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Sample records for nod-like receptor nlr

  1. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  2. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. PMID:18254971

  3. Mechanisms of NOD-like receptor-associated inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Haitao; Miao, Edward A; Ting, Jenny P-Y

    2013-09-19

    A major function of a subfamily of NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing, or NOD-like receptor) proteins is in inflammasome activation, which has been implicated in a multitude of disease models and human diseases. This work will highlight key progress in understanding the mechanisms that activate the best-studied NLRs (NLRP3, NLRC4, NAIP, and NLRP1) and in uncovering inflammasome NLRs. PMID:24054327

  4. Nod-Like Receptors: Cytosolic Watchdogs for Immunity against Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Sirard, Jean-Claude; Vignal, Cécile; Dessein, Rodrigue; Chamaillard, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    In mammals, tissue-specific sets of pattern-recognition molecules, including Nod-like receptors (NLR), enable concomitant and sequential detection of microbial-associated molecular patterns from both the extracellular and intracellular microenvironment. Repressing and de-repressing the cytosolic surveillance machinery contributes to vital immune homeostasis and protective responses within specific tissues. Conversely, defective biology of NLR drives the development of recurrent infectious, autoimmune and/or inflammatory diseases by failing to mount barrier functions against pathogens, to tolerate commensals, and/or to instruct the adaptive immune response against microbes. Better decoding microbial strategies that are evolved to circumvent NLR sensing will provide clues for the development of rational therapies aimed at curing and/or preventing common and emerging immunopathologies. PMID:18166077

  5. NOD-Like Receptor Signaling in Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Leichtle, Anke; Klenke, Christin; Ebmeyer, Joerg; Daerr, Markus; Bruchhage, Karl-Ludwig; Hoffmann, Anna Sophie; Ryan, Allen F.; Wollenberg, Barbara; Sudhoff, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cholesteatoma is a destructive process of the middle ear resulting in erosion of the surrounding bony structures with consequent hearing loss, vestibular dysfunction, facial paralysis, or intracranial complications. The etiopathogenesis of cholesteatoma is controversial but is associated with recurrent ear infections. The role of intracellular innate immune receptors, the NOD-like receptors, and their associated signaling networks was investigated in cholesteatoma, since mutations in NOD-like receptor-related genes have been implicated in other chronic inflammatory disorders. Results. The expression of NOD2 mRNA and protein was significantly induced in cholesteatoma compared to the external auditory canal skin, mainly located in the epithelial layer of cholesteatoma. Microarray analysis showed significant upregulation for NOD2, not for NOD1, TLR2, or TLR4 in cholesteatoma. Moreover, regulation of genes in an interaction network of the NOD-adaptor molecule RIPK2 was detected. In addition to NOD2, NLRC4, and PYCARD, the downstream molecules IRAK1 and antiapoptotic regulator CFLAR showed significant upregulation, whereas SMAD3, a proapoptotic inducer, was significantly downregulated. Finally, altered regulation of inflammatory target genes of NOD signaling was detected. Conclusions. These results indicate that the interaction of innate immune signaling mediated by NLRs and their downstream target molecules is involved in the etiopathogenesis and growth of cholesteatoma. PMID:25922834

  6. Diversity and Variability of NOD-Like Receptors in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Dyrka, Witold; Lamacchia, Marina; Durrens, Pascal; Kobe, Bostjan; Daskalov, Asen; Paoletti, Matthieu; Sherman, David J.; Saupe, Sven J.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular receptors that control innate immunity and other biotic interactions in animals and plants. NLRs have been characterized in plant and animal lineages, but in fungi, this gene family has not been systematically described. There is however previous indications of the involvement of NLR-like genes in nonself recognition and programmed cell death in fungi. We have analyzed 198 fungal genomes for the presence of NLRs and have annotated a total of 5,616 NLR candidates. We describe their phylogenetic distribution, domain organization, and evolution. Fungal NLRs are characterized by a great diversity of domain organizations, suggesting frequently occurring combinatorial assortments of different effector, NOD and repeat domains. The repeat domains are of the WD, ANK, and TPR type; no LRR motifs were found. As previously documented for WD-repeat domains of fungal NLRs, TPR, and ANK repeats evolve under positive selection and show highly conserved repeats and repeat length polymorphism, suggesting the possibility of concerted evolution of these repeats. We identify novel effector domains not previously found associated with NLRs, whereas others are related to effector domains of plant or animals NLRs. In particular, we show that the HET domain found in fungal NLRs may be related to Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains found in animal and plant immune receptors. This description of fungal NLR repertoires reveals both similarities and differences with plant and animals NLR collections, highlights the importance of domain reassortment and repeat evolution and provides a novel entry point to explore the evolution of NLRs in eukaryotes. PMID:25398782

  7. NOD-Like Receptors: Master Regulators of Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Mansi; Yeretssian, Garabet

    2014-01-01

    Cytosolic NOD-like receptors (NLRs) have been associated with human diseases including infections, cancer, and autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. These innate immune pattern recognition molecules are essential for controlling inflammatory mechanisms through induction of cytokines, chemokines, and anti-microbial genes. Upon activation, some NLRs form multi-protein complexes called inflammasomes, while others orchestrate caspase-independent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Moreover, NLRs and their downstream signaling components engage in an intricate crosstalk with cell death and autophagy pathways, both critical processes for cancer development. Recently, increasing evidence has extended the concept that chronic inflammation caused by abberant NLR signaling is a powerful driver of carcinogenesis, where it abets genetic mutations, tumor growth, and progression. In this review, we explore the rapidly expanding area of research regarding the expression and functions of NLRs in different types of cancers. Furthermore, we particularly focus on how maintaining tissue homeostasis and regulating tissue repair may provide a logical platform for understanding the liaisons between the NLR-driven inflammatory responses and cancer. Finally, we outline novel therapeutic approaches that target NLR signaling and speculate how these could be developed as potential pharmaceutical alternatives for cancer treatment. PMID:25071785

  8. NOD-Like Receptors in Infection, Immunity, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Keun; Shin, Jeon-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern-recognition receptors similar to toll-like receptors (TLRs). While TLRs are transmembrane receptors, NLRs are cytoplasmic receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune response by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Based on their N-terminal domain, NLRs are divided into four subfamilies: NLRA, NLRB, NLRC, and NLRP. NLRs can also be divided into four broad functional categories: inflammasome assembly, signaling transduction, transcription activation, and autophagy. In addition to recognizing PAMPs and DAMPs, NLRs act as a key regulator of apoptosis and early development. Therefore, there are significant associations between NLRs and various diseases related to infection and immunity. NLR studies have recently begun to unveil the roles of NLRs in diseases such as gout, cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes, and Crohn's disease. As these new associations between NRLs and diseases may improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and lead to new approaches for the prevention and treatment of such diseases, NLRs are becoming increasingly relevant to clinicians. In this review, we provide a concise overview of NLRs and their role in infection, immunity, and disease, particularly from clinical perspectives. PMID:26632377

  9. NOD-Like Receptors in Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, Catherine; Sander, Leif Erik; Suttorp, Norbert; Opitz, Bastian

    2013-01-01

    The lung is a particularly vulnerable organ at the interface of the body and the exterior environment. It is constantly exposed to microbes and particles by inhalation. The innate immune system needs to react promptly and adequately to potential dangers posed by these microbes and particles, while at the same time avoiding extensive tissue damage. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) represent a group of key sensors for microbes and damage in the lung. As such they are important players in various infectious as well as acute and chronic sterile inflammatory diseases, such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, pneumoconiosis, and asthma. Activation of most known NLRs leads to the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and/or to the induction of cell death. We will review NLR functions in the lung during infection and sterile inflammation. PMID:24312100

  10. Functions of NOD-Like Receptors in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yifei; Kinio, Anna; Saleh, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are highly conserved cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that perform critical functions in surveying the intracellular environment for the presence of infection, noxious substances, and metabolic perturbations. Sensing of these danger signals by NLRs leads to their oligomerization into large macromolecular scaffolds and the rapid deployment of effector signaling cascades to restore homeostasis. While some NLRs operate by recruiting and activating inflammatory caspases into inflammasomes, others trigger inflammation via alternative routes including the nuclear factor-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and regulatory factor pathways. The critical role of NLRs in development and physiology is demonstrated by their clear implications in human diseases. Mutations in the genes encoding NLRP3 or NLRP12 lead to hereditary periodic fever syndromes, while mutations in CARD15 that encodes NOD2 are linked to Crohn’s disease or Blau’s syndrome. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified a number of risk alleles encompassing NLR genes in a host of diseases including allergic rhinitis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, multi-bacillary leprosy, vitiligo, early-onset menopause, and bone density loss in elderly women. Animal models have allowed the characterization of underlying effector mechanisms in a number of cases. In this review, we highlight the functions of NLRs in health and disease and discuss how the characterization of their molecular mechanisms provides new insights into therapeutic strategies for the management of inflammatory pathologies. PMID:24137163

  11. New mechanisms of NOD-like receptor-associated inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Haitao; Miao, Edward A.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    A major function of a subfamily of NLR (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine rich repeat containing or NOD-like receptor) proteins is in inflammasome activation, which has been implicated in a multitude of disease models and human diseases. This work will highlight key progress in understanding the mechanisms which activates the best studied NLRs (NLRP3, NLRC4, NAIP and NLRP1) and in uncovering new inflammasome NLRs. PMID:24054327

  12. Nod-like receptors have a grip on stem cells.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Jörg H

    2014-06-11

    Two reports in this issue of Cell Host & Microbe establish that Nod-like receptor proteins NOD1 and NOD2 regulate stem cell function. Burberry et al. (2014) demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 synergize with TLRs to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells. Nigro et al. (2014) report that NOD2 provides cytoprotection to intestinal stem cells. PMID:24922568

  13. Function of Nod-like Receptors in Microbial Recognition and Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Luigi; Warner, Neil; Viani, Kyle; Nuñez, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Summary Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are a specialized group of intracellular proteins that play a critical role in the regulation of the host innate immune response. NLRs act as scaffolding proteins that assemble signaling platforms that trigger nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and control the activation of inflammatory caspases. Importantly, mutations in several members of the NLR family have been linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases consistent with these molecules playing an important role in host-pathogen interactions and the inflammatory response. In this review, we focus on the role of Nod1 and Nod2 in host defense and in particular discuss recent finding regarding the role of Nlrc4, Nlpr1, and Nlrp3 inflammasomes in caspase-1 activation and subsequent release of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β. PMID:19120480

  14. NOD-like receptor signaling and inflammasome-related pathways are highlighted in psoriatic epidermis

    PubMed Central

    Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Siitonen, H. Annika; Vuola, Jyrki; Nuutila, Kristo; Sormunen, Raija; Johnsson, Anna; Linnarsson, Sten; Suomela, Sari; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha; Elomaa, Outi

    2016-01-01

    Psoriatic skin differs distinctly from normal skin by its thickened epidermis. Most gene expression comparisons utilize full-thickness biopsies, with substantial amount of dermis. We assayed the transcriptomes of normal, lesional, and non-lesional psoriatic epidermis, sampled as split-thickness skin grafts, with 5′-end RNA sequencing. We found that psoriatic epidermis contains more mRNA per total RNA than controls, and took this into account in the bioinformatic analysis. The approach highlighted innate immunity-related pathways in psoriasis, including NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling and inflammasome activation. We demonstrated that the NLR signaling genes NOD2, PYCARD, CARD6, and IFI16 are upregulated in psoriatic epidermis, and strengthened these findings by protein expression. Interestingly, PYCARD, the key component of the inflammasome, showed an altered expression pattern in the lesional epidermis. The profiling of non-lesional skin highlighted PSORS4 and mitochondrially encoded transcripts, suggesting that their gene expression is altered already before the development of lesions. Our data suggest that all components needed for the active inflammasome are present in the keratinocytes of psoriatic skin. The characterization of inflammasome pathways provides further opportunities for therapy. Complementing previous transcriptome studies, our approach gives deeper insight into the gene regulation in psoriatic epidermis. PMID:26976200

  15. Two N-Terminal Acetyltransferases Antagonistically Regulate the Stability of a Nod-Like Receptor in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Gannon, Patrick; Linster, Eric; Huber, Monika; Kapos, Paul; Bienvenut, Willy; Giglione, Carmela; Zhang, Yuelin; Chen, She

    2015-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) serve as immune receptors in plants and animals. The stability of NLRs is tightly regulated, though its mechanism is not well understood. Here, we show the crucial impact of N-terminal acetylation on the turnover of one plant NLR, Suppressor of NPR1, Constitutive 1 (SNC1), in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic and biochemical analyses of SNC1 uncovered its multilayered regulation by different N-terminal acetyltransferase (Nat) complexes. SNC1 exhibits a few distinct N-terminal isoforms generated through alternative initiation and N-terminal acetylation. Its first Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex A (NatA), while the second Met is acetylated by N-terminal acetyltransferase complex B (NatB). Unexpectedly, the NatA-mediated acetylation serves as a degradation signal, while NatB-mediated acetylation stabilizes the NLR protein, thus revealing antagonistic N-terminal acetylation of a single protein substrate. Moreover, NatA also contributes to the turnover of another NLR, RESISTANCE TO P. syringae pv maculicola 1. The intricate regulation of protein stability by Nats is speculated to provide flexibility for the target protein in maintaining its homeostasis. PMID:25966763

  16. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s β-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the β-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the β-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the β-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the β-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the β-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the β-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  17. Immune responses against protozoan parasites: a focus on the emerging role of Nod-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Gurung, Prajwal; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2016-08-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) have gained attention in recent years because of the ability of some family members to assemble into a multimeric protein complex known as the inflammasome. The role of NLRs and the inflammasome in regulating innate immunity against bacterial pathogens has been well studied. However, recent studies show that NLRs and inflammasomes also play a role during infections caused by protozoan parasites, which pose a significant global health burden. Herein, we review the diseases caused by the most common protozoan parasites in the world and discuss the roles of NLRs and inflammasomes in host immunity against these parasites. PMID:27032699

  18. Effects of aging in the expression of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome-related genes in oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, J L; Kirakodu, S; Novak, M J; Exposto, C R; Stromberg, A J; Shen, S; Orraca, L; Gonzalez-Martinez, J; Gonzalez, O A

    2016-02-01

    The molecular changes underlying the higher risk of chronic inflammatory disorders during aging remain incompletely understood. Molecular variations in the innate immune response related to recognition and interaction with microbes at mucosal surfaces could be involved in aging-related inflammation. We developed an ontology analysis of 20 nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) and seven inflammasome-related genes (IRGs) in healthy and inflamed/periodontitis oral mucosal tissues from young, adolescent, adult, and aged non-human primates (Macaca mulatta) using the GeneChip(®) Rhesus Macaque Genome array. Validation of some of the significant changes was done by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The expression of NLRB/NAIP, NLRP12, and AIM2 increased with aging in healthy mucosa whereas NLRC2/NOD2 expression decreased. Although higher expression levels of some NLRs were generally observed with periodontitis in adult mucosal tissues (e.g. NLRB/NAIP, NLRP5, and NLRX1), various receptors (e.g. NLRC2/NOD2 and NLRP2) and the inflammasome adaptor protein ASC, exhibited a significant reduction in expression in aged periodontitis tissues. Accordingly, the expression of NLR-activated innate immune genes, such as HBD3 and IFNB1, was impaired in aged but not adult periodontitis tissues. Both adult and aged tissues showed significant increase in interleukin-1β expression. These findings suggest that the expression of a subset of NLRs appears to change with aging in healthy oral mucosa, and that aging-related oral mucosal inflammation could involve an impaired regulation of the inflammatory and antimicrobial response associated with downregulation of specific NLRs and IRGs. PMID:26197995

  19. Crystal structure of the leucine-rich repeat domain of the NOD-like receptor NLRP1: implications for binding of muramyl dipeptide.

    PubMed

    Reubold, Thomas F; Hahne, Gernot; Wohlgemuth, Sabine; Eschenburg, Susanne

    2014-09-17

    The NOD-like receptor NLRP1 (NLR family, pyrin domain containing 1) senses the presence of the bacterial cell wall component l-muramyl dipeptide (MDP) inside the cell. We determined the crystal structure of the LRR domain of human NLRP1 in the absence of MDP to a resolution of 1.65Å. The fold of the structure can be assigned to the ribonuclease inhibitor-like class of LRR proteins. We compared our structure with X-ray models of the LRR domains of NLRX1 and NLRC4 and a homology model of the LRR domain of NOD2. We conclude that the MDP binding site of NLRP1 is not located in the LRR domain. PMID:25064844

  20. Comparative Geometrical Analysis of Leucine-Rich Repeat Structures in the Nod-Like and Toll-Like Receptors in Vertebrate Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Matsushima, Norio; Miyashita, Hiroki; Enkhbayar, Purevjav; Kretsinger, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The NOD-like receptors (NLRs) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that are involved in the innate, pathogen pattern recognition system. The TLR and NLR receptors contain leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) that are responsible for ligand interactions. In LRRs short β-strands stack parallel and then the LRRs form a super helical arrangement of repeating structural units (called a coil of solenoids). The structures of the LRR domains of NLRC4, NLRP1, and NLRX1 in NLRs and of TLR1-5, TLR6, TLR8, TLR9 in TLRs have been determined. Here we report nine geometrical parameters that characterize the LRR domains; these include four helical parameters from HELFIT analysis. These nine parameters characterize well the LRR structures in NLRs and TLRs; the LRRs of NLR adopts a right-handed helix. In contrast, the TLR LRRs adopt either a left-handed helix or are nearly flat; RP105 and CD14 also adopt a left-handed helix. This geometrical analysis subdivides TLRs into four groups consisting of TLR3/TLR8/TLR9, TLR1/TLR2/TRR6, TLR4, and TLR5; these correspond to the phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences. In the TLRs an ascending lateral surface that consists of loops connecting the β-strand at the C-terminal side is involved in protein, protein/ligand interactions, but not the descending lateral surface on the opposite side. PMID:26295267

  1. Regulation of NOD-like receptors and inflammasome activation in cerebral endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nagyőszi, Péter; Nyúl-Tóth, Ádám; Fazakas, Csilla; Wilhelm, Imola; Kozma, Mihály; Molnár, Judit; Haskó, János; Krizbai, István A

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral endothelial cells (CECs) forming the blood-brain barrier are at the interface of the immune and the central nervous systems and thus may play an important role in the functional integration of the two systems. Here, we investigated how CECs recognize and respond to pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns to regulate the functions of the neurovascular unit. First we detected the expression of several NOD-like receptors (NLRs) - including NOD1, NOD2, NLRC4, NLRC5, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP5, NLRP9, NLRP10, NLRP12, NLRA, and NLRX - in human brain endothelial cells. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β had stimulatory effects on the transcription of many of these receptors. Expression of key inflammasome components (NOD2, NLRP3, and caspase 1) along with caspase-cleaved interleukins IL-1β and IL-33 could be induced by priming with lipopolysaccharide and activation with muramyl dipeptide. In addition, combined treatment with lipopolysaccharide and muramyl dipeptide resulted in IL-1β secretion in a caspase- and ERK1/2 kinase-dependent manner. Our findings demonstrate that NLRs and inflammasomes can be activated in cerebral endothelial cells, which may confer a yet unexplored role to the blood-brain barrier in neuroimmune and neuroinflammatory processes. PMID:26083549

  2. Nod-like receptor protein 1 inflammasome mediates neuron injury under high glucose.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Tian, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Chu, Guang-Pin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Man; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Chun

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Inflammatory events during diabetes may be an important mechanism of diabetic encephalopathy. Inflammasome is a multiprotein complex consisting of Nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase 1 or 5, which functions to switch on the inflammatory process and the release of inflammatory factors. The present study hypothesized that the formation and activation of NLRP1 inflammasome turns on neuroinflammation and neuron injury during hyperglycemia. The results demonstrated that the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were increased in the cortex of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of mature IL-1β and IL-18 were also elevated in culture medium of neurons treated with high glucose (50 mM). The expression of three essential components of the NLRP1 inflammasome complex, namely, NLRP1, ASC, and caspase 1, was also upregulated in vivo and in vitro under high glucose. Silencing the ASC gene prevented the caspase-1 activation, and inhibiting caspase 1 activity blocked hyperglycemia-induced release of inflammatory factors and neuron injury. Moreover, we found that pannexin 1 mediated the actvitation of NLRP1 inflammasome under high glucose. These results suggest that hyperglycemia induces neuroinflammation through activation of NLRP1 inflammasome, which represents a novel mechanism of diabetes-associated neuron injury. PMID:24014157

  3. Identification of Nod like receptor C3 (NLRC3) in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer: Characterisation, ontogeny and expression analysis after experimental infection and ligand stimulation.

    PubMed

    Paria, Anutosh; Deepika, A; Sreedharan, K; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Purushothaman, C S; Thirunavukkarasu, A R; Rajendran, K V

    2016-08-01

    Nod like receptors (NLRs) are a large group of cytoplasmic PRRs believed to play an important role in bacterial recognition in higher vertebrates. In this study, a novel Nod like receptor C3 (AsNLRC3) has been identified, cloned and characterised from Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. The full-length AsNLRC3 transcript composed of a 4142 bp nucleic acid sequence encode for a protein of 1134 deduced amino acids. Three signature domains identified are conserved NACHT-domain, C-terminal LLR domain and N-terminal CARD effector domain. From the domain architecture and phylogenetic analysis, it was quite evident that AsNLRC3 is different from the NLR subfamily C of other teleosts. AsNLRC3 expressed in all the 11 tissues tested but highly expressed in tissues facing external environment such as gill, hindgut and midgut. The ontogenic expression profile of this receptor showed constitutive expression throughout the embryonic and larval developmental stages, which could be an innate immune strategy against different marine pathogens for larval survival. Infection with Vibrio alginolyticus and poly I:C induction showed an alteration of expression pattern in different tissues but did not show significant alteration in expression with Staphylococcus aureus infection. In vitro study in Asian seabass kidney cell line (SISK) stimulated with different ligands such as LPS, PGN and poly I:C showed considerable up-regulation at some of the time-points tested. These results suggest that AsNLRC3 can be a pivotal cytosolic innate immune receptor for recognizing wide array of pathogens in a euryhaline teleost model like Asian seabass in diverse environmental conditions. PMID:27346158

  4. The complex NOD-like receptor repertoire of the coral Acropora digitifera includes novel domain combinations.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mayuko; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shinzato, Chuya; Kawashima, Takeshi; Miller, David J; Satoh, Nori

    2013-01-01

    Innate immunity in corals is of special interest not only in the context of self-defense but also in relation to the establishment and collapse of their obligate symbiosis with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. In innate immunity system of vertebrates, approximately 20 tripartite nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor proteins that are defined by the presence of a NAIP, CIIA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain, a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain, and one of three types of N-terminal effector domain, are known to function as the primary intracellular pattern recognition molecules. Surveying the coral genome revealed not only a larger number of NACHT- and related domain nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 (NB-ARC)-encoding loci (~500) than in other metazoans but also surprising diversity of domain combinations among the coral NACHT/NB-ARC-containing proteins; N-terminal effector domains included the apoptosis-related domains caspase recruitment domain (CARD), death effector domain (DED), and Death, and C-terminal repeat domains included LRRs, tetratricopeptide repeats, ankyrin repeats, and WD40 repeats. Many of the predicted coral proteins that contain a NACHT/NB-ARC domain also contain a glycosyl transferase group 1 domain, a novel domain combination first found in metazoans. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the NACHT/NB-ARC domain inventories of various metazoan lineages, including corals, are largely products of lineage-specific expansions. Many of the NACHT/NB-ARC loci are organized in pairs or triplets in the Acropora genome, suggesting that the large coral NACHT/NB-ARC repertoire has been generated at least in part by tandem duplication. In addition, shuffling of N-terminal effector domains may have occurred after expansions of specific NACHT/NB-ARC-repeat domain types. These results illustrate the extraordinary complexity of the innate immune repertoire of corals, which may in part reflect adaptive

  5. Tissue-specific expression of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhiqiang; Yu, Meng; Tong, Shuang; Jia, Kun; Liu, Rongchang; Wang, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Activation of the innate immune system requires recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns, such as NOD-like receptors. The NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is involved in induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, and subsequent inflammatory responses. NLRP3 inflammasome plays important roles in the inflammatory and innate immune responses associated with autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome. However, analysis of the tissue distribution and expression profiles in BALB/c mice is still incomplete. In this study, we investigated the tissue distribution and expression pattern of NLRP3 in BALB/c mice to further elucidate its function in innate immunity in this commonly used laboratory animal model. NLRP3 mRNA expression levels and tissue distribution of the protein were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemical analyses, respectively. NLRP3 mRNA expression was higher in the kidney and inguinal lymph nodes than in other tissues. Cytoplasmic expression of NLRP3 was detected in the epithelial reticular cells of the spleen and thymus, lymphocytes in the inguinal lymph nodes, cardiac muscle cells, cerebral cortex neurons, alveolar macrophages, renal tubule cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. The results of this study will assist investigators in interpreting site-specific functions and roles of NLRP3 in inflammatory responses. PMID:24690602

  6. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  7. Plant TRAF Proteins Regulate NLR Immune Receptor Turnover.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shuai; Chen, Xuejin; Zhong, Xionghui; Li, Meng; Ao, Kevin; Huang, Jianhua; Li, Xin

    2016-02-10

    In animals, Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) proteins are molecular adaptors that regulate innate and adaptive immunity, development, and abiotic stress responses. Although gene families encoding TRAF domain-containing proteins exhibit enriched diversity in higher plants, their biological roles are poorly defined. Here, we report the identification of two redundant TRAF proteins, Mutant, snc1-enhancing 13 (MUSE13) and MUSE14, that contribute to the turnover of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR) immune receptors SNC1 and RPS2. Loss of both MUSE13 and MUSE14 leads to enhanced pathogen resistance, NLR accumulation, and autoimmunity, while MUSE13 overexpression results in reduced NLR levels and activity. In planta, MUSE13 associates with SNC1, RPS2, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase SCF(CPR1). Taken together, we speculate that MUSE13 and MUSE14 associate with the SCF E3 ligase complex to form a plant-type TRAFasome, which modulates ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of NLR immune sensors to maintain their homeostasis. PMID:26867179

  8. Nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome activation by Escherichia coli RNA induces transforming growth factor beta 1 secretion in hepatic stellate cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Liu, Shu; Wang, Ying; Chang, Bing; Wang, Bingyuan

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been implicated in alcoholic liver disease. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances gut permeability and causes microbial translocation. The present study explored the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by Escherichia coli RNA in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), and the potential role of NLRP3 inflammasome in hepatic fibrosis. E. coli RNA transfection induced HSC-T6 cells to secrete and express mature interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), which was abolished by NLRP3 siRNA pretreatment. In addition, E. coli RNA transfection enhanced caspase-1 expression, whereas reduced caspase-1 precursor (pro-caspase-1) expression. E. coli RNA-stimulated transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) overproduction in HSC-T6 cells, which was blocked by recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (rIL-1Ra) or nuclear factor κB inhibitor BAY 11-7082. Furthermore, E. coli RNA-induced overexpression of pro-fibrogenic factors was suppressed by rIL-1Ra or TGF-β receptor inhibitor A83-01. These results demonstrate that E. coli RNA can stimulate NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which leads to excessive production of pro-fibrogenic factors, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome activation in HSCs may play a role in hepatic fibrosis. PMID:26773180

  9. Involvement of purinergic receptors and NOD-like receptor-family protein 3-inflammasome pathway in the adenosine triphosphate-induced cytokine release from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Thomas; Victoni, Tatiana; Fautrel, Alain; Robert, Sacha; Gleonnec, Florence; Guezingar, Marie; Couillin, Isabelle; Catros, Véronique; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) has been described as a danger signal activating the NOD-like receptor-family protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome leading to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1β, release in the lung. The NLRP3-inflammasome pathway has been previously described to be involved in experimental collagen deposition and the development of pulmonary fibrosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and P2X7 purinergic receptor in the activation of human macrophages in vitro by ATP. We showed that adenosine 5'-[γ-thio]triphosphate tetralithium salt (ATPγS) and 2',3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BzATP), two stable analogs of ATP, are able to potentiate the release of IL-1β from human monocyte-derived macrophages induced by low concentration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, in the same conditions no increase in IL-1α and IL-6 was observed. Immunochemistry has shown that human macrophages natively express NLRP3 and purinergic P2X7 receptors (P2X7 R). NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA expression were induced from LPS-primed macrophages, but also after 5-h treatment of BzATP as analysed by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. However, other inflammasome pathways (NLRP1, NLRP2, NLRC4, NLRP6 and AIM2) and P2X7 R were not induced by BzATP. We observed that P2X7 R antagonists, A-438079 and A-740003, were able to reduce the release of IL-1β, but not of IL-1α and IL-6 from macrophages stimulated by ATPγS or BzATP. The present results showed the involvement of the P2X7 R-NLRP3 inflammasome pathway in the secretion of IL-1β from ATP-stimulated human macrophages, and suggest that P2X7 R were not involved in IL-1α and IL-6 release. This study also points out that repression of the P2X7 R represents a novel potential therapeutic approach to control fibrosis in lung injury. PMID:24472059

  10. Collaborative action of Toll-like and NOD-like receptors as modulators of the inflammatory response to pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M

    2014-01-01

    Early sensing of pathogenic bacteria by the host immune system is important to develop effective mechanisms to kill the invader. Microbial recognition, activation of signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms are sequential events that must be highly controlled to successfully eliminate the pathogen. Host recognizes pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Some of these PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). TLRs and NLRs are PRRs that play a key role in recognition of extracellular and intracellular bacteria and control the inflammatory response. The activation of TLRs and NLRs by their respective ligands activates downstream signaling pathways that converge on activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) or interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), leading to expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial molecules. The goal of this review is to discuss how the TLRs and NRLs signaling pathways collaborate in a cooperative or synergistic manner to counteract the infectious agents. A deep knowledge of the biochemical events initiated by each of these receptors will undoubtedly have a high impact in the design of more effective strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25525300

  11. Collaborative Action of Toll-Like and Nod-Like Receptors as Modulators of the Inflammatory Response to Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Patiño, Alejandro; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2014-01-01

    Early sensing of pathogenic bacteria by the host immune system is important to develop effective mechanisms to kill the invader. Microbial recognition, activation of signaling pathways, and effector mechanisms are sequential events that must be highly controlled to successfully eliminate the pathogen. Host recognizes pathogens through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Some of these PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), retinoic acid-inducible gene-I- (RIG-I-) like receptors (RLRs), and C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). TLRs and NLRs are PRRs that play a key role in recognition of extracellular and intracellular bacteria and control the inflammatory response. The activation of TLRs and NLRs by their respective ligands activates downstream signaling pathways that converge on activation of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) or interferon regulatory factors (IRFs), leading to expression of inflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial molecules. The goal of this review is to discuss how the TLRs and NRLs signaling pathways collaborate in a cooperative or synergistic manner to counteract the infectious agents. A deep knowledge of the biochemical events initiated by each of these receptors will undoubtedly have a high impact in the design of more effective strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25525300

  12. Increased Expression of the NOD-like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis is a Potential Contributor to Their Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xi; Han, Gen-Cheng; Jiang, Xing-Wei; Shi, Qiang; Pu, Chuan-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are common inflammatory myopathies whose immunopathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a type of cytoplasmic multiprotein inflammasome and is responsible for the activation of inflammatory reactivations. Responding to a wide range of exogenous and endogenous microbial or sterile stimuli, NLRP3 inflammasomes can cleave pro-caspase-1 into active caspase-1, which processes the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and pro-IL-18 into active and secreted IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in infectious and sterile inflammatory diseases. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of DM/PM, which we aim to address in our research. Methods: In this study, 22 DM/PM patients and 24 controls were recruited. The protein and RNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18, NLRP3, and caspase-1 in serum and muscle samples were tested and compared between the two groups. Results: The serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in DM/PM patients than those in the controls by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, DM vs. control, 25.02 ± 8.29 ng/ml vs. 16.49 ± 3.30 ng/ml, P < 0.001; PM vs. control, 26.49 ± 7.79 ng/ml vs. 16.49 ± 3.30 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Moreover, the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that DM/PM patients exhibited higher RNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and NLRP3 in the muscle (for IL-1β, DM vs. control, P = 0.0012, PM vs. control, P = 0.0021; for IL-18, DM vs. control, P = 0.0045, PM vs. control, P = 0.0031; for NLRP3, DM vs. control, P = 0.0017, PM vs. control, P = 0.0006). Moreover, the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in muscle samples of DM/PM patients were also significantly elevated compared to that in the muscles of the controls. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the NLRP3

  13. A genome-wide survey of expansive NLR-C subfamily in miiuy croaker and characterization of the NLR-B30.2 genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrui; Chu, Qing; Xu, Tianjun

    2016-08-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are essential intracellular pattern-recognition receptors that respond to pathogens and regulate innate immunity. NLRs include three distinct subfamilies: NLR-A, NLR-B and NLR-C, thereinto, NLR-C as a large subfamily is unique to bony fish and little research about it has been done. In the current study, we identified the members of NLR-B and NLR-C subfamilies containing 2 and 48 genes respectively in miiuy croaker. Compared with other teleosts except for zebrafish, NLR-C subfamily genes occurred expansion in miiuy croaker. The gene expansions of NLR-C subfamily may illustrate adaptive genome evolution in response to specific aquatic environments. Structural analysis showed that the N-terminus of NLR-C subfamily receptors has different characteristics of the domains including RING domain, FISNA domain or PYRIN domain. Interestingly, the C-terminus of 18 NLR-C subfamily members contains an extra B30.2 domain (named NLR-B30.2 genes) which plays an important role in antiviral immune recognition. Simultaneously, molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the positively sites in miiuy croaker are mainly located in NACHT domain which was the vital region for signal transduction in immune response. Significantly, pathogens challenge in spleen and macrophages demonstrated that NLR-B30.2 genes exhibited more sensitive response to virus than bacteria, suggesting these genes play enhanced roles in innate antiviral immunity, which may represent a new family used for antiviral infection. PMID:26979266

  14. Structure-informed insights for NLR functioning in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    Sukarta, Octavina C A; Slootweg, Erik J; Goverse, Aska

    2016-08-01

    To respond to foreign invaders, plants have evolved a cell autonomous multilayered immune system consisting of extra- and intracellular immune receptors. Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) mediate recognition of pathogen effectors inside the cell and trigger a host specific defense response, often involving controlled cell death. NLRs consist of a central nucleotide-binding domain, which is flanked by an N-terminal CC or TIR domain and a C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain (LRR). These multidomain proteins function as a molecular switch and their activity is tightly controlled by intra and inter-molecular interactions. In contrast to metazoan NLRs, the structural basis underlying NLR functioning as a pathogen sensor and activator of immune responses in plants is largely unknown. However, the first crystal structures of a number of plant NLR domains were recently obtained. In addition, biochemical and structure-informed analyses revealed novel insights in the cooperation between NLR domains and the formation of pre- and post activation complexes, including the coordinated activity of NLR pairs as pathogen sensor and executor of immune responses. Moreover, the discovery of novel integrated domains underscores the structural diversity of NLRs and provides alternative models for how these immune receptors function in plants. In this review, we will highlight these recent advances to provide novel insights in the structural, biochemical and molecular aspects involved in plant NLR functioning. PMID:27208725

  15. Structurally distinct Arabidopsis thaliana NLR immune receptors recognize tandem WY domains of an oomycete effector.

    PubMed

    Goritschnig, Sandra; Steinbrenner, Adam D; Grunwald, Derrick J; Staskawicz, Brian J

    2016-05-01

    Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR, or NLR) receptors mediate pathogen recognition. The Arabidopsis thaliana NLR RPP1 recognizes the tandem WY-domain effector ATR1 from the oomycete Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis through direct association with C-terminal LRRs. We isolated and characterized homologous NLR genes RPP1-EstA and RPP1-ZdrA from two Arabidopsis ecotypes, Estland (Est-1) and Zdarec (Zdr-1), responsible for recognizing a novel spectrum of ATR1 alleles. RPP1-EstA and -ZdrA encode nearly identical NLRs that are phylogenetically distinct from known immunity-activating RPP1 homologs and possess greatly expanded LRR domains. Site-directed mutagenesis and truncation analysis of ATR1 suggests that these homologs recognize a novel surface of the 2(nd) WY domain of ATR1, partially specified by a C-terminal region of the LRR domain. Synteny comparison with RPP1 loci involved in hybrid incompatibility suggests that these functions evolved independently. Closely related RPP1 homologs have diversified their recognition spectra through LRR expansion and sequence variation, allowing them to detect multiple surfaces of the same pathogen effector. Engineering NLR receptor specificity may require a similar combination of repeat expansion and tailored amino acid variation. PMID:26725254

  16. Identification and characterization of a novel NOD-like receptor family CARD domain containing 3 gene in response to extracellular ATP stimulation and its role in regulating LPS-induced innate immune response in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) head kidney macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuo; Chen, Xiaoli; Hao, Gaixiang; Geng, Xuyun; Zhan, Wenbin; Sun, Jinsheng

    2016-03-01

    Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family with a caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD) containing 3 (NLRC3) protein is an important cytosolic pattern recognition receptor that negatively regulates innate immune response in mammals. Hitherto, the immunological significance of NLRC3 protein in fish remains largely uncharacterized. Here we identified and characterized a novel NLRC3 gene (named poNLRC3) implicated in regulation of fish innate immunity from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The poNLRC3 protein is a cytoplasmic protein with an undefined N-terminal domain, a NACHT domain, a fish-specific NACHT associated domain, six LRR motifs, and a C-terminal fish-specific PYR/SPYR (B30.2) domain but only shares less than 40% sequence identities with the known Japanese flounder NLRC proteins. poNLRC3 gene is ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues and is dominantly expressed in the Japanese flounder head kidney macrophages (HKMs). We for the first time showed that poNLRC3 expression was significantly modulated by the stimulation of extracellular ATP, an important danger/damage-associated molecular pattern in activating innate immunity in P. olivaceus. Importantly, we revealed that poNLRC3 plays an important role in positively regulating ATP-induced IL-1beta and IL-6 gene expression, suggesting the involvement of poNLRC3 in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling. In addition, we showed that poNLRC3 mRNA expression was up-regulated in response to LPS and Edwardsiella tarda immune challenges. Finally, we showed that down-regulating the endogenous poNLRC3 expression with small interfering RNA significantly reduced LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine gene expression in the Japanese flounder HKM cells. Altogether, we have identified a novel inducible fish NLR member, poNLRC3, which is involved in extracellular ATP-mediated immune signaling and may positively regulate the LPS-induced innate immune response in the Japanese

  17. Effects of Air Pollutants on Innate Immunity: The Role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest key roles for toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) signaling in pathogen-induced immune responses. Simil...

  18. Structural basis of pathogen recognition by an integrated HMA domain in a plant NLR immune receptor

    PubMed Central

    Maqbool, A; Saitoh, H; Franceschetti, M; Stevenson, CEM; Uemura, A; Kanzaki, H; Kamoun, S; Terauchi, R; Banfield, MJ

    2015-01-01

    Plants have evolved intracellular immune receptors to detect pathogen proteins known as effectors. How these immune receptors detect effectors remains poorly understood. Here we describe the structural basis for direct recognition of AVR-Pik, an effector from the rice blast pathogen, by the rice intracellular NLR immune receptor Pik. AVR-PikD binds a dimer of the Pikp-1 HMA integrated domain with nanomolar affinity. The crystal structure of the Pikp-HMA/AVR-PikD complex enabled design of mutations to alter protein interaction in yeast and in vitro, and perturb effector-mediated response both in a rice cultivar containing Pikp and upon expression of AVR-PikD and Pikp in the model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. These data reveal the molecular details of a recognition event, mediated by a novel integrated domain in an NLR, which initiates a plant immune response and resistance to rice blast disease. Such studies underpin novel opportunities for engineering disease resistance to plant pathogens in staple food crops. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08709.001 PMID:26304198

  19. Recognition and Activation Domains Contribute to Allele-Specific Responses of an Arabidopsis NLR Receptor to an Oomycete Effector Protein

    PubMed Central

    Steinbrenner, Adam D.; Goritschnig, Sandra; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    In plants, specific recognition of pathogen effector proteins by nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) receptors leads to activation of immune responses. RPP1, an NLR from Arabidopsis thaliana, recognizes the effector ATR1, from the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, by direct association via C-terminal leucine-rich repeats (LRRs). Two RPP1 alleles, RPP1-NdA and RPP1-WsB, have narrow and broad recognition spectra, respectively, with RPP1-NdA recognizing a subset of the ATR1 variants recognized by RPP1-WsB. In this work, we further characterized direct effector recognition through random mutagenesis of an unrecognized ATR1 allele, ATR1-Cala2, screening for gain-of-recognition phenotypes in a tobacco hypersensitive response assay. We identified ATR1 mutants that a) confirm surface-exposed residues contribute to recognition by RPP1, and b) are recognized by and activate the narrow-spectrum allele RPP1-NdA, but not RPP1-WsB, in co-immunoprecipitation and bacterial growth inhibition assays. Thus, RPP1 alleles have distinct recognition specificities, rather than simply different sensitivity to activation. Using chimeric RPP1 constructs, we showed that RPP1-NdA LRRs were sufficient for allele-specific recognition (association with ATR1), but insufficient for receptor activation in the form of HR. Additional inclusion of the RPP1-NdA ARC2 subdomain, from the central NB-ARC domain, was required for a full range of activation specificity. Thus, cooperation between recognition and activation domains seems to be essential for NLR function. PMID:25671309

  20. Pyrin- and CARD-only Proteins as Regulators of NLR Functions

    PubMed Central

    Le, Hongnga T.; Harton, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Upon activation Nod-like receptors (NLRs) assemble into multi-protein complexes such as the NODosome and inflammasome. This process relies upon homo domain interactions between the structurally related Pyrin and caspase-recruitment (CARD) domains and adaptor proteins, such as ASC, or effector proteins, such as caspase-1. Although a variety of NLRP and NLRC complexes have been described along with their activating stimuli and associated proteins, less familiar are processes limiting assembly and/or promoting dissociation of NLR complexes. Given the importance of limiting harmful, chronic inflammation, such regulatory mechanisms are significant and likely numerous. Proteins comprised of a solitary Pyrin domain (Pyrin-only) or CARD domain (CARD-only) posses an obvious potential ability to act as competitive inhibitors of NLR complexes. Indeed, both Pyrin-only proteins (POPs) and CARD-only proteins (COPs) have been described as regulators of caspase-1 and/or NLR-inflammasome activation and not surprisingly as factors mediating pathogenesis. Although clear examples of pathogen encoded POPs are currently limited to members of the poxviridae, the human genome likely encodes three POPs (POP1, POP2, and a potential POP3), of which only POP2 is known to prevent NLR:ASC interaction, and three COPs (COP/Pseudo-ICE, INCA, and ICEBERG), initially described for their ability to inhibit caspase-1 activity. Surprisingly, among eukaryotic species POPs and COPs appear to be evolutionarily recent and restricted to higher primates, suggesting strong selective pressures driving their emergence. Despite the importance of understanding the regulation of NLR functions, relatively little attention has been devoted to revealing the biological impact of these intriguing proteins. This review highlights the current state of our understanding of POPs and COPs with attention to protein interaction, functions, evolution, implications for health and disease, and outstanding questions. PMID

  1. The NLR-related protein NWD1 is associated with prostate cancer and modulates androgen receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Ricardo G.; Krajewska, Maryla; Ware, Carl F.; Gerlic, Motti; Reed, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is among the leading causes of cancer-related death in men. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling plays a seminal role in prostate development and homeostasis, and dysregulation of this pathway is intimately linked to prostate cancer pathogenesis and progression. Here, we identify the cytosolic NLR-related protein NWD1 as a novel modulator of AR signaling. We determined that expression of NWD1 becomes elevated during prostate cancer progression, based on analysis of primary tumor specimens. Experiments with cultured cells showed that NWD1 expression is up-regulated by the sex-determining region Y (SRY) family proteins. Gene silencing procedures, in conjunction with transcriptional profiling, showed that NWD1 is required for expression of PDEF (prostate-derived Ets factor), which is known to bind and co-regulate AR. Of note, NWD1 modulates AR protein levels. Depleting NWD1 in PCa cell lines reduces AR levels and suppresses activity of androgen-driven reporter genes. NWD1 knockdown potently suppressed growth of androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells, thus showing its functional importance in an AR-dependent tumor cell model. Proteomic analysis suggested that NWD1 associates with various molecular chaperones commonly related to AR complexes. Altogether, these data suggest a role for tumor-associated over-expression of NWD1 in dysregulation of AR signaling in PCa. PMID:24681825

  2. The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Bellizzi, Maria; Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Xie, Xin; Shi, Xuetao; Ning, Yuese; Zhou, Bo; Suttiviriya, Pavinee; Wang, Mo; Umemura, Kenji; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and thereby causes its degradation. Silencing of APIP10 in the non-Piz-t background compromises the basal defense against M. oryzae. Conversely, silencing of APIP10 in the Piz-t background causes cell death, significant accumulation of Piz-t, and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, suggesting that APIP10 is a negative regulator of Piz-t. We show that APIP10 promotes degradation of Piz-t via the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AvrPiz-t stabilizes Piz-t during M. oryzae infection. Together, our results show that APIP10 is a novel E3 ligase that functionally connects the fungal effector AvrPiz-t to its NLR receptor Piz-t in rice. PMID:27031246

  3. The E3 Ligase APIP10 Connects the Effector AvrPiz-t to the NLR Receptor Piz-t in Rice.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Ho; Shirsekar, Gautam; Bellizzi, Maria; Chen, Songbiao; Songkumarn, Pattavipha; Xie, Xin; Shi, Xuetao; Ning, Yuese; Zhou, Bo; Suttiviriya, Pavinee; Wang, Mo; Umemura, Kenji; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Although nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins are the major immune receptors in plants, the mechanism that controls their activation and immune signaling remains elusive. Here, we report that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from Magnaporthe oryzae targets the rice E3 ligase APIP10 for degradation, but that APIP10, in return, ubiquitinates AvrPiz-t and thereby causes its degradation. Silencing of APIP10 in the non-Piz-t background compromises the basal defense against M. oryzae. Conversely, silencing of APIP10 in the Piz-t background causes cell death, significant accumulation of Piz-t, and enhanced resistance to M. oryzae, suggesting that APIP10 is a negative regulator of Piz-t. We show that APIP10 promotes degradation of Piz-t via the 26S proteasome system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AvrPiz-t stabilizes Piz-t during M. oryzae infection. Together, our results show that APIP10 is a novel E3 ligase that functionally connects the fungal effector AvrPiz-t to its NLR receptor Piz-t in rice. PMID:27031246

  4. Characterization of NLR-A subfamily members in miiuy croaker and comparative genomics revealed NLRX1 underwent duplication and lose in actinopterygii.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinrui; Kong, Lingcong; Gao, Yunhang; Wu, Changwen; Xu, Tianjun

    2015-11-01

    The NOD-like receptors (NLRs, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing receptors) are a recently identified family of intracellular pathogen recognition receptors in vertebrates. Several subfamilies of NLRs have been characterized in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis, but studies of NLRs in teleost species have been lacking. Here we analyzed three NLR-A subfamily members from miiuy croaker: NLRC3, NLRC5, and NLRX1. Structural analysis showed that miiuy croaker NLR-A subfamily members own the feature of 5'UTR intron which may influence their role in enhancing translation level. Comparative analysis revealed NLRX1 duplicated into NLRX1a and NLRX1b, then NLRX1a was lost in actinopterygii and NLRX1b formed NLRX1 that now we called. Simultaneously, molecular evolutionary analysis indicated that the ancestral lineages of NLRX1 in tetrapod and actinopterygii under positive selection pressure. The positively sites in actinopterygii are mainly located in NACHT domain which was the critical region for signal transduction, suggesting that the evolution of NLRX1 gene in the ancestor of actinopterygii is beneficial in immune response. Pathogens challenge demonstrated that the expressions of NLRC3 and NLRC5 in miiuy croaker were induced not only by Vibrio anguillarum but also by poly (I:C), whereas NLRX1 exhibited more sensitive response to bacteria than virus. PMID:26381931

  5. NLR activation takes a direct route.

    PubMed

    Monie, Tom P

    2013-03-01

    For the first time there is now clear biochemical and biophysical evidence indicating that members of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family can be activated as a result of direct interaction between the receptor and ligand. NLRX1 leucine-rich repeats bind to RNA; murine NAIP (NLR family, apoptosis inhibitory protein) 5 binds flagellin directly; and NOD (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing) 1 and NOD2 may interact directly with fragments of peptidoglycan. It remains to be seen if NLRP3 has a specific ligand, but progress has been made in addressing its mechanism of activation, with cellular imbalances and mitochondrial dysfunction being important. This review updates our understanding of NLR activation in light of these recent advances and their impact on the NLR research. PMID:23394939

  6. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population.

    PubMed

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. PMID:27189991

  7. Pooled Enrichment Sequencing Identifies Diversity and Evolutionary Pressures at NLR Resistance Genes within a Wild Tomato Population

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Scheikl, Daniela; Tellier, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats containing proteins that are important in plant resistance signaling. Many of the known pathogen resistance (R) genes in plants are NLRs and they can recognize pathogen molecules directly or indirectly. As such, divergence and copy number variants at these genes are found to be high between species. Within populations, positive and balancing selection are to be expected if plants coevolve with their pathogens. In order to understand the complexity of R-gene coevolution in wild nonmodel species, it is necessary to identify the full range of NLRs and infer their evolutionary history. Here we investigate and reveal polymorphism occurring at 220 NLR genes within one population of the partially selfing wild tomato species Solanum pennellii. We use a combination of enrichment sequencing and pooling ten individuals, to specifically sequence NLR genes in a resource and cost-effective manner. We focus on the effects which different mapping and single nucleotide polymorphism calling software and settings have on calling polymorphisms in customized pooled samples. Our results are accurately verified using Sanger sequencing of polymorphic gene fragments. Our results indicate that some NLRs, namely 13 out of 220, have maintained polymorphism within our S. pennellii population. These genes show a wide range of πN/πS ratios and differing site frequency spectra. We compare our observed rate of heterozygosity with expectations for this selfing and bottlenecked population. We conclude that our method enables us to pinpoint NLR genes which have experienced natural selection in their habitat. PMID:27189991

  8. The Potato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat (NLR) Immune Receptor Rx1 Is a Pathogen-dependent DNA-deforming Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Fenyk, Stepan; Townsend, Philip D.; Dixon, Christopher H.; Spies, Gerhard B.; de San Eustaquio Campillo, Alba; Slootweg, Erik J.; Westerhof, Lotte B.; Gawehns, Fleur K. K.; Knight, Marc R.; Sharples, Gary J.; Goverse, Aska; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable cells to respond to pathogen attack. Several NLRs act in the nucleus; however, conserved nuclear targets that support their role in immunity are unknown. Previously, we noted a structural homology between the nucleotide-binding domain of NLRs and DNA replication origin-binding Cdc6/Orc1 proteins. Here we show that the NB-ARC (nucleotide-binding, Apaf-1, R-proteins, and CED-4) domain of the Rx1 NLR of potato binds nucleic acids. Rx1 induces ATP-dependent bending and melting of DNA in vitro, dependent upon a functional P-loop. In situ full-length Rx1 binds nuclear DNA following activation by its cognate pathogen-derived effector protein, the coat protein of potato virus X. In line with its obligatory nucleocytoplasmic distribution, DNA binding was only observed when Rx1 was allowed to freely translocate between both compartments and was activated in the cytoplasm. Immune activation induced by an unrelated NLR-effector pair did not trigger an Rx1-DNA interaction. DNA binding is therefore not merely a consequence of immune activation. These data establish a role for DNA distortion in Rx1 immune signaling and define DNA as a molecular target of an activated NLR. PMID:26306038

  9. Structural Mechanisms in NLR Inflammasome Assembly and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zehan; Chai, Jijie

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes that mediate the activation of inflammatory caspases. One central component of inflammasomes is nucleotide-binding domain (NBD)- and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing proteins (NLRs) that can function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In resting cells, NLR proteins exist in an auto-inhibited, monomeric, and ADP-bound state. Perception of microbial or damage-associated signals results in NLR oligomerization, thus recruiting inflammatory caspases directly or through the adaptor molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). The assembled NLR inflammasomes serve as dedicated machinery to facilitate the activation of the inflammatory caspases. Here, we review current understanding of the structures of NLR inflammasomes with an emphasis on the molecular mechanisms of their assembly and activation. We also discuss implications of the self-propagation model derived from the NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasomes for the activation of other NLR inflammasomes and a potential role of the C-terminal LRR domain in the activation of an NLR protein. PMID:27460803

  10. Evolution and Conservation of Plant NLR Functions

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Florence; Vernaldi, Saskia; Maekawa, Takaki

    2013-01-01

    In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeats (NLR)-containing proteins play pivotal roles in innate immunity. Despite their similar biological functions and protein architecture, comparative genome-wide analyses of NLRs and genes encoding NLR-like proteins suggest that plant and animal NLRs have independently arisen in evolution. Furthermore, the demonstration of interfamily transfer of plant NLR functions from their original species to phylogenetically distant species implies evolutionary conservation of the underlying immune principle across plant taxonomy. In this review we discuss plant NLR evolution and summarize recent insights into plant NLR-signaling mechanisms, which might constitute evolutionarily conserved NLR-mediated immune mechanisms. PMID:24093022

  11. NLR proteins and parasitic disease.

    PubMed

    Clay, Gwendolyn M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Wilson, Mary E

    2014-08-01

    Parasitic diseases are a serious global health concern. Many of the most common and most severe parasitic diseases, including Chagas' disease, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis, are also classified as neglected tropical diseases and are comparatively less studied than infectious diseases prevalent in high income nations. The NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich-repeat-containing proteins) are cytosolic proteins known to be involved in pathogen detection and host response. The role of NLRs in the host response to parasitic infection is just beginning to be understood. The NLR proteins NOD1 and NOD2 have been shown to contribute to immune responses during Trypanosoma cruzi infection, Toxoplasma gondii infection, and murine cerebral malaria. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by T. cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis but also induces pathology during infection with schistosomes or malaria. Both the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes respond to T. gondii infection. The NLRs may play crucial roles in human immune responses during parasitic infection, usually acting as innate immune sensors and driving the inflammatory response against invading parasites. However, this inflammatory response can either kill the invading parasite or be responsible for destructive pathology. Therefore, understanding the role of the NLR proteins will be critical to understanding the host defense against parasites as well as the fine balance between homeostasis and parasitic disease. PMID:24989828

  12. Type III secretion needle proteins induce cell signaling and cytokine secretion via Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Jessen, Danielle L; Osei-Owusu, Patrick; Toosky, Melody; Roughead, William; Bradley, David S; Nilles, Matthew L

    2014-06-01

    Pathogens are recognized by hosts by use of various receptors, including the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) families. Ligands for these varied receptors, including bacterial products, are identified by the immune system, resulting in development of innate immune responses. Only a couple of components from type III secretion (T3S) systems are known to be recognized by TLR or NLR family members. Known T3S components that are detected by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are (i) flagellin, detected by TLR5 and NLRC4 (Ipaf); and (ii) T3S rod proteins (PrgJ and homologs) and needle proteins (PrgI and homologs), detected by NAIP and the NLRC4 inflammasome. In this report, we characterize the induction of proinflammatory responses through TLRs by the Yersinia pestis T3S needle protein, YscF, the Salmonella enterica needle proteins PrgI and SsaG, and the Shigella needle protein, MxiH. More specifically, we determine that the proinflammatory responses occur through TLR2 and -4. These data support the hypothesis that T3S needles have an unrecognized role in bacterial pathogenesis by modulating immune responses. PMID:24643544

  13. The miR9863 family regulates distinct Mla alleles in barley to attenuate NLR receptor-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding and leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) intracellular receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at p...

  14. The miR9863 Family Regulates Distinct Mla Alleles in Barley to Attenuate NLR Receptor-Triggered Disease Resistance and Cell-Death Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Da; Xu, Weihui; Wise, Roger; Shen, Qian-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Mla alleles encode coiled-coil (CC), nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) receptors that trigger isolate-specific immune responses against the powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh). How Mla or NB-LRR genes in grass species are regulated at post-transcriptional level is not clear. The microRNA family, miR9863, comprises four members that differentially regulate distinct Mla alleles in barley. We show that miR9863 members guide the cleavage of Mla1 transcripts in barley, and block or reduce the accumulation of MLA1 protein in the heterologous Nicotiana benthamiana expression system. Regulation specificity is determined by variation in a unique single-nucleotide-polymorphism (SNP) in mature miR9863 family members and two SNPs in the Mla miR9863-binding site that separates these alleles into three groups. Further, we demonstrate that 22-nt miR9863s trigger the biogenesis of 21-nt phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) and together these sRNAs form a feed-forward regulation network for repressing the expression of group I Mla alleles. Overexpression of miR9863 members specifically attenuates MLA1, but not MLA10-triggered disease resistance and cell-death signaling. We propose a key role of the miR9863 family in dampening immune response signaling triggered by a group of MLA immune receptors in barley. PMID:25502438

  15. Pattern recognition receptors in antifungal immunity.

    PubMed

    Plato, Anthony; Hardison, Sarah E; Brown, Gordon D

    2015-03-01

    Receptors of the innate immune system are the first line of defence against infection, being able to recognise and initiate an inflammatory response to invading microorganisms. The Toll-like (TLR), NOD-like (NLR), RIG-I-like (RLR) and C-type lectin-like receptors (CLR) are four receptor families that contribute to the recognition of a vast range of species, including fungi. Many of these pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are able to initiate innate immunity and polarise adaptive responses upon the recognition of fungal cell wall components and other conserved molecular patterns, including fungal nucleic acids. These receptors induce effective mechanisms of fungal clearance in normal hosts, but medical interventions, immunosuppression or genetic predisposition can lead to susceptibility to fungal infections. In this review, we highlight the importance of PRRs in fungal infection, specifically CLRs, which are the major PRR involved. We will describe specific PRRs in detail, the importance of receptor collaboration in fungal recognition and clearance, and describe how genetic aberrations in PRRs can contribute to disease pathology. PMID:25420452

  16. Infection Mobilizes Hematopoietic Stem Cells through Cooperative NOD-like Receptor and Toll-like Receptor Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Burberry, Aaron; Zeng, Melody Y.; Ding, Lei; Wicks, Ian; Inohara, Naohiro; Morrison, Sean J.; Núñez, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in specialized niches within the bone marrow under steady-state conditions and mobilized for extramedullary hematopoiesis during periods of stress such as bacterial infections. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We show that systemic infection of mice with Escherichia coli, commonly associated with bacteremia in humans, mobilizes functional HSCs to the spleen. Accumulation of splenic HSCs (CD150+CD48-Lin−/lowScal1+cKit+) was diminished in TLR4-deficient and RIPK2-deficient mice, implicating TLRs and cytosolic NOD1/NOD2 signaling in the process. Accordingly, dual stimulation of NOD1 and TLR4 in radio-resistant cells alone was sufficient to mobilize HSCs, while TLR4 expression on HSCs was dispensable. Mechanistically, TLR4 and NOD1 synergistically induced granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), which was required for extramedullary HSC accumulation. Mobilized HSCs and progenitor cells gave rise to neutrophils and monocytes and contributed to limiting secondary infection. PMID:24882704

  17. Infection mobilizes hematopoietic stem cells through cooperative NOD-like receptor and Toll-like receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Burberry, Aaron; Zeng, Melody Y; Ding, Lei; Wicks, Ian; Inohara, Naohiro; Morrison, Sean J; Núñez, Gabriel

    2014-06-11

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are maintained in specialized niches within the bone marrow under steady-state conditions and mobilize for extramedullary hematopoiesis during periods of stress such as bacterial infections. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We show that systemic infection of mice with Escherichia coli, commonly associated with bacteremia in humans, mobilizes functional HSCs to the spleen. Accumulation of splenic HSCs (CD150+CD48-Lin(-/low)Sca1+cKit+) was diminished in TLR4-deficient and RIPK2-deficient mice, implicating TLRs and cytosolic NOD1/NOD2 signaling in the process. Accordingly, dual stimulation of NOD1 and TLR4 in radio-resistant cells alone was sufficient to mobilize HSCs, while TLR4 expression on HSCs was dispensable. Mechanistically, TLR4 and NOD1 synergistically induced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which was required for extramedullary HSC accumulation. Mobilized HSCs and progenitor cells gave rise to neutrophils and monocytes and contributed to limiting secondary infection. PMID:24882704

  18. Cryoelectron Tomography of the NAIP5/NLRC4 Inflammasome: Implications for NLR Activation.

    PubMed

    Diebolder, Christoph A; Halff, Els F; Koster, Abraham J; Huizinga, Eric G; Koning, Roman I

    2015-12-01

    Inflammasomes are high molecular weight protein complexes that play a crucial role in innate immunity by activating caspase-1. Inflammasome formation is initiated when molecules originating from invading microorganisms activate nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing receptors (NLRs) and induce NLR multimerization. Little is known about the conformational changes involved in NLR activation and the structural organization of NLR multimers. Here, we show by cryoelectron tomography that flagellin-induced NAIP5/NLRC4 multimers form right- and left-handed helical polymers with a diameter of 28 nm and a pitch of 6.5 nm. Subtomogram averaging produced an electron density map at 4 nm resolution, which was used for rigid body fitting of NLR subdomains derived from the crystal structure of dormant NLRC4. The resulting structural model of inflammasome-incorporated NLRC4 indicates that a prominent rotation of the LRR domain of NLRC4 is necessary for multimer formation, providing unprecedented insight into the conformational changes that accompany NLR activation. PMID:26585513

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Flax Immune Receptors L6 and L7 Suggests an Equilibrium-Based Switch Activation Model.

    PubMed

    Bernoux, Maud; Burdett, Hayden; Williams, Simon J; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Chen, Chunhong; Newell, Kim; Lawrence, Gregory J; Kobe, Bostjan; Ellis, Jeffrey G; Anderson, Peter A; Dodds, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are central components of the plant immune system. L6 is a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing NLR from flax (Linum usitatissimum) conferring immunity to the flax rust fungus. Comparison of L6 to the weaker allele L7 identified two polymorphic regions in the TIR and the nucleotide binding (NB) domains that regulate both effector ligand-dependent and -independent cell death signaling as well as nucleotide binding to the receptor. This suggests that a negative functional interaction between the TIR and NB domains holds L7 in an inactive/ADP-bound state more tightly than L6, hence decreasing its capacity to adopt the active/ATP-bound state and explaining its weaker activity in planta. L6 and L7 variants with a more stable ADP-bound state failed to bind to AvrL567 in yeast two-hybrid assays, while binding was detected to the signaling active variants. This contrasts with current models predicting that effectors bind to inactive receptors to trigger activation. Based on the correlation between nucleotide binding, effector interaction, and immune signaling properties of L6/L7 variants, we propose that NLRs exist in an equilibrium between ON and OFF states and that effector binding to the ON state stabilizes this conformation, thereby shifting the equilibrium toward the active form of the receptor to trigger defense signaling. PMID:26744216

  20. The electronics technology policy of the NLR Informatics Division: The NLR electronics CAE infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathijssen, R. W.; Aartman, L. J.; Manders, P. J. H. M.; Slot, H.

    1991-01-01

    The NLR Infrastructure for Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) of Electronics (NICE) was introduced to solve problems due to the fact that CAE tools generally do not match mutually, with a view to the development of information systems for aerospace applications in which advanced electronics play an important role. CAE is used more and more to improve quality and reduce development time. Because most CAE tools generally do not match mutually, it is difficult to manage the design information present in the various tools and to exchange this information. NICE is based on an integrated set of local area networks, connected to the NLR computer network facilities. This is a basis for adding new tools for circuit simulation and analysis. Improved access to the tools and to the design information leads toward shorter development cycles of advanced electronics.

  1. Pattern-Recognition Receptors and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Mitchell, Hazel M.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been associated with an increased risk of several human malignancies, a classic example being gastric adenocarcinoma (GC). Development of GC is known to result from infection of the gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori, which initially induces acute inflammation and, in a subset of patients, progresses over time to chronic inflammation, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and finally intestinal-type GC. Germ-line encoded receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) are critical for generating mature pro-inflammatory cytokines that are crucial for both Th1 and Th2 responses. Given that H. pylori is initially targeted by PRRs, it is conceivable that dysfunction within genes of this arm of the immune system could modulate the host response against H. pylori infection, and subsequently influence the emergence of GC. Current evidence suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR9), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) (NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3), a C-type lectin receptor (DC-SIGN), and retinoic acid-inducible gene (RIG)-I-like receptors (RIG-I and MDA-5), are involved in both the recognition of H. pylori and gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, polymorphisms in genes involved in the TLR (TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR9, and CD14) and NLR (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP3, NLRP12, NLRX1, CASP1, ASC, and CARD8) signaling pathways have been shown to modulate the risk of H. pylori infection, gastric precancerous lesions, and/or GC. Further, the modulation of PRRs has been suggested to suppress H. pylori-induced inflammation and enhance GC cell apoptosis, highlighting their potential relevance in GC therapeutics. In this review, we present current advances in our understanding of the role of the TLR and NLR signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of GC, address the involvement of other recently identified PRRs in GC, and discuss the potential implications of PRRs in GC immunotherapy

  2. The Role of Intracellular Receptor NODs for Cytokine Production by Macrophages Infected with Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae Jin

    2011-01-01

    The nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins are members of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, which are intracellular and cytoplasmic receptors. We analyzed the role of NODs for cytokine production by macrophages infected with intracellular pathogen M. leprae, the causative agent of leprosy. Production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α was inhibited in the presence of cytochalasin D, an agent blocking phagocytosis, suggesting that intracellular signaling was, partially, required for macrophage activation to M. leprae infection. Next, we investigated the role of NOD1 and NOD2 proteins on NF-κB activation and cytokine expression. Treatment with M. leprae significantly increased NF-κB activation and expression of TNF-α and IL-1β in NOD1- and NOD2-transfected cells. Interestingly, their activation and expression were inhibited by cytochalasin D, suggesting that stimulation of NOD proteins may be associated with the enhancement of cytokine production in host to M. leprae. PMID:22346786

  3. NLR-regulated pathways in cancer: opportunities and obstacles for therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nidhi; Jha, Sushmita

    2016-05-01

    NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat containing receptors) are pattern recognition receptors associated with immunity and inflammation in response to endogenous and exogenous pathogen and damage associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and DAMPs respectively). Dysregulated NLR function is associated with several diseases including cancers, metabolic diseases, autoimmune disorders and autoinflammatory syndromes. In the last decade, distinct cell and organ specific roles for NLRs have been identified however; their roles in cancer initiation, development and progression remain controversial. This review summarizes the emerging role of NLRs in cancer and their possible future as targets for cancer therapeutics. PMID:26708292

  4. The role of pattern-recognition receptors in graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Simon; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Haas, Tobias; Poeck, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is the only treatment with curative potential for certain aggressive hematopoietic malignancies. Its success is limited by acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a life-threatening complication that occurs when allo-reactive donor T cells attack recipient organs. There is growing evidence that microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) such as toll-like receptors (TLR) and nod-like receptors (NLR) are critically involved in the pathogenesis of acute GVHD. Currently, a widely accepted model postulates that intensive chemotherapy and/or total-body irradiation during pre-transplant conditioning results in tissue damage and a loss of epithelial barrier function. Subsequent translocation of bacterial components as well as release of endogenous danger molecules stimulate PRRs of host antigen-presenting cells to trigger the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (cytokine storm) that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, but eventually also the beneficial graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. Given the limitations of existing immunosuppressive therapies, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that govern GVHD versus GVL is urgently needed. This may ultimately allow to design modulators, which protect from GvHD but preserve donor T-cell attack on hematologic malignancies. Here, we will briefly summarize current knowledge about the role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of GVHD and GVL following allo-HSCT. PMID:25101080

  5. Expression profile of innate immune receptors, NLRs and AIM2, in human colorectal cancer: correlation with cancer stages and inflammasome components

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Hu, Peizhen; Li, Zengshan; Chen, Jun; Song, Chaojun; Chen, Lihua; Ting, Jenny Pan-Yun

    2015-01-01

    NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins or NOD-like receptors) are regulators of inflammation and immunity. A subgroup of NLRs and the innate immune receptor, AIM2 (absent-in-melanoma 2), can induce the assembly of a large caspase-1 activating complex called the inflammasome. Other NLRs regulate key signaling pathways such as NF-kB and MAPK. Since inflammation is a central component of colorectal cancer (CRC), this work was undertaken to analyze NLR and AIM2 expression in human CRC by combining bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification using clinical tissue samples. Additional experiments analyzed the association of (i) gene expression and cancer staging, and (ii) gene expression among inflammasome components. Ten public CRC datasets from the Oncomine® Platform were analyzed. Genes analyzed include NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP6, NLRP12, NLRC3, NLRC4, NLRC5, NOD1, NOD2 and AIM2. Additionally, forty case-matched cancer samples and adjacent healthy control tissues isolated from a cohort of Chinese CRC patients were profiled. Three patterns of gene expression in CRC are shown. The expression of NLRC3, a checkpoint of inflammation, and the inflammasome components NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 were reduced in CRC. NOD1 and NOD2 expression was increased in CRC, while NLRC5, NLRP6 and NLRP12 showed little difference compared to controls. Reduced expression of NLRC3 in CRC was verified in all available databases analyzed and confirmed with our patient cohort. Furthermore, the extent of NLRC3 and AIM2 gene reduction was correlated with cancer progression. This report reveals the potential value of NLR and AIM2 genes as biomarkers of CRC and cancer progression. PMID:26378020

  6. Expression profile of innate immune receptors, NLRs and AIM2, in human colorectal cancer: correlation with cancer stages and inflammasome components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rongrong; Truax, Agnieszka D; Chen, Liang; Hu, Peizhen; Li, Zengshan; Chen, Jun; Song, Chaojun; Chen, Lihua; Ting, Jenny Pan-Yun

    2015-10-20

    NLRs (nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat proteins or NOD-like receptors) are regulators of inflammation and immunity. A subgroup of NLRs and the innate immune receptor, AIM2 (absent-in-melanoma 2), can induce the assembly of a large caspase-1 activating complex called the inflammasome. Other NLRs regulate key signaling pathways such as NF-kB and MAPK. Since inflammation is a central component of colorectal cancer (CRC), this work was undertaken to analyze NLR and AIM2 expression in human CRC by combining bioinformatics analysis and experimental verification using clinical tissue samples. Additional experiments analyzed the association of (i) gene expression and cancer staging, and (ii) gene expression among inflammasome components.Ten public CRC datasets from the Oncomine® Platform were analyzed. Genes analyzed include NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRP6, NLRP12, NLRC3, NLRC4, NLRC5, NOD1, NOD2 and AIM2. Additionally, forty case-matched cancer samples and adjacent healthy control tissues isolated from a cohort of Chinese CRC patients were profiled.Three patterns of gene expression in CRC are shown. The expression of NLRC3, a checkpoint of inflammation, and the inflammasome components NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 were reduced in CRC. NOD1 and NOD2 expression was increased in CRC, while NLRC5, NLRP6 and NLRP12 showed little difference compared to controls. Reduced expression of NLRC3 in CRC was verified in all available databases analyzed and confirmed with our patient cohort. Furthermore, the extent of NLRC3 and AIM2 gene reduction was correlated with cancer progression. This report reveals the potential value of NLR and AIM2 genes as biomarkers of CRC and cancer progression. PMID:26378020

  7. The surprisingly complex immune gene repertoire of a simple sponge, exemplified by the NLR genes: a capacity for specificity?

    PubMed

    Degnan, Sandie M

    2015-02-01

    Most bacteria are not pathogenic to animals, and may instead serve beneficial functions. The requisite need for animals to differentiate between microbial friend and foe is likely borne from a deep evolutionary imperative to recognise self from non-self, a service ably provided by the innate immune system. Recent findings from an ancient lineage of simple animals - marine sponges - have revealed an unexpectedly large and diverse suite of genes belonging to one family of pattern recognition receptors, namely the NLR genes. Because NLRs can recognise a broad spectrum of microbial ligands, they may play a critical role in mediating the animal-bacterial crosstalk needed for sophisticated discrimination between microbes of various relationships. The building blocks for an advanced NLR-based immune specificity encoded in the genome of the coral reef sponge Amphimedon queenslandica may provide a specialisation and diversity of responses that equals, or even exceeds, that of vertebrate NLRs. PMID:25058852

  8. NLR-Associating Transcription Factor bHLH84 and Its Paralogs Function Redundantly in Plant Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fang; Kapos, Paul; Cheng, Yu Ti; Li, Meng; Zhang, Yuelin; Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR) immune receptors are utilized to detect the presence or activities of pathogen-derived molecules. However, the mechanisms by which NLR proteins induce defense responses remain unclear. Here, we report the characterization of one basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) type transcription factor (TF), bHLH84, identified from a reverse genetic screen. It functions as a transcriptional activator that enhances the autoimmunity of NLR mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and confers enhanced immunity in wild-type backgrounds when overexpressed. Simultaneously knocking out three closely related bHLH paralogs attenuates RPS4-mediated immunity and partially suppresses the autoimmune phenotypes of snc1, while overexpression of the other two close paralogs also renders strong autoimmunity, suggesting functional redundancy in the gene family. Intriguingly, the autoimmunity conferred by bHLH84 overexpression can be largely suppressed by the loss-of-function snc1-r1 mutation, suggesting that SNC1 is required for its proper function. In planta co-immunoprecipitation revealed interactions between not only bHLH84 and SNC1, but also bHLH84 and RPS4, indicating that bHLH84 associates with these NLRs. Together with previous finding that SNC1 associates with repressor TPR1 to repress negative regulators, we hypothesize that nuclear NLR proteins may interact with both transcriptional repressors and activators during immune responses, enabling potentially faster and more robust transcriptional reprogramming upon pathogen recognition. PMID:25144198

  9. The Q705K and F359L Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of NOD-Like Receptor Signaling Pathway: Association with Chronic Pancreatitis, Pancreatic Cancer, and Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Miskiewicz, Andrzej; Szparecki, Grzegorz; Durlik, Marek; Rydzewska, Grażyna; Ziobrowski, Ireneusz; Górska, Renata

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the correlation between the occurrence of Q705K and F359L polymorphisms in patients diagnosed with pancreatic diseases and periodontal conditions of various degrees of severity. The above-mentioned genetic markers were assessed in patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 18) and chronic pancreatitis (n = 39) as well as in a healthy control group (n = 115). The established inclusion criteria were the following: Caucasian descent, non-smoking, and age range 20-80, with different levels of periodontitis activity according to S. Offenbacher's scale. The genotyping reactions were performed by means of an RT-PCR with the use of TaqMan(®) genotyping assay. Results of the study revealed that the state of periodontium was significantly worse in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The Q705K and F359L polymorphisms were associated with more advanced cases of periodontitis measured by clinical attachment level, whereas the Q705K was associated with intensified bleeding index. Furthermore, the F359L single-nucleotide polymorphism was significantly higher in the group with chronic pancreatitis (p < 0.0001; OR = 6.8571). Whereas, the prevalence of Q705K polymorphism was higher in the group of pancreatic cancer (p = 0.107; OR = 3.3939). This study suggests that the exaggerated inflammatory response provoked by Q705K and F359L might be the common denominator for periodontitis, pancreatic cancer, and chronic pancreatitis. These findings might constitute the basis for a new diagnostic and therapeutic approach. PMID:26253076

  10. Characterization and immune function of two intracellular sensors, HmTLR1 and HmNLR, in the injured CNS of an invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier-Hot, Virginie; Boidin-Wichlacz, Céline; Slomianny, Christian; Salzet, Michel; Tasiemski, Aurélie

    2011-02-01

    Unlike mammals, the CNS of the medicinal leech can regenerate damaged neurites, thus restoring neural functions. Our group recently demonstrated that the injured leech nerve cord is able to mount an immune response, which promotes the regenerative processes. This defense mechanism is microorganism-specific, suggesting that the leech CNS is able to discriminate among microbial components. We report here the characterization of two receptors potentially implicated in this detection: HmTLR1 and HmNLR. Interestingly, HmTLR1 presents an endosomal distribution in neurons and appears as a chimera combining the mammalian intraendosomal domain of TLR3 and the cytoplasmic section of TLR13, while HmNLR is cytosolic and has the highest homology to NLRC3 receptors. Both receptors show patterns of induction upon stimulation that suggest their involvement in the leech neuroimmune response. This work constitutes the first demonstration in an invertebrate of (i) an intracellular TLR and (ii) a cytosolic PRR related to the NLR family. PMID:20920526

  11. A Truncated NLR Protein, TIR-NBS2, Is Required for Activated Defense Responses in the exo70B1 Mutant

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Marc T.; Vogel, John P.; Liu, Na; Liu, Simu; Zhao, Yaofei; Dangl, Jeffery L.; Tang, Dingzhong

    2015-01-01

    During exocytosis, the evolutionarily conserved exocyst complex tethers Golgi-derived vesicles to the target plasma membrane, a critical function for secretory pathways. Here we show that exo70B1 loss-of-function mutants express activated defense responses upon infection and express enhanced resistance to fungal, oomycete and bacterial pathogens. In a screen for mutants that suppress exo70B1 resistance, we identified nine alleles of TIR-NBS2 (TN2), suggesting that loss-of-function of EXO70B1 leads to activation of this nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR)-like disease resistance protein. This NLR-like protein is atypical because it lacks the LRR domain common in typical NLR receptors. In addition, we show that TN2 interacts with EXO70B1 in yeast and in planta. Our study thus provides a link between the exocyst complex and the function of a ‘TIR-NBS only’ immune receptor like protein. Our data are consistent with a speculative model wherein pathogen effectors could evolve to target EXO70B1 to manipulate plant secretion machinery. TN2 could monitor EXO70B1 integrity as part of an immune receptor complex. PMID:25617755

  12. Airfoil design and optimization methods: recent progress at NLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soemarwoto, B. I.; Labrujère, Th. E.

    1999-05-01

    The present paper considers the problem of aerodynamic airfoil shape optimization where the shape of an airfoil is to be determined such that a priori specified design criteria will be met to the best possible extent. The design criteria are formulated by defining an objective or cost function, the minimum of which represents the solution to the design problem. A survey is given of developments at NLR applying the adjoint operator approach, utilizing a compressible inviscid flow model based on the Euler equations and a compressible viscous flow model based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. Computational results are presented for a two-point drag-reduction design problem. Copyright

  13. Genetic Variations of NLR family genes in Behcet's Disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Yu, Hongsong; Jiang, Yanni; Deng, Bolin; Bai, Lin; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five NLR family genes (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP1, NLRP3 and CIITA) are associated with Behcet's disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. The study was carried out in 950 BD patients and 1440 controls for 19 SNPs in the selected NLR genes. In the first-stage study, significantly decreased frequencies of the CIITA//rs12932187 C allele (Pc = 1.668E-02) and NOD1//rs2075818 G allele (Pc = 4.694E-02) were found in BD patients as compared to controls . After performing a second stage validation study and combination of data we confirmed the association of CIITA//rs12932187 and NOD1//rs2075818 with BD. In CIITA//rs12932187, the frequencies of the CC genotype and C allele were significantly lower in BD than in controls (Pc = 3.331E-06; Pc = 6.004E-07, respectively). In NOD1//rs2075818, the GG genotype and G allele showed significantly decreased frequencies in BD patients when compared to controls (Pc = 1.022E-02; Pc = 6.811E-05, respectively). Functional experiments showed that carriers with the CC genotype in CIITA//rs12932187 had a lower CIITA mRNA expression level and an enhanced IL-10 secretion as compared to GG and CG carriers. This study provides evidence that the CIITA and NOD1 gene are involved in the susceptibility to Behcet's disease. PMID:26833430

  14. NLR proteins: integral members of innate immunity and mediators of inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wilmanski, Jeanette M.; Petnicki-Ocwieja, Tanja; Kobayashi, Koichi S.

    2012-01-01

    The innate immune system is the first line of defense against microorganisms and is conserved in both plants and animals. The NLR protein family is a recent addition to the members of innate immunity effector molecules. These proteins are characterized by a central oligomerization domain termed NACHT (or NBD/NOD) and a protein interaction domain, LRRs (Leucine rich repeats) at the C-terminus. It has been shown that NLR proteins are localized to the cytoplasm and recognize microbial products. To date, it is known that Nod1 and Nod2 detect bacterial cell wall components, whereas IPAF and NAIP detect bacterial flagellin and NALP1 has been shown to detect anthrax lethal toxin. NLR proteins comprise a diverse protein family (over 20 in humans), indicating that NLRs have evolved to acquire specificity to various pathogenic microorganisms, thereby controlling host-pathogen interactions. Activation of NLR proteins results in inflammatory responses mediated either by NF-κB, MAPK or Caspase-1 activation, accompanied by subsequent secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Mutations in several members of the NLR protein family have been linked to inflammatory diseases, suggesting these molecules play important roles in maintaining host-pathogen interaction and inflammatory responses. Therefore, understanding NLR signaling is important for the therapeutic intervention of various infectious and inflammatory diseases. PMID:17875812

  15. Bifurcation of Arabidopsis NLR Immune Signaling via Ca2+-Dependent Protein Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiquan; Chen, Xin; Lin, Wenwei; Chen, Sixue; Lu, Dongping; Niu, Yajie; Li, Lei; Cheng, Cheng; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen; Shan, Libo; He, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) protein complexes sense infections and trigger robust immune responses in plants and humans. Activation of plant NLR resistance (R) proteins by pathogen effectors launches convergent immune responses, including programmed cell death (PCD), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and transcriptional reprogramming with elusive mechanisms. Functional genomic and biochemical genetic screens identified six closely related Arabidopsis Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) in mediating bifurcate immune responses activated by NLR proteins, RPS2 and RPM1. The dynamics of differential CPK1/2 activation by pathogen effectors controls the onset of cell death. Sustained CPK4/5/6/11 activation directly phosphorylates a specific subgroup of WRKY transcription factors, WRKY8/28/48, to synergistically regulate transcriptional reprogramming crucial for NLR-dependent restriction of pathogen growth, whereas CPK1/2/4/11 phosphorylate plasma membrane-resident NADPH oxidases for ROS production. Our studies delineate bifurcation of complex signaling mechanisms downstream of NLR immune sensors mediated by the myriad action of CPKs with distinct substrate specificity and subcellular dynamics. PMID:23382673

  16. Statin Therapy May not Effect NLR and MPV Levels in Patients With Hypercholesterolemia: A Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Gungoren, Fatih; Besli, Feyzullah; Caliskan, Serhat; Polat, Ufuk; Basar, Cengiz; Serdar, Osman Akin

    2016-07-01

    Statins may exert pleiotropic effects in coronary artery disease (CAD), diabetes mellitus, and familial hypercholesterolemia. We evaluated the effects of statins on the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and mean platelet volume (MPV) in 261 consecutive patients with hypercholesterolemia having CAD or at high cardiovascular (CV) risk and 50 healthy participants who were retrospectively included in this study. Patients were treated with 10 to 80 mg atorvastatin or 10 to 40 mg rosuvastatin for 24 weeks according to baseline levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and CV risk. Baseline NLR and MPV were significantly higher in patients with CAD or at high risk compared to the control group (1.89 [0.37-6.78]) vs 1.44 [0.75-2.41], P < .001 and 8.8 [6.27-18.6] vs 8.45 [6-11] fL, P = .038, respectively). The NLR, MPV, and lipid parameters were also compared in the patient group after statin treatment for 24 weeks. Lipid levels decreased but the NLR and MPV did not change significantly after the statin therapy. Further studies are needed to clarify the effect of statin therapy on NLR and MPV in patients with CAD or at high CV risk. PMID:26341259

  17. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Howe, Kerstin; Schiffer, Philipp H; Zielinski, Julia; Wiehe, Thomas; Laird, Gavin K; Marioni, John C; Soylemez, Onuralp; Kondrashov, Fyodor; Leptin, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  18. Structure and evolutionary history of a large family of NLR proteins in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-01-01

    Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802

  19. Effects of air pollutants on innate immunity: The role of Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rebecca N.; Diaz-Sanchez, David; Jaspers, Ilona

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between exposure to ambient air pollutants and respiratory pathogens have been shown to modify respiratory immune responses. Emerging data suggest key roles for Toll-like receptor (TLR) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain–like receptor (NLR) signaling in pathogen-induced immune responses. Similarly, immune responses elicited by exposure to air pollutants are mediated by specific TLR- and NLR-dependent mechanisms. This review article will summarize current knowledge about how air pollutants modify TLR- and NLR-dependent signaling and host defense responses in the lung. PMID:22196521

  20. Cytosolic activation of cell death and stem rust resistance by cereal MLA-family CC-NLR proteins.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Stella; Moore, John; Chen, Chunhong; Webb, Daryl; Periyannan, Sambasivam; Mago, Rohit; Bernoux, Maud; Lagudah, Evans S; Dodds, Peter N

    2016-09-01

    Plants possess intracellular immune receptors designated "nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat" (NLR) proteins that translate pathogen-specific recognition into disease-resistance signaling. The wheat immune receptors Sr33 and Sr50 belong to the class of coiled-coil (CC) NLRs. They confer resistance against a broad spectrum of field isolates of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, including the Ug99 lineage, and are homologs of the barley powdery mildew-resistance protein MLA10. Here, we show that, similarly to MLA10, the Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains are sufficient to induce cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana Autoactive CC domains and full-length Sr33 and Sr50 proteins self-associate in planta In contrast, truncated CC domains equivalent in size to an MLA10 fragment for which a crystal structure was previously determined fail to induce cell death and do not self-associate. Mutations in the truncated region also abolish self-association and cell-death signaling. Analysis of Sr33 and Sr50 CC domains fused to YFP and either nuclear localization or nuclear export signals in N benthamiana showed that cell-death induction occurs in the cytosol. In stable transgenic wheat plants, full-length Sr33 proteins targeted to the cytosol provided rust resistance, whereas nuclear-targeted Sr33 was not functional. These data are consistent with CC-mediated induction of both cell-death signaling and stem rust resistance in the cytosolic compartment, whereas previous research had suggested that MLA10-mediated cell-death and disease resistance signaling occur independently, in the cytosol and nucleus, respectively. PMID:27555587

  1. Usefulness of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio in hormone-receptor-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Huang, Zhou; Wang, Qiusheng; Sun, Bing; Ding, Lijuan; Meng, Xiangying; Wu, Shikai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the relationship between pretreatment neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR)/platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and the estimation of hormone-receptor-negative (HR−) breast cancer patients’ survival in a Chinese cohort. Patients and methods Of 434 consecutive HR− nonmetastatic breast cancer patients treated between 2004 and 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Academy of Military Medical Sciences, 318 eligible cases with complete data were included in the present study. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to determine the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the usefulness of NLR and PLR. Results Univariate analysis indicated that both elevated NLR and PLR (both P<0.001) were associated with poor OS. The utility of NLR remained in the multivariate analysis (P<0.001), but not PLR (P=0.104). The analysis results for DFS were almost the same as OS. Subgroup analysis revealed a significant association between increased NLR and PLR (P<0.001 and P=0.011) and poor survival in triple-negative breast cancer. However, for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer, only NLR was significantly associated with OS in the multivariate analysis (P=0.001). Conclusion The present study indicates that both increased NLR and PLR are associated with poor survival in HR−breast cancer patients. Meanwhile, NLR is independently correlated with OS and DFS, but PLR is not. PMID:27536129

  2. The nuclear immune receptor RPS4 is required for RRS1SLH1-dependent constitutive defense activation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Kee Hoon; Segonzac, Cécile; Rallapalli, Ghanasyam; Sarris, Panagiotis F; Woo, Joo Yong; Williams, Simon J; Newman, Toby E; Paek, Kyung Hee; Kobe, Bostjan; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2014-10-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NB-LRR) disease resistance (R) proteins recognize specific "avirulent" pathogen effectors and activate immune responses. NB-LRR proteins structurally and functionally resemble mammalian Nod-like receptors (NLRs). How NB-LRR and NLR proteins activate defense is poorly understood. The divergently transcribed Arabidopsis R genes, RPS4 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae 4) and RRS1 (resistance to Ralstonia solanacearum 1), function together to confer recognition of Pseudomonas AvrRps4 and Ralstonia PopP2. RRS1 is the only known recessive NB-LRR R gene and encodes a WRKY DNA binding domain, prompting suggestions that it acts downstream of RPS4 for transcriptional activation of defense genes. We define here the early RRS1-dependent transcriptional changes upon delivery of PopP2 via Pseudomonas type III secretion. The Arabidopsis slh1 (sensitive to low humidity 1) mutant encodes an RRS1 allele (RRS1SLH1) with a single amino acid (leucine) insertion in the WRKY DNA-binding domain. Its poor growth due to constitutive defense activation is rescued at higher temperature. Transcription profiling data indicate that RRS1SLH1-mediated defense activation overlaps substantially with AvrRps4- and PopP2-regulated responses. To better understand the genetic basis of RPS4/RRS1-dependent immunity, we performed a genetic screen to identify suppressor of slh1 immunity (sushi) mutants. We show that many sushi mutants carry mutations in RPS4, suggesting that RPS4 acts downstream or in a complex with RRS1. Interestingly, several mutations were identified in a domain C-terminal to the RPS4 LRR domain. Using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay system, we demonstrate that the P-loop motif of RPS4 but not of RRS1SLH1 is required for RRS1SLH1 function. We also recapitulate the dominant suppression of RRS1SLH1 defense activation by wild type RRS1 and show this suppression requires an intact RRS1 P-loop. These analyses of RRS1SLH1 shed new light

  3. Maize homologs of HCT, a key enzyme in lignin biosynthesis, bind the NLR Rp1 proteins to modulate the defense response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, most disease resistance (R) genes encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat 42 (NLR) proteins that trigger a rapid localized cell death called a hypersensitive response (HR) 43 upon pathogen recognition. The maize NLR protein Rp1-D21 derives from an intragenic 44 recombination between...

  4. Genetic Variations of NLR family genes in Behcet’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Yu, Hongsong; Jiang, Yanni; Deng, Bolin; Bai, Lin; Kijlstra, Aize; Yang, Peizeng

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five NLR family genes (NOD1, NOD2, NLRP1, NLRP3 and CIITA) are associated with Behcet’s disease (BD) in a Chinese Han population. The study was carried out in 950 BD patients and 1440 controls for 19 SNPs in the selected NLR genes. In the first-stage study, significantly decreased frequencies of the CIITA//rs12932187 C allele (Pc = 1.668E-02) and NOD1//rs2075818 G allele (Pc = 4.694E-02) were found in BD patients as compared to controls . After performing a second stage validation study and combination of data we confirmed the association of CIITA//rs12932187 and NOD1//rs2075818 with BD. In CIITA//rs12932187, the frequencies of the CC genotype and C allele were significantly lower in BD than in controls (Pc = 3.331E-06; Pc = 6.004E-07, respectively). In NOD1//rs2075818, the GG genotype and G allele showed significantly decreased frequencies in BD patients when compared to controls (Pc = 1.022E-02; Pc = 6.811E-05, respectively). Functional experiments showed that carriers with the CC genotype in CIITA//rs12932187 had a lower CIITA mRNA expression level and an enhanced IL-10 secretion as compared to GG and CG carriers. This study provides evidence that the CIITA and NOD1 gene are involved in the susceptibility to Behcet’s disease. PMID:26833430

  5. Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) – focus on receptor-receptor-interactions and their physiological and pathophysiological impact

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) are a subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with four members, PAR1, PAR2, PAR3 and PAR4, playing critical functions in hemostasis, thrombosis, embryonic development, wound healing, inflammation and cancer progression. PARs are characterized by a unique activation mechanism involving receptor cleavage by different proteinases at specific sites within the extracellular amino-terminus and the exposure of amino-terminal “tethered ligand“ domains that bind to and activate the cleaved receptors. After activation, the PAR family members are able to stimulate complex intracellular signalling networks via classical G protein-mediated pathways and beta-arrestin signalling. In addition, different receptor crosstalk mechanisms critically contribute to a high diversity of PAR signal transduction and receptor-trafficking processes that result in multiple physiological effects. In this review, we summarize current information about PAR-initiated physical and functional receptor interactions and their physiological and pathological roles. We focus especially on PAR homo- and heterodimerization, transactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and receptor serine/threonine kinases (RSTKs), communication with other GPCRs, toll-like receptors and NOD-like receptors, ion channel receptors, and on PAR association with cargo receptors. In addition, we discuss the suitability of these receptor interaction mechanisms as targets for modulating PAR signalling in disease. PMID:24215724

  6. Recognition of Extracellular Bacteria by NLRs and Its Role in the Development of Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrand, Jonathan; Ferrero, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune recognition of bacteria is the first requirement for mounting an effective immune response able to control infection. Over the previous decade, the general paradigm was that extracellular bacteria were only sensed by cell surface-expressed Toll-like receptors (TLRs), whereas cytoplasmic sensors, including members of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family, were specific to pathogens capable of breaching the host cell membrane. It has become apparent, however, that intracellular innate immune molecules, such as the NLRs, play key roles in the sensing of not only intracellular, but also extracellular bacterial pathogens or their components. In this review, we will discuss the various mechanisms used by bacteria to activate NLR signaling in host cells. These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins, and outer membrane vesicles. We will then focus on the influence of NLR activation on the development of adaptive immune responses in different cell types. PMID:24155747

  7. A flight investigation of performance and loads for a helicopter with NLR-1T main-rotor blade sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Tomaine, R. L.; Stevens, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    Data on performance and rotor loads for a teetering-rotor, AH-1G helicopter flown with a main rotor that had the NLR-1T airfoil as the blade-section contour are presented. The test envelope included hover, forward-flight speed sweeps from 35 to 85 m/sec, and collective-fixed maneuvers at about 0.25 tip-speed ratio. The data set for each test point described vehicle flight state, control positions, rotor loads, power requirements, and blade motions. Rotor loads are reviewed primarily in terms of peak-to-peak and harmonic content. Lower frequency components predominated for most loads and generally increased with increased airspeed, but not necessarily with increased maneuver load factor.

  8. A flight investigation of blade section aerodynamics for a helicopter main rotor having NLR-1T airfoil sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Stevens, D. D.; Tomaine, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight investigation was conducted using a teetering-rotor AH-1G helicopter to obtain data on the aerodynamic behavior of main-rotor blades with the NLR-1T blade section. The data system recorded blade-section aerodynamic pressures at 90 percent rotor radius as well as vehicle flight state, performance, and loads. The test envelope included hover, forward flight, and collective-fixed maneuvers. Data were obtained on apparent blade-vortex interactions, negative lift on the advancing blade in high-speed flight and wake interactions in hover. In many cases, good agreement was achieved between chordwise pressure distributions predicted by airfoil theory and flight data with no apparent indications of blade-vortex interactions.

  9. Maize homologs of CCoAOMT and HCT, two key enzymes in lignin biosynthesis, form complexes with the NLR Rp1 protein to modulate the defense response

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disease resistance (R) genes encode nucleotide binding leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) proteins that confer resistance to specific pathogens. Upon pathogen recognition they trigger a defense response that usually includes a so-called hypersensitive response (HR), a rapid localized cell death at the site o...

  10. Identification of Mutations in the PYRIN-Containing NLR Genes (NLRP) in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Lui, Vivian W. Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.; Egloff, Ann Marie

    2014-01-01

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) encompasses malignancies that arise in the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Recent high throughput DNA sequencing revealed HNSCC genes mutations that contribute to several cancer cell characteristics, including dysregulation of cell proliferation and death, intracellular proinflammatory signaling, and autophagy. The PYRIN-domain containing NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain, Leucine rich Repeats – containing) proteins have recently emerged as pivotal modulators of cell death, autophagy, inflammation, and metabolism. Their close physiologic association with cancer development prompted us to determine whether mutations within the NLRP (PYRIN-containing NLR) gene family were associated with HNSCC genome instability and their clinicopathologic correlations. Catastrophic mutational events underlie cancer cell genome instability and mark a point-of-no-return in cancer cell development and generation of heterogeneity. The mutation profiles of 62 patients with primary conventional type HNSCC excluding other histologic variants were analyzed. Associations were tested using Fisher's Exact test or Mann-Whitney U test. Mutations in NLRP were associated with elevated genome instability as characterized by higher mutation rates. Clinically, NLRP mutations were more frequently found in HNSCC arising in the floor of mouth (50.0%) in comparison with HNSCC at other head and neck locations (14.8%). These mutations were clustered at the leucine rich repeats region of NLRP proteins, and affected NLRP genes were mostly localized at chromosomes 11p15.4 and 19q13.42-19q13.43. Twenty novel NLRP mutations were identified in HNSCC, and mutations in this group of genes were correlated with increased cancer cell genome mutation rates, and such features could be a potential molecular biomarker of HNSCC genome instability. PMID:24465623

  11. Tomato I2 Immune Receptor Can Be Engineered to Confer Partial Resistance to the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans in Addition to the Fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Giannakopoulou, Artemis; Steele, John F C; Segretin, Maria Eugenia; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Zhou, Ji; Robatzek, Silke; Banfield, Mark J; Pais, Marina; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-12-01

    Plants and animals rely on immune receptors, known as nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat (NLR)-containing proteins, to defend against invading pathogens and activate immune responses. How NLR receptors respond to pathogens is inadequately understood. We previously reported single-residue mutations that expand the response of the potato immune receptor R3a to AVR3a(EM), a stealthy effector from the late blight oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans. I2, another NLR that mediates resistance to the will-causing fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, is the tomato ortholog of R3a. We transferred previously identified R3a mutations to I2 to assess the degree to which the resulting I2 mutants have an altered response. We discovered that wild-type I2 protein responds weakly to AVR3a. One mutant in the N-terminal coiled-coil domain, I2(I141N), appeared sensitized and displayed markedly increased response to AVR3a. Remarkably, I2(I141N) conferred partial resistance to P. infestans. Further, I2(I141N) has an expanded response spectrum to F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici effectors compared with the wild-type I2 protein. Our results suggest that synthetic immune receptors can be engineered to confer resistance to phylogenetically divergent pathogens and indicate that knowledge gathered for one NLR could be exploited to improve NLR from other plant species. PMID:26367241

  12. Liver X receptor β activation induces pyroptosis of human and murine colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Derangère, V; Chevriaux, A; Courtaut, F; Bruchard, M; Berger, H; Chalmin, F; Causse, S Z; Limagne, E; Végran, F; Ladoire, S; Simon, B; Boireau, W; Hichami, A; Apetoh, L; Mignot, G; Ghiringhelli, F; Rébé, C

    2014-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) have been proposed to have some anticancer properties, through molecular mechanisms that remain elusive. Here we report for the first time that LXR ligands induce caspase-1-dependent cell death of colon cancer cells. Caspase-1 activation requires Nod-like-receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and ATP-mediated P2 × 7 receptor activation. Surprisingly, LXRβ is mainly located in the cytoplasm and has a non-genomic role by interacting with pannexin 1 leading to ATP secretion. Finally, LXR ligands have an antitumoral effect in a mouse colon cancer model, dependent on the presence of LXRβ, pannexin 1, NLRP3 and caspase-1 within the tumor cells. Our results demonstrate that LXRβ, through pannexin 1 interaction, can specifically induce caspase-1-dependent colon cancer cell death by pyroptosis. PMID:25124554

  13. An Update on PYRIN Domain-Containing Pattern Recognition Receptors: From Immunity to Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Ratsimandresy, Rojo A.; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) sense a wide range of endogenous danger-associated molecular patterns as well as exogenous pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In particular, Nod-like receptors containing a pyrin domain (PYD), called NLRPs, and AIM2-like receptors (ALRs) have been shown to play a critical role in host defense by facilitating clearance of pathogens and maintaining a healthy gut microflora. NLRPs and ALRs both encode a PYD, which is crucial for relaying signals that result in an efficient innate immune response through activation of several key innate immune signaling pathways. However, mutations in these PRRs have been linked to the development of auto-inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In addition, they have been implicated in metabolic diseases. In this review, we summarize the function of PYD-containing NLRPs and ALRs and address their contribution to innate immunity, host defense, and immune-linked diseases. PMID:24367371

  14. Pattern recognition receptors and central nervous system repair

    PubMed Central

    Kigerl, Kristina A.; de Rivero Vaccari, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are part of the innate immune response and were originally discovered for their role in recognizing pathogens by ligating specific pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by microbes. Now the role of PRRs in sterile inflammation is also appreciated, responding to endogenous stimuli referred to as “damage associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) instead of PAMPs. The main families of PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), Nod-like receptors (NLRs), RIG-like receptors (RLRs), AIM2-like receptors (ALRs), and C-type lectin receptors. Broad expression of these PRRs in the CNS and the release of DAMPs in and around sites of injury suggest an important role for these receptor families in mediating post-injury inflammation. Considerable data now show that PRRs are among the first responders to CNS injury and activation of these receptors on microglia, neurons, and astrocytes triggers an innate immune response in the brain and spinal cord. Here we discuss how the various PRR families are activated and can influence injury and repair processes following CNS injury. PMID:25017883

  15. Prognostic Significance of Combination of Preoperative Platelet Count and Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio (COP-NLR) in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Based on a Large Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Lianmin; Zhu, Kaikai; Shi, Bowen; Yin, Yuesong; Zhu, Jinfang; Yue, Dongsheng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Changli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the combination of the preoperative platelet count and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (COP-NLR) for predicting postoperative survival of patients undergoing complete resection for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods The preoperative COP-NLR was calculated on the basis of data obtained.Patients with both an increased platelet count (>30.0×104 mm-3) and an elevated NLR (>2.3) were assigned a score of 2, and patients with one or neither were assigned as a score of 1 or 0, respectively. Results A total of 1238 NSCLC patients were enrolled in this analysis. Multivariate analysis using the 15 clinicolaboratory variables selected by univariate analyses demonstrated that the preoperative COP-NLR was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (HR: 1.834, 95%CI: 1.536 to 2.200, P<0.001) and OS (HR: 1.810, 95%CI: 1.587 to 2.056, P<0.001). In sub-analyses by tumor stage (I, II, IIIA), a significant association was found between DFS and OS and level of COP-NLR in each subgroup (P<0.001, P=0.002, P<0.001 for DFS, respectively; P<0.001, P=0.001, P<0.001 for OS). When the subgroup of patients with high-risk COP-NLR (score of 2) was analyzed, no benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy could be found (P=0.237 for DFS and P=0.165 for OS). Conclusions The preoperative COP-NLR is able to predict the prognosis of patients with NSCLC and divide these patients into three independent groups before surgery. Our results also demonstrate that high-risk patients based on the COP-NLR do not benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Independent validation of our findings is warranted. PMID:25950176

  16. Nb is a TIR-NLR innate immune receptor that requires EDS1 for induction of the hypersensitive response to the potato virus X movement protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dominant plant resistance (R)-genes against viruses are needed for protection of major crops from virus diseases. Characterized resistance R-genes and viral effector proteins are needed to understand host resistance mechanisms to optimize plant defense against viruses. Of the many hundreds of resist...

  17. Unleashing the potential of NOD- and Toll-like agonists as vaccine adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Maisonneuve, Charles; Bertholet, Sylvie; Philpott, Dana J.; De Gregorio, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    Innate immunity confers an immediate nonspecific mechanism of microbial recognition through germ line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). Of these, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) have shaped our current understanding of innate regulation of adaptive immunity. It is now recognized that PRRs are paramount in instructing an appropriate adaptive immune response. Their ligands have been the focus of adjuvant research with the goal of generating modern vaccine combinations tailored to specific pathogens. In this review we will highlight the recent findings in the field of adjuvant research with a particular focus on the potential of TLR and NLR ligands as adjuvants and their influence on adaptive immune responses. PMID:25136133

  18. Identification of Adjuvantic Activity of Amphotericin B in a Novel, Multiplexed, Poly-TLR/NLR High-Throughput Screen

    PubMed Central

    Salyer, Alex C. D.; Caruso, Giuseppe; Khetani, Karishma K.; Fox, Lauren M.; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S.; David, Sunil A.

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule agonists have been identified for TLR7, TLR8, TLR4 and TLR2 thus far, and chemotypes other than those of canonical ligands are yet to be explored for a number of innate immune receptors. The discovery of novel immunostimulatory molecules would enhance the repertoire of tools available for interrogating innate immune effector mechanisms, and provide additional venues for vaccine adjuvant development. A multiplexed, reporter gene-based high-throughput assay capable of detecting agonists of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 was utilized in screening 123,943 compounds, in which amphotericin B (AmpB) and nystatin were identified as prominent hits. The polyene antifungal agents act as TLR2- and TLR4-agonists. The TLR4-stimulatory activity of AmpB was similar to that of monophosphoryl lipid A, suggestive of TRIF-biased signaling. The adjuvantic activity of AmpB, at a dose of 100 micrograms, was comparable to several other candidate adjuvants in rabbit models of immunization. These results point to its potential applicability as a safe and effective adjuvant for human vaccines. PMID:26919709

  19. Identification of Adjuvantic Activity of Amphotericin B in a Novel, Multiplexed, Poly-TLR/NLR High-Throughput Screen.

    PubMed

    Salyer, Alex C D; Caruso, Giuseppe; Khetani, Karishma K; Fox, Lauren M; Malladi, Subbalakshmi S; David, Sunil A

    2016-01-01

    Small-molecule agonists have been identified for TLR7, TLR8, TLR4 and TLR2 thus far, and chemotypes other than those of canonical ligands are yet to be explored for a number of innate immune receptors. The discovery of novel immunostimulatory molecules would enhance the repertoire of tools available for interrogating innate immune effector mechanisms, and provide additional venues for vaccine adjuvant development. A multiplexed, reporter gene-based high-throughput assay capable of detecting agonists of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, TLR8, TLR9, NOD1 and NOD2 was utilized in screening 123,943 compounds, in which amphotericin B (AmpB) and nystatin were identified as prominent hits. The polyene antifungal agents act as TLR2- and TLR4-agonists. The TLR4-stimulatory activity of AmpB was similar to that of monophosphoryl lipid A, suggestive of TRIF-biased signaling. The adjuvantic activity of AmpB, at a dose of 100 micrograms, was comparable to several other candidate adjuvants in rabbit models of immunization. These results point to its potential applicability as a safe and effective adjuvant for human vaccines. PMID:26919709

  20. Nanoparticles activate the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome and cause pulmonary inflammation through release of IL-1α and IL-1β

    PubMed Central

    Yazdi, Amir S.; Guarda, Greta; Riteau, Nicolas; Drexler, Stefan K.; Tardivel, Aubry; Couillin, Isabelle; Tschopp, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly used in various fields, including biomedicine and electronics. One application utilizes the opacifying effect of nano-TiO2, which is frequently used as pigment in cosmetics. Although TiO2 is believed to be biologically inert, an emerging literature reports increased incidence of respiratory diseases in people exposed to TiO2. Here, we show that nano-TiO2 and nano-SiO2, but not nano-ZnO, activate the NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (Nlrp3) inflammasome, leading to IL-1β release and in addition, induce the regulated release of IL-1α. Unlike other particulate Nlrp3 agonists, nano-TiO2–dependent-Nlrp3 activity does not require cytoskeleton-dependent phagocytosis and induces IL-1α/β secretion in nonphagocytic keratinocytes. Inhalation of nano-TiO2 provokes lung inflammation which is strongly suppressed in IL-1R– and IL-1α–deficient mice. Thus, the inflammation caused by nano-TiO2 in vivo is largely caused by the biological effect of IL-1α. The current use of nano-TiO2 may present a health hazard due to its capacity to induce IL-1R signaling, a situation reminiscent of inflammation provoked by asbestos exposure. PMID:20974980

  1. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A; Ingalls, Robin R

    2014-05-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. We examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. Gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2. We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type versus NOD2-deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling up-regulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. Thus, NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  2. The Role of Innate Immunity Receptors in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paula Peruzzi; Tolentino, Yolanda Faia M.; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Innate immunity constitutes the first line of defense, fundamental for the recognition and the initiation of an inflammatory response against microorganisms. The innate immune response relies on the sensing of microbial-associated molecular patterns through specialized structures such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the nucleotide oligomerization domain- (NOD-) like receptors (NLRs). In the gut, these tasks are performed by the epithelial barrier and the presence of adaptive and innate immune mechanisms. TLRs and NLRs are distributed throughout the gastrointestinal mucosa, being more expressed in the epithelium, and in lamina propria immune and nonimmune cells. These innate immunity receptors exhibit complementary biological functions, with evidence for pathways overlapping. However, as tolerance is the predominant physiological response in the gastrointestinal mucosa, it appears that the TLRs are relatively downregulated, while NLRs play a critical role in mucosal defense in the gut. Over the past two decades, genetic polymorphisms have been associated with several diseases including inflammatory bowel disease. Special emphasis has been given to the susceptibility to Crohn's disease, in association with abnormalities in the NOD2 and in the NLRP3/inflammasome. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying innate immune receptors dysfunction that result in the persistent inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease remain to be clarified. PMID:25821356

  3. Innate immune receptors in heart failure: Side effect or potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Katharina B; Felix, Stephan B; Riad, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in western countries and occasions major expenses for public health systems. Although optimal medical treatment is widely available according to current guidelines, the prognosis of patients with HF is still poor. Despite the etiology of the disease, increased systemic or cardiac activation of the innate immune system is well documented in several types of HF. In some cases there is evidence of an association between innate immune activation and clinical outcome of patients with this disease. However, the few large trials conducted with the use of anti-inflammatory medication in HF have not revealed its benefits. Thus, greater understanding of the relationship between alteration in the immune system and development and progression of HF is urgently necessary: prior to designing therapeutic interventions that target pathological inflammatory processes in preventing harmful cardiac effects of immune modulatory therapy. In this regard, relatively recently discovered receptors of the innate immune system, i.e., namely toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nod-like receptors (NLRs)-are the focus of intense cardiovascular research. These receptors are main up-stream regulators of cytokine activation. This review will focus on current knowledge of the role of TLRs and NLRs, as well as on downstream cytokine activation, and will discuss potential therapeutic implications. PMID:25228958

  4. Activation of NOD receptors by Neisseria gonorrhoeae modulates the innate immune response

    PubMed Central

    Mavrogiorgos, Nikolaos; Mekasha, Samrawit; Yang, Yibin; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Ingalls, Robin R.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-1 and NOD2 are members of the NOD-like receptor family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors that recognize specific fragments of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Neisseria species are unique amongst Gram-negative bacteria in that they turn over large amounts of peptidoglycan during growth. In this study we examined the ability of NOD1 and NOD2 to recognize N. gonorrhoeae, and determined the role of NOD-dependent signaling in regulating the immune response to gonococcal infection. We found that gonococci, as well as conditioned medium from mid-logarithmic phase grown bacteria, were capable of activating both human NOD1 and NOD2, as well as mouse NOD2, leading to the activation of the transcription factor NF-κB and polyubiquitination of the adaptor receptor-interacting serine-threonine kinase 2 (RIPK2). We identified a number of cytokines and chemokines that were differentially expressed in wild type vs. NOD2 deficient macrophages in response to gonococcal infection. Moreover, NOD2 signaling upregulated complement pathway components and cytosolic nucleic acid sensors, suggesting a broad impact of NOD activation on innate immunity. These data demonstrate that NOD1 and NOD2 are important intracellular regulators of the immune response to infection with N. gonorrhoeae. Given the intracellular lifestyle of this pathogen, we believe these cytosolic receptors may provide a key innate immune defense mechanism for the host during gonococcal infection. PMID:23884094

  5. Activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor downregulates inflammasome activity and liver inflammation via a β-arrestin-2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ahmad; Hoque, Rafaz; Ouyang, Xinshou; Farooq, Ahsan; Ghani, Ayaz; Ahsan, Kaimul; Guerra, Mateus; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar

    2014-10-01

    Activation of the cytosolic inflammasome machinery is responsible for acute and chronic liver inflammation, but little is known about its regulation. The N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor families are heterotetrameric ligand-gated ion channels that are activated by a range of metabolites, including aspartate, glutamate, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the brain NMDA receptors are present on neuronal and nonneuronal cells and regulate a diverse range of functions. We tested the role of the NMDA receptor and aspartate in inflammasome regulation in vitro and in models of acute hepatitis and pancreatitis. We demonstrate that the NMDA receptor is present on Kupffer cells, and their activation on primary mouse and human cells limits inflammasome activation by downregulating NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 and procaspase-1. The NMDA receptor pathway is active in vivo, limits injury in acute hepatitis, and can be therapeutically further activated by aspartate providing protection in acute inflammatory liver injury. Downregulation of inflammasome activation by NMDA occurs via a β-arrestin-2 NF-kβ and JNK pathway and not via Ca(2+) mobilization. We have identified the NMDA receptor as a regulator of inflammasome activity in vitro and in vivo. This has identified a new area of immune regulation associated by metabolites that may be relevant in a diverse range of conditions, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and total parenteral nutrition-induced immune suppression. PMID:25104498

  6. Protectin D1 reduces concanavalin A-induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-κB-mediated CX3CL1/CX3CR1 axis and NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jun; Meng, Shanshan; Yan, Bingdi; Yu, Jinyan; Liu, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Protectin D1 (PD1) is a bioactive product generated from docosahexaenoic acid, which may exert anti-inflammatory effects in various inflammatory diseases. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of its anti‑inflammatory activity on concanavalin A (Con A)-induced hepatitis remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of PD1 against Con A‑induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms via intravenous injection of PD1 prior to Con A administration. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four experimental groups as follows: Control group, Con A group (30 mg/kg), 20 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group and 10 µg/kg PD1 + Con A (30 mg/kg) group. PD1 pretreatment was demonstrated to significantly inhibit elevated plasma aminotransferase levels, high mobility group box 1 and liver necrosis, which were observed in Con A‑induced hepatitis. Furthermore, compared with the Con A group, PD1 pretreatment prevented the production of pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α, interferon‑γ and interleukin‑2, ‑1β and ‑6. In addition, pretreatment with PD1 markedly downregulated cluster of differentiation (CD)4+, CD8+ and natural killer T (NKT) cell infiltration in the liver. PD1 pretreatment was observed to suppress the messenger RNA and protein expression levels of NLR family, pyrin domain containing 3 and Toll‑like receptor (TLR) 4 in liver tissue samples. Further data indicated that PD1 pretreatment inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor κ‑light‑chain‑enhancer of activated B cells (NF‑κB) signaling pathway and chemokine (C‑X3‑C motif) ligand 1 (CX3CL1)/chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 (CX3CR1) axis by preventing phosphorylation of nuclear factor of κ light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, α and NF‑κB in Con A‑induced liver injury. Therefore, these results suggest that PD1 administration protects mice against Con

  7. High throughput screening identifies ATP-competitive inhibitors of the NLRP1 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Harris, Philip A; Duraiswami, Chaya; Fisher, Donald T; Fornwald, James; Hoffman, Sandra J; Hofmann, Glenn; Jiang, Ming; Lehr, Ruth; McCormick, Patricia M; Nickels, Leng; Schwartz, Benjamin; Wu, Zining; Zhang, Guofeng; Marquis, Robert W; Bertin, John; Gough, Peter J

    2015-07-15

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors that are promising targets for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics. Drug discovery efforts targeting NLRs have been hampered by their inherent tendency to form aggregates making protein generation and the development of screening assays very challenging. Herein we report the results of an HTS screen of NLR family member NLRP1 (NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 1) which was achieved through the large scale generation of recombinant GST-His-Thrombin-NLRP1 protein. The screen led to the identification of a diverse set of ATP competitive inhibitors with micromolar potencies. Activity of these hits was confirmed in a FP binding assay, and two homology models were employed to predict the possible binding mode of the leading series and facilitate further lead-optimization. These results highlight a promising strategy for the identification of inhibitors of NLR family members which are rapidly emerging as key drivers of inflammation in human disease. PMID:26022841

  8. Artificial Loading of ASC Specks with Cytosolic Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Sahillioğlu, Ali Can; Özören, Nesrin

    2015-01-01

    Inflammasome complexes form upon interaction of Nod Like Receptor (NLR) proteins with pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAPMS) inside the cytosol. Stimulation of a subset of inflammasome receptors including NLRP3, NLRC4 and AIM2 triggers formation of the micrometer-sized spherical supramolecular complex called the ASC speck. The ASC speck is thought to be the platform of inflammasome activity, but the reason why a supramolecular complex is preferred against oligomeric platforms remains elusive. We observed that a set of cytosolic proteins, including the model antigen ovalbumin, tend to co-aggregate on the ASC speck. We suggest that co-aggregation of antigenic proteins on the ASC speck during intracellular infection might be instrumental in antigen presentation. PMID:26258904

  9. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Regulation of Innate Immune Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Eunshil

    2011-01-01

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in innate immune cells play a pivotal role in the first line of host defense system. PRRs recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to initiate and regulate innate and adaptive immune responses. PRRs include Toll-like receptors (TLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), which have their own features in ligand recognition and cellular location. Activated PRRs deliver signals to adaptor molecules (MyD88, TRIF, MAL/TIRAP, TRAM, IPS-1) which act as important messengers to activate downstream kinases (IKK complex, MAPKs, TBK1, RIP-1) and transcription factors (NF-κB, AP-1, IRF3), which produce effecter molecules including cytokines, chemokines, inflammatory enzymes, and type I interferones. Since excessive PRR activation is closely linked to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases, the role of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators in the prevention of over- or unnecessary activation of PRRs has been widely studied. Intracellular regulators include MyD88s, SOCS1, TOLLIP, A20, and CYLD. Extrinsic regulators have also been identified with their molecular targets in PRR signaling pathways. TLR dimerization has been suggested as an inhibitory target for small molecules such as curcumin, cinnamaldehyde, and sulforaphane. TBK1 kinase can be a target for certain flavonoids such as EGCG, luteolin, quercetin, chrysin, and eriodictyol to regulate TRIF-dependent TLR pathways. This review focuses on the features of PRR signaling pathways and the therapeutic targets of intrinsic and extrinsic regulators in order to provide beneficial strategies for controlling the activity of PRRs and the related inflammatory diseases and immune disorders. PMID:21488180

  10. Role of Positive Selection in Functional Divergence of Mammalian Neuronal Apoptosis Inhibitor Proteins during Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fanzhi; Su, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Chenglin; Sun, Caixia; Liu, Yanfang; Zheng, Dong; Yuan, Hongyan; Yin, Jingping; Fang, Jie; Wang, Shengjun; Xu, Huaxi

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitor proteins (NAIPs) are members of Nod-like receptor (NLR) protein family. Recent research demostrated that some NAIP genes were strongly associated with both innate immunity and many inflammatory diseases in humans. However, no similar phenomena have been reported in other mammals. Furthermore, some NAIP genes have undergone pseudogenization or have been lost during the evolution of some higher mammals. We therefore aimed to determine if functional divergence had occurred, and if natural selection had played an important role in the evolution of these genes. The results showed that NAIP genes have undergone pseudogenization and functional divergence, driven by positive selection. Positive selection has also influenced NAIP protein structure, resulting in further functional divergence. PMID:22131819

  11. Dynamic evolution of toll-like receptor multigene families in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Katherine M; Rast, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01

    The genome sequence of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a large and long-lived invertebrate, provides a new perspective on animal immunity. Analysis of this genome uncovered a highly complex immune system in which the gene families that encode homologs of the pattern recognition receptors that form the core of vertebrate innate immunity are encoded in large multigene families. The sea urchin genome contains 253 Toll-like receptor (TLR) sequences, more than 200 Nod-like receptors and 1095 scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains, a 10-fold expansion relative to vertebrates. Given their stereotypic protein structure and simple intron-exon architecture, the TLRs are the most tractable of these families for more detailed analysis. A role for these receptors in immune defense is suggested by their similarity to TLRs in other organisms, sequence diversity, and expression in immunologically active tissues, including phagocytes. The complexity of the sea urchin TLR multigene families is largely derived from expansions independent of those in vertebrates and protostomes, although a small family of TLRs with structure similar to that of Drosophila Toll can be traced to an ancient eumetazoan ancestor. Several other echinoderm sequences are now available, including Lytechinus variegatus, as well as partial sequences from two other sea urchin species. Here, we present an analysis of the invertebrate deuterostome TLRs with emphasis on the echinoderms. Representatives of most of the S. purpuratus TLR subfamilies and homologs of the mccTLR sequences are found in L. variegatus, although the L. variegatus TLR gene family is notably smaller (68 TLR sequences). The phylogeny of these genes within sea urchins highlights lineage-specific expansions at higher resolution than is evident at the phylum level. These analyses identify quickly evolving TLR subfamilies that are likely to have novel immune recognition functions and other, more stable, subfamilies that may

  12. Critical role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor 3 in vascular repair

    SciTech Connect

    Schlaweck, Sebastian; Zimmer, Sebastian; Struck, Rafael; Werner, Nikos; Latz, Eicke; Nickenig, Georg; Ghanem, Alexander

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} NLRP3 is not required for systemic cardiovascular function in healthy mice. {yields} NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and that it does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. {yields} NLRP3 is critical in neointima formation following vascular injury. -- Abstract: Vascular remodeling characterized by hyperproliferative neointima formation is an unfavorable repair process that is triggered by vascular damage. This process is characterized by an increased local inflammatory and proliferative response that critically involves the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}). IL-1{beta} is expressed and cytosolically retained as a procytokine that requires additional processing prior to exerting its pro-inflammatory function. Maturation and release of pro IL-1{beta} is governed by a cytosolic protein scaffold that is known as the inflammasome. Here we show that NLRP3 (NOD-like receptor family, pryin domain containing 3), an important activating component of the inflammasome, is involved in neointima formation after vascular injury. NLRP3 deficiency itself does not affect the functional cardiovascular phenotype and does not alter peripheral differential blood counts. However, neointima development following wire injury of the carotid artery was significantly decreased in NLRP3-deficient mice as compared to wild-type controls. In all, NLRP3 plays a non-redundant role in vascular damage mediated neointima formation. Our data establish NLRP3 as a key player in the response to vascular damage, which could open new avenues to therapeutic intervention.

  13. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba, Hetron Munang’andu

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of “danger signals” made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  14. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis Shows That SAV-3 Infection Upregulates Pattern Recognition Receptors of the Endosomal Toll-Like and RIG-I-Like Receptor Signaling Pathways in Macrophage/Dendritic Like TO-Cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Cheng; Evensen, Øystein; Mweemba Munang'andu, Hetron

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental step in cellular defense mechanisms is the recognition of "danger signals" made of conserved pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by invading pathogens, by host cell germ line coded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we used RNA-seq and the Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) to identify PRRs together with the network pathway of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) that recognize salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3) infection in macrophage/dendritic like TO-cells derived from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L) headkidney leukocytes. Our findings show that recognition of SAV-3 in TO-cells was restricted to endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLRs) 3 and 8 together with RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) and not the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors NOD-like receptor (NLRs) genes. Among the RLRs, upregulated genes included the retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I), melanoma differentiation association 5 (MDA5) and laboratory of genetics and physiology 2 (LGP2). The study points to possible involvement of the tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) and mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) in modulating RIG-I signaling being the first report that links these genes to the RLR pathway in SAV-3 infection in TO-cells. Downstream signaling suggests that both the TLR and RLR pathways use interferon (IFN) regulatory factors (IRFs) 3 and 7 to produce IFN-a2. The validity of RNA-seq data generated in this study was confirmed by quantitative real time qRT-PCR showing that genes up- or downregulated by RNA-seq were also up- or downregulated by RT-PCR. Overall, this study shows that de novo transcriptome assembly identify key receptors of the TLR and RLR sensors engaged in host pathogen interaction at cellular level. We envisage that data presented here can open a road map for future intervention strategies in SAV infection of salmon. PMID:27110808

  15. Berberine Prevents Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Damage During Early Phase of Sepsis in Rat through the Toll-Like Receptors Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-xun; Wang, Xi-mo; Jiang, Tao; Gong, Jian-feng; Niu, Ling-ying

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study has shown berberine prevents damage to the intestinal mucosal barrier during early phase of sepsis in rat through mechanisms independent of the NOD-like receptors signaling pathway. In this study, we explored the regulatory effects of berberine on Toll-like receptors during the intestinal mucosal damaging process in rats. Male Sprague-Dawlay (SD) rats were treated with berberine for 5 d before undergoing cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce polymicrobial sepsis. The expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), TLR 4, TLR 9, the activity of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the levels of selected cytokines and chemokines, percentage of cell death in intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal permeability were investigated at 0, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after CLP. Results showed that the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α ) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) level were significantly lower in berberine-treated rats compared to the control animals. Conversely, the expression level of tight junction proteins, percentage of cell death in intestinal epithelial cells and the mucosal permeability were significantly higher in berberine-treated rats. The mRNA expression of TLR 2, TLR 4, and TLR 9 were significantly affected by berberine treatment. Our results indicate that pretreatment with berberine attenuates tissue injury and protects the intestinal mucosal barrier in early phase of sepsis and this may possibly have been mediated through the TLRs pathway. PMID:25605990

  16. Bacterial Peptide Recognition and Immune Activation Facilitated by Human Peptide Transporter PEPT2

    PubMed Central

    Swaan, Peter W.; Bensman, Timothy; Bahadduri, Praveen M.; Hall, Mark W.; Sarkar, Anasuya; Bao, Shengying; Khantwal, Chandra M.; Ekins, Sean; Knoell, Daren L.

    2008-01-01

    Microbial detection requires the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that are distributed on the cell surface and within the cytosol. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family functions as an intracellular PRR that triggers the innate immune response. The mechanism by which PAMPs enter the cytosol to interact with NLRs, particularly muropeptides derived from the bacterial proteoglycan cell wall, is poorly understood. PEPT2 is a proton-dependent transporter that mediates the active translocation of di- and tripeptides across epithelial tissues, including the lung. Using computational tools, we initially established that bacterial dipeptides, particularly γ-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelic acid (γ-iE-DAP), are suitable substrates for PEPT2. We then determined in primary cultures of human upper airway epithelia and transiently transfected CHO-PEPT2 cell lines that γ-iE-DAP uptake was mediated by PEPT2 with an affinity constant of approximately 193 μM, whereas muramyl dipeptide was not transported. Exposure to γ-iE-DAP at the apical surface of differentiated, polarized cultures resulted in activation of the innate immune response in an NOD1- and RIP2-dependent manner, resulting in release of IL-6 and IL-8. Based on these findings we report that PEPT2 plays a vital role in microbial recognition by NLR proteins, particularly with regard to airborne pathogens, thereby participating in host defense in the lung. PMID:18474668

  17. Inflammasomes: molecular regulation and implications for metabolic and cognitive diseases.

    PubMed

    Choi, Alexander J S; Ryter, Stefan W

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are specialized signaling platforms critical for the regulation of innate immune and inflammatory responses. Various NLR family members (i.e., NLRP1, NLRP3, and IPAF) as well as the PYHIN family member AIM2 can form inflammasome complexes. These multi-protein complexes activate inflammatory caspases (i.e., caspase-1) which in turn catalyze the maturation of select pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome typically requires two initiating signals. Toll-like receptor (TLR) and NOD-like receptor (NLR) agonists activate the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes through an NF-κB-dependent priming signal. Following exposure to extracellular ATP, stimulation of the P2X purinoreceptor-7 (P2X7R), which results in K(+) efflux, is required as a second signal for NLRP3 inflammasome formation. Alternative models for NLRP3 activation involve lysosomal destabilization and phagocytic NADPH oxidase and/or mitochondria-dependent reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this review we examine regulatory mechanisms that activate the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Furthermore, we discuss the potential roles of NLRP3 in metabolic and cognitive diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and major depressive disorder. Novel therapeutics involving inflammasome activation may result in possible clinical applications in the near future. PMID:24850149

  18. Regulation and Function of the Nucleotide Binding Domain Leucine-Rich Repeat-Containing Receptor, Pyrin Domain-Containing-3 Inflammasome in Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonmin; Suh, Gee-Young; Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2016-02-01

    Inflammasomes are specialized inflammatory signaling platforms that govern the maturation and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β and IL-18, through the regulation of caspase-1-dependent proteolytic processing. Several nucleotide binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor (NLR) family members (i.e., NLR family, pyrin domain containing [NLRP] 1, NLRP3, and NLR family, caspase recruitment domain containing-4 [NLRC4]) as well as the pyrin and hemopoietic expression, interferon-inducibility, nuclear localization domain-containing family member, absent in melanoma 2, can form inflammasome complexes in human cells. In particular, the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in response to cellular stresses through a two-component pathway, involving Toll-like receptor 4-ligand interaction (priming) followed by a second signal, such as ATP-dependent P2X purinoreceptor 7 receptor activation. Emerging studies suggest that the NLRP3 inflammasome can exert pleiotropic effects in human diseases with potentially both pro- and antipathogenic sequelae. Whereas NLRP3 inflammasome activation can serve as a vital component of host defense against invading bacteria and pathogens, excessive activation of the inflammasome can lead to inflammation-associated tissue injury in the setting of chronic disease. In addition, pyroptosis, an inflammasome-associated mode of cell death, contributes to host defense. Recent research has described the regulation and function of the NLRP3 inflammasome in various pulmonary diseases, including acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, sepsis, respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, cystic fibrosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The NLRP3 and related inflammasomes, and their regulated cytokines or receptors, may represent novel diagnostic or therapeutic targets in pulmonary diseases and other diseases in which inflammation contributes to pathogenesis. PMID

  19. IL-1β production is dependent on the activation of purinergic receptors and NLRP3 pathway in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Thomas; Robert, Sacha; Loyer, Pascal; Victoni, Tatiana; Bodin, Aude; Ribault, Catherine; Gleonnec, Florence; Couillin, Isabelle; Boichot, Elisabeth; Lagente, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    The Nod-like receptor family protein 3 (NLRP3)-inflammasome pathway is known to be activated by danger signals such as monosodium urate (MSU). We investigated the role of P2 purinergic receptors in the activation of NLRP3-inflammasome pathway after MSU treatment of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). After initial stimulation with a low concentration of LPS (0.1 µg/ml), a 6 h treatment with MSU crystals (250, 500, and 1000 µg/ml) induced the MDMs to release IL-1β, IL-1α, and IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the caspase 1 inhibitor Z-YVAD-FMK and the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074Me reduced production of IL-1β in a dose-dependent manner after LPS + MSU treatment. We used real-time reverse transcription-quantitative PCR to show that treatment with LPS and MSU (500 µg/ml) induced significantly greater expression of NLRP3 and IL-1β than after treatment with LPS. We also found that MSU treatment induced P2X purinergic receptor 7 (P2X7R) mRNA and protein expression. Furthermore, addition of the P2X7 purinergic receptor antagonist A-740003 significantly impeded IL-1β production and pro-IL-1β cleavage after treatment with LPS + MSU. Remarkably, RNA silencing of P2X7R (but not P2X4R) inhibited the release of IL-1β and other M1 macrophage cytokines (such as IL-1α, IL-6, and TNF-α) from MDMs stimulated with LPS + MSU. Taken as a whole, our results show that P2 purinergic receptors and the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway are involved in the secretion of IL-1β from MSU-stimulated human macrophages. This pathway may constitute a novel therapeutic target for controlling the inflammatory process in several associated pathologies. PMID:26116704

  20. Role of Toll-Like Receptor Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Graft-versus-Host Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Sanfang; Zhong, Danli; Xie, Weixin; Huang, Wenfa; Jiang, Yangyang; Li, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and infection are major complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in HSCT patients. Recent work has demonstrated that the two complications are interdependent. GVHD occurs when allo-reactive donor T lymphocytes are activated by major histocompatibility antigens or minor histocompatibility antigens on host antigen-presenting cells (APCs), with the eventual attack of recipient tissues or organs. Activation of APCs is important for the priming of GVHD and is mediated by innate immune signaling pathways. Current evidence indicates that intestinal microbes and innate pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) on host APCs, including both Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), are involved in the pathogenesis of GVHD. Patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation before allo-HSCT are susceptible to aggravated gastrointestinal epithelial cell damage and the subsequent translocation of bacterial components, followed by the release of endogenous dangerous molecules, termed pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which then activate the PRRs on host APCs to trigger local or systemic inflammatory responses that modulate T cell allo-reactivity against host tissues, which is equivalent to GVHD. In other words, infection can, to some extent, accelerate the progression of GVHD. Therefore, the intestinal flora’s PAMPs can interact with TLRs to activate and mature APCs, subsequently activate donor T cells with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and eventually, induce GVHD. In the present article, we summarize the current perspectives on the understanding of different TLR signaling pathways and their involvement in the occurrence of GVHD. PMID:27529218

  1. Epithelial NAIPs protect against colonic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ramanjaneyulu; Maillard, Michel H; Tardivel, Aubry; Chennupati, Vijaykumar; Bega, Hristina; Yu, Chi Wang; Velin, Dominique; Schneider, Pascal; Maslowski, Kendle M

    2015-03-01

    NLR family apoptosis inhibitory proteins (NAIPs) belong to both the Nod-like receptor (NLR) and the inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) families. NAIPs are known to form an inflammasome with NLRC4, but other in vivo functions remain unexplored. Using mice deficient for all NAIP paralogs (Naip1-6(Δ/Δ)), we show that NAIPs are key regulators of colorectal tumorigenesis. Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice developed increased colorectal tumors, in an epithelial-intrinsic manner, in a model of colitis-associated cancer. Increased tumorigenesis, however, was not driven by an exacerbated inflammatory response. Instead, Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice were protected from severe colitis and displayed increased antiapoptotic and proliferation-related gene expression. Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice also displayed increased tumorigenesis in an inflammation-independent model of colorectal cancer. Moreover, Naip1-6(Δ/Δ) mice, but not Nlrc4-null mice, displayed hyper-activation of STAT3 and failed to activate p53 18 h after carcinogen exposure. This suggests that NAIPs protect against tumor initiation in the colon by promoting the removal of carcinogen-elicited epithelium, likely in a NLRC4 inflammasome-independent manner. Collectively, we demonstrate a novel epithelial-intrinsic function of NAIPs in protecting the colonic epithelium against tumorigenesis. PMID:25732303

  2. Susceptibility to anthrax lethal toxin-induced rat death is controlled by a single chromosome 10 locus that includes rNlrp1.

    PubMed

    Newman, Zachary L; Printz, Morton P; Liu, Shihui; Crown, Devorah; Breen, Laura; Miller-Randolph, Sharmina; Flodman, Pamela; Leppla, Stephen H; Moayeri, Mahtab

    2010-05-01

    Anthrax lethal toxin (LT) is a bipartite protease-containing toxin and a key virulence determinant of Bacillus anthracis. In mice, LT causes the rapid lysis of macrophages isolated from certain inbred strains, but the correlation between murine macrophage sensitivity and mouse strain susceptibility to toxin challenge is poor. In rats, LT induces a rapid death in as little as 37 minutes through unknown mechanisms. We used a recombinant inbred (RI) rat panel of 19 strains generated from LT-sensitive and LT-resistant progenitors to map LT sensitivity in rats to a locus on chromosome 10 that includes the inflammasome NOD-like receptor (NLR) sensor, Nlrp1. This gene is the closest rat homolog of mouse Nlrp1b, which was previously shown to control murine macrophage sensitivity to LT. An absolute correlation between in vitro macrophage sensitivity to LT-induced lysis and animal susceptibility to the toxin was found for the 19 RI strains and 12 additional rat strains. Sequencing Nlrp1 from these strains identified five polymorphic alleles. Polymorphisms within the N-terminal 100 amino acids of the Nlrp1 protein were perfectly correlated with LT sensitivity. These data suggest that toxin-mediated lethality in rats as well as macrophage sensitivity in this animal model are controlled by a single locus on chromosome 10 that is likely to be the inflammasome NLR sensor, Nlrp1. PMID:20502689

  3. Theme and variations: evolutionary diversification of the HET-s functional amyloid motif

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Dyrka, Witold; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In mammals and fungi, Nod-like receptors (NLR) activate downstream cell death execution proteins by a prion-like mechanism. In Podospora anserina, the NWD2 NLR activates the HET-S Helo-domain pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming domain into a characteristic β-solenoid amyloid fold. The amyloid forming region of HET-S/s comprises two repetitions of a 21 amino acid motif. Herein, we systematically analyze the sequences of C-terminal regions of fungal HeLo and HeLo-like domain proteins to identify HET-s-related amyloid motifs (HRAM). We now identify four novel HRAM subfamilies in addition to the canonical HET-S/s subfamily. These novel motifs share the pseudo-repeat structure of HET-S/s and a specific pattern of distribution of hydrophobic and polar residues. Sequence co-variance analyses predict parallel in-register β-stacking of the two repeats and residue-residue interactions compatible with the β-solenoid fold. As described for HET-S, most genes encoding the HeLo proteins are adjacent to genes encoding NLRs also displaying HRAMs. The motifs of the NLRs are similar to those of their cognate HeLo-domain protein, indicating concerted evolution between repeats. This study shows that HET-s-related amyloid motifs are more common than anticipated and that they have diversified into discrete subfamilies that apparently share a common overall fold. PMID:26219477

  4. Bidirectional Crosstalk between C5a Receptors and the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Macrophages and Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Haggadone, Mikel D.; Grailer, Jamison J.; Fattahi, Fatemeh; Zetoune, Firas S.; Ward, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    C5a is an inflammatory mediator generated by complement activation that positively regulates various arms of immune defense, including Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling. The NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated by pathogen products and cellular/tissue damage products and is a major contributor of IL-1β. In this study, we investigate whether C5a modulates lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in myeloid cells. Appearance of plasma IL-1β during endotoxemia was reduced in C5aR1−/− mice when compared to wild-type mice. In vitro, C5a significantly enhanced LPS-induced production of IL-1β in bone marrow Ly6C-high inflammatory monocytes, accompanied by augmented intracellular pro-IL-1β expression. This effect was abolished during p38 blockade by SB 203580 and in the absence of C5aR1. Conversely, C5a suppressed LPS-induced macrophage production of IL-1β, which was accompanied by attenuated levels of pro-IL-1β, NLRP3, and caspase-1 expression. C5a's suppressive effects were negated during phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibition by wortmannin but were largely preserved in the absence of C5aR1. Thus, C5a bidirectionally amplifies TLR4-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in monocytes while suppressing this pathway in macrophages. However, as C5aR1 deficiency attenuates the IL-1β response to LPS challenge in vivo, our results suggest overall that C5a augments physiologic inflammasome responses. PMID:27382187

  5. Inflammasomes and human autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chin-An; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2015-07-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes composed of a NOD-like receptor (NLR)/an AIM-like receptor (ALR), the adapter molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein that contains a CARD (ASC), and caspase-1. Active caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1β and pro-IL-18 to IL-1β and IL-18, resulting in inflammation. Genetic mutations in inflammasomes were first recognized to result in autoinflammatory diseases, which are characterized by the absence of both autoantibodies and autoreactive-T/B cells. However, there is increasing attention being placed on genetic polymorphisms that are involved in the components of inflammasomes, and these have implications for innate immunity and the natural history of autoimmune diseases. For example, while the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) haplotypes contributes to susceptibility to developing vitiligo; there are other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alters the susceptibility and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Indeed, there are multiple factors that contribute to lowering the threshold of immunity and inflammasomes play a key role in this threshold. For example, IL-1β and IL-18 further perpetuate Th17 responses and endothelial cell damage, which potentiate a number of autoimmune diseases, including synovitis in RA, cardiovascular disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There is also increasing data on the role of innate immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in lupus nephritis, and in a variety of autoimmune pathologies in which activation of the innate immune system is the driver for the adaptive system. Indeed, it is likely that the chronic pathology of autoimmunity is mediated in part by otherwise innocent bystander cells, augmented by inflammasomes. PMID:26005048

  6. Does Infection-Induced Immune Activation Contribute to Dementia?

    PubMed Central

    Barichello, Tatiana; Generoso, Jaqueline S; Goularte, Jessica A; Collodel, Allan; Pitcher, Meagan R; Simões, Lutiana R; Quevedo, João; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is protected by a complex blood-brain barrier system; however, a broad diversity of virus, bacteria, fungi, and protozoa can gain access and cause illness. As pathogens replicate, they release molecules that can be recognized by innate immune cells. These molecules are pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) and they are identified by pattern-recognition receptors (PRR) expressed on antigen-presenting cells. Examples of PRR include toll-like receptors (TLR), receptors for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), nucleotide binding oligomerisation domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLR), c-type lectin receptors (CLR), RIG-I-like receptors (RLR), and intra-cytosolic DNA sensors. The reciprocal action between PAMP and PRR triggers the release of inflammatory mediators that regulate the elimination of invasive pathogens. Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMP) are endogenous constituents released from damaged cells that also have the ability to activate the innate immune response. An increase of RAGE expression levels on neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells could be responsible for the accumulation of αβ-amyloid in dementia and related to the chronic inflammatory state that is found in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26425389

  7. Multiple Domain Associations within the Arabidopsis Immune Receptor RPP1 Regulate the Activation of Programmed Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Karl J.; Bentham, Adam; Williams, Simon J.; Kobe, Bostjan; Staskawicz, Brian J.

    2016-01-01

    Upon recognition of pathogen virulence effectors, plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins induce defense responses including localized host cell death. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms leading to this response, we examined the Arabidopsis thaliana NLR protein RECOGNITION OF PERONOSPORA PARASITICA1 (RPP1), which recognizes the Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis effector ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA RECOGNIZED1 (ATR1). Expression of the N-terminus of RPP1, including the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain (“N-TIR”), elicited an effector-independent cell death response, and we used allelic variation in TIR domain sequences to define the key residues that contribute to this phenotype. Further biochemical characterization indicated that cell death induction was correlated with N-TIR domain self-association. In addition, we demonstrated that the nucleotide-binding (NB)-ARC1 region of RPP1 self-associates and plays a critical role in cell death activation, likely by facilitating TIR:TIR interactions. Structural homology modeling of the NB subdomain allowed us to identify a putative oligomerization interface that was shown to influence NB-ARC1 self-association. Significantly, full-length RPP1 exhibited effector-dependent oligomerization and, although mutations at the NB-ARC1 oligomerization interface eliminated cell death induction, RPP1 self-association was unaffected, suggesting that additional regions contribute to oligomerization. Indeed, the leucine-rich repeat domain of RPP1 also self-associates, indicating that multiple interaction interfaces exist within activated RPP1 oligomers. Finally, we observed numerous intramolecular interactions that likely function to negatively regulate RPP1, and present a model describing the transition to an active NLR protein. PMID:27427964

  8. l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic Acid (DAP) Interacts Directly with Leucine-rich Region Domain of Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1, Increasing Phosphorylation Activity of Receptor-interacting Serine/Threonine-protein Kinase 2 and Its Interaction with Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain 1*

    PubMed Central

    Laroui, Hamed; Yan, Yutao; Narui, Yoshie; Ingersoll, Sarah A.; Ayyadurai, Saravanan; Charania, Moiz A.; Zhou, Feimeng; Wang, Binghe; Salaita, Khalid; Sitaraman, Shanthi V.; Merlin, Didier

    2011-01-01

    The oligopeptide transporter PepT1 expressed in inflamed colonic epithelial cells transports small bacterial peptides, such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and l-Ala-γ-d-Glu-meso-diaminopimelic acid (Tri-DAP) into cells. The innate immune system uses various proteins to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors of which there are more than 20 related family members are present in the cytosol and recognize intracellular ligands. NOD proteins mediate NF-κB activation via receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RICK or RIPK). The specific ligands for some NOD-like receptors have been identified. NOD type 1 (NOD1) is activated by peptides that contain a diaminophilic acid, such as the PepT1 substrate Tri-DAP. In other words, PepT1 transport activity plays an important role in controlling intracellular loading of ligands for NOD1 in turn determining the activation level of downstream inflammatory pathways. However, no direct interaction between Tri-DAP and NOD1 has been identified. In the present work, surface plasmon resonance and atomic force microscopy experiments showed direct binding between NOD1 and Tri-DAP with a Kd value of 34.5 μm. In contrast, no significant binding was evident between muramyl dipeptide and NOD1. Furthermore, leucine-rich region (LRR)-truncated NOD1 did not interact with Tri-DAP, indicating that Tri-DAP interacts with the LRR domain of NOD1. Next, we examined binding between RICK and NOD1 proteins and found that such binding was significant with a Kd value of 4.13 μm. However, NOD1/RICK binding was of higher affinity (Kd of 3.26 μm) when NOD1 was prebound to Tri-DAP. Furthermore, RICK phosphorylation activity was increased when NOD was prebound to Tri-DAP. In conclusion, we have shown that Tri-DAP interacts directly with the LRR domain of NOD1 and consequently increases RICK/NOD1 association and RICK phosphorylation activity. PMID:21757725

  9. Investigating the role of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors in bacterial lung infection.

    PubMed

    Leissinger, Mary; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Zemans, Rachel L; Downey, Gregory P; Jeyaseelan, Samithamby

    2014-06-15

    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a persistent and pervasive public health problem worldwide. Pneumonia and other LRTIs will be among the leading causes of death in adults, and pneumonia is the single largest cause of death in children. LRTIs are also an important cause of acute lung injury and acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Because innate immunity is the first line of defense against pathogens, understanding the role of innate immunity in the pulmonary system is of paramount importance. Pattern recognition molecules (PRMs) that recognize microbial-associated molecular patterns are an integral component of the innate immune system and are located in both cell membranes and cytosol. Toll-like receptors and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs) are the major sensors at the forefront of pathogen recognition. Although Toll-like receptors have been extensively studied in host immunity, NLRs have diverse and important roles in immune and inflammatory responses, ranging from antimicrobial properties to adaptive immune responses. The lung contains NLR-expressing immune cells such as leukocytes and nonimmune cells such as epithelial cells that are in constant and close contact with invading microbes. This pulmonary perspective addresses our current understanding of the structure and function of NLR family members, highlighting advances and gaps in knowledge, with a specific focus on immune responses in the respiratory tract during bacterial infection. Further advances in exploring cellular and molecular responses to bacterial pathogens are critical to develop improved strategies to treat and prevent devastating infectious diseases of the lung. PMID:24707903

  10. Identification of a novel cell death-inducing domain reveals that fungal amyloid-controlled programmed cell death is related to necroptosis.

    PubMed

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Sabaté, Raimon; Berbon, Mélanie; Martinez, Denis; Chaignepain, Stéphane; Coulary-Salin, Bénédicte; Hofmann, Kay; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J

    2016-03-01

    Recent findings have revealed the role of prion-like mechanisms in the control of host defense and programmed cell death cascades. In fungi, HET-S, a cell death-inducing protein containing a HeLo pore-forming domain, is activated through amyloid templating by a Nod-like receptor (NLR). Here we characterize the HELLP protein behaving analogously to HET-S and bearing a new type of N-terminal cell death-inducing domain termed HeLo-like (HELL) and a C-terminal regulatory amyloid motif known as PP. The gene encoding HELLP is part of a three-gene cluster also encoding a lipase (SBP) and a Nod-like receptor, both of which display the PP motif. The PP motif is similar to the RHIM amyloid motif directing formation of the RIP1/RIP3 necrosome in humans. The C-terminal region of HELLP, HELLP(215-278), encompassing the motif, allows prion propagation and assembles into amyloid fibrils, as demonstrated by X-ray diffraction and FTIR analyses. Solid-state NMR studies reveal a well-ordered local structure of the amyloid core residues and a primary sequence that is almost entirely arranged in a rigid conformation, and confirm a β-sheet structure in an assigned stretch of three amino acids. HELLP is activated by amyloid templating and displays membrane-targeting and cell death-inducing activity. HELLP targets the SBP lipase to the membrane, suggesting a synergy between HELLP and SBP in membrane dismantling. Remarkably, the HeLo-like domain of HELLP is homologous to the pore-forming domain of MLKL, the cell death-execution protein in necroptosis, revealing a transkingdom evolutionary relationship between amyloid-controlled fungal programmed cell death and mammalian necroptosis. PMID:26903619

  11. Integrated decoys and effector traps: how to catch a plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Plant immune receptors involved in disease resistance and crop protection are related to the animal Nod-like receptor (NLR) class, and recognise the virulence effectors of plant pathogens, whereby they arm the plant's defensive response. Although plant NLRs mainly contain three protein domains, about 10% of these receptors identified by extensive cross-plant species data base searches have now been shown to include novel and highly variable integrated domains, some of which have been shown to detect pathogen effectors by direct interaction. Sarris et al. have identified a large number of integrated domains that can be used to detect effector targets in host plant proteomes and identify unknown pathogen effectors.Please see related Research article: Comparative analysis of plant immune receptor architectures uncovers host proteins likely targeted by pathogens, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-016-0228-7 Since the time of writing, a closely related paper has been released: Kroj T, Chanclud E, Michel-Romiti C, Grand X, Morel J-B. Integration of decoy domains derived from protein targets of pathogen effectors into plant immune receptors is widespread. New Phytol. 2016 (ahead of print). PMID:26896088

  12. TLR-signaling Networks

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J.; Wang, H.; Hajishengallis, G.N.; Martin, M.

    2011-01-01

    Toll-like receptors play a critical role in innate immunity by detecting invading pathogens. The ability of TLRs to engage different intracellular signaling molecules and cross-talk with other regulatory pathways is an important factor in shaping the type, magnitude, and duration of the inflammatory response. The present review will cover the fundamental signaling pathways utilized by TLRs and how these pathways regulate the innate immune response to pathogens. Abbreviations: TLR, Toll-like receptor; PRR, pattern recognition receptor; PAMP, pathogen-associated molecular pattern; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; APC, antigen-presenting cell; IL, interleukin; TIR, Toll/IL-1R homology; MyD88, myeloid differentiation factor 88; IFN, interferon; TRIF, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β; IRAK, IL-1R-associated kinase; TAK1, TGF-β-activated kinase; TAB1, TAK1-binding protein; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; NLR, NOD-like receptors; LRR, leucine-rich repeats; DC, dendritic cell; PI3K, phosphoinositide 3-kinases; GSK3, glycogen synthase kinase-3; mTOR, mammalian target of rapamycin; DAF, decay-accelerating factor; IKK, IκB kinase; IRF, interferon regulatory factors; TBK1, TANK-binding kinase 1; CARD, caspase activation and recruitment domain; PYD, pyrin N-terminal homology domain; ATF, activating transcription factor; and PTEN, phosphatase and tensin homolog. PMID:20940366

  13. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) NOD1 and NOD2 Receptors and Their Functional Role in In-Vitro Cellular Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Brahma, Biswajit; Kumar, Sushil; De, Bidhan Chandra; Mishra, Purusottam; Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Gaur, Deepak; Chopra, Meenu; Gautam, Devika; Mahanty, Sourav; Malik, Hrudananda; Malakar, Dhruba; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are innate immune receptors that recognize bacterial cell wall components and initiate host immune response. Structure and function of NLRs have been well studied in human and mice, but little information exists on genetic composition and role of these receptors in innate immune system of water buffalo—a species known for its exceptional disease resistance. Here, a comparative study on the functional domains of NOD1 and NOD2 was performed across different species. The NOD mediated in-vitro cellular responses were studied in buffalo peripheral blood mononuclear cells, resident macrophages, mammary epithelial, and fibroblast cells. Buffalo NOD1 (buNOD1) and buNOD2 showed conserved domain architectures as found in other mammals. The domains of buNOD1 and buNOD2 showed analogy in secondary and tertiary conformations. Constitutive expressions of NODs were ubiquitous in different tissues. Following treatment with NOD agonists, peripheral lymphocytes showed an IFN-γ response along-with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Alveolar macrophages and mammary epithelial cells showed NOD mediated in-vitro immune response through NF-κB dependent pathway. Fibroblasts showed pro-inflammatory cytokine response following agonist treatment. Our study demonstrates that both immune and non-immune cells could generate NOD-mediated responses to pathogens though the type and magnitude of response depend on the cell types. The structural basis of ligand recognition by buffalo NODs and knowledge of immune response by different cell types could be useful for development of non-infective innate immune modulators and next generation anti-inflammatory compounds. PMID:25786158

  14. ATP binding by NLRP7 is required for inflammasome activation in response to bacterial lipopeptides.

    PubMed

    Radian, Alexander D; Khare, Sonal; Chu, Lan H; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2015-10-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligimerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) involved in innate immune responses. NLRs encode a central nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) consisting of the NAIP, CIITA, HET-E and TP1 (NACHT) domain and the NACHT associated domain (NAD), which facilitates receptor oligomerization and downstream inflammasome signaling. The NBD contains highly conserved regions, known as Walker motifs, that are required for nucleotide binding and hydrolysis. The NLR containing a PYRIN domain (PYD) 7 (NLRP7) has been recently shown to assemble an ASC and caspase-1-containing high molecular weight inflammasome complex in response to microbial acylated lipopeptides and Staphylococcus aureus infection. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for NLRP7 inflammasome activation is still elusive. Here we demonstrate that the NBD of NLRP7 is an ATP binding domain and has ATPase activity. We further show that an intact nucleotide-binding Walker A motif is required for NBD-mediated nucleotide binding and hydrolysis, oligomerization, and NLRP7 inflammasome formation and activity. Accordingly, THP-1 cells expressing a mutated Walker A motif display defective NLRP7 inflammasome activation, interleukin (IL)-1β release and pyroptosis in response to acylated lipopeptides and S. aureus infection. Taken together, our results provide novel insights into the mechanism of NLRP7 inflammasome assembly. PMID:26143398

  15. Biological Functions of Thyroid Hormone in Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Chie-Pein; Lin, Kwang-Huei

    2015-01-01

    The thyroid hormone, 3,3,5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), modulates several physiological processes, including cellular growth, differentiation, metabolism, inflammation and proliferation, via interactions with thyroid hormone response elements (TREs) in the regulatory regions of target genes. Infection and inflammation are critical processes in placental development and pregnancy-related diseases. In particular, infection is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. However, to date, no successful approach has been developed for the effective diagnosis of infection in preterm infants. Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a serious disorder that adversely affects ~5% of human pregnancies. Recent studies identified a multiprotein complex, the inflammasome, including the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of cytosolic pattern recognition receptors, the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and caspase-1, which plays a vital role in the placenta. The thyroid hormone modulates inflammation processes and is additionally implicated in placental development and disease. Therefore, elucidation of thyroid hormone receptor-regulated inflammation-related molecules, and their underlying mechanisms in placenta, should facilitate the identification of novel predictive and therapeutic targets for placental disorders. This review provides a detailed summary of current knowledge with respect to identification of useful biomarkers and their physiological significance in placenta. PMID:25690032

  16. Activation of NLRC4 downregulates TLR5-mediated antibody immune responses against flagellin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Yang, Jingyi; Zhang, Ejuan; Zhong, Maohua; Xiao, Yang; Yu, Jie; Zhou, Dihan; Cao, Yuan; Yang, Yi; Li, Yaoming; Yan, Huimin

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial flagellin is a unique pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP), which can be recognized by surface localized Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) and the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) protein 4 (NLRC4) receptors. Activation of the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways by flagellin and the resulting immune responses play important roles in anti-bacterial immunity. However, it remains unclear how the dual activities of flagellin that activate the TLR5 and/or NLRC4 signaling pathways orchestrate the immune responses. In this study, we assessed the effects of flagellin and its mutants lacking the ability to activate TLR5 and NLRC4 alone or in combination on the adaptive immune responses against flagellin. Flagellin that was unable to activate NLRC4 induced a significantly higher antibody response than did wild-type flagellin. The increased antibody response could be eliminated when macrophages were depleted in vivo. The activation of NLRC4 by flagellin downregulated the flagellin-induced and TLR5-mediated immune responses against flagellin. PMID:25914934

  17. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Próchnicki, Tomasz; Mangan, Matthew S.; Latz, Eicke

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are high-molecular-weight protein complexes that are formed in the cytosolic compartment in response to danger- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These complexes enable activation of an inflammatory protease caspase-1, leading to a cell death process called pyroptosis and to proteolytic cleavage and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Along with caspase-1, inflammasome components include an adaptor protein, ASC, and a sensor protein, which triggers the inflammasome assembly in response to a danger signal. The inflammasome sensor proteins are pattern recognition receptors belonging either to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) or to the AIM2-like receptor family. While the molecular agonists that induce inflammasome formation by AIM2 and by several other NLRs have been identified, it is not well understood how the NLR family member NLRP3 is activated. Given that NLRP3 activation is relevant to a range of human pathological conditions, significant attempts are being made to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular events that lead to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to a range of K + efflux-inducing danger signals. We also comment on the reported involvement of cytosolic Ca 2+ fluxes on NLRP3 activation. We outline the recent advances in research on the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of regulation of NLRP3 responses, and we point to several open questions regarding the current model of NLRP3 activation. PMID:27508077

  18. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Próchnicki, Tomasz; Mangan, Matthew S; Latz, Eicke

    2016-01-01

    Inflammasomes are high-molecular-weight protein complexes that are formed in the cytosolic compartment in response to danger- or pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These complexes enable activation of an inflammatory protease caspase-1, leading to a cell death process called pyroptosis and to proteolytic cleavage and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Along with caspase-1, inflammasome components include an adaptor protein, ASC, and a sensor protein, which triggers the inflammasome assembly in response to a danger signal. The inflammasome sensor proteins are pattern recognition receptors belonging either to the NOD-like receptor (NLR) or to the AIM2-like receptor family. While the molecular agonists that induce inflammasome formation by AIM2 and by several other NLRs have been identified, it is not well understood how the NLR family member NLRP3 is activated. Given that NLRP3 activation is relevant to a range of human pathological conditions, significant attempts are being made to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this process. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular events that lead to activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to a range of K (+) efflux-inducing danger signals. We also comment on the reported involvement of cytosolic Ca (2+) fluxes on NLRP3 activation. We outline the recent advances in research on the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of regulation of NLRP3 responses, and we point to several open questions regarding the current model of NLRP3 activation. PMID:27508077

  19. 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist improves behavior performance of delirium rats through inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR activation-induced NLRP3 activity.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yimin; Huang, Xiaojing; Huang, Lina; Tang, Liang; Jiang, Jihong; Chen, Lianhua; Li, Shitong

    2016-04-01

    Postoperative delirium is a common complication that often results in poor outcomes in surgical and elderly patients. Accumulating evidences suggest that the pathophysiology of delirium results from multiple neurotransmitter system dysfunctions. To further clarify the effects of the selective serotonin (5-HT) (1A) antagonist WAY-100635 on the behaviors in scopolamine induced-delirium rats and to explore the molecular mechanism, in this study, we investigated the change of monoamine levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and different brain regions using high-performance liquid chromatography and assessed the behavioral retrieval of delirium rats treated with WAY-100635. It was found that 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid concentrations in the CSF of scopolamine-induced delirium rats were significantly increased, among which 5-HIAA was also increased in hippocampus and basolateral amygdala (BLA), and 5-HT(1A) receptor was significantly higher in the hippocampuses and BLA than other brain regions. Furthermore, intrahippocampus and intra-BLA stereotactic injection of WAY-100635 improved the delirium-like behavior of rats. Mechanistically, after WAY-100635 treatment, significant reduction of IL-1β release into CSF and NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) expression, phosphorylated phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase B (AKT), and S6K was observed. Altogether, these results suggest that delirium rats induced by scopolamine may be correlated with an increased cerebral concentration of 5-HT and dopamine neurotransmitters system; the selective 5-HT(1A) antagoniszts can reverse the delirium symptoms at some extent through tendering PI3K/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTOR) activation-induced NLRP3 activity and then reducing IL-1β release. © 2016 IUBMB Life, 68(4):311-319, 2016. PMID:26946964

  20. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Bathena, Sai P.; Sjöwall, Christopher; Almer, Sven; Alnouti, Yazen; Hofmann, Alan F.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis. Methods We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Results Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2−/− mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2−/− mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte. PMID:24560660

  1. Role of Inflammasome Activation in the Pathophysiology of Vascular Diseases of the Neurovascular Unit

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Islam N.; Ishrat, Tauheed; Fagan, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Inflammation is the standard double-edged defense mechanism that aims at protecting the human physiological homeostasis from devastating threats. Both acute and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the occurrence and progression of vascular diseases. Interference with components of the immune system to improve patient outcome after ischemic injury has been uniformly unsuccessful. There is a need for a deeper understanding of the innate immune response to injury in order to modulate, rather than to block inflammation and improve the outcome for vascular diseases. Recent Advances: Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors or NOD-like receptor proteins (NLRPs) can be activated by sterile and microbial inflammation. NLR family plays a major role in activating the inflammasome. Critical Issues: The aim of this work is to review recent findings that provided insights into key inflammatory mechanisms and define the place of the inflammasome, a multi-protein complex involved in instigating inflammation in neurovascular diseases, including retinopathy, neurodegenerative diseases, and stroke. Future Directions: The significant contribution of NLRP-inflammasome activation to vascular disease of the neurovascular unit in the brain and retina suggests that therapeutic strategies focused on specific targeting of inflammasome components could significantly improve the outcomes of these diseases. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 1188–1206. PMID:25275222

  2. Overlapping Podospora anserina Transcriptional Responses to Bacterial and Fungal Non Self Indicate a Multilayered Innate Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Lamacchia, Marina; Dyrka, Witold; Breton, Annick; Saupe, Sven J.; Paoletti, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Recognition and response to non self is essential to development and survival of all organisms. It can occur between individuals of the same species or between different organisms. Fungi are established models for conspecific non self recognition in the form of vegetative incompatibility (VI), a genetically controlled process initiating a programmed cell death (PCD) leading to the rejection of a fusion cell between genetically different isolates of the same species. In Podospora anserina VI is controlled by members of the hnwd gene family encoding for proteins analogous to NOD Like Receptors (NLR) immune receptors in eukaryotes. It was hypothesized that the hnwd controlled VI reaction was derived from the fungal innate immune response. Here we analyze the P. anserina transcriptional responses to two bacterial species, Serratia fonticola to which P. anserina survives and S. marcescens to which P. anserina succumbs, and compare these to the transcriptional response induced under VI conditions. Transcriptional responses to both bacteria largely overlap, however the number of genes regulated and magnitude of regulation is more important when P. anserina survives. Transcriptional responses to bacteria also overlap with the VI reaction for both up or down regulated gene sets. Genes up regulated tend to be clustered in the genome, and display limited phylogenetic distribution. In all three responses we observed genes related to autophagy to be up-regulated. Autophagy contributes to the fungal survival in all three conditions. Genes encoding for secondary metabolites and histidine kinase signaling are also up regulated in all three conditions. Transcriptional responses also display differences. Genes involved in response to oxidative stress, or encoding small secreted proteins are essentially expressed in response to bacteria, while genes encoding NLR proteins are expressed during VI. Most functions encoded in response to bacteria favor survival of the fungus while most

  3. Gene silencing of non-obese diabetic receptor family (NLRP3) protects against the sepsis-induced hyper-bile acidaemia in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y; Ren, J; Zhou, B; Ding, C; Chen, J; Wang, G; Gu, G; Wu, X; Liu, S; Hu, D; Li, J

    2015-01-01

    The role of NOD-like receptor family (NLRP3) has been confirmed in various inflammatory diseases. The association between NLRP3 and hyper-bileacidaemia during the sepsis remains unclear. We aimed to investigate whether NLRP3 silencing protects against the sepsis-induced hyper-bileacidaemia. Sepsis was induced by caecum ligation and puncture (CLP). Gene silencing of NLRP3 was performed by injecting rats with NLRP3 short hairpin RNA plasmids (NLRP3 shRNA) 48 h before surgery. Rats were divided into four groups: group 1: sham; group 2: sepsis; group 3: NLRP3 shRNA + sepsis (called the ‘NLRP3 shRNA’ group); and group 4: scrambled shRNA + sepsis (called the ‘scrambled shRNA’ group). The serum levels of bile acids, hepatic expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters, hepatic cytokine levels and behaviours of immune cells were compared among the groups. Hepatic NLRP3 expression was increased dramatically during the sepsis, but was suppressed by pretreatment with NLRP3 shRNA. Compared with rats in the sepsis and the scrambled shRNA groups, rats in the NLRP3 shRNA group exhibited significantly decreased serum levels of glycine and taurine conjugated-bile acids, with rehabilitated expression of hepatocyte transporters, suppressed hepatic cytokine levels, decreased hepatic neutrophils infiltration and attenuated macrophages pyroptosis. Gene silencing of NLRP3 ameliorates sepsis-induced hyper-bileacidaemia by rehabilitating hepatocyte transporter expression, reducing hepatic cytokine levels, neutrophil infiltration and macrophages pyroptosis. NLRP3 may be a pivotal target for sepsis management. PMID:25228381

  4. Lipoxin receptors.

    PubMed

    Romano, Mario; Recchia, Irene; Recchiuti, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Lipoxins (LXs) represent a class of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites that carry potent immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, LXA4 and LXB4 being the main components of this series. LXs are generated by cooperation between 5-lipoxygenase (LO) and 12- or 15-LO during cell-cell interactions or by single cell types. LX epimers at carbon 15, the 15-epi-LXs, are formed by aspirin-acetylated cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cooperation with 5-LO. 15-epi-LXA4 is also termed aspirin-triggered LX (ATL). In vivo studies with stable LX and ATL analogs have established that these eicosanoids possess potent anti-inflammatory activities. A LXA4 receptor has been cloned. It belongs to the family of chemotactic receptors and clusters with formyl peptide receptors on chromosome 19. Therefore, it was initially denominated formyl peptide receptor like 1 (FPRL1). This receptor binds with high affinity and stereoselectivity LXA4 and ATL. It also recognizes a variety of peptides, synthetic, endogenously generated, or disease associated, but with lower affinity compared to LXA4. For this reason, this receptor has been renamed ALX. This review summarizes the current knowledge on ALX expression, signaling, and potential pathophysiological role. The involvement of additional recognition sites in LX bioactions is also discussed. PMID:17767357

  5. TNF-α Induces Caspase-1 Activation Independently of Simultaneously Induced NLRP3 in 3T3-L1 Cells.

    PubMed

    Furuoka, Mana; Ozaki, Kei-Ichi; Sadatomi, Daichi; Mamiya, Sayaka; Yonezawa, Tomo; Tanimura, Susumu; Takeda, Kohsuke

    2016-12-01

    The intracellular cysteine protease caspase-1 is critically involved in obesity-induced inflammation in adipose tissue. A substantial body of evidence from immune cells, such as macrophages, has shown that caspase-1 activation depends largely on a protein complex, called the NLRP3 inflammasome, which consists of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family protein NLRP3, the adaptor protein ASC, and caspase-1 itself. However, it is not fully understood how caspase-1 activation is regulated within adipocytes upon inflammatory stimuli. In this study, we show that TNF-α-induced activation of caspase-1 is accompanied by robust induction of NLRP3 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes but that caspase-1 activation may not depend on the NLRP3 inflammasome. Treatment of 3T3-L1 cells with TNF-α induced mRNA expression and activation of caspase-1. Although the basal expression of NLRP3 and ASC was undetectable in unstimulated cells, TNF-α strongly induced NLRP3 expression but did not induce ASC expression. Interestingly, inhibitors of the ERK MAP kinase pathway strongly suppressed NLRP3 expression but did not suppress the expression and activation of caspase-1 induced by TNF-α, suggesting that NLRP3 is dispensable for TNF-α-induced caspase-1 activation. Moreover, we did not detect the basal and TNF-α-induced expression of other NLR proteins (NLRP1a, NLRP1b, and NLRC4), which do not necessarily require ASC for caspase-1 activation. These results suggest that TNF-α induces caspase-1 activation in an inflammasome-independent manner in 3T3-L1 cells and that the ERK-dependent expression of NLRP3 may play a role independently of its canonical role as a component of inflammasomes. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2761-2767, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26989816

  6. NLRP3 recruitment by NLRC4 during Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yan; Misaghi, Shahram; Newton, Kim; Maltzman, Allie; Izrael-Tomasevic, Anita; Arnott, David; Dixit, Vishva M

    2016-05-30

    NLRC4 and NLRP3, of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular proteins, are expressed in innate immune cells and are thought to nucleate distinct inflammasome complexes that promote caspase-1 activation, secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, and a form of cell death termed pyroptosis. We show that NLRP3 associates with NLRC4 in macrophages infected with Salmonella typhimurium or transfected with flagellin. The significance of the interaction between the NLRC4 NACHT domain and NLRP3 was revealed when Nlrc4(S533A/S533A) bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) expressing phosphorylation site mutant NLRC4 S533A had only a mild defect in caspase-1 activation when compared with NLRC4-deficient BMDMs. NLRC4 S533A activated caspase-1 by recruiting NLRP3 and its adaptor protein ASC. Thus, Nlrc4(S533A/S533A) Nlrp3(-/-) BMDMs more closely resembled Nlrc4(-/-) BMDMs in their response to S. typhimurium or flagellin. The interplay between NLRP3 and NLRC4 reveals an unexpected overlap between what had been considered distinct inflammasome scaffolds. PMID:27139490

  7. Helicobacter pylori induces IL-1β protein through the inflammasome activation in differentiated macrophagic cells.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shoichiro; Kameyama, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Seiichi; Ohnishi, Naomi; Hayashi, Takeru; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Takaoka, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of people in the world are infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which induces various gastric diseases. Especially, epidemiological studies have shown that H. pylori infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. It has been reported that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β are upregulated in gastric tissues of patients with H. pylori infection. In this study, we investigated the induction mechanism of IL-1β during H. pylori infection. We found that IL-1βmRNA and protein were induced in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells after H. pylori infection. This IL-1β production was inhibited by a caspase-1 inhibitor and a ROS inhibitor. Furthermore, K(+) efflux and Ca(2+) signaling were also involved in this process. These data suggest that NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and its complex, known as NLRP3 inflammasome, are involved in IL-1β production during H. pylori infection because it is reported that NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by ROS, K(+) efflux and/or Ca(2+) signaling. These findings may provide therapeutic strategy for the control of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. PMID:26912137

  8. Anthrax Lethal Toxin Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization and Cytosolic Cathepsin Release Is Nlrp1b/Nalp1b-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Averette, Kathleen M.; Pratt, Matthew R.; Yang, Yanan; Bassilian, Sara; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Loo, Joseph A.; Muir, Tom W.; Bradley, Kenneth A.

    2009-01-01

    NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of cytoplasmic molecules that recognize microbial invasion or ‘danger signals’. Activation of NLRs can induce rapid caspase-1 dependent cell death termed pyroptosis, or a caspase-1 independent cell death termed pyronecrosis. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT), is recognized by a subset of alleles of the NLR protein Nlrp1b, resulting in pyroptotic cell death of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we show that LT induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The presentation of LMP requires expression of an LT-responsive allele of Nlrp1b, and is blocked by proteasome inhibitors and heat shock, both of which prevent LT-mediated pyroptosis. Further the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is released into the cell cytosol and cathepsin inhibitors block LT-mediated cell death. These data reveal a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the cellular response to bacterial pathogens and demonstrate a shared requirement for cytosolic relocalization of cathepsins in pyroptosis and pyronecrosis. PMID:19924255

  9. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-08-27

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  10. Emerging Concepts about NAIP/NLRC4 Inflammasomes.

    PubMed

    Lage, Silvia Lucena; Longo, Carla; Branco, Laura Migliari; da Costa, Thaís Boccia; Buzzo, Carina de Lima; Bortoluci, Karina Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP)/NOD-like receptor (NLR) containing a caspase activating and recruitment domain (CARD) 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome complexes are activated in response to proteins from virulent bacteria that reach the cell cytosol. Specific NAIP proteins bind to the agonists and then physically associate with NLRC4 to form an inflammasome complex able to recruit and activate pro-caspase-1. NAIP5 and NAIP6 sense flagellin, component of flagella from motile bacteria, whereas NAIP1 and NAIP2 detect needle and rod components from bacterial type III secretion systems, respectively. Active caspase-1 mediates the maturation and secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and IL-18, and is responsible for the induction of pyroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death. In addition to these well-known effector mechanisms, novel roles have been described for NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes, such as phagosomal maturation, activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase, regulation of autophagy, secretion of inflammatory mediators, antibody production, activation of T cells, among others. These effector mechanisms mediated by NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes have been extensively studied in the context of resistance of infections and the potential of their agonists has been exploited in therapeutic strategies to non-infectious pathologies, such as tumor protection. Thus, this review will discuss current knowledge about the activation of NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasomes and their effector mechanisms. PMID:25071770

  11. NLRC5 regulates cell proliferation, migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yun-Yun; He, Ying-Hua; Chen, Chen; Xu, Tao; Li, Lin; Ni, Ming-Ming; Meng, Xiao-Ming; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jun

    2016-06-28

    NLRC5, the largest member of nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family, has been reported to regulate immune responses and is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the biological function of NLRC5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not yet been well demonstrated. In this study, the role of NLRC5 in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion capacities was evaluated by using MTT, flow cytometry, wound healing, transwell assay, and tumor formation assay in nude mice. Western blot analysis and qPCR assay were performed to assess NLRC5 interacting with the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Here, we demonstrate that NLRC5 was highly expressed in HCC. Knockdown of NLRC5 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, invasion and the tumor formation in nude mice, and arrested the cell cycle at G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, overexpression of NLRC5 promoted the proliferation, migration and invasion of HCC cells in vitro. Interestingly, we found that up-regulation of NLRC5 not only positively correlates with the increase of β-catenin but also coordinates the activation of downstream Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Thus, our findings suggest that NLRC5 may play an important role in progression of HCC and provide a potential therapeutic value in this tumor. PMID:26975630

  12. NLRC5/MHC class I transactivator is a target for immune evasion in cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshihama, Sayuri; Roszik, Jason; Downs, Isaac; Meissner, Torsten B; Vijayan, Saptha; Chapuy, Bjoern; Sidiq, Tabasum; Shipp, Margaret A; Lizee, Gregory A; Kobayashi, Koichi S

    2016-05-24

    Cancer cells develop under immune surveillance, thus necessitating immune escape for successful growth. Loss of MHC class I expression provides a key immune evasion strategy in many cancers, although the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. MHC class I transactivator (CITA), known as "NLRC5" [NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, caspase recruitment (CARD) domain containing 5], has recently been identified as a critical transcriptional coactivator of MHC class I gene expression. Here we show that the MHC class I transactivation pathway mediated by CITA/NLRC5 constitutes a target for cancer immune evasion. In all the 21 tumor types we examined, NLRC5 expression was highly correlated with the expression of MHC class I, with cytotoxic T-cell markers, and with genes in the MHC class I antigen-presentation pathway, including LMP2/LMP7, TAP1, and β2-microglobulin. Epigenetic and genetic alterations in cancers, including promoter methylation, copy number loss, and somatic mutations, were most prevalent in NLRC5 among all MHC class I-related genes and were associated with the impaired expression of components of the MHC class I pathway. Strikingly, NLRC5 expression was significantly associated with the activation of CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells and patient survival in multiple cancer types. Thus, NLRC5 constitutes a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cancers. PMID:27162338

  13. A Novel Protein Isoform of the Multicopy Human NAIP Gene Derives from Intragenic Alu SINE Promoters

    PubMed Central

    Romanish, Mark T.; Nakamura, Hisae; Lai, C. Benjamin; Wang, Yuzhuo; Mager, Dixie L.

    2009-01-01

    The human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is no longer principally considered a member of the Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family, as its domain structure and functions in innate immunity also warrant inclusion in the Nod-Like Receptor (NLR) superfamily. NAIP is located in a region of copy number variation, with one full length and four partly deleted copies in the reference human genome. We demonstrate that several of the NAIP paralogues are expressed, and that novel transcripts arise from both internal and upstream transcription start sites. Remarkably, two internal start sites initiate within Alu short interspersed element (SINE) retrotransposons, and a third novel transcription start site exists within the final intron of the GUSBP1 gene, upstream of only two NAIP copies. One Alu functions alone as a promoter in transient assays, while the other likely combines with upstream L1 sequences to form a composite promoter. The novel transcripts encode shortened open reading frames and we show that corresponding proteins are translated in a number of cell lines and primary tissues, in some cases above the level of full length NAIP. Interestingly, some NAIP isoforms lack their caspase-sequestering motifs, suggesting that they have novel functions. Moreover, given that human and mouse NAIP have previously been shown to employ endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats as promoters, exaptation of Alu repeats as additional promoters provides a fascinating illustration of regulatory innovations adopted by a single gene. PMID:19488400

  14. Inflammasomes in cancer: a double-edged sword.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Ryan; Liu, Guang-Hui; Janowski, Ann M; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S; Zhang, Weizhou

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory responses have long been observed to be associated with various types of cancer and play decisive roles at different stages of cancer development. Inflammasomes, which are potent inducers of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 during inflammation, are large protein complexes typically consisting of a Nod-like receptor (NLR), the adapter protein ASC, and Caspase-1. During malignant transformation or cancer therapy, the inflammasomes are postulated to become activated in response to danger signals arising from the tumors or from therapy-induced damage to the tumor or healthy tissue. The activation of inflammasomes plays diverse and sometimes contrasting roles in cancer promotion and therapy depending on the specific context. Here we summarize the role of different inflammasome complexes in cancer progression and therapy. Inflammasome components and pathways may provide novel targets to treat certain types of cancer; however, using such agents should be cautiously evaluated due to the complex roles that inflammasomes and pro-inflammatory cytokines play in immunity. PMID:24474192

  15. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) limits pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in cardiomyocytes by inhibiting STAT1 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Antonia; Hottiger, Michael O; Valaperti, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Interferon (IFN)-γ is highly upregulated during heart inflammation and enhances the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Absent in Melanoma 2 (AIM2) is an IFN-inducible protein implicated as a component of the inflammasome. Here we seek to determine the role of AIM2 during inflammation in cardiac cells. We found that the presence of AIM2, but not of the other inflammasome components Nod-like receptor (NLR) NLRP3 or NLRC4, specifically limited the transcription of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IP-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in HL-1 mouse cardiomyocytes stimulated with IFN-γ and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Similarly, AIM2 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in primary mouse neonatal cardiomyocytes (MNC), but not in primary mouse neonatal cardiac fibroblasts (MNF). Interestingly, AIM2-dependent reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiomyocytes was independent of Caspase-1. Mechanistically, AIM2 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine transcription in cardiomyocytes by interacting with and inhibiting the phosphorylation of STAT1. In AIM2-depleted cardiomyocytes, increased STAT1 phosphorylation enhanced the NF-κB pathway by promoting NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and acetylation. These results show for the first time that AIM2 plays an important anti-inflammatory, yet inflammasome-independent function in cardiomyocytes. Our findings will help to further understand how the various heart cell types differently react to inflammatory stimuli. PMID:27148820

  16. A small-molecule inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasome for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Coll, Rebecca C; Robertson, Avril A B; Chae, Jae Jin; Higgins, Sarah C; Muñoz-Planillo, Raúl; Inserra, Marco C; Vetter, Irina; Dungan, Lara S; Monks, Brian G; Stutz, Andrea; Croker, Daniel E; Butler, Mark S; Haneklaus, Moritz; Sutton, Caroline E; Núñez, Gabriel; Latz, Eicke; Kastner, Daniel L; Mills, Kingston H G; Masters, Seth L; Schroder, Kate; Cooper, Matthew A; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2015-03-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a component of the inflammatory process, and its aberrant activation is pathogenic in inherited disorders such as cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) and complex diseases such as multiple sclerosis, type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. We describe the development of MCC950, a potent, selective, small-molecule inhibitor of NLRP3. MCC950 blocked canonical and noncanonical NLRP3 activation at nanomolar concentrations. MCC950 specifically inhibited activation of NLRP3 but not the AIM2, NLRC4 or NLRP1 inflammasomes. MCC950 reduced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production in vivo and attenuated the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease model of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, MCC950 treatment rescued neonatal lethality in a mouse model of CAPS and was active in ex vivo samples from individuals with Muckle-Wells syndrome. MCC950 is thus a potential therapeutic for NLRP3-associated syndromes, including autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases, and a tool for further study of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human health and disease. PMID:25686105

  17. Malarial Hemozoin Activates the NLRP3 Inflammasome through Lyn and Syk Kinases

    PubMed Central

    Tiemi Shio, Marina; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C.; Savaria, Myriam; Vinet, Adrien F.; Bellemare, Marie-Josée; Harder, Kenneth W.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.; Bohle, D. Scott; Descoteaux, Albert; Flavell, Richard A.; Olivier, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The intraerythrocytic parasite Plasmodium—the causative agent of malaria—produces an inorganic crystal called hemozoin (Hz) during the heme detoxification process, which is released into the circulation during erythrocyte lysis. Hz is rapidly ingested by phagocytes and induces the production of several pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, the mechanism regulating Hz recognition and IL-1β maturation has not been identified. Here, we show that Hz induces IL-1β production. Using knockout mice, we showed that Hz-induced IL-1β and inflammation are dependent on NOD-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3), ASC and caspase-1, but not NLRC4 (NLR containing CARD domain). Furthermore, the absence of NLRP3 or IL-1β augmented survival to malaria caused by P. chabaudi adami DS. Although much has been discovered regarding the NLRP3 inflammasome induction, the mechanism whereby this intracellular multimolecular complex is activated remains unclear. We further demonstrate, using pharmacological and genetic intervention, that the tyrosine kinases Syk and Lyn play a critical role in activation of this inflammasome. These findings not only identify one way by which the immune system is alerted to malarial infection but also are one of the first to suggest a role for tyrosine kinase signaling pathways in regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:19696895

  18. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1) polymorphism S7N does not affect receptor function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Activation and signal transduction in the Nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat containing receptor (NLR) family needs to be tightly regulated in order to control the inflammatory response to exogenous and endogenous danger signals. Phosphorylation is a common cellular mechanism of regulation that has recently been shown to be important in signalling in another family of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors, the RIG-I like receptors. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms can alter receptor activity, potentially leading to dysfunction and/or a predisposition to inflammatory barrier diseases. Findings We have computationally analysed the N-terminus of NOD1 and found seven theoretical phosphorylation sites in, or immediately before, the NOD1 Caspase Activation Domain (CARD). Two of these, serine 7 and tyrosine 49 are also found as rare polymorphisms in the African-American population and European-American populations respectively. Mutating serine 7 to either an aspartic acid or an asparagine to mimic the potential impact of phosphorylation or the polymorphism respectively did not affect the response of NOD1 to ligand-mediated NFκB signalling. Conclusions The NOD1 polymorphism S7N does not interfere with receptor function in response to ligand stimulation. PMID:24598002

  19. Tracing the evolutionary lineage of pattern recognition receptor homologues in vertebrates: An insight into reptilian immunity via de novo sequencing of the wall lizard splenic transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Priyam, Manisha; Tripathy, Mamta; Rai, Umesh; Ghorai, Soma Mondal

    2016-04-01

    Reptiles remain a deprived class in the area of genomic and molecular resources for the vertebrate classes. The transition of squamates from aquatic to terrestrial mode of life caused profound changes in their immune system to combat the altered variety of pathogens on land. The current study aims at delineating the evolution of defence mechanisms in wall lizard, Hemidactylus flaviviridis, by exploring its immunome. De novo sequencing of splenic transcriptome from wall lizard on the Illumina Hi-Seq platform generated 258,128 unique transcripts with an average GC content of 45%. Annotation of 555,557 and 6812 transcripts was carried out against NCBI (non-redundant database) and UniProt databases, respectively. The KEGG pathway annotation of transcripts classified them into 39 processes of six pathway function categories. A total of 3824 transcripts, involved in 23 immune-related pathways, were identified in the immune-relevant cluster built by harvesting the genes under KEGG pathways of immune system and immune diseases. Forty-two percent of the immune-relevant cluster was represented by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), of which the maximum number of transcripts was attributed to the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling pathway. Nine PRRs with potential full-length coding sequences were sorted for phylogenetic analysis and comparative domain analysis across the vertebrate lineage. They included DEC205/lymphocyte antigen 75 (ly75), nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain-containing protein 1 (NOD1), NOD-like receptor family CARD domain-containing 3 (NLRC3), nucleotide-binding oligomerisation domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing X1 (NLRX1), DDX58/retinoic acid-inducible gene 1 (RIG-1), Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), TLR4, TLR5 and TLR7. From selection studies of these genes, we inferred positive selection for ly75, NOD1, RIG-1, TLR3 and TLR4. Apart from contributing to the scarce genomic resources available for reptiles and giving a broad scope for the immune

  20. Coordinated Activation of Toll-Like Receptor8 (TLR8) and NLRP3 by the TLR8 Agonist, VTX-2337, Ignites Tumoricidal Natural Killer Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dietsch, Gregory N.; Lu, Hailing; Yang, Yi; Morishima, Chihiro; Chow, Laura Q.; Disis, Mary L.; Hershberg, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    VTX-2337 (USAN: motolimod) is a selective toll-like receptor 8 (TLR8) agonist, which is in clinical development as an immunotherapy for multiple oncology indications, including squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Activation of TLR8 enhances natural killer cell activation, increases antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and induces Th1 polarizing cytokines. Here, we show that VTX-2337 stimulates the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18 from monocytic cells through coordinated actions on both TLR8 and the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex. In vitro, VTX-2337 primed monocytic cells to produce pro-IL-1β, pro-IL-18, and caspase-1, and also activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby mediating the release of mature IL-1β family cytokines. Inhibition of caspase-1 blocked VTX-2337-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, but had little impact on production of other TLR8-induced mediators such as TNFα. IL-18 activated natural killer cells and complemented other stimulatory pathways, including FcγRIII and NKG2D, resulting in IFNγ production and expression of CD107a. NLRP3 activation in vivo was confirmed by a dose-related increase in plasma IL-1β and IL-18 levels in cynomolgus monkeys administered VTX-2337. These results are highly relevant to clinical studies of combination VTX-2337/cetuximab treatment. Cetuximab, a clinically approved, epidermal growth factor receptor-specific monoclonal antibody, activates NK cells through interactions with FcγRIII and facilitates ADCC of tumor cells. Our preliminary findings from a Phase I open-label, dose-escalation, trial that enrolled 13 patients with recurrent or metastatic SCCHN show that patient NK cells become more responsive to stimulation by NKG2D or FcγRIII following VTX-2337 treatment. Together, these results indicate that TLR8 stimulation and inflammasome activation by VTX-2337 can complement FcγRIII engagement and may augment clinical responses in SCCHN

  1. PUFA diets alter the microRNA expression profiles in an inflammation rat model

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, ZHENG; GE, YINLIN; ZHANG, JINYU; XUE, MEILAN; LI, QUAN; LIN, DONGLIANG; MA, WENHUI

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can directly or indirectly regulate immune homeostasis via inflammatory pathways, and components of these pathways are crucial targets of microRNAs (miRNAs). However, no study has examined the changes in the miRNA transcriptome during PUFA-regulated inflammatory processes. Here, we established PUFA diet-induced autoimmune-prone (AP) and autoimmune-averse (AA) rat models, and studied their physical characteristics and immune status. Additionally, miRNA expression patterns in the rat models were compared using microarray assays and bioinformatic methods. A total of 54 miRNAs were differentially expressed in common between the AP and the AA rats, and the changes in rno-miR-19b-3p, -146b-5p and -183-5p expression were validated using stem-loop reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. To better understand the mechanisms underlying PUFA-regulated miRNA changes during inflammation, computational algorithms and biological databases were used to identify the target genes of the three validated miRNAs. Furthermore, Gene Ontology (GO) term annotation and KEGG pathway analyses of the miRNA targets further allowed to explore the potential implication of the miRNAs in inflammatory pathways. The predicted PUFA-regulated inflammatory pathways included the Toll-like receptor (TLR), T cell receptor (TCR), NOD-like receptor (NLR), RIG-I-like receptor (RLR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathway. This study is the first report, to the best of our knowledge, on in vivo comparative profiling of miRNA transcriptomes in PUFA diet-induced inflammatory rat models using a microarray approach. The results provide a useful resource for future investigation of the role of PUFA-regulated miRNAs in immune homeostasis. PMID:25672643

  2. P2X7 receptor blockade protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in mice by decreasing the activities of inflammasome components, oxidative stress and caspase-3

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yuan, Fahuan; Cao, Xuejiao; Zhai, Zhifang; Gang Huang; Du, Xiang; Wang, Yiqin; Zhang, Jingbo; Huang, Yunjian; Zhao, Jinghong; Hou, Weiping

    2014-11-15

    Nephrotoxicity is a common complication of cisplatin chemotherapy and thus limits the use of cisplatin in clinic. The purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) plays important roles in inflammation and apoptosis in some inflammatory diseases; however, its roles in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we first assessed the expression of P2X7R in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in C57BL/6 mice, and then we investigated the changes of renal function, histological injury, inflammatory response, and apoptosis in renal tissues after P2X7R blockade in vivo using an antagonist A-438079. Moreover, we measured the changes of nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing proteins (NLRP3) inflammasome components, oxidative stress, and proapoptotic genes in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity after treatment with A-438079. We found that the expression of P2X7R was significantly upregulated in the renal tubular epithelial cells in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity compared with that of the normal control group. Furthermore, pretreatment with A-438079 markedly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury while lightening the histological damage, inflammatory response and apoptosis in renal tissue, and improved the renal function. These effects were associated with the significantly reduced levels of NLRP3 inflammasome components, oxidative stress, p53 and caspase-3 in renal tissues in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. In conclusions, our studies suggest that the upregulated activity of P2X7R might play important roles in the development of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity, and P2X7R blockade might become an effective therapeutic strategy for this disease. - Highlights: • The P2X7R expression was markedly upregulated in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. • P2X7R blockade significantly attenuated the cisplatin-induced renal injury. • P2X7R blockade reduced activities of NLRP3 inflammasome components in renal tissue. • P2X7R blockade

  3. Genetic functions of the NAIP family of inflammasome receptors for bacterial ligands in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shi, Xuyan; Wang, Yupeng; Wang, Fengchao; Shao, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Biochemical studies suggest that the NAIP family of NLR proteins are cytosolic innate receptors that directly recognize bacterial ligands and trigger NLRC4 inflammasome activation. In this study, we generated Naip5(-/-), Naip1(-/-), and Naip2(-/-) mice and showed that bone marrow macrophages derived from these knockout mice are specifically deficient in detecting bacterial flagellin, the type III secretion system needle, and the rod protein, respectively. Naip1(-/-), Naip2(-/-), and Naip5(-/-) mice also resist lethal inflammasome activation by the corresponding ligand. Furthermore, infections performed in the Naip-deficient macrophages have helped to define the major signal in Legionella pneumophila, Salmonella Typhimurium and Shigella flexneri that is detected by the NAIP/NLRC4 inflammasome. Using an engineered S. Typhimurium infection model, we demonstrate the critical role of NAIPs in clearing bacterial infection and protecting mice from bacterial virulence-induced lethality. These results provide definitive genetic evidence for the important physiological function of NAIPs in antibacterial defense and inflammatory damage-induced lethality in mice. PMID:27114610

  4. Inflammasomes are important mediators of cyclophosphamide-induced bladder inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Francis M; Vivar, Nivardo P; Kennis, James G; Pratt-Thomas, Jeffery D; Lowe, Danielle W; Shaner, Brooke E; Nietert, Paul J; Spruill, Laura S; Purves, J Todd

    2014-02-01

    Bladder inflammation (cystitis) underlies numerous bladder pathologies and is elicited by a plethora of agents such as urinary tract infections, bladder outlet obstruction, chemotherapies, and catheters. Pattern recognition receptors [Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and Nod-like receptors (NLRs)] that recognize pathogen- and/or damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and/or DAMPs, respectively) are key components of the innate immune system that coordinates the production (TLRs) and maturation (NLRs) of proinflammatory IL-1β. Despite multiple studies of TLRs in the bladder, none have investigated NLRs beyond one small survey. We now demonstrate that NLRP3 and NLRC4, and their binding partners apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a COOH-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC) and NLR family apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP), are expressed in the bladder and localized predominantly to the urothelia. Activated NLRs form inflammasomes that activate caspase-1. Placement of a NLRP3- or NLRC4-activating PAMP or NLRP3-activating DAMPs into the lumen of the bladder stimulated caspase-1 activity. To investigate inflammasomes in vivo, we induced cystitis with cyclophosphamide (CP, 150 mg/kg ip) in the presence or absence of the inflammasome inhibitor glyburide. Glyburide completely blocked CP-induced activation of caspase-1 and the production of IL-1β at 4 h. At 24 h, glyburide reduced two markers of inflammation by 30-50% and reversed much of the inflammatory morphology. Furthermore, glyburide reversed changes in bladder physiology (cystometry) induced by CP. In conclusion, NLRs/inflammasomes are present in the bladder urothelia and respond to DAMPs and PAMPs, whereas NLRP3 inhibition blocks bladder dysfunction in the CP model. The coordinated response of NLRs and TLRs in the urothelia represents a first-line innate defense that may provide an important target for pharmacological intervention. PMID:24285499

  5. A conformational analysis of mouse Nalp3 domain structures by molecular dynamics simulations, and binding site analysis.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Bikash R; Maharana, Jitendra; Bhoi, Gopal K; Lenka, Santosh K; Patra, Mahesh C; Dikhit, Manas R; Dubey, Praveen K; Pradhan, Sukanta K; Behera, Bijay K

    2014-05-01

    Scrutinizing various nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) genes in higher eukaryotes is very important for understanding the intriguing mechanism of the host defense against pathogens. The nucleotide-binding domain (NACHT), leucine-rich repeat (LRR), and pyrin domains (PYD)-containing protein 3 (Nalp3), is an intracellular innate immune receptor and is associated with several immune system related disorders. Despite Nalp3's protective role during a pathogenic invasion, the molecular features and structural organization of this crucial protein is poorly understood. Using comparative modeling and molecular dynamics simulations, we have studied the structural architecture of Nalp3 domains, and characterized the dynamic and energetic parameters of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding in NACHT, and pathogen-derived ligands muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and imidazoquinoline with LRR domains. The results suggested that walker A, B and extended walker B motifs were the key ATP binding regions in NACHT that mediate self-oligomerization. The analysis of the binding sites of MDP and imidazoquinoline revealed LRR 7-9 to be the most energetically favored site for imidazoquinoline interaction. However, the binding free energy calculations using the Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM/PBSA) method indicated that MDP is incompatible for activating the Nalp3 molecule in its monomeric form, and suggest its complex interaction with NOD2 or other NLRs accounts for MDP recognition. The high binding affinity of ATP with NACHT was correlated to the experimental data for human NLRs. Our binding site prediction for imidazoquinoline in LRR warrants further investigation via in vivo models. This is the first study that provides ligand recognition in mouse Nalp3 and its spatial structural arrangements. PMID:24595807

  6. An Offload NIC for NASA, NLR, and Grid Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awrach, James

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses distributed data management and access dynamically configurable high-speed access to data distributed and shared over wide-area high-speed network environments. An offload engine NIC (network interface card) is proposed that scales at nX10-Gbps increments through 100-Gbps full duplex. The Globus de facto standard was used in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. Novel extension mechanisms were derived that will combine these technologies for use by GridFTP, bandwidth management resources, and host CPU (central processing unit) acceleration. The result will be wire-rate encrypted Globus grid data transactions through offload for splintering, encryption, and compression. As the need for greater network bandwidth increases, there is an inherent need for faster CPUs. The best way to accelerate CPUs is through a network acceleration engine. Grid computing data transfers for the Globus tool set did not have wire-rate encryption or compression. Existing technology cannot keep pace with the greater bandwidths of backplane and network connections. Present offload engines with ports to Ethernet are 32 to 40 Gbps f-d at best. The best of ultra-high-speed offload engines use expensive ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) or NPUs (network processing units). The present state of the art also includes bonding and the use of multiple NICs that are also in the planning stages for future portability to ASICs and software to accommodate data rates at 100 Gbps. The remaining industry solutions are for carrier-grade equipment manufacturers, with costly line cards having multiples of 10-Gbps ports, or 100-Gbps ports such as CFP modules that interface to costly ASICs and related circuitry. All of the existing solutions vary in configuration based on requirements of the host, motherboard, or carriergrade equipment. The purpose of the innovation is to eliminate data bottlenecks within cluster, grid, and cloud computing systems, and to add several more capabilities while reducing space consumption and cost. Provisions were designed for interoperability with systems used in the NASA HEC (High-End Computing) program. The new acceleration engine consists of state-ofthe- art FPGA (field-programmable gate array) core IP, C, and Verilog code; novel communication protocol; and extensions to the Globus structure. The engine provides the functions of network acceleration, encryption, compression, packet-ordering, and security added to Globus grid or for cloud data transfer. This system is scalable in nX10-Gbps increments through 100-Gbps f-d. It can be interfaced to industry-standard system-side or network-side devices or core IP in increments of 10 GigE, scaling to provide IEEE 40/100 GigE compliance.

  7. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    PubMed Central

    Sakhon, Olivia S.; Severo, Maiara S.; Kotsyfakis, Michail; Pedra, Joao H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Arthropod saliva possesses anti-hemostatic, anesthetic, and anti-inflammatory properties that facilitate feeding and, inadvertently, dissemination of pathogens. Vector-borne diseases caused by these pathogens affect millions of people each year. Many studies address the impact of arthropod salivary proteins on various immunological components. However, whether and how arthropod saliva counters Nod-like (NLR) sensing remains elusive. NLRs are innate immune pattern recognition molecules involved in detecting microbial molecules and danger signals. Nod1/2 signaling results in activation of the nuclear factor-κB and the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Caspase-1 NLRs regulate the inflammasome~– a protein scaffold that governs the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Recently, several vector-borne pathogens have been shown to induce NLR activation in immune cells. Here, we provide a brief overview of NLR signaling and discuss clinically relevant vector-borne pathogens recognized by NLR pathways. We also elaborate on possible anti-inflammatory effects of arthropod saliva on NLR signaling and microbial pathogenesis for the purpose of exchanging research perspectives. PMID:24155744

  8. Anti-hepatitis B virus effect of matrine-type alkaloid and involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Xin; Shen, Hong-Hui; Niu, Ming; Guo, Yu-Ming; Liu, Xiao-Qiong; Han, Yan-Zhong; Zhang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Yan-Ling; Bai, Bing-Ke; Zhou, Wen-Jun; Xiao, Xiao-He

    2016-04-01

    The matrine-type alkaloid, oxymatrine inhibits hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication but very little is known about these effects in other matrine-type alkaloids, including sophoridine and sophocarpine. Therefore, we compared the in vitro anti-HBV effects of matrine, oxymatrine, sophocarpine, and sophoridine by treating an HBV-transfected cell line (HepG2.2.15) with 0.4-1.6mM of the compounds for 24 or 72h. The levels of the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and e antigen (HBeAg) in the culture medium, as well as the intracellular and extracellular HBV DNA levels, were determined. Metabolomic analysis and detection of the mRNA level of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor (TRAF) 6, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1, NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 10 (NLRP10), and caspase-1 were conducted in sophoridine-treated HepG2.2.15 cells. HepG2.2.15 cell exposure to 0.4-1.6mM sophocarpine or sophoridine for 24h reduced the HBsAg level of the medium more effectively than exposure to matrine and oxymatrine did, and reduced the HBeAg levels more effectively than these compounds did at 1.6mM. Sophoridine (0.4-1.6mM) reduced the cell medium HBV DNA levels more than the same concentrations of matrine, oxymatrine, or sophocarpine did. After 72h, 0.4 and 0.8mM sophoridine reduced HBsAg and intracellular HBV DNA levels more potently than matrine, oxymatrine, or sophocarpine did. Furthermore, sophoridine (0.8mM) potently reduced the cell medium HBeAg levels while the metabolomic analyses revealed that HepG2.2.15 cells exposed to 0.8mM sophoridine for 72h exhibited reduced cycloleucine and phytosphingosine levels. In addition, the mRNA expression analyses revealed that HepG2.2.15 cells exposed to 0.8mM sophoridine showed reduced levels of p38 MAPK, TRAF6, ERK1, NLRP10, and caspase-1. Sophoridine produced more potent anti-HBV effects than matrine, oxymatrine, and sophocarpine did. These effects may be related

  9. Historical overview of nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2016-03-01

    This review summarizes the birth of the field of nuclear receptors, from Jensen's discovery of estrogen receptor alpha, Gustafsson's discovery of the three-domain structure of the glucocorticoid receptor, the discovery of the glucocorticoid response element and the first partial cloning of the glucocorticoid receptor. Furthermore the discovery of the novel receptors called orphan receptors is described. PMID:25797032

  10. Standardizing Scavenger Receptor Nomenclature

    PubMed Central

    PrabhuDas, Mercy; Bowdish, Dawn; Drickamer, Kurt; Febbraio, Maria; Herz, Joachim; Kobzik, Lester; Krieger, Monty; Loike, John; Means, Terry K.; Moestrup, Soren K.; Post, Steven; Sawamura, Tatsuya; Silverstein, Samuel; Wang, Xiang-Yang; El Khoury, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Scavenger receptors constitute a large family of proteins that are structurally diverse and participate in a wide range of biological functions. These receptors are expressed predominantly by myeloid cells and recognize a variety of ligands, including endogenous and modified host-derived molecules and microbial pathogens. There are currently eight classes of scavenger receptors, many of which have multiple names, leading to inconsistencies and confusion in the literature. To address this problem, a workshop was organized by the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health to help develop a clear definition of scavenger receptors and a standardized nomenclature based on that definition. Fifteen experts in the scavenger receptor field attended the workshop and, after extensive discussion, reached a consensus regarding the definition of scavenger receptors and a proposed scavenger receptor nomenclature. Scavenger receptors were defined as cell surface receptors that typically bind multiple ligands and promote the removal of non-self or altered-self targets. They often function by mechanisms that include endocytosis, phagocytosis, adhesion, and signaling that ultimately lead to the elimination of degraded or harmful substances. Based on this definition, nomenclature and classification of these receptors into 10 classes were proposed. The discussion and nomenclature recommendations described in this report only refer to mammalian scavenger receptors. The purpose of this article is to describe the proposed mammalian nomenclature and classification developed at the workshop and to solicit additional feedback from the broader research community. PMID:24563502

  11. Autoinflammation and autoimmunity: bridging the divide.

    PubMed

    Doria, A; Zen, M; Bettio, S; Gatto, M; Bassi, N; Nalotto, L; Ghirardello, A; Iaccarino, L; Punzi, L

    2012-11-01

    As soon as autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs) emerged as new entities, they have been linked to the well known world of autoimmunity. In fact, AIDs and systemic autoimmune diseases (ADs), share some characteristics: they start with the prefix "auto" to define a pathological process directed against self; they are systemic diseases, frequently involving musculoskeletal system; both include monogenic and polygenic diseases. From the pathogenetic point of view, they are characterized by a chronic activation of immune system, which eventually leads to tissue inflammation in genetically predisposed individuals. Nevertheless, the specific effectors of the damage are different in the two groups of diseases: in AIDs the innate immune system directly causes tissue inflammation, whereas in ADs the innate immune system activates the adaptive immune system which, in turn, is responsible for the inflammatory process. Mutations in inflammasome-related proteins, particularly in NOD-like receptor (NLR) genes, have been strongly associated to the occurrence of AIDs, whereas the link between inflammasome and ADs is less clear. However, a role for this multiprotein-complex in some ADs can be postulated, since a wide spectrum of endogenous danger signals can activate NLRs and inflammasome products, including IL-1ß, can activate adaptive immunity. An association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) localized in the inflammasome gene NLRP1 and systemic lupus erythematosus has recently been reported. AIDs and ADs are currently subdivided into two different groups, but looking at their similarities they might be considered as a single group of diseases with a large immune pathological and clinical spectrum which includes at one end pure ADs and at the other end pure AIDs. PMID:22878274

  12. Extracellular Matrix from Porcine Small Intestinal Submucosa (SIS) as Immune Adjuvants

    PubMed Central

    Aachoui, Youssef; Ghosh, Swapan K.

    2011-01-01

    Porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS) of Cook Biotech is licensed and widely used for tissue remodeling in humans. SIS was shown to be highly effective as an adjuvant in model studies with prostate and ovarian cancer vaccines. However, SIS adjuvanticity relative to alum, another important human-licensed adjuvant, has not yet been delineated in terms of activation of innate immunity via inflammasomes and boosting of antibody responses to soluble proteins and hapten-protein conjugates. We used ovalbumin, and a hapten-protein conjugate, phthalate-keyhole limpet hemocyanin. The evaluation of SIS was conducted in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice using both intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. Inflammatory responses were studied by microarray profiling of chemokines and cytokines and by qPCR of inflammasomes-related genes. Results showed that SIS affected cytokine and chemokines microenvironments such as up-regulation of IL-4 and CD30-ligand and activation of chemotactic factors LIX and KC (neutrophil chemotactic factors), MCP-1 (monocytes chemotactic factors), MIP 1-α (macrophage chemotactic factor) and lymphotactin, as well as, growth factors like M-CSF. SIS also promoted gene expression of Nod-like receptors (NLR) and associated downstream effectors. However, in contrast to alum, SIS had no effects on pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) or NLRP3, but it appeared to promote both Th1 and Th2 responses under different conditions. Lastly, it was as effective as alum in engendering a lasting and specific antibody response, primarily of IgG1 type. PMID:22087247

  13. Telmisartan reduced cerebral edema by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome in mice with cold brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Hu, Chen-Chen; Zhang, Ya-Li; Yao, Shang-Long; Mao, Wei-Ke

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial role of telmisartan in cerebral edema after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the potential mechanisms related to the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. TBI model was established by cold-induced brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h survival groups to investigate cerebral edema development with time and received 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg telmisartan by oral gavage, 1 h prior to TBI to determine the efficient anti-edemic dose. The therapeutic window was identified by post-treating 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h after TBI. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, the neurological function and histological injury were assessed, at the same time, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β and IL-18 concentrations in peri-contused brain tissue were measured 24 h post TBI. The results showed that the traumatic cerebral edema occurred from 6 h, reached the peak at 24 h and recovered to the baseline 72 h after TBI. A single oral dose of 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg telmisartan could reduce cerebral edema. Post-treatment up to 2 h effectively limited the edema development. Furthermore, prophylactic administration of telmisartan markedly inhibited BBB impairment, NLRP3, apoptotic speck-containing protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 activation, as well as IL-1β and IL-18 maturation, subsequently improved the neurological outcomes. In conclusion, telmisartan can reduce traumatic cerebral edema by inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome-regulated IL-1β and IL-18 accumulation. PMID:27465336

  14. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, Lieke M; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Yahmi, Malika; Lauret, Emilie; Briolat, Valérie; Herbomel, Philippe; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. Results We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5α, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling. Conclusion The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals. PMID:19196451

  15. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  16. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; Guttridge D, Denis C; Amer, Amal O

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  17. Beneficial impact of intracerebroventricular fractalkine administration on behavioral and biochemical changes induced by prenatal stress in adult rats: Possible role of NLRP3 inflammasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Ślusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Wydra, Karolina; Głombik, Katarzyna; Chamera, Katarzyna; Kucharczyk, Mateusz; Budziszewska, Bogusława; Kubera, Marta; Lasoń, Władysław; Filip, Małgorzata; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for pathological inflammatory processes and lead to the development of depression. Fractalkine (CX3CL1), a chemokine, plays an important role not only in the migration, differentiation and proliferation of neuronal and glial cells but also in the regulation of neuronal-microglial signaling and the production of pro-inflammatory factors. In the present study, we examined the impact of a prenatal stress procedure on the expression of fractalkine in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of young and adult male rats. Furthermore, we measured the age-dependent effect of stress during pregnancy on the expression of pro-inflammatory factors IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α, IL-6, and CCL2 in both brain structures. Next, to illustrate the link between fractalkine signaling and the behavioral and biochemical changes induced by prenatal stress, adult prenatally stressed offspring were injected intracerebroventricularly (icv) with exogenous fractalkine. We reported that prenatal stress leads to long-lasting deficits in fractalkine signaling and enhanced inflammatory activation. The study demonstrates that icv administration of fractalkine attenuates the behavioural changes evoked by prenatal stress procedure in adult animals. Moreover, fractalkine administration, exhibits anti-inflammatory action, mainly in the frontal cortex of adult prenatally stressed rats. The effect of fractalkine is related to inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome. However, its action on the other members of NOD-like receptor family (NLR) cannot be excluded. These findings provide new in vivo evidence that the behavioral and inflammatory disturbances observed in adult prenatally stressed rats may be related to long-lasting malfunctions in fractalkine signaling. PMID:27206338

  18. Modeling-Enabled Characterization of Novel NLRX1 Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pinyi; Hontecillas, Raquel; Abedi, Vida; Kale, Shiv; Leber, Andrew; Heltzel, Chase; Langowski, Mark; Godfrey, Victoria; Philipson, Casandra; Tubau-Juni, Nuria; Carbo, Adria; Girardin, Stephen; Uren, Aykut; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing (NLR) family are intracellular sentinels of cytosolic homeostasis that orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses in infectious and immune-mediated diseases. NLRX1 is a mitochondrial-associated NOD-like receptor involved in the modulation of immune and metabolic responses. This study utilizes molecular docking approaches to investigate the structure of NLRX1 and experimentally assesses binding to naturally occurring compounds from several natural product and lipid databases. Screening of compound libraries predicts targeting of NLRX1 by conjugated trienes, polyketides, prenol lipids, sterol lipids, and coenzyme A-containing fatty acids for activating the NLRX1 pathway. The ligands of NLRX1 were identified by docking punicic acid (PUA), eleostearic acid (ESA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the C-terminal fragment of the human NLRX1 (cNLRX1). Their binding and that of positive control RNA to cNLRX1 were experimentally determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. In addition, the ligand binding sites of cNLRX1 were predicted in silico and validated experimentally. Target mutagenesis studies demonstrate that mutation of 4 critical residues ASP677, PHE680, PHE681, and GLU684 to alanine resulted in diminished affinity of PUA, ESA, and DHA to NLRX1. Consistent with the regulatory actions of NLRX1 on the NF-κB pathway, treatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM)s with PUA and DHA suppressed NF-κB activity in a NLRX1 dependent mechanism. In addition, a series of pre-clinical efficacy studies were performed using a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Our findings showed that the regulatory function of PUA on colitis is NLRX1 dependent. Thus, we identified novel small molecules that bind to NLRX1 and exert anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:26714018

  19. P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    North, R Alan

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) activates cell surface P2X and P2Y receptors. P2X receptors are membrane ion channels preferably permeable to sodium, potassium and calcium that open within milliseconds of the binding of ATP. In molecular architecture, they form a unique structural family. The receptor is a trimer, the binding of ATP between subunits causes them to flex together within the ectodomain and separate in the membrane-spanning region so as to open a central channel. P2X receptors have a widespread tissue distribution. On some smooth muscle cells, P2X receptors mediate the fast excitatory junction potential that leads to depolarization and contraction. In the central nervous system, activation of P2X receptors allows calcium to enter neurons and this can evoke slower neuromodulatory responses such as the trafficking of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. In primary afferent nerves, P2X receptors are critical for the initiation of action potentials when they respond to ATP released from sensory cells such as taste buds, chemoreceptors or urothelium. In immune cells, activation of P2X receptors triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β. The development of selective blockers of different P2X receptors has led to clinical trials of their effectiveness in the management of cough, pain, inflammation and certain neurodegenerative diseases.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377721

  20. 5-HT3 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, A. J.; Lummis, S. C. R.

    2009-01-01

    The 5-HT3 receptor is a member of the Cys-loop family of ligand-gated ion channels. These receptors are located in both the peripheral and central nervous systems, where functional receptors are constructed from five subunits. These subunits may be the same (homopentameric 5-HT3A receptors) or different (heteropentameric receptors, usually comprising of 5-HT3A and 5-HT3B receptor subunits), with the latter having a number of distinct properties. The 5-HT3 receptor binding site is comprised of six loops from two adjacent subunits, and critical ligand binding amino acids in these loops have been largely identified. There are a range of selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors and the pharmacophore is reasonably well understood. There are also a wide range of compounds that can modulate receptor activity. Studies have suggested many diverse potential disease targets that might be amenable to alleviation by 5-HT3 receptor selective compounds but to date only two applications have been fully realised in the clinic: the treatment of emesis and irritable-bowel syndrome. PMID:17073663

  1. [Nuclear receptors PPARalpha].

    PubMed

    Soska, V

    2006-06-01

    Mechanism of the fibrates action is mediated by nuclear PPARalpha receptors (Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor). These receptors regulate a number of genes that are involved both in lipids and lipoproteins metabolism and other mediators (e.g. inflammatory mediatores). Due to PPARalpha activation by fibrates, triglycerides and small dense LDL concentration is decreased, HDL cholesterol is increased and both inflammation and prothrombotic status are reduced. These effects are very important in patients with metabolic syndrom. PMID:16871768

  2. Novel hormone "receptors".

    PubMed

    Nemere, Ilka; Hintze, Korry

    2008-02-01

    Our concepts of hormone receptors have, until recently, been narrowly defined. In the last few years, an increasing number of reports identify novel proteins, such as enzymes, acting as receptors. In this review we cover the novel receptors for the hormones atrial naturetic hormone, enterostatin, hepcidin, thyroid hormones, estradiol, progesterone, and the vitamin D metabolites 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) and 24,25(OH)(2)D(3). PMID:17546587

  3. The growth hormone receptor.

    PubMed

    Waters, Michael J

    2016-06-01

    Once thought to be present only in liver, muscle and adipose tissue, the GH receptor is now known to be ubiquitously distributed, in accord with the many pleiotropic actions of GH. These include the regulation of metabolism, postnatal growth, cognition, immune, cardiac and renal systems and gut function. GH exerts these actions primarily through alterations in gene expression, initiated by activation of its membrane receptor and the resultant activation of the associated JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) and Src family kinases. Receptor activation involves hormone initiated movements within a receptor homodimer, rather than simple receptor dimerization. We have shown that binding of the hormone realigns the orientation of the two receptors both by relative rotation and by closer apposition just above the cell membrane. This is a consequence of the asymmetric placement of the binding sites on the hormone. Binding results in a conversion of parallel receptor transmembrane domains into a rotated crossover orientation, which produces separation of the lower part of the transmembrane helices. Because the JAK2 is bound to the Box1 motif proximal to the inner membrane, receptor activation results in separation of the two associated JAK2s, and in particular the removal of the inhibitory pseudokinase domain from the kinase domain of the other JAK2 (and vice versa). This brings the two kinase domains into position for trans-activation and initiates tyrosine phosphorylation of the receptor cytoplasmic domain and other substrates such as STAT5, the key transcription factor mediating most genomic actions of GH. There are a limited number of genomic actions initiated by the Src kinase family member which also associates with the upper cytoplasmic domain of the receptor, including important immune regulatory actions to dampen exuberant innate immune activation of cells involved in transplant rejection. These findings offer insights for developing specific receptor antagonists which may be

  4. RECEPTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  5. HYBRID RECEPTOR MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A hybrid receptor model is a specified mathematical procedure which uses not only the ambient species concentration measurements that form the input data for a pure receptor model, but in addition source emission rates or atmospheric dispersion or transformation information chara...

  6. Signals and Receptors.

    PubMed

    Heldin, Carl-Henrik; Lu, Benson; Evans, Ron; Gutkind, J Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Communication between cells in a multicellular organism occurs by the production of ligands (proteins, peptides, fatty acids, steroids, gases, and other low-molecular-weight compounds) that are either secreted by cells or presented on their surface, and act on receptors on, or in, other target cells. Such signals control cell growth, migration, survival, and differentiation. Signaling receptors can be single-span plasma membrane receptors associated with tyrosine or serine/threonine kinase activities, proteins with seven transmembrane domains, or intracellular receptors. Ligand-activated receptors convey signals into the cell by activating signaling pathways that ultimately affect cytosolic machineries or nuclear transcriptional programs or by directly translocating to the nucleus to regulate transcription. PMID:27037414

  7. Laryngeal pressure receptors.

    PubMed

    Mathew, O P; Sant'Ambrogio, G; Fisher, J T; Sant'Ambrogio, F B

    1984-07-01

    We studied the response characteristics of laryngeal pressure receptors in anesthetized dogs, breathing through a tracheal cannula, by recording single unit action potentials from the peripheral cut end of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. The larynx, with the rest of the upper airway, was isolated and cannulated separately for the application of distending and collapsing pressures. We identified receptors responding to either negative or positive pressure and a few responding to both. All these receptors showed a marked dynamic sensitivity and had the characteristics of slowly adapting mechanoreceptors. The majority of pressure receptors were active at zero transmural pressure and the gain of their response to pressure was higher at lower values, suggesting a role for these receptors in eupnea. Reflex alterations in breathing pattern and upper airway muscle activity during upper airway pressure changes, previously reported, are presumably mediated by the receptors described here. Moreover, these receptors may play a role in certain pathological states, such as obstructive sleep apnea, in which the upper airway is transiently subjected to large collapsing pressure. PMID:6484319

  8. Signaling by Sensory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Julius, David; Nathans, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Sensory systems detect small molecules, mechanical perturbations, or radiation via the activation of receptor proteins and downstream signaling cascades in specialized sensory cells. In vertebrates, the two principal categories of sensory receptors are ion channels, which mediate mechanosensation, thermosensation, and acid and salt taste; and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which mediate vision, olfaction, and sweet, bitter, and umami tastes. GPCR-based signaling in rods and cones illustrates the fundamental principles of rapid activation and inactivation, signal amplification, and gain control. Channel-based sensory systems illustrate the integration of diverse modulatory signals at the receptor, as seen in the thermosensory/pain system, and the rapid response kinetics that are possible with direct mechanical gating of a channel. Comparisons of sensory receptor gene sequences reveal numerous examples in which gene duplication and sequence divergence have created novel sensory specificities. This is the evolutionary basis for the observed diversity in temperature- and ligand-dependent gating among thermosensory channels, spectral tuning among visual pigments, and odorant binding among olfactory receptors. The coding of complex external stimuli by a limited number of sensory receptor types has led to the evolution of modality-specific and species-specific patterns of retention or loss of sensory information, a filtering operation that selectively emphasizes features in the stimulus that enhance survival in a particular ecological niche. The many specialized anatomic structures, such as the eye and ear, that house primary sensory neurons further enhance the detection of relevant stimuli. PMID:22110046

  9. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE AH RECEPTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rat liver cytosolic receptor protein containing the Ah-receptor protein was purified and studied using a photochemical assembly of 2,3,7,8-TCDD. The unbound receptor protein rapidly lost its capacity to bind 2,3,7,8-TCDD; however, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD bound Ah receptor did not re...

  10. Mammalian sweet taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G; Hoon, M A; Chandrashekar, J; Zhang, Y; Ryba, N J; Zuker, C S

    2001-08-10

    The sense of taste provides animals with valuable information about the quality and nutritional value of food. Previously, we identified a large family of mammalian taste receptors involved in bitter taste perception (the T2Rs). We now report the characterization of mammalian sweet taste receptors. First, transgenic rescue experiments prove that the Sac locus encodes T1R3, a member of the T1R family of candidate taste receptors. Second, using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrate that T1R2 and T1R3 combine to function as a sweet receptor, recognizing sweet-tasting molecules as diverse as sucrose, saccharin, dulcin, and acesulfame-K. Finally, we present a detailed analysis of the patterns of expression of T1Rs and T2Rs, thus providing a view of the representation of sweet and bitter taste at the periphery. PMID:11509186

  11. Galanin Receptors and Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Webling, Kristin E. B.; Runesson, Johan; Bartfai, Tamas; Langel, Ülo

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide galanin was first discovered 30 years ago. Today, the galanin family consists of galanin, galanin-like peptide (GALP), galanin-message associated peptide (GMAP), and alarin and this family has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of biological and pathological functions. The effect is mediated through three GPCR subtypes, GalR1-3. The limited number of specific ligands to the galanin receptor subtypes has hindered the understanding of the individual effects of each receptor subtype. This review aims to summarize the current data of the importance of the galanin receptor subtypes and receptor subtype specific agonists and antagonists and their involvement in different biological and pathological functions. PMID:23233848

  12. Chemokine Receptor Oligomerization and Allostery

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Bryan; Handel, Tracy M.

    2014-01-01

    Oligomerization of chemokine receptors has been reported to influence many aspects of receptor function through allosteric communication between receptor protomers. Allosteric interactions within chemokine receptor hetero-oligomers have been shown to cause negative cooperativity in the binding of chemokines and to inhibit receptor activation in the case of some receptor pairs. Other receptor pairs can cause enhanced signaling and even activate entirely new, hetero-oligomer-specific signaling complexes and responses downstream of receptor activation. Many mechanisms contribute to these effects including direct allosteric coupling between the receptors, G protein mediated allostery, G protein stealing, ligand sequestration and recruitment of new intracellular proteins by exposing unique binding interfaces on the oligomerized receptors. These effects present both challenges as well as exciting opportunities for drug discovery. One of the most difficult challenges will involve determining if and when hetero-oligomers versus homo-oligomers are involved in specific disease states. PMID:23415099

  13. Genetics of Taste Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Bosak, Natalia P.; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R.; Nelson, Theodore M.

    2016-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical “tastes” as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  14. Genetics of taste receptors.

    PubMed

    Bachmanov, Alexander A; Bosak, Natalia P; Lin, Cailu; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Ohmoto, Makoto; Reed, Danielle R; Nelson, Theodore M

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors function as one of the interfaces between internal and external milieus. Taste receptors for sweet and umami (T1R [taste receptor, type 1]), bitter (T2R [taste receptor, type 2]), and salty (ENaC [epithelial sodium channel]) have been discovered in the recent years, but transduction mechanisms of sour taste and ENaC-independent salt taste are still poorly understood. In addition to these five main taste qualities, the taste system detects such noncanonical "tastes" as water, fat, and complex carbohydrates, but their reception mechanisms require further research. Variations in taste receptor genes between and within vertebrate species contribute to individual and species differences in taste-related behaviors. These variations are shaped by evolutionary forces and reflect species adaptations to their chemical environments and feeding ecology. Principles of drug discovery can be applied to taste receptors as targets in order to develop novel taste compounds to satisfy demand in better artificial sweeteners, enhancers of sugar and sodium taste, and blockers of bitterness of food ingredients and oral medications. PMID:23886383

  15. Dopamine Receptors and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Coronel, Israel; Florán, Benjamín

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is one of the major neurotransmitters and participates in a number of functions such as motor coordination, emotions, memory, reward mechanism, neuroendocrine regulation etc. DA exerts its effects through five DA receptors that are subdivided in 2 families: D1-like DA receptors (D1 and D5) and the D2-like (D2, D3 and D4). All DA receptors are widely expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in not only in physiological conditions but also pathological scenarios. Abnormalities in the DAergic system and its receptors in the basal ganglia structures are the basis Parkinson’s disease (PD), however DA also participates in other neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington disease (HD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Under pathological conditions reorganization of DAergic system has been observed and most of the times, those changes occur as a mechanism of compensation, but in some cases contributes to worsening the alterations. Here we review the changes that occur on DA transmission and DA receptors (DARs) at both levels expression and signals transduction pathways as a result of neurotoxicity, inflammation and in neurodegenerative processes. The better understanding of the role of DA receptors in neuropathological conditions is crucial for development of novel therapeutic approaches to treat alterations related to neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26425390

  16. Cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates.

    PubMed

    McPartland, J M; Agraval, J; Gleeson, D; Heasman, K; Glass, M

    2006-03-01

    Two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, are expressed in mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish. The presence of cannabinoid receptors in invertebrates has been controversial, due to conflicting evidence. We conducted a systematic review of the literature, using expanded search parameters. Evidence presented in the literature varied in validity, ranging from crude in vivo behavioural assays to robust in silico ortholog discovery. No research existed for several clades of invertebrates; we therefore tested for cannabinoid receptors in seven representative species, using tritiated ligand binding assays with [3H]CP55,940 displaced by the CB1-selective antagonist SR141716A. Specific binding of [3H]CP55,940 was found in neural membranes of Ciona intestinalis (Deuterstoma, a positive control), Lumbricusterrestris (Lophotrochozoa), and three ecdysozoans: Peripatoides novae-zealandiae (Onychophora), Jasus edwardi (Crustacea) and Panagrellus redivivus (Nematoda); the potency of displacement by SR141716A was comparable to measurements on rat cerebellum. No specific binding was observed in Actinothoe albocincta (Cnidaria) or Tethya aurantium (Porifera). The phylogenetic distribution of cannabinoid receptors may address taxonomic questions; previous studies suggested that the loss of CB1 was a synapomorphy shared by ecdysozoans. Our discovery of cannabinoid receptors in some nematodes, onychophorans, and crustaceans does not contradict the Ecdysozoa hypothesis, but gives it no support. We hypothesize that cannabinoid receptors evolved in the last common ancestor of bilaterians, with secondary loss occurring in insects and other clades. Conflicting data regarding Cnidarians precludes hypotheses regarding the last common ancestor of eumetazoans. No cannabinoid receptors are expressed in sponges, which probably diverged before the origin of the eumetazoan ancestor. PMID:16599912

  17. Taste Receptors in Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Taste receptors were first identified on the tongue, where they initiate a signaling pathway that communicates information to the brain about the nutrient content or potential toxicity of ingested foods. However, recent research has shown that taste receptors are also expressed in a myriad of other tissues, from the airway and gastrointestinal epithelia to the pancreas and brain. The functions of many of these extraoral taste receptors remain unknown, but emerging evidence suggests that bitter and sweet taste receptors in the airway are important sentinels of innate immunity. This review discusses taste receptor signaling, focusing on the G-protein coupled–receptors that detect bitter, sweet, and savory tastes, followed by an overview of extraoral taste receptors and in-depth discussion of studies demonstrating the roles of taste receptors in airway innate immunity. Future research on extraoral taste receptors has significant potential for identification of novel immune mechanisms and insights into host-pathogen interactions. PMID:25323130

  18. Regulation of plasminogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Herren, Thomas; Swaisgood, Carmen; Plow, Edward F

    2003-01-01

    Many eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells bind plasminogen in a specific and saturable manner. When plasminogen is bound to cell-surface proteins with C-terminal lysines via its lysine binding sites, its activation to plasmin is accelerated, and cell-bound plasmin is protected from inactivation by natural inhibitors. Plasmin mediates direct or indirect degradation of the extracellular matrix, and bound plasmin is used by cells to facilitate migration through extracellular matrices. Since cell migration and tissue remodelling are the underpinnings of many physiological and pathological responses, the modulation of plasminogen receptors may serve as a primary regulatory mechanism for control of many cellular responses. Specific examples of cell types on which plasminogen receptors undergo modulation include: fibroblasts, where modulation may contribute to cartilage and bone destruction in rheumatoid arthritis; leukemic cells, where enhanced plasminogen binding may contribute to the heightened fibrinolytic state in the patients; other tumor cells, where up-regulation may support invasion and metastasis; bacteria, where enhanced plasminogen binding may facilitate tissue destruction and invasion; platelets, where up-regulation of plasminogen binding may play a role in regulating clot lysis; and adipocytes, where the modulation of plasminogen receptor expression may regulate cell differentiation and fat accumulation. Two pathways for modulation of plasminogen receptors have been characterized: A protease-dependent pathway can either up-regulate or down-regulate plasminogen binding to cells by changing the availability of plasminogen-binding proteins with C-terminal lysines. New receptors may be generated by trypsin-like proteases, including plasmin, which create new C-terminal lysines; other enzymes may expose existing membrane proteins by altering the cell surface; or receptor function may be lost by removal of C-terminal lysines. The basic carboxypeptidases of blood

  19. Ionotropic Crustacean Olfactory Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Elizabeth A.; Bobkov, Yuriy; Ukhanov, Kirill; Ache, Barry W.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs), the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling. PMID:23573266

  20. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    PubMed

    Corey, Elizabeth A; Bobkov, Yuriy; Ukhanov, Kirill; Ache, Barry W

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs), the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling. PMID:23573266

  1. Prostaglandin E2 Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through EP4 Receptor and Intracellular Cyclic AMP in Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Milena; Chen, Li-Yuan; Liu, Yueqin; Martinez-Anton, Asuncion; Qi, Hai-Yan; Logun, Carolea; Alsaaty, Sara; Park, Yong Hwan; Kastner, Daniel L; Chae, Jae Jin; Shelhamer, James H

    2015-06-01

    PGE2 is a potent lipid mediator involved in maintaining homeostasis but also promotion of acute inflammation or immune suppression in chronic inflammation and cancer. Nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing protein (NLR)P3 inflammasome plays an important role in host defense. Uncontrolled activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, owing to mutations in the NLRP3 gene, causes cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes. In this study, we showed that NLRP3 inflammasome activation is inhibited by PGE2 in human primary monocyte-derived macrophages. This effect was mediated through PGE2 receptor subtype 4 (EP4) and an increase in intracellular cAMP, independently of protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP. A specific agonist of EP4 mimicked, whereas its antagonist or EP4 knockdown reversed, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. PGE2 caused an increase in intracellular cAMP. Blockade of adenylate cyclase by its inhibitor reversed PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Increase of intracellular cAMP by an activator of adenylate cyclase or an analog of cAMP, or a blockade of cAMP degradation by phosphodiesterase inhibitor decreased NLRP3 activation. Protein kinase A or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP agonists did not mimic, and their antagonists did not reverse, PGE2-mediated NLRP3 inhibition. Additionally, constitutive IL-1β secretion from LPS-primed PBMCs of cryopyrin-associated periodic fever syndromes patients was substantially reduced by high doses of PGE2. Moreover, blocking cytosolic phospholipase A2α by its inhibitor or small interfering RNA or inhibiting cyclooxygenase 2, resulting in inhibition of endogenous PGE2 production, caused an increase in NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results suggest that PGE2 might play a role in maintaining homeostasis during the resolution phase of inflammation and might serve as an autocrine and paracrine regulator. PMID:25917098

  2. Trafficking of Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Steffen; Tapken, Daniel; Haering, Simon C.; Hollmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate the vast majority of excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system of vertebrates. In the protein family of iGluRs, kainate receptors (KARs) comprise the probably least well understood receptor class. Although KARs act as key players in the regulation of synaptic network activity, many properties and functions of these proteins remain elusive until now. Especially the precise pre-, extra-, and postsynaptic localization of KARs plays a critical role for neuronal function, as an unbalanced localization of KARs would ultimately lead to dysregulated neuronal excitability. Recently, important advances in the understanding of the regulation of surface expression, function, and agonist-dependent endocytosis of KARs have been achieved. Post-translational modifications like PKC-mediated phosphorylation and SUMOylation have been reported to critically influence surface expression and endocytosis, while newly discovered auxiliary proteins were shown to shape the functional properties of KARs. PMID:25141211

  3. Selective orexin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lebold, Terry P; Bonaventure, Pascal; Shireman, Brock T

    2013-09-01

    The orexin, or hypocretin, neuropeptides (orexin-A and orexin-B) are produced on neurons in the hypothalamus which project to key areas of the brain that control sleep-wake states, modulation of food intake, panic, anxiety, emotion, reward and addictive behaviors. These neuropeptides exert their effects on a pair of G-protein coupled receptors termed the orexin-1 (OX1) and orexin-2 (OX2) receptors. Emerging biology suggests the involvement of these receptors in psychiatric disorders as they are thought to play a key role in the regulation of multiple systems. This review is intended to highlight key selective OX1 or OX2 small-molecule antagonists. PMID:23891187

  4. Olfactory receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Gabriela; Simoes de Souza, Fabio Marques

    2016-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) superfamily represents the largest class of membrane protein in the human genome. More than a half of all GPCRs are dedicated to interact with odorants and are termed odorant-receptors (ORs). Linda Buck and Richard Axel, the Nobel Prize laureates in physiology or medicine in 2004, first cloned and characterized the gene family that encode ORs, establishing the foundations to the understanding of the molecular basis for odor recognition. In the last decades, a lot of progress has been done to unravel the functioning of the sense of smell. This chapter gives a general overview of the topic of olfactory receptor signaling and reviews recent advances in this field. PMID:26928542

  5. Neuropharmacology of dopamine receptors:

    PubMed Central

    Tarazi, Frank I.

    2001-01-01

    There has been an extraordinary recent accumulation of information concerning the neurobiology and neuropharmacology of dopamine (DA) receptors in the mammalian central nervous system. Many new DA molecular entities have been cloned, their gene, peptide sequences and structures have been identified, their anatomical distributions in the mammalian brain described, and their pharmacology characterized. Progress has been made toward developing selective ligands and drug-candidates for different DA receptors. The new discoveries have greatly stimulated preclinical and clinical studies to explore the neuropharmacology of DA receptors and their implications in the neuropathophysiology of different neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Accordingly, it seems timely to review the salient aspects of this specialized area of preclinical neuropharmacology and its relevance to clinical neuropsychiatry. PMID:24019715

  6. Cutaneous temperature receptors.

    PubMed

    Spray, D C

    1986-01-01

    Specific thermoreceptors comprise an electrophysiologically distinct class of cutaneous receptors with a morphological substrate (free nerve endings) and plausible transduction mechanism (electrogenic Na pump with or without auxiliary temperature-dependent processes). Because responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli converge along the neural pathway, we have difficulty explaining the purity of cold and warm sensations; participation of dual-modality receptors in sensory discrimination cannot be ruled out. The field is now at a point where a leap in understanding would be achieved by intracellular recordings from the sensory receptor (for which patch clamp studies on isolated neuronal elements may provide the necessary technology) and from continued analysis of what information is lost and what retained in passage from one synapse to the next along the thermal pathway. PMID:3085583

  7. Estrogen receptor scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Scheidhauer, K; Scharl, A; Schicha, H

    1998-03-01

    Radio-labeled estrogen receptor ligands are tracers that can be used for functional receptor diagnosis. Their specificity towards receptors, together with the fact that only 50-70% of mammary carcinomas are receptor positive, renders them unsuitable for detection of primary tumors or metastases, and this means that estrogen receptor scintigraphy can be used neither for tumor screening nor for staging. However, both 18F-labeled and 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives are suitable for in vivo imaging of estrogen receptors. Their high specificity, established in animal experiments and in vitro studies has been reproduced in in vivo applications in humans. Tracers with positron radiation emitters are, however, hardly suitable for broad application owing to the short half-life of 18F, which would mean that users would need to be situated close to a cyclotron and a correspondingly equipped radiochemical laboratory. The number of available PET scanners, on the other hand, has increased over the last few years, especially in Germany, so that this, at least, does not present a limiting factor. All the same, 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives will find more widespread application, since the number of gamma-cameras incorporating modern multi-head systems is several times greater. The results of studies with 123I-E2-scintigraphy published to date are very promising, even given the initial technical problems mentioned above. As a method of examination, it could be optimised by using improved tracers with a higher tumor contrast and less disturbance from overlapping in diagnostically relevant locations, for instance, by selecting tracers with higher activities whose excretion is more renal than hepatobiliary. The use of modern multi-head camera systems can also be expected to improve the photon yield. PMID:9646642

  8. CONTAMINANT INTERACTIONS WITH STEROID RECEPTORS: EVIDENCE FOR RECEPTOR BINDING.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Steroid receptors are important determinants of endocrine disrupter consequences. As the most frequently proposed mechanism of endocrine-disrupting contaminant (EDC) action, steroid receptors are not only targets of natural steroids but are also commonly sites of nonsteroidal com...

  9. Vasopressin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Biff F

    2015-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is the principal hormone involved in regulating the tonicity of body fluids. Less appreciated is the role that AVP plays in a variety of other physiologic functions including glucose metabolism, cardiovascular homeostasis, bone metabolism, and cognitive behavior. AVP receptor antagonists are now available and currently approved to treat hyponatremia. There is a great deal of interest in exploring the potential benefits that these drugs may play in blocking AVP-mediated effects in other organ systems. The purpose of this report is to provide an update on the expanding role of AVP receptor antagonists and what disease states these drugs may eventually be used for. PMID:25604388

  10. Biomimetic Receptors and Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Dickert, Franz L.

    2014-01-01

    In biomimetics, living systems are imitated to develop receptors for ions, molecules and bioparticles. The most pertinent idea is self-organization in analogy to evolution in nature, which created the key-lock principle. Today, modern science has been developing host-guest chemistry, a strategy of supramolecular chemistry for designing interactions of analytes with synthetic receptors. This can be realized, e.g., by self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) or molecular imprinting. The strategies are used for solid phase extraction (SPE), but preferably in developing recognition layers of chemical sensors. PMID:25436653

  11. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange.

    PubMed

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H; Gittens, William H; Townsend, Philip D; Sharples, Gary J; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L W; Cann, Martin J

    2016-01-15

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  12. The Tomato Nucleotide-binding Leucine-rich Repeat Immune Receptor I-2 Couples DNA-binding to Nucleotide-binding Domain Nucleotide Exchange*

    PubMed Central

    Fenyk, Stepan; Dixon, Christopher H.; Gittens, William H.; Townsend, Philip D.; Sharples, Gary J.; Pålsson, Lars-Olof; Takken, Frank L. W.; Cann, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins enable plants to recognize and respond to pathogen attack. Previously, we demonstrated that the Rx1 NLR of potato is able to bind and bend DNA in vitro. DNA binding in situ requires its genuine activation following pathogen perception. However, it is unknown whether other NLR proteins are also able to bind DNA. Nor is it known how DNA binding relates to the ATPase activity intrinsic to NLR switch function required to immune activation. Here we investigate these issues using a recombinant protein corresponding to the N-terminal coiled-coil and nucleotide-binding domain regions of the I-2 NLR of tomato. Wild type I-2 protein bound nucleic acids with a preference of ssDNA ≈ dsDNA > ssRNA, which is distinct from Rx1. I-2 induced bending and melting of DNA. Notably, ATP enhanced DNA binding relative to ADP in the wild type protein, the null P-loop mutant K207R, and the autoactive mutant S233F. DNA binding was found to activate the intrinsic ATPase activity of I-2. Because DNA binding by I-2 was decreased in the presence of ADP when compared with ATP, a cyclic mechanism emerges; activated ATP-associated I-2 binds to DNA, which enhances ATP hydrolysis, releasing ADP-bound I-2 from the DNA. Thus DNA binding is a general property of at least a subset of NLR proteins, and NLR activation is directly linked to its activity at DNA. PMID:26601946

  13. AT1 receptors as mechanosensors.

    PubMed

    Mederos y Schnitzler, Michael; Storch, Ursula; Gudermann, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors are appreciated as central components of neurohormonal signaling. Recently, it turned out that they may also play a role in mechanotransduction. The angiotensin II AT(1) receptor was the first G-protein-coupled receptor claimed to be a mechanosensor. In the meantime, several other G(q/11)-coupled receptors were found to be sensitive to mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, there is first evidence to support the concept that G(i/o)-coupled receptors are susceptible to mechanical stimulation as well. Mechanical receptor activation appears to be agonist-independent and is initiated by a conformational change of the receptor protein discernible from agonist-bound conformations. Mechanically induced receptor activation plays a physiological role for myogenic vasoconstriction and is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:21147033

  14. Nuclear Receptors and Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the steroid hormone glucocorticoid and its nuclear receptor regulate the inflammatory process, a crucial component in the pathophysiological process related to human diseases that include atherosclerosis, obesity and type II diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and liver tumors. Growing evidence demonstrates that orphan and adopted orphan nuclear receptors, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, liver × receptors, the farnesoid × receptor, NR4As, retinoid × receptors, and the pregnane × receptor, regulate the inflammatory and metabolic profiles in a ligand-dependent or -independent manner in human and animal models. This review summarizes the regulatory roles of these nuclear receptors in the inflammatory process and the underlying mechanisms. PMID:18375823

  15. Nicotinic Receptors in Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Posadas, Inmaculada; López-Hernández, Beatriz; Ceña, Valentín

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have focused on expanding our knowledge of the structure and diversity of peripheral and central nicotinic receptors. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are members of the Cys-loop superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, which include GABA (A and C), serotonin, and glycine receptors. Currently, 9 alpha (α2-α10) and 3 beta (β2-β4) subunits have been identified in the central nervous system (CNS), and these subunits assemble to form a variety of functional nAChRs. The pentameric combination of several alpha and beta subunits leads to a great number of nicotinic receptors that vary in their properties, including their sensitivity to nicotine, permeability to calcium and propensity to desensitize. In the CNS, nAChRs play crucial roles in modulating presynaptic, postsynaptic, and extrasynaptic signaling, and have been found to be involved in a complex range of CNS disorders including Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), schizophrenia, Tourette´s syndrome, anxiety, depression and epilepsy. Therefore, there is growing interest in the development of drugs that modulate nAChR functions with optimal benefits and minimal adverse effects. The present review describes the main characteristics of nAChRs in the CNS and focuses on the various compounds that have been tested and are currently in phase I and phase II trials for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases including PD, AD and age-associated memory and mild cognitive impairment. PMID:24179465

  16. GPCR heteromers and their allosteric receptor-receptor interactions.

    PubMed

    Fuxe, K; Borroto-Escuela, D O; Marcellino, D; Romero-Fernandez, W; Frankowska, M; Guidolin, D; Filip, M; Ferraro, L; Woods, A S; Tarakanov, A; Ciruela, F; Agnati, L F; Tanganelli, S

    2012-01-01

    The concept of intramembrane receptor-receptor interactions and evidence for their existences were introduced in the beginning of the 1980's, suggesting the existence of receptor heterodimerization. The discovery of GPCR heteromers and the receptor mosaic (higher order oligomers, more than two) has been related to the parallel development and application of a variety of resonance energy transfer techniques such as bioluminescence (BRET), fluorescence (FRET) and sequential energy transfer (SRET). The assembly of interacting GPCRs, heterodimers and receptor mosaic leads to changes in the agonist recognition, signaling, and trafficking of participating receptors via allosteric mechanisms, sometimes involving the appearance of cooperativity. The receptor interface in the GPCR heteromers is beginning to be characterized and the key role of electrostatic epitope-epitope interactions for the formation of the receptor heteromers will be discussed. Furthermore, a "guide-and-clasp" manner of receptor-receptor interactions has been proposed where the "adhesive guides" may be the triplet homologies. These interactions probably represent a general molecular mechanism for receptor-receptor interactions. It is proposed that changes in GPCR function (moonlighting) may develop through the intracellular loops and C-terminii of the GPCR heteromers as a result of dynamic allosteric interactions between different types of G proteins and other receptor interacting proteins in these domains of the receptors. The evidence for the existence of receptor heteromers opens up a new field for a better understanding of neurophysiology and neuropathology. Furthermore, novel therapeutic approaches could be possible based on the use of heteromers as targets for drug development based on their unique pharmacology. PMID:22335512

  17. Taste Receptor Genes

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2009-01-01

    In the past several years, tremendous progress has been achieved with the discovery and characterization of vertebrate taste receptors from the T1R and T2R families, which are involved in recognition of bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Individual differences in taste, at least in some cases, can be attributed to allelic variants of the T1R and T2R genes. Progress with understanding how T1R and T2R receptors interact with taste stimuli and with identifying their patterns of expression in taste cells sheds light on coding of taste information by the nervous system. Candidate mechanisms for detection of salts, acids, fat, complex carbohydrates, and water have also been proposed, but further studies are needed to prove their identity. PMID:17444812

  18. Quantitative receptor autoradiography

    SciTech Connect

    Boast, C.A.; Snowhill, E.W.; Altar, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Quantitative receptor autoradiography addresses the topic of technical and scientific advances in the sphere of quantitative autoradiography. The volume opens with a overview of the field from a historical and critical perspective. Following is a detailed discussion of in vitro data obtained from a variety of neurotransmitter systems. The next section explores applications of autoradiography, and the final two chapters consider experimental models. Methodological considerations are emphasized, including the use of computers for image analysis.

  19. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, James; Franks, Christopher J.; Murray, Caitriona; Edwards, Richard J.; Calahorro, Fernando; Ishihara, Takeshi; Katsura, Isao; Holden-Dye, Lindy; O'Connor, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Glutamatergic neurotransmission is evolutionarily conserved across animal phyla. A major class of glutamate receptors consists of the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). In C. elegans, three mGluR genes, mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3, are organized into three subgroups, similar to their mammalian counterparts. Cellular reporters identified expression of the mgls in the nervous system of C. elegans and overlapping expression in the pharyngeal microcircuit that controls pharyngeal muscle activity and feeding behavior. The overlapping expression of mgls within this circuit allowed the investigation of receptor signaling per se and in the context of receptor interactions within a neural network that regulates feeding. We utilized the pharmacological manipulation of neuronally regulated pumping of the pharyngeal muscle in the wild-type and mutants to investigate MGL function. This defined a net mgl-1-dependent inhibition of pharyngeal pumping that is modulated by mgl-3 excitation. Optogenetic activation of the pharyngeal glutamatergic inputs combined with electrophysiological recordings from the isolated pharyngeal preparations provided further evidence for a presynaptic mgl-1-dependent regulation of pharyngeal activity. Analysis of mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3 mutant feeding behavior in the intact organism after acute food removal identified a significant role for mgl-1 in the regulation of an adaptive feeding response. Our data describe the molecular and cellular organization of mgl-1, mgl-2, and mgl-3. Pharmacological analysis identified that, in these paradigms, mgl-1 and mgl-3, but not mgl-2, can modulate the pharyngeal microcircuit. Behavioral analysis identified mgl-1 as a significant determinant of the glutamate-dependent modulation of feeding, further highlighting the significance of mGluRs in complex C. elegans behavior. PMID:25869139

  20. Mechanism of androgen receptor action.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Al-Azzawi, Farook

    2009-06-20

    Recent research provides a much more detailed understanding of the role of the androgen receptor in normal human development and physiology, its structure, and its functioning. This review discusses genomic and non-genomic actions of the androgen receptor, as well as their co-regulators. We also explore several clinically relevant aspects of the molecular biology of the androgen receptor and its co-regulators. PMID:19372015

  1. [The beta-adrenergic receptor].

    PubMed

    Bicho, M P; Manso, C F

    1992-12-01

    The Authors review the constitution and mechanism of action of the beta adrenergic receptor. It is part of a large family which includes visual pigments, muscarinic, serotonergic, olfactive and substance K receptors. Catecholamines given an electron to the receptor. It goes then successively to the alpha submit of Gs protein ant to adenylyl cyclase. The process of activation consists in a successive transfer of one electron. PMID:1337834

  2. Angiotensin II receptors in testes

    SciTech Connect

    Millan, M.A.; Aguilera, G.

    1988-05-01

    Receptors for angiotensin II (AII) were identified and characterized in testes of rats and several primate species. Autoradiographic analysis of the binding of 125I-labeled (Sar1,Ile8)AII to rat, rhesus monkey, cebus monkey, and human testicular slide-mounted frozen sections indicated specific binding to Leydig cells in the interstitium. In rat collagenase-dispersed interstitial cells fractionated by Percoll gradient, AII receptor content was parallel to that of hCG receptors, confirming that the AII receptors are in the Leydig cells. In rat dispersed Leydig cells, binding was specific for AII and its analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.8 nM), with a receptor concentration of 15 fmol/10(6) cells. Studies of AII receptors in rat testes during development reveals the presence of high receptor density in newborn rats which decreases toward the adult age (4934 +/- 309, 1460 +/- 228, 772 +/- 169, and 82 +/- 12 fmol/mg protein at 5, 15, 20, and 30 days of age, respectively) with no change in affinity. At all ages receptors were located in the interstitium, and the decrease in binding was parallel to the decrease in the interstitial to tubular ratio observed with age. AII receptor properties in membrane-rich fractions from prepuberal testes were similar in the rat and rhesus monkey. Binding was time and temperature dependent, reaching a plateau at 60 min at 37 C, and was increased by divalent cations, EGTA, and dithiothreitol up to 0.5 mM. In membranes from prepuberal monkey testes, AII receptors were specific for AII analogs and of high affinity (Kd, 4.2 nM) with a receptor concentration of 7599 +/- 1342 fmol/mg protein. The presence of AII receptors in Leydig cells in rat and primate testes in conjunction with reports of the presence of other components of the renin-angiotensin system in the testes suggests that the peptide has a physiological role in testicular function.

  3. Adenosine receptor desensitization and trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mundell, Stuart; Kelly, Eamonn

    2011-05-01

    As with the majority of G-protein-coupled receptors, all four of the adenosine receptor subtypes are known to undergo agonist-induced regulation in the form of desensitization and trafficking. These processes can limit the ability of adenosine receptors to couple to intracellular signalling pathways and thus reduce the ability of adenosine receptor agonists as well as endogenous adenosine to produce cellular responses. In addition, since adenosine receptors couple to multiple signalling pathways, these pathways may desensitize differentially, while the desensitization of one pathway could even trigger signalling via another. Thus, the overall picture of adenosine receptor regulation can be complex. For all adenosine receptor subtypes, there is evidence to implicate arrestins in agonist-induced desensitization and trafficking, but there is also evidence for other possible forms of regulation, including second messenger-dependent kinase regulation, heterologous effects involving G proteins, and the involvement of non-clathrin trafficking pathways such as caveolae. In this review, the evidence implicating these mechanisms is summarized for each adenosine receptor subtype, and we also discuss those issues of adenosine receptor regulation that remain to be resolved as well as likely directions for future research in this field. PMID:20550943

  4. The human olfactory receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Zozulya, Sergey; Echeverri, Fernando; Nguyen, Trieu

    2001-01-01

    Background The mammalian olfactory apparatus is able to recognize and distinguish thousands of structurally diverse volatile chemicals. This chemosensory function is mediated by a very large family of seven-transmembrane olfactory (odorant) receptors encoded by approximately 1,000 genes, the majority of which are believed to be pseudogenes in humans. Results The strategy of our sequence database mining for full-length, functional candidate odorant receptor genes was based on the high overall sequence similarity and presence of a number of conserved sequence motifs in all known mammalian odorant receptors as well as the absence of introns in their coding sequences. We report here the identification and physical cloning of 347 putative human full-length odorant receptor genes. Comparative sequence analysis of the predicted gene products allowed us to identify and define a number of consensus sequence motifs and structural features of this vast family of receptors. A new nomenclature for human odorant receptors based on their chromosomal localization and phylogenetic analysis is proposed. We believe that these sequences represent the essentially complete repertoire of functional human odorant receptors. Conclusions The identification and cloning of all functional human odorant receptor genes is an important initial step in understanding receptor-ligand specificity and combinatorial encoding of odorant stimuli in human olfaction. PMID:11423007

  5. The receptor subunits generating NMDA receptor mediated currents in oligodendrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Burzomato, Valeria; Frugier, Guillaume; Pérez-Otaño, Isabel; Kittler, Josef T; Attwell, David

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptors have been shown to contribute to glutamate-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes. Activation of these receptors damages myelin in ischaemia, in part because they are more weakly blocked by Mg2+ than are most neuronal NMDA receptors. This weak Mg2+ block was suggested to reflect an unusual subunit composition including the NR2C and NR3A subunits. Here we expressed NR1/NR2C and triplet NR1/NR2C/NR3A recombinant receptors in HEK cells and compared their currents with those of NMDA-evoked currents in rat cerebellar oligodendrocytes. NR1/NR2C/3A receptors were less blocked by 2 mm Mg2+ than were NR1/NR2C receptors (the remaining current was 30% and 18%, respectively, of that seen without added Mg2+) and showed less channel noise, suggesting a smaller single channel conductance. NMDA-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes showed a Mg2+ block (to 32%) similar to that observed for NR1/NR2C/NR3A and significantly different from that for NR1/NR2C receptors. Co-immunoprecipitation revealed interactions between NR1, NR2C and NR3A subunits in a purified myelin preparation from rat brain. These data are consistent with NMDA-evoked currents in oligodendrocytes reflecting the activation of receptors containing NR1, NR2C and NR3A subunits. PMID:20660562

  6. The Multifaceted Mineralocorticoid Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Sanchez, Elise; Gomez-Sanchez, Celso E.

    2015-01-01

    The primary adrenal cortical steroid hormones, aldosterone, and the glucocorticoids cortisol and corticosterone, act through the structurally similar mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Aldosterone is crucial for fluid, electrolyte, and hemodynamic homeostasis and tissue repair; the significantly more abundant glucocorticoids are indispensable for energy homeostasis, appropriate responses to stress, and limiting inflammation. Steroid receptors initiate gene transcription for proteins that effect their actions as well as rapid non-genomic effects through classical cell signaling pathways. GR and MR are expressed in many tissues types, often in the same cells, where they interact at molecular and functional levels, at times in synergy, others in opposition. Thus the appropriate balance of MR and GR activation is crucial for homeostasis. MR has the same binding affinity for aldosterone, cortisol, and corticosterone. Glucocorticoids activate MR in most tissues at basal levels and GR at stress levels. Inactivation of cortisol and corticosterone by 11β-HSD2 allows aldosterone to activate MR within aldosterone target cells and limits activation of the GR. Under most conditions, 11β-HSD1 acts as a reductase and activates cortisol/corticosterone, amplifying circulating levels. 11β-HSD1 and MR antagonists mitigate inappropriate activation of MR under conditions of oxidative stress that contributes to the pathophysiology of the cardiometabolic syndrome; however, MR antagonists decrease normal MR/GR functional interactions, a particular concern for neurons mediating cognition, memory, and affect. PMID:24944027

  7. Kinins and peptide receptors.

    PubMed

    Regoli, Domenico; Gobeil, Fernand

    2016-04-01

    This paper is divided into two sections: the first contains the essential elements of the opening lecture presented by Pr. Regoli to the 2015 International Kinin Symposium in S. Paulo, Brazil on June 28th and the second is the celebration of Dr. Regoli's 60 years of research on vasoactive peptides. The cardiovascular homeostasis derives from a balance of two systems, the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS). The biologically active effector entity of RAS is angiotensin receptor-1 (AT-1R), and that of KKS is bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R). The first mediates vasoconstriction, the second is the most potent and efficient vasodilator. Thanks to its complex and multi-functional mechanism of action, involving nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelial hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). B2R is instrumental for the supply of blood, oxygen and nutrition to tissues. KKS is present on the vascular endothelium and functions as an autacoid playing major roles in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes. KKS exerts a paramount role in the prevention of thrombosis and atherosclerosis. Such knowledge emphasizes the already prominent value of the ACE-inhibitors (ACEIs) for the treatment of CVDs and diabetes. Indeed, the ACEIs, thanks to their double action (block of the RAS and potentiation of the KKS) are the ideal agents for a rational treatment of these diseases. PMID:26408609

  8. Leptin and its receptors.

    PubMed

    Wada, Nobuhiro; Hirako, Satoshi; Takenoya, Fumiko; Kageyama, Haruaki; Okabe, Mai; Shioda, Seiji

    2014-11-01

    Leptin is mainly produced in the white adipose tissue before being secreted into the blood and transported across the blood-brain barrier. Leptin binds to a specific receptor (LepR) that has numerous subtypes (LepRa, LepRb, LepRc, LepRd, LepRe, and LepRf). LepRb, in particular, is expressed in several brain nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus, the paraventricular nucleus, and the dorsomedial, lateral and ventromedial regions of the hypothalamus. LepRb is also co-expressed with several neuropeptides, including proopiomelanocortin, neuropeptide Y, galanin, galanin-like peptide, gonadotropin-releasing hormone, tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide W. Functionally, LepRb induces activation of the JAK2/ERK, /STAT3, /STAT5 and IRS/PI3 kinase signaling cascades, which are important for the regulation of energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals. In this review, we discuss the structure, genetics and distribution of the leptin receptors, and their role in cell signaling mechanisms. PMID:25218975

  9. Angiotensin II receptor heterogeneity

    SciTech Connect

    Herblin, W.F.; Chiu, A.T.; McCall, D.E.; Ardecky, R.J.; Carini, D.J.; Duncia, J.V.; Pease, L.J.; Wong, P.C.; Wexler, R.R.; Johnson, A.L. )

    1991-04-01

    The possibility of receptor heterogeneity in the angiotensin II (AII) system has been suggested previously, based on differences in Kd values or sensitivity to thiol reagents. One of the authors earliest indications was the frequent observation of incomplete inhibition of the binding of AII to adrenal cortical membranes. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that all of the labeling of the rat adrenal was blocked by unlabeled AII or saralasin, but not by DuP 753. The predominant receptor in the rat adrenal cortex (80%) is sensitive to dithiothreitol (DTT) and DuP 753, and is designated AII-1. The residual sites in the adrenal cortex and almost all of the sites in the rat adrenal medulla are insensitive to both DTT and DuP 753, but were blocked by EXP655. These sites have been confirmed by ligand binding studies and are designated AII-2. The rabbit adrenal cortex is unique in yielding a nonuniform distribution of AII-2 sites around the outer layer of glomerulosa cells. In the rabbit kidney, the sites on the glomeruli are AII-1, but the sites on the kidney capsule are AII-2. Angiotensin III appears to have a higher affinity for AII-2 sites since it inhibits the binding to the rabbit kidney capsule but not the glomeruli. Elucidation of the distribution and function of these diverse sites should permit the development of more selective and specific therapeutic strategies.

  10. Role of iso-receptors in receptor-receptor interactions with a focus on dopamine iso-receptor complexes.

    PubMed

    Agnati, Luigi F; Guidolin, Diego; Cervetto, Chiara; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular and intracellular communication processes consist of signals and recognition/decoding apparatuses of these signals. In humans, the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family represents the largest family of cell surface receptors. More than 30 years ago, it has been proposed that GPCR could form dimers or higher-order oligomers (receptor mosaics [RMs] at the plasma membrane level and receptor-receptor interactions [RRIs] have been proposed as a new integrative mechanism for chemical signals impinging on cell plasma membranes). The basic phenomena involved in RRIs are allostery and cooperativity of membrane receptors, and the present paper provides basic information concerning their relevance for the integrative functions of RMs. In this context, the possible role of iso-receptor RM is discussed (with a special focus on dopamine receptor subtypes and on some of the RMs they form with other dopamine iso-receptors), and it is proposed that two types of cooperativity, namely, homotropic and heterotropic cooperativity, could allow distinguishing two types of functionally different RMs. From a general point of view, the presence of iso-receptors and their topological organization within RMs allow the use of a reduced number of signals for the intercellular communication processes, since the target cells can recognize and decode the same signal in different ways. This theoretical aspect is further analyzed here by means of an analogy with artificial information systems. Thus, it is suggested that the 'multiplexer' and 'demultiplexer' concepts could, at least in part, model the role of RMs formed by iso-receptors in the information handling by the cell. PMID:26418645

  11. PM SOURCE APPORTIONMENT/RECEPTOR MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Source apportionment (receptor) models are mathematical procedures for identifying and quantifying the sources of ambient air pollutants and their effects at a site (the receptor), primarily on the basis of species concentration measurements at the receptor, and generally without...

  12. Zinc Modulation of Glycine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Trombley, Paul Q.; Blakemore, Laura J.; Hill, Brook J.

    2011-01-01

    Glycine receptors are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system, and previous studies have demonstrated that glycine receptors are modulated by endogenous zinc. Zinc is concentrated in synaptic vesicles in several brain regions but is particularly abundant in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. In the present study, we used patch-clamp electrophysiology of rat hippocampal and olfactory bulb neurons in primary culture to examine the effects of zinc on glycine receptors. Although glycine has been reported to reach millimolar concentrations during synaptic transmission, most previous studies on the effects of zinc on glycine receptors have used relatively low concentrations of glycine. High concentrations of glycine cause receptor desensitization. Our current results extend our previous demonstration that the modulatory actions of zinc are largely prevented when co-applied with desensitizing concentrations of glycine (300 μM), suggesting that the effects of zinc are dependent on the state of the receptor. In contrast, pre-application of 300 μM zinc, prior to glycine (300 μM) application, causes a slowly developing inhibition with a slow rate of recovery, suggesting that the timing of zinc and glycine release also influences the effects of zinc. Furthermore, previous evidence suggests that synaptically released zinc can gain intracellular access, and we provide the first demonstration that low concentrations of intracellular zinc can potentiate glycine receptors. These results support the notion that zinc has complex effects on glycine receptors and multiple factors may interact to influence the efficacy of glycinergic transmission. PMID:21530619

  13. The olfactory receptor family album

    PubMed Central

    Crasto, Chiquito; Singer, Michael S; Shepherd, Gordon M

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of the human genome draft sequences has revealed a more complete portrait of the olfactory receptor gene repertoire in humans than was available previously. The new information provides a basis for deeper analysis of the functions of the receptors, and promises new insights into the evolutionary history of the family. PMID:11597337

  14. [Interceptors:--"silent" chemokine receptors].

    PubMed

    Grodecka, Magdalena; Waśniowska, Kazimiera

    2007-01-01

    The physiological effect caused by chemokines is regulated by interactions with a group of rodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). These receptors share a number of common features: the polypeptide chain is a 7-transmembrane ?-helix (7 TMD motif) and the region involved in G-protein interaction (the DRYLAIV sequence) is located in the second transmembrane loop. So far, 19 chemokine receptors have been identified. Three of them (Duffy glycoprotein, D6, and CCX-CKR proteins), although structurally related to other GPCRs, lack the ability of G-protein signal transduction. Instead, they efficiently internalize their cognate ligands, regulating chemokine levels in various body compartments. These three proteins are suggested to form a distinct chemokine receptor family, designated "interceptors" or "silent" chemokine receptors. PMID:17507871

  15. Allosteric Modulation of Chemoattractant Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Marcello; Cesta, Maria Candida; Locati, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Chemoattractants control selective leukocyte homing via interactions with a dedicated family of related G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). Emerging evidence indicates that the signaling activity of these receptors, as for other GPCR, is influenced by allosteric modulators, which interact with the receptor in a binding site distinct from the binding site of the agonist and modulate the receptor signaling activity in response to the orthosteric ligand. Allosteric modulators have a number of potential advantages over orthosteric agonists/antagonists as therapeutic agents and offer unprecedented opportunities to identify extremely selective drug leads. Here, we resume evidence of allosterism in the context of chemoattractant receptors, discussing in particular its functional impact on functional selectivity and probe/concentration dependence of orthosteric ligands activities. PMID:27199992

  16. Molecular characterization of opioid receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research was to purify and characterize active opioid receptors and elucidate molecular aspects of opioid receptor heterogeneity. Purification to apparent homogeneity of an opioid binding protein from bovine caudate was achieved by solubilization in the non-ionic detergent, digitonin, followed by sequential chromatography on the opiate affinity matrix, ..beta..-naltrexylethylenediamine-CH-Sepharose 4B, and on the lectine affinity matrix, wheat germ agglutinin-agarose. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS-PAGE) followed by autoradiography revealed that radioiodinated purified receptor gave a single band. Purified receptor preparations showed a specific activity of 12,000-15,000 fmol of opiate bound per mg of protein. Radioiodinated human beta-endorphin (/sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/) was used as a probe to investigate the ligand binding subunits of mu and delta opioid receptors. /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ was shown to bind to a variety of opioid receptor-containing tissues with high affinity and specificity with preference for mu and delta sites, and with little, if any, binding to kappa sites. Affinity crosslinking techniques were employed to covalently link /sup 125/I-beta-end/sub H/ to opioid receptors, utilizing derivatives of bis-succinimidyl esters that are bifunctional crosslinkers with specificities for amino and sulfhydryl groups. This, and competition experiments with high type-selective ligands, permitted the assignment of two labeled peptides to their receptor types, namely a peptide of M/sub r/ = 65,000 for mu receptors and one of M/sub r/ = 53,000 for delta receptors.

  17. Variant ionotropic glutamate receptors as chemosensory receptors in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Benton, Richard; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Gomez-Diaz, Carolina; Vosshall, Leslie B.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) mediate neuronal communication at synapses throughout vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. We have characterized a novel family of iGluR-related genes in Drosophila, which we name Ionotropic Receptors (IRs). These receptors do not belong to the well-described Kainate, AMPA, or NMDA classes of iGluRs, and have divergent ligand-binding domains that lack their characteristic glutamate-interacting residues. IRs are expressed in a combinatorial fashion in sensory neurons that respond to many distinct odors but do not express either insect odorant receptors (ORs) or gustatory receptors (GRs). IR proteins accumulate in sensory dendrites and not at synapses. Mis-expression of IRs induces novel odor responses in ectopic neurons. Together, these results lead us to propose that the IRs comprise a novel family of chemosensory receptors. Conservation of IR/iGluR-related proteins in bacteria, plants, and animals suggests that this receptor family represents an evolutionarily ancient mechanism for sensing both internal and external chemical cues. PMID:19135896

  18. Toll-like receptors.

    PubMed

    Lien, Egil; Ingalls, Robin R

    2002-01-01

    The ability of a host to sense invasion by pathogenic organisms and to respond appropriately to control infection is paramount to survival. In the case of sepsis and septic shock, however, an exaggerated systemic response may, in fact, contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with overwhelming infections. The innate immune system has evolved as the first line of defense against invading microorganisms. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a part of this innate immune defense, recognizing conserved patterns on microorganisms. These TLRs and their signaling pathways are represented in such diverse creatures as mammals, fruit flies, and plants. Ten members of the TLR family have been identified in humans, and several of them appear to recognize specific microbial products, including lipopolysaccharide, bacterial lipoproteins, peptidoglycan, and bacterial DNA. Signals initiated by the interaction of TLRs with specific microbial patterns direct the subsequent inflammatory response. Thus, TLR signaling represents a key component of the innate immune response to microbial infection. PMID:11782555

  19. Androgen receptor genomic regulation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hong-Jian; Kim, Jung

    2013-01-01

    The transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR) is not only critical for the normal development and function of the prostate but also pivotal to the onset and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). The studies of AR transcriptional regulation were previously limited to a handful of AR-target genes. Owing to the development of various high-throughput genomic technologies, significant advances have been made in recent years. Here we discuss the discoveries of genome-wide androgen-regulated genes in PCa cell lines, animal models and tissues using expression microarray and sequencing, the mapping of genomic landscapes of AR using Combining Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-chip and ChIP-seq assays, the interplay of transcriptional cofactors in defining AR binding profiles, and the genomic regulation and AR reprogramming in advanced PCa. PMID:25237629

  20. Antibodies to cardiac receptors.

    PubMed

    Boivin-Jahns, V; Schlipp, A; Hartmann, S; Panjwani, P; Klingel, K; Lohse, M J; Ertl, G; Jahns, R

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation of cardiac tissue is generally associated with an activation of the host's immune system. On the one hand, this activation is mandatory to protect the heart by fighting the invading microbial agents or toxins and by engaging myocardial reparation and healing processes. On the other hand, uncontrolled activation of the immune defense has the risk of an arousal of auto- or cross-reactive immune cells, which in some cases bring more harm than good. Dependent on the individual genetic predisposition, such heart-directed autoimmune reactions most likely occur as a result of myocyte apoptosis or necrosis and subsequent liberation of self-antigens previously hidden to the immune system. During the past two decades, evidence for a pathogenic relevance of autoimmunity in human heart disease has substantially increased. Conformational cardiac (auto)antibodies affecting cardiac function and, in particular, (auto)antibodies that target G protein-coupled cardiac membrane receptors are thought to play a key role in the development of heart failure. Clinical pilot studies even suggest that such antibodies negatively affect survival in heart failure patients. However, the true prevalence and clinical impact of many cardiac (auto)antibodies in human heart diseases are still unclear, as are the events triggering their formation, their titer course, and their patterns of clearance and/or persistence. The present article summarizes current knowledge in the field of cardiac receptor (auto)antibodies including recent efforts to address some of the aforementioned gaps of knowledge, thereby attempting to pave the way for novel, more specific therapeutic approaches. PMID:23183584

  1. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) – renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed Central

    Divekar, Shailaja D.; Tiek, Deanna M.; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B.

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  2. Estrogen-related receptor β (ERRβ) - renaissance receptor or receptor renaissance?

    PubMed

    Divekar, Shailaja D; Tiek, Deanna M; Fernandez, Aileen; Riggins, Rebecca B

    2016-01-01

    Estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are founding members of the orphan nuclear receptor (ONR) subgroup of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Twenty-seven years of study have yet to identify cognate ligands for the ERRs, though they have firmly placed ERRα and ERRγ at the intersection of cellular metabolism and oncogenesis. The pace of discovery for novel functions of ERRβ, however, has until recently been somewhat slower than that of its family members. ERRβ has also been largely ignored in summaries and perspectives of the ONR literature. Here, we provide an overview of established and emerging knowledge of ERRβ in mouse, man, and other species, highlighting unique aspects of ERRβ biology that set it apart from the other two estrogen-related receptors, with a focus on the impact of alternative splicing on the structure and function of this receptor. PMID:27507929

  3. Sigma receptors and cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Sanju; Mesangeau, Christophe; Poupaert, Jacques H; McCurdy, Christopher R

    2011-01-01

    Sigma receptors have been well documented as a protein target for cocaine and have been shown to be involved in the toxic and stimulant actions of cocaine. Strategies to reduce the access of cocaine to sigma receptors have included antisense oligonucleotides to the sigma-1 receptor protein as well as small molecule ligand with affinity for sigma receptor sites. These results have been encouraging as novel protein targets that can attenuate the actions of cocaine are desperately needed as there are currently no medications approved for treatment of cocaine toxicity or addiction. Many years of research in this area have yet to produce an effective treatment and much focus was on dopamine systems. A flurry of research has been carried out to elucidate the role of sigma receptors in the blockade of cocaine effects but this research has yet to yield a clinical agent. This review summarizes the work to date on the linkage of sigma receptors and the actions of cocaine and the progress that has been made with regard to small molecules. Although there is still a lack of an agent in clinical trials with a sigma receptor mechanism of action, work is progressing and the ligands are becoming more selective for sigma systems and the potential remains high. PMID:21050176

  4. Dopamine receptors - IUPHAR Review 13.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Jean-Martin; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R

    2015-01-01

    The variety of physiological functions controlled by dopamine in the brain and periphery is mediated by the D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 dopamine GPCRs. Drugs acting on dopamine receptors are significant tools for the management of several neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression and Parkinson's disease. Recent investigations of dopamine receptor signalling have shown that dopamine receptors, apart from their canonical action on cAMP-mediated signalling, can regulate a myriad of cellular responses to fine-tune the expression of dopamine-associated behaviours and functions. Such signalling mechanisms may involve alternate G protein coupling or non-G protein mechanisms involving ion channels, receptor tyrosine kinases or proteins such as β-arrestins that are classically involved in GPCR desensitization. Another level of complexity is the growing appreciation of the physiological roles played by dopamine receptor heteromers. Applications of new in vivo techniques have significantly furthered the understanding of the physiological functions played by dopamine receptors. Here we provide an update of the current knowledge regarding the complex biology, signalling, physiology and pharmacology of dopamine receptors. PMID:25671228

  5. Lysophospholipid receptors in drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Chun, Jerold

    2014-01-01

    Lysophospholipids (LPs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are bioactive lipids that transduce signals through their specific cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1–6, S1P1–5, LPI1, and LysoPS1–3, respectively. These LPs and their receptors have been implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, fibrosis, pain, cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, bone formation, fertility, organismal development, and other effects on most organ systems. Advances in the LP receptor field have enabled the development of novel small molecules targeting LP receptors for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), an S1P receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. This success is currently being followed by multiple, mechanistically related compounds targeting S1P receptor subtypes, which are in various stages of clinical development. In addition, an LPA1 antagonist, BMS-986020 (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is in Phase 2 clinical development for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as is a distinct compound, SAR100842 (Sanofi) for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and related fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes the current state of drug discovery in the LP receptor field. PMID:25499971

  6. Discoidin domain receptors in disease.

    PubMed

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-02-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to disease progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  7. Discoidin Domain Receptors in Disease

    PubMed Central

    Borza, Corina M; Pozzi, Ambra

    2014-01-01

    Discoidin domain receptors, DDR1 and DDR2, lie at the intersection of two large receptor families, namely the extracellular matrix and tyrosine kinase receptors. As such, DDRs are uniquely positioned to function as sensors for extracellular matrix and to regulate a wide range of cell functions from migration and proliferation to cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix homeostasis/remodeling. While activation of DDRs by extracellular matrix collagens is required for normal development and tissue homeostasis, aberrant activation of these receptors following injury or in disease is detrimental. The availability of mice lacking DDRs has enabled us to identify key roles played by these receptors in disease initiation and progression. DDR1 promotes inflammation in atherosclerosis, lung fibrosis and kidney injury, while DDR2 contributes to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, both DDRs have been implicated in cancer progression. Yet the mechanisms whereby DDRs contribute to diseases progression are poorly understood. In this review we highlight the mechanisms whereby DDRs regulate two important processes, namely inflammation and tissue fibrosis. In addition, we discuss the challenges of targeting DDRs in disease. Selective targeting of these receptors requires understanding of how they interact with and are activated by extracellular matrix, and whether their cellular function is dependent on or independent of receptor kinase activity. PMID:24361528

  8. Purinergic receptors in psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Krügel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    Psychiatric disorders describe different mental or behavioral patterns, causing suffering or poor coping of ordinary life with manifold presentations. Multifactorial processes can contribute to their development and progression. Purinergic neurotransmission and neuromodulation in the brain have attracted increasing therapeutic interest in the field of psychiatry. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides are well recognized as signaling molecules mediating cell to cell communication. The actions of ATP are mediated by ionotropic P2X and metabotropic P2Y receptor subfamilies, whilst the actions of adenosine are mediated by P1 (A1 or A2) adenosine receptors. Purinergic mechanisms and specific receptor subtypes have been shown to be linked to the regulation of many aspects of behavior and mood and to dysregulation in pathological processes of brain function. In this review the recent knowledge on the role of purinergic receptors in the two most frequent psychiatric diseases, major depression and schizophrenia, as well as on related animal models is summarized. At present the most promising data for therapeutic strategies derive from investigations of the adenosine system emphasizing a unique function of A2A receptors at neurons and astrocytes in these disorders. Among the P2 receptor family, in particular P2X7 and P2Y1 receptors were related to disturbances in major depression and schizophrenia, respectively. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Purines in Neurodegeneration and Neuroregeneration'. PMID:26518371

  9. Lysophospholipid receptors in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Hirotaka; Chun, Jerold

    2015-05-01

    Lysophospholipids (LPs), including lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), sphingosine 1-phospate (S1P), lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), and lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS), are bioactive lipids that transduce signals through their specific cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors, LPA1-6, S1P1-5, LPI1, and LysoPS1-3, respectively. These LPs and their receptors have been implicated in both physiological and pathophysiological processes such as autoimmune diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, fibrosis, pain, cancer, inflammation, metabolic syndrome, bone formation, fertility, organismal development, and other effects on most organ systems. Advances in the LP receptor field have enabled the development of novel small molecules targeting LP receptors for several diseases. Most notably, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya, Novartis), an S1P receptor modulator, became the first FDA-approved medicine as an orally bioavailable drug for treating relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. This success is currently being followed by multiple, mechanistically related compounds targeting S1P receptor subtypes, which are in various stages of clinical development. In addition, an LPA1 antagonist, BMS-986020 (Bristol-Myers Squibb), is in Phase 2 clinical development for treating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, as a distinct compound, SAR100842 (Sanofi) for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and related fibrotic diseases. This review summarizes the current state of drug discovery in the LP receptor field. PMID:25499971

  10. Glutamate receptor ligands as anxiolytics.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka-Wójcik, E; Kłodzinska, A; Pilc, A

    2001-08-01

    The glutamatergic system has received considerable attention over recent years as a potential target for anxiolytic drugs. In spite of the pronounced anxiolytic-like effects of competitive and non-competitive antagonists of NMDA receptors in animal models of anxiety, these substances can not be regarded as potential anxiolytic drugs, mainly due to their side-effect profiles (eg, ataxia, myorelaxation, impairment of learning and memory processes and psychotomimetic effects). Antagonists and partial agonists of the glycine, receptor inhibit function of the NMDA receptor complex and evoke in animals an anxiolytic-like response. Although data concerning anti-anxiety-like effects of glycine, receptor antagonists are not very promising, studies are underway to develop new, brain-penetrating agents devoid of side effects. Further developments are necessary to more fully elucidate the possible involvement of AMPA/kainate receptors in anxiety. The recent discovery of metabotropic glutamate receptors, which modulate the function of the glutamatergic system, offers new hope for discovery of a new generation of anxiolytics. MPEP, a highly selective, brain penetrable, noncompetitive mGlu5 receptor antagonist, evokes anxiolytic-like effects in several animal models of anxiety, remaining remarkably free of side effects. LY-354740, a selective brain-penetrable group II mGlu receptor agonist, evokes marked anxiolytic-like effects in animal models of anxiety. LY-354740 causes mild sedation in mice, does not disturb motor coordination and has no potential to cause dependence. Therefore mGlu receptor ligands may become the anxiolytics of the future, free from the side effects characteristic of benzodiazepines. PMID:11892923