts circadian pathways common to Smith-Magenis and fragile X syndromes.

    PubMed

    Mullegama, Sureni V; Pugliesi, Loren; Burns, Brooke; Shah, Zalak; Tahir, Raiha; Gu, Yanghong; Nelson, David L; Elsea, Sarah H

    2014-10-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who have an identifiable single-gene neurodevelopmental disorder (NDD), such as fragile X syndrome (FXS, FMR1), Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS, RAI1), or 2q23.1 deletion syndrome (del 2q23.1, MBD5) share phenotypic features, including a high prevalence of sleep disturbance. We describe the circadian deficits in del 2q23.1 through caregiver surveys in which we identify several frequent sleep anomalies, including night/early awakenings, coughing/snoring loudly, and difficulty falling asleep. We couple these findings with studies on the molecular analysis of the circadian deficits associated with haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in which circadian gene mRNA levels of NR1D2, PER1, PER2, and PER3 were altered in del 2q23.1 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), signifying that haploinsufficiency of MBD5 can result in dysregulation of circadian rhythm gene expression. These findings were further supported by expression microarrays of MBD5 siRNA knockdown cells that showed significantly altered expression of additional circadian rhythm signaling pathway genes. Based on the common sleep phenotypes observed in del 2q23.1, SMS, and FXS patients, we explored the possibility that MBD5, RAI1, and FMR1 function in overlapping circadian rhythm pathways. Bioinformatic analysis identified conserved putative E boxes in MBD5 and RAI1, and expression levels of NR1D2 and CRY2 were significantly reduced in patient LCLs. Circadian and mTOR signaling pathways, both associated with sleep disturbance, were altered in both MBD5 and RAI1 knockdown microarray data, overlapping with findings associated with FMR1. These data support phenotypic and molecular overlaps across these syndromes that may be exploited to provide therapeutic intervention for multiple disorders.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.200. PMID:25271084

  20. Nocturnal Hypoxia Is Associated With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease in a High-Risk Japanese Community-Dwelling Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuo Eguchi; Kazuomi Kario; Satoshi Hoshide; Joji Ishikawa; Masato Morinari; Kazuyuki Shimada

    2005-01-01

    Background: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is recognized as a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nocturnal hypoxia and silent cerebral infarct (SCI) in the general population.Methods: In the 2001 annual health check in Nishiarita, Japan, 170 individuals at high risk were screened who met more than three of the following criteria:

  1. Chronic stress undermines the compensatory sleep efficiency increase in response to sleep restriction in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Astill, Rebecca G; Verhoeven, Dorit; Vijzelaar, Romy L; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the effects of real-life stress on the sleep of adolescents, we performed a repeated-measures study on actigraphic sleep estimates and subjective measures during one regular school week, two stressful examination weeks and a week's holiday. Twenty-four adolescents aged 17.63 ± 0.10 years (mean ± standard error of the mean) wore actigraphs and completed diaries on subjective stress, fatigue, sleep quality, number of examinations and consumption of caffeine and alcohol for 4 weeks during their final year of secondary school. The resulting almost 500 assessments were analysed using mixed-effect models to estimate the effects of mere school attendance and additional examination stress on sleep estimates and subjective ratings. Total sleep time decreased from 7:38 h ± 12 min during holidays to 6:40 h ± 12 min during a regular school week. This 13% decrease elicited a partial compensation, as indicated by a 3% increase in sleep efficiency and a 6% decrease in the duration of nocturnal awakenings. During examination weeks total sleep time decreased to 6:23 h ± 8 min, but it was now accompanied by a decrease in sleep efficiency and subjective sleep quality and an increase in wake bout duration. In conclusion, school examination stress affects the sleep of adolescents. The compensatory mechanism of more consolidated sleep, as elicited by the sleep restriction associated with mere school attendance, collapsed during 2 weeks of sustained examination stress. PMID:23398048

  2. Sleep-Related Declarative Memory Consolidation and Verbal Replay during Sleep Talking in Patients with REM Sleep Behavior Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Dodet, Pauline; Herlin, Bastien; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. Methods Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation). In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall) was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. Results Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words) as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3). The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index). Daytime consolidation (-9±19%) was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03) in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally) related to the text learned before sleep. Conclusion Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself) at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level. PMID:24349492

  3. Adult obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Amy S.; McSharry, David G.; Malhotra, Atul

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea is an increasingly common disorder of repeated upper airway collapse during sleep, which leads to oxygen desaturation and disrupted sleep. Symptoms include snoring, witnessed apnoeas, and sleepiness. Pathogenesis varies; predisposing factors include small upper airway lumen, unstable respiratory control, low arousal threshold, small lung volume, and dysfunctional upper airway dilator muscles. Risk factors include obesity, male sex, age, menopause, fluid retention, adenotonsillar hypertrophy, and smoking. Obstructive sleep apnoea causes sleepiness, road traffic accidents, and probably systemic hypertension. It has also been linked to myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, and diabetes mellitus though not definitively. Continuous positive airway pressure is the treatment of choice, with adherence of 60–70%. Bi-level positive airway pressure or adaptive servo-ventilation can be used for patients who are intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure. Other treatments include dental devices, surgery, and weight loss. PMID:23910433

  4. Sleep Environments and Sleep Durations in a Sample of Low-Income Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Katherine E.; Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Julie C.; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep duration is commonly studied in children, but less is known about the potential impact of adverse sleep environments, particularly at preschool ages. We examined the frequency of suboptimal sleep environments and tested for associations with sleep duration or nocturnal sleep time among low-income preschool children. Methods: Parents of Head Start preschoolers in Michigan (Detroit and greater Lansing) completed questionnaires on children's sleep schedules and sleep environments. Respondents indicated how often their children slept in a place “too bright,” “too loud,” “too cold,” or “too hot” on a scale of 1 = never to 5 = always. A suboptimal sleep environment (SSE) was defined when one or more of these conditions were reported for ? 1-2 nights/week. Weeknight sleep duration or reported time that the child went to sleep was regressed on SSE as an explanatory variable, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal education, and average daily nap duration. Results: Among 133 preschool children, mean age was 4.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 48% were male, 39% were white, and 52% were black; 34% of parents had ? a high school degree. Parents reported that 26 (20%) of the children slept in a SSE ? 1-2 nights per week. In regression models, SSE was associated with 27 minutes shorter sleep duration (? = -0.45, SE = 0.22, p = 0.044) and 22 minutes later time child “fell asleep” (? = 0.37, SE = 0.19, p = 0.048) on weeknights. Conclusions: Among these Head Start preschool children, environmental challenges to adequate sleep are not uncommon, and they may have consequences. Clinician or preschool assessment of sleep environments may open opportunities to improve sleep at early ages. Citation: Wilson KE; Miller AL; Lumeng JC; Chervin RD. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(3):299-305. PMID:24634628

  5. Restless Nocturnal Eating: A Common Feature of Willis-Ekbom Syndrome (RLS)

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Michael J.; Schenck, Carlos H.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine the frequency of nocturnal eating (NE) and sleep related eating disorder (SRED) in restless legs syndrome (RLS) versus psychophysiological insomnia (INS), and the relationship of these conditions with dopaminergic and sedative-hypnotic medications. Design: Prospective case series. Setting: Sleep disorders center. Patients: Newly diagnosed RLS or INS. Intervention: RLS or INS pharmacotherapy with systematic follow up interview for NE/SRED. Measurements and Results: Patients presenting with RLS (n = 88) or INS (n = 42) were queried for the presence of NE and SRED. RLS patients described nocturnal eating (61%) and SRED (36%) more frequently than INS patients (12% and 0%; both p < 0.0001). These findings were not due to arousal frequency, as INS patients were more likely to have prolonged nightly awakenings (93%) than RLS patients (64%; p = 0.003). Among patients on sedative-hypnotics, amnestic SRED and sleepwalking were more common in the setting of RLS (80%) than INS (8%; p < 0.0001). Further, NE and SRED in RLS were not secondary to dopaminergic therapy, as RLS patients demonstrated a substantial drop (68% to 34%; p = 0.0026) in the frequency of NE after dopamine agents were initiated, and there were no cases of dopaminergic agents inducing novel NE or SRED. Conclusion: NE is common in RLS and not due to frequent nocturnal awakenings or dopaminergic agents. Amnestic SRED occurs predominantly in the setting of RLS mistreatment with sedating agents. In light of previous reports, these findings suggest that nocturnal eating is a non-motor manifestation of RLS with several clinical implications discussed here. Citation: Howell MJ; Schenck CH. Restless nocturnal eating: a common feature of Willis-Ekbom Syndrome (RLS). J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):413-419. PMID:22893772

  6. The cognitive cost of sleep lost

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, John G.; Strecker, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    A substantial body of literature supports the intuitive notion that a good night’s sleep can facilitate human cognitive performance the next day. Deficits in attention, learning & memory, emotional reactivity, and higher-order cognitive processes, such as executive function and decision making, have all been documented following sleep disruption in humans. Thus, whilst numerous clinical and experimental studies link human sleep disturbance to cognitive deficits, attempts to develop valid and reliable rodent models of these phenomena are fewer, and relatively more recent. This review focuses primarily on the cognitive impairments produced by sleep disruption in rodent models of several human patterns of sleep loss/sleep disturbance. Though not an exclusive list, this review will focus on four specific types of sleep disturbance: total sleep deprivation, experimental sleep fragmentation, selective REM sleep deprivation, and chronic sleep restriction. The use of rodent models can provide greater opportunities to understand the neurobiological changes underlying sleep loss induced cognitive impairments. Thus, this review concludes with a description of recent neurobiological findings concerning the neuroplastic changes and putative brain mechanisms that may underlie the cognitive deficits produced by sleep disturbances. PMID:21875679

  7. Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Richard G

    2009-01-01

    Background Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. Methods The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. Results Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. Conclusion If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets. PMID:19380369

  8. Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported. PMID:17706786

  9. Melatonin and sleep-related problems in children with intractable epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Elkhayat, Hamed A; Hassanein, Sahar M; Tomoum, Hoda Y; Abd-Elhamid, Iman A; Asaad, Tarek; Elwakkad, Amany S

    2010-04-01

    Children with epilepsy have high rates of sleep problems. Melatonin has been advocated in treatment of sleep disorders, and its beneficial effect has been confirmed in insomnia. The aim of this study was to assess melatonin levels in children with intractable epilepsy and its relation to pattern of sleep and characteristics of seizure disorder, as well as the effect of melatonin therapy on those parameters. The study was conducted on 23 children with intractable epilepsy and 14 children with controlled seizures. Patients were evaluated by psychometric sleep assessment and assay of diurnal and nocturnal melatonin levels. Children with intractable epilepsy received oral melatonin before bedtime. They were reassessed after 3 months. Children with intractable epilepsy had higher scores for each category of sleep walking, forcible teeth grinding, and sleep apnea. At the end of therapeutic trial, patients with intractable epilepsy exhibited significant improvement in bedtime resistance, sleep duration, sleep latency, frequent nocturnal arousals, sleep walking, excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal enuresis, forcible teeth grinding, sleep apnea, and Epworth sleepiness scores. There was also significant reduction in seizure severity. Thus, use of melatonin in patients with intractable seizures was associated with improvement of both many sleep-related phenomena and the severity of seizures. PMID:20304327

  10. Effects of Sleep Fragmentation on Sleep and Markers of Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Trammell, Rita A; Verhulst, Steve; Toth, Linda A

    2014-01-01

    Many people in our society experience curtailment and disruption of sleep due to work responsibilities, care-giving, or life style choice. Delineating the health effect of acute and chronic disruptions in sleep is essential to raising awareness of and creating interventions to manage these prevalent concerns. To provide a platform for studying the health impact and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms associated with inadequate sleep, we developed and characterized an approach to creating chronic disruption of sleep in laboratory mice. We used this method to evaluate how 3 durations of sleep fragmentation (SF) affect sleep recuperation and blood and lung analyte concentrations in male C57BL/6J mice. Mice housed in environmentally controlled chambers were exposed to automated SF for periods of 6, 12, or 24 h or for 12 h daily during the light (somnolent) phase for 4 sequential days. Sleep time, slow-wave amplitude, or bout lengths were significantly higher when uninterrupted sleep was permitted after each of the 3 SF durations. However, mice did not recover all of the lost slow-wave sleep during the subsequent 12- to 24-h period and maintained a net loss of sleep. Light-phase SF was associated with significant changes in serum and lung levels of some inflammatory substances, but these changes were not consistent or sustained. The data indicate that acute light-phase SF can result in a sustained sleep debt in mice and may disrupt the inflammatory steady-state in serum and lung. PMID:24512957

  11. Human Sleep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime M. Monti; Daniel Monti

    The Rechtschaffen and Kales system for scoring sleep states distinguishes a waking state, nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep,\\u000a and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. From the polysomnographic point of view, four stages are conventionally distinguished\\u000a during NREM sleep. The young adult spends 20–28 of a night’s sleep in REM sleep, 4–5 in stage 1, 46–50 in stage 2, 6–8 in

  12. Relationship of Plasma Growth Hormone to Slow-Wave Sleep in African Sleeping Sickness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Manny W. Radomski; Alain Buguet; Félix Doua; Pascal Bogui; Philippe Tapie

    1996-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a unique disease model of disrupted circadian rhythms in the sleep-wake cycle and cortisol and prolactin secretion. This study examined the temporal relationship between growth hormone (GH) secretion and the sleep-wake cycle in 8 infected African patients and 6 healthy indigenous African subjects. Twenty-four-hour sleep patterns were recorded by polysomnography and hourly blood samples

  13. Sleep and growth hormone secretion in women athletes.

    PubMed

    Walsh, B T; Puig-Antich, J; Goetz, R; Gladis, M; Novacenko, H; Glassman, A H

    1984-06-01

    Six women athletes underwent 24 h multiple sampling studies with electroencephalographic monitoring of sleep for the assessment of growth hormone secretion and sleep pattern. The athletes tended to have more stage 4 sleep, less REM activity and a similar REM density compared to 5 normal women. The nocturnal secretion of growth hormone was elevated in the first hour following sleep onset in the athletes but was otherwise not statistically different from that of the controls. As all but one of the women athletes had exercise-related menstrual irregularities, the findings reported may be associated with exercise amenorrhea. PMID:6202483

  14. Circadian Variation of Heart Rate Variability Across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Boudreau, Philippe; Yeh, Wei-Hsien; Dumont, Guy A.; Boivin, Diane B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nocturnal cardiovascular events are more frequent at the beginning and end of the night. It was proposed that this pattern reflects the nocturnal distribution of sleep and sleep stages. Using heart rate variability (HRV), we recently showed an interaction between the circadian system and vigilance states on the regulation of cardiac rhythmicity. Here, we further investigate this interaction in order to clarify the specific effects of sleep stages on the regulation of the heart. Design: Participants underwent a 72-h ultradian sleep-wake cycle procedure in time isolation consisting of alternating 60-min wake episodes in dim light and 60-min nap opportunities in total darkness. Setting: Time isolation suite. Patients or participants: Fifteen healthy young participants; two were subsequently excluded. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The current study revealed that sleep onset and progression to deeper sleep stages was associated with a shift toward greater parasympathetic modulation, whereas rapid eye movement (REM) sleep was associated with a shift toward greater sympathetic modulation. We found a circadian rhythm of heart rate (HR) and high-frequency power during wakefulness and all non-REM sleep stages. A significant circadian rhythm of HR and sympathovagal balance of the heart was also observed during REM sleep. During slow wave sleep, maximal parasympathetic modulation was observed at ?02:00, whereas during REM sleep, maximal sympathetic modulation occurred in the early morning. Conclusion: The circadian and sleep stage-specific effects on heart rate variability are clinically relevant and contribute to the understanding of the degree of cardiovascular vulnerability during sleep. Citation: Boudreau P; Yeh WH; Dumont GA; Boivin DB. Circadian variation of heart rate variability across sleep stages. SLEEP 2013;36(12):1919-1928. PMID:24293767

  15. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep disruption in microgravity is not the result of respiratory factors.

  16. Cytotoxic chemotherapy increases sleep and sleep fragmentation in non-tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Gaudier-Diaz, Monica M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J; DeVries, A Courtney

    2014-11-13

    Sleep disruption ranks among the most common complaints of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Because of the complex interactions among cancer, treatment regimens, and life-history traits, studies to establish a causal link between chemotherapy and sleep disruption are uncommon. To investigate how chemotherapy acutely influences sleep, adult female c57bl/6 mice were ovariectomized and implanted with wireless biotelemetry units. EEG/EMG biopotentials were collected over the course of 3days pre- and post-injection of 13.5mg/kg doxorubicin and 135mg/kg cyclophosphamide or the vehicle. We predicted that cyclophosphamide+doxorubicin would disrupt sleep and increase central proinflammatory cytokine expression in brain areas that govern vigilance states (i.e., hypothalamus and brainstem). The results largely support these predictions; a single chemotherapy injection increased NREM and REM sleep during subsequent active (dark) phases; this induced sleep was fragmented and of low quality. Mice displayed marked increases in low theta (5-7Hz) to high theta (7-10Hz) ratios following chemotherapy treatment, indicating elevated sleep propensity. The effect was strongest during the first dark phase following injection, but mice displayed disrupted sleep for the entire 3-day duration of post-injection sleep recording. Vigilance state timing was not influenced by treatment, suggesting that acute chemotherapy administration alters sleep homeostasis without altering sleep timing. qPCR analysis revealed that disrupted sleep was accompanied by increased IL-6 mRNA expression in the hypothalamus. Together, these data implicate neuroinflammation as a potential contributor to sleep disruption after chemotherapy. PMID:25449581

  17. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg's Epauletted Fruit Bat.

    PubMed

    Downs, Colleen T; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ?35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  18. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  19. Why I like nocturnal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, David

    2006-02-01

    As with most things in life, this form of treatment is not for everybody. In my opinion, it is an option that should be explored if it is available. I have come to the conclusion that the advantages of nocturnal hemodialysis outweigh any of the possible disadvantages that there is no decision to make. My quality of life is so much better that I cannot envision going back to standard treatments. This is something that each patient will have to decide for themselves. Nocturnal dialysis has changed my life. For the better, even better than the few years of transplant, for this I thank my doctors, nurses and everyone else who has helped me along the way. PMID:16499176

  20. Nocturnal Melatonin Patterns in Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. SALTI; F. GALLUZZI; G. BINDI; F. PERFETTO; R. TARQUINI; F. HALBERG; G. CORNELISSEN

    2010-01-01

    Time patterns in nocturnal concentrations of circulating melatonin of children are quantified in 8 girls and 8 boys, 8.7-16.8 yr of age, classified by Tanner pubertal stage. Between 1900 and 0700 h, each provided blood samples at 30-min intervals for melatonin RIA. As- sociations with gender, body mass index, and chronological and pu- bertal age determined by multiple linear regression

  1. Anatomical Basis of Sleep-Related Breathing Abnormalities in Children With Nasal Obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Finkelstein; David Wexler; Gilead Berger; Ariela Nachmany; Myra Shapiro-Feinberg; Dov Ophir

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To define, in a group of children with nasal obstruction, the anatomical differences that differenti- ate those with quiet, unobstructed nocturnal respira- tion from those with obstructive sleep-related breathing abnormalities (snoring and obstructive sleep apnea). Design: Case series. Patients: Fifty-nine children aged 3 to 13 years (35 boys and 24 girls) with nasal obstruction and without tonsil- lar hypertrophy,

  2. Sleep-inducing effects of low doses of melatonin ingested in the evening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina V. Zhdanova; Richard J. Wurtman; Harry J. Lynch; John R. Ives; Andrew B. Dollins; Claudia Morabito; Jean K. Matheson; Donald L. Schomer

    1995-01-01

    We previously observed that low oral doses of melatonin given at noon increase blood melatonin concentrations to those normally occurring nocturnally and facilitate sleep onset, as assessed using an involuntary muscle relaxation test. In this study we examined the induction of polysomnographically recorded sleep by similar doses given later in the evening, close to the times of endogenous melatonin release

  3. Associations of Sleep Architecture and Sleep Disordered Breathing with Cognition in Older Community-Dwelling Men: The MrOS Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, Terri; Yaffe, Kristine; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Laffan, Alison; Stone, Katie L.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine the association of sleep architecture, sleep disordered breathing, and cognition in older men. DESIGN A population-based cross-sectional study. SETTING 6 sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS 2,909 community-dwelling men age 67 or older who were not selected on the basis of sleep problems or cognitive impairment. MEASUREMENTS Predictors were measured with in-home polysomnography: sleep architecture, nocturnal hypoxemia (any sleep time with SaO2<80%), apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and arousal index. Cognitive outcomes were measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), Trails B test, and the Digit Vigilance Test (DVT). RESULTS Analyses adjusted by age, race, education, BMI, lifestyle, comorbidities and medication use show that those who spent less percent of time in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep had worse levels of cognition: compared to the highest quartile (?23.7%), those in the lowest quartile (<14.8%) took an average of 5.9 seconds longer on the Trails B and 20.1 seconds longer on the DVT. Similarly, increased percent time spent in stage 1 sleep was related to poorer cognitive function. Those in the highest quartile of stage 1 sleep (?8.6%) had worse cognitive scores on average compared to those in the lowest quartile (<4.0%). Those with nocturnal hypoxemia took longer to complete the DVT by an average of 22.3 seconds compared to those without, but no associations were found with 3MS or Trails B. CONCLUSION Spending less percent of time spent in REM sleep, more percent of time spent in stage 1 sleep, and having higher levels of nocturnal hypoxemia were associated with poorer cognition in older men. Further studies are needed to clarify the direction of these associations and to explore potential mechanisms. PMID:22188071

  4. Effects of Light Interruption on Sleep and Viability of Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenxing; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2014-01-01

    Light is a very important regulator of the daily sleep rhythm. Here, we investigate the influence of nocturnal light stimulation on Drosophila sleep. Results showed that total daytime sleep was reduced due to a decrease in daytime sleep episode duration caused by discontinuous light stimulation, but sleep was not strongly impacted at nighttime although the discontinuous light stimulation occurred during the scotophase. During a subsequent recovery period without light interruption, the sleep quality of nighttime sleep was improved and of daytime sleep reduced, indicating flies have a persistent response to nocturnal light stimulation. Further studies showed that the discontinuous light stimulation damped the daily rhythm of a circadian light-sensitive protein cryptochrome both at the mRNA and protein levels, which subsequently caused disappearance of circadian rhythm of the core oscillator timeless and decrease of TIMLESS protein at nighttime. These data indicate that the nocturnal light interruption plays an important role in sleep through core proteins CRYTOCHROME and TIMLESS, Moreover, interruption of sleep further impacted reproduction and viability. PMID:25148297

  5. The Association between Sleep Patterns and Obesity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Hayes, Amanda L.; Blackwell, Terri; Evans, Daniel S.; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Wing, Yun K.; Stone, Katie L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced sleep duration has been increasingly reported to predict obesity. However, timing and regularity of sleep may also be important. In this study, the cross-sectional association between objectively measured sleep patterns and obesity was assessed in two large cohorts of older individuals. Methods Wrist actigraphy was performed in 3053 men (mean age: 76.4 years) participating in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) and 2985 women (mean age: 83.5 years) participating in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF). Timing and regularity of sleep patterns were assessed across nights, as well as daytime napping. Results Greater night-to-night variability in sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean nocturnal sleep duration in both men and women. Each 1 hour increase in the variability of nocturnal sleep duration increased the odds of obesity 1.63-fold (95% CI [1.31-2.02]) among men and 1.22-fold (95% CI [1.01-1.47]) among women. Each 1 hour increase in napping increased the odds of obesity 1.23-fold (95%CI [1.12-1.37]) in men and 1.29-fold (95%CI [1.17-1.41]) in women. In contrast, associations between later sleep timing and night-to-night variability in sleep timing with obesity were less consistent. Conclusions In both older men and women, variability in nightly sleep duration and daytime napping were associated with obesity independent of mean sleep duration. These findings suggest that characteristics of sleep beyond mean sleep duration may play a role in weight homeostasis, highlighting the complex relationship between sleep and metabolism. PMID:24458262

  6. [Sleep related eating disorders as a side effect of zolpidem].

    PubMed

    Valiensi, Stella Maris; Cristiano, Edgardo; Martínez, Oscar A; Reisin, Ricardo C; Alvarez, Florencia

    2010-01-01

    Zolpidem is a hypnotic drug used in sleep disorders. It binds selectively to alpha 1 subunit of the GABA A benzodiazepine receptor. Zolpidem reduces sleep latency, number of arousals and increases the total time of sleep. However, it is considered that it may increase phase 3 of non rapid eye movement sleep, where somnambulism can take place. Our aim is to report 8 cases of sleep related eating disorders associated with the use of this drug. We have evaluated the medical history of 8 patients who had received zolpidem for sleeping disorders and who have presented sleep related eating disorders. Eight patients (6 women, 2 men) aged between 32 to 72 years old, which received 10 mg of zolpidem/night except 1 that received 12.5 mg, were presented. They have referred strange eating behavior compatible to sleep related eating disorder. Symptoms appeared at a mean of 39.8 days after starting the medication. The numbers of nocturnal episodes recorded by the family or by the patient were 1 to 8 episodes of nocturnal eating per night. The morning after, patients found leftovers from the night before which they did not recall to have eaten. The remission was complete after discontinuing zolpidem. Zolpidem may induce sleep related eating disorder in about 1% of patients, although we consider there may be a subdiagnosis of this phenomenon. It will be important to bear in mind and look for this side effect because all the episodes could easily be controlled by withdrawing the drug. PMID:20529770

  7. Disturbed dreaming and sleep quality: altered sleep architecture in subjects with frequent nightmares.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Horváth, Klára; Gombos, Ferenc; Takács, Krisztina P; Bódizs, Róbert

    2012-12-01

    Nightmares are intense, emotionally negative mental experiences that usually occur during late-night sleep and result in abrupt awakenings. Questionnaire-based studies have shown that nightmares are related to impaired sleep quality; however, the polysomnographic profile of nightmare subjects has been only scarcely investigated. We investigated the sleep architecture of 17 individuals with frequent nightmares and 23 control subjects based on polysomnographic recordings of a second night spent in the laboratory after an adaptation night. Nightmare subjects in comparison with control subjects were characterized by impaired sleep architecture, as reflected by reduced sleep efficiency, increased wakefulness, a reduced amount of slow wave sleep, and increased nocturnal awakenings, especially from Stage 2 sleep. While these differences were independent of the effects of waking psychopathology, nightmare subjects also exhibited longer durations of REM sleep that was mediated by heightened negative affect. Our results support that nightmares are related to altered sleep architecture, showing impaired sleep continuity and emotion-related increase in REM propensity. PMID:22526731

  8. Systemic growth hormone corrects sleep disturbance in Smith–Magenis syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Itoh; Masaharu Hayashi; Takeshi Hasegawa; Masayuki Shimohira; Jun Kohyama

    2004-01-01

    Smith–Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by an interstitial deletion of chromosome 17p11.2. Sleep problems such as nocturnal awakening and abnormality in the percentage of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are frequently observed in patients with SMS, and several medications have been administered to improve the sleep disorders. Here we present a female case of SMS

  9. Functional consequences of sustained sleep deprivation in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Everson

    1995-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts vital biological processes that are necessary for cognitive ability and physical health, but the physiological changes that underlie these outward effects are largely unknown. The purpose of the present studies in the laboratory rat is to prolong sleep deprivation to delineate the pathophysiology and to determine its mediation. In the rat, the course of prolonged sleep deprivation

  10. Incidence of sudden unexpected death in nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mostacci, Barbara; Bisulli, Francesca; Vignatelli, Luca; Licchetta, Laura; Di Vito, Lidia; Rinaldi, Claudia; Trippi, Irene; Ferri, Lorenzo; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most cases of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) follow a seizure, and most deaths occur while people are in bed, presumably sleeping. Nocturnal seizures are reported to be a risk factor for SUDEP. People with nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (NFLE) have seizures predominantly or exclusively during sleep, often many times per night. The present study aimed to assess whether NFLE represents a high-risk condition for SUDEP. Methods The present study retrospectively assessed the incidence of SUDEP in a cohort reconstructed from a dedicated database of consecutive patients referred to the Epilepsy and Sleep Centres of the Institute of Neurological Sciences of Bologna from 1980 to 2012 with: (1) a diagnosis of NFLE, (2) at least 90% of seizures during sleep, and (3) at least one-year of follow-up. Results One hundred and three people were included. The median time from seizure onset to last observation was 26 years, equal to a follow-up of 2789 person-years. One person died of SUDEP during the follow-up period. The incidence rate of SUDEP was 0.36 per 1000 person-years (95% CI 0.01 to 2.0). Conclusions The incidence of SUDEP in the participant population was not higher than the rates previously reported in prevalent epilepsy populations (0.4 to 2.3 per 1000 person-years). The low prevalence of SUDEP might reflect the low occurrence of generalised tonic-clonic seizures in people with NFLE. PMID:25600783

  11. Total and partial sleep deprivation in clomipramine-treated endogenous depressives.

    PubMed

    Elsenga, S; Beersma, D; Van den Hoofdakker, R H

    1990-01-01

    Improvement in depression after total sleep deprivation (TSD) is, as a rule, followed by relapse after subsequent ad libitum sleep. This study is addressed to the question of how nocturnal partial sleep following TSD affects this relapse. Thirty endogenously depressed patients participated in the study. During the night after TSD, subjects were allowed sleep during one of three periods, i.e., unlimited sleep (11:00 p.m.-8:00 a.m.), early partial sleep (11:00 p.m.-3:00 a.m.), or late partial sleep (4:00 a.m.-8:00 a.m.). The hypothesis that partial sleep deprivation on the night following TSD prevents relapse has to be rejected. Relapse was inversely related to a drop in minimum rectal temperature during the night with unlimited or partial sleep, compared with minimum rectal temperature on the previous night. PMID:2213635

  12. The relationships among sleep efficiency, pulmonary functions, and quality of life in patients with asthma

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, Akira; Kawasaki, Yuji; Takeda, Kenichi; Harada, Tomoya; Fukushima, Takehito; Takata, Miki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Watanabe, Masanari; Kurai, Jun; Nishimura, Koichi; Shimizu, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is commonly observed in patients with asthma, especially in those with poorly controlled asthma. Evaluating sleep quality to achieve good control of asthma is important since nocturnal asthmatic symptoms such as cough, wheezing, and chest tightness may disturb sleep. Actigraphy is an objective, ambulatory monitoring method for tracking a patient’s sleep and wake activities and for assessing sleep quality, as reflected by total sleep time, sleep efficiency, duration of awakening after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency. Patients and methods Fifty patients with asthma were enrolled in this study. Sleep quality was assessed employing wristwatch-type actigraphy (Actiwatch 2). The level of asthma control was assessed by the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ), and asthma-related quality of life was assessed by the Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ). The parameters for sleep quality were compared using ACQ scores, AQLQ scores, and pulmonary function test results. Results The total sleep time was 387.2 minutes, WASO was 55.8 minutes, sleep efficiency was 87.01%, sleep onset latency was 8.17 minutes, and the average ACQ was 0.36. Neither sleep efficiency nor WASO correlated with respiratory functions, ACQ scores, or AQLQ scores. Conclusion Sleep-related parameters assessed by actigraphy in well-controlled asthma do not correlate with pulmonary functions, the asthma control level, or daytime quality of life. Sleep quality should be evaluated independently when asthma is well-controlled. PMID:25419157

  13. The role of sleep hygiene in promoting public health: A review of empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Irish, Leah A; Kline, Christopher E; Gunn, Heather E; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica H

    2014-10-16

    The ineffectiveness of sleep hygiene as a treatment in clinical sleep medicine has raised some interesting questions. If it is known that, individually, each specific component of sleep hygiene is related to sleep, why wouldn't addressing multiple individual components (i.e., sleep hygiene education) improve sleep? Is there still a use for sleep hygiene? Global public health concern over sleep has increased demand for sleep promotion strategies accessible to the population. However, the extent to which sleep hygiene strategies apply outside clinical settings is not well known. The present review sought to evaluate the empirical evidence for sleep hygiene recommendations regarding exercise, stress management, noise, sleep timing, and avoidance of caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, and daytime napping, with a particular emphasis on their public health utility. Thus, our review is not intended to be exhaustive regarding the clinical application of these techniques, but rather to focus on broader applications. Overall, though epidemiologic and experimental research generally supported an association between individual sleep hygiene recommendations and nocturnal sleep, the direct effects of individual recommendations on sleep remains largely untested in the general population. Suggestions for clarification of sleep hygiene recommendations and considerations for the use of sleep hygiene in nonclinical populations are discussed. PMID:25454674

  14. The diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost in normal-tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K; Kahook, Malik Y

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the diurnal and nocturnal effects of travoprost with sofZia® (Travatan Z® [TZ]) on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods Twenty-seven subjects with NTG were admitted to an inpatient sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate every 2 hours in the habitual position (diurnal period: upright; nocturnal period: supine). Baseline IOP and OPP levels were compared to those during active treatment with TZ and 3 days after stopping the medication. OPP was calculated as 2/3 [diastolic BP + 1/3 (systolic BP – diastolic BP)] – IOP. Results TZ significantly reduced the mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels compared to baseline at all time points. During treatment, mean IOP decreased from 17.1±3.4 to 14.7±3.0 mmHg during the diurnal period (P<0.01) and from 19.9±3.6 to 18.8±3.5 mmHg during the nocturnal period (P<0.01). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (15.6±3.2 mmHg) and nocturnal (18.7±3.7 mmHg) periods. Mean OPP was not significantly changed with treatment during either period. Conclusion In this population of NTG patients, TZ significantly lowers IOP at all time points throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods. The treatment effect on IOP endures for up to 3 days after the last dose. Treatment did not significantly improve OPP. PMID:25382969

  15. New frontiers in obstructive sleep apnoea

    PubMed Central

    AYAS, Najib T.; HIRSCH, Allen A. J.; LAHER, Ismail; BRADLEY, T. Douglas; MALHOTRA, Atul; POLOTSKY, Vsevolod Y.; TASALI, Esra

    2015-01-01

    OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea), the most common respiratory disorder of sleep, is caused by the loss of upper airway dilating muscle activity during sleep superimposed on a narrow upper airway. This results in recurrent nocturnal asphyxia. Termination of these events usually requires arousal from sleep and results in sleep fragmentation and hypoxaemia, which leads to poor quality sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, reduced quality of life and numerous other serious health consequences. Furthermore, patients with untreated sleep apnoea are at an increased risk of hypertension, stroke, heart failure and atrial fibrillation. Although there are many predisposing risk factors for OSA, including male gender, endocrine disorders, use of muscle relaxants, smoking, fluid retention and increased age, the strongest risk factor is obesity. The aim of the present review is to focus on three cutting-edge topics with respect to OSA. The section on animal models covers various strategies used to simulate the physiology or the effects of OSA in animals, and how these have helped to understand some of the underlying mechanisms of OSA. The section on diabetes discusses current evidence in both humans and animal models demonstrating that intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation has a negative impact on glucose tolerance. Finally, the section on cardiovascular biomarkers reviews the evidence supporting the use of these biomarkers to both measure some of the negative consequences of OSA, as well as the potential benefits of OSA therapies. PMID:24780001

  16. Major sleep disorders among women: (women's health series).

    PubMed

    Tamanna, Sadeka; Geraci, Stephen A

    2013-08-01

    Disruption of sleep causes adverse health outcomes and poor quality of life. People with sleep disruption have higher levels than people without disrupted sleep of depression and anxiety and increased rates of cardiovascular diseases. Women have a higher incidence than men of insomnia and depression related to poor sleep. The types of complaints differ significantly between the sexes. Women are more likely than men to complain of insomnia, headache, irritability, and fatigue than the "typical" symptoms of loud snoring and breathing cessation during sleep. Hormones play an important role in sleep in women. Reproductive hormones were found to have a protective effect on sleep apnea in women of premenopausal age. Pregnancy is another period when the prevalence of sleep apnea and restless leg syndrome increases from hormonal effect. Cardiovascular mortality is high in women with obstructive sleep apnea. Continuous positive airway pressure therapy improves outcomes in most cases of obstructive sleep apnea. The epidemiology, risk factors, diagnostic criteria, and therapies for the three most common sleep disorders (insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea, and restless leg syndrome), along with effects of menopause, pregnancy, and social factors on sleep in women, are key considerations for clinicians caring for female patients across the adult life span. PMID:23912143

  17. Sleep Quality and Psychological Wellbeing in Mothers of Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Judy; Richdale, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep and behavioural difficulties are common in children with developmental disabilities. Mothers often wake and tend to their child when their child is having sleep difficulties. Therefore, mothers of children with developmental disabilities can have poor sleep quality due to these disruptions. The present study investigated the impact of sleep

  18. Is sleep-related verbal memory consolidation impaired in sleepwalkers?

    PubMed

    Uguccioni, Ginevra; Pallanca, Olivier; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    In order to evaluate verbal memory consolidation during sleep in subjects experiencing sleepwalking or sleep terror, 19 patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror and 19 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16-word list from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test, and a 220- and 263-word modified story recall test) in the evening, followed by nocturnal video polysomnography (n = 29) and morning recall (night-time consolidation after 14 h, n = 38). The following morning, they were given a daytime learning task using the modified story recall test in reverse order, followed by an evening recall test after 9 h of wakefulness (daytime consolidation, n = 38). The patients experiencing sleepwalking/sleep terror exhibited more frequent awakenings during slow-wave sleep and longer wakefulness after sleep onset than the controls. Despite this reduction in sleep quality among sleepwalking/sleep terror patients, they improved their scores on the verbal tests the morning after sleep compared with the previous evening (+16 ± 33%) equally well as the controls (+2 ± 13%). The performance of both groups worsened during the daytime in the absence of sleep (-16 ± 15% for the sleepwalking/sleep terror group and -14 ± 11% for the control group). There was no significant correlation between the rate of memory consolidation and any of the sleep measures. Seven patients experiencing sleepwalking also sleep-talked during slow-wave sleep, but their sentences were unrelated to the tests or the list of words learned during the evening. In conclusion, the alteration of slow-wave sleep during sleepwalking/sleep terror does not noticeably impact on sleep-related verbal memory consolidation. PMID:25212397

  19. Sleep and aging: 1. Sleep disorders commonly found in older people

    PubMed Central

    Wolkove, Norman; Elkholy, Osama; Baltzan, Marc; Palayew, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Aging is associated with several well-described changes in patterns of sleep. Typically, there is a phase advance in the normal circadian sleep cycle: older people tend to go to sleep earlier in the evening but also to wake earlier. They may also wake more frequently during the night and experience fragmented sleep. The prevalence of many sleep disorders increases with age. Insomnia, whether primary or secondary to coexistant illness or medication use, is very common among elderly people. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder and narcolepsy, although less common, are frequently not considered for this population. Periodic leg-movement disorder, a frequent cause of interrupted sleep, can be easily diagnosed with electromyography during nocturnal polysomnography. Restless legs syndrome, however, is diagnosed clinically. Snoring is a common sleep-related respiratory disorder; so is obstructive sleep apnea, which is increasingly seen among older people and is significantly associated with cardio-and cerebrovascular disease as well as cognitive impairment. PMID:17452665

  20. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... their throats may have obstructive sleep apnea. The animation below shows how obstructive sleep apnea occurs. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  1. Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  2. Sleep Disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sohmer, Rachel.

    2003-01-01

    For something as critical to our well being as good sleep, human beings suffer from an amazing number of sleeping disorders. The following Web sites explore just a few of these disorders, starting with a brief introduction to the normal stages of sleep from the Sleep Disorders Center of Central Texas (1). Next, the University of Waterloo offers a fascinating look at sleep paralysis, which many researchers consider the "likely source of beliefs concerning not only alien abductions, but all manner of beliefs in alternative realities and otherworldly creatures" (2). The third site (3), provided by the National Women's Health Information Center, is an easy-to-read source for information about insomnia. Likewise, the American Sleep Apnea Association (ASAA) offers an in-depth information packet on snoring and sleep apnea, as well as the ASAA newsletter and other resources (4). The next Web site (5 ) comes from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, and offers an introduction to the phenomenon of narcolepsy, including treatment, prognosis, and related research. Restless legs syndrome may not be as immediately familiar as some of the other sleep disorders addressed above, but a visit to the homepage of the Restless Legs Syndrome Foundation (6) should answer any questions about this "creepy-crawly" sensation in the limbs that occurs during sleep or other inactive periods. Of course, you don't have to have a bona fide sleeping disorder to suffer from sleep deprivation. Visitors to the next Web site from Loughborough University's Sleep Research Centre will find detailed information on how sleep deprivation affects brain function (7). Not surprisingly, the news isn't good. Finally, the Sleep Foundation offers How's Your Sleep, an online quiz designed to help users learn more about what may be affecting their sleep (8).

  3. Sleep Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-05-10

    In this activity about sleep rhythms (on page 21 of the PDF), learners will collect data about their own sleep cycles and use a fraction wheel to examine their data. This lesson guide includes background information, information about astronauts' sleep in space, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

  4. Sleep and Quality of Life in Parkinson’s Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisy L. Whitehead; Rosalind Mitchell-Hay; Prashant Reddy; Sharon Muzerengi; K. Ray Chaudhuri

    Sleep disturbances in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are both widespread and wide-ranging. Emerging early in the disease process,\\u000a sometimes prior to the onset of motor symptoms, sleep disruption results from the degeneration of the basal ganglia that is\\u000a the hallmark of the disease, as well as changes in brain stem sleep centres. Accordingly, sleep problems consist of motor\\u000a symptoms such as

  5. New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2013 New Insights Found in Pain Processing and Sleep Disturbance Among Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients People with rheumatoid ... in the journal Arthritis and Rheumatism. In addition, sleep disruptions, which are common among people with RA, ...

  6. Update on obstructive sleep apnea and its relation to COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mieczkowski, Brian; Ezzie, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and preventable lung disease that affects millions of people in the United States. Sleep disorders including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are also common. It is not surprising that many people with COPD also suffer from OSA. This relationship, however, puts people at risk for more nocturnal desaturations and potential complications related to this, including pulmonary hypertension and heart rhythm disturbances. This update focuses on the physiology of sleep disturbances in COPD as well as the clinical implications of OSA in COPD. PMID:24748786

  7. Colour vision in diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths.

    PubMed

    Kelber, Almut; Balkenius, Anna; Warrant, Eric J

    2003-08-01

    Diurnal and nocturnal hawkmoths (Sphingidae, Lepidoptera) have three spectral types of receptor sensitive to ultraviolet, blue and green light. As avid flower visitors and pollinators, they use olfactory and visual cues to find and recognise flowers. Moths of the diurnal species Macroglossum stellatarum and the nocturnal species Deilephila elpenor, Hyles lineata and Hyles gallii use and learn the colour of flowers. Nocturnal species can discriminate flowers at starlight intensities when humans and honeybees are colour-blind. M. stellatarum can use achromatic, intensity-related cues if colour cues are absent, and this is probably also true for D. elpenor. Both species can recognise colours even under a changed illumination colour. PMID:21680465

  8. Relationship of plasma growth hormone to slow-wave sleep in African sleeping sickness.

    PubMed

    Radomski, M W; Buguet, A; Doua, F; Bogui, P; Tapie, P

    1996-04-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a unique disease model of disrupted circadian rhythms in the sleep-wake cycle and cortisol and prolactin secretion. This study examined the temporal relationship between growth hormone (GH) secretion and the sleep-wake cycle in 8 infected African patients and 6 healthy indigenous African subjects. Twenty-four-hour sleep patterns were recorded by polysomnography and hourly blood samples analyzed for plasma GH. No relationships between the mean normalized plasma GH levels (Z scores) and the sleep stages (wakefulness, sleep stages 1 and 2 ('light' sleep), slow-wave sleep (stages 3 and 4, SWS), and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep) were found in the patients or healthy subjects. However, when the time of sampling of the plasma GH concentrations was lagged by 16 min with respect to the occurrence of the various sleep stages, significant correlations were found between plasma GH concentrations and SWS in both healthy subjects and patients. Thus, the association between SWS and GH secretion persisted even in the presence of disrupted circadian rhythms, further supporting the concept that sleep and the stimulation of GH secretion are outputs of a common mechanism. PMID:8739895

  9. Daytime REM Sleep in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bliwise, Donald L.; Trotti, Lynn Marie; Juncos, Jorge J.; Factor, Stewart A.; Freeman, Alan; Rye, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated both clinical and neurochemical similarities between Parkinson’s disease (PD) and narcolepsy. The intrusion of REM sleep into the daytime remains a cardinal feature of narcolepsy, but the importance of these intrusions in PD remains unclear. In this study we examined REM sleep during daytime Maintenance of Wakefulness Testing (MWT) in PD patients. Methods Patients spent 2 consecutive nights and days in the sleep laboratory. During the daytime, we employed a modified MWT procedure in which each daytime nap opportunity (4 per day) was extended to 40 minutes, regardless of whether the patient was able to sleep or how much the patient slept. We examined each nap opportunity for the presence of REM sleep and time to fall asleep. Results Eleven of 63 PD patients studied showed 2 or more REM episodes and 10 showed 1 REM episode on their daytime MWTs. Nocturnal sleep characteristics and sleep disorders were unrelated to the presence of daytime REM sleep, however, patients with daytime REM were significantly sleepier during the daytime than those patients without REM. Demographic and clinical variables, including Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale motor scores and levodopa dose equivalents, were unrelated to the presence of REM sleep. Conclusions A sizeable proportion of PD patients demonstrated REM sleep and daytime sleep tendency during daytime nap testing. These data confirm similarities in REM intrusions between narcolepsy and PD, perhaps suggesting parallel neurodegenerative conditions of hypocretin deficiency. PMID:22939103

  10. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  11. Too Hot to Sleep? Sleep Behaviour and Surface Body Temperature of Wahlberg’s Epauletted Fruit Bat

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Colleen T.; Awuah, Adwoa; Jordaan, Maryna; Magagula, Londiwe; Mkhize, Truth; Paine, Christine; Raymond-Bourret, Esmaella; Hart, Lorinda A.

    2015-01-01

    The significance of sleep and factors that affect it have been well documented, however, in light of global climate change the effect of temperature on sleep patterns has only recently gained attention. Unlike many mammals, bats (order: Chiroptera) are nocturnal and little is known about their sleep and the effects of ambient temperature (Ta) on their sleep. Consequently we investigated seasonal temperature effects on sleep behaviour and surface body temperature of free-ranging Wahlberg’s epauletted fruit bat, Epomophorus wahlbergi, at a tree roost. Sleep behaviours of E. wahlbergi were recorded, including: sleep duration and sleep incidences (i.e. one eye open and both eyes closed). Sleep differed significantly across all the individuals in terms of sleep duration and sleep incidences. Individuals generally spent more time awake than sleeping. The percentage of each day bats spent asleep was significantly higher during winter (27.6%), compared with summer (15.6%). In summer, 20.7% of the sleeping bats used one eye open sleep, and this is possibly the first evidence of one-eye-sleep in non-marine mammals. Sleep duration decreased with extreme heat as bats spent significantly more time trying to cool by licking their fur, spreading their wings and panting. Skin temperatures of E. wahlbergi were significantly higher when Ta was ?35°C and no bats slept at these high temperatures. Consequently extremely hot days negatively impact roosting fruit bats, as they were forced to be awake to cool themselves. This has implications for these bats given predicted climate change scenarios. PMID:25775371

  12. Transoral robotic sleep surgery: the obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Julia A; Montevechi, Filippo; Vicini, Claudio; Magnuson, J Scott

    2014-06-01

    Nocturnal upper airway collapse is often multi-level in nature but typically will involve some degree of obstruction at the level of the tongue-base. Several surgical procedures have been developed in recent years to address this area in patients resistant to continuous positive airway pressure. This article outlines a novel way to treat obstructive sleep apnea lingual obstruction using the da Vinci robotic surgical system. This technique offers significant potential advantages over other established approaches and it should be included in the surgical armamentarium of sleep surgeons. PMID:24882797

  13. Prolonged Sleep under Stone Age Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Piosczyk, Hannah; Landmann, Nina; Holz, Johannes; Feige, Bernd; Riemann, Dieter; Nissen, Christoph; Voderholzer, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We report on a unique experiment designed to investigate the impact of prehistoric living conditions on sleep-wake behavior. Methods: A group of five healthy adults were assessed during life in a Stone Age-like settlement over two months. Results: The most notable finding was that nocturnal time in bed and estimated sleep time, as measured by actigraphy, markedly increased during the experimental period compared to the periods prior to and following the experiment. These increases were primarily driven by a phase-advance shift of sleep onset. Subjective assessments of health and functioning did not reveal any relevant changes across the study. Conclusions: Our observations provide further evidence for the long-held belief that the absence of modern living conditions is associated with an earlier sleep phase and prolonged sleep duration. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 723. Citation: Piosczyk H, Landmann N, Holz J, Feige B, Riemann D, Nissen C, Voderholzer U. Prolonged sleep under Stone Age conditions. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(7):719-722. PMID:25024647

  14. Night shifts, sleep deprivation, and attention performance in medical students

    PubMed Central

    Ibanez-Pinilla, Milciades

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine attention performance of medical students after sleep deprivation due to night shift work. Methods Prospective cohort design. All seventh, eighth and ninth semester students were invited to participate (n= 209). The effectiveness and concentration indices (d2 Test for attention, dependent variable) from 180 students at 3 evaluations during the semester were compared. Eighth and ninth semester students underwent their second evaluation after a night shift. The independent variables were nocturnal sleep measurements. Results No differences in nocturnal sleep hours during the previous week (p=0.966), sleep deprivation (p=0.703) or effectiveness in the d2 Test (p=0.428) were found between the groups at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning and the end of the semester, the d2 Test results were not different between groups (p=0.410, p=0.394) respectively. The second evaluation showed greater sleep deprivation in students with night shift work (p<0.001). The sleep deprived students had lower concentration indices (p<0.001).The differences were associated with the magnitude of sleep deprivation (p=0.008). Multivariate regression analysis showed that attention performance was explained by sleep deprivation due to night shift work, adjusting for age and gender. Students with sleep deprivation had worse concentration than those without. Conclusions Sleep deprivation due to night shift work in medical students had a negative impact on their attention performance. Medical educators should address these potential negative learning and patient care consequences of sleep deprivation in medical students due to night shifts. PMID:25341213

  15. Mammalian sleep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  16. Sleep-awake patterns following cerebral concussion.

    PubMed

    Parsons, L C; Ver Beek, D

    1982-01-01

    This study compared sleep-awake patterns in clients following head injury with their sleep-awake patterns prior to head injury. Data were collected from 75 subjects who had experienced a minor head injury (MHI) with a disturbance in consciousness three months prior to filling out a questionnaire. The majority of the clients were males, 16 to 30 years old, who had been involved in a motor vehicle accident which resulted in MHI. Questions related to the sleep-awake patterns before and after head injury. Sleep-awake patterns following head injury differed from sleep-awake patterns prior to head injury in the following sleep indicators: sleep interruptions per week and per night increased significantly (p less than .004, p less than .001) as did the time needed to function at peak efficiency upon awakening (p less than .001). The subjects reported significant increases (p less than .02) in the number of times per month in which they were unable to return to sleep after an early morning awakening coupled with the difficulty in returning to sleep (p less than .04). Overall, the clients reported significantly decreased sleep quality (p less than .02) and increased complaints about sleep following head injury (p less than .001). An increase in the time of consciousness disruption following head injury was related to the subjects having a tendency to sleep longer and to recall fewer, less vivid dreams. A decreased level of consciousness upon admission to the emergency department at time of injury correlated with the increased number of arousals during the sleep cycle and the reduced intensity of auditory stimulus needed to interrupt sleep. The anatomical site of the head injury and the duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) were found to have no significant effect upon sleep-awake patterns following MHI. PMID:6922465

  17. American Sleep Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Basic information on sleep – Symptoms of sleep disorders – Insomnia treatments – Information on good sleep health – Treatments of ... and Sleep - Narcolepsy - Clinical Trials - Stop Snoring Mouthpiece - Insomnia Info - What is Sleep? - Support Groups - Night Terrors - ...

  18. Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Sleep Deprivation and Deficiency? Sleep deprivation (DEP-rih-VA- ... safety. Rate This Content: Next >> February 22, 2012 Sleep Infographic Sleep Disorders & Insufficient Sleep: Improving Health through ...

  19. Prevalence and comorbidity of nocturnal wandering in the US adult general population

    PubMed Central

    Mahowald, M.W.; Dauvilliers, Y.; Krystal, A.D.; Léger, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and comorbid conditions of nocturnal wandering with abnormal state of consciousness (NW) in the American general population. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted with a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals of the US general population ?18 years old. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (DSM-IV-TR; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, version 2; International Classification of Diseases–10). Results: Lifetime prevalence of NW was 29.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.5%–29.9%). In the previous year, NW was reported by 3.6% (3.3%–3.9%) of the sample: 1% had 2 or more episodes per month and 2.6% had between 1 and 12 episodes in the previous year. Family history of NW was reported by 30.5% of NW participants. Individuals with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), circadian rhythm sleep disorder (OR 3.4), insomnia disorder (OR 2.1), alcohol abuse/dependence (OR 3.5), major depressive disorder (MDD) (OR 3.5), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) (OR 3.9), or using over-the-counter sleeping pills (OR 2.5) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants (OR 3.0) were at higher risk of frequent NW episodes (?2 times/month). Conclusions: With a rate of 29.2%, lifetime prevalence of NW is high. SSRIs were associated with an increased risk of NW. However, these medications appear to precipitate events in individuals with a prior history of NW. Furthermore, MDD and OCD were associated with significantly greater risk of NW, and this was not due to the use of psychotropic medication. These psychiatric associations imply an increased risk due to sleep disturbance. PMID:22585435

  20. Effect of a single oral dose of rabeprazole on nocturnal acid breakthrough and nocturnal alkaline amplitude

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Yan Luo; Chun-Yan Niu; Xue-Qin Wang; You-Ling Zhu; Jun Gong

    AIM: To study the effect of rabeprazole (RAB) on nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB) and nocturnal alkaline amplitude (NAKA) and to compare it with omeprazole (OME) and pantoprazole (PAN). METHODS: By an open comparative study, forty patients with active peptic ulcer were randomly assigned to receive one of the three PPIs (proton pump inhibitor) with a single oral dose. They were

  1. Effects of environmental noise on sleep.

    PubMed

    Hume, Kenneth I; Brink, Mark; Basner, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings from the past 3 year's research on the effects of environmental noise on sleep and identifies key future research goals. The past 3 years have seen continued interest in both short term effects of noise on sleep (arousals, awakenings), as well as epidemiological studies focusing on long term health impacts of nocturnal noise exposure. This research corroborated findings that noise events induce arousals at relatively low exposure levels, and independent of the noise source (air, road, and rail traffic, neighbors, church bells) and the environment (home, laboratory, hospital). New epidemiological studies support already existing evidence that night-time noise is likely associated with cardiovascular disease and stroke in the elderly. These studies collectively also suggest that nocturnal noise exposure may be more relevant for the genesis of cardiovascular disease than daytime noise exposure. Relative to noise policy, new effect-oriented noise protection concepts, and rating methods based on limiting awakening reactions were introduced. The publications of WHO's ''Night Noise Guidelines for Europe'' and ''Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise'' both stress the importance of nocturnal noise exposure for health and well-being. However, studies demonstrating a causal pathway that directly link noise (at ecological levels) and disturbed sleep with cardiovascular disease and/or other long term health outcomes are still missing. These studies, as well as the quantification of the impact of emerging noise sources (e.g., high speed rail, wind turbines) have been identified as the most relevant issues that should be addressed in the field on the effects of noise on sleep in the near future. PMID:23257581

  2. Sleep Disorders

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Patient Education Institute

    This patient education program explains sleep and its importance for good health. It also discusses sleep disorders including insomnia, sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome, narcolepsy, and gives tips for sleeping well. This resource is a MedlinePlus Interactive Health Tutorial from the National Library of Medicine, designed and developed by the Patient Education Institute. NOTE: This tutorial requires a special Flash plug-in, version 4 or above. If you do not have Flash, you will be prompted to obtain a free download of the software before you start the tutorial. You will also need an Acrobat Reader, available as a free download, in order to view the Reference Summary.

  3. Effect of cessation of late-night landing noise on sleep electrophysiology in the home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearsons, K. S.; Fidell, S.; Bennett, R. L.; Friedman, J.; Globus, G.

    1974-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of noise exposure and sleep electrophysiology were made in homes before and after cessation of nighttime aircraft landing noise. Six people were tested, all of whom had been exposed to intense aircraft noise for at least two years. Noise measurements indicated a large reduction in the hourly noise level during nighttime hours, but no charge during the daytime hours. Sleep measures indicated no dramatic changes in sleep patterns either immediately after a marked change in nocturnal noise exposure or approximately a month thereafter. No strong relationship was observed between noise level and sleep disturbances over the range from 60 to 90 db(A).

  4. Case Control Polysomnographic Studies of Sleep Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Ming-Hui; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Pavanni, Ratnagopal; Lim, Li-Ling; Tan, Eng-King

    2011-01-01

    Background The relationship between a number of primary sleep disorders and Parkinson's disease (PD) is still debated. There are limited case control polysomnographic studies in PD and most of these study sample sizes are small. Methodology/Findings We conducted one of the largest case-control studies involving overnight polysomnographic evaluation, with prospective recruitment of unselected Parkinson's disease patients and healthy controls from an Asian population. The cases were recruited from the specialized movement disorder outpatient clinics in a tertiary referral center, and controls from the same geographical locations. All subjects underwent an overnight polysomnographic study and a multiple sleep latency test. A total of 124 subjects including 56 patients and 68 controls frequency-matched for age and sex were included. Multivariate analysis revealed that patients had significantly shorter total sleep time than controls (p?=?0.01), lower sleep efficiency (p?=?0.001) and increased REM latency (p?=?0.007). In patients, multivariate analysis showed that reduced total sleep time was significantly associated with increased age (p?=?0.001) and increased levodopa dose (p?=?0.032). The mean Insomnia Severity Index was higher in PD patients (9.0±7.1) compared to controls (3.3±3.9, p<0.001). The mean Epworth Sleepiness Scale score was higher in PD patients (9.3±5.9 vs. 5.7±4.8, p<0.001). Nocturnal arousals, obstructive sleep apnea, periodic leg movements and objective abnormal sleepiness were not increased in our patients. Conclusions/Significance Our case-control polysomnographic study, the first-ever performed in an Asian population, revealed altered sleep architecture and reduced sleep in PD patients compared to controls. Reduced total sleep time was associated with increased age and levodopa dose. However, nocturnal arousals, primary sleep disorders and abnormal sleepiness were not increased in our PD patients suggesting that ethnic/genetic differences may be a factor in the pathophysiology of these conditions. PMID:21799880

  5. Sleep and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, Timothy H.

    1991-01-01

    Three interacting processes are involved in the preservation of circadian rhythms: (1) endogenous rhythm generation mechanisms, (2) entrainment mechanisms to keep these rhythms 'on track', and (3) exogenous masking processes stemming from changes in environment and bahavior. These processes, particularly the latter two, can be dramatically affected in individuals of advanced age and in space travelers, with a consequent disruption in sleep and daytime functioning. This paper presents results of a phase-shift experiment investigating the age-related effects of the exogeneous component of circadian rhythms in various physiological and psychological functions by comparing these functions in middle aged and old subjects. Dramatic differences were found between the two age groups in measures of sleep, mood, activation, and performance efficiency.

  6. Long sleepers sleep more and short sleepers sleep less: a comparison of older adults who sleep well.

    PubMed

    Fichten, Catherine S; Libman, Eva; Creti, Laura; Bailes, Sally; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2004-01-01

    To determine some of the risks and benefits of being a long or short sleeper, psychological adjustment, lifestyle, and sleep parameters were investigated in 239 older adults. Responses of people who slept well and who were either long or short sleepers were studied on 48 variables investigating sleep parameters and sleep-related affect and beliefs; daytime fatigue and sleepiness; demographic factors, including age, sex, and income satisfaction; sleep lifestyle factors, including naps, bedtimes, arising times, and the regularity of these; general lifestyle factors, including regularity of mealtimes, overall daytime pleasantness, perceived busyness, diversity and valence of daily activities, and potentially stressful major life events. In addition, 14 variables evaluated aspects of psychological adjustment, including cognitive and somatic arousal, nocturnal tension, anxious, negative, unpleasant and worrying self-talk, depression, anxiety, overall psychopathology, neuroticism, and life satisfaction. Overall, the results indicate that short sleepers get up earlier, spend less time in bed, and have lower sleep efficiencies than their long sleeper counterparts. They eat breakfast earlier, and of course, they sleep less. Only one of the 14 psychological adjustment variables was significant. In view of the many differences between short and long sleepers described in prior research, the lack of differences observed between long and short sleepers is noteworthy. PMID:15600221

  7. Correlations between depression behaviors and sleep parameters after repeated corticosterone injections in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-jun; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xue-qiong; Sheng, Zhao-fu; Li, Sheng-jie; Huang, Yuan-li; Cao, Qing; Cui, Xiang-yu; Cui, Su-ying; Zhang, Yong-he

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Disrupted sleep may be a prodromal symptom or a predictor of depressive disorders. In this study we investigated the relationship between depression symptoms and disrupted sleep using a novel model of stress-mimicked sleep disorders in rats. Methods: SD rats were injected with corticosterone (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, sc) or vehicle for 7 d. Their sleep-wake behavior was monitored through implanted EEG and EMG electrodes. Their depressive behaviors were assessed using forced swim test, open field test and sucrose preference test. Results: The corticosterone-treated rats showed significantly reduced sleep time, disinhibition of rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep and altered power spectra during non-REM sleep. All depressive behavioral tests did not show significant difference across the groups. However, individual correlation analysis revealed statistically significance: the immobility time (despair) was negatively correlated with REM sleep latency, slow wave sleep (SWS) time ratio, SWS bouts and delta power density, and it was positively correlated with REM sleep bouts and beta power density. Meanwhile, sucrose preference (anhedonia) was positively correlated with total sleep time and light sleep bouts, and it was negatively correlated with the REM sleep time ratio. Conclusion: In stress-mimicked rats, sleep disturbances are a predictor of depressive disorders, and certain symptoms of depression may be related to the disruption of several specific sleep parameters. PMID:24989251

  8. Wireless remote monitoring system for sleep apnea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Kwon, Hyeokjun; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2011-04-01

    Sleep plays the important role of rejuvenating the body, especially the central nervous system. However, more than thirty million people suffer from sleep disorders and sleep deprivation. That can cause serious health consequences by increasing the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart attack and so on. Apart from the physical health risk, sleep disorders can lead to social problems when sleep disorders are not diagnosed and treated. Currently, sleep disorders are diagnosed through sleep study in a sleep laboratory overnight. This involves large expenses in addition to the inconvenience of overnight hospitalization and disruption of daily life activities. Although some systems provide home based diagnosis, most of systems record the sleep data in a memory card, the patient has to face the inconvenience of sending the memory card to a doctor for diagnosis. To solve the problem, we propose a wireless sensor system for sleep apnea, which enables remote monitoring while the patient is at home. The system has 5 channels to measure ECG, Nasal airflow, body position, abdominal/chest efforts and oxygen saturation. A wireless transmitter unit transmits signals with Zigbee and a receiver unit which has two RF modules, Zigbee and Wi-Fi, receives signals from the transmitter unit and retransmits signals to the remote monitoring system with Zigbee and Wi-Fi, respectively. By using both Zigbee and Wi-Fi, the wireless sensor system can achieve a low power consumption and wide range coverage. The system's features are presented, as well as continuous monitoring results of vital signals.

  9. The reorganisation of memory during sleep.

    PubMed

    Landmann, Nina; Kuhn, Marion; Piosczyk, Hannah; Feige, Bernd; Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Frase, Lukas; Riemann, Dieter; Sterr, Annette; Nissen, Christoph

    2014-12-01

    Sleep after learning promotes the quantitative strengthening of new memories. Less is known about the impact of sleep on the qualitative reorganisation of memory, which is the focus of this review. Studies have shown that, in the declarative system, sleep facilitates the abstraction of rules (schema formation), the integration of knowledge into existing schemas (schema integration) and creativity that requires the disbandment of existing patterns (schema disintegration). Schema formation and integration might primarily benefit from slow wave sleep, whereas the disintegration of a schema might be facilitated by rapid eye movement sleep. In the procedural system, sleep fosters the reorganisation of motor memory. The neural mechanisms of these processes remain to be determined. Notably, emotions have been shown to modulate the sleep-related reorganisation of memories. In the final section of this review, we propose that the sleep-related reorganisation of memories might be particularly relevant for mental disorders. Thus, sleep disruptions might contribute to disturbed memory reorganisation and to the development of mental disorders. Therefore, sleep-related interventions might modulate the reorganisation of memories and provide new inroads into treatment. PMID:24813468

  10. Eosinophilic fasciitis with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Chèze, Stéphane; Chapon, Françoise; Le Mauff, Brigitte; Auzary, Christophe; Geffray, Loïk

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a rare connective tissue disorder, which can be associated with hematological complications in 10% of cases, such as aplastic anemia or acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria had never been described in a patient suffering from eosinophilic fasciitis. We report an original case of a 59-year-old patient who developed a moderate aplastic pancytopenia while he was treated for a biopsy-proven eosinophilic fasciitis. A complete set of investigations was carried out and was found to be negative, including a first research of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Two years after disease onset, while pancytopenia remained stable, occurrence of morning dark urine led to found a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria clone. We discuss a potential link between the two conditions and hypothesize that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria blood cells may pre-exist for a long time and take a survival advantage in the setting of marrow injury, as observed in eosinophilic fasciitis with hematological complications. We finally suggest that paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria should be included as a hematological complication of eosinophilic fasciitis. PMID:22999899

  11. REM sleep instability--a new pathway for insomnia?

    PubMed

    Riemann, D; Spiegelhalder, K; Nissen, C; Hirscher, V; Baglioni, C; Feige, B

    2012-07-01

    Chronic insomnia afflicts approximately 10% of the adult population and is associated with daytime impairments and an elevated risk for developing somatic and mental disorders. Current pathophysiological models propose a persistent hyperarousal on the cognitive, emotional and physiological levels. However, the marked discrepancy between minor objective alterations in standard parameters of sleep continuity and the profound subjective impairment in patients with insomnia is unresolved. We propose that "instability" of REM sleep contributes to the experience of disrupted and non-restorative sleep and to the explanation of this discrepancy. This concept is based on evidence showing increased micro- and macro-arousals during REM sleep in insomnia patients. As REM sleep represents the most highly aroused brain state during sleep it seems particularly prone to fragmentation in individuals with persistent hyperarousal. The continuity hypothesis of dream production suggests that pre-sleep concerns of patients with insomnia, i. e., worries about poor sleep and its consequences, dominate their dream content. Enhanced arousal during REM sleep may render these wake-like cognitions more accessible to conscious perception, memory storage and morning recall, resulting in the experience of disrupted and non-restorative sleep. Furthermore, chronic fragmentation of REM sleep might lead to dysfunction in a ventral emotional neural network, including limbic and paralimbic areas that are specifically activated during REM sleep. This dysfunction, along with attenuated functioning in a dorsal executive neural network, including frontal and prefrontal areas, might contribute to emotional and cognitive alterations and an elevated risk of developing depression. PMID:22290199

  12. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rocco, Michael V.; Lockridge, Robert S.; Beck, Gerald J.; Eggers, Paul W.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T.; Chertow, Glenn M.; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Levin, Nathan W.; Ornt, Daniel B.; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B.; Unruh, Mark L.; Star, Robert A.; Kliger, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/Vurea, a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  13. The effects of frequent nocturnal home hemodialysis: the Frequent Hemodialysis Network Nocturnal Trial.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Michael V; Lockridge, Robert S; Beck, Gerald J; Eggers, Paul W; Gassman, Jennifer J; Greene, Tom; Larive, Brett; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M; Copland, Michael; Hoy, Christopher D; Lindsay, Robert M; Levin, Nathan W; Ornt, Daniel B; Pierratos, Andreas; Pipkin, Mary F; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Stokes, John B; Unruh, Mark L; Star, Robert A; Kliger, Alan S; Kliger, A; Eggers, P; Briggs, J; Hostetter, T; Narva, A; Star, R; Augustine, B; Mohr, P; Beck, G; Fu, Z; Gassman, J; Greene, T; Daugirdas, J; Hunsicker, L; Larive, B; Li, M; Mackrell, J; Wiggins, K; Sherer, S; Weiss, B; Rajagopalan, S; Sanz, J; Dellagrottaglie, S; Kariisa, M; Tran, T; West, J; Unruh, M; Keene, R; Schlarb, J; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Frome, R; Higgins, H; Ke, S; Mandaci, O; Owens, C; Snell, C; Eknoyan, G; Appel, L; Cheung, A; Derse, A; Kramer, C; Geller, N; Grimm, R; Henderson, L; Prichard, S; Roecker, E; Rocco, M; Miller, B; Riley, J; Schuessler, R; Lockridge, R; Pipkin, M; Peterson, C; Hoy, C; Fensterer, A; Steigerwald, D; Stokes, J; Somers, D; Hilkin, A; Lilli, K; Wallace, W; Franzwa, B; Waterman, E; Chan, C; McGrath-Chong, M; Copland, M; Levin, A; Sioson, L; Cabezon, E; Kwan, S; Roger, D; Lindsay, R; Suri, R; Champagne, J; Bullas, R; Garg, A; Mazzorato, A; Spanner, E; Rocco, M; Burkart, J; Moossavi, S; Mauck, V; Kaufman, T; Pierratos, A; Chan, W; Regozo, K; Kwok, S

    2011-11-01

    Prior small studies have shown multiple benefits of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis compared to conventional three times per week treatments. To study this further, we randomized 87 patients to three times per week conventional hemodialysis or to nocturnal hemodialysis six times per week, all with single-use high-flux dialyzers. The 45 patients in the frequent nocturnal arm had a 1.82-fold higher mean weekly stdKt/V(urea), a 1.74-fold higher average number of treatments per week, and a 2.45-fold higher average weekly treatment time than the 42 patients in the conventional arm. We did not find a significant effect of nocturnal hemodialysis for either of the two coprimary outcomes (death or left ventricular mass (measured by MRI) with a hazard ratio of 0.68, or of death or RAND Physical Health Composite with a hazard ratio of 0.91). Possible explanations for the left ventricular mass result include limited sample size and patient characteristics. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance, self-reported depression, laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism and anemia, blood pressure and rates of hospitalization, and vascular access interventions. Patients in the nocturnal arm had improved control of hyperphosphatemia and hypertension, but no significant benefit among the other main secondary outcomes. There was a trend for increased vascular access events in the nocturnal arm. Thus, we were unable to demonstrate a definitive benefit of more frequent nocturnal hemodialysis for either coprimary outcome. PMID:21775973

  14. Effect of nasal dilation on snoring and apneas during different stages of sleep.

    PubMed

    Hoffstein, V; Mateika, S; Metes, A

    1993-06-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that nasal dilation reduces snoring. To achieve this we performed nocturnal polysomnography, including measurement of snoring, in 15 patients without nasal pathology before and after insertion of a nasal dilator (NOZOVENT). Snoring was quantified for each sleep stage by recording the number of snores per minute of sleep, number of snores per minute of snoring time and nocturnal sound intensities (maximum, average and minimum). We found that nasal dilation had no effect on the number of apneas, hypopneas or oxygen saturation. Snoring parameters were unaffected by NOZOVENT during stages I, II and REM sleep, but were all significantly reduced during slow wave sleep. We conclude that dilation of the anterior nares in patients without nasal pathology has a relatively weak effect on snoring, and routine use of nasal dilating appliances is not recommended for treatment of snoring. PMID:8141871

  15. The emotional brain and sleep: an intimate relationship.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Cluydts, Raymond

    2010-08-01

    Research findings confirm our own experiences in life where daytime events and especially emotionally stressful events have an impact on sleep quality and well-being. Obviously, daytime emotional stress may have a differentiated effect on sleep by influencing sleep physiology and dream patterns, dream content and the emotion within a dream, although its exact role is still unclear. Other effects that have been found are the exaggerated startle response, decreased dream recall and elevated awakening thresholds from rapid eye movement (REM)-sleep, increased or decreased latency to REM-sleep, increased REM-density, REM-sleep duration and the occurrence of arousals in sleep as a marker of sleep disruption. However, not only do daytime events affect sleep, also the quality and amount of sleep influences the way we react to these events and may be an important determinant in general well-being. Sleep seems restorative in daily functioning, whereas deprivation of sleep makes us more sensitive to emotional and stressful stimuli and events in particular. The way sleep impacts next day mood/emotion is thought to be affected particularly via REM-sleep, where we observe a hyperlimbic and hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal functioning in combination with a normal functioning of the medial prefrontal cortex, probably adaptive in coping with the continuous stream of emotional events we experience. PMID:20363166

  16. Assessment and treatment of common pediatric sleep disorders

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Current evidence indicates that chronically disrupted sleep in children and adolescents can lead to problems in cognitive functioning. Behavioral interventions for pediatric sleep problems (e.g., graduated extinction, parent education, positive bedtime routines), especially in young children, have been shown to produce clinically significant improvements. This review describes a few pertinent conditions of sleep disorders in children and adolescents as well as provides clinically useful approaches to sleep complaints and both pharmacologic and nonpharmacological treatments of some common pediatric sleep disorders. PMID:20622943

  17. Iatrogenic nocturnal eneuresis- an overlooked side effect of anti histamines?

    PubMed

    Italiano, D; Italiano, F; Genovese, C; Calabro, R S

    2015-01-01

    Nocturnal enuresis is a common disorder in childhood, but its pathophysiological mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. Iatrogenic nocturnal enuresis has been described following treatment with several psychotropic medications. Herein, we describe a 6-year-old child who experienced nocturnal enuresis during treatment with the antihistamine cetirizine. Drug rechallenge was positive. Several neurotransmitters are implicated in the pathogenesis of nocturnal enuresis, including noradrenaline, serotonin and dopamine. Antihistamine treatment may provoke functional imbalance of these pathways resulting in incontinence. PMID:25766344

  18. Chronic Sleep Disturbance Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Barf, R. Paulien; Meerlo, Peter; Scheurink, Anton J. W.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between short or disrupted sleep and an increased risk for metabolic disorders. To assess a possible causal relationship, we examined the effects of experimental sleep disturbance on glucose regulation in Wistar rats under controlled laboratory conditions. Three groups of animals were used: a sleep restriction group (RS), a group subjected to moderate sleep disturbance without restriction of sleep time (DS), and a home cage control group. To establish changes in glucose regulation, animals were subjected to intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTTs) before and after 1 or 8 days of sleep restriction or disturbance. Data show that both RS and DS reduce body weight without affecting food intake and also lead to hyperglycemia and decreased insulin levels during an IVGTT. Acute sleep disturbance also caused hyperglycemia during an IVGTT, yet, without affecting the insulin response. In conclusion, both moderate and severe disturbances of sleep markedly affect glucose homeostasis and body weight control. PMID:20339560

  19. The Skylab sleep monitoring experiment - Methodology and initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Delucchi, M. R.; Shumate, W. H.; Booher, C. R.

    1975-01-01

    The sleep monitoring experiment permitted an objective evaluation of sleep characteristics during the first two manned Skylab flights. Hardware located onboard the spacecraft accomplished data acquisition, analysis, and preservation, thereby permitting near-real-time evaluation of sleep during the flights and more detailed postmission analysis. The crewman studied during the 28-Day Mission showed some decrease in total sleep time and an increase in the percentage of Stage 4 sleep, while the subject in the 59-Day Mission exhibited little change in total sleep time and a small decrease in Stage 4 and REM sleep. Some disruption of sleep characteristics was seen in the final days of both missions, and both subjects exhibited decreases in REM-onset latency in the immediate postflight period. The relatively minor changes seen were not of the type nor magnitude which might be expected to be associated with significant degradation of performance capability.

  20. Effects of afternoon "siesta" naps on sleep, alertness, performance, and circadian rhythms in the elderly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Carrier, J.; Billy, B. D.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a 90-minute afternoon nap regimen on nocturnal sleep, circadian rhythms, and evening alertness and performance levels in the healthy elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nine healthy elderly subjects (4m, 5f, age range 74y-87y) each experienced both nap and no-nap conditions in two studies each lasting 17 days (14 at home, 3 in the laboratory). In the nap condition a 90-minute nap was enforced between 13:30 and 15:00 every day, in the no-nap condition daytime napping was prohibited, and activity encouraged in the 13:30-15:00 interval. The order of the two conditions was counterbalanced. PARTICIPANTS: N/A INTERVENTIONS: N/A MEASUREMENTS: Diary measures, pencil and paper alertness tests, and wrist actigraphy were used at home. In the 72 hour laboratory studies, these measures were augmented by polysomnographic sleep recording, continuous rectal temperature measurement, a daily evening single trial of a Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT), and computerized tests of mood, activation and performance efficiency. RESULTS: By the second week in the "at home" study, an average of 58 minutes of sleep was reported per siesta nap; in the laboratory, polysomnography confirmed an average of 57 minutes of sleep per nap. When nap and no-nap conditions were compared, mixed effects on nocturnal sleep were observed. Diary measures indicated no significant difference in nocturnal sleep duration, but a significant increase (of 38 mins.) in 24-hour Total Sleep Time (TST) when nocturnal sleeps and naps were added together (p<0.025). The laboratory study revealed a decrease of 2.4% in nocturnal sleep efficiency in the nap condition (p<0.025), a reduction of nocturnal Total Sleep Time (TST) by 48 mins. in the nap condition (p<0.001) which resulted primarily from significantly earlier waketimes (p<0.005), but no reliable effects on Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO), delta sleep measures, or percent stages 1 & 2. Unlike the diary study, the laboratory study yielded no overall increase in 24-hour TST consequent upon the siesta nap regimen. The only measure of evening alertness or performance to show an improvement was sleep latency in a single-trial evening MSLT (nap: 15.6 mins., no nap: 11.5 mins., p<0.005). No significant change in circadian rhythm parameters was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy seniors were able to adopt a napping regimen involving a 90-minute siesta nap each day between 13:30 and 15:00, achieving about one hour of actual sleep per nap. There were some negative consequences for nocturnal sleep in terms of reduced sleep efficiency and earlier waketimes, but also some positive consequences for objective evening performance and (in the diary study) 24-hour sleep totals. Subjective alertness measures and performance measures showed no reliable effects and circadian phase parameters appeared unchanged.

  1. Unique sleep disorders profile of a population-based sample of 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Young, Eric; Xiong, Se; Finn, Laurel; Young, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Concerns regarding sleep disorders in Hmong immigrants in the US emerged when an astonishingly high mortality rate of Sudden Unexplained Nocturnal Death Syndrome (SUNDS) was documented in Hmong men. Stress, genetics, and cardiac abnormalities interacting with disordered sleep were hypothesized as contributing factors to SUNDS. Most recently, sleep apnea has been implicated in nighttime deaths of Brugada Syndrome. This syndrome is thought to comprise a spectrum of sudden cardiac death disorders, including SUNDS. However, little research since has placed SUNDS in its context of Hmong cultural beliefs, health, or the prevalence of other sleep disorders. Because the epidemiology of sleep disorders and terrifying nighttime experiences in Hmong is poorly documented, we investigated the prevalence and correlates of sleep apnea, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep stage related disorders, and insomnia in 3 population-based samples (collected from 1996 to 2001) comprising 747 Hmong immigrants in Wisconsin. Participants were questioned on sleep problems, cultural beliefs, health, and other factors. A random subsample (n = 37) underwent in-home polysomnography to investigate sleep apnea prevalence. Self-report and laboratory findings were compared with similarly collected data from the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort (WSC) study (n = 1170), a population-based longitudinal study of sleep. The results inform a unique Hmong sleep disorder profile of a high prevalence of sleep apnea, sleep paralysis, and other REM-related sleep abnormalities as well the interaction of culturally related nighttime stressors with these sleep problems. For example, experiences of dab tsog (frightening night spirit pressing on chest) was prevalent and related to sleep apnea indicators, sleep paralysis, nightmares, hypnogogic hallucinations, and insomnia. Understanding the role of sleep disorders and the cultural mechanisms that may trigger or condition response to them could ultimately provide a basis for screening and intervention to reduce the adverse health and emotional consequences of these conditions in Hmong. PMID:22832325

  2. Evidence from opsin genes rejects nocturnality in ancestral primates

    E-print Network

    Yoder, Anne

    Evidence from opsin genes rejects nocturnality in ancestral primates Ying Tan* , Anne D. Yoder, 2005 It is firmly believed that ancestral primates were nocturnal, with nocturnality having been among lineages. These observations suggest that the ancestral primates were diurnal or cathemeral

  3. Nocturnal lagophthalmos in children with urofacial syndrome (Ochoa): a novel sign.

    PubMed

    Mermerkaya, Murat; Süer, Evren; Öztürk, Erdem; Gülp?nar, Ömer; Gökçe, Mehmet ?lker; Yalç?nda?, Fatime Nilüfer; Soygür, Tarkan; Burgu, Berk

    2014-05-01

    The urofacial syndrome is a rare condition that occurs in both genders and characterized by uropathy and facial abnormalities. Early diagnosis is crucial for the management and prognosis of urinary problems. Paradoxical inversion of facial musculature when smiling, giving an appearance of crying associated with severe urinary tract dysfunction is typical in these patients. Although facial signs and symptoms are generally ignored and shadowed by the dominant bladder symptoms, we have recently realized a unique but constant finding in majority of these patients, nocturnal lagophthalmos which is described as inability to close the eyelids during sleep. We report 15 patients with urofacial syndrome (Ochoa) whom mostly had admitted with major urological symptoms and 12 of the cases had nocturnal lagophthalmos. Lagophthalmos may lead to keratitis, corneal abrasion, infection, vascularization, and in extreme cases, ocular perforation, endophthalmitis and loss of the eye. Basic modalities like lubricant drops during the day and ointments at night are usually enough to protect the cornea from exposure keratopathy. In moderate to severe cases, overnight taping of the lid or the use of a moisture chamber might be necessary. Majority of our patients responded to basic therapy. Conclusion Nocturnal lagophthalmos is a novel symptom described in patients with urofacial syndrome. The pediatricians and urologists should be careful about this symptom to prevent eye damage and quality of life problems. PMID:24248520

  4. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirit Soffer-Dudek; Golan Shahar

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526–535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and

  5. Circadian rhythms, sleep, and performance in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallis, M. M.; DeRoshia, C. W.

    2005-01-01

    Maintaining optimal alertness and neurobehavioral functioning during space operations is critical to enable the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) vision "to extend humanity's reach to the Moon, Mars and beyond" to become a reality. Field data have demonstrated that sleep times and performance of crewmembers can be compromised by extended duty days, irregular work schedules, high workload, and varying environmental factors. This paper documents evidence of significant sleep loss and disruption of circadian rhythms in astronauts and associated performance decrements during several space missions, which demonstrates the need to develop effective countermeasures. Both sleep and circadian disruptions have been identified in the Behavioral Health and Performance (BH&P) area and the Advanced Human Support Technology (AHST) area of NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap. Such disruptions could have serious consequences on the effectiveness, health, and safety of astronaut crews, thus reducing the safety margin and increasing the chances of an accident or incident. These decrements oftentimes can be difficult to detect and counter effectively in restrictive operational environments. NASA is focusing research on the development of optimal sleep/wake schedules and countermeasure timing and application to help mitigate the cumulative effects of sleep and circadian disruption and enhance operational performance. Investing research in humans is one of NASA's building blocks that will allow for both short- and long-duration space missions and help NASA in developing approaches to manage and overcome the human limitations of space travel. In addition to reviewing the current state of knowledge concerning sleep and circadian disruptions during space operations, this paper provides an overview of NASA's broad research goals. Also, NASA-funded research, designed to evaluate the relationships between sleep quality, circadian rhythm stability, and performance proficiency in both ground-based simulations and space mission studies, as described in the 2003 NASA Task Book, will be reviewed.

  6. Nocturnal Risk of Gout Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyon K.; Niu, Jingbo; Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara A.; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several plausible mechanisms and anecdotal descriptions suggest that gout attacks often occur at night, although there are no scientific data supporting this. We undertook this study to evaluate the hypothesis that gout attacks occur more frequently at night. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study to examine the risk of acute gout attacks in relation to the time of the day. Gout patients were prospectively recruited and followed up via the internet for 1 year. Participants were asked about the following information concerning their gout attacks: the date and hour of attack onset, symptoms and signs, medication use, and purported risk factors during the 24- and 48-hour periods prior to the gout attack. We calculated the odds ratios (ORs) of gout attacks (with 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) according to three 8-hour time blocks of the day (i.e., 12:00 am to 7:59 am, 8:00 am to 3:59 pm [reference], and 4:00 pm to 11:59 pm) using conditional logistic regression. Results Our study included 724 gout patients who experienced a total of 1,433 attacks (733, 310, and 390 attacks during the first, second, and third 8-hour time blocks, respectively) over 1 year. The risk of gout flares in the 8-hour overnight time block (12:00 am to 7:59 am) was 2.36 times higher than in the daytime (8:00 am to 3:59 pm) (OR 2.36 [95% CI 2.05–2.73]). The corresponding OR in the evening (4:00 pm to 11:59 pm) was 1.26 (95% CI 1.07–1.48). These associations persisted among those with no alcohol use and in the lowest quintile of purine intake in the 24 hours prior to attack onset. Furthermore, these associations persisted in subgroups according to sex, age group, obesity status, diuretic use, and use of allopurinol, colchicine, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Conclusion These findings provide the first prospective evidence that the risk of gout attacks during the night and early morning is 2.4 times higher than in the daytime. Further, these data support the purported mechanisms and historical descriptions of the nocturnal onset of gout attacks and may have implications for antigout prophylactic measures. PMID:25504842

  7. Correlation of Sleep Disturbance and Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Ja; Baek, Joon Hyun; Shin, Dong Jin; Park, Hyeon-Mi; Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Kee-Hyung; Shin, Dong Hoon; Noh, Young; Sung, Young Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective Cognitive impairment is a common nonmotor symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with high mortality, caregiver distress, and nursing home placement. The risk factors for cognitive decline in PD patients include advanced age, longer disease duration, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, hallucinations, excessive daytime sleepiness, and nontremor symptoms including bradykinesia, rigidity, postural instability, and gait disturbance. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine which types of sleep disturbances are related to cognitive function in PD patients. Methods A total of 71 PD patients (29 males, mean age 66.46 ± 8.87 years) were recruited. All patients underwent the Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Korean Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessments (MoCA-K) to assess global cognitive function. Sleep disorders were evaluated with the Stanford Sleepiness Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index, and Parkinson’s Disease Sleep Scale in Korea (PDSS). Results The ISI was correlated with the MMSE, and total PDSS scores were correlated with the MMSE and the MoCA-K. In each item of the PDSS, nocturnal restlessness, vivid dreams, hallucinations, and nocturnal motor symptoms were positively correlated with the MMSE, and nocturnal restlessness and vivid dreams were significantly related to the MoCA-K. Vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness are considered the most powerful correlation factors with global cognitive function, because they commonly had significant correlation to cognition assessed with both the MMSE and the MoCA-K. Conclusions We found a correlation between global cognitive function and sleep disturbances, including vivid dreams and nocturnal restlessness, in PD patients. PMID:24926405

  8. CPAP versus Oxygen in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Punjabi, Naresh M.; Mehra, Reena; Patel, Sanjay R.; Quan, Stuart F.; Babineau, Denise C.; Tracy, Russell P.; Rueschman, Michael; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Lewis, Eldrin F.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Redline, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with hypertension, inflammation, and increased cardiovascular risk. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduces blood pressure, but adherence is often suboptimal, and the benefit beyond management of conventional risk factors is uncertain. Since intermittent hypoxemia may underlie cardiovascular sequelae of sleep apnea, we evaluated the effects of nocturnal supplemental oxygen and CPAP on markers of cardiovascular risk. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in which patients with cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors were recruited from cardiology practices. Patients were screened for obstructive sleep apnea with the use of the Berlin questionnaire, and home sleep testing was used to establish the diagnosis. Participants with an apnea–hypopnea index of 15 to 50 events per hour were randomly assigned to receive education on sleep hygiene and healthy lifestyle alone (the control group) or, in addition to education, either CPAP or nocturnal supplemental oxygen. Cardiovascular risk was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of the study treatment. The primary outcome was 24-hour mean arterial pressure. Results Of 318 patients who underwent randomization, 281 (88%) could be evaluated for ambulatory blood pressure at both baseline and follow-up. On average, the 24-hour mean arterial pressure at 12 weeks was lower in the group receiving CPAP than in the control group (?2.4 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], ?4.7 to ?0.1; P = 0.04) or the group receiving supplemental oxygen (?2.8 mm Hg; 95% CI, ?5.1 to ?0.5; P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in the 24-hour mean arterial pressure between the control group and the group receiving oxygen. A sensitivity analysis performed with the use of multiple imputation approaches to assess the effect of missing data did not change the results of the primary analysis. Conclusions In patients with cardiovascular disease or multiple cardiovascular risk factors, the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with CPAP, but not nocturnal supplemental oxygen, resulted in a significant reduction in blood pressure. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; HeartBEAT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01086800.) PMID:24918372

  9. Sleep disturbance in older ICU patients

    PubMed Central

    Sterniczuk, Roxanne; Rusak, Benjamin; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Maintaining a stable and adequate sleeping pattern is associated with good health and disease prevention. As a restorative process, sleep is important for supporting immune function and aiding the body in healing and recovery. Aging is associated with characteristic changes to sleep quantity and quality, which make it more difficult to adjust sleep–wake rhythms to changing environmental conditions. Sleep disturbance and abnormal sleep–wake cycles are commonly reported in seriously ill older patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic factors appears to contribute to these disruptions. Little is known regarding the effect that sleep disturbance has on health status in the oldest of old (80+), a group, who with diminishing physiological reserve and increasing prevalence of frailty, is at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes, such as cognitive decline and mortality. Here we review how sleep is altered in the ICU, with particular attention to older patients, especially those aged ?80 years. Further work is required to understand what impact sleep disturbance has on frailty levels and poor outcomes in older critically ill patients. PMID:25018625

  10. A new function of rapid eye movement sleep: Improvement of muscular efficiency.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zi-Jian

    2015-05-15

    Previously I demonstrated that the slow wave sleep (SWS) functioned to adjust the emotional balance disrupted by emotional memories randomly accumulated during waking, while the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep played the opposite role. Many experimental results have unambiguously shown that various emotional memories are processed during REM sleep. In this article, it is attempted to combine this confirmed function of REM sleep with the atonic state unique to REM sleep, and to integrate a new theory suggesting that improvement of muscular efficiency be a new function of REM sleep. This new function of REM sleep is more advantageous than the function of REM sleep in emotional memories and disinhibited drives to account for the phylogenetic variations of REM sleep, especially the absence of REM sleep in dolphins and short duration of REM sleep in birds in contrary to that in humans and rodents, the absence of penile erections in REM sleep in armadillo, as well as the higher voltage in EEG during REM sleep in platypus and ostrich. Besides, this new function of REM sleep is also advantageous to explain the association of REM sleep with the atonic episodes in SWS, the absence of drastic menopausal change in duration of REM sleep, and the effects of ambient temperature on the duration of REM sleep. These comparative and experimental evidences support the improvement of muscular efficiency as a new and major function of REM sleep. PMID:25770701

  11. Adolescence and Parental History of Alcoholism: Insights from the Sleep EEG

    E-print Network

    Background: Disrupted sleep is a common complaint of individuals with alcohol use disorder and in abstinentAdolescence and Parental History of Alcoholism: Insights from the Sleep EEG Leila Tarokh, Eliza Van alcoholics. Furthermore, among recovering alcoholics, poor sleep predicts relapse to drink- ing. Whether

  12. Evaluation of a Behavioral Treatment Package to Reduce Sleep Problems in Children with Angelman Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Kuhn, Brett R.; DeHaai, Kristi A.; Wallace, Dustin P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a behavioral treatment package to reduce chronic sleep problems in children with Angelman Syndrome. Participants were five children, 2-11 years-of-age. Parents maintained sleep diaries to record sleep and disruptive nighttime behaviors. Actigraphy was added to provide…

  13. Zolpidem reduces the sleep disturbance of jet lag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew O. Jamieson; Gary K. Zammit; Richard S. Rosenberg; Jeffrey R. Davis; James K. Walsh

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the degree to which zolpidem 10 mg would reduce the sleep disruption associated with rapid, eastward transatlantic travel.Background: Subsequent to rapid transmeridian travel, individuals often complain of jet lag which includes transient disturbances in sleep patterns, alertness, appetite and mood. Disturbed sleep and impaired alertness appear to be the most debilitating symptoms of jet lag.Methods: This multi-center,

  14. Numerical study of greenhouse nocturnal heat losses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Berroug; E. K. Lakhal; M. El Omari; M. Faraji; H. El Qarnia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify and analyze different components of nocturnal losses from a heated greenhouse with the presence of vegetation for typical winter weather conditions in Marrakesh-Morocco, using a non linear model, based on the greenhouse heat and mass balance. It was found that 12% of the total input heat was dissipate as a sensible and latent leakage losses,

  15. Nocturnal enuresis and upper airway obstruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ugur Çinar; Cetin Vural; Burak Çakir; Ebru Topuz; M. Ihsan Karaman; Suat Turgut

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between nocturnal enuresis (NE) and upper airway obstruction (UAO) in pediatric population. Material and methods: This study presents the results of our experience with 321 children who underwent adenotonsillar surgery. Results: Among 321 children who were operated on, 111 (35%) had NE. Seventy-four of the 111 children who had

  16. Severe Nocturnal and Postexercise Hypoxia in Children and Adolescents with Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Halphen, Isabelle; Elie, Caroline; Brousse, Valentine; Le Bourgeois, Muriel; Allali, Slimane; Bonnet, Damien; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common feature in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) that is inconsistently associated with painful crises and acute chest syndrome. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of hypoxia, we recorded daytime, nocturnal, and postexercise pulse oximetry (SpO2) values in 39 SCD patients with a median age of 10.8 years. Median daytime SpO2 was 97% (range, 89%–100%), and 36% of patients had daytime hypoxia defined as SpO2<96%. Median nocturnal SpO2 was 94.7% (range, 87.7%–99.5%), 50% of patients had nocturnal hypoxia defined as SpO2?93%, and 11(37%) patients spent more than 10% of their total sleep time with SpO2<90%. Median postexercise SpO2 was 94% (range, 72%–100%) and 44.7% of patients had postexercise hypoxia defined as an SpO2 decrease ?3% after a 6-minute walk test. Among patients with normal daytime SpO2, 35% had nocturnal and 42% postexercise hypoxia. Compared to 9 patients without daytime, nocturnal, or postexercise hypoxia, 25 patients with hypoxia under at least one of these three conditions had greater anemia severity (P?=?0.01), lower HbF levels (P?=?0.04), and higher aspartate aminotransferase levels (P?=?0.03). Males predominated among patients with postexercise hypoxia (P?=?0.004). Hypoxia correlated neither with painful crises nor with acute chest syndrome. Of 32 evaluable patients, 6 (18.8%) had a tricuspid regurgitation velocity ?2.6 m/s, and this feature was associated with anemia (P?=?0.044). Median percentage of the predicted distance covered during a 6-minute walk test was 86% [46–120]; the distance was negatively associated with LDH (P?=?0.044) and with a past history of acute chest syndrome (P?=?0.009). In conclusion, severe episodes of nocturnal and postexercise hypoxia are common in children with SCD, even those with normal daytime SpO2. PMID:24878576

  17. Longitudinal Study of Sleep Behavior in Normal Infants during the First Year of Life

    PubMed Central

    Bruni, Oliviero; Baumgartner, Emma; Sette, Stefania; Ancona, Mario; Caso, Gianni; Di Cosimo, Maria Elisabetta; Mannini, Andrea; Ometto, Mariangela; Pasquini, Anna; Ulliana, Antonella; Ferri, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To longitudinally examine sleep patterns, habits, and parent-reported sleep problems during the first year of life. Methods: Seven hundred four parent/child pairs participated in a longitudinal cohort study. Structured interview recording general demographic data, feeding habits, intercurrent diseases, family history, sleep habits, and parental evaluation of the infant's sleep carried out at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months Results: Nocturnal, daytime, and total sleep duration showed a high inter-individual variability in the first year of life associated with changes in the first 6 months and stability from 6 to 12 months. Bedtime was at around 22:00 and remained stable at 6, 9, and 12 months of age. Approximately 20% of the infants had more than 2 awakenings and slept more often in the parent bed. Nearly 10% of the infants were considered as having a problematic sleep by parents and this significantly correlated with nocturnal awakenings and difficulties falling asleep. Conclusions: Sleep patterns change during the first year of life but most sleep variables (i.e., sleep latency and duration) show little variation from 6 to 12 months. Our data provide a context for clinicians to discuss sleep issues with parents and suggest that prevention efforts should focus to the first 3-6 months, since sleep patterns show stability from that time point to 12 months. Citation: Bruni O, Baumgartner E, Sette S, Ancona M, Caso G, Di Cosimo ME, Mannini A, Ometto M, Pasquini A, Ulliana A, Ferri R. Longitudinal study of sleep behavior in normal infants during the first year of life. J Clin Sleep Med 2014;10(10):1119-1127. PMID:25317093

  18. Sleeping sickness

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleeping sickness is caused by two germs (protozoa), Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense . The more severe form of the illness is caused by T. b. rhodesiense . Tsetse flies carry ...

  19. Actigraphy in Remitted Bipolar Patients SLEEP IN REMITTED BIPOLAR DISORDER

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Actigraphy in Remitted Bipolar Patients 1 SLEEP IN REMITTED BIPOLAR DISORDER: A NATURALISTIC CASE;158:1-7" DOI : 10.1016/j.jad.2014.01.012 #12;Actigraphy in Remitted Bipolar Patients 2 Abstract (244) Introduction: Findings from actigraphic studies that sleep and circadian rhythms are disrupted in bipolar

  20. Caffeine and Sleep

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    Caffeine and Sleep (0:43) Dr. Lawrence Epstein describes how caffeine works to promote alertness, but can also inhibit restful sleep. Related Features Alcohol and Sleep Smoking and Sleep Twelve Simple ...

  1. Sleep disorders - overview

    MedlinePLUS

    Sleep disorders are problems with sleeping, including trouble falling or staying asleep, falling asleep at the wrong times, ... Mononucleosis or other viral illnesses Narcolepsy and other sleep disorders Obesity, especially if it causes obstructive sleep apnea ...

  2. Sleep and Chronic Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Sleep and Chronic Disease As chronic ... of depression be monitored among persons with a sleep disorder. 4, 5 References Knutson KL, Ryden AM, Mander ...

  3. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... kids and teens can develop it, too. About Sleep Apnea Sleep apnea happens when a person stops ... body movements and sleep positions Back Continue Treating Sleep Apnea If enlarged tonsils or adenoids are thought ...

  4. Sleep Fragmentation Exacerbates Mechanical Hypersensitivity and Alters Subsequent Sleep-Wake Behavior in a Mouse Model of Musculoskeletal Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation, or sleep disruption, enhances pain in human subjects. Chronic musculoskeletal pain is prevalent in our society, and constitutes a tremendous public health burden. Although preclinical models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain demonstrate effects on sleep, few studies focus on musculoskeletal pain. We reported elsewhere in this issue of SLEEP that musculoskeletal sensitization alters sleep of mice. In this study we hypothesize that sleep fragmentation during the development of musculoskeletal sensitization will exacerbate subsequent pain responses and alter sleep-wake behavior of mice. Design: This is a preclinical study using C57BL/6J mice to determine the effect on behavioral outcomes of sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization. Methods: Musculoskeletal sensitization, a model of chronic muscle pain, was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0) into the gastrocnemius muscle, spaced 5 days apart. Musculoskeletal sensitization manifests as mechanical hypersensitivity determined by von Frey filament testing at the hindpaws. Sleep fragmentation took place during the consecutive 12-h light periods of the 5 days between intramuscular injections. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature were recorded from some mice at baseline and for 3 weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization. Mechanical hypersensitivity was determined at preinjection baseline and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after sensitization. Two additional experiments were conducted to determine the independent effects of sleep fragmentation or musculoskeletal sensitization on mechanical hypersensitivity. Results: Five days of sleep fragmentation alone did not induce mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization resulted in prolonged and exacerbated mechanical hypersensitivity. Sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization had an effect on subsequent sleep of mice as demonstrated by increased numbers of sleep-wake state transitions during the light and dark periods; changes in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, rapid eye movement sleep, and wakefulness; and altered delta power during NREM sleep. These effects persisted for at least 3 weeks postsensitization. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that sleep fragmentation combined with musculoskeletal sensitization exacerbates the physiological and behavioral responses of mice to musculoskeletal sensitization, including mechanical hypersensitivity and sleep-wake behavior. These data contribute to increasing literature demonstrating bidirectional relationships between sleep and pain. The prevalence and incidence of insufficient sleep and pathologies characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain are increasing in the United States. These demographic data underscore the need for research focused on insufficient sleep and chronic pain so that the quality of life for the millions of individuals with these conditions may be improved. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Sleep fragmentation exacerbates mechanical hypersensitivity and alters subsequent sleep-wake behavior in a mouse model of musculoskeletal sensitization. SLEEP 2014;37(3):515-524. PMID:24587574

  5. Hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Craig L; O’Driscoll, Denise M

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is increasingly being recognized as a major health burden with strong focus on the associated cardiovascular risk. Studies from the last two decades have provided strong evidence for a causal role of OSA in the development of systemic hypertension. The acute physiological changes that occur during apnea promote nocturnal hypertension and may lead to the development of sustained daytime hypertension via the pathways of sympathetic activation, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction. This review will focus on the acute hemodynamic disturbances and associated intermittent hypoxia that characterize OSA and the potential pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the development of hypertension in OSA. In addition the epidemiology of OSA and hypertension, as well as the role of treatment of OSA, in improving blood pressure control will be examined. PMID:23750107

  6. Night-to-night variability in sleep in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maree A Milross; Amanda J Piper; Mark Norman; Grant N Willson; Ronald R Grunstein; Colin E Sullivan; Peter T. P Bye

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The impact of night-to-night variability (NNV) on polysomnography (PSG) has been reported mainly in normal subjects, the elderly and patients with obstructive sleep apnea with focus on changes in the apnea\\/hypopnea index, rather than measures of nocturnal oxygenation. There is very limited data on NNV in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The goal of this study was to assess

  7. Obstructive sleep apnoea: multiple comparisons of cephalometric variables of obese and non-obese patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vivat Tangugsorn; Olaf Krogstad; Lisen Espeland; Torstein Lyberg

    2000-01-01

    Background: Pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is complex and not yet fully understood. Several factors contribute to OSA severity. Obesity is believed to play an important role. Nevertheless, not all OSA patients are obese. Therefore, the different features that cause nocturnal upper airway obstruction in obese and non-obese OSA patients could be expected. Purpose: To investigate the different components

  8. No Evidence of Sleep Apnea in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacky Cooper; Louise Tyler; I. Wallace; Keith R. Burgess

    2004-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have a component of sleep apnea causing arousal and contributing to ADHD behavior during the day. Twenty non-ADHD children between 4 and 16 years of age were compared with 18 children with ADHD with use of nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) and psychometric tests. The psychometric testing confirmed that the control group were normal

  9. Hypnagogic and Hypnopompic Hallucinations during Sleep Paralysis: Neurological and Cultural Construction of the Night-Mare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Allan Cheyne; Steve D. Rueffer; Ian R. Newby-Clark

    1999-01-01

    Hypnagogic and hypnopompic experiences (HHEs) accompanying sleep paralysis (SP) are often cited as sources of accounts of supernatural nocturnal assaults and paranormal experiences. Descriptions of such experiences are remarkably consistent across time and cultures and consistent also with known mechanisms of REM states. A three-factor structural model of HHEs based on their relations both to cultural narratives and REM neurophysiology

  10. Investigating Sleep

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this activity about sleep rhythms (on page 25 of the PDF), learners will investigate how changing the time they go to bed impacts their own sleep patterns. For one night, learners will go to bed one hour earlier than usual. They will observe and record any impacts that this change has on their abilities to fall asleep, and on their usual wake times the next morning. This lesson guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions and a handout.

  11. Screening Sleep Disordered Breathing in Stroke Unit

    PubMed Central

    Väyrynen, Kirsi; Numminen, Heikki; Miettinen, Katja; Keso, Anna; Tenhunen, Mirja; Huhtala, Heini

    2014-01-01

    In acute stroke, OSA has been found to impair rehabilitation and increase mortality but the effect of central apnea is more unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of using limited ambulatory recording system (sleep mattress to evaluate nocturnal breathing and EOG-electrodes for sleep staging) in sleep disordered breathing (SDB) diagnostics in mild acute cerebral ischemia patients and to discover the prevalence of various SDB-patterns among these patients. 42 patients with mild ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack were studied. OSA was found in 22 patients (52.4%). Central apnea was found in two patients (4.8%) and sustained partial obstruction in only one patient (2.4%). Sleep staging with EOG-electrodes only yielded a similar outcome as scoring with standard rules. OSA was found to be common even after mild stroke. Its early diagnosis and treatment would be favourable in order to improve recovery and reduce mortality. Our results suggest that OSA can be assessed by a limited recording setting with EOG-electrodes, sleep mattress, and pulse oximetry. PMID:24991437

  12. Sleep in Othello

    PubMed Central

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  13. Sleep disturbance and the effects of extended-release zolpidem during cannabis withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Vandrey, Ryan; Smith, Michael T.; McCann, Una D.; Budney, Alan J.; Curran, Erin M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Sleep difficulty is a common symptom of cannabis withdrawal, but little research has objectively measured sleep or explored the effects of hypnotic medication on sleep during cannabis withdrawal. Methods Twenty daily cannabis users completed a within-subject crossover study. Participants alternated between periods of ad-libitum cannabis use and short-term cannabis abstinence (3 days). Placebo was administered at bedtime during one abstinence period (withdrawal test) and extended-release zolpidem, a non-benzodiazepine GABAA receptor agonist, was administered during the other. Polysomnographic (PSG) sleep architecture measures, subjective ratings, and cognitive performance effects were assessed each day. Results During the placebo-abstinence period, participants had decreased sleep efficiency, total sleep time, percent time spent in Stage 1 and Stage 2 sleep, REM latency and subjective sleep quality, as well as increased sleep latency and time spent in REM sleep compared with when they were using cannabis. Zolpidem attenuated the effects of abstinence on sleep architecture and normalized sleep efficiency scores, but had no effect on sleep latency. Zolpidem was not associated with any significant side effects or next-day cognitive performance impairments. Conclusions These data extend prior research that indicates abrupt abstinence from cannabis can lead to clinically significant sleep disruption in daily users. The findings also indicate that sleep disruption associated with cannabis withdrawal can be attenuated by zolpidem, suggesting that hypnotic medications might be useful adjunct pharmacotherapies in the treatment of cannabis use disorders. PMID:21296508

  14. Ecology and Neurophysiology of Sleep in Two Wild Sloth Species

    PubMed Central

    Voirin, Bryson; Scriba, Madeleine F.; Martinez-Gonzalez, Dolores; Vyssotski, Alexei L.; Wikelski, Martin; Rattenborg, Niels C.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Interspecific variation in sleep measured in captivity correlates with various physiological and environmental factors, including estimates of predation risk in the wild. However, it remains unclear whether prior comparative studies have been confounded by the captive recording environment. Herein we examine the effect of predation pressure on sleep in sloths living in the wild. Design: Comparison of two closely related sloth species, one exposed to predation and one free from predation. Setting: Panamanian mainland rainforest (predators present) and island mangrove (predators absent). Participants: Mainland (Bradypus variegatus, five males and four females) and island (Bradypus pygmaeus, six males) sloths. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Electroencephalographic (EEG) and electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded using a miniature data logger. Although both species spent between 9 and 10 h per day sleeping, the mainland sloths showed a preference for sleeping at night, whereas island sloths showed no preference for sleeping during the day or night. Standardized EEG activity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep showed lower low-frequency power, and increased spindle and higher frequency power in island sloths when compared to mainland sloths. Conclusions: In sloths sleeping in the wild, predation pressure influenced the timing of sleep, but not the amount of time spent asleep. The preference for sleeping at night in mainland sloths may be a strategy to avoid detection by nocturnal cats. The pronounced differences in the NREM sleep EEG spectrum remain unexplained, but might be related to genetic or environmental factors. Citation: Voirin B; Scriba MF; Martinez-Gonzalez D; Vyssotski AL; Wikelski M; Rattenborg NC. Ecology and neurophysiology of sleep in two wild sloth species. SLEEP 2014;37(4):753-761. PMID:24899764

  15. Delayed sleep onset in depressed young people

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The circadian abnormality of delayed sleep phase has been suggested to characterise a subgroup of depressed young adults with different risk factors and course of illness. We aim to assess the prevalence and factors, particularly substance use, associated with such delay in a large help-seeking cohort of young people with mental health problems. Methods From a consecutively recruited sample of 802 help-seeking young people, 305 (38%) had at least moderate depressive symptoms (QIDS-C16 >10), sleep data and did not have a chronic severe mental illness. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated through self report and clinical interview. Delayed sleep phase was defined as a sleep onset between the hours of 02:00 a.m. – 06:00 a.m. and the characteristics of this group were compared to normal phase sleepers. Results Delayed sleep onset was reported amongst 18% (n?=?56/305) of the depressed group compared to 11% of the non-depressed young people. Amongst the depressed group, delayed sleep onset was associated with tobacco, alcohol and cannabis misuse and short sleep duration (x?: 5.8 hrs vs. x?: 7.8 hrs). There were no differences in demographic factors, personality traits or symptoms. Tobacco smoking was very common: In logistic regression analyses only tobacco use (OR 2.28, 95% CI: 1.04 - 5.01) was associated with delayed sleep onset. There was no interaction with age. Conclusions Delayed sleep onset was twice as common in depressed young people as the general population and young people with other mental health problems, and is a potential marker for a subgroup of mood disorders. Those with delayed sleep onset were not more severely depressed but had short sleep duration, a risk for chronic psychological ill health, and higher levels of tobacco use. Nicotine use was common in this group, has biological evidence as a sleep disrupter, and requires specifically addressing in this population. PMID:24506941

  16. Aircraft noise effects on sleep: mechanisms, mitigation and research needs.

    PubMed

    Basner, Mathias; Griefahn, Barbara; Berg, Martin van den

    2010-01-01

    There is an ample number of laboratory and field studies which provide sufficient evidence that aircraft noise disturbs sleep and, depending on traffic volume and noise levels, may impair behavior and well-being during the day. Although clinical sleep disorders have been shown to be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, only little is known about the long-term effects of aircraft noise disturbed sleep on health. National and international laws and guidelines try to limit aircraft noise exposure facilitating active and passive noise control to prevent relevant sleep disturbances and its consequences. Adopting the harmonized indicator of the European Union Directive 2002/49/EC, the WHO Night Noise Guideline for Europe (NNG) defines four Lnight , outside ranges associated with different risk levels of sleep disturbance and other health effects ( < 30, 30-40, 40-55, and> 55 dBA). Although traffic patterns differing in number and noise levels of events that lead to varying degrees of sleep disturbance may result in the same Lnight , simulations of nights with up to 200 aircraft noise events per night nicely corroborate expert opinion guidelines formulated in WHO's NNG. In the future, large scale field studies on the effects of nocturnal (aircraft) noise on sleep are needed. They should involve representative samples of the population including vulnerable groups like children and chronically ill subjects. Optimally, these studies are prospective in nature and examine the long-term consequences of noise-induced sleep disturbances. Furthermore, epidemiological case-control studies on the association of nocturnal (aircraft) noise exposure and cardiovascular disease are needed. Despite the existing gaps in knowledge on long-term health effects, sufficient data are available for defining limit values, guidelines and protection concepts, which should be updated with the availability of new data. PMID:20472955

  17. Sleep-disordered breathing in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    PubMed

    Manni, Raffaele; Terzaghi, Michele

    2015-03-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of dementia, and it is very frequently associated with changes in sleep patterns. To date, the literature has focused mainly on REM sleep behavior as the most prominent sleep disorder in DLB while little is known about the prevalence and the impact of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) in DLB. Clinicians should be aware that the clinical diagnosis of SDB in DLB is difficult to establish and that the risk of overlooking SDB in patients with DLB is substantial. Polysomnographic sleep investigations may therefore be advisable in patients with DLB in order to objectify their sleep respiratory patterns. The available literature data on this topic, which are very limited and based on small case series, indicate that SDB occurs in 34.8 to 60% of patients with DLB. SDB can be hypothesized to coexist with other sleep-related disorders in an interactive loop: SDB alters sleep continuity, which can in turn facilitate nocturnal and daytime vigilance-dependent phenomena. There is an absolute need for prospective, preferably multi-center, controlled trials to establish whether, and to what extent, SDB might affect neuropsychological performances in patients with DLB and whether its treatment can improve residual daytime functioning in these patients. PMID:25663033

  18. Physiological changes, sleep, and morning mood in an isolated environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Norbert O.; Inoue, Natsuhiko; Mizuno, Koh; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Murai, Tadashi; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Orasanu, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous isolation studies have shown increased 24-h urine volumes and body weight gains in subjects. This project examined those and other physiological variables in relationship to sleep motor activity, subjective sleep quality, mood, and complaints during confinement. METHODS: Six male and two female subjects lived for 7 d in the National Space Development Agency of Japan's isolation chamber, which simulates the interior of the Japanese Experiment Module. Each 24-h period included 6 h of sleep, 3 meals, and 20 min of exercise. Each morning, subjects completed Sleep Sensation and Complaint Index questionnaires. Catecholamine and creatinine excretion, urine volume, and body weight were measured on the 2 d before and 2 d after confinement, and sleep motor activity was measured during confinement. RESULTS: Confinement produced no significant change in body weight, urine volume, or questionnaire results. In contrast, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and sleep motor activity exhibited significant differences during confinement (p < 0.05). Higher nocturnal norepinephrine excretion correlated with higher sleep motor activity. CONCLUSION: The 24-h epinephrine values were slightly higher than normal throughout the experiment, but lower than for subjects working under time-stress. High sympathetic activity (as indicated by norepinephrine) may have interfered with sleep.

  19. The Diurnal and Nocturnal Effect of Travoprost with SofZia on Intraocular Pressure and Ocular Perfusion Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine the 24-hour effects of travoprost with sofZia on intraocular pressure (IOP) and ocular perfusion pressure as well as the endurance of IOP lowering after last dosing. Design Prospective, open-label study Methods Forty subjects with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension were admitted to our sleep laboratory for three 24-hour sessions monitoring IOP, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate. The first baseline session occurred after medication washout or immediately after enrollment for treatment naive patients. A second 24-hour monitoring session was performed after four weeks of once nightly treatment of travoprost with sofZia. The medication was then discontinued and a third 24-hour session was completed 60-84 hours after the last dose taken. IOP measurements were taken using a pneumotonometer every two hours in the sitting position during the 16-hour diurnal period and in the supine position during the 8-hour nocturnal period. Ocular perfusion pressure was defined as 2/3[diastolic BP + 1/3(systolic BP - diastolic BP)] - IOP. Results Treatment with travoprost with sofZia significantly lowered mean diurnal and nocturnal IOP levels from baseline (Diurnal 18.1±3.9 to 15.3±3.3 mm Hg; Nocturnal 20.6±3.6 to 19.4±3.4 mm Hg, p<0.01 for both). Once treatment was discontinued, mean IOP remained at levels significantly less than baseline during both the diurnal (16.6±3.8 mm Hg) and nocturnal periods (19.4±3.5 mm Hg). Mean baseline ocular perfusion pressure was significantly increased during the diurnal but not the nocturnal period (Diurnal 73.7±11.4 to 76.5±10.3 mm Hg, p=0.01; Nocturnal 64.4±12.6 to 64.2±11.1 mm Hg, p=0.67). Conclusion Travoprost with sofZia significantly lowers IOP throughout the diurnal and nocturnal periods, and increases ocular perfusion pressure in the diurnal, but not the nocturnal period in open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The treatment effect on IOP endures for at least 84 hours after the last dose. PMID:24182742

  20. Sleep quality, sleep propensity and academic performance.

    PubMed

    Howell, Andrew J; Jahrig, Jesse C; Powell, Russell A

    2004-10-01

    We examined associations between measures of sleep propensity on the Epworth Sleepiness Scale, sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and academic performance by GPA and grades in introductory psychology for 414 students. In the total sample, neither sleep propensity nor sleep quality correlated with GPA or introductory psychology grades. However, among students carrying a full course load, those reporting poor sleep quality performed less well on academic measures than those reporting a better quality of sleep. Further research is needed to assess the moderating influence of overall demands of daytime functioning on the association between sleep quality and academic performance. PMID:15560340

  1. Mad, sad and hormonal: the gendered nature of adolescent sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Vallido, Tamara; Jackson, Debra; O'Brien, Louise

    2009-03-01

    Up to 40 percent of adolescents experience some form of sleep difficulty, with adolescent girls often reporting higher levels of sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue than boys. This article explores the literature surrounding female adolescent sleep disturbance. The findings reveal that sleep problems in young women can be linked to girls being at an increased risk for puberty-related fatigue, sexual abuse, a higher prevalence of mental illness and sensitivity to familial disruption, and increased domestic and grooming expectations. Implications for nursing practice include initiating conversations about sleep, sleep disturbance and sleeping arrangements when working with adolescent girls. Nurses should gather accurate sleep histories, provide adolescent girls and their caregivers with information and recommend interventions to improve sleep if necessary. Nurses should remain sensitive to the confounding effects of pubertal status, menarche and the cyclic release of hormones when designing and conducting future research into female adolescent sleep disturbance. PMID:19240187

  2. The use of evoked potentials in sleep research.

    PubMed

    Colrain, Ian M; Campbell, Kenneth B

    2007-08-01

    Averaged event-related potentials (ERPs) represent sensory and cognitive processing of stimuli during wakefulness independent of behavioral responses, and reflect the underlying state of the CNS (central nervous system) during sleep. Components measured during wakefulness which are reflective of arousal state or the automatic switching of attention are sensitive to prior sleep disruption. Components reflecting active attentional influences during the waking state appear to be preserved in a rudimentary form during REM sleep, but in a way that highlights the differences in the neurochemical environment between wakefulness and REM sleep. Certain ERP components only appear within sleep. These begin to emerge at NREM sleep onset and may reflect inhibition of information processing and thus have utility as markers of the functional status of sleep preparatory mechanisms. These large amplitude NREM components represent synchronized burst firing of large number of cortical cells and are a reflection of the nervous system's capacity to generate delta frequency EEG activity. As such they are useful in assessing the overall integrity of the nervous system in populations not showing substantial amounts of SWS as measured using traditional criteria. While requiring care in their interpretation, ERPs nonetheless provide a rich tool to investigators interested in probing the nervous system to evaluate daytime functioning in the face of sleep disruption, the ability of the sleeping nervous system to monitor the external environment, and the ability of the nervous system to respond to stimuli in a manner consistent with the initiation or maintenance of sleep. PMID:17628317

  3. Musculoskeletal Sensitization and Sleep: Chronic Muscle Pain Fragments Sleep of Mice without Altering Its Duration

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Musculoskeletal pain in humans is often associated with poor sleep quality. We used a model in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced by injection of acidified saline into muscle to study the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of mice. Design: A one month pre-clinical study was designed to determine the impact of musculoskeletal sensitization on sleep of C57BL/6J mice. Methods: We instrumented mice with telemeters to record the electroencephalogram (EEG) and body temperature. We used an established model of musculoskeletal sensitization in which mechanical hypersensitivity was induced using two unilateral injections of acidified saline (pH 4.0). The injections were given into the gastrocnemius muscle and spaced five days apart. EEG and body temperature recordings started prior to injections (baseline) and continued for three weeks after musculoskeletal sensitization was induced by the second injection. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed using von Frey filaments at baseline (before any injections) and on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 21 after the second injection. Results: Mice injected with acidified saline developed bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity at the hind paws as measured by von Frey testing and as compared to control mice and baseline data. Sleep during the light period was fragmented in experimental mice injected with acidified saline, and EEG spectra altered. Musculoskeletal sensitization did not alter the duration of time spent in wakefulness, non-rapid eye movement sleep, or rapid eye movement sleep. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal sensitization in this model results in a distinct sleep phenotype in which sleep is fragmented during the light period, but the overall duration of sleep is not changed. This study suggests the consequences of musculoskeletal pain include sleep disruption, an observation that has been made in the clinical literature but has yet to be studied using preclinical models. Citation: Sutton BC; Opp MR. Musculoskeletal sensitization and sleep: chronic muscle pain fragments sleep of mice without altering its duration. SLEEP 2014;37(3):505-513. PMID:24587573

  4. Poor Sleep Quality and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Patients with GERD and Barrett’s Esophagus

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Marcelo F.; Kramer, Jennifer R.; Richardson, Peter A.; Dodge, Rhiannon; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) reduces sleep quality. Whether Barrett’s esophagus (BE) affects sleep differently is unknown. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) often coexists with GERD and may disrupt sleep; whether GERD reduces sleep quality independently of OSA is unknown. Our aims were to compare the effect of GERD and BE on sleep quality, and assess the impact of OSA on this association. Methods Validated questionnaires for GERD symptoms, sleep quality, and OSA risk were prospectively administered to subjects undergoing upper endoscopy. GERD was defined by erosive esophagitis and/or reflux symptoms >1/week. BE was defined histologically. Controls had normal endoscopy and were asymptomatic. Poor sleep quality was defined by a Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score >5. Risk of OSA was defined by a positive Berlin Questionnaire. The risk poor sleep quality in GERD, BE, and controls was evaluated in multivariate models. Key Results 83 GERD, 63 BE, and 75 controls were included. OSA and poor sleep quality were significantly more frequent in GERD (65% and 60%) but not BE (52% and 46%) compared with controls (48% and 39%). Controlling for age, race, gender, smoking, BMI, and hypertension, the risk of poor sleep quality was significantly increased in GERD compared with controls (odds ratio [OR] = 2.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 – 6.80), significance was lost after adding OSA to the model (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 0.87 – 5.85). Conclusions and Inferences GERD but not BE increases the risk of poor sleep quality. This association is not independent of OSA. PMID:24460751

  5. Effect of sleep deprivation on the human metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sarah K.; Ang, Joo Ern; Revell, Victoria L.; Holmes, Ben; Mann, Anuska; Robertson, Francesca P.; Cui, Nanyi; Middleton, Benita; Ackermann, Katrin; Kayser, Manfred; Thumser, Alfred E.; Raynaud, Florence I.; Skene, Debra J.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep restriction and circadian clock disruption are associated with metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The metabolic pathways involved in human sleep, however, have yet to be investigated with the use of a metabolomics approach. Here we have used untargeted and targeted liquid chromatography (LC)/MS metabolomics to examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation on plasma metabolite rhythms. Twelve healthy young male subjects remained in controlled laboratory conditions with respect to environmental light, sleep, meals, and posture during a 24-h wake/sleep cycle, followed by 24 h of wakefulness. Two-hourly plasma samples collected over the 48 h period were analyzed by LC/MS. Principal component analysis revealed a clear time of day variation with a significant cosine fit during the wake/sleep cycle and during 24 h of wakefulness in untargeted and targeted analysis. Of 171 metabolites quantified, daily rhythms were observed in the majority (n = 109), with 78 of these maintaining their rhythmicity during 24 h of wakefulness, most with reduced amplitude (n = 66). During sleep deprivation, 27 metabolites (tryptophan, serotonin, taurine, 8 acylcarnitines, 13 glycerophospholipids, and 3 sphingolipids) exhibited significantly increased levels compared with during sleep. The increased levels of serotonin, tryptophan, and taurine may explain the antidepressive effect of acute sleep deprivation and deserve further study. This report, to our knowledge the first of metabolic profiling during sleep and sleep deprivation and characterization of 24 h rhythms under these conditions, offers a novel view of human sleep/wake regulation. PMID:25002497

  6. Sleep in Persons with Frontotemporal Dementia and Their Family Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Jennifer; Hubbard, Erin; Mastick, Judy; Miller, Bruce L.; Dowling, Glenna A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is associated with disruptions in sleep and sleep quality for patients and their family caregivers. Little is known about the impact of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) on sleep. Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize sleep in patients with frontotemporal dementia and their family caregivers. Methods Twenty-two patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled: Thirteen behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and nine semantic dementia (SD). Sleep and sleep quality data were collected for two weeks using diaries and Actiwatches. Results Patients with bvFTD and SD spent more time in bed at night compared to their caregivers. Nighttime behaviors were reported more frequently by caregivers for the bvFTD patients and strongly correlated with caregiver distress. Actigraphy data demonstrated normal sleep efficiency and timing of the nighttime sleep period for both patients and their caregivers. Caregivers of patients with bvFTD reported poorer sleep quality compared to the SD caregivers. A greater number of bvFTD caregivers compared to SD reported negative aspects of sleep quality for themselves and used sleep medications more frequently. Conclusion The clinical manifestations of bvFTD appear to be associated with different and more distressing impacts on the caregiver sleep quality than SD. PMID:24589648

  7. Sleep-disordered breathing after targeted ablation of preBötzinger complex neurons.

    PubMed

    McKay, Leanne C; Janczewski, Wiktor A; Feldman, Jack L

    2005-09-01

    Ablation of preBötzinger complex (preBötC) neurons, critical for respiratory rhythm generation, resulted in a progressive, increasingly severe disruption of respiratory pattern, initially during sleep and then also during wakefulness in adult rats. Sleep-disordered breathing is highly prevalent in elderly humans and in some patients with neurodegenerative disease. We propose that sleep-disordered breathing results from loss of preBötC neurons and could underlie death during sleep in these populations. PMID:16116455

  8. Sleep monitoring in the intensive care unit: comparison of nurse assessment, actigraphy and polysomnography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime M. Beecroft; Michael Ward; Magdy Younes; Shelley Crombach; Orla Smith; Patrick J. Hanly

    2008-01-01

    Objective  Sleep loss and sleep disruption are common in critically ill patients and may adversely affect clinical outcomes. Although\\u000a polysomnography remains the most accurate and reliable way to measure sleep, it is costly and impractical for regular use\\u000a in the intensive care unit. This study evaluates the accuracy of two other methods currently used for measuring sleep, actigraphy\\u000a (monitoring of gross

  9. A before and after comparison of the effects of forest walking on the sleep of a community-based sample of people with sleep complaints

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbance is a major health issue in Japan. This before-after study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of forest walking in a community-based population with sleep complaints. Methods Participants were 71 healthy volunteers (43 men and 28 women). Two-hour forest-walking sessions were conducted on 8 different weekend days from September through December 2005. Sleep conditions were compared between the nights before and after walking in a forest by self-administered questionnaire and actigraphy data. Results Two hours of forest walking improved sleep characteristics; impacting actual sleep time, immobile minutes, self-rated depth of sleep, and sleep quality. Mean actual sleep time estimated by actigraphy on the night after forest walking was 419.8 ± 128.7 (S.D.) minutes whereas that the night before was 365.9 ± 89.4 minutes (n = 42). Forest walking in the afternoon improved actual sleep time and immobile minutes compared with forest walking in the forenoon. Mean actual sleep times did not increase after forenoon walks (n = 26) (the night before and after forenoon walks, 380.0 ± 99.6 and 385.6 ± 101.7 minutes, respectively), whereas afternoon walks (n = 16) increased mean actual sleep times from 342.9 ± 66.2 to 475.4 ± 150.5 minutes. The trend of mean immobile minutes was similar to the abovementioned trend of mean actual sleep times. Conclusions Forest walking improved nocturnal sleep conditions for individuals with sleep complaints, possibly as a result of exercise and emotional improvement. Furthermore, extension of sleep duration was greater after an afternoon walk compared to a forenoon walk. Further study of a forest-walking program in a randomized controlled trial is warranted to clarify its effect on people with insomnia. PMID:21999605

  10. The effects of periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Norma G

    2013-01-01

    Periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) are uncontrollable nocturnal movements that occur during sleep and increase with age. Research has implicated PLMS as a contributing factor to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this manuscript is to 1) explain the sleep disorder of PLMS and implications on CVD; 2) identify the impact of PLMS on CVD; 3) discuss treatment options for PLMS; 4) present future research needs for PLMS/RLS; 5) provide implications to health care providers to improve the care and health outcomes of persons with PLMS. PMID:23998383

  11. Primary sleep disorders in people with epilepsy: clinical questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Grigg-Damberger, Madeleine M; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The questions facing clinicians with patients with sleep disorder and epilepsy are addressed in this article. Both adult and child epilepsy are discussed in the context of the most typical questions a clinician would have, such as "Are parasomnias more common in people with epilepsy?", "Is sleep architecture abnormal in children with epilepsy", along with outcomes of numerous questionnaire-based, case-based, and double-blind placebo studies on such aspects as sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, anxiety and fears, limb movement, nocturnal seizures, agitation, behavioral disorders, and learning disorders. PMID:25455580

  12. Melatonin and melatonergic drugs on sleep: possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujan; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R; Trahkt, Ilya; Spence, D Warren; Poeggeler, Burkhard; Hardeland, Ruediger; Cardinali, Daniel P

    2009-01-01

    Pineal melatonin is synthesized and secreted in close association with the light/dark cycle. The temporal relationship between the nocturnal rise in melatonin secretion and the "opening of the sleep gate" (i.e., the increase in sleep propensity at the beginning of the night), coupled with the sleep-promoting effects of exogenous melatonin, suggest that melatonin is involved in the regulation of sleep. The sleep-promoting and sleep/wake rhythm regulating effects of melatonin are attributed to its action on MT(1) and MT(2) melatonin receptors present in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Animal experiments carried out in rats, cats, and monkeys have revealed that melatonin has the ability to reduce sleep onset time and increase sleep duration. However, clinical studies reveal inconsistent findings, with some of them reporting beneficial effects of melatonin on sleep, whereas in others only marginal effects are documented. Recently a prolonged-release 2-mg melatonin preparation (Circadin(TM)) was approved by the European Medicines Agency as a monotherapy for the short-term treatment of primary insomnia in patients who are aged 55 or above. Several melatonin derivatives have been shown to increase nonrapid eye movement (NREM) in rats and are of potential pharmacological importance. So far only one of these melatonin derivatives, ramelteon, has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be used as a sleep promoter. Ramelteon is a novel MT(1) and MT(2) melatonergic agonist that has specific effects on melatonin receptors in the SCN and is effective in promoting sleep in experimental animals such as cats and monkeys. In clinical trials, ramelteon reduced sleep onset latency and promoted sleep in patients with chronic insomnia, including an older adult population. Both melatonin and ramelteon promote sleep by regulating the sleep/wake rhythm through their actions on melatonin receptors in the SCN, a unique mechanism of action not shared by any other hypnotics. Moreover, unlike benzodiazepines, ramelteon causes neither withdrawal effects nor dependence. Agomelatine, another novel melatonergic antidepressant in its final phase of approval for clinical use, has been shown to improve sleep in depressed patients and to have an antidepressant efficacy that is partially attributed to its effects on sleep-regulating mechanisms. PMID:19326288

  13. Assessing Individual Differences in Adaptation to Extreme Environments: A 36-Hour Sleep Deprivation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Jacqueline; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    In space, astronauts may experience effects of cumulative sleep loss due to demanding work schedules that can result in cognitive performance impairments, mood state deteriorations, and sleep-wake cycle disruption. Individuals who experience sleep deprivation of six hours beyond normal sleep times experience detrimental changes in their mood and performance states. Hence, the potential for life threatening errors increases exponentially with sleep deprivation. We explored the effects of 36-hours of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance, mood states, and physiological responses to identify which metrics may best predict fatigue induced performance decrements of individuals.

  14. Circadian and sleep disorder in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Morton, A Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    Huntington's disease is a progressive neurological disorder that starts insidiously with motor, cognitive or psychiatric disturbance, and progresses through a distressing range of symptoms to end with a devastating loss of function, both motor and executive. There is a growing awareness that, in addition to cognitive and psychiatric symptoms, there are other important non-motor symptoms in HD, including sleep and circadian abnormalities. It is not clear if sleep-wake changes are caused directly by HD gene-related pathology, or if they are simply a consequence of having a neurodegenerative disease. From a patient point of view, the answer is irrelevant, since sleep and circadian disturbances are deleterious to good daily living, even in neurologically normal people. The assumption should be that, at the very least, sleep and/or circadian disturbance in HD patients will contribute to their symptoms. At worst, they may contribute to the progressive decline in HD. Here I review the state of our understanding of sleep and circadian abnormalities in HD. I also outline a set of simple rules that can be followed to improve the chances of a good night's sleep, since preventing any 'preventable' symptoms is the a logical first step in treating disease. The long-term impact of sleep disruption in HD is unknown. There have been no large-scale systematic studies of in sleep in HD. Furthermore, there has never been a study of the efficacy of pharmaceuticals that are typically used to treat sleep deficits in HD patients. Thus treatment of sleep disturbance in HD is necessarily empirical. A better understanding of the relationship between sleep/circadian abnormalities and HD pathology is needed, if treatment of this aspect of HD is to be optimized. PMID:23099415

  15. Numerical study of greenhouse nocturnal heat losses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Berroug; E. K. Lakhal; M. El Omari; M. Faraji; H. El Qarnia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we quantify and analyze different components of nocturnal losses from a heated greenhouse with the presence\\u000a of vegetation for typical winter weather conditions in Marrakesh-Morocco, using a non linear model, based on the greenhouse\\u000a heat and mass balance. It was found that 12% of the total input heat was dissipate as a sensible and latent leakage losses,

  16. Theophylline: Potential antiinflammatory effects in nocturnal asthma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Kraft; Julie A. Torvik; John B. Trudeau; Sally E. Wenzel; Richard J. Martin

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent information suggests that one of the therapeutic properties of theophylline is an antiinflammatory effect. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated this potential effect of theophylline in eight patients with nocturnal asthma. METHODS: The study design was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover of 2-week treatment periods, separated by a 1-week washout period. Spirometry and bronchoscopy were performed. RESULTS: Theophylline, compared with placebo,

  17. Sleep, Sleep Deprivation, Photosensitivity and Epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Scollo-Lavizzari

    1974-01-01

    In order to investigate whether sleep deprivation activates the photoconvulsive response 35 patients were investigated electroencephalographically after 24–36 h of waking. In 34 cases with sleep deprivation photostimulation showed a clear photosensitivity which was not present before sleep deprivation. This pathological response to photostimulation was unchanged after the short sleep period, in some even potentiated. Long-term anticonvulsive therapy could not

  18. Dynamics of Sleep Stage Transitions in Health and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishi, Akifumi; Struzik, Zbigniew R.; Natelson, Benjamin H.; Togo, Fumiharu; Yamamoto, Yoshiharu

    2007-07-01

    Sleep dynamics emerges from complex interactions between neuronal populations in many brain regions. Annotated sleep stages from electroencephalography (EEG) recordings could potentially provide a non-invasive way to obtain valuable insights into the mechanisms of these interactions, and ultimately into the very nature of sleep regulation. However, to date, sleep stage analysis has been restricted, only very recently expanding the scope of the traditional descriptive statistics to more dynamical concepts of the duration of and transitions between vigilance states and temporal evaluation of transition probabilities among different stages. Physiological and/or pathological implications of the dynamics of sleep stage transitions have, to date, not been investigated. Here, we study detailed duration and transition statistics among sleep stages in healthy humans and patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, known to be associated with disturbed sleep. We find that the durations of waking and non-REM sleep, in particular deep sleep (Stages III and IV), during the nighttime, follow a power-law probability distribution function, while REM sleep durations follow an exponential function, suggestive of complex underlying mechanisms governing the onset of light sleep. We also find a substantial number of REM to non-REM transitions in humans, while this transition is reported to be virtually non-existent in rats. Interestingly, the probability of this REM to non-REM transition is significantly lower in the patients than in controls, resulting in a significantly greater REM to awake, together with Stage I to awake, transition probability. This might potentially account for the reported poor sleep quality in the patients because the normal continuation of sleep after either the lightest or REM sleep is disrupted. We conclude that the dynamical transition analysis of sleep stages is useful for elucidating yet-to-be-determined human sleep regulation mechanisms with a pathophysiological implication.

  19. A HAT for sleep?: epigenetic regulation of sleep by Tip60 in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Pirooznia, Sheila K; Elefant, Felice

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD). Unfortunately, how AD is mechanistically linked with interference of the body's natural sleep rhythms remains unclear. Our recent findings provide insight into this question by demonstrating that sleep disruption associated with AD is driven by epigenetic changes mediated by the histone acetyltransferase (HAT) Tip60. In this study, we show that Tip60 functionally interacts with the AD associated amyloid precursor protein (APP) to regulate axonal growth of Drosophila small ventrolateral neuronal (sLNv) pacemaker cells, and their production of neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF) that stabilizes appropriate sleep-wake patterns in the fly. Loss of Tip60 HAT activity under APP neurodegenerative conditions causes decreased PDF production, retraction of the sLNv synaptic arbor required for PDF release and disruption of sleep-wake cycles in these flies. Remarkably, excess Tip60 in conjunction with APP fully rescues these sleep-wake disturbances by inducing overelaboration of the sLNv synaptic terminals and increasing PDF levels, supporting a neuroprotective role for Tip60 in these processes. Our studies highlight the importance of epigenetic based mechanisms underlying sleep disturbances in neurodegenerative diseases like AD. PMID:23572111

  20. Role of GABAA receptors in the regulation of sleep: initial sleep responses to peripherally administered modulators and agonists.

    PubMed

    Lancel, M

    1999-02-01

    This paper reviews the sleep effects of systemically administered agonistic modulators of GABAA receptors, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines, zolpidem, zopiclone and neuroactive steroids, and the selective GABAA agonists muscimol and THIP. To assess the involvement of GABAA receptors in the physiologic regulation of sleep, the article emphasizes the hypnotic properties shared by agonistic modulators and by the selective agonists of the GABAA receptor complex. In both rats and normal sleeping individuals, agonistic modulators are able to reduce sleep latency, increase sleep continuity, and promote non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep as well as the occurrence of spindles. Furthermore, nearly all of these compounds have been shown to attenuate slow-wave activity (SWA) and to suppress the occurrence of REM sleep. In the same species, GABAA agonist(s) do not seem to affect sleep latency or REM sleep time, but may increase sleep continuity and NREM sleep and augment SWA while depressing spindle activity in humans. The distinct sleep effects of GABAA agonists may be due to their unspecific stimulation of GABAA receptors throughout the brain, and to the fact that they are poor substrates for uptake and probably exert more tonic effects than liberated GABA. If so, the involvement of GABAA receptors in the various aspects of sleep can be inferred more accurately from the hypnotic effects of agonistic modulators. This implies that an activation of GABAA receptors plays a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance of NREM sleep and in the generation of sleep spindles, but disrupts the processes underlying slow EEG components and the triggering of REM sleep. PMID:9989364

  1. Sleeping Birds Do Not Respond to Predator Odour

    PubMed Central

    Amo, Luisa; Caro, Samuel P.; Visser, Marcel E.

    2011-01-01

    Background During sleep animals are relatively unresponsive and unaware of their environment, and therefore, more exposed to predation risk than alert and awake animals. This vulnerability might influence when, where and how animals sleep depending on the risk of predation perceived before going to sleep. Less clear is whether animals remain sensitive to predation cues when already asleep. Methodology/Principal Findings We experimentally tested whether great tits are able to detect the chemical cues of a common nocturnal predator while sleeping. We predicted that birds exposed to the scent of a mammalian predator (mustelid) twice during the night would not go into torpor (which reduces their vigilance) and hence would not reduce their body temperature as much as control birds, exposed to the scent of another mammal that does not represent a danger for the birds (rabbit). As a consequence of the higher body temperature birds exposed to the scent of a predator are predicted to have a higher resting metabolic rate (RMR) and to lose more body mass. In the experiment, all birds decreased their body temperature during the night, but we did not find any influence of the treatment on body temperature, RMR, or body mass. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that birds are not able to detect predator chemical cues while sleeping. As a consequence, antipredatory strategies taken before sleep, such as roosting sites inspection, may be crucial to cope with the vulnerability to predation risk while sleeping. PMID:22110676

  2. Nocturnal oximetry in infants with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Villa, M; Pagani, J; Lucidi, V; Palamides, S; Ronchetti, R

    2001-01-01

    AIM—To investigate whether children with cystic fibrosis under 3 years of age have disordered breathing and episodes of oxygen desaturation during sleep.?METHODS—We studied 19 infants (9 boys and 10 girls) with cystic fibrosis, mean age 13.1 months (range 3-36 months) and 20 age and sex matched healthy subjects. Patients and controls underwent an overnight polysomnographic study and respiratory function testing on the following morning.?RESULTS—Seven patients with ongoing respiratory tract inflammation had disordered breathing and episodes of oxygen desaturation during sleep. Pulse oximetry showed a significantly lower mean oxygen saturation (SaO2) and a higher percentage of total sleep time spent with SaO2 less than 93% in symptomatic children than in controls.?CONCLUSION—Results suggest that infants and young children with cystic fibrosis and mild airways inflammation (rhinitis, cough, red throat) have episodes of oxygen desaturation during sleep.?? PMID:11124784

  3. Obstructive sleep apnea: awakening the hidden truth.

    PubMed

    Viswanath, A; Ramamurthy, J; Dinesh, S P S; Srinivas, A

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common type of sleep apnea and is caused by obstruction of upper airway. Sleep apnea is clinically defined as frequent episodes of apnea, hypopnea and symptoms of functional impairment, which could be life-threatening and associated with extreme daytime hyper somnolence, dysfunction, discrements in health-related quality of life, automobile accidents, and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Etiopathogenic factors that contribute to OSA include reduced upper-airway dilator muscle activity during sleep, upper-airway anatomical features, ventilatory control insufficiency, lung volume, and rostral fluid shifts. The presence of risk factors such as age, gender and obesity increases the incidence of OSA. The repetitive nocturnal hypoxemia experienced by patients with OSA is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms, all of which have also been implicated in the pathophysiology of various systemic diseases. This article summarizes the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, associated systemic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and dental diseases with OSA and the influence of tongue on oropharyngeal airway in OSA patients. PMID:25511335

  4. Sleep physiology and pathophysiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Roehrs

    2000-01-01

    Sleep is a complex, highly organized state that is fundamental to life. And yet, many functions of sleep remain to be discovered and understood. The past 50 years of modern sleep research clearly indicate what sleep is not-simply a resting brain, as popular notions and behavioral observations might suggest. This review will describe normal sleep physiology and its regulation as

  5. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: a review

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Callum J; Pocock, Michael J O; Fox, Richard; Evans, Darren M

    2015-01-01

    1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world. 2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted. 3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate. 4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.

  6. Crew factors in flight operations. Part 4: Sleep and wakefulness in international aircrews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    Physiological recordings of sleep and wakefulness in operating international (B-747) flight crews were obtained. Crews spent their first layover (48 h) of a trip in a sleep laboratory where standardized EEG, electro-oculograph (EOC), and electromyograph (EMG) sleep recordings were carried out whenever volunteers chose to sleep. During periods of wakefulness they underwent multiple sleep latency tests every 2 h in order to assess daytime drowsiness. The same standardized recordings were carried out at a home-based laboratory before departure. Approximately four crews each participated in flights over 7 to 9 time zones on five routes. All participants were encouraged to use whatever sleep-wake strategies they thought would provide them with the most satisfactory crew rest. Overall, layover sleep quality was not seriously disturbed, but eastward flights produced greater sleep disruption. The contributors of individual factors and the usefulness of various sleep strategies are discussed in the individual laboratory reports and in an operational summary.

  7. Flight crew sleep during multiple layover polar flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Mitsuo; Kurosaki, Yuko S.; Spinweber, Cheryl L.; Graeber, R. C.; Takahashi, Toshiharu

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated changes in sleep after multiple transmeridian flights. The subjects were 12 B747 airline pilots operating on the following polar flight: Tokyo (TYO)-Anchorage (ANC)-London (LON)-Anchorage-Tokyo. Sleep polysmonograms were recorded on two baseline nights (B1, B2), during layovers, and, after returning to Tokyo, two recovery nights were recorded (R1, R2). In ANC (outbound), total sleep time was reduced and, sleep efficiency was low (72.0 percent). In London, time in bed increased slightly, but sleep efficiency was still reduced. On return to ANC (inbound), there was considerable slow wave sleep rebound and multiple awakenings reduced sleep efficiency to 76.8 percent. Sleep efficiency on R2 was significantly lower than on B1 but not different from R1. To sum up, sleep of aircrews flying multiple transmeridian flights is disrupted during layovers and this effect persists during the two recovery nights. As a result, there is a marked cumulative sleep loss during multilegs polar route trip in comparison to single leg flights. These findings suggest that following such extensive transmeridian trips, crews should have at least three nights of recovery sleep in their home time zone before returning to duty.

  8. Caffeine Effects on Sleep Taken 0, 3, or 6 Hours before Going to Bed

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Christopher; Roehrs, Timothy; Shambroom, John; Roth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: Sleep hygiene recommendations are widely disseminated despite the fact that few systematic studies have investigated the empirical bases of sleep hygiene in the home environment. For example, studies have yet to investigate the relative effects of a given dose of caffeine administered at different times of day on subsequent sleep. Methods: This study compared the potential sleep disruptive effects of a fixed dose of caffeine (400 mg) administered at 0, 3, and 6 hours prior to habitual bedtime relative to a placebo on self-reported sleep in the home. Sleep disturbance was also monitored objectively using a validated portable sleep monitor. Results: Results demonstrated a moderate dose of caffeine at bedtime, 3 hours prior to bedtime, or 6 hours prior to bedtime each have significant effects on sleep disturbance relative to placebo (p < 0.05 for all). Conclusion: The magnitude of reduction in total sleep time suggests that caffeine taken 6 hours before bedtime has important disruptive effects on sleep and provides empirical support for sleep hygiene recommendations to refrain from substantial caffeine use for a minimum of 6 hours prior to bedtime. Citation: Drake C; Roehrs T; Shambroom J; Roth T. Caffeine effects on sleep taken 0, 3, or 6 hours before going to bed. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(11):1195-1200. PMID:24235903

  9. Genetic Variation in Melatonin Pathway Enzymes in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comorbid Sleep Onset Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veatch, Olivia J.; Pendergast, Julie S.; Allen, Melissa J.; Leu, Roberta M.; Johnson, Carl Hirschie; Elsea, Sarah H.; Malow, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disruption is common in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Genes whose products regulate endogenous melatonin modify sleep patterns and have been implicated in ASD. Genetic factors likely contribute to comorbid expression of sleep disorders in ASD. We studied a clinically unique ASD subgroup, consisting solely of children with…

  10. Practice Parameters for the Non-Respiratory Indications for Polysomnography and Multiple Sleep Latency Testing for Children

    PubMed Central

    Aurora, R. Nisha; Lamm, Carin I.; Zak, Rochelle S.; Kristo, David A.; Bista, Sabin R.; Rowley, James A.; Casey, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although a level 1 nocturnal polysomnogram (PSG) is often used to evaluate children with non-respiratory sleep disorders, there are no published evidence-based practice parameters focused on the pediatric age group. In this report, we present practice parameters for the indications of polysomnography and the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) in the assessment of non-respiratory sleep disorders in children. These practice parameters were reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). Methods: A task force of content experts was appointed by the AASM to review the literature and grade the evidence according to the American Academy of Neurology grading system. Recommendations For PSG and MSLT Use: PSG is indicated for children suspected of having periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) for diagnosing PLMD. (STANDARD) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children as part of the evaluation for suspected narcolepsy. (STANDARD) Children with frequent NREM parasomnias, epilepsy, or nocturnal enuresis should be clinically screened for the presence of comorbid sleep disorders and polysomnography should be performed if there is a suspicion for sleep-disordered breathing or periodic limb movement disorder. (GUIDELINE) The MSLT, preceded by nocturnal PSG, is indicated in children suspected of having hypersomnia from causes other than narcolepsy to assess excessive sleepiness and to aid in differentiation from narcolepsy. (OPTION) The polysomnogram using an expanded EEG montage is indicated in children to confirm the diagnosis of an atypical or potentially injurious parasomnia or differentiate a parasomnia from sleep-related epilepsy (OPTION) Polysomnography is indicated in children suspected of having restless legs syndrome (RLS) who require supportive data for diagnosing RLS. (OPTION) Recommendations Against PSG Use: Polysomnography is not routinely indicated for evaluation of children with sleep-related bruxism. (STANDARD) Conclusions: The nocturnal polysomnogram and MSLT are useful clinical tools for evaluating pediatric non-respiratory sleep disorders when integrated with the clinical evaluation. Citation: Aurora RN; Lamm CI; Zak RS; Kristo DA; Bista SR; Rowley JA; Casey KR. Practice parameters for the non-respiratory indications for polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing for children. SLEEP 2012;35(11):1467-1473. PMID:23115395

  11. Sleep in adolescent depression: physiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Urrila, A S; Paunio, T; Palomäki, E; Marttunen, M

    2015-04-01

    Depression and disturbed sleep are intimately and bidirectionally related. During adolescence, the incidence of both insomnia and major depression increases simultaneously, in a gender-specific manner. The majority of depressed adolescents suffer from different types of subjective sleep complaints. Despite these complaints, the results from polysomnographic studies in depressed adolescents remain inconsistent. In general, similar features to those seen among adults with depressive disorder (e.g. abnormalities in rapid eye movement sleep and difficulties in sleep onset) have been reported, but expressed to a lesser degree. The inconsistency in findings may be linked with maturational factors, factors related to the stage of illness and greater heterogeneity in the clinical spectrum of depression among adolescents. The exact neurobiological mechanisms by which sleep alterations and depression are linked during adolescence are not fully understood. Aberrations in brain maturation, expressed at different levels of organization, for example gene expression, neurotransmitter and hormone metabolism, and activity of neuronal networks have been suggested. The circadian systems may change in adolescent depression beyond that observed during healthy adolescent development (i.e. beyond the typical circadian shift towards eveningness). A number of therapeutic approaches to alleviate sleep disruption associated with depression have been proposed, but research on the efficacy of these interventions in adolescents is lacking. Knowledge of the neurobiological links between sleep and depression during adolescence could lead to new insights into effective prevention and treatment of depression. PMID:25561272

  12. Central sleep apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... central sleep apnea. A condition called Cheyne-Stokes respiration can mimic central sleep apnea. This involves breathing ... bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) or adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV). Some types of central sleep apnea are ...

  13. Sleep Data and Statistics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Data and Statistics Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System ( BRFSS ) Population : Adults ... Podcasts and Sleep e-Cards Fact Sheets Data & Statistics Projects and Partners Resources Events File Formats Help: ...

  14. Aging changes in sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health condition is affecting your sleep. COMMON PROBLEMS Insomnia is one of the more common sleep problems ... an actual sleeping pill for relieving short-term insomnia. However, most health experts do not recommend these ...

  15. Interactive Sleep Quiz

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Americans suffer from sleep disorders, including sleep apnea, insomnia, narcolepsy, and restless legs syndrome. An untreated sleep ... can live normal lives. The primary cause of insomnia is worry. True False Correct! Incorrect! Insomnia has ...

  16. Sleep and Women

    MedlinePLUS

    ... miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment ... Tips Healthy Sleep Habits Sleep Disorders by Category Insomnias Insomnia Child Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  17. Sleep studies (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    During a sleep study the sleep cycles and stages of sleep are monitored. Electrodes are placed to monitor continuous recordings of brain waves, electrical activity of muscles, eye movement, respiratory ...

  18. Treatments for Sleep Changes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Contributing medical factors Non-drug strategies Medications Common sleep changes Many people with Alzheimer’s experience changes in ... at night. Subscribe now Non-drug treatments for sleep changes Non-drug treatments aim to improve sleep ...

  19. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Cataplexy (a weakness or paralysis of the muscles), sleep paralysis, and hallucinations are common symptoms of narcolepsy (Neurology Channel, 2005). Hypersomnia: Hypersomnia’s symptoms include excessive ... by extended sleep episodes or by daytime sleep episodes that occur ...

  20. Cortisol secretion and change in sleep problems in early childhood: Moderation by maternal overcontrol.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Hummel, Alexandra C; Luebbe, Aaron M

    2015-04-01

    Childhood sleep problems are prevalent and relate to a wide range of negative psychological outcomes. However, it remains unclear how biological processes, such as HPA activity, may predict sleep problems over time in childhood in the context of certain parenting environments. Fifty-one mothers and their 18-20 month-old toddlers participated in a short-term longitudinal study assessing how shared variance among morning levels, diurnal change, and nocturnal change in toddlers' cortisol secretion predicted change in sleep problems in the context of maternal overprotection and critical control. A composite characterized by low variability in, and, to a lesser extent, high morning values of cortisol, predicted increasing sleep problems from age 2 to age 3 when mothers reported high critical control. Results suggest value in assessing shared variance among different indices of cortisol secretion patterns and the interaction between cortisol and the environment in predicting sleep problems in early childhood. PMID:25766262

  1. Childhood obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: a review of the 2012 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines.

    PubMed

    Trosman, Irina

    2013-10-01

    On a busy day at the pediatric office, child health care practitioners may see children of different ages present with symptoms such as inattentiveness, hyperactivity, aggression, behavioral problems, excessive sleepiness, difficulty waking up in the morning, learning problems, frequent awakening at night, restless sleep, morning headaches, and nocturnal enuresis. Children with these symptoms may be underweight or morbidly obese; healthy; or suffering from asthma, seasonal allergies, or other ailments. What they will likely have in common is a fairly well-known and yet under-recognized condition - obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA). The American Academy of Pediatrics first published "Clinical Practice Guideline: Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome" in 2002. However, with the increase in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome research, they revised these guidelines in 2012. These new guidelines evaluate obstructive sleep apnea syndrome diagnostic techniques, describe available treatment options, and provide follow-up recommendations. This article explores those revisions. PMID:24126981

  2. Poor sleep in adolescents: a study of 869 17-year-old Italian secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Manni, R; Ratti, M T; Marchioni, E; Castelnovo, G; Murelli, R; Sartori, I; Galimberti, C A; Tartara, A

    1997-03-01

    Subjective sleep quality and its related factors were investigated in 869 (530 F, 339 M) 17-year-old adolescents, who were selected from the pupils of state-run secondary schools in the city of Pavia in the north west of Italy. The study was conducted cross sectionally, and it consisted of a questionnaire based survey. One hundred and forty-two subjects (16.5% of the whole sample, 19% of the females and 11.7% of the males) met the criteria chosen for definition as poor sleepers (namely, a complaint of 'non restorative nocturnal sleep', 'often' or 'always' over the previous 12 mo). A significant association was found between chronic poor sleep and (1) gender (female) (2) emotional factors, such as worries, anxiety and depression (3) poor sleep hygiene (4) arousal related parasomnia. Only 4% of poor sleepers took sleep promoting drugs (including benzodiazepines, homeopathic products and other medications), generally without seeking medical advice. PMID:9125698

  3. Sleep, circadian rhythms, and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Musiek, Erik S; Xiong, David D; Holtzman, David M

    2015-01-01

    Disturbances in the sleep–wake cycle and circadian rhythms are common symptoms of Alzheimer Disease (AD), and they have generally been considered as late consequences of the neurodegenerative processes. Recent evidence demonstrates that sleep–wake and circadian disruption often occur early in the course of the disease and may even precede the development of cognitive symptoms. Furthermore, the sleep–wake cycle appears to regulate levels of the pathogenic amyloid-beta peptide in the brain, and manipulating sleep can influence AD-related pathology in mouse models via multiple mechanisms. Finally, the circadian clock system, which controls the sleep–wake cycle and other diurnal oscillations in mice and humans, may also have a role in the neurodegenerative process. In this review, we examine the current literature related to the mechanisms by which sleep and circadian rhythms might impact AD pathogenesis, and we discuss potential therapeutic strategies targeting these systems for the prevention of AD.

  4. Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shochat, Tamar; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Tzischinsky, Orna

    2014-02-01

    During adolescence, changes in sleep patterns due to biological and environmental factors are well documented. Later bedtimes and inadequate sleep, i.e., short and disrupted sleep patterns, insomnia and daytime sleepiness, have become increasingly common. Accumulating evidence suggests that sleep plays a crucial role in healthy adolescent development. This review systematically explores descriptive evidence, based on prospective and cross sectional investigations, indicating that inadequate sleep is associated with negative outcomes in several areas of health and functioning, including somatic and psychosocial health, school performance and risk taking behavior. Findings highlight the need for longitudinal investigations aimed at establishing the underpinnings of these associations and for developing and implementing interventions designed to achieve healthier and more balanced sleep patterns in the adolescent population. PMID:23806891

  5. Disruptive Coloration

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Ipsen

    2009-04-01

    Most animals are patterned. While some markings may serve as an advertisement, many appear to function in concealment. Because of the principal way in which they seem to function, such markings are often termed disruptive coloration . Although there are a number of characteristics that may influence the effectiveness of markings in disruption; this study will only focus on two aspects: (1) the effectiveness of the position of markings in blurring or enhancing outline, and (2) the degree to which strongly contrasting markings may interfere with or aid recognition. In regard to the former, it must be kept in mind that the profile changes with change in viewing angle. Thus the pattern seen in relation to the profile most commonly presented to predator (or prey) is of most interest to us here.

  6. Sleep in Othello.

    PubMed

    Dimsdale, Joel E

    2009-06-15

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. PMID:19960651

  7. Overview of sleep disorders.

    PubMed

    Roldan, Glenn; Ang, Robert C

    2006-03-01

    Sleep disorders are common and can affect anyone, from every social class and every ethnic background. It is estimated that more than 70 million Americans are afflicted by chronic sleep disorders. Currently about 88 sleep disorders are described by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders as established by The American Academy of Sleep Medicine. This article describes the dyssomnias and parasomnias most commonly seen in the clinical setting of the sleep disorder clinic or laboratory. PMID:16530646

  8. How I treat paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal blood disorder that manifests with hemolytic anemia, bone marrow failure, and thrombosis. Many of the clinical manifestations of the disease result from complement-mediated intravascular hemolysis. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is the only curative therapy for PNH. Eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks terminal complement activation, is highly effective in reducing hemolysis, improving quality of life, and reducing the risk for thrombosis in PNH patients. Insights into the relevance of detecting PNH cells in PNH and other bone marrow failure disorders are highlighted, and indications for treating PNH patients with bone marrow transplantation and eculizumab are explored. PMID:19372253

  9. [Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria and aplastic anemia].

    PubMed

    Thollot, F; Bordigoni, P; Olive, D

    1984-03-01

    The case of a 14 year-old adolescent girl presenting with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) associated with aplastic anemia is reported. This disease, rare in children, is characterized by an acquired hemolytic anemia, with abnormal sensitivity to complement: PNH actually affects the bone marrow stem cell. This explains its possible association with any type of malignant blood disease and with aplastic anemia. When aplastic anemia is the first sign of the disease, diagnosis is delayed, due to the possible negative response of the specific Ham's test. Therefore, the proper complications of PNH, especially thromboses, may be misappreciated and poorly managed. PMID:6742973

  10. Predictors of female nocturnal orgasms: A multivariate analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Wells

    1986-01-01

    Variables predicting the reported occurrence and frequency of nocturnal orgasms among women are reported. Undergraduate and graduate women (N = 245) from a large midwestern university volunteered to complete nine self?report scales and inventories. Thirty?seven percent of the sample reported they had experienced nocturnal orgasm, and 30% reported having had the experience in the past year. The predictors accounted for

  11. NOCTURNAL HYPOTHERMIA IN SEASONALLY ACCLIMATIZED MOUNTAIN CHICKADEES AND JUNIPER TITMICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheldon J. Cooper; James A. Gessaman

    2005-01-01

    We measured body temperature of Moun- tain Chickadees (Poecile gambeli) and Juniper Titmice (Baeolophus ridgwayi) at different times of day and under a range of ambient temperatures in order to de- termine the use of nocturnal hypothermia in seasonally acclimatized small passerines. Our findings show both species used nocturnal hypothermia year-round. Depth of hypothermia was inversely correlated to body mass

  12. Photosynthetic overcompensation under nocturnal warming enhances grassland carbon sequestration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHIQIANG WAN; JIANYANG XIA; WEIXING LIU; SHULI NIU

    2009-01-01

    A mechanistic understanding of the carbon (C) cycle-climate change feedback is essential for projecting future states of climate and ecosystems. Here we report a novel field mechanism and evidence supporting the hypothesis that nocturnal warming in a temperate steppe ecosystem in northern China can result in a minor C sink instead of a C source as models have predicted. Nocturnal

  13. Relative and combined effects of heat and noise exposure on sleep in humans.

    PubMed

    Libert, J P; Bach, V; Johnson, L C; Ehrhart, J; Wittersheim, G; Keller, D

    1991-02-01

    In a counter-balanced design, the effects of daytime and/or nighttime exposure to heat and/or traffic noise on night sleep were studied in eight healthy young men. During the day, the subjects were exposed to baseline condition (ambient temperature = 20 degrees C; no noise) or to both heat (35 degrees C) and noise. The duration of the daytime exposure was 8 h ending 5 h before sleep onset. The following nights, the subjects slept either in undisturbed (20 degrees C; no noise) or in noise, heat, or noise plus heat-disturbed environments. During the day, the various types of traffic noise were distributed at a rate of 48/h with peak intensities ranging between 79 and 86 dB(A). The background noise level was at 45 dB(A). At night, the peak intensities were reduced by 15 dB(A), the rate was diminished to 9/h, and the background noise was at 30 dB(A). Electrophysiological measures of sleep and esophageal and mean skin temperatures were continuously recorded. The results showed that both objective and subjective measures of sleep were more disturbed by heat than by noise. The thermal load had a larger impact on sleep quality than on sleep architecture. In the nocturnal hot condition, total sleep time decreased while duration of wakefulness, number of sleep stage changes, stage 1 episodes, number of awakenings, and transitions toward waking increased. An increase in the frequency of transient activation phases was also found in slow-wave sleep and in stage 2. In the nocturnal noise condition, only total number of sleep stage changes, changes to waking, and number of stage 1 episodes increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1811316

  14. Disturbed Dreaming and the Instability of Sleep: Altered Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep Microstructure in Individuals with Frequent Nightmares as Revealed by the Cyclic Alternating Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Simor, Péter; Bódizs, Róbert; Horváth, Klára; Ferri, Raffaele

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Nightmares are disturbing mental experiences during sleep that usually result in abrupt awakenings. Frequent nightmares are associated with poor subjective sleep quality, and recent polysomnographic data suggest that nightmare sufferers exhibit impaired sleep continuity during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Because disrupted sleep might be related to abnormal arousal processes, the goal of this study was to examine polysomnographic arousal-related activities in a group of nightmare sufferers and a healthy control group. Design: Sleep microstructure analysis was carried out by scoring the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in NREM sleep and the arousal index in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep on the second night of the polysomnographic examination. Setting: Hospital-based sleep research laboratory. Participants: There were 17 in the nightmare (NMs) group and 23 in the healthy control (CTLs) group. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: The NMs group exhibited reduced amounts of CAP A1 subtype and increased CAP A2 and A3 subtypes, as well as longer duration of CAP A phases in comparison with CTLs. Moreover, these differences remained significant after controlling for the confounding factors of anxious and depressive symptoms. The absolute number and frequency of REM arousals did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions: The results of our study indicate that NREM sleep microstructure is altered during nonsymptomatic nights of nightmares. Disrupted sleep in the NMs group seems to be related to abnormal arousal processes, specifically an imbalance in sleep-promoting and arousing mechanisms during sleep. Citation: Simor P; Bódizs R; Horváth K; Ferri R. Disturbed dreaming and the instability of sleep: altered nonrapid eye movement sleep microstructure in individuals with frequent nightmares as revealed by the cyclic alternating pattern. SLEEP 2013;36(3):413-419. PMID:23449753

  15. Participatory Research to Design a Novel Telehealth System to Support the Night-Time Needs of People with Dementia: NOCTURNAL

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Suzanne; Augusto, Juan Carlos; Mc Cullagh, Paul; Carswell, William; Zheng, Huiru; Wang, Haiying; Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Strategies to support people living with dementia are broad in scope, proposing both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions as part of the care pathway. Assistive technologies form part of this offering as both stand-alone devices to support particular tasks and the more complex offering of the “smart home” to underpin ambient assisted living. This paper presents a technology-based system, which expands on the smart home architecture, orientated to support people with daily living. The system, NOCTURNAL, was developed by working directly with people who had dementia, and their carers using qualitative research methods. The research focused primarily on the nighttime needs of people living with dementia in real home settings. Eight people with dementia had the final prototype system installed for a three month evaluation at home. Disturbed sleep patterns, night-time wandering were a focus of this research not only in terms of detection by commercially available technology but also exploring if automated music, light and visual personalized photographs would be soothing to participants during the hours of darkness. The NOCTURNAL platform and associated services was informed by strong user engagement of people with dementia and the service providers who care for them. NOCTURNAL emerged as a holistic service offering a personalised therapeutic aspect with interactive capabilities. PMID:24304507

  16. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the occurrence of rapid eye movements, sleep spindles, and slow wave sleep. Using these features an approach for classifying sleep stages every one second during the night was developed. From observation of the results of the sleep stage classification, it was determined how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic model. Slow and fast REM activity are modeled separately and the activity in the gamma frequency band of the EEG signal is used to model both spontaneous and noise-induced awakenings. The nonlinear model predicts changes in sleep structure similar to those found by other researchers and reported in the sleep literature and similar to those found in obtained survey data. To compare sleep disturbance model predictions, flight operations data from US airports were obtained and sleep disturbance in communities was predicted for different operations scenarios using the modified Markov model, the nonlinear dynamic model, and other aircraft noise awakening models. Similarities and differences in model predictions were evaluated in order to determine if the use of the developed sleep structure model leads to improved predictions of the impact of nighttime noise on communities.

  17. Timing and Variability of Postpartum Sleep in Relation to Daytime Performance

    PubMed Central

    McBean, Amanda L.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Postpartum women have highly disturbed sleep, also known as sleep fragmentation. Fragmentation extends their total sleep period, also disrupting sleep timing. A stable and earlier sleep period among non-postpartum populations are related to better performance, physical health, and mental health. However, sleep timing has not been examined among postpartum women who are also vulnerable to daytime impairment. The study objective was to examine how the timing and regularity of sleep during the early postpartum period are related to daytime functioning across postpartum weeks 2-13. In this field-based study, 71 primiparous women wore an actigraph, a small wrist-worn device that monitors sleep and sleep timing, for the 12-week study period. Mothers self-administered a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) each morning to evaluate the number of >500ms response lapses. They also completed a Morningness-Eveningness scale at the beginning of the study to identify chronotype. After controlling for maternal age, earlier sleep timing was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 9,12; a more stable sleep midpoint was associated with significantly fewer PVT lapses at postpartum weeks 2,5-13. Earlier sleep midpoints were related to more stable sleep midpoints at postpartum week 2 and a morning-type chronotype. An earlier sleep midpoint was also associated with a reduced slope of worsening PVT lapses across weeks. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, women with earlier or more stable sleep periods had less daytime impairment than women with later or more variable sleep midpoints. Postpartum women with earlier sleep midpoints also showed less severe decrements in performance across time, which has been attributed to cumulative impacts of sleep disturbance. These data suggest the sleep period, in addition to sleep duration and fragmentation, should be more closely examined, particularly among vulnerable women, as it may affect the neurobehavioral performance of new mothers. PMID:24041725

  18. Sleep Discrepancy, Sleep Complaint, and Poor Sleep Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Discrepancy between self-report- and actigraphy-measured sleep, often considered an artifact of measurement error, has been well documented among insomnia patients. Sleep problems are common among older adults, and this discrepancy may represent meaningful sleep-related phenomenon, which could have clinical and research significance. Method. Sleep discrepancy was examined in 4 groups of older adults (N = 152, mean age = 71.93 years) based on sleep complaint versus no complaint and presence versus absence of insomnia symptoms. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory-second edition (BDI-II) and 14 nights of sleep diaries and actigraphy. Results. Controlling for covariates, group differences were found in the duration and frequency of discrepancy in sleep onset latency (SOLd) and wake after sleep onset (WASOd). Those with insomnia symptoms and complaints reported greater duration and frequency of WASOd than the other 3 groups. Quantities of SOLd and WASOd were related to BDI-II score and group status, indicating that sleep discrepancy has meaningful clinical correlates. Discussion. Discrepancy occurred across all groups but was pronounced among the group with both insomnia symptoms and complaints. This discrepancy may provide a means of quantifying and conceptualizing the transition from wake to sleep among older adults, particularly those with sleeping problems. PMID:23804432

  19. Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids

    PubMed Central

    Hölker, Franz; Heller, Stefan; Berghahn, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month’s exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m × 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift. PMID:24688857

  20. Visual orientation and navigation in nocturnal arthropods.

    PubMed

    Warrant, Eric; Dacke, Marie

    2010-01-01

    With their highly sensitive visual systems, the arthropods have evolved a remarkable capacity to orient and navigate at night. Whereas some navigate under the open sky, and take full advantage of the celestial cues available there, others navigate in more difficult conditions, such as through the dense understory of a tropical rainforest. Four major classes of orientation are performed by arthropods at night, some of which involve true navigation (i.e. travel to a distant goal that lies beyond the range of direct sensory contact): (1) simple straight-line orientation, typically for escape purposes; (2) nightly short-distance movements relative to a shoreline, typically in the context of feeding; (3) long-distance nocturnal migration at high altitude in the quest to locate favorable feeding or breeding sites, and (4) nocturnal excursions to and from a fixed nest or food site (i.e. homing), a task that in most species involves path integration and/or the learning and recollection of visual landmarks. These four classes of orientation--and their visual basis--are reviewed here, with special emphasis given to the best-understood animal systems that are representative of each. PMID:20733292

  1. Sleep for cognitive enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Diekelmann, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is essential for effective cognitive functioning. Loosing even a few hours of sleep can have detrimental effects on a wide variety of cognitive processes such as attention, language, reasoning, decision making, learning and memory. While sleep is necessary to ensure normal healthy cognitive functioning, it can also enhance performance beyond the boundaries of the normal condition. This article discusses the enhancing potential of sleep, mainly focusing on the domain of learning and memory. Sleep is known to facilitate the consolidation of memories learned before sleep as well as the acquisition of new memories to be learned after sleep. According to a widely held model this beneficial effect of sleep relies on the neuronal reactivation of memories during sleep that is associated with sleep-specific brain oscillations (slow oscillations, spindles, ripples) as well as a characteristic neurotransmitter milieu. Recent research indicates that memory processing during sleep can be boosted by (i) cueing memory reactivation during sleep; (ii) stimulating sleep-specific brain oscillations; and (iii) targeting specific neurotransmitter systems pharmacologically. Olfactory and auditory cues can be used, for example, to increase reactivation of associated memories during post-learning sleep. Intensifying neocortical slow oscillations (the hallmark of slow wave sleep (SWS)) by electrical or auditory stimulation and modulating specific neurotransmitters such as noradrenaline and glutamate likewise facilitates memory processing during sleep. With this evidence in mind, this article concludes by discussing different methodological caveats and ethical issues that should be considered when thinking about using sleep for cognitive enhancement in everyday applications. PMID:24765066

  2. Cardiac autonomic control in the obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Gammoudi, Nouha; Ben Cheikh, Ridha; Saafi, Mohamed Ali; Sakly, Ghazi; Dogui, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The sympathetic activation is considered to be the main mechanism involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The heart rate variability (HRV) analysis represents a non-invasive tool allowing the study of the autonomic nervous system. The impairment of HRV parameters in OSA has been documented. However, only a few studies tackled the dynamics of the autonomic nervous system during sleep in patients having OSA. Aims To analyze the HRV over sleep stages and across sleep periods in order to clarify the impact of OSA on cardiac autonomic modulation. The second objective is to examine the nocturnal HRV of OSA patients to find out which HRV parameter is the best to reflect the symptoms severity. Methods The study was retrospective. We have included 30 patients undergoing overnight polysomnography. Subjects were categorized into two groups according to apnea–hypopnea index (AHI): mild-to-moderate OSAS group (AHI: 5–30) and severe OSAS group (AHI>30). The HRV measures for participants with low apnea–hypopnea indices were compared to those of patients with high rates of apnea–hypopnea across the sleep period and sleep stages. Results HRV measures during sleep stages for the group with low rates of apnea–hypopnea have indicated a parasympathetic activation during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. However, no significant difference has been observed in the high AHI group except for the mean of RR intervals (mean RR). The parasympathetic activity tended to increase across the night but without a statistical difference. After control of age and body mass index, the most significant correlation found was for the mean RR (p=0.0001, r=?0.248). Conclusion OSA affects sympathovagal modulation during sleep, and this impact has been correlated to the severity of the disease. The mean RR seemed to be a better index allowing the sympathovagal balance appreciation during the night in OSA. PMID:25861821

  3. Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Germain, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances are the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), proposed by Ross and colleagues in 1989, has stimulated a wealth of clinical, preclinical, and animal studies on the role of sleep in the pathophysiology of PTSD. The present review revisits this influential hypothesis in light of clinical and experimental findings that have since accumulated. Polysomnographic studies conducted in adults with PTSD have yielded mixed findings regarding REM sleep disturbances, and they generally suggest modest and nonspecific sleep disruptions. Prospective and treatment studies have provided more robust evidence for the relationship between sleep disturbances and psychiatric outcomes and symptoms. Experimental animal and human studies that have probed the relationship between REM sleep and fear responses, as well as studies focused more broadly on sleep-dependent affective and memory processes, also provide strong support for the hypothesis that sleep plays an important role in PTSD-relevant processes. Overall, the literature suggests that disturbed REM or non-REM sleep can contribute to maladaptive stress and trauma responses and may constitute a modifiable risk factor for poor psychiatric outcomes. Clinicians need to consider that the chronic sleep disruption associated with nightmares may affect the efficacy of first-line PTSD treatments, but targeted sleep treatments may accelerate recovery from PTSD. The field is ripe for prospective and longitudinal studies in high-risk groups to clarify how changes in sleep physiology and neurobiology contribute to increased risk of poor psychiatric outcomes. PMID:23223954

  4. Sleep Disturbances as the Hallmark of PTSD: Where Are We Now?

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep disturbances are the hallmark of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), proposed by Ross and colleagues in 1989, has stimulated a wealth of clinical, preclinical, and animal studies on the role of sleep in the pathophysiology of PTSD. The present review revisits this influential hypothesis in light of clinical and experimental findings that have since accumulated. Polysomnographic studies conducted in adults with PTSD have yielded mixed findings regarding REM sleep disturbances, and they generally suggest modest and nonspecific sleep disruptions. Prospective and treatment studies have provided more robust evidence for the relationship between sleep disturbances and psychiatric outcomes and symptoms. Experimental animal and human studies that have probed the relationship between REM sleep and fear responses, as well as studies focused more broadly on sleep-dependent affective and memory processes, also provide strong support for the hypothesis that sleep plays an important role in PTSD-relevant processes. Overall, the literature suggests that disturbed REM or non-REM sleep can contribute to maladaptive stress and trauma responses and may constitute a modifiable risk factor for poor psychiatric outcomes. Clinicians need to consider that the chronic sleep disruption associated with nightmares may affect the efficacy of first-line PTSD treatments, but targeted sleep treatments may accelerate recovery from PTSD. The field is ripe for prospective and longitudinal studies in high-risk groups to clarify how changes in sleep physiology and neurobiology contribute to increased risk of poor psychiatric outcomes. PMID:23223954

  5. Prevalence of Insufficient Sleep: Statistics by State

    MedlinePLUS

    ... visit this page: About CDC.gov . Sleep and Sleep Disorders Share Compartir Fact Sheets Fact sheets on insufficient ... audio/Podcast Sleep About Us About Sleep Key Sleep Disorders Sleep and Chronic Disease How Much Sleep Do ...

  6. Sleep Homeostasis and Models of Sleep Regulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander A. Borb; Peter Achermann

    1999-01-01

    According to the two-process model of sleep regulation, the timing and structure of sleep are determined by the interaction of a homeostatic and a circadian process. The original qualitative model was elaborated to quantitative versions that included the ultradian dynamics of sleep in relation to the non-REM-REM sleep cycle. The time course of EEG slow-wave activity, the major marker of

  7. "Trouble Sleeping?-Sleeping Disorders Overview"

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    and the National Center for Deaf Health Talks) #12;Overview Insomnia What is sleep? Types of sleeping problems Ways/Insomnia.jpg #12;Insomnia Hard to fall asleep Not able to stay asleep Wake up too early Poor sleep (feel. Benzodiazepines and zolpidem for chronic insomnia: a meta-analysis of treatment efficacy. JAMA 1997

  8. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy Improves Polysomnographic and Subjective Sleep Profiles in Antidepressant Users with Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Willoughby B.; Haynes, Patricia L.; Fridel, Keith W.; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many antidepressant medications (ADM) are associated with disruptions in sleep continuity that can compromise medication adherence and impede successful treatment. The present study investigated whether mindfulness meditation training could improve self-reported and objectively-measured polysomnographic sleep profiles in depressed individuals who had achieved at least partial remission with ADM, but still had residual sleep complaints. Methods Twenty-three ADM users with sleep complaints were randomized into an 8-week Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) course or a waitlist control condition. Pre-post measurements included polysomnographic sleep studies and subjectively reported sleep and residual depression symptoms. Results Compared to controls, the MBCT participants improved on both polysomnographic and subjective measures of sleep. They showed a pattern of decreased wake time and increased sleep efficiency. Sleep depth, as measured by stage 1 and SWS, did not change as a result of mindfulness training. Conclusions Mindfulness meditation is associated with increases in both objectively and subjectively-measured sleep continuity in ADM users. MM training may serve as more desirable and cost-effective alternative to discontinuation or supplementation with hypnotics, and may contribute to a more sustainable recovery from depression. PMID:22832540

  9. Contemporary surgery for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Powell, Nelson B

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been available in some form for greater than three decades. Early management for airway obstruction during sleep relied on tracheotomy which although life saving was not well accepted by patients. In the early eighties two new forms of treatment for OSAS were developed. Surgically a technique described as a uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) was used to treat the retropalatal region for snoring and sleep apnea. Concurrently sleep medicine developed a nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device to manage nocturnal airway obstruction. Both of these measures were used to expand and stabilize the pharyngeal airway space during sleep. The goal for each technique was to limit or alleviate OSAS. Almost 30 yr later these two treatment modalities continue to be the mainstay of contemporary treatment. As expected, CPAP device technology improved over time along with durable goods. Surgery followed suit and additional techniques were developed to treat soft and bony structures of the entire upper airway (nose, palate and tongue base). This review will only focus on the contemporary surgical methods that have demonstrated relatively consistent positive clinical outcomes. Not all surgical and medical treatment modalities are successful or even partially successful for every patient. Advances in the treatment of OSAS are hindered by the fact that the primary etiology is still unknown. However, both medicine and surgery continue to improve diagnostic and treatment methods. Methods of diagnosis as well as treatment regimens should always include both medical and surgical collaborations so the health and quality of life of our patients can best be served. PMID:19784401

  10. Effectiveness of Physio Acoustic Sound (PAS) therapy in demented nursing home residents with nocturnal restlessness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many older people with neuropsychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia suffer from sleeping problems and often show nocturnal restlessness. Professionals and informal carers face considerable problems in solving these problems. Attempts to diminish these problems with medication in a safe and responsible manner have proven hardly effective or not effective at all. Therefore, nowadays the focus lies more on non-pharmacological solutions, for example by influencing environmental factors. There are indications that treatment with low-frequency acoustic vibrations, that is Physio Acoustic Sound (PAS) therapy, has a positive effect on sleeping problems. Therefore we study the effectiveness of PAS therapy in demented patients with nocturnal restlessness. Methods In a randomized clinical trial, 66 nursing home patients will be divided into two groups: an intervention group and a control group. For both groups nocturnal restlessness will be measured with actiwatches during a period of six weeks. In addition, a sleep diary will be filled in. For the intervention group the baseline will be assessed, in the first two weeks, reflecting the existing situation regarding nocturnal restlessness. In the next two weeks, this group will sleep on a bed identical to their own, but with a mattress containing an in-built PAS device. As soon as the patient is lying in bed, the computer programme inducing the vibrations will be switched on for the duration of 30 min. In the last two weeks, the wash-out period, the measurements of the intervention group are continued, without the PAS intervention. During the total study period, other relevant data of all the implied patients will be recorded systematically and continuously, for example patient characteristics (data from patient files), the type and seriousness of the dementia, occurrence of neuropsychiatric symptoms during the research period, and the occurrence of intermittent co-morbidity. Discussion If PAS therapy turns out to be effective, it can be of added value to the treatment of nocturnal restlessness in demented patients. Non-pharmacological PAS therapy is not only safe and patient-friendly, but it can also be widely used in a simple and relatively inexpensive way, both in institutions such as nursing homes and residential homes for the elderly, and at home. Ultimately, this may lead to a decrease in the frequent and still common use of psychotropic drugs. In addition, care needs of demented patients also may decrease as well as the number of preventable admissions to care institutions. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR3242 PMID:22495093

  11. Disruption of ripple-associated hippocampal activity during rest impairs spatial learning in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ego-Stengel, Valérie; Wilson, Matthew A

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a key role in the acquisition of new memories for places and events. Evidence suggests that the consolidation of these memories is enhanced during sleep. At the neuronal level, reactivation of awake experience in the hippocampus during sharp-wave ripple events, characteristic of slow-wave sleep, has been proposed as a neural mechanism for sleep-dependent memory consolidation. However, a causal relation between sleep reactivation and memory consolidation has not been established. Here we show that disrupting neuronal activity during ripple events impairs spatial learning. We trained rats daily in two identical spatial navigation tasks followed each by a 1-hour rest period. After one of the tasks, stimulation of hippocampal afferents selectively disrupted neuronal activity associated with ripple events without changing the sleep-wake structure. Rats learned the control task significantly faster than the task followed by rest stimulation, indicating that interfering with hippocampal processing during sleep led to decreased learning. PMID:19816984

  12. Chronic sleep disorders in survivors of the acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christie M. Lee; Margaret S. Herridge; Jonathan Y. Gabor; Catherine M. Tansey; Andrea Matte; Patrick J. Hanly

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Sleep disruption is well recognized in the Intensive Care Unit. Poor sleep quality likely continues following discharge from\\u000a hospital in several patients and becomes a chronic disorder in some. The aim of this study was to describe the etiology of\\u000a chronic sleep complaints in survivors of ARDS.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Seven ARDS survivors with no previous sleep complaints who reported difficulty sleeping 6 months

  13. [Circadian rhythm disruption and human development].

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Ontogenetic developments of rest-activity, sleep-wakefulness, temperature and several hormone rhythms in humans were reviewed. The reported effects of environment on these alterations were also summarized. Then, disorders or conditions which often encounter during early stage of life and reveal circadian rhythm disruptions were described. These disorders or conditions included severe brain damage, visual disturbance, developmental disorders(autistic spectrum disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder), Rett syndrome, Angelman syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome, epilepsy, Yonaki, and inadequate sleep hygiene. Finally, it was emphasized that we should pay special attention on the development of youngsters who showed sleep disturbance during early stage of life with special reference to the later occurrence of developmental disorders. PMID:24437259

  14. Sleep and Stroke Risk

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Risk HealthDay February 26, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Sleep Disorders Stroke Transcript Could sleeping more than 8 hours a night put you at increased risk for stroke? A new study published in the ... amount of sleep. The association between long sleep and stroke remained ...

  15. SLEEP&CIRCADIAN NEUROBIOLOGY

    E-print Network

    Bushman, Frederic

    CENTER FOR SLEEP&CIRCADIAN NEUROBIOLOGY ANNUAL REPORT 2013 #12;#12;Annual Report 2013 TABLE Programs in Sleep 6 Medicine Pediatrics Psychiatry Basic Science Programs 19 Clinical Program 24 Fellowship Program 25 Sleep Research Program at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia 26 Sleep Research in Nursing

  16. Sleep and Infant Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Balsam, Peter D.; Fifer, William P.

    2011-01-01

    Human neonates spend the majority of their time sleeping. Despite the limited waking hours available for environmental exploration, the first few months of life are a time of rapid learning about the environment. The organization of neonate sleep differs qualitatively from adult sleep, and the unique characteristics of neonatal sleep may promote…

  17. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information News media interested in covering the latest from AAO-HNS/ ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  18. Effect of repeated gaboxadol administration on night sleep and next-day performance in healthy elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Mathias, Stefan; Zihl, Josef; Steiger, Axel; Lancel, Marike

    2005-04-01

    Aging is associated with dramatic reductions in sleep continuity and sleep intensity. Since gaboxadol, a selective GABA(A) receptor agonist, has been demonstrated to improve sleep consolidation and promote deep sleep, it may be an effective hypnotic, particularly for elderly patients with insomnia. In the present study, we investigated the effects of subchronic gaboxadol administration on nocturnal sleep and its residual effects during the next days in elderly subjects. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in 10 healthy elderly subjects without sleep complaints. The subjects were administered either placebo or 15 mg gaboxadol hydrochloride at bedtime on three consecutive nights. Sleep was recorded during each night from 2300 to 0700 h and tests assessing attention (target detection, stroop test) and memory function (visual form recognition, immediate word recall, digit span) were applied at 0900, 1400, and 1700 h during the following days. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol significantly shortened subjective sleep onset latency and increased self-rated sleep intensity and quality. Polysomnographic recordings showed that it significantly decreased the number of awakenings, the amount of intermittent wakefulness, and stage 1, and increased slow wave sleep and stage 2. These effects were stable over the three nights. None of the subjects reported side effects. Next-day cognitive performance was not affected by gaboxadol. Gaboxadol persistently improved subjective and objective sleep quality and was devoid of residual effects. Thus, at the employed dose, it seems an effective hypnotic in elderly subjects. PMID:15602499

  19. Changes in sleep duration, timing, and quality as children transition to kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Alyssa; Harsh, John

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can be seen as a biologically driven behavior shaped by cultural context. A "poor fit" occurs when contextual demands for the timing and duration sleep periods are incompatible with the underlying biology. Such contextual factors are well-known for adults, yet little is known of the contextual factors that shape young children's sleep health and to what degree such factors impact sleep duration, timing, and quality. This study attempted to identify how the transition to kindergarten was associated with changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality for children enrolled in preschool prior to attending kindergarten vs. those who were not. Wrist actigraphy in 38 5-year-old children was collected at three longitudinal points before and after the start of kindergarten. Our data suggested that the transition to kindergarten was associated with a reduction in weekday sleep (mostly due to lost napping) and an advance in the weekday nocturnal sleep period that was most pronounced for children not enrolled in preschool prior to kindergarten. These sleep changes paralleled objective and caregiver-reported data of increased sleep pressure that lasted well into the first month of kindergarten. PMID:24364713

  20. Regulation of Sleep by Neuropeptide Y-Like System in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunxia; Yang, Yunyan; Zhang, Mingming; Price, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2013-01-01

    Sleep is important for maintenance of normal physiology in animals. In mammals, neuropeptide Y (NPY), a homolog of Drosophila neuropeptide F (NPF), is involved in sleep regulation, with different effects in human and rat. However, the function of NPF on sleep in Drosophila melanogaster has not yet been described. In this study, we investigated the effects of NPF and its receptor-neuropeptide F receptor (NPFR1) on Drosophila sleep. Male flies over-expressing NPF or NPFR1 exhibited increased sleep during the nighttime. Further analysis demonstrated that sleep episode duration during nighttime was greatly increased and sleep latency was significantly reduced, indicating that NPF and NPFR1 promote sleep quality, and their action on sleep is not because of an impact of the NPF signal system on development. Moreover, the homeostatic regulation of flies after sleep deprivation was disrupted by altered NPF signaling, since sleep deprivation decreased transcription of NPF in control flies, and there were less sleep loss during sleep deprivation and less sleep gain after sleep deprivation in flies overexpressing NPF and NPFR1 than in control flies, suggesting that NPF system auto-regulation plays an important role in sleep homeostasis. However, these effects did not occur in females, suggesting a sex-dependent regulatory function in sleep for NPF and NPFR1. NPF in D1 brain neurons showed male-specific expression, providing the cellular locus for male-specific regulation of sleep by NPF and NPFR1. This study brings a new understanding into sleep studies of a sexually dimorphic regulatory mode in female and male flies. PMID:24040211

  1. Nocturnal life of young songbirds well before migration

    PubMed Central

    Mukhin, Andrey; Kosarev, Vlad; Ktitorov, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    In songbirds, nocturnal activity is believed to be a characteristic feature of migration. However, unlike experimental conditions where the onset of nocturnal restlessness is defined as a shift of activity leading up to the dark period, this behaviour has, until now, not been observed in natural conditions. Here we studied the nocturnal behaviour of radio-tagged juvenile Eurasian reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) during the pre-migratory period. The birds started nocturnal flights at the age of 38 days, whereas migration did not commence until they were at least 50 days old. The birds left their natal site by nocturnal flights and repeatedly returned to it. Such shuttle movements suggest the existence of a previously unknown period of nocturnal activity. Motivation to perform such night flights gradually increases with age. We relate the function of these nocturnal pre-migratory flights to the development of a stellar compass, necessary for detecting the compass direction towards winter quarters and for the formation of a navigational target, which will be used during return (spring) migration. PMID:16048767

  2. Neurobehavioral Dynamics Following Chronic Sleep Restriction: Dose-Response Effects of One Night for Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Siobhan; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Maislin, Greg; Dinges, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Establish the dose-response relationship between increasing sleep durations in a single night and recovery of neurobehavioral functions following chronic sleep restriction. Design: Intent-to-treat design in which subjects were randomized to 1 of 6 recovery sleep doses (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 h TIB) for 1 night following 5 nights of sleep restriction to 4 h TIB. Setting: Twelve consecutive days in a controlled laboratory environment. Participants: N = 159 healthy adults (aged 22-45 y), median = 29 y). Interventions: Following a week of home monitoring with actigraphy and 2 baseline nights of 10 h TIB, subjects were randomized to either sleep restriction to 4 h TIB per night for 5 nights followed by randomization to 1 of 6 nocturnal acute recovery sleep conditions (N = 142), or to a control condition involving 10 h TIB on all nights (N = 17). Measurements and Results: Primary neurobehavioral outcomes included lapses on the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), subjective sleepiness from the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), and physiological sleepiness from a modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT). Secondary outcomes included psychomotor and cognitive speed as measured by PVT fastest RTs and number correct on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), respectively, and subjective fatigue from the Profile of Mood States (POMS). The dynamics of neurobehavioral outcomes following acute recovery sleep were statistically modeled across the 0 h-10 h recovery sleep doses. While TST, stage 2, REM sleep and NREM slow wave energy (SWE) increased linearly across recovery sleep doses, best-fitting neurobehavioral recovery functions were exponential across recovery sleep doses for PVT and KSS outcomes, and linear for the MWT. Analyses based on return to baseline and on estimated intersection with control condition means revealed recovery was incomplete at the 10 h TIB (8.96 h TST) for PVT performance, KSS sleepiness, and POMS fatigue. Both TST and SWE were elevated above baseline at the maximum recovery dose of 10 h TIB. Conclusions: Neurobehavioral deficits induced by 5 nights of sleep restricted to 4 h improved monotonically as acute recovery sleep dose increased, but some deficits remained after 10 h TIB for recovery. Complete recovery from such sleep restriction may require a longer sleep period during 1 night, and/or multiple nights of recovery sleep. It appears that acute recovery from chronic sleep restriction occurs as a result of elevated sleep pressure evident in both increased SWE and TST. Citation: Banks S; Van Dongen HPA; Maislin G; Dinges DF. Neurobehavioral dynamics following chronic sleep restriction: dose-response effects of one night for recovery. SLEEP 2010;33(8):1013–1026. PMID:20815182

  3. A randomized trial of temazepam versus acetazolamide in high altitude sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Tanner, John B; Tanner, Sarah M E; Thapa, Ghan Bahadur; Chang, Yuchiao; Watson, Kirsty L M; Staunton, Eamon; Howarth, Claire; Basnyat, Buddha; Harris, N Stuart

    2013-09-01

    This study is the first comparative trial of sleep medications at high altitude. We performed a randomized, double-blind trial of temazepam and acetazolamide at an altitude of 3540 meters. 34 healthy trekkers with self-reports of high-altitude sleep disturbance were randomized to temazepam 7.5 mg or acetazolamide 125 mg taken at bedtime for one night. The primary outcome was sleep quality on a 100 mm visual analog scale. Additional measurements were obtained with actigraphy; pulse oximetry; and questionnaire evaluation of sleep, daytime drowsiness, daytime sleepiness, and acute mountain sickness. Sixteen subjects were randomized to temazepam and 18 to acetazolamide. Sleep quality on the 100 mm visual analog scale was higher for temazepam (59.6, SD 20.1) than acetazolamide (46.2, SD 20.2; p=0.048). Temazepam also demonstrated higher subjective sleep quality on the Groningen Sleep Quality Scale (3.5 vs. 6.8, p=0.009) and sleep depth visual analog scale (60.3 vs. 41.4, p=0.028). The acetazolamide group reported significantly more awakenings to urinate (1.8 vs. 0.5, p=0.007). No difference was found with regards to mean nocturnal oxygen saturation (84.1 vs. 84.4, p=0.57), proportion of the night spent in periodic breathing, relative desaturations, sleep onset latency, awakenings, wake after sleep onset, sleep efficiency, Stanford Sleepiness Scale scores, daytime drowsiness, or change in self-reported Lake Louise Acute Mountain Sickness scores. We conclude that, at current recommended dosing, treatment of high-altitude sleep disturbance with temazepam is associated with increased subjective sleep quality compared to acetazolamide. PMID:24028643

  4. Ostriches Sleep like Platypuses

    PubMed Central

    Lesku, John A.; Meyer, Leith C. R.; Fuller, Andrea; Maloney, Shane K.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo

    2011-01-01

    Mammals and birds engage in two distinct states of sleep, slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. SWS is characterized by slow, high amplitude brain waves, while REM sleep is characterized by fast, low amplitude waves, known as activation, occurring with rapid eye movements and reduced muscle tone. However, monotremes (platypuses and echidnas), the most basal (or ‘ancient’) group of living mammals, show only a single sleep state that combines elements of SWS and REM sleep, suggesting that these states became temporally segregated in the common ancestor to marsupial and eutherian mammals. Whether sleep in basal birds resembles that of monotremes or other mammals and birds is unknown. Here, we provide the first description of brain activity during sleep in ostriches (Struthio camelus), a member of the most basal group of living birds. We found that the brain activity of sleeping ostriches is unique. Episodes of REM sleep were delineated by rapid eye movements, reduced muscle tone, and head movements, similar to those observed in other birds and mammals engaged in REM sleep; however, during REM sleep in ostriches, forebrain activity would flip between REM sleep-like activation and SWS-like slow waves, the latter reminiscent of sleep in the platypus. Moreover, the amount of REM sleep in ostriches is greater than in any other bird, just as in platypuses, which have more REM sleep than other mammals. These findings reveal a recurring sequence of steps in the evolution of sleep in which SWS and REM sleep arose from a single heterogeneous state that became temporally segregated into two distinct states. This common trajectory suggests that forebrain activation during REM sleep is an evolutionarily new feature, presumably involved in performing new sleep functions not found in more basal animals. PMID:21887239

  5. Approaches to Measure Sleep-Wake Disturbances in Adolescents with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Jeanne M.

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-wake disturbances commonly occur in healthy adolescents. While diminished sleep and sleepiness seem normal for healthy adolescents, adolescents with chronic illnesses face additional disruption in the quantity and quality of their sleep as a result of the disease process, ongoing treatment, and associated symptoms. Little is known about how sleep in adolescents is affected by cancer, cancer treatment, and concurrent symptoms or about the consequences of sleep disruption for these patients. Although there is limited evidence to guide sleep measurement in adolescents with cancer, researchers may learn effective strategies from sleep studies completed with adolescents with other conditions. This systematic review examines how researchers have measured sleep using actigraphy, diary, and/or self-report questionnaires in diverse samples of healthy and ill adolescents. Psychometric properties are reported for nine self-report sleep questionnaires that were used in studies with mostly healthy adolescent samples. Nineteen studies provide evidence that actigraphy can be successfully and reliably used as an effective objective method to measure sleep in adolescents, including those with chronic illness. Daily sleep diaries were used less frequently to collect data from adolescents. The suitability of these techniques for the study of cancer-related sleep-wake disturbances in adolescents as well as strategies to enhance the reliability, validity, and feasibility of these measures will be discussed. Future sleep research in adolescents affected by cancer can be strengthened by the consistent use of sleep terminology, measurement of key sleep parameters, and efforts to develop and use psychometrically sound instruments. Oncology clinicians should be ready to add emerging evidence from sleep research to their care of adolescents with cancer. PMID:19632503

  6. Sleep and Quality of Life in Pregnancyand Postpartum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Magdie Kohn; Brian James Murray

    Sleep fragmentation and disruption during the normal physiological changes of pregnancy are as significant as some medical\\u000a diseases. Sleep disorders during pregnancy are an even further complication. These changes, which persist not only over the\\u000a course of the pregnancy, but also into the postpartum period, are significant enough to affect quality of life. Measures specific\\u000a to the quality of life

  7. Increased fragmentation of sleep-wake cycles in the 5XFAD mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sethi, M; Joshi, S S; Webb, R L; Beckett, T L; Donohue, K D; Murphy, M P; O'Hara, B F; Duncan, M J

    2015-04-01

    Sleep perturbations including fragmented sleep with frequent night-time awakenings and daytime naps are common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and these daily disruptions are a major factor for institutionalization. The objective of this study was to investigate if sleep-wake patterns are altered in 5XFAD mice, a well-characterized double transgenic mouse model of AD which exhibits an early onset of robust AD pathology and memory deficits. These mice have five distinct human mutations in two genes, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin1 (PS1) engineered into two transgenes driven by a neuron-specific promoter (Thy1), and thus develop severe amyloid deposition by 4months of age. Age-matched (4-6.5monthsold) male and female 5XFAD mice were monitored and compared to wild-type littermate controls for multiple sleep traits using a non-invasive, high throughput, automated piezoelectric system which detects breathing and gross body movements to characterize sleep and wake. Sleep-wake patterns were recorded continuously under baseline conditions (undisturbed) for 3days and after sleep deprivation of 4h, which in mice produces a significant sleep debt and challenge to sleep homeostasis. Under baseline conditions, 5XFAD mice exhibited shorter bout lengths (14% lower values for males and 26% for females) as compared to controls (p<0.001). In females, the 5XFAD mice also showed 12% less total sleep than WT (p<0.01). Bout length reductions were greater during the night (the active phase for mice) than during the day, which does not model the human condition of disrupted sleep at night (the inactive period). However, the overall decrease in bout length suggests increased fragmentation and disruption in sleep consolidation that may be relevant to human sleep. The 5XFAD mice may serve as a useful model for testing therapeutic strategies to improve sleep consolidation in AD patients. PMID:25637807

  8. The effect of intermittent use of occlusal splint devices on sleep bruxism: a 4-week observation with a portable electromyographic recording device.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Tsukiyama, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Koyano, K

    2015-04-01

    This randomised controlled study investigated the effect of intermittent use of occlusal splints on sleep bruxism compared with that of continuous use by measuring masseter muscle electromyographic activity using a portable electromyographic recording system. Twenty bruxers were randomly allocated to the continuous group and intermittent group. Subjects in the continuous group wore stabilisation splints during sleep for 29 nights continuously, whereas those in the intermittent group wore splints during sleep every other week, that is they used splints on the 1st-7th, 15th-21st and 29th nights. Electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during sleep was recorded for the following six time points: before (baseline), immediately after, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after the insertion of a stabilisation splint. The number of nocturnal masseter electromyographic events, duration and the total activity of sleep bruxism were analysed. In the continuous group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events were significantly reduced immediately and 1 week after the insertion of the stabilisation splint, and duration was reduced immediately after the insertion (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test), but no reduction was observed at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after insertion. In the intermittent group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events and duration were significantly reduced immediately after and also 4 weeks after insertion of the stabilisation splint (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test). The obtained results of the present exploratory trial indicate that the intermittent use of stabilisation splints may reduce sleep bruxism activity for a longer period compared with that of continuous use. PMID:25363423

  9. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found that 3 hours of sleep deprivation significantly impaired memory when deprivation began 1 hour after training. In contrast, 3 hours of deprivation beginning immediately post-training did not impair spatial memory. Furthermore, a 3-hour sleep deprivation beginning 1 hour after training impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas sleep deprivation immediately after training did not affect LTP. Together, our findings define a specific 3-hour critical period, extending from 1 to 4 hours after training, during which sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal function. PMID:24380868

  10. Integration of human sleep-wake regulation and circadian rhythmicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dijk, Derk-Jan; Lockley, Steven W.

    2002-01-01

    The human sleep-wake cycle is generated by a circadian process, originating from the suprachiasmatic nuclei, in interaction with a separate oscillatory process: the sleep homeostat. The sleep-wake cycle is normally timed to occur at a specific phase relative to the external cycle of light-dark exposure. It is also timed at a specific phase relative to internal circadian rhythms, such as the pineal melatonin rhythm, the circadian sleep-wake propensity rhythm, and the rhythm of responsiveness of the circadian pacemaker to light. Variations in these internal and external phase relationships, such as those that occur in blindness, aging, morning and evening, and advanced and delayed sleep-phase syndrome, lead to sleep disruptions and complaints. Changes in ocular circadian photoreception, interindividual variation in the near-24-h intrinsic period of the circadian pacemaker, and sleep homeostasis can contribute to variations in external and internal phase. Recent findings on the physiological and molecular-genetic correlates of circadian sleep disorders suggest that the timing of the sleep-wake cycle and circadian rhythms is closely integrated but is, in part, regulated differentially.

  11. Nocturnal apnea in Chiari type I malformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lonneke A. M. Aarts; Michèl A. A. P. Willemsen; Nele L. E. VandenBussche; René van Gent

    2011-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with sleep-disordered breathing. Her parents described breathing pauses of up to 20 s and progressive\\u000a tiredness during the day. Obstructive apneas from an enlarged adenoid were thought to be the most probable cause. However,\\u000a an adenotomy did not resolve the problem. Polysomnography demonstrated central apneas, and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging\\u000a revealed a Chiari type I malformation. We

  12. Phase-Dependent Effect of Room Light Exposure in a 5-h Advance of the Sleep-Wake Cycle: Implications for Jet Lag

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane B. Boivin; Francine O. James

    2002-01-01

    The acute disruption in sleep quality, vigilance levels, and cognitive and athletic performance observed after transmeridian flights is presumed to be the result of a transient misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the shifted sleep schedule. Several laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that exposure to bright artificial light can accelerate circadian entrainment to a shifted sleep-wake schedule. In

  13. Breastfeeding, Maternal Depressive Mood and Room Sharing as Predictors of Sleep Fragmentation in 12-Week-Old Infants: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simard, Valerie; Lara-Carrasco, Jessica; Paquette, Tyna; Nielsen, Tore

    2011-01-01

    Sleep fragmentation in infancy can burden a family by disrupting the sleep of all its members. However, there has been no longitudinal prospective investigation of the determinants of infant sleep fragmentation. We undertook such an investigation. New mothers (N = 106) completed questionnaires and were administered structured telephone interviews…

  14. Case-Control Study of Subjective and Objective Differences in Sleep Patterns in Older Adults with Insomnia Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Gooneratne, Nalaka S.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Pack, Frances; Staley, Beth; Schutte-Rodin, Sharon; Dinges, David F.; Pack, Allan I.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Older adults have high prevalence rates of insomnia symptoms, yet it is unclear if these insomnia symptoms are associated with objective impairments in sleep. We hypothesized that insomnia complaints in older adults would be associated with objective differences in sleep compared to those without insomnia complaints. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional study in which older adults with insomnia complaints (cases, n=100) were compared to older adults without insomnia complaints (controls, n=100) using dual-night in-lab nocturnal polysomnography, study questionnaires and seven days of at-home actigraphy and sleep diaries. Cases were noted to have reduced objective total sleep time compared to controls (25.8 minutes +/? 8.56, p=0.003). This was largely due to increased wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO), and not increased sleep latency. When participants with sleep-related breathing disorder or periodic limb movement disorder were excluded, the polysomnography total sleep time difference became even larger. Cases also had reduced slow-wave sleep (5.10 +/? 1.38 vs 10.57 +/? 2.29 minutes, effect size ?0.29, p=0.04). When comparing self-reported sleep latency and sleep efficiency to objective polysomnographic findings, cases demonstrated low, but statistically significant correlations, while no such correlations were observed in controls. Cases tended to under-estimate their sleep efficiency by 1.6% (+/? 18.4%), while controls over-estimated their sleep efficiency by 12.4% (+/? 14.5%). In conclusion, we noted that older adults with insomnia complaints have significant differences in several objective sleep findings relative to controls, suggesting that insomnia complaints in older adults are associated with objective impairments in sleep. PMID:20887395

  15. International cooperative study of aircrew layover sleep Operational summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Dement, William C.; Nicholson, Anthony N.; Sasaki, Mitsuo; Wegmann, Hans M.

    1986-01-01

    The findings of this cooperative study of layover sleep have direct implications for flight operations. In the consensus view of the principal investigators, these can be divided into their relevance for eastward or westward flight. Eastward flight produced more sleep disruption than westward. Different sleep and scheduling strategies are recommended for each flight direction, and the importance of individual crewmember factors is discussed in relation to age and circadian type. Despite the limitations of this study with regard to trip simplicity and the baseline data, the results for each airline are highly consistent and should be applicable to a wide range of long-haul crewmembers and carriers.

  16. Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D-J; Stanley, N; Lundahl, J; Groeger, J A; Legters, A; Trap Huusom, A K; Deacon, S

    2012-08-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been reported to correlate with sleep maintenance, but whether pharmacological enhancement of SWS also leads to improved sleep maintenance is not known. Here we evaluate the time-course of the effects of gaboxadol, an extra-synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, on SWS, sleep maintenance, and other sleep measures in a traffic noise model of transient insomnia. After a placebo run-in, 101 healthy subjects (20-78?y) were randomized to gaboxadol (n?=?50; 15?mg in subjects <65?y and 10?mg in subjects ?65?y) or placebo (n?=?51) for 7 nights (N1-N7). The model caused some disruption of sleep initiation and maintenance, with greatest effects on N1. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol increased SWS and slow wave activity throughout N1 to N7 (p?sleep overall (N1-N7) by 4.5?min and on N1 by 11?min (both p?sleep time (TST) overall by 16?min (p?sleep onset was reduced by 11?min overall (p?sleep onset latency overall and on N1 (both p?sleep quality improved overall (p?sleep maintenance and subjective sleep quality under placebo and gaboxadol (p?disruptive effects of noise on sleep initiation and maintenance. PMID:22002961

  17. LETTRES A LA RDACTION SPECTROSCOPIE DU CIEL NOCTURNE

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    915 LETTRES A LA RÉDACTION SPECTROSCOPIE DU CIEL NOCTURNE DANS L'INFRAROUGE PAR TRANSFORMATION DE FOURIER Par Mme J. CONNES et H. P. GUSH (*), Laboratoire Aimé-Cotton, C. N. R. S., Bellevue. LE JOURNAL DE

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... with ADNFLE have experienced psychiatric disorders (such as schizophrenia), behavioral problems, or intellectual disability. It is unclear ... molecule ; mutation ; neurological ; neuron ; neurotransmitters ; nocturnal ; prevalence ; receptor ; schizophrenia ; seizure ; sporadic ; stress ; vertigo You may find definitions ...

  19. Nocturnal colonization behavior of blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in southeastern Australia.

    PubMed

    George, Kelly A; Archer, Melanie S; Toop, Tes

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide research into nocturnal colonization by blowflies has produced many contradictory findings, prompting investigation specific to southeastern Australia. Initial experiments showed that blowfly colonization begins shortly after sunrise and continues until sunset; nocturnal colonization never occurred. Colonization peaks occurred at mid-morning, midday, and in the hours preceding sunset. In an additional experiment, wild blowflies were captured and placed in cages with colonization medium supplied nocturnally. Colonization occurred on four of five nights, and Calliphora augur (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was the main species colonizing baits nocturnally. Results suggest that colonization is most likely to occur during warm weather and when flies are able to walk or crawl to bait. In particular, blowflies trapped within a confined space (such as a room or car) with warmer-than-ambient temperature may be stimulated to colonize nearby remains. Entomologists should consider these findings when estimating minimum postmortem interval under these environmental conditions. PMID:22994948

  20. Peer Reviewed Equipment and Techniques for Nocturnal Wildlife

    E-print Network

    DeStefano, Stephen

    to wildlife studies. (WILDLIFE SOCIETY BULLETIN 34(4):1036­1044; 2006) Key words Grus americana, Grus research techniques. We also conducted a field study on nocturnal behavior of roosting cranes (Grus spp

  1. Patterns of sleep behaviour.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the electroencephalogram as the critical measurement procedure for sleep research, and survey of major findings that have emerged in the last decade on the presence of sleep within the twenty-four-hour cycle. Specifically, intrasleep processes, frequency of stage changes, sequence of stage events, sleep stage amounts, temporal patterns of sleep, and stability of intrasleep pattern in both man and lower animals are reviewed, along with some circadian aspects of sleep, temporal factors, and number of sleep episodes. It is felt that it is particularly critical to take the presence of sleep into account whenever performance is considered. When it is recognized that responsive performance is extremely limited during sleep, it is easy to visualize the extent to which performance is controlled by sleep itself.

  2. Arousal from sleep: The uniqueness of an individual's response and the problem of noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic nature of sleep is reviewed. Research is then presented concerning two fundamental issues: (1) does an individual react differently to auditory sounds when asleep as compared to when the individual is awake and (2) does sleep disruption necessarily involve behavioral awakening?

  3. Prevalence and consequences of sleep disorders in a shift worker population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maurice M Ohayon; Patrick Lemoine; Véronique Arnaud-Briant; Martine Dreyfus

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Irregular work schedules often results in a disruption of the normal circadian rhythm that can causes sleepiness when wakefulness is required and insomnia during the main sleep episode. Method: Two physicians using the Sleep-EVAL system interviewed 817 staff members of a psychiatric hospital. The interviews were done during the working hours. In addition to a series of questions to

  4. Role of hypoxia on increased blood pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Okabe; W Hida; Y Kikuchi; O Taguchi; H Ogawa; A Mizusawa; H Miki; K Shirato

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Cyclical changes in systemic blood pressure occur during apnoeic episodes in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Although several factors including arterial hypoxaemia, intrathoracic pressure changes, and disruption of sleep architecture have been reported to be responsible for these changes in blood pressure, the relative importance of each factor remains unclear. This study assessed the role of hypoxaemia on the

  5. Are You Getting Enough Sleep?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Button CDC Features Are you getting enough sleep? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Sleep is ... sleep guidelines for different age groups. How much sleep do you need? Newborns 16-18 hours Preschool- ...

  6. Irregular sleep-wake syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... normal, but the body clock loses its normal circadian cycle. People with changing work shifts and travelers ... Kanuther N, Harrington J, Lee-Chiong T. Circadian rhythm sleep ... rhythm sleep disorder: irregular sleep wake rhythm. Sleep ...

  7. SLEEP: How Much Do I Need? Sleep Cycle

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    SLEEP: How Much Do I Need? Sleep Cycle Getting Better R. E. S. T. Tips Do I Have Insomnia? Class Studying Reading Sitting at the computer Why do I need sleep? Sleep is considered food system, mood, and longevity. Sleep is when the body does most of its repair work. During sleep a number

  8. The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in sleep-related epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carla Marini; Renzo Guerrini

    2007-01-01

    The role of neuronal acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in epilepsy has been clearly established by the finding of mutations in a subset of genes coding for subunits of the nAChRs in a form of sleep-related epilepsy with familial occurrence in about 30% of probands and dominant inheritance, named autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE). Sporadic and familial forms have similar

  9. Oxygen desaturation during sleep and exercise in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Mulloy; M. Fitzpatrick; S. Bourke; A. O'Regan; W. T. McNicholas

    1995-01-01

    Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have varying degrees of arterial oxyhaemoglobin desaturation during sleep, which have been shown to correlate with awake oxygen levels. We wished to ascertain if exercise desaturation was a better predictor of nocturnal oxygen desaturation than daytime blood gases. We studied 25 COPD patients with PaO2 <10 kPa (mean=8·6 kPa), 12 of whom were

  10. Gender Differences in Associations of Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation, Awake Physical Activity, and Sleep Quality With Negative Affect The Work Site Blood Pressure Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuomi Kario; Joseph E. Schwartz; Karina W. Davidson; Thomas G. Pickering

    This study reports on the associations among depression, anxiety, awake physical activity, sleep quality (assessed by nocturnal physical activity), and diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation in a nonpsychiatric sample (The Work Site Blood Pressure Study). We conducted ambulatory BP (ABP) monitoring and actigraphy in 231 working men and women. Depression and anxiety were measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory. There

  11. Polysomnographic Features of Sleep Disturbances and REM Sleep Behavior Disorder in the Unilateral 6-OHDA Lesioned Hemiparkinsonian Rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Timothy P.; Venkiteswaran, Kala; Fang, Jidong; Subramanian, Thyagarajan

    2014-01-01

    Sleep pattern disruption, specifically REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), is a major nonmotor cause of disability in PD. Understanding the pathophysiology of these sleep pattern disturbances is critical to find effective treatments. 24-hour polysomnography (PSG), the gold standard for sleep studies, has never been used to test sleep dysfunction in the standard 6-OHDA lesioned hemiparkinsonian (HP) rat PD model. In this study, we recorded 24-hour PSG from normal and HP rats. Recordings were scored into wake, rapid eye movement (REM), and non-REM (NREM). We then examined EEG to identify REM periods and EMG to check muscle activity during REM. Normal rats showed higher wakefulness (70–80%) during the dark phase and lower wakefulness (20%) during the light phase. HP rats showed 30–50% sleep in both phases, less modulation and synchronization to the light schedule (P < 0.0001), and more long run lengths of wakefulness (P < 0.05). HP rats also had more REM epochs with muscle activity than control rats (P < 0.05). Our findings that the sleep architecture in the HP rat resembles that of PD patients demonstrate the value of this model in studying the pathophysiological basis of PD sleep disturbances and preclinical therapeutics for PD related sleep disorders including RBD. PMID:25610706

  12. Explaining sleep duration in adolescents: the impact of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors and working status.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Frida Marina; Nagai, Roberta; Teixeira, Liliane Reis

    2008-04-01

    Previous studies found students who both work and attend school undergo a partial sleep deprivation that accumulates across the week. The aim of the present study was to obtain information using a questionnaire on a number of variables (e.g., socio-demographics, lifestyle, work timing, and sleep-wake habits) considered to impact on sleep duration of working (n = 51) and non-working (n = 41) high-school students aged 14-21 yrs old attending evening classes (19:00-22:30 h) at a public school in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected for working days and days off. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. Work, sex, age, smoking, consumption of alcohol and caffeine, and physical activity were considered control variables. Significant predictors of sleep duration were: work ( p < 0.01), daily work duration (8-10 h/day; p < 0.01), sex ( p = 0.04), age 18-21 yrs (0.01), smoking( p = 0.02) and drinking habits ( p = 0.03), irregular physical exercise (p < 0.01), ease of falling asleep ( p = 0.04), and the sleep-wake cycle variables of napping ( p < 0.01), nocturnal awakenings ( p < 0.01), and mid-sleep regularity ( p < 0.01). The results confirm the hypotheses that young students who work and attend school showed a reduction in night-time sleep duration. Sleep deprivation across the week, particularly in students working 8-10 h/day, is manifested through a sleep rebound (i.e., extended sleep duration) on Saturdays. However, the different roles played by socio-demographic and lifestyle variables have proven to be factors that intervene with nocturnal sleep duration. The variables related to the sleep-wake cycle-naps and night awakenings-proved to be associated with a slight reduction in night-time sleep, while regularity in sleep and wake-up schedules was shown to be associated with more extended sleep duration, with a distinct expression along the week and the weekend. Having to attend school and work, coupled with other sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, creates an unfavorable scenario for satisfactory sleep duration. PMID:18533330

  13. Evolution of segmental myoclonus during sleep: polygraphic study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Bauleo, S; De Mitri, P; Coccagna, G

    1996-06-01

    We describe the sleep evolution of two cases of segmental myoclonus. The first patient had symptomatic palatal myoclonus which, as in most reported cases, persisted during sleep with a slight but significant reduction in frequency. The second patient presented apparently essential spinal myoclonus, which disappeared on falling asleep and recurred for short periods during arousals. This patient also had nocturnal myoclonus involving the legs, as well as those muscles affected by spinal myoclonus. The physiopathological significance of this unusual association is discussed. PMID:8856414

  14. Sound imaging of nocturnal animal calls in their natural habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Mizumoto; Ikkyu Aihara; Takuma Otsuka; Ryu Takeda; Kazuyuki Aihara; Hiroshi G. Okuno

    We present a novel method for imaging acoustic communication between nocturnal animals. Investigating the spatio-temporal\\u000a calling behavior of nocturnal animals, e.g., frogs and crickets, has been difficult because of the need to distinguish many\\u000a animals’ calls in noisy environments without being able to see them. Our method visualizes the spatial and temporal dynamics\\u000a using dozens of sound-to-light conversion devices (called

  15. Cardio-Respiratory Coordination Increases during Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Riedl, Maik; Müller, Andreas; Kraemer, Jan F.; Penzel, Thomas; Kurths, Juergen; Wessel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the main source of morbidity and mortality in the United States with costs of more than $170 billion. Repetitive respiratory disorders during sleep are assumed to be a major cause of these diseases. Therefore, the understanding of the cardio-respiratory regulation during these events is of high public interest. One of the governing mechanisms is the mutual influence of the cardiac and respiratory oscillations on their respective onsets, the cardio-respiratory coordination (CRC). We analyze this mechanism based on nocturnal measurements of 27 males suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Here we find, by using an advanced analysis technique, the coordigram, not only that the occurrence of CRC is significantly more frequent during respiratory sleep disturbances than in normal respiration (p-value<10?51) but also more frequent after these events (p-value<10?15). Especially, the latter finding contradicts the common assumption that spontaneous CRC can only be observed in epochs of relaxed conditions, while our newly discovered epochs of CRC after disturbances are characterized by high autonomic stress. Our findings on the connection between CRC and the appearance of sleep-disordered events require a substantial extension of the current understanding of obstructive sleep apneas and hypopneas. PMID:24718564

  16. [Sleep deprivation as a risk factor for obesity].

    PubMed

    Chamorro, Rodrigo A; Durán, Samuel A; Reyes, Sussanne C; Ponce, Rosemarie; Algarín, Cecilia R; Peirano, Patricio D

    2011-07-01

    Nocturnal sleep patterns may be a contributing factor for the epidemic of obesity. Epidemiologic ana experimental studies have reported that sleep restriction is an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. Moreover, sleep restriction is significantly associated with incidence and prevalence of obesity and several non-transmissible chronic diseases. Experimental sleep restriction is related to altered plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations. Both hormones are directly related to appetite and satiety mechanisms. Also, a higher activity of the orexin/hypocretin system has been reported, as well as changes in glucose metabolism and autonomic nervous system. Some studies indicate that these endocrine changes could be associated with a higher diurnal food intake and preference for energy- dense foods. All these changes could result in a positive energy balance, leading to weight gain and a higher obesity risk in the long-term. The present article summarizes the epidemiologic and experimental evidence related to sleep deprivation and higher obesity risk. The possible mechanisms are highlighted. PMID:22051834

  17. Improved nasal breathing in snorers increases nocturnal growth hormone secretion and serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 subsequently.

    PubMed

    Löth, S; Petruson, B; Lindstedt, G; Bengtsson, B A

    1998-12-01

    In snoring men improved nasal breathing during sleep has been shown to decrease snoring and morning tiredness. The aim was to evaluate whether improved nasal breathing had any effect on growth hormone (GH) secretion, the nocturnal secretion of GH being associated with deep sleep. Forty-two snoring men, mean age 45 years and mean body mass index 26 kg.m-2, slept every night during one month with the Nozovent nostril dilator. Before and at the end of the test period, we analysed serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (free T4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (free T3), cortisol and testosterone in blood sampled at 08:00 h. Fifteen of the 37 snoring men who completed the study experienced a reduction in snoring and were less tired in the morning during the test period. In this group, the mean IGF-1 concentration was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after one month. There was no significant difference in mean IGF-1 level between the snorers and a population sample. Likewise, TSH, free T4, free T3, cortisol and testosterone concentrations were within normal limits. Snorers with reduced snoring and morning tiredness due to improved nasal breathing showed an increase in morning IGF-1 concentration which can probably be explained by higher nocturnal GH secretion induced by more deep sleep. PMID:9923061

  18. [The use of screening methods in diagnosis of disturbances of respiration during sleep in patients with cardiac pathology].

    PubMed

    Eroshina, E V; Kalinkin, A L; Sidorenko, B A

    2011-01-01

    Disturbances of respiration during sleep especially those of obstructive character are sufficiently widespread phenomena. In addition to worsening of the quality of sleep itself they facilitate formation and development of concomitant pathology of cardiovascular system, endocrine system, cognitive sphere. This results in lowering of quality of life and its duration. At present standard method of diagnosis of disturbances of respiration during sleep is polysomnographical examination. At the same time more accessible screening methods are also actively used with the aim of detection of subjects with high probability of respiratory disturbances during sleep. Among them cardiorespiratory monitoring, nocturnal pulsoximetry, registration of oro-nasal flow during sleep, are questionnaires most widely-spread. PMID:21649593

  19. The effects on human sleep and circadian rhythms of 17 days of continuous bedrest in the absence of daylight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Billy, B. D.; Kennedy, K. S.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger bedrest study involving various life science experiments, a study was conducted on the effects of 17 days of continuous bedrest and elimination of daylight on circadian rectal temperature rhythms, mood, alertness, and sleep (objective and diary) in eight healthy middle-aged men. Sleep was timed from 2300 to 0700 hours throughout. Three 72-hour measurement blocks were compared: ambulatory prebedrest, early bedrest (days 5-7), and late bedrest (days 15-17). Temperature rhythms showed reduced amplitude and later phases resulting from the bedrest conditions. This was associated with longer nocturnal sleep onset latencies and poorer subjectively rated sleep but with no reliable changes in any of the other sleep parameters. Daily changes in posture and/or exposure to daylight appear to be important determinants of a properly entrained circadian system.

  20. Technology disrupted

    SciTech Connect

    Papatheodorou, Y. [CH2M Hill (United States)

    2007-02-15

    Three years ago, the author presented a report on power generation technologies which in summary said 'no technology available today has the potential of becoming transformational or disruptive in the next five to ten years'. In 2006 the company completed another strategic view research report covering the electric power, oil, gas and unconventional energy industries and manufacturing industry. This article summarises the strategic view findings and then revisits some of the scenarios presented in 2003. The cost per megawatt-hour of the alternatives is given for plants ordered in 2005 and then in 2025. The issue of greenhouse gas regulation is dealt with through carbon sequestration and carbon allowances or an equivalent carbon tax. Results reveal substantial variability through nuclear power, hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass remain competitive through every scenario. Greenhouse gas scenario analysis shows coal still be viable, albeit less competitive against nuclear and renewable technologies. A carbon tax or allowance at $24 per metric ton has the same effect on IGCC cost as a sequestration mandate. However, the latter would hurt gas plants much more than a tax or allowance. Sequestering CO{sub 2} from a gas plant is almost as costly per megawatt-hour as for coal. 5 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Sleep EEG in Children with a Parental History of Alcohol Abuse/Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tarokh, Leila; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the sleep EEG in 9- and 10-year old children with (PH+) and without (PH?) a parental history of alcoholism abuse/dependence to determine whether sleep disturbances associated with alcohol precede the onset of alcohol use. Participants slept on a fixed sleep schedule that ensured at least 10-hours time in bed for one week before an adaptation and baseline night. Data were collected in a 4-bed sleep research lab. Thirty healthy boys and girls ages 9 or 10 years were classified as either PH+ or PH? based on DSM-IV criteria applied to structured parental interviews. All-night polysomnography was performed, sleep data were visually scored in 30-second epochs, and EEG power spectra were calculated for each epoch. All-night EEG spectra were calculated for NREM and REM sleep, and cycle-by-cycle spectra were calculated for NREM sleep. The two groups did not differ on any sleep stage variable. All-night analyses revealed normalized power in the delta band and spindle range were lower in PH+ children. Within NREM sleep cycles PH+ children exhibited less normalized power in the delta band and spindle range compared to PH? children. This effect occurred in the first four cycles and was most pronounced in the first sleep cycle of the night. We found no signs of sleep disruption in sleep stages for PH+ children. Sleep EEG spectral differences, however, suggest that certain circuits responsible for “protecting” sleep may be impaired in PH+ children, which may later lead to disrupted sleep later in life. PMID:19735444

  2. Oxcarbazepine in children with nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Raju, G Praveen; Sarco, Dean P; Poduri, Annapurna; Riviello, James J; Bergin, Ann Marie R; Takeoka, Masanori

    2007-11-01

    Nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal arousals, motor seizures with dystonic or hyperkinetic features, and episodic nocturnal wanderings. Carbamazepine is effective for seizure control in some of these patients, but seizures may be refractory to multiple antiepileptic drugs. We report on eight children between ages 4-16 years with nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy who had a dramatic response to oxcarbazepine at standard recommended doses, some of whom were refractory to previous antiepileptic medications. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, routine electroencephalogram, and prolonged, continuous video-electroencephalogram telemetry were performed in all children. Nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy was diagnosed by demonstrating ictal electroencephalogram changes originating from the frontal lobes. The children were followed for response of seizures to oxcarbazepine, side effects, and routine blood tests, including serum 10-monohydroxide derivative levels. The mean oxcarbazepine dose was 30.4 mg/kg/day +/- 11.7 (mean +/- SD); the mean 10-monohydroxide level was 23.1 microg/mL +/- 8.6 (mean +/- SD). Seizures improved within 4 days of oxcarbazepine initiation in six children, whereas two children required higher doses. Their follow-up has ranged from 12 to 24 months, without seizure recurrence or serious side effects. Our patients demonstrate the efficacy of oxcarbazepine for nocturnal hyperkinetic seizures in children with nocturnal frontal-lobe epilepsy. PMID:17950420

  3. Sleep Disturbances and Health-Related Quality of Life in Adults with Steady-State Bronchiectasis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiya; Tang, Yan; Lin, Zhimin; Li, Huimin; Gao, Yang; Luo, Qun; Zhong, Nanshan; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances are common in patients with chronic lung diseases, but little is known about the prevalence in patients with bronchiectasis. A cross sectional study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and determinants associated with sleep disturbances, and the correlation between sleep disturbances and quality of life (QoL) in adults with steady-state bronchiectasis. Methods One hundred and forty-four bronchiectasis patients and eighty healthy subjects were enrolled. Sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and QoL were measured by utilizing the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), respectively. Demographic, clinical indices, radiology, spirometry, bacteriology, anxiety and depression were also assessed. Results Adults with steady-state bronchiectasis had a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances (PSQI>5) (57% vs. 29%, P<0.001), but not daytime sleepiness (ESS?10) (32% vs. 30%, P?=?0.76), compared with healthy subjects. In the multivariate model, determinants associated with sleep disturbances in bronchiectasis patients included depression (OR, 10.09; 95% CI, 3.46–29.37; P<0.001), nocturnal cough (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13–3.18; P?=?0.016), aging (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01–1.07; P?=?0.009) and increased 24-hour sputum volume (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.22–3.33; P?=?0.006). Patients with sleep disturbances had more significantly impaired QoL affecting all domains than those without. Only 6.2% of patients reported using a sleep medication at least weekly. Conclusions In adults with steady-state bronchiectasis, sleep disturbances are more common than in healthy subjects and are related to poorer QoL. Determinants associated with sleep disturbances include depression, aging, nighttime cough and increased sputum volume. Assessment and intervention of sleep disturbances are warranted and may improve QoL. PMID:25036723

  4. Decreased Connectivity between the Thalamus and the Neocortex during Human Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Picchioni, Dante; Pixa, Morgan L.; Fukunaga, Masaki; Carr, Walter S.; Horovitz, Silvina G.; Braun, Allen R.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine whether thalamocortical signaling between the thalamus and the neocortex decreases from wakefulness to nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Design: Electroencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected simultaneously at 02:30 after 44 h of sleep deprivation. Setting: Clinical research hospital. Participants: There were six volunteers (mean age 24.2 y, one male) who yielded sufficient amounts of usable, artifact-free data. All were healthy, right-handed native English speakers who consumed less than 710 mL of caffeinated beverages per day. Psychiatric, neurological, circadian, and sleep disorders were ruled out by reviewing each patient's clinical history. A standard clinical nocturnal polysomnogram was negative for sleep disorders. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: A functional connectivity analysis was performed using the centromedian nucleus as the seed region. We determined the statistical significance of the difference between correlations obtained during wakefulness and during slow wave sleep. Neocortical regions displaying decreased thalamic connectivity were all heteromodal regions (e.g., medial frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate/precuneus), whereas there was a complete absence of neocortical regions displaying increased thalamic connectivity. Although more clusters of significant decreases were observed in stage 2 sleep, these results were similar to the results for slow wave sleep. Conclusions: Results of this study provide evidence of a functional deafferentation of the neocortex during nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in humans. This deafferentation likely accounts for increased sensory awareness thresholds during NREM sleep. Decreased thalamocortical connectivity in regions such as the posterior cingulate/precuneus also are observed in coma and general anesthesia, suggesting that changes in thalamocortical connectivity may act as a universal “control switch” for changes in consciousness that are observed in coma, general anesthesia, and natural sleep. Citation: Picchioni D; Pixa ML; Fukunaga M; Carr WS; Horovitz SG; Braun AR; Duyn JH. Decreased connectivity between the thalamus and the neocortex during human nonrapid eye movement sleep. SLEEP 2014;37(2):387-397. PMID:24497667

  5. Relationship between zolpidem concentrations and sleep parameters in pediatric burn patients.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Chris; Gottschlich, Michele M; Healy, Daniel; Khoury, Jane C; Mayes, Theresa; Sherwin, Catherine M T; Spigarelli, Michael G; Kagan, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Zolpidem is a short-acting non-benzodiazepine hypnotic that is used to improve sleep architecture in patients with burn injuries. This study evaluated the relationship between zolpidem administration and sleep parameters in a cohort of children with severe burn injuries. Standard age-based zolpidem dosing practices were employed. Polysomnography data were recorded at 30-second intervals throughout the night. Serum concentrations of zolpidem were measured at 0, 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 8 hours after administration of the first dose. The relationship between zolpidem concentrations and sleep parameters was evaluated using Markov mixed-effects pharmacodynamic models. Ten children received two doses of zolpidem at 22:00 and 02:00 hours. The median total amount of sleep was 361.0 (interquartile range [IQR]: 299.0-418.5) minutes; approximately 65% of the normal reference value for an 8-hour period. Slow-wave and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep were also dramatically reduced (18-37% of normal). With two doses of zolpidem, stage 2 sleep was 99% of normal levels. Higher peak zolpidem concentrations were associated with increased stage 2 sleep (r = .54; P = .04). Despite this, a median of 120.0 (IQR: 99.5-143.5) transitions between nocturnal sleep stages were recorded, with a median of 55.5 (IQR: 36-75) night-time awakenings per patient. In pediatric burn patients, higher zolpidem serum concentrations were associated with restoration of stage 2 sleep to normal levels. Nonetheless, slow-wave and REM sleep were profoundly depressed with frequent transitions between sleep stages, suggesting that alternative hypnotic agents may be required to restore normal sleep architecture in severely burned children. PMID:25185933

  6. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    PubMed Central

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementation of epileptic patients with some of these sleep-related hormones may have a beneficial role in controlling epilepsy. PMID:25254184

  7. General considerations of sleep and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jovanovi?, U J

    1991-01-01

    The state of affairs in the field of sleep deprivation has been discussed in this chapter. Special emphasis was placed on total sleep deprivation, a domain in which the most important work has been done since the dawning of this century, and especially during the 'golden years' between 1955 and 1975. After a discussion of the biorhythmical aspects, the general condition of sleep deprived subjects was pointed out. Psychological-psychiatric changes and impairment of performance were further topics of discussion, followed by sections on EEG, neurological, autonomic and metabolic changes. The relationship of SD to epileptic phenomena and endogenous depression has been considered. The characteristics of recovery sleep have also been presented. Most of the author's impressions are based on personal data, and especially on 2 subjects who underwent most elaborate testing. A discussion of partial sleep deprivation and selective sleep deprivation is also included. PMID:1760089

  8. Sleep physiology and sleep disorders in childhood

    PubMed Central

    El Shakankiry, Hanan M

    2011-01-01

    Sleep has long been considered as a passive phenomenon, but it is now clear that it is a period of intense brain activity involving higher cortical functions. Overall, sleep affects every aspect of a child’s development, particularly higher cognitive functions. Sleep concerns are ranked as the fifth leading concern of parents. Close to one third of all children suffer from sleep disorders, the prevalence of which is increased in certain pediatric populations, such as children with special needs, children with psychiatric or medical diagnoses and children with autism or pervasive developmental disorders. The paper reviews sleep physiology and the impact, classification, and management of sleep disorders in the pediatric age group. PMID:23616721

  9. Sleep Disturbance and Neurobehavioral Performance among Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Williams, Kayla B.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances cause neurobehavioral performance and daytime functioning impairments. Postpartum women experience high levels of sleep disturbance. Thus, the study objective was to describe and explore the relation between neurobehavioral performance and sleep among women during the early postpartum period. Design: Longitudinal field-based study. Participants: There were 70 primiparous women and nine nulliparous women in a control group. Interventions: None. Methods and Results: During their first 12 postpartum weeks, 70 primiparous women wore continuous wrist actigraphy to objectively monitor their sleep. Each morning they self-administered the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) to index their neurobehavioral performance. Nine nulliparous women in a control group underwent the same protocol for 12 continuous weeks. Postpartum PVT mean reciprocal (1/RT) reaction time did not differ from that of women in the control group at postpartum week 2, but then worsened over time. Postpartum slowest 10% 1/RT PVT reaction time was significantly worse than that of women in the control group at all weeks. Despite improvements in postpartum sleep, neurobehavioral performance continued to worsen from week 2 through the end of the study. Across the first 12 postpartum weeks, PVT measures were more frequently associated with percent sleep compared with total sleep time, highlighting the deleterious consequences of sleep disruption on maternal daytime functioning throughout the early postpartum period. Conclusions: Worsened maternal neurobehavioral performance across the first 12 postpartum weeks may have been influenced by the cumulative effects of sleep disturbance. These results can inform future work to identify the particular sleep profiles that could be primary intervention targets to improve daytime functioning among postpartum women, and indicate need for further research on the effectiveness of family leave policies. The time when postpartum women return to control-level daytime functioning is unknown. Citation: Insana SP; Williams KB; Montgomery-Downs HE. Sleep disturbance and neurobehavioral performance among postpartum women. SLEEP 2013;36(1):73–81. PMID:23288973

  10. Predicting sleep apnoea syndrome from heart period: a time-frequency wavelet analysis.

    PubMed

    Roche, F; Pichot, V; Sforza, E; Court-Fortune, I; Duverney, D; Costes, F; Garet, M; Barthélémy, J C

    2003-12-01

    Heart rate fluctuations are a typical finding during obstructive sleep apnoea, characterised by bradycardia during the apnoeic phase and tachycardia at the restoration of ventilation. In this study, a time-frequency domain analysis of the nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) was evaluated as the single diagnostic marker for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). The predictive accuracy of time-frequency HRV variables (wavelet (Wv) decomposition parameters from level 2 (Wv2) to level 256 (Wv256)) obtained from nocturnal electrocardiogram Holter monitoring were analysed in 147 consecutive patients aged 53.8+/-11.2 yrs referred for possible OSAS. OSAS was diagnosed in 66 patients (44.9%) according to an apnoea/hypopnoea index > or = 10. Using receiver-operating characteristic curves analysis, the most powerful predictor variable was Wv32 (W 0.758, p<0.0001), followed by Wv16 (W 0.729, p<0.0001) and Wv64 (W 0.700, p<0.0001). Classification and Regression Trees methodology generated a decision tree for OSAS prediction including all levels of Wv coefficients, from Wv2 to Wv256 with a sensitivity reaching 92.4% and a specificity of 90.1% (percentage of agreement 91.2%) with this nonparametric analysis. Time-frequency parameters calculated using wavelet transform and extracted from the nocturnal heart period analysis appeared as powerful tools for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome diagnosis. PMID:14680082

  11. Identifying Adolescent Sleep Problems

    PubMed Central

    Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Gill, Jason; Camfferman, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the efficacy of self-report and parental report of adolescent sleep problems and compare these findings to the incidence of adolescents who fulfill clinical criteria for a sleep problem. Sleep and daytime functioning factors that predict adolescents’ self-identification of a sleep problem will also be examined. Method 308 adolescents (aged 13–17 years) from eight socioeconomically diverse South Australian high schools participated in this study. Participants completed a survey battery during class time, followed by a 7-day Sleep Diary and the Flinders Fatigue Scale completed on the final day of the study. Parents completed a Sleep, Medical, Education and Family History Survey. Results The percentage of adolescents fulfilling one or more of the criteria for a sleep problem was inordinately high at 66%. Adolescent self-reporting a sleep problem was significantly lower than the adolescents who had one or more of the clinical criteria for a sleep problem (23.1% vs. 66.6%; ?2?=?17.46, p<.001). Parental report of their adolescent having a sleep problem was significantly lower than adolescent self-report (14.3% vs. 21.1%, p<.001). Adolescents who reported unrefreshing sleep were 4.81 times more likely to report a sleep problem. For every hour that bedtime was delayed, the odds of self-reporting a sleep problem increased by 1.91 times, while each additional 10 minutes taken to fall asleep increased the odds 1.40 times. Conclusion While many adolescents were found to have sleep patterns indicative of a sleep problem, only a third of this number self-identify having a sleep problem, while only a sixth of this number are indicated by parental report. This study highlights important features to target in future sleep education and intervention strategies for both adolescents and parents. PMID:24086501

  12. Circadian Disruption and Metabolic Disease: Findings from Animal Models

    PubMed Central

    Arble, Deanna Marie; Ramsey, Kathryn Moynihan; Bass, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Social opportunities and work demands have caused humans to become increasingly active during the late evening hours, leading to a shift from the predominantly diurnal lifestyle of our ancestors to a more nocturnal one. This voluntarily decision to stay awake long into the evening hours leads to circadian disruption at the system, tissue, and cellular levels. These derangements are in turn associated with clinical impairments in metabolic processes and physiology. The use of animal models for circadian disruption provides an important opportunity to determine mechanisms by which disorganization in the circadian system can lead to metabolic dysfunction in response to genetic, environmental, and behavioral perturbations. Here we review recent key animal studies involving circadian disruption and discuss the possible translational implications of these studies for human health and particularly for the development of metabolic disease. PMID:21112026

  13. Common Sleep Problems

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sleep when a person has the most vivid dreams. Continue Why Do Teens Have Trouble Sleeping? Research ... may make them suddenly fall asleep, lose muscle control, or see vivid dreamlike images while dozing off ...

  14. Obstructive sleep apnea

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Avoid sleeping on your back Lose excess weight Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices work best to ... McArdle N, Singh B, Murphy M, et al. Continuous positive airway pressure titration for obstructive sleep apnoea: ...

  15. Sleep Apnea Detection

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to Later Sleep Onset in Children Parents Often Need After-Hours Child Sleep Advice HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Newborn Intensive Care, 3rd ... Young Adult Privacy Policy Terms of Use Sponsor ...

  16. Sleep Apnea Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... use increase the risk of sleep apnea. Continuous positive airway pressure, or CPAP, is the most common, noninvasive treatment for moderate to severe sleep apnea. © 2015 American Association for Respiratory Care

  17. Sleep and Aging: Insomnia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Sleep and Aging Insomnia Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint at ... at greater risk for falling. Health Issues and Insomnia Disorders that cause pain or discomfort during the ...

  18. Brain Basics: Understanding Sleep

    MedlinePLUS

    ... inducing chemicals. Sleep may help the body conserve energy and other resources that the immune system needs to mount an attack. Sleeping problems occur in almost all people with mental disorders, including those with depression and schizophrenia. People with depression, ...

  19. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and COPD: The Overlap Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Robert L; Malhotra, Atul

    2012-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (mainly obstructive sleep apnea [OSA]) and COPD are among the most common pulmonary diseases, so a great number of patients have both disorders; this “overlap syndrome” causes more severe nocturnal hypoxemia than either disease alone. This common combination of OSA and COPD has important implications for diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Specifically, patients with COPD and OSA have a substantially greater risk of morbidity and mortality, compared to those with either COPD or OSA alone. Only now are the interactions between these 2 systemic diseases being determined and appreciated. Many questions remain, however, with regard to disease definition, prognosis, and optimal treatment. Treatment currently consists of continuous positive airway pressure, and oxygen as needed. Noninvasive ventilation may be helpful in overlap syndrome patients, but this has not yet been well studied. PMID:20875160

  20. Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria from Bench to Bedside

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Jeffrey J.; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare hematologic disease that presents with protean manifestations. Clinical and laboratory investigation over the past 25 years have uncovered most of the basic science underpinnings of PNH and have led to the development of a highly effective targeted therapy. PNH originates from a multipotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) that acquires a somatic mutation in a gene called phosphatidylinositol glycan anchor biosynthesis, class A (PIG-A). The PIG-A gene is required for the first step in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor biosynthesis. Failure to synthesize GPI anchors leads to an absence of all proteins that utilize GPI to attach to the plasma membrane. Two GPI-anchor proteins, CD55 and CD59, are complement regulatory proteins; their absence on the surface of PNH cells leads to complement-mediated hemolysis. The release of free hemoglobin leads to scavenging of nitric oxide and contributes to many clinical manifestations, including esophageal spasm, fatigue, and possibly thrombosis. Aerolysin, a pore-forming toxin, binds GPI anchored proteins and kills normal cells, but not PNH cells. A fluorescinated aerolysin variant (FLAER) binds GPI-anchor and serves as a novel reagent diagnosing PNH. Eculizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against C5, is the first effective drug therapy for PNH. PMID:21707954