Science.gov

Sample records for node assay dlna

  1. DIETARY VITAMIN A ENHANCES SENSITIVITY OF THE LOCAL LYMPH NODE ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Murine assays such as the mouse ear swelling test (MEST) and the local lymph node assay (LLNA) are popular alternatives to guinea pig models for the identification of contact sensitizers, yet there has been concern over the effectiveness of these assays to detect weak and moderat...

  2. An international evaluation of the murine local lymph node assay and comparison of modified procedures.

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Hilton, J; Dearman, R J; Gerberick, G F; Ryan, C A; Basketter, D A; Scholes, E W; Ladics, G S; Loveless, S E; House, R V

    1995-11-20

    The murine local lymph node assay is a predictive test for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals. The method has been the subject both of national inter-laboratory studies and of extensive comparisons with guinea pig tests. In the investigations reported here, the local lymph node assay has been evaluated further in the context of an international study comprising five independent laboratories. In addition, the influence of minor modifications to the standard assay procedure on the performance of the test has been examined. The modified procedures investigated were exposure of mice for 4 rather than 3 consecutive days, excision of lymph nodes 4 rather than 5 days after the initiation of exposure and the use of an alternative isotope. All five laboratories, irrespective of whether the standard or a modified protocol was used, were able to identify accurately, and with comparable sensitivity, potassium dichromate and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene as skin sensitizers. Using standard criteria, none of the laboratories recorded positive responses with methyl salicylate, a non-sensitizer. In the standard protocol, lymph nodes are pooled for each experimental group and the vigor of responses measured as a stimulation index relative to vehicle controls. A stimulation index of 3 or greater is considered to indicate skin-sensitizing potential. One further modification adopted by three of the laboratories was to analyze nodes from individual animals and, thereby, permit statistical evaluation. This allowed a direct comparison of statistical significance with the conventional stimulation index as criteria for a positive response. The data indicate that, while statistical evaluation may provide, in some instances, for small increases in sensitivity, this may be at the expense of some loss of selectivity. There are, however, insufficient data presently to draw firm conclusions regarding the relative value of statistical analysis. These studies demonstrate that the local

  3. Diagnostic performance of interferon-γ release assay for lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Hongyan; Pan, Liping; Du, Boping; Sun, Qi; Wei, Rongrong; Xing, Aiying; Du, Fengjiao; Sun, Huishan; Zhang, Zongde

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) (T-SPOT.TB) for patients with suspected lymph node tuberculosis (TB). Of the 405 patients with suspected lymph node TB, enrolled from Beijing Chest Hospital between July 2011 and April 2015, 83 (20.5%) were microbiologically/histopathologically confirmed lymph node TB, and 282 (69.6%) did not have active TB. The remaining 21 inconclusive TB and 19 clinical TB were excluded from the final analysis (9.9%). T-SPOT.TB using peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed to examine the IFN-γ response to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens early secretory antigenic target 6 and culture filtrate protein 10. The overall sensitivity and specificity for T-SPOT.TB were 90.4% and 70.5%, respectively. Spot-forming cells in the lymph node TB group (184 [48-596/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells {PBMCs}]) were significantly higher than that in the nonactive TB group (0 [0-41]/10(6) PBMCs) (P<0.001). These results suggest that the IGRA assay could be a useful aid in the diagnosis of lymph node TB. PMID:26971638

  4. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  5. Development and Utilization of an Ex Vivo Bromodeoxyuridine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) Protocol for Assessing Potential Chemical Sensitizers

    EPA Science Inventory

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [3H]m...

  6. Minor antigen graft-versus-host reactions revealed in irradiated spleen and popliteal lymph node assays

    SciTech Connect

    Claman, H.N.; Jaffee, B.D.

    1984-10-01

    The graft-versus-hot (GVH) reaction across minor (non-H-2) histocompatibility barriers was studied in mice, in vivo. To increase GVH potential and to mimic clinical bone marrow transplantation protocols, we modified the popliteal lymph node (PLN) and the splenomegaly assays by irradiating the recipients before they received allogeneic lymphoid cell suspensions. In several combinations across major (H-2), minor (non-H-2) and multiple minor (non-H-2 plus minor lymphocyte stimulation) barriers, increased recipient organ weight (a measure of GVH activity) was seen with irradiated F1 recipients of parental cells. The irradiated splenomegaly (x-splenomegaly) assay was more sensitive than the (x-PLN) assay, but both correlated with in vivo GVH experiments of the P----F1 variety. The x-splenomegaly test indicated histoincompatibility in a system (B10.D2----BALB/c) in which the primary in vitro mixed leukocyte reactions is nonreactive, but in which systemic GVH can be induced. The x-splenomegaly test should be useful in analyzing complex reactions involving minor histocompatibility antigens in vivo.

  7. The skin sensitization potential of resorcinol: experience with the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Sanders, David; Jowsey, Ian R

    2007-04-01

    Resorcinol is a simple aromatic chemical (1,3-benzenediol) that has found widespread use, particularly as a coupler in hair dyes. Clinical experience clearly shows that resorcinol is a (albeit uncommon) skin sensitizer. By contrast, predictive methods, both animal and human, have previously failed to identify resorcinol as such. Here, we describe the outcome of a recent local lymph node assay performed in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guideline 429, which correctly identified resorcinol as a skin sensitizer. Clear evidence of a dose response was apparent, and an EC3 value of approximately 6% was calculated. This suggests that the skin-sensitizing potency of resorcinol is approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of p-phenylenediamine but similar to that of hexyl cinnamic aldehyde. These data show the importance of adherence to test guidelines and aligns the clinical experience with resorcinol with that obtained in predictive animal methods. PMID:17343618

  8. Investigation of the dermal sensitization potential of various essential oils in the local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Lalko, J; Api, A M

    2006-05-01

    Essential oils are commonly used fragrance ingredients. The oils themselves are complex mixtures, which may contain naturally occurring contact sensitizers. The local lymph node assay was used to evaluate the dermal sensitization potential of basil, citronella, clove leaf, geranium, litsea cubeba, lemongrass, and palmarosa oils. Three of the major components--citral, eugenol, and geraniol--were included to investigate any difference in sensitization potential arising from their exposure in a mixture. Each fragrance material was tested at five concentration ranging from 2.5% to 50% w/v in 1:3 ethanol:diethyl phthalate. The stimulation index (SI) values were calculated for each dose level, an SI > or = 3 was considered a positive response. The estimated concentration (EC3) required to elicit a positive was calculated and taken as a measure of relative potency. The EC3 values and potency classification for basil, clove leaf, litsea cubeba, lemongrass and palmarosa oils were calculated to be <2.5% (> or = moderate), 7.1% (weak), 8.4% (weak), 6.5% (weak) and 9.6% (weak), respectively. Citronella and geranium oils were negative. The individual components citral, eugenol and geraniol resulted in EC3 values of 6.3%, 5.4% and 11.4%, respectively. In general, the potency of each essential oil did not differ significantly from that observed for its main individual component. PMID:16324777

  9. A quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay for rapid, automated analysis of breast cancer sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Steven J; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William E; Cole, David J; Mitas, Michael; Metcalf, John; Bhargava, Rohit; Dabbs, David; Ching, Jesus; Kozma, Lynn; McMillan, William; Godfrey, Tony E

    2009-11-01

    We have previously reported that a quantitative reverse transcription (QRT)-PCR assay accurately analyzes sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) from breast cancer patients. The aim of this study was to assess a completely automated, cartridge-based version of the assay for accuracy, predictive value, and reproducibility. The triplex (two markers + control) QRT-PCR assay was incorporated into a single-use cartridge for point-of-care use on the GeneXpert system. Three academic centers participated equally. Twenty-nine positive lymph nodes and 30 negative lymph nodes were analyzed to establish classification rules. SLNs from 120 patients were subsequently analyzed by QRT-PCR and histology (including immunohistochemistry), and the predetermined decision rules were used to classify the SLNs; 112 SLN specimens produced an informative result by both QRT-PCR and histology. By histological analysis, 21 SLNs were positive and 91 SLNs were negative for metastasis. QRT-PCR characterization produced a classification with 100% sensitivity, 97.8% specificity, and 98.2% accuracy compared with histology (91.3% positive predictive value and 100% negative predictive value). Interlaboratory reproducibility analyses demonstrated that a 95% prediction interval for a new measurement (DeltaCt) ranged between 0.403 and 0.956. This fully automated QRT-PCR assay accurately characterizes breast cancer SLNs for the presence of metastasis. Furthermore, the assay is not dependent on subjective interpretation, is reproducible across three clinical environments, and is rapid enough to allow intraoperative decision making. PMID:19797614

  10. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay for intraoperative prediction of advanced axillary lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with sentinel lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    KUBOTA, MICHIYO; KOMOIKE, YOSHIFUMI; HAMADA, MIKA; SHINZAKI, WATARU; AZUMI, TATSUYA; HASHIMOTO, YUKIHIKO; IMOTO, SHIGERU; TAKEYAMA, YOSHIFUMI; OKUNO, KIYOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is used to semiquantitatively measure the cytokeratin (CK)19 mRNA copy numbers of each sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the diagnosis of ≥4 LN metastases is possible using the OSNA assay intraoperatively. Between May, 2010 and December, 2014, a total of 134 patients who underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) of positive SLNs were analyzed. The total tumor load (TTL) was defined as the total CK19 mRNA copies of all positive SLNs. The correlation between TTL and ≥4 LN metastases was evaluated. Of the 134 patients, 31 (23.1%) had ≥4 LN metastases. TTL ≥5.4×104 copies/µl evaluated by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis was examined along with other clinicopathological variables. In the multivariate analysis, only TTL ≥5.4×104 copies/µl was correlated with ≥4 LN metastases (odds ratio = 2.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.17–7.97, P=0.022). Therefore, TTL assessed by the OSNA assay has the potential to be a predictor of ≥4 LN metastases and it may be useful for the selection of patients with positive SLNs in whom ALND may be safely omitted. PMID:26893855

  11. Identification of transcriptional regulatory nodes in soybean defense networks using transient co-transactivation assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongli; Wang, Hui; Ma, Yujie; Du, Haiping; Yang, Qing; Yu, Deyue

    2015-01-01

    Plant responses to major environmental stressors, such as insect feeding, not only occur via the functions of defense genes but also involve a series of regulatory factors. Our previous transcriptome studies proposed that, in addition to two defense-related genes, GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR, a high proportion of transcription factors (TFs) participate in the incompatible soybean-common cutworm interaction networks. However, the regulatory mechanisms and effects of these TFs on those induced defense-related genes remain unknown. In the present work, we isolated and identified 12 genes encoding MYB, WRKY, NAC, bZIP, and DREB TFs from a common cutworm-induced cDNA library of a resistant soybean line. Sequence analysis of the promoters of three co-expressed genes, including GmVSPα, GmVSPβ, and GmN:IFR, revealed the enrichment of various TF-binding sites for defense and stress responses. To further identify the regulatory nodes composed of these TFs and defense gene promoters, we performed extensive transient co-transactivation assays to directly test the transcriptional activity of the 12 TFs binding at different levels to the three co-expressed gene promoters. The results showed that all 12 TFs were able to transactivate the GmVSPβ and GmN:IFR promoters. GmbZIP110 and GmMYB75 functioned as distinct regulators of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression, respectively, while GmWRKY39 acted as a common central regulator of GmVSPα/β and GmN:IFR expression. These corresponding TFs play crucial roles in coordinated plant defense regulation, which provides valuable information for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in insect-induced transcriptional regulation in soybean. More importantly, the identified TFs and suitable promoters can be used to engineer insect-resistant plants in molecular breeding studies. PMID:26579162

  12. Development and utilization of an ex vivo bromodeoxyuridine local lymph node assay protocol for assessing potential chemical sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Williams, W C; Copeland, C; Boykin, E; Quell, S J; Lehmann, D M

    2015-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is widely used to identify chemicals that may cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to a dermal sensitizer results in proliferation of local lymph node T cells, which has traditionally been measured by in vivo incorporation of [(3) H]methyl thymidine. A more recent non-isotopic variation of the assay utilizes bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation in vivo. To further improve the utility of this assay, we developed an ex vivo BrdU labeling procedure eliminating the need for in vivo injections. The results of this assay correctly identified a strong sensitizer (i.e., trimellitic anhydride) as well as weak/moderate sensitizers (i.e., eugenol, cinnamaldehyde and hexylcinnaminic aldehyde). As anticipated, neither non-sensitizers isopropanol and lactic acid nor the false negative chemical nickel II sulfate hexahydrate induced a positive threshold response in the assay. The results of this assay are in close agreement with those of the in vivo LLNA:BrdU-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay labeling procedure. We also used the ex vivo BrdU LLNA procedure to evaluate ammonium hexachloroplatinate, ammonium tetrachloroplatinate and cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) and the assay correctly identified them as sensitizers based on the calculation of EC2 values. We conclude that this ex vivo BrdU labeling method offers predictive capacity comparable to previously established LLNA protocols while eliminating animal injections and the use of radioisotope. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:24532485

  13. A Rapid, Fully Automated, Molecular-Based Assay Accurately Analyzes Sentinel Lymph Nodes for the Presence of Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Steven J.; Xi, Liqiang; Raja, Siva; Gooding, William; Cole, David J.; Gillanders, William E.; Mikhitarian, Keidi; McCarty, Kenneth; Silver, Susan; Ching, Jesus; McMillan, William; Luketich, James D.; Godfrey, Tony E.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop a fully automated, rapid, molecular-based assay that accurately and objectively evaluates sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) from breast cancer patients. Summary Background Data: Intraoperative analysis for the presence of metastatic cancer in SLNs from breast cancer patients lacks sensitivity. Even with immunohistochemical staining (IHC) and time-consuming review, alarming discordance in the interpretation of SLN has been observed. Methods: A total of 43 potential markers were evaluated for the ability to accurately characterize lymph node specimens from breast cancer patients as compared with complete histologic analysis including IHC. Selected markers then underwent external validation on 90 independent SLN specimens using rapid, multiplex quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assays. Finally, 18 SLNs were analyzed using a completely automated RNA isolation, reverse transcription, and quantitative PCR instrument (GeneXpert). Results: Following analysis of potential markers, promising markers were evaluated to establish relative level of expression cutoff values that maximized classification accuracy. A validation set of 90 SLNs from breast cancer patients was prospectively characterized using 4 markers individually or in combinations, and the results compared with histologic analysis. A 2-marker assay was found to be 97.8% accurate (94% sensitive, 100% specific) compared with histologic analysis. The fully automated GeneXpert instrument produced comparable and reproducible results in less than 35 minutes. Conclusions: A rapid, fully automated QRT-PCR assay definitively characterizes breast cancer SLN with accuracy equal to conventional pathology. This approach is superior to intraoperative SLN analysis and can provide standardized, objective results to assist in pathologic diagnosis. PMID:16495705

  14. Performance standard-based validation study for local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ilyoung; Kim, Tae-Sung; Jung, Eun-Sun; Yi, Jung-Sun; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Yeo, Kyeong-Uk; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung-Eun; Kim, Chang-Yul; Park, Yeong-Chul; Seong, Won-Keun; Lee, Ai-Young; Chun, Young Jin; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Jeung, Eui Bae; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin; Sohn, Soojung; Heo, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Local lymph node assay: 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry method (LLNA: BrdU-FCM) is a modified non-radioisotopic technique with the additional advantages of accommodating multiple endpoints with the introduction of FCM, and refinement and reduction of animal use by using a sophisticated prescreening scheme. Reliability and accuracy of the LLNA: BrdU-FCM was determined according to OECD Test Guideline (TG) No. 429 (Skin Sensitization: Local Lymph Node Assay) performance standards (PS), with the participation of four laboratories. Transferability was demonstrated through successfully producing stimulation index (SI) values for 25% hexyl cinnamic aldehyde (HCA) consistently greater than 3, a predetermined threshold, by all participating laboratories. Within- and between-laboratory reproducibility was shown using HCA and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, in which EC2.7 values (the estimated concentrations eliciting an SI of 2.7, the threshold for LLNA: BrdU-FCM) fell consistently within the acceptance ranges, 0.025-0.1% and 5-20%, respectively. Predictive capacity was tested using the final protocol version 1.3 for the 18 reference chemicals listed in OECD TG 429, of which results showed 84.6% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 88.9% accuracy compared with the original LLNA. The data presented are considered to meet the performance criteria for the PS, and its predictive capacity was also sufficiently validated. PMID:27318101

  15. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 2. The biological variability of the murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Api, Anne Marie; Aptula, Aynur O

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the most common in vivo regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation, quantifying potency as the EC3, the concentration of chemical giving a threefold increase in thymidine uptake in the local lymph node. Existing LLNA data can, along with clinical data, provide useful comparator information on the potency of sensitisers. Understanding of the biological variability of data from LLNA studies is important for those developing non-animal based risk assessment approaches for skin allergy. Here an existing set of 94 EC3 values for 12 chemicals, all tested at least three times in the same vehicle have been analysed by calculating standard deviations (SD) for logEC3 values. The SDs range from 0.08 to 0.22. The overall SD for the 94 logEC3 values is 0.147. Thus the 95% confidence limits (2xSD) for LLNA EC3 values are within a factor of 2, comparable to those for physico-chemical measurements such as partition coefficients and solubility. The residual SDs of Quantitative Mechanistic Models (QMMs) based on physical organic chemistry parameters are similar to the overall SD of the LLNA, indicating that QMMs of this type are unlikely to be bettered for predictive accuracy. PMID:27470439

  16. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was < 10%. Therefore, these chemicals were classified as moderate skin sensitizers in the LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE. PMID:26558466

  17. Lack of TAK1 in dendritic cells inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response induced by trichloroethylene in local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pan; Hongqian, Chu; Qinghe, Meng; Lanqin, Shang; Jianjun, Jiang; Xiaohua, Yang; Xuetao, Wei; Weidong, Hao

    2016-09-15

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a ubiquitous environmental contaminant. Occupational TCE exposure has been associated with severe, generalized contact hypersensitivity (CHS) skin disorder. The development of CHS depends on innate and adaptive immune functions. Transforming growth factor-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) controls the survival of dendritic cells (DCs) that affect the immune system homeostasis. We aimed to investigate the role of TAK1 activity in DC on TCE-induced CHS response. Control mice and DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice were treated with 80% (v/v) TCE using local lymph node assay (LLNA) to establish a TCE-induced CHS model. The draining lymph nodes (DLNs) were excised and the lymphocytes were measure for proliferation by BrdU-ELISA, T-cell phenotype analysis by flow cytometry and signaling pathway activation by western blot. The ears were harvested for histopathological analysis. Control mice in the 80% TCE group displayed an inflammatory response in the ears, increased lymphocyte proliferation, elevated regulatory T-cell and activated T-cell percentages, and more IFN-γ producing CD8(+) T cells in DLNs. In contrast to control mice, DC-specific TAK1 deletion mice in the 80% TCE group showed an abolished CHS response and this was associated with defective T-cell expansion, activation and IFN-γ production. This effect may occur through Jnk and NF-κB signaling pathways. Overall, this study demonstrates a pivotal role of TAK1 in DCs in controlling TCE-induced CHS response and suggests that targeting TAK1 function in DCs may be a viable approach to preventing and treating TCE-related occupational health hazards. PMID:27473013

  18. Comparison of outcomes obtained in murine local lymph node assays using CBA/J or CBA/Ca mice.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Yosuke; Hirosaki, Haruka; Yakata, Naoaki; Takeyoshi, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice are the recommended strains for local lymph node assays (LLNAs). Here, we report quantitative and qualitative comparisons between both mouse strains to provide useful information for the strain selection of sensitization testing. LLNA was conducted, in accordance with Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Test Guideline No. 429, with CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice using five chemicals including typical contact sensitizers and non-sensitizers: 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), isoeugenol, α-hexylcinnamic aldehyde (HCA), propylene glycol (PG), and hexane; then outcomes were compared based on the raw data (disintegrations per minute, DPM), stimulation index (SI) values, EC3 values and positive/negative decisions. Although a significant difference was noted between DPM values derived from each strain of mice, SI values exhibited no considerable difference. The EC3 values for DNCB in CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice were 0.04 and 0.03, those for isoeugenol were 1.4 and 0.9, and those for HCA were 7.7 and 6.0, respectively. All EC values derived from each test system were almost equivalent and were within the range of acceptance criteria of the ICCVAM performance standard for LLNA. Positive/negative outcomes for all test chemicals were consistent. In conclusion, no considerable differences were observed in the final outcomes derived from CBA/J and CBA/Ca mice in LLNA. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26456381

  19. Comparative Study of the One-step Nucleic Acid Amplification Assay and Conventional Histological Examination for the Detection of Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Metastases.

    PubMed

    Terada, Mizuho; Niikura, Naoki; Tsuda, Banri; Masuda, Shinobu; Kumaki, Nobue; Tang, Xiaoyan; Okamura, Takuho; Saito, Yuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tokuda, Yutaka

    2014-09-01

    Intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is widely used in patients with early-stage breast cancer and is conventionally performed using hematoxylin and eosin-based histological examination. The one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay is a molecular diagnostic tool and a semi-automated lymph node examination method. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of the OSNA assay and conventional histological examination with frozen sections (FSs) by using 111 SLN biopsy samples from 89 patients at the Tokai University Hospital. The SLN samples were split into 3 slices: the middle slice was used for FS histological examination and the other slices were used for the OSNA assay. The McNemar test was used to compare the differences in the sensitivity and specificity between the OSNA assay and FS histological examination. The sensitivity of the OSNA assay (97.1%) was less than that of FS histological examination (100%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.125). The specificity of both the methods was identical (96.9%). Despite previously published results suggesting that the OSNA assay is as reliable as histological examinations, our results indicate that this assay often fails to detect micrometastases or isolated tumor cells in SLNs. PMID:25248427

  20. 4D-Fingerprint Categorical QSAR Models for Skin Sensitization Based on Classification Local Lymph Node Assay Measures

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Tseng, Yufeng J.; Pan, Dahua; Liu, Jianzhong; Kern, Petra S.; Gerberick, G. Frank; Hopfinger, Anton J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the only validated methods to identify skin sensitization effects are in vivo models, such as the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) and guinea pig studies. There is a tremendous need, in particular due to novel legislation, to develop animal alternatives, eg. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models. Here, QSAR models for skin sensitization using LLNA data have been constructed. The descriptors used to generate these models are derived from the 4D-molecular similarity paradigm and are referred to as universal 4D-fingerprints. A training set of 132 structurally diverse compounds and a test set of 15 structurally diverse compounds were used in this study. The statistical methodologies used to build the models are logistic regression (LR), and partial least square coupled logistic regression (PLS-LR), which prove to be effective tools for studying skin sensitization measures expressed in the two categorical terms of sensitizer and non-sensitizer. QSAR models with low values of the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic, χHL2, are significant and predictive. For the training set, the cross-validated prediction accuracy of the logistic regression models ranges from 77.3% to 78.0%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 87.1% to 89.4%. For the test set, the prediction accuracy of logistic regression models ranges from 80.0%-86.7%, while that of PLS-logistic regression models ranges from 73.3%-80.0%. The QSAR models are made up of 4D-fingerprints related to aromatic atoms, hydrogen bond acceptors and negatively partially charged atoms. PMID:17226934

  1. Inter-laboratory validation of the modified murine local lymph node assay based on 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hajime; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Sozu, Takashi; Awogi, Takumi; Arima, Kazunori; Idehara, Kenji; Ikarashi, Yoshiaki; Kanazawa, Yukiko; Maki, Eiji; Omori, Takashi; Yuasa, Atsuko; Yoshimura, Isao

    2011-01-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a well-established alternative to the guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) or Buehler test (BT) for the assessment of the skin sensitizing ability of a drug, cosmetic material, pesticide or industrial chemical. Instead of radioisotope using in this method, Takeyoshi M. et al. (2001) has developed a modified LLNA based on the 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation (LLNA:BrdU-ELISA). The LLNA:BrdU-ELISA is practically identical to the LLNA methodology excluding the use of BrdU, for which a single intraperitoneal injection of BrdU is made on day 4, and colorimetric detection of cell turnover. We conducted the validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of LLNA:BrdU-ELISA. The experiment involved 7 laboratories, wherein 10 chemicals were examined under blinded conditions. In this study, 3 chemicals were examined in all laboratories and the remaining 7 were examined in 3 laboratories. The data were expressed as the BrdU incorporation using an ELISA method for each group, and the stimulation index (SI) for each chemical-treated group was determined as the increase in the BrdU incorporation relative to the concurrent vehicle control group. An SI of 2 was set as the cut-off value for exhibiting skin sensitization activity. The results obtained in the experiments conducted for all 10 chemicals were sufficiently consistent with small variations in their SI values. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of LLNA:BrdU-ELISA against those of GPMT/BT were 7/7 (100%), 3/3 (100%), and 10/10 (100%), respectively. PMID:20677212

  2. Examination of a vehicle for use with water soluble materials in the murine local lymph node assay.

    PubMed

    Ryan, C A; Cruse, L W; Skinner, R A; Dearman, R J; Kimber, I; Gerberick, G F

    2002-11-01

    The murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) is a validated method for identifying skin sensitization hazard. Vehicle choice can influence the sensitization potential of haptens in both the LLNA and in humans, therefore selection of an appropriate vehicle is important. Suggested vehicles for the LLNA include organic solvents and organic-aqueous mixtures. However, due to its high surface tension and poor wetting qualities, water is not recommended and therefore testing aqueous soluble materials can be problematic. The aims of this investigation were to identify a water-based vehicle that possesses better skin wetting properties than water alone, and to assess its performance relative to other solvents in the LLNA using aqueous soluble haptens. The selected wetting agent was the surfactant Pluronic(R) L92 (L92). Concentrations of L92 of up to 50% did not induce positive responses in the LLNA. 1% aqueous L92 was chosen for further examination. Dose-response analyses were performed with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and formaldehyde formulated either in water, 1% L92, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or dimethyl formamide (DMF). Potassium dichromate (PDC) and nickel sulfate were tested in 1% L92, DMSO or DMF. The highest concentration of potassium dichromate was retested in each vehicle and in water to assess the effect of the wetting agent. Estimates of the relative sensitizing potency in each vehicle were determined by calculation of EC3 values (the estimated concentration required to induce a threshold positive response). While DNBS and formaldehyde produced positive responses in all four vehicles, their relative potency varied among the vehicles. The rank ordering of potencies for both materials was, from highest to lowest, DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92 > water. Compared with water, use of 1% L92 resulted in >2-fold increase in potency for DNBS and >3-fold increase for formaldehyde. PDC was positive in DMF, DMSO and 1% L92. The potency ranking was DMF > or = DMSO > 1% L92

  3. Allergenicity evaluation of fragrance mix and its ingredients by using ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU endpoints.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Kaymak, Yesim; Karakaya, Asuman

    2014-03-01

    The present studies were performed to compare the differences between sensitization potency of fragrance mix and its ingredients (oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal), by using ex vivo LLNA-BrdU ELISA. The SI and EC3 values were calculated and potency classification was found for the mixture and for each ingredients. TH1 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ) and TH2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5) releases from lymph node cell culture were also investigated as contact sensitization endpoints. The EC3 values were calculated and the potency of contact sensitization were classified for fragrance mix, oak moss absolute, isoeugenol, eugenol, cinnamal, hydroxycitronellal, geraniol, cinnamic alcohol, alpha amyl cinnamal respectively: 4.4% (moderate), 3.4% (moderate), 0.88% (strong), 16.6% (weak), 1.91% (moderate), 9.77% (moderate), 13.1% (weak), 17.93% (weak), 7.74% (moderate). According to our results it should be concluded that exposure to fragrance mix does not constitute an evidently increased hazard compared to exposure to each of the eight fragrance ingredients separately. Cytokine analyses results indicate that both TH1 and TH2 cytokines are involved in the regulation of murine contact allergy and can be considered as useful endpoints. PMID:24389455

  4. B cell increases and ex vivo IL-2 production as secondary endpoints for the detection of sensitizers in non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Jang, Won-Hee; Lee, Yong-Kyoung; Yum, Young Na; Sohn, Soojung; Kim, Bae-Hwan; Chung, Jin-Ho; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2012-03-25

    Non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay (LLNA) using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) with flow cytometry (FCM) is gaining attention since it is free from the regulatory issues in traditional LLNA (tLLNA) accompanying in vivo uses of radioisotope, (3)H-thymidine. However, there is also concern over compromised performance of non-radioisotopic LLNA, raising needs for additional endpoints to improve the accuracy. With the full 22 reference substances enlisted in OECD Test Guideline No. 429, we evaluated the performance of LLNA:BrdU-FCM along with the concomitant measurements of B/T cell ratio and ex vivo cytokine production from isolated lymph node cells (LNCs) to examine the utility of these markers as secondary endpoints. Mice (Balb/c, female) were topically treated with substances on both ears for 3 days and then, BrdU was intraperitoneally injected on day 5. After a day, lymph nodes were isolated and undergone FCM to determine BrdU incorporation and B/T cell sub-typing with B220+ and CD3e+. Ex vivo cytokine production by LNCs was measured such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12, IFN-γ, MCP-1, GM-CSF and TNFα. Mice treated with sensitizers showed preferential increases in B cell population and the selective production of IL-2, which matched well with the increases in BrdU incorporation. When compared with guinea pig or human data, BrdU incorporation, B cell increase and IL-2 production ex vivo could successfully identify sensitizers with the accuracy comparable to tLLNA, suggesting that these markers may be useful for improving the accuracy of LLNA:BrdU-FCM or as stand-alone non-radioisotopic endpoints. PMID:22245253

  5. Predictive capacity of a non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: Comparison of a cutoff approach and inferential statistics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Da-Eun; Yang, Hyeri; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Park, Miyoung; Choi, Jin Kyu; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Eun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jung Eun; Sohn, Soo Jung; Kim, Tae Sung; Ahn, Il Young; Jeong, Tae-Cheon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2016-01-01

    In order for a novel test method to be applied for regulatory purposes, its reliability and relevance, i.e., reproducibility and predictive capacity, must be demonstrated. Here, we examine the predictive capacity of a novel non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay, LLNA:BrdU-FCM (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-flow cytometry), with a cutoff approach and inferential statistics as a prediction model. 22 reference substances in OECD TG429 were tested with a concurrent positive control, hexylcinnamaldehyde 25%(PC), and the stimulation index (SI) representing the fold increase in lymph node cells over the vehicle control was obtained. The optimal cutoff SI (2.7≤cutoff <3.5), with respect to predictive capacity, was obtained by a receiver operating characteristic curve, which produced 90.9% accuracy for the 22 substances. To address the inter-test variability in responsiveness, SI values standardized with PC were employed to obtain the optimal percentage cutoff (42.6≤cutoff <57.3% of PC), which produced 86.4% accuracy. A test substance may be diagnosed as a sensitizer if a statistically significant increase in SI is elicited. The parametric one-sided t-test and non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test produced 77.3% accuracy. Similarly, a test substance could be defined as a sensitizer if the SI means of the vehicle control, and of the low, middle, and high concentrations were statistically significantly different, which was tested using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis, with post hoc analysis, Dunnett, or DSCF (Dwass-Steel-Critchlow-Fligner), respectively, depending on the equal variance test, producing 81.8% accuracy. The absolute SI-based cutoff approach produced the best predictive capacity, however the discordant decisions between prediction models need to be examined further. PMID:26654807

  6. Evaluation of non-radioactive endpoints of ex vivo local lymph node assay-BrdU to investigate select contact sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Ulker, Ozge Cemiloglu; Ates, Ilker; Atak, Aysegul; Karakaya, Asuman

    2013-01-01

    The present study sought to verify the utility of the non-radioactive endpoints LLNA BrdU (5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine) ex vivo incorporation and cytokine release using auricular lymph node cells isolated from BALB/c mice topically treated with a strong (formaldehyde or p-phenylene-diamine [PPD]), moderate sensitizer (cinnamal), or weak sensitizer (eugenol). Stimulation index (SI) and EC₃ values were calculated for each agent. Based on the results of ex vivo LLNA-BrdU assays, EC₃ values were calculated to be 0.29, 0.09, 1.91, and 16.60% for formaldehyde, PPD, cinnamal, and eugenol, respectively. These results were in good agreement with data from previous standard radioactive LLNA. Cytokine analyses indicated T(H)1 and T(H)2 cytokine involvement in the regulation of murine contact allergy and these could be utilized as endpoints in assessments of contact allergy in mice. In conclusion, the current study provided evidence that the non-radioactive endpoint LLNA BrdU ex vivo incorporation could be of use as a viable alternative approach to assess the skin sensitization potential of test compound with respect to improving animal welfare. This is of particular importance in the case of any laboratory where it might be difficult to handle and/or readily employ radioisotopes. Further studies will be required to confirm--across test agents--the reproducibility as well as the limits of utility of this new ex vivo BrdU method. PMID:22734851

  7. Analysis of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) variability for assessing the prediction of skin sensitisation potential and potency of chemicals with non-animal approaches.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Coralie; Barroso, João; Matys, Izabela; Worth, Andrew; Casati, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    The knowledge of the biological mechanisms leading to the induction of skin sensitisation has favoured in recent years the development of alternative non-animal methods. During the formal validation process, results from the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) are generally used as reference data to assess the predictive capacity of the non-animal tests. This study reports an analysis of the variability of the LLNA for a set of chemicals for which multiple studies are available and considers three hazard classification schemes: POS/NEG, GHS/CLP and ECETOC. As the type of vehicle used in a LLNA study is known to influence to some extent the results, two analyses were performed: considering the solvent used to test the chemicals and without considering the solvent. The results show that the number of discordant classifications increases when a chemical is tested in more than one solvent. Moreover, it can be concluded that study results leading to classification in the strongest classes (1A and EXT) seem to be more reliable than those in the weakest classes. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability of the reference data when evaluating non-animal tests. PMID:27085510

  8. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The lymphatic system is a complex network of thin vessels, valves, ducts, nodes, and organs. It helps to protect and maintain the fluid ... The most common cause of swollen lymph nodes is infection, which might occur even if the infection ...

  9. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of a 21-gene recurrence score assay versus Canadian clinical practice in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axillary lymph-node negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A 21-gene recurrence score (RS) assay may inform adjuvant systematic treatment decisions in women with early stage breast cancer. We sought to investigate the cost effectiveness of using the RS-assay versus current clinical practice (CCP) in women with early-stage estrogen- or progesterone-receptor-positive, axilliary lymph-node negative breast cancer (ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC) from the perspective of the Canadian public healthcare system. Methods We developed a Markov model to project the lifetime clinical and economic consequences of ESBC. We evaluated adjuvant therapy separately in post- and pre-menopausal women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. We assumed that the RS-assay would reclassify pre- and post-menopausal women among risk levels (low, intermediate and high) and guide adjuvant systematic treatment decisions. The model was parameterized using 7 year follow up data from the Manitoba Cancer Registry, cost data from Manitoba administrative databases, and secondary sources. Costs are presented in 2010 CAD. Future costs and benefits were discounted at 5%. Results The RS-assay compared to CCP generated cost-savings in pre-menopausal women and had an ICER of $60,000 per QALY gained in post-menopausal women. The cost effectiveness was most sensitive to the proportion of women classified as intermediate risk by the RS-assay who receive adjuvant chemotherapy and the risk of relapse in the RS-assay model. Conclusions The RS-assay is likely to be cost effective in the Canadian healthcare system and should be considered for adoption in women with ER+/ PR + LN- ESBC. However, ongoing assessment and validation of the assay in real-world clinical practice is warranted. PMID:23031196

  11. Chemical applicability domain of the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) for skin sensitisation potency. Part 3. Apparent discrepancies between LLNA and GPMT sensitisation potential: False positives or differences in sensitivity?

    PubMed

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2016-10-01

    The Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA) is the gold standard regulatory toxicology test for skin sensitisation along with the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT). Compared with the GPMT, LLNA uses fewer animals, it is quantitative, and it gives a numerical prediction of potency. However several concerns have been raised with this assay, mainly related to false positives and false negatives. Over the years, many authors, including the developers of the assay, have presented cases where there have been discrepancies between the GMPT and LLNA results. Several theories have been put forward for these discrepancies, the main one being the "over-sensitivity" of the GPMT. This paper analyses the data from a systematic study, published in three papers from 2008 to 2011, covering several classes of chemicals, in particular unsaturated fatty acids, sugar surfactants and ethoxylated alcohols, with many cases of chemicals testing positive in the LLNA being negative in the GPMT. Based on consideration of reaction chemistry and structural alerts, it is concluded that these discrepancies are not LLNA false positives, but can be rationalised in terms of the different protocols of the assays. PMID:27477089

  12. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  13. A Retrospective Study of the Impact of 21-Gene Recurrence Score Assay on Treatment Choice in Node Positive Micrometastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frazier, Thomas G.; Fox, Kevin R.; Smith, J. Stanley; Laronga, Christine; McSwain, Anita; Paul, Devchand; Schultz, Michael; Stilwill, Joseph; Teal, Christine; Weisberg, Tracey; Vacchino, Judith F.; Sing, Amy P.; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hsiao, Wendy; Chang, Eunice; Broder, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess clinical utility of the 21-gene assay (Oncotype DX® Recurrence Score®), we determined whether women with HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer with low (<18) Recurrence Scores results are given adjuvant chemotherapy in a lower proportion than those with high scores (≥31). This was a multicenter chart review of ≥18 year old women with pN1mi breast cancer, HER2(−)/ER+ tumors, ductal/lobular/mixed histology, with the assay ordered on or after 1 January 2007. One hundred and eighty one patients had a mean age of 60.7 years; 82.9% had ECOG performance status 0; 33.7% had hypertension, 22.7% had osteoporosis, 18.8% had osteoarthritis, and 8.8% had type-2 diabetes. Mean Recurrence Score was 17.8 (range: 0–50). 48.6% had a mastectomy; 55.8% had a lumpectomy. 19.8% of low-risk group patients were recommended chemotherapy vs. 57.9% in the intermediate-risk group and 100% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). A total of 80.2% of the low-risk group were recommended endocrine therapy alone, while 77.8% of the high-risk group were recommended both endocrine and chemotherapy (p < 0.001). The Oncotype DX Recurrence Score result provides actionable information that can be incorporated into treatment planning for women with HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer. The Recurrence Score result has clinical utility in treatment planning for HER2(−)/ER+ pN1mi breast cancer patients. PMID:25789420

  14. Appraisal of within- and between-laboratory reproducibility of non-radioisotopic local lymph node assay using flow cytometry, LLNA:BrdU-FCM: comparison of OECD TG429 performance standard and statistical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyeri; Na, Jihye; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Mi-Sook; Jeon, Jun-Young; Heo, Yong; Yeo, Kyung-Wook; Jo, Ji-Hoon; Lim, Kyung-Min; Bae, SeungJin

    2015-05-01

    Mouse local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG429) is an alternative test replacing conventional guinea pig tests (OECD TG406) for the skin sensitization test but the use of a radioisotopic agent, (3)H-thymidine, deters its active dissemination. New non-radioisotopic LLNA, LLNA:BrdU-FCM employs a non-radioisotopic analog, 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and flow cytometry. For an analogous method, OECD TG429 performance standard (PS) advises that two reference compounds be tested repeatedly and ECt(threshold) values obtained must fall within acceptable ranges to prove within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. However, this criteria is somewhat arbitrary and sample size of ECt is less than 5, raising concerns about insufficient reliability. Here, we explored various statistical methods to evaluate the reproducibility of LLNA:BrdU-FCM with stimulation index (SI), the raw data for ECt calculation, produced from 3 laboratories. Descriptive statistics along with graphical representation of SI was presented. For inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric methods were applied to test the reproducibility of SI of a concurrent positive control and the robustness of results were investigated. Descriptive statistics and graphical representation of SI alone could illustrate the within- and between-laboratory reproducibility. Inferential statistics employing parametric and nonparametric methods drew similar conclusion. While all labs passed within- and between-laboratory reproducibility criteria given by OECD TG429 PS based on ECt values, statistical evaluation based on SI values showed that only two labs succeeded in achieving within-laboratory reproducibility. For those two labs that satisfied the within-lab reproducibility, between-laboratory reproducibility could be also attained based on inferential as well as descriptive statistics. PMID:25732604

  15. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  16. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  17. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  18. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  19. Scalable Node Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Drotar, Alexander P.; Quinn, Erin E.; Sutherland, Landon D.

    2012-07-30

    Project description is: (1) Build a high performance computer; and (2) Create a tool to monitor node applications in Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) using code from Lightweight Data Metric Service (LDMS). The importance of this project is that: (1) there is a need a scalable, parallel tool to monitor nodes on clusters; and (2) New LDMS plugins need to be able to be easily added to tool. CBTF stands for Component Based Tool Framework. It's scalable and adjusts to different topologies automatically. It uses MRNet (Multicast/Reduction Network) mechanism for information transport. CBTF is flexible and general enough to be used for any tool that needs to do a task on many nodes. Its components are reusable and 'EASILY' added to a new tool. There are three levels of CBTF: (1) frontend node - interacts with users; (2) filter nodes - filters or concatenates information from backend nodes; and (3) backend nodes - where the actual work of the tool is done. LDMS stands for lightweight data metric servies. It's a tool used for monitoring nodes. Ltool is the name of the tool we derived from LDMS. It's dynamically linked and includes the following components: Vmstat, Meminfo, Procinterrupts and more. It works by: Ltool command is run on the frontend node; Ltool collects information from the backend nodes; backend nodes send information to the filter nodes; and filter nodes concatenate information and send to a database on the front end node. Ltool is a useful tool when it comes to monitoring nodes on a cluster because the overhead involved with running the tool is not particularly high and it will automatically scale to any size cluster.

  20. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  1. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  2. Evaluating the sensitization potential of surfactants: integrating data from the local lymph node assay, guinea pig maximization test, and in vitro methods in a weight-of-evidence approach.

    PubMed

    Ball, Nicholas; Cagen, Stuart; Carrillo, Juan-Carlos; Certa, Hans; Eigler, Dorothea; Emter, Roger; Faulhammer, Frank; Garcia, Christine; Graham, Cynthia; Haux, Carl; Kolle, Susanne N; Kreiling, Reinhard; Natsch, Andreas; Mehling, Annette

    2011-08-01

    An integral part of hazard and safety assessments is the estimation of a chemical's potential to cause skin sensitization. Currently, only animal tests (OECD 406 and 429) are accepted in a regulatory context. Nonanimal test methods are being developed and formally validated. In order to gain more insight into the responses induced by eight exemplary surfactants, a battery of in vivo and in vitro tests were conducted using the same batch of chemicals. In general, the surfactants were negative in the GPMT, KeratinoSens and hCLAT assays and none formed covalent adducts with test peptides. In contrast, all but one was positive in the LLNA. Most were rated as being irritants by the EpiSkin assay with the additional endpoint, IL1-alpha. The weight of evidence based on this comprehensive testing indicates that, with one exception, they are non-sensitizing skin irritants, confirming that the LLNA tends to overestimate the sensitization potential of surfactants. As results obtained from LLNAs are considered as the gold standard for the development of new nonanimal alternative test methods, results such as these highlight the necessity to carefully evaluate the applicability domains of test methods in order to develop reliable nonanimal alternative testing strategies for sensitization testing. PMID:21645576

  3. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  4. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, A; Ushiyama, I; Kikui, Y; Yamamoto, H

    2001-04-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  5. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans

    PubMed Central

    TANEGASHIMA, A.; USHIYAMA, I.; KIKUI, Y.; YAMAMOTO, H.

    2001-01-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  6. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  7. Tumor immunity in rat lymph nodes following transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Rabson, J A; Geyer, S J; Levine, G; Swartz, W M; Futrell, J W

    1982-01-01

    Inguinal lymph nodes in the Buffalo rat were autotransplanted to the popliteal fossa by an intact vascular pedicle or by microvascular anastomosis. These revascularized nodes had normal histology and made spontaneous afferent and efferent lymphatic reconnection with surrounding lymphatic vessels, as documented by ink and silicone rubber injection studies. Lymphoscintigraphy with 99mTc antimony sulfide colloid correctly predicted the 44 of 120 node transplants that had made afferent reconnection. To demonstrate immunologic activity of lymph nodes following transplantation, a cellular adherance assay was employed to detect cell-mediated cytotoxicity of lymph node cells isolated from rats sensitized to an allogeneic gliosarcoma. Cytotoxicity was detected in nontransplanted regional nodes sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.01) and in nodes transplanted by vascular pedicle and then sensitized to tumor (p less than 0.001). This study demonstrates that lymph nodes can be transplanted with restoration of functional lymphatic anatomy, and that following transplantation, lymph nodes retain the ability to mount an immune response against tumor. Images Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:7092359

  8. The lymph node neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Henry R; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs provide a specialized microenvironment tailored to foster communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions allow immune cells to coordinate multilayered defense against pathogens. Until recently dendritic cells and macrophages were thought to comprise the main innate immune cell subsets responsible for delivering signals that drive the adaptive immune response, while the function of neutrophils was largely confined to the innate immune system. However, the discovery of neutrophils in lymph nodes has raised the question of whether neutrophils might play a more extensive role not only in innate immunity per se, but also in coordinating the interactions between innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes and how this recruitment influences subsequent immune responses both in situ and at distant sites. PMID:27025975

  9. One node driving synchronisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  10. One node driving synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators. PMID:26656718

  11. Topoisomerase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Nitiss, John L.; Soans, Eroica; Rogojina, Anna; Seth, Aman; Mishina, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Topoisomerases are nuclear enzymes that play essential roles in DNA replication, transcription, chromosome segregation, and recombination. All cells have two major forms of topoisomerases: type I, which makes single-stranded cuts in DNA, and type II enzymes, which cut and pass double-stranded DNA. DNA topoisomerases are important targets of approved and experimental anti-cancer agents. The protocols described in this unit are of assays used to assess new chemical entities for their ability to inhibit both forms of DNA topoisomerase. Included are an in vitro assay for topoisomerase I activity based on relaxation of supercoiled DNA and an assay for topoisomerase II based on the decatenation of double-stranded DNA. The preparation of mammalian cell extracts for assaying topoisomerase activity is described, along with a protocol for an ICE assay for examining topoisomerase covalent complexes in vivo and an assay for measuring DNA cleavage in vitro. PMID:22684721

  12. Right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Zhang1 and colleagues at Peking Union Medical College in Beijing have described their experience of dissecting the right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis and correlated the overall incidence to important prognostic factors of the primary tumor and lateral nodal metastasis. Zhang et al., reviewed their experience of 246 patients who underwent surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma. They noted right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (RPELN) in 33 patients (13.4%). Their multivariate analysis showed higher incidence of RPELN metastasis in patients with right sided tumor, 3 of more lateral positive lymph nodes and positive right central compartment nodes. The prevalence of RPELN metastasis was significantly higher (26%) in recurrent cases. PMID:26610750

  13. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory. PMID:24658233

  14. In vitro autoradiographic localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme in sarcoid lymph nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, R.K.; Chai, S.Y.; Dunbar, M.S.; Mendelsohn, F.A.

    1986-09-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was localized in sarcoid lymph nodes by an in vitro autoradiographic technique using a synthetic ACE inhibitor of high affinity, /sup 125/I-labelled 351A. The lymph nodes were from seven patients with active sarcoidosis who underwent mediastinoscopy and from six control subjects who had nodes resected at either mediastinoscopy or laparotomy. Angiotensin-converting enzyme was localized in the epithelioid cells of sarcoid granulomata in markedly increased amounts compared with control nodes, where it was restricted to vessels and some histiocytes. In sarcoid lymph nodes, there was little ACE present in lymphocytes or fibrous tissue. Sarcoid nodes with considerable fibrosis had much less intense ACE activity than the nonfibrotic nodes. The specific activity of ACE measured by an enzymatic assay in both the control and sarcoid lymph nodes closely reflected the ACE activity demonstrated by autoradiography. Sarcoid lymph nodes with fibrosis had an ACE specific activity of half that of nonfibrotic nodes (p less than 0.05). There was a 15-fold increase in specific ACE activity in sarcoid nodes (p less than 0.05) compared to normal. Serum ACE was significantly higher in those sarcoid patients whose lymph nodes were not fibrosed compared with those with fibrosis (p less than 0.01). This technique offers many advantages over the use of polyclonal antibodies. The 351A is a highly specific ACE inhibitor, chemically defined and in limitless supply. This method enables the quantitation of results, and autoradiographs may be stored indefinitely for later comparison.

  15. [Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, N V

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas is a rather rare phenomenon; according to different authors, the incidence of lymph node metastasis is 4 to 11%. The detection of lymph node metastases in osteosarcoma is associated with a significant reduction in the 5-year survival of patients and allows its classification as clinical stage IV tumor. The risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with bone sarcomas are age (≥64 years), gender (female), nosological entity (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), tumor depth (muscle, bone), and the size of primary tumor (>5 сm). The mechanism of lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas seems to be related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. PMID:27600784

  16. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  17. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ≥250≤5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p = 0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  18. Helicase Assays

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Li, Jing; Diaz, Jason; You, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Helicases are a class of enzymes which are motor proteins using energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to move directionally along a nucliec acid phosphodiester backbone (such as DNA, RNA and DNA-RNA hybrids) and separate two annealed nucleic acid strands. Many cellular processes, such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair involve helicase activity. Here, we provide a protocol to analyze helicase activities in vitro. In this protocol, the DNA helicase protein Merkel cell polyomavirus large T-antigen was expressed in the mammalian cell line HEK293 and immoblized on an IgG resin. The helicase assay is performing while the protein is immoblized on IgG resin.

  19. Angiogenesis Assays.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, Dhanya K; Kujur, Praveen K; Singh, Rana P

    2016-01-01

    Neoangiogenesis constitutes one of the first steps of tumor progression beyond a critical size of tumor growth, which supplies a dormant mass of cancerous cells with the required nutrient supply and gaseous exchange through blood vessels essentially needed for their sustained and aggressive growth. In order to understand any biological process, it becomes imperative that we use models, which could mimic the actual biological system as closely as possible. Hence, finding the most appropriate model is always a vital part of any experimental design. Angiogenesis research has also been much affected due to lack of simple, reliable, and relevant models which could be easily quantitated. The angiogenesis models have been used extensively for studying the action of various molecules for agonist or antagonistic behaviour and associated mechanisms. Here, we have described two protocols or models which have been popularly utilized for studying angiogenic parameters. Rat aortic ring assay tends to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo models. The chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay is one of the most utilized in vivo model system for angiogenesis-related studies. The CAM is highly vascularized tissue of the avian embryo and serves as a good model to study the effects of various test compounds on neoangiogenesis. PMID:26608294

  20. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  1. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  2. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  3. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  4. SensorNet Node Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  5. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  6. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  7. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias. PMID:27166347

  8. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  9. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  10. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  11. Nodal lymph flow quantified with afferent vessel input function allows differentiation between normal and cancer-bearing nodes

    PubMed Central

    DSouza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Barth, Richard J.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy could ideally be improved using node assay techniques that are non-invasive. While visible blue dyes are often used to locate the sentinel lymph nodes from draining lymphatic vessels near a tumor, they do not provide an in situ metric to evaluate presence of cancer. In this study, the transport kinetics of methylene blue were analyzed to determine the potential for better in situ information about metastatic involvement in the nodes. A rat model with cancer cells in the axillary lymph nodes was used, with methylene blue injection to image the fluorescence kinetics. The lymphatic flow from injection sites to nodes was imaged and the relative kinetics from feeding lymphatic ducts relative to lymph nodes was quantified. Large variability existed in raw fluorescence and transport patterns within each cohort resulting in no systematic difference between average nodal uptake in normal, sham control and cancer-bearing nodes. However, when the signal from the afferent lymph vessel fluorescence was used to normalize the signal of the lymph nodes, the high signal heterogeneity was reduced. Using a model, the lymph flow through the nodes (FLN) was estimated to be 1.49 ± 0.64 ml/g/min in normal nodes, 1.53 ± 0.45 ml/g/min in sham control nodes, and reduced to 0.50 ± 0.24 ml/g/min in cancer-cell injected nodes. This summarizes the significant difference (p = 0.0002) between cancer-free and cancer-bearing nodes in normalized flow. This process of normalized flow imaging could be used as an in situ tool to detect metastatic involvement in nodes. PMID:25909014

  12. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  13. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  14. Approach to intensely enhancing neck nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Amit; Gummalla, Krishna Mohan; Loke, Siu Cheng; Goh, Julian; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical node evaluation is one of the most common problems encountered by a radiologist. Here, we present a pictorial review of intensely enhancing neck nodes. While enhancement in a cervical node is a common radiologic finding on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, only few conditions cause intense enhancement in cervical nodes. We discuss the common causes of intensely enhancing neck nodes along with pertinent radiologic features and key differentiating points that aid radiologists in reaching a diagnosis. In addition, we discuss certain potential non-nodal mimics, which need to be excluded. PMID:26782154

  15. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  16. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Jamil; Yin, Qian; Uehara, Mayuko; Ohori, Shunsuke; Tang, Li; Cai, Kaimin; Ichimura, Takaharu; McGrath, Martina; Maarouf, Omar; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Loughhead, Scott; Petr, Jarolim; Sun, Qidi; Kwon, Mincheol; Tullius, Stefan; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Cheng, Jianjun; Abdi, Reza

    2016-05-10

    Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo. PMID:27134176

  17. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  18. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Libshitz, H I; McKenna, R J

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Specificity was 66% (43/65). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Of these, 21 had mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm; 10 harbored metastases and 11 did not. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. In both of these groups, metastatic nodal disease was found in only 25% of nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. PMID:6332469

  19. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  20. Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Chow, V. I.; Williams, S. L.; Botsford, L. W.; Morgan, S. G.; Nyden, B.; Tustin, J. A.; McAfee, S.; Shideler, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON) is comprised of radar mapping of surface currents, a moored current profiler, and shoreline oceanographic and meteorological observations. Ongoing shoreline data on temperature and salinity date back to 1955, with continuous records of sealevel, wind, meteorology, and chlorophyll fluorescence starting more recently. Radar observations started in 2001 with deployment of two CODAR antennae. Together with a third CODAR unit deployed in 2002, these provide coverage from Pt Reyes north to the CODE line. Real-time ADCP data from the mooring started in late 2004. Plans include nearshore wave data, CTD/fluorescence data from the mooring, and deployment of a nutrient sensor at the shoreline. This coastal ocean observing node is part of the state-funded COCMP-NC program and the CeNCOOS regional association for central and northern California. Ancillary regional data are available on offshore winds (NDBC buoys), offshore waves (CDIP buoy), river flow, and satellite observations. The value of this suite of measurements is built on (1) detailed understanding of circulation, derived from WEST, CODE, and other prior studies of this region, including mesoscale atmosphere and ocean modeling, (2) active integration of circulation patterns in ongoing studies of planktonic and benthic ecology, and (3) direct interaction with local, state and federal agencies with interest in this region. To-date, the ongoing data series have shown potential for improved understanding and monitoring of fishery populations such as salmon and crab, as well as water quality concerns including oil spills and toxic pollutants. Through an active involvement in local studies and environmental management issues, BOON seeks to develop alternatives to supply-side thinking in the design of coastal ocean observing systems. BOON is based at the Bodega Marine Laboratory and thus provides invaluable support for academic study of more fundamental questions, such as carbon budgets

  1. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  2. UWB-WBAN sensor node design.

    PubMed

    Keong, Ho Chee; Yuce, M R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hardware development of a UWB sensor node for wireless body area networks. A few unique UWB pulse generation techniques have been discussed. The sensor node transmits multiple pulses per bit to increase the average power of the transmitted signal in order to improve the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The multiple-pulse per bit technique is also used as the coding scheme to identify the individual sensor nodes when more than one sensor forms a network. The sensors nodes are able to transmit body signals up to 2 m with a BER lower than 10(-5). PMID:22254770

  3. What's the Best Node for Your Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2000-03-01

    A well designed cluster requires a node containing the most appropriate balance of resources for the problems it will be solving. For many scientific problems, memory bandwidth or peripheral bandwidth can be a severe bottleneck, and spending extra money on a faster processor will not increase performance significantly. This talk will cover the options available for cluster nodes including processors, memory speeds and standards, and peripheral busses. There will also be a discussion of when SMP nodes should be used, and how many processors can be accomodated per node.

  4. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  5. The Planetary Data System Geosciences Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Slavney, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node is to archive and distribute planetary geosciences datasets relevant to the surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets and moons. This objective is accomplished through the following efforts. The Node works with planetary missions to help ensure that data of relevance to the geosciences discipline are properly documented and archived. The Node restores and publishes selected geoscience datasets from past missions on CD-ROM for distribution to the planetary science community. Data archived at the Node are distributed on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, CD-WO, or by electronic transfer over the Internet. The Geo-sciences Node provides information and expert assistance on its data holdings. Derived image, geophysics, microwave, spaceborne thermal, and radio science data are archived at the lead node or at one of the subnodes. Currently, the amount of data archived at the Node is on the order of 500 Gbytes stored on a combination of nearly 800 CD-ROMs and CD-WOs. Current archives within the Node include data from the Magellan and Viking missions, the Geological Remote Sensing Field Experiment, and a collection of radar, altimetry, and gravity datasets for Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth, and the Moon, together with software to analyze the data. The Node maintains on-line catalogs that enable the science community to search through the Geosciences Node archives and to order selected datasets. Access to the Node's catalogs and on-line datasets is available via the Internet using a remote login or via the World Wide Web (WWW).

  6. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  7. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  8. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node. PMID:26675994

  9. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  10. Testnodes: a Lightweight Node-Testing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  11. Lung Cancer Lymph Node Micrometastasis Detection Using RT-PCR – Correlation with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) expression

    PubMed Central

    Nwogu, Chukwumere E.; Yendamuri, Sai; Tan, Wei; Kannisto, Eric; Bogner, Paul; Morrison, Carl; Cheney, Richard; Dexter, Elisabeth; Picone, Anthony; Hennon, Mark; Hutson, Alan; Reid, Mary; Adjei, Alex; Demmy, Todd L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Lymph node (LN) staging provides critical information in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Lymphangiogenesis may be an important contributor to the pathophysiology of lymphatic metastases. We hypothesized that the presence of lymph node micrometastases positively correlates with VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 (lymphangiogenic factors) expression in lymph nodes. Methods Forty NSCLC patients had pre-operative PET-CT and mediastinoscopy. RT-PCR assays for mRNA expression of epithelial markers (CK-7, CEACAM-5 and PLUNC) were performed in selected fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes. VEGF-A/C/D and VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels were measured in primary tumors and lymph nodes. Wilcoxon rank sum test was run for the association between the RT-PCR epithelial marker levels and VEGF expression levels in the LNs. Results RT-PCR for CK-7, CEACAM5 or PLUNC indicated lymph node micrometastatic disease in 19 of 35 patients (54%). There was a high correlation between detection of micrometastases and VEGF-A/C/D or VEGF-receptor-3 expression levels in lymph nodes. Median follow-up was 12.6 months. Conclusions RT-PCR analysis of FDG-avid lymph nodes results in up-staging of patients. Micrometastases correlate with the expression of VEGF in lymph nodes in NSCLC patients. This may reflect the role of lymphangiogenesis in promoting metastases. PMID:23414988

  12. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  13. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  14. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  15. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  16. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  17. Imaging of Lymph Node Micrometastases Using an Oncolytic Herpes Virus and [18F]FEAU PET

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Peter; Kelly, Kaitlyn; Gang, Sheng; Shah, Jatin P.; Wong, Richard J.; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G.; Fong, Yuman; Gil, Ziv

    2009-01-01

    Background In patients with melanoma, knowledge of regional lymph node status provides important information on outlook. Since lymph node status can influence treatment, surgery for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy became a standard staging procedure for these patients. Current imaging modalities have a limited sensitivity for detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes and, therefore, there is a need for a better technique that can accurately identify occult SLN metastases. Methodology/Principal Findings B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were infected with replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) NV1023. The presence of tumor-targeting and reporter-expressing virus was assessed by [18F]-2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-1-β-D-β-arabinofuranosyl-5-ethyluracil ([18F]FEAU) positron emission tomography (PET) and confirmed by histochemical assays. An animal foot pad model of melanoma lymph node metastasis was established. Mice received intratumoral injections of NV1023, and 48 hours later were imaged after i.v. injection of [18F]FEAU. NV1023 successfully infected and provided high levels of lacZ transgene expression in melanoma cells. Intratumoral injection of NV1023 resulted in viral trafficking to melanoma cells that had metastasized to popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes. Presence of virus-infected tumor cells was successfully imaged with [18F]FEAU-PET, that identified 8 out of 8 tumor-positive nodes. There was no overlap between radioactivity levels (lymph node to surrounding tissue ratio) of tumor-positive and tumor-negative lymph nodes. Conclusion/Significance A new approach for imaging SLN metastases using NV1023 and [18F]FEAU-PET was successful in a murine model. Similar studies could be translated to the clinic and improve the staging and management of patients with melanoma. PMID:19274083

  18. Preclinical Evaluation of Robotic-Assisted Sentinel Lymph Node Fluorescence Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Farshchi-Heydari, Salman; Qin, Zhengtao; Hickey, Sean A.; Hall, David J.; Kane, Christopher J.; Vera, David R.

    2015-01-01

    An ideal substance to provide convenient and accurate targeting for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping during robotic-assisted surgery has yet to be found. We used an animal model to determine the ability of the FireFly camera system to detect fluorescent SLNs after administration of a dual-labeled molecular imaging agent. Methods We injected the footpads of New Zealand White rabbits with 1.7 or 8.4 nmol of tilmanocept labeled with 99mTc and a near-infrared fluorophore, IRDye800CW. One and 36 h after injection, popliteal lymph nodes, representing the SLNs, were dissected with the assistance of the FireFly camera system, a fluorescence-capable endoscopic imaging system. After excision of the paraaortic lymph nodes, which represented non-SLNs, we assayed all lymph nodes for radioactivity and fluorescence intensity. Results Fluorescence within all popliteal lymph nodes was easily detected by the FireFly camera system. Fluorescence within the lymph channel could be imaged during the 1-h studies. When compared with the paraaortic lymph nodes, the popliteal lymph nodes retain greater than 95% of the radioactivity at both 1 and 36 h after injection. At both doses (1.7 and 8.4 nmol), the popliteal nodes had higher (P < 0.050) optical fluorescence intensity than the paraaortic nodes at the 1- and 36-h time points. Conclusion The FireFly camera system can easily detect tilmanocept labeled with a near-infrared fluorophore at least 36 h after administration. This ability will permit image acquisition and subsequent verification of fluorescence-labeled SLNs during robotic-assisted surgery. PMID:25024425

  19. Selective activator protein-1 inhibitor T-5224 prevents lymph node metastasis in an oral cancer model.

    PubMed

    Kamide, Daisuke; Yamashita, Taku; Araki, Koji; Tomifuji, Masayuki; Tanaka, Yuya; Tanaka, Shingo; Shiozawa, Shunichi; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2016-05-01

    Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a transcriptional factor that regulates the expression of various genes associated with tumor invasion and migration. The purpose of our study was to assess the therapeutic effects of a novel selective AP-1 inhibitor, T-5224, in preventing lymph node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in an orthotopic mouse model. We assessed the effect of T-5224 on HNSCC cell invasion, migration, proliferation, and MMP activity by carrying out an in vitro study using an invasion assay, scratch assay, WST-8 assay, and gelatin zymography. We also observed morphological changes in HNSCC cells by time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, cervical lymph node metastasis was assessed using an orthotopic tumor model of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells (HSC-3-M3) injected in the tongue of a BALB/c nude mouse. T-5224 (150 mg/kg) or vehicle was given orally every day for 4 weeks. Animals were killed and assessed for lymph node metastasis by H&E staining of resected lymph nodes. T-5224 significantly inhibited the invasion, migration, and MMP activity of HNSCC cells in a dose-dependent manner; there was no significant influence on cell proliferation. The antimetastatic effect of T-5224 was also confirmed in our animal study. The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in the model was 40.0% in the T-5224-treated group (n = 30) versus 74.1% in the vehicle-treated group (n = 27; P < 0.05). In conclusion, T-5224 inhibited the invasion and migration of HNSCC cells in vitro, and prevented lymph node metastasis in head and neck cancer in an animal model. PMID:26918517

  20. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  1. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  2. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  3. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  4. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  5. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  6. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  7. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K.; Snyderman, Neal J.; Rowland, Mark S.

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  8. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  9. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  10. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  11. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  12. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite. PMID:24887872

  13. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  14. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  15. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  16. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  17. Uniform Strain Elements for Three-Node Triangular and Four-Node Tetrahedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1999-03-02

    A family of uniform strain elements is presented for three-node triangular and four-node tetrahedral meshes. The elements use the linear interpolation functions of the original mesh, but each element is associated with a single node. As a result, a favorable constraint ratio for the volumetric response is obtained for problems in solid mechanics. The uniform strain elements do not require the introduction of additional degrees of freedom and their performance is shown to be significantly better than that of three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. In addition, nodes inside the boundary of the mesh are observed to exhibit superconvergent behavior for a set of example problems.

  18. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  19. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  20. A Factor Capable of Increasing Vascular Permeability Present in Lymph Node Cells

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, D. A.; Boughton, Barbara; Schild, H. O.

    1963-01-01

    A soluble extract from guinea-pig lymph node cells (LPF) has been found to increase vascular permeability in the skin of the rat. The active substance has been differentiated from histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, bradykinin, substance P, kallikrein and the globulin permeability factors from rat and guinea-pig serum by means of parallel quantitative assays. LPF was present in both sensitized and non-sensitized guinea-pig lymph node cells and in lymph node cells from rats and mice. LPF also increased vascular permeability in the skin of guinea-pigs, mice and rabbits. The possible importance of this factor in the mechanism of the delayed reactions is discussed. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 3 PMID:14069726

  1. Cat scratch disease and lymph node tuberculosis in a colon patient with cancer.

    PubMed

    Matias, M; Marques, T; Ferreira, M A; Ribeiro, L

    2013-01-01

    A 71-year-old man operated for a sigmoid tumour remained in the surveillance after adjuvant chemotherapy. After 3 years, a left axillary lymph node was visible on CT scan. The biopsy revealed a necrotising and abscessed granulomatous lymphadenitis, suggestive of cat scratch disease. The patient confirmed having been scratched by a cat and the serology for Bartonella henselae was IgM+/IgG-. Direct and culture examinations for tuberculosis were negative. The patient was treated for cat scratch disease. One year later, the CT scan showed increased left axillary lymph nodes and a left pleural effusion. Direct and cultural examinations to exclude tuberculosis were again negative. Interferon-γ release assay testing for tuberculosis was undetermined and then positive. Lymph node and pleural tuberculosis were diagnosed and treated with a good radiological response. This article has provides evidence of the importance of continued search for the right diagnosis and that two diagnoses can happen in the same patient. PMID:24334464

  2. Immunochromatographic assay on thread.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gina; Mao, Xun; Juncker, David

    2012-09-18

    Lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays are low-cost, simple-to-use, rapid tests for point-of-care screening of infectious diseases, drugs of abuse, and pregnancy. However, lateral flow assays are generally not quantitative, give a yes/no answer, and lack multiplexing. Threads have recently been proposed as a support for transporting and mixing liquids in lateral-flow immunochromatographic assays, but their use for quantitative high-sensitivity immunoassays has yet to be demonstrated. Here, we introduce the immunochromatographic assay on thread (ICAT) in a cartridge format that is suitable for multiplexing. The ICAT is a sandwich assay performed on a cotton thread knotted to a nylon fiber bundle, both of which are precoated with recognition antibodies against one target analyte. Upon sample application, the assay results become visible to the eye within a few minutes and are quantified using a flatbed scanner. Assay conditions were optimized, the binding curves for C-reactive protein (CRP) in buffer and diluted serum were established and a limit of detection of 377 pM was obtained. The possibility of multiplexing was demonstrated using three knotted threads coated with antibodies against CRP, osteopontin, and leptin proteins. The performance of the ICAT was compared with that of the paper-based and conventional assays. The results suggest that thread is a suitable support for making low-cost, sensitive, simple-to-use, and multiplexed diagnostic tests. PMID:22889381

  3. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  4. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D.

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  5. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Moussa, Malaak N.; Paolini, Brielle M.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10–20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the “correct” method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  7. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  8. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  9. Weyl Nodes in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Singular points in the momentum space (Dirac nodes) have been under intensive investigation recently. Among various Dirac systems, materials having three-dimensional Dirac nodes without spin degeneracy (Weyl nodes) are of particular interest because of their topological nature. We study trigonal Te and Se as systems having both strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and broken inversion symmetry, which is necessary for the Weyl node. We calculate the electronic structure by using QMAS based on relativistic density functional theory, and add the self-energy correction in the GW approximation. Te and Se are insulating at ambient pressure. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture. The energy gap decreases with increasing pressure. In the metallic phase, the spin rotates twice around H on the kz = +/- π/c plane, which can be explained by the motion of the Weyl nodes under pressure. We also find that trigonal Te shows the Weyl semimetal phase with time-reversal symmetry under pressure.

  10. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  11. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  12. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  13. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Jenssen, Christian; Saftoiu, Adrian; Ignee, Andre; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2013-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the recommended imaging method for lymph node (LN) diseases with the advantages of high resolution, real time evaluation and relative low costs. Current indications of transcutaneous ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound include the detection and characterization of lymph nodes and the guidance for LN biopsy. Recent advances in US technology, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), contrast enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS), and real time elastography show potential to improve the accuracy of US for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes. In addition, CEUS and CE-EUS have been also used for the guidance of fine needle aspiration and assessment of treatment response. Complementary to size criteria, CEUS could also be used to evaluate response of tumor angiogenesis to anti-angiogenic therapies. In this paper we review current literature regarding evaluation of lymphadenopathy by new and innovative US techniques. PMID:23946589

  14. Saddle-node bifurcation of viscous profiles.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, Franz; Szmolyan, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Traveling wave solutions of viscous conservation laws, that are associated to Lax shocks of the inviscid equation, have generically a transversal viscous profile. In the case of a non-transversal viscous profile we show by using Melnikov theory that a parametrized perturbation of the profile equation leads generically to a saddle-node bifurcation of these solutions. An example of this bifurcation in the context of magnetohydrodynamics is given. The spectral stability of the traveling waves generated in the saddle-node bifurcation is studied via an Evans function approach. It is shown that generically one real eigenvalue of the linearization of the viscous conservation law around the parametrized family of traveling waves changes its sign at the bifurcation point. Hence this bifurcation describes the basic mechanism of a stable traveling wave which becomes unstable in a saddle-node bifurcation. PMID:23576830

  15. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  16. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  17. Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the Pearson correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.

  18. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  19. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  20. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  1. Robotic-Assisted Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping Using Multi-Modal Image-Guidance in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Stroup, Sean P.; Cand, Zhengtao Qin; Hoh, Carl; Hall, David J.; Vera, David R.; Kane, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate PET/CT pre-operative imaging and intraoperative detection of a fluorescent-labeled receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical in a prostate cancer animal model. Methods Three male Beagle dogs underwent an intra-prostatic injection of fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept radio-labeled with both gallium-68 and technetium-99m. One hour after injection a pelvic PET/CT scan was performed for pre-operative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. Definition of SLN was a standardized uptake value (SUV) that exceeded 5% of the lymph node with the highest SUV. Thirty-six hours later we performed robotic-assisted SLN dissection using a fluorescence-capable camera system. Fluorescent lymph nodes were clipped, the abdomen was opened, and the pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes were excised. All excised nodal packets were assayed by in vitro nuclear counting and reported as percent-of-injected dose. Results Pre-operative PET/CT imaging identified a median of three sentinel lymph nodes per animal. All sentinel lymph nodes (100%) identified by the PET/CT were fluorescent during robotic-assisted lymph node dissection. Of all fluorescent nodes visualized by the camera system, 83% (10/12) satisfied the 5%-rule defined by the PET/CT scan. The two lymph nodes that did not qualify accumulated less than 0.002% of the injected dose. Conclusions Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept has optimal logistical properties to obtain pre-operative PET/CT and subsequent real-time intraoperative confirmation during robotic-assisted sentinel lymph node dissection. PMID:25139676

  2. Lateral flow assays

    PubMed Central

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.

    2016-01-01

    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  3. Doped colorimetric assay liposomes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides compositions comprising colorimetric assay liposomes. The present invention also provides methods for producing colorimetric liposomes and calorimetric liposome assay systems. In preferred embodiments, these calorimetric liposome systems provide high levels of sensitivity through the use of dopant molecules. As these dopants allow the controlled destabilization of the liposome structure, upon exposure of the doped liposomes to analyte(s) of interest, the indicator color change is facilitated and more easily recognized.

  4. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  5. SNAP Assay Technology.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Thomas P

    2015-12-01

    The most widely used immunoassay configuration is the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) because the procedure produces highly sensitive and specific results and generally is easy to use. By definition, ELISAs are immunoassays used to detect a substance (typically an antigen or antibody) in which an enzyme is attached (conjugated) to one of the reactants and an enzymatic reaction is used to amplify the signal if the substance is present. Optimized ELISAs include several steps that are performed in sequence using a defined protocol that typically includes application of sample and an enzyme-conjugated antibody or antigen to an immobilized reagent, followed by wash and enzyme reaction steps. The SNAP assay is an in-clinic device that performs each of the ELISA steps in a timed sequential fashion with little consumer interface. The components and mechanical mechanism of the assay device are described. Detailed descriptions of features of the assay, which minimize nonspecific binding and enhance the ability to read results from weak-positive samples, are given. Basic principles used in assays with fundamentally different reaction mechanisms, namely, antigen-detection, antibody-detection, and competitive assays are given. Applications of ELISA technology, which led to the development of several multianalyte SNAP tests capable of testing for up to 6 analytes using a single-sample and a single-SNAP device are described. PMID:27154596

  6. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  7. Isolation of Murine Lymph Node Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Nadège; Rossi, Simona W.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs including lymph nodes are composed of stromal cells that provide a structural environment for homeostasis, activation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Various stromal cell subsets have been identified by the expression of the adhesion molecule CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin (gp38), T zone reticular cells or fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, blood endothelial cells and FRC-like pericytes within the double negative cell population. For all populations different functions are described including, separation and lining of different compartments, attraction of and interaction with different cell types, filtration of the draining fluidics and contraction of the lymphatic vessels. In the last years, different groups have described an additional role of stromal cells in orchestrating and regulating cytotoxic T cell responses potentially dangerous for the host. Lymph nodes are complex structures with many different cell types and therefore require a appropriate procedure for isolation of the desired cell populations. Currently, protocols for the isolation of lymph node stromal cells rely on enzymatic digestion with varying incubation times; however, stromal cells and their surface molecules are sensitive to these enzymes, which results in loss of surface marker expression and cell death. Here a short enzymatic digestion protocol combined with automated mechanical disruption to obtain viable single cells suspension of lymph node stromal cells maintaining their surface molecule expression is proposed. PMID:25178108

  8. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  9. Node influence identification via resource allocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Jiao; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Ye, Chun-Ming; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-07-01

    Identifying the node influence in complex networks is an important task to optimally use the network structure and ensure the more efficient spreading in information. In this paper, by taking into account the resource allocation dynamics (RAD) and the k-shell decomposition method, we present an improved method namely RAD to generate the ranking list to evaluate the node influence. First, comparing with the epidemic process results for four real networks, the RAD method could identify the node influence more accurate than the ones generated by the topology-based measures including the degree, k-shell, closeness and the betweenness. Then, a growing scale-free network model with tunable assortative coefficient is introduced to analyze the effect of the assortative coefficient on the accuracy of the RAD method. Finally, the positive correlation is found between the RAD method and the k-shell values which display an exponential form. This work would be helpful for deeply understanding the node influence of a network.

  10. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  11. The lymph node in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dick, F R; Maca, R D

    1978-01-01

    Lymph nodes were examined from 41 cases of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Degree of immaturity was graded as absent to minimal (Grade I), moderate (Grade II) and marked (Grade III). A moderate degree of immaturity was found in the lymph node in 14 of 41 cases even though the cells seen on the initial bone marrow and peripheral blood smears obtained from these patients were essentially all mature. The morphology of these nodes could be confused with poorly differentiated lymphocytic or mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma in terms of the degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity was found in 5 cases; the morphology of these cases resembled histiocytic lymphoma. In the remaining 22 cases immaturity was essentially absent. The morphology of these cases was similar to that of diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Our studies suggest that a moderate degree of immaturity in the lymph node of patients with CLL does not indicate that these patients will have a marked shortening of their survival. PMID:580071

  12. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  13. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification.

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Tanis, P J; Hoefnagel, C A; Jansen, L; Nieweg, O E; Meinhardt, W; Horenblas, S

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xylocaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. 57Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped basin. It

  14. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  15. Planetary Data System Spaceborne Thermal Data Sub-Node of the Geosciences Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this proposal were: (1) to assemble the existing spacecraft thermal-infrared data and to place these data into a uniform format as specified by the PDS; (2) to develop a standardized software package, user interface, and catalog database to support the access and analysis of existing and planned thermal infrared datasets in order to provide wide community access to these data; (3) to support the distribution of Thermal SubNode data to users as requested; (4) to incorporate future spacecraft thermal observations into the Thermal SubNode; and (5) to sponsor workshops on the applications of Thermal SubNode data.

  16. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Against vaccine assay secrecy

    PubMed Central

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  18. Lateral flow strip assay

    SciTech Connect

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  19. Dissecting molecular stress networks: identifying nodes of divergence between life-history phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Tonia S; Bronikowski, Anne M

    2013-02-01

    The complex molecular network that underlies physiological stress response is comprised of nodes (proteins, metabolites, mRNAs, etc.) whose connections span cells, tissues and organs. Variable nodes are points in the network upon which natural selection may act. Thus, identifying variable nodes will reveal how this molecular stress network may evolve among populations in different habitats and how it might impact life-history evolution. Here, we use physiological and genetic assays to test whether laboratory-born juveniles from natural populations of garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans), which have diverged in their life-history phenotypes, vary concomitantly at candidate nodes of the stress response network, (i) under unstressed conditions and (ii) in response to an induced stress. We found that two common measures of stress (plasma corticosterone and liver gene expression of heat shock proteins) increased under stress in both life-history phenotypes. In contrast, the phenotypes diverged at four nodes both under unstressed conditions and in response to stress: circulating levels of reactive oxygen species (superoxide, H(2)O(2)); liver gene expression of GPX1 and erythrocyte DNA damage. Additionally, allele frequencies for SOD2 diverge from neutral markers, suggesting diversifying selection on SOD2 alleles. This study supports the hypothesis that these life-history phenotypes have diverged at the molecular level in how they respond to stress, particularly in nodes regulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, the differences between the life-history phenotypes were more pronounced in females. We discuss the responses to stress in the context of the associated life-history phenotype and the evolutionary pressures thought to be responsible for divergence between the phenotypes. PMID:22988821

  20. Chick Pcl2 regulates the left-right asymmetry by repressing Shh expression in Hensen's node.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shusheng; Yu, Xueyan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Zunyi; Chen, YiPing

    2004-09-01

    Asymmetric expression of sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the left side of Hensen's node, a crucial step for specifying the left-right (LR) axis in the chick embryo, is established by the repression of Shh expression in the right side of the node. The transcriptional regulator that mediates this repression has not been identified. We report the isolation and characterization of a novel chick Polycomblike 2 gene, chick Pcl2, which encodes a transcription repressor and displays an asymmetric expression, downstream from Activin-betaB and Bmp4, in the right side of Hensen's node in the developing embryo. In vitro mapping studies define the transcription repression activity to the PHD finger domain of the chick Pcl2 protein. Repression of chick Pcl2 expression in the early embryo results in randomized heart looping direction, which is accompanied by the ectopic expression of Shh in the right side of the node and Shh downstream genes in the right lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), while overexpression of chick Pcl2 represses Shh expression in the node. The repression of Shh by chick Pcl2 was also supported by studies in which chick Pcl2 was overexpressed in the developing chick limb bud and feather bud. Similarly, transgenic overexpression of chick Pcl2 in the developing mouse limb inhibits Shh expression in the ZPA. In vitro pull-down assays demonstrated a direct interaction of the chick Pcl2 PHD finger with EZH2, a component of the ESC/E(Z) repressive complex. Taken together with the fact that chick Pcl2 was found to directly repress Shh promoter activity in vitro, our results demonstrate a crucial role for chick Pcl2 in regulating LR axis patterning in the chick by silencing Shh in the right side of the node. PMID:15294861

  1. Instrument for assaying radiation

    DOEpatents

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Farfan, Eduardo B.

    2016-03-22

    An instrument for assaying radiation includes a flat panel detector having a first side opposed to a second side. A collimated aperture covers at least a portion of the first side of the flat panel detector. At least one of a display screen or a radiation shield may cover at least a portion of the second side of the flat panel detector.

  2. Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L. (Inventor); Stowe, Raymond P. (Inventor); Koeing, David W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for conducting an in vitro cell assay using a tetrazolium indicator is disclosed. The indicator includes a nonionic detergent which solubilizes a tetrazolium reduction product in vitro and has low toxicity for the cells. The incubation of test cells in the presence of zolium bromide and octoxynol (TRITON X-100) permits kinetics of the cell metabolism to be determined.

  3. Macroautophagic cargo sequestration assays.

    PubMed

    Seglen, Per O; Luhr, Morten; Mills, Ian G; Sætre, Frank; Szalai, Paula; Engedal, Nikolai

    2015-03-01

    Macroautophagy, the process responsible for bulk sequestration and lysosomal degradation of cytoplasm, is often monitored by means of the autophagy-related marker protein LC3. This protein is linked to the phagophoric membrane by lipidation during the final steps of phagophore assembly, and it remains associated with autophagic organelles until it is degraded in the lysosomes. The transfer of LC3 from cytosol to membranes and organelles can be measured by immunoblotting or immunofluorescence microscopy, but these assays provide no information about functional macroautophagic activity, i.e., whether the phagophores are actually engaged in the sequestration of cytoplasmic cargo and enclosing this cargo into sealed autophagosomes. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggest that macroautophagy can proceed independently of LC3. There is therefore a need for alternative methods, preferably effective cargo sequestration assays, which can monitor actual macroautophagic activity. Here, we provide an overview of various approaches that have been used over the last four decades to measure macroautophagic sequestration activity in mammalian cells. Particular emphasis is given to the so-called "LDH sequestration assay", which measures the transfer of the autophagic cargo marker enzyme LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) from the cytosol to autophagic vacuoles. The LDH sequestration assay was originally developed to measure macroautophagic activity in primary rat hepatocytes. Subsequently, it has found use in several other cell types, and in this article we demonstrate a further validation and simplification of the method, and show that it is applicable to several cell lines that are commonly used to study autophagy. PMID:25576638

  4. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:26716604

  5. Lymphatic mapping of the breast: locating the sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Uren, R F; Howman-Giles, R; Renwick, S B; Gillett, D

    2001-06-01

    When the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy was described in patients with melanoma, researchers quickly started to use lymphatic mapping techniques in breast cancer patients in an attempt to locate the sentinel node in the axilla. We have been performing mammary lymphoscintigraphy in this role for 6 years and have now studied 159 patients. Like others, we have found that most breast cancers (93%) have lymphatic drainage that includes the axilla, and we have found an average of 1.4 axillary sentinel nodes in these patients. Surgical biopsy of the axillary sentinel nodes accurately staged the node field in 96% of patients. We have also found, however, that the pattern of lymphatic drainage from the cancer site is unpredictable; and in 49% of patients lymphatic drainage occurred across the center line of the breast to axillary or internal mammary sentinel nodes. In more than half of our patients (56%) lymphatic drainage occurred to lymph nodes outside the axilla including the internal mammary (45%), supraclavicular (13%), and interpectoral and intramammary interval nodes (12%). These nodes are also sentinel nodes, and their presence indicates that a sentinel node biopsy procedure that stages only the status of the axillary lymph nodes has the potential to understage about half the patients with breast cancer. High quality lymphoscintigraphy allows accurate mapping of peritumoral lymphatic drainage in most patients with breast cancer. It is possible that in the future accurate nodal staging in each individual will involve biopsy of all sentinel lymph nodes, regardless of their location. PMID:11376417

  6. Elevated Serum Leptin Levels are Associated With an Increased Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Junna; Wei, Wei; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Wyatt, Cynthia M.; Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Fasting blood was obtained before surgery, and serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “raw” (assay value) and an “adjusted” value (raw value divided by body mass index). Leptin levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared between sentinel node positive and negative groups. Logistic regression models were used to predict sentinel node status using leptin and other relevant clinical parameters. The raw and adjusted leptin levels were significantly higher in the 15 patients with positive sentinel nodes. These findings could not be attributed to differences in body mass indices. Univariate models revealed raw leptin, adjusted leptin, Breslow thickness, and mitotic rate as significant predictors of sentinel node status. Leptin levels and Breslow thickness remained significant in multivariate models. Survival and follow-up analysis revealed more aggressive disease in diabetic patients. Elevated serum leptin levels predict sentinel node metastasis in melanoma. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts should enable better stratification of early stage melanoma patients. PMID:26986135

  7. Running Geant on T. Node parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. ); Mignot, B. )

    1990-08-01

    AnInmos transputer-based computer has been utilized to overcome the difficulties due to the limitations on the processing abilities of event parallelism and multiprocessor farms (i.e., the so called bus-crisis) and the concern regarding the growing sizes of databases typical in High Energy Physics. This study was done on the T.Node parallel computer manufactured by TELMAT. Detailed figures are reported concerning the event parallelization. (AIP)

  8. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  9. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  10. Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.

    1997-01-16

    We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

  11. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  12. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar. PMID:27302367

  13. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  14. Comparison of Parasite Burden Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay and Limiting Dilution Assay in Leishmania major Infected Mouse

    PubMed Central

    GHOTLOO, Somayeh; HAJI MOLLAHOSEINI, Mostafa; NAJAFI, Ali; YEGANEH, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Limiting dilution assay is considered as the gold standard method for quantifying the number of parasites in the animal model of Leishmania infection. Nowadays, real-time PCR is being increasingly applied to quantify infectious agents. In the present study, a real-time PCR assay was developed to estimate parasite burdens in lymph nodes of Leishmania major infected BALB/C mice. Enumeration of parasites was also performed by limiting dilution assay and compared with the results of real-time PCR based quantification. Methods: The SYBR Green based real-time PCR assay was performed to amplify a 75 bp fragment of superoxide dismutase B1 gene in the lymph nodes of L. major infected BALB/C mice 8 weeks post infection. Mice were infected subcutaneously at the base of their tail with 2 × 105 L. major promastigotes in the stationary phase of growth. To compare parasite burdens obtained by real-time PCR assay with those of limiting dilution assay, twelve 8-fold serial dilutions of the lymph node homogenates were prepared in the Schneider medium and incubated at 26°C. After 7 days, wells containing motile parasites were identified by direct observation under an inverted light microscope and the total number of parasites was estimated using the ELIDA software. Results: Spearman’s correlation coefficient of the parasite burdens between real-time PCR and limiting dilution assay was 0.72 (P value = 0.008). Conclusion: Real-time PCR assay is an appropriate replacement to existing limiting dilution assay in quantifying parasite burden in the experimental model of Leishmania infection. PMID:26811723

  15. Sensor node for remote monitoring of waterborne disease-causing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  16. Sensor Node for Remote Monitoring of Waterborne Disease-Causing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyukwang; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    A sensor node for sampling water and checking for the presence of harmful bacteria such as E. coli in water sources was developed in this research. A chromogenic enzyme substrate assay method was used to easily detect coliform bacteria by monitoring the color change of the sampled water mixed with a reagent. Live webcam image streaming to the web browser of the end user with a Wi-Fi connected sensor node shows the water color changes in real time. The liquid can be manipulated on the web-based user interface, and also can be observed by webcam feeds. Image streaming and web console servers run on an embedded processor with an expansion board. The UART channel of the expansion board is connected to an external Arduino board and a motor driver to control self-priming water pumps to sample the water, mix the reagent, and remove the water sample after the test is completed. The sensor node can repeat water testing until the test reagent is depleted. The authors anticipate that the use of the sensor node developed in this research can decrease the cost and required labor for testing samples in a factory environment and checking the water quality of local water sources in developing countries. PMID:25951340

  17. Rapid Molecular Detection of Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma as an Intraoperative Adjunct to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Robert L.; Stefanika, Patrick; Xi, Liqiang; Gooding, William; Seethala, Raja R.; Godfrey, Tony E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Clinical staging of early head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCCHN) is often inaccurate, leading to elective neck dissection to detect the 30% of patients with micrometastatic disease. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) accurately stages the regional lymphatics, but intraoperative pathology is only moderately sensitive and final pathology takes several days to complete. To facilitate immediate neck dissection where necessary, we have identified several promising marker genes of SCCHN metastasis and developed a rapid, accurate and automated quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assay for intraoperative use. Design Prospective tissue collection, retrospective pathologic correlation with qRT-PCR Methods From a 40-gene marker screen, we quantified expression of 11 potential tumor genes using a test set of primary tumors (n=32), metastatic (n=19), and benign (n=10) lymph nodes. Eight patients’ paired primary tumor and metastatic nodes were included. A validation set of 442 grossly tumor-negative nodes was evaluated for expression of the most promising markers, comparing metastasis detection by qRT-PCR with pathologic analysis (H&E and immunohistochemistry). A novel multiplexed, automated, single-tube qRT-PCR assay was used to analyze over 100 lymph nodes using a two marker, 35-minute assay to determine its negative predictive value (NPV). Results Based on expression of 11 tumor-associated genes from the marker screen, the two most promising markers of SCCHN metastasis in the test set, pemphigus vulgaris antigen (PVA) and tumor-associated calcium signal transducer 1 (TACSTD1), also known as epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), were selected. Development of a multiplexed qRT-PCR assay for the detection of metastasis compared favorably with pathologic analysis in the additional 442 node set. A rapid, multiplexed assay using PVA and TACSTD1 demonstrated excellent reproducibility, linearity, and accuracy (~96% NPV) for identifying positive (n=40) and negative

  18. Evaluating the importance of nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Xiong, Qingyu; Shi, Weiren; Shi, Xin; Wang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the importance of nodes for complex networks is of great significance to the research of survivability and robusticity of networks. This paper proposes an effective ranking method based on degree value and the importance of lines. It can well identify the importance of bridge nodes with lower computational complexity. Firstly, the properties of nodes that are connected to a line are used to compute the importance of the line. Then, the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines is calculated. Finally, degree of nodes and the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines are considered to rank the importance of nodes. Five real networks are used as test data. The experimental results show that our method can effectively evaluate the importance of nodes for complex networks.

  19. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  20. Symptomatic intravertebral disc herniation (Schmorl's node) in the cervical spine.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S J; Fox, D A; Sosman, J L

    1985-01-01

    A case of a Schmorl's node in the cervical vertebra causing neck pain is reported. An inflammatory focus was found on histological examination of Schmorl's node indicating a possible mechanism of pain production. Images PMID:4083942

  1. Kinetic Tetrazolium Microtiter Assay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Stowe, Raymond; Koenig, David

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic tetrazolium microtiter assay (KTMA) involves use of tetrazolium salts and Triton X-100 (or equivalent), nontoxic, in vitro color developer solubilizing colored metabolite formazan without injuring or killing metabolizing cells. Provides for continuous measurement of metabolism and makes possible to determine rate of action of antimicrobial agent in real time as well as determines effective inhibitory concentrations. Used to monitor growth after addition of stimulatory compounds. Provides for kinetic determination of efficacy of biocide, greatly increasing reliability and precision of results. Also used to determine relative effectiveness of antimicrobial agent as function of time. Capability of generating results on day of test extremely important in treatment of water and waste, disinfection of hospital rooms, and in pharmaceutical, agricultural, and food-processing industries. Assay also used in many aspects of cell biology.

  2. Radioreceptor assay for oxyphenonium.

    PubMed

    Ensing, K; de Zeeuw, R A

    1984-01-01

    The development of a radioreceptor assay for the quaternary anticholinergic drug, oxyphenonium, in plasma is reported. It is based on competition between this drug and 3H-dexetimide for binding to muscarinic receptors. After ion pair extraction and reextraction, the drug can be determined in plasma at concentrations down to a value of 100 pg/ml. This permits pharmacokinetic studies to be made after inhalation of oxyphenonium. PMID:6428927

  3. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  4. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  5. Diffusion MRI on lymph node staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Memmi, Naim; Turkmen, Ihsan; Cipe, Gokhan; Yildiz, Pelin; Arici, Dilek Sema; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 23 gastric cancer patients with a mean age of 59.4±10.9 years were analyzed. Lymph nodes were grouped as perigastric lesser curvature (Group Ia), perigastric greater curvature (Group Ib), D1+/D2 lymph nodes (Group II). Identification of histologically metastatic lymph nodes by diffusion weighted MRI was regarded as the main outcome. Results A total of 1,056 lymph nodes including 180 histologically proven metastatic lymph nodes were dissected. Although diffusion weighted MRI could identify the metastatic lymph nodes in 18 out of 23 patients (77.8%), only 69 of total 1,056 nodes (6.53%), either metastatic or non-metastatic, could be detected. There was no correlation between histopathology and diffusion weighted MRI with regard to lymph node groups (P>0.05 for all). Overall accuracy was calculated as 69.56, 65.21 and 52.17 for Groups II, Ib and Ia lymph nodes, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could not be helpful to differentiate metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.673). Conclusions Diffusion weighted MRI has low accuracy to detect or to differentiate metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes based on their ADC values in gastric cancer. PMID:26029642

  6. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation. PMID:12521546

  7. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  8. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  9. Robust quantitative scratch assay

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Andrea; Angeli, Marc; Pastrello, Chiara; McQuaid, Rosanne; Li, Han; Jurisicova, Andrea; Jurisica, Igor

    2016-01-01

    The wound healing assay (or scratch assay) is a technique frequently used to quantify the dependence of cell motility—a central process in tissue repair and evolution of disease—subject to various treatments conditions. However processing the resulting data is a laborious task due its high throughput and variability across images. This Robust Quantitative Scratch Assay algorithm introduced statistical outputs where migration rates are estimated, cellular behaviour is distinguished and outliers are identified among groups of unique experimental conditions. Furthermore, the RQSA decreased measurement errors and increased accuracy in the wound boundary at comparable processing times compared to previously developed method (TScratch). Availability and implementation: The RQSA is freely available at: http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RQSA_Scripts.zip. The image sets used for training and validation and results are available at: (http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/trainingSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/validationSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSetResults.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/ValidationSet_H1975Results.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip, http://ophid.utoronto.ca/RQSA/RobustnessSet.zip). Supplementary Material is provided for detailed description of the development of the RQSA. Contact: juris@ai.utoronto.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:26722119

  10. Genetic Network Programming with Intron-Like Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabu, Shingo; Chen, Yan; Eto, Shinji; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Recently, Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed, which is an extension of Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Genetic Programming(GP). GNP can make compact programs and can memorize the past history in it implicitly, because it expresses the solution by directed graphs and therefore, it can reuse the nodes. In this research, intron-like nodes are introduced for improving the performance of GNP. The aim of introducing intron-like nodes is to use every node as much as possible. It is found from simulations that the intron-like nodes are useful for improving the training speed and generalization ability.

  11. Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

  12. Adaptive node techniques for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W

    2000-04-01

    The computational mesh in numerical simulation provides a framework on which to monitor the spatial dependence of function and their derivatives. Spatial mesh is therefore essential to the ability to integrate systems in time without loss of fidelity. Several philosophies have emerged to provide such fidelity (Eulerian, Lagrangian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian ALE, Adaptive Mesh Refinement AMR, and adaptive node generation/deletion). Regardless of the type of mesh, a major difficulty is in setting up the initial mesh. Clearly a high density of grid points is essential in regions of high geometric complexity and/or regions of intense, energetic activity. For some problems, mesh generation is such a crucial part of the problem that it can take as much computational effort as the run itself, and these tasks are now taking weeks of massively parallel CPU time. Mesh generation is no less crucial to electromagnetic calculations. In fact EM problem set up can be even more challenging without the clues given by fluid motion in hydrodynamic systems. When the mesh is advected with the fluid (Lagrangian), mesh points naturally congregate in regions of high activity. Similarly in AMR algorithms, strong gradients in the fluid flow are one of the triggers for mesh refinement. In the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations without advection, mesh point placement/motion is not so intuitive. In fixed geometry systems, it at least feasible to finely mesh high leverage, geometrically challenged areas. For other systems, where the action takes place far from the boundaries and, likely, changes position in time, the options are limited to either using a high resolution (expensive) mesh in all regions that could require such resolution or adaptively generating nodes to resolve the physics as it evolves. The authors have developed a new time of adaptive node technique for Maxwell's equations to deal with this set of issues.

  13. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced. PMID:24089967

  14. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  15. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  16. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  17. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Weed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  18. Macrophage Inflammatory Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ylostalo, Joni H.

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages represent a widely distributed and functionally diverse population of innate myeloid cells involved in inflammatory response to pathogens, tissue homeostasis and tissue repair (Murray and Wynn, 2011). Macrophages can be broadly grouped into two subpopulations with opposing activites: M1 or pro-inflammatory macrophages that promote T-helper type 1 (Th1) cell immunity and tissue damage, and M2 or anti-inflammatory/alternatively activated macrophages implicated in Th2 response and resolution of inflammation. Here we describe a rapid assay we used previously to monitor changes in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine production by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages in response to therapeutic paracrine factors produced by adult stem cells (Bartosh et al., 2010; Ylostalo et al., 2012; Bartosh et al., 2013). The assay can be adapted appropriately to test macrophage response to other agents as well that will be referred to herein as ‘test reagents’ or ‘test compounds’. In this protocol, the mouse macrophage cell line J774A.1 is expanded as an adherent monolayer on petri dishes allowing for the cells to be harvested easily without enzymes or cell scrapers that can damage the cells. The macropahges are then stimulated in suspension with LPS and seeded into 12-well cell culture plates containing the test reagents. After 16–18 h, the medium conditioned by the macrophages is harvested and the cytokine profile in the medium determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We routinely measure levels of the pro-inflammtory cytokine TNF-alpha and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10).

  19. C. elegans chemotaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Margie, Olivia; Palmer, Chris; Chin-Sang, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms use chemotaxis to seek out food sources, avoid noxious substances, and find mates. Caenorhabditis elegans has impressive chemotaxis behavior. The premise behind testing the response of the worms to an odorant is to place them in an area and observe the movement evoked in response to an odorant. Even with the many available assays, optimizing worm starting location relative to both the control and test areas, while minimizing the interaction of worms with each other, while maintaining a significant sample size remains a work in progress (1-10). The method described here aims to address these issues by modifying the assay developed by Bargmann et al.(1). A Petri dish is divided into four quadrants, two opposite quadrants marked "Test" and two are designated "Control". Anesthetic is placed in all test and control sites. The worms are placed in the center of the plate with a circle marked around the origin to ensure that non-motile worms will be ignored. Utilizing a four-quadrant system rather than one 2 or two 1 eliminates bias in the movement of the worms, as they are equidistant from test and control samples, regardless of which side of the origin they began. This circumvents the problem of worms being forced to travel through a cluster of other worms to respond to an odorant, which can delay worms or force them to take a more circuitous route, yielding an incorrect interpretation of their intended path. This method also shows practical advantages by having a larger sample size and allowing the researcher to run the assay unattended and score the worms once the allotted time has expired. PMID:23644543

  20. Radon assay for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-31

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  1. Radon assay for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumleskie, Janet

    2015-12-01

    The SNO+ experiment will study neutrinos while located 6,800 feet below the surface of the earth at SNOLAB. Though shielded from surface backgrounds, emanation of radon radioisotopes from the surrounding rock leads to back-grounds. The characteristic decay of radon and its daughters allows for an alpha detection technique to count the amount of Rn-222 atoms collected. Traps can collect Rn-222 from various positions and materials, including an assay skid that will collect Rn-222 from the organic liquid scintillator used to detect interactions within SNO+.

  2. Biosensors: Viruses for ultrasensitive assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donath, Edwin

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional assay based on genetically engineered viral nanoparticles and nickel nanohairs can detect much lower levels of protein markers associated with heart attacks than conventional assays.

  3. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  4. AIMS mask qualification for 32nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Rigo; Thaler, Thomas; Seitz, Holger; Stroessner, Ulrich; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Moving forward to 32nm node and below optical lithography using 193nm is faced with complex requirements to be solved. Mask makers are forced to address both Double Patterning Techniques and Computational Lithography approaches such as Source Mask Optimizations and Inverse Lithography. Additionally, lithography at low k1 values increases the challenges for mask repair as well as for repair verification and review by AIMSTM. Higher CD repeatability, more flexibility in the illumination settings as well as significantly improved image performance must be added when developing the next generation mask qualification equipment. This paper reports latest measurement results verifying the appropriateness of the latest member of AIMSTM measurement tools - the AIMSTM 32-193i. We analyze CD repeatability measurements on lines and spaces pattern. The influence of the improved optical performance and newly introduced interferometer stage will be verified. This paper highlights both the new Double Patterning functionality emulating double patterning processes and the influence of its critical parameters such as overlay errors and resist impact. Beneficial advanced illumination schemes emulating scanner illumination document the AIMSTM 32-193i to meet mask maker community's requirements for the 32nm node.

  5. Large-scale profiling of archival lymph nodes reveals pervasive remodeling of the follicular lymphoma methylome.

    PubMed

    Killian, J Keith; Bilke, Sven; Davis, Sean; Walker, Robert L; Killian, M Scott; Jaeger, Erich B; Chen, Yidong; Hipp, Jason; Pittaluga, Stefania; Raffeld, Mark; Cornelison, Robert; Smith, William I; Bibikova, Marina; Fan, Jian-Bing; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Meltzer, Paul S

    2009-02-01

    Emerging technologies allow broad profiling of the cancer genome for differential DNA methylation relative to benign cells. Herein, bisulfite-modified DNA from lymph nodes with either reactive hyperplasia or follicular lymphoma (FL) were analyzed using a commercial C/UpG genotyping assay. Two hundred fifty-nine differentially methylated targets (DMT) distributed among 183 unique genes were identified in FL. Comparison of matched formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded and frozen surgical pathology replicates showed the complete preservation of the cancer methylome among differently archived tissue specimens. Analysis of the DMT profile is consistent with a pervasive epigenomic remodeling process in FL that affects predominantly nonlymphoid genes. PMID:19155300

  6. TOTAL CULTURABLE VIRUS QUANTAL ASSAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes a quantal method for assaying culturable human enteric viruses from water matrices. The assay differs from the plaque assay described in Chapter 10 (December 1987 Revision) in that it is based upon the direct microscopic viewing of cells for virus-induced ...

  7. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  8. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  9. Information spreading in Delay Tolerant Networks based on nodes' behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2014-07-01

    Information spreading in DTNs (Delay Tolerant Networks) adopts a store-carry-forward method, and nodes receive the message from others directly. However, it is hard to judge whether the information is safe in this communication mode. In this case, a node may observe other nodes' behaviors. At present, there is no theoretical model to describe the varying rule of the nodes' trusting level. In addition, due to the uncertainty of the connectivity in DTN, a node is hard to get the global state of the network. Therefore, a rational model about the node's trusting level should be a function of the node's own observing result. For example, if a node finds k nodes carrying a message, it may trust the information with probability p(k). This paper does not explore the real distribution of p(k), but instead presents a unifying theoretical framework to evaluate the performance of the information spreading in above case. This framework is an extension of the traditional SI (susceptible-infected) model, and is useful when p(k) conforms to any distribution. Simulations based on both synthetic and real motion traces show the accuracy of the framework. Finally, we explore the impact of the nodes' behaviors based on certain special distributions through numerical results.

  10. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Qiong-Hua; Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-05-17

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988-2010) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082-1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056-1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  11. HIV-1 Fusion Assay

    PubMed Central

    Cavrois, Marielle; Neidleman, Jason; Greene, Warner C.

    2016-01-01

    The HIV-1 fusion assay measures all steps in the HIV-1 life cycle up to and including viral fusion. It relies on the incorporation of a β-lactamase Vpr (BlaM-Vpr) protein chimera into the virion and the subsequent transfer of this chimera into the target cell by fusion (Figure 1). The transfer is monitored by the enzymatic cleavage of CCF2, a fluorescent dye substrate of β-lactamase, loaded into the target cells. Cleavage of the β-lactam ring in CCF2 by β-lactamase changes the fluorescence emission spectrum of the dye from green (520 nm) to blue (447 nm). This change reflects virion fusion and can be detected by flow cytometry (Figure 2).

  12. Chemotaxis: Under Agarose Assay.

    PubMed

    Brazill, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    The unicellular eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum represents a superb model for examining chemotaxis. Under vegetative conditions, the amoebae are chemotactically responsive to pterins, such as folate. Under starved conditions, they lose their sensitivity to pterins, and become chemotactically responsive to cAMP. As an NIH model system, Dictyostelium offers a variety of advantages in studying chemotaxis, including its conservation of mammalian signaling pathways, its ease of growth, and its genetic tractability. In this chapter, we describe the use of the under agarose chemotaxis assay to identify proteins involved in controlling motility and directional sensing in Dictyostelium discoideum. Given the similarities between Dictyostelium and mammalian cells, this allows us to dissect the conserved pathways involved in eukaryotic chemotaxis. PMID:26498795

  13. Molecular inversion probe assay.

    PubMed

    Absalan, Farnaz; Ronaghi, Mostafa

    2007-01-01

    We have described molecular inversion probe technologies for large-scale genetic analyses. This technique provides a comprehensive and powerful tool for the analysis of genetic variation and enables affordable, large-scale studies that will help uncover the genetic basis of complex disease and explain the individual variation in response to therapeutics. Major applications of the molecular inversion probes (MIP) technologies include targeted genotyping from focused regions to whole-genome studies, and allele quantification of genomic rearrangements. The MIP technology (used in the HapMap project) provides an efficient, scalable, and affordable way to score polymorphisms in case/control populations for genetic studies. The MIP technology provides the highest commercially available multiplexing levels and assay conversion rates for targeted genotyping. This enables more informative, genome-wide studies with either the functional (direct detection) approach or the indirect detection approach. PMID:18025701

  14. Detection of occult carcinomatous diffusion in lymph nodes from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma using real-time RT–PCR detection of cytokeratin 19 mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Lefèvre, M; Ricci, S; Saintigny, P; Callard, P; Périé, S; Lacave, R; Bernaudin, J-F; Lacau St Guily, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occult lymph node carcinomatous diffusion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). A total of 1328 lymph nodes from 31 patients treated between 2004 and 2005 were prospectively evaluated by routine haematoxylin–eosin–safran (HES) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time Taqman reverse–transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT–PCR) assay. Amplification of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA transcripts using real-time RT–PCR was used to quantify cervical micrometastatic burden. The cervical lymph node metastatic rates determined by routine HES staining and real-time RT–PCR assay were 16.3 and 36.0%, respectively (P<0.0001). A potential change in the nodal status was observed in 13 (42.0%) of the 31 patients and an atypical pattern of lymphatic spread was identified in four patients (12.9%). Moreover, CK19 mRNA expression values in histologically positive lymph nodes were significantly higher than those observed in histologically negative lymph nodes (P<0.0001). These results indicate that real-time RT–PCR assay for the detection of CK19 mRNA is a sensitive and reliable method for the detection of carcinomatous cells in lymph nodes. This type of method could be used to reassess lymph node status according to occult lymphatic spread in patients with HNSCC. PMID:16622440

  15. Correlation between serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and sentinel lymph node status in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Diego; Rohde, Alexander; Callejón, Gonzalo; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Rodrigo, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Ramos, Belen; Medina, Francisco; Villatoro, Rosa; Redondo, Maximino; Zarcos, Irene; Maañón, Claudio; Rueda, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Axillary lymph nodes status is the most important prognosis factor in early breast cancer. This status is known by a selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer tumour tissue have reported a relation between the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and the risk of lymph node metastasis. We researched whether serum levels of VEGF-C could be a predictor factor of sentinel lymph node status in these patients. A prospective analysis was performed on serum from 174 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB. The level of VEGF-C was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical-pathologic variables were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were conducted, taking SLNB positivity as the segmentation variable. The predictive value of VEGF-C was assessed using ROC curves. Of the sample group of 167 patients, 64 (38.3 %) had affected lymph node. Eighteen patients (28.1 %) presented micrometastasis; there were isolated tumour cells in 11 cases (17.2 %) and macrometastasis in 35 (54.6 %). The median value of VEGF-C was 6561.5 pg/ml. These values did not correlate with any clinical variables, and there was no association between the level of VEGF-C and SLNB status (p = 0.626). In the multivariate analysis, tumour size (p = 0.009) and the presence of vascular invasion (p < 0.001) were independently associated with sentinel lymph node affected. Serum levels of VEGF-C do not appear to predict sentinel lymph node status in patients with early breast cancer who undergo SLNB. PMID:26104766

  16. GAS eleven node thermal model (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Eleven Node Thermal Model (GEM) of the Get Away Special (GAS) container was originally developed based on the results of thermal tests of the GAS container. The model was then used in the thermal analysis and design of several NASA/GSFC GAS experiments, including the Flight Verification Payload, the Ultraviolet Experiment, and the Capillary Pumped Loop. The model description details the five cu ft container both with and without an insulated end cap. Mass specific heat values are also given so that transient analyses can be performed. A sample problem for each configuration is included as well so that GEM users can verify their computations. The model can be run on most personal computers with a thermal analyzer solution routine.

  17. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  18. Lymph Node Macrophages Restrict Murine Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Dolken, Lars; Mach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic infections that spread from a primary entry site to secondary vascular sites, such as the spleen, and then to tertiary shedding sites, such as the salivary glands. Human CMV (HCMV) is difficult to analyze, because its spread precedes clinical presentation. Murine CMV (MCMV) offers a tractable model. It is hypothesized to spread from peripheral sites via vascular endothelial cells and associated monocytes. However, viral luciferase imaging showed footpad-inoculated MCMV first reaching the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). PLN colonization was rapid and further spread was slow, implying that LN infection can be a significant bottleneck. Most acutely infected PLN cells were CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM). Replication-deficient MCMV also reached them, indicating direct infection. Many SSM expressed viral reporter genes, but few expressed lytic genes. SSM expressed CD11c, and MCMV with a cre-sensitive fluorochrome switch showed switched infected cells in PLN of CD11c-cre mice but yielded little switched virus. SSM depletion with liposomal clodronate or via a CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgene shifted infection to ER-TR7+ stromal cells, increased virus production, and accelerated its spread to the spleen. Therefore, MCMV disseminated via LN, and SSM slowed this spread by shielding permissive fibroblasts and poorly supporting viral lytic replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV chronically infects most people, and it can cause congenital disability and harm the immunocompromised. A major goal of vaccination is to prevent systemic infection. How this is established is unclear. Restriction to humans makes HCMV difficult to analyze. We show that peripheral MCMV infection spreads via lymph nodes. Here, MCMV infected filtering macrophages, which supported virus replication poorly. When these macrophages were depleted, MCMV infected susceptible fibroblasts and spread faster. The capacity of filtering macrophages to limit

  19. Sentinel Node Biopsy Interpretation: The Milan Experience.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Viviana; Zurrida, Stefano; Intra, Mattia; Monti, Simonetta; Arnone, Paolo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; De Cicco, Concetta

    2000-10-01

    From March 1996 to December 1999 we performed 1,266 sentinel node biopsies (SNBs) in patients with small breast cancers. The technique is to inject technetium 99m-labeled albumin particles close to the tumor, locate the sentinel node (SN) scintigraphically, and use a handheld gamma-detecting probe to guide its removal via a small incision during breast surgery. Our experience was divided into three phases. In the first phase, complete axillary dissection was performed to assess the accuracy of SNB in predicting axillary status. We also assessed safety, perfected tracer injection technique, determined optimal particle size and radioactivity levels, optimized lymphoscintigraphic scanning, and perfected the surgical technique. The SN was identified and removed in 98.7% of cases. Comparison with complete axillary dissection showed that the SN predicted axillary status in 96.8% of cases. However, use of an intraoperative frozen section method predicted axillary status in only 86.5% of cases. In the second phase we developed a new method for intraoperative histologic analysis. Extensive sampling (up to 60 sections/SN) and an experienced pathologist proved more important than use of antikeratin immunostaining in identifying tumor cells, and the new method has the accuracy of a definitive histologic examination. The third phase, a randomized trial, closed at the end of 1999. Trial objectives were to confirm that the SN predicts axillary status, to determine the number of axillary relapses, and to assess overall and disease-free survival. Patients were randomized in the operating room to complete axillary dissection or SNB. If the SN was positive, complete axillary dissection was performed; if the SN was negative, no further axillary treatment was given. We expect the trial to confirm our clinical experience that SNB is a safe and accurate procedure for staging patients with early breast cancer and a clinically negative axilla. PMID:11348387

  20. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  1. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  2. Nanoparticle transport from mouse vagina to adjacent lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P; Hope, Thomas J; Labib, Mohamed E

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844

  3. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin-Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud'Ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-07-01

    In topological quantum materials the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure--Dirac node arcs--in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing to the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. We propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.

  4. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-01-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately. PMID:25728010

  5. A Stirling engine analysis method based upon moving gas nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, W. R.

    1986-01-01

    A Lagrangian nodal analysis method for Stirling engines (SEs) is described, validated, and applied to a conventional SE and an isothermalized SE (with fins in the hot and cold spaces). The analysis employs a constant-mass gas node (which moves with respect to the solid nodes during each time step) instead of the fixed gas nodes of Eulerian analysis. The isothermalized SE is found to have efficiency only slightly greater than that of a conventional SE.

  6. CD169 mediates the capture of exosomes in spleen and lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Amy C.; Crocker, Paul R.

    2014-01-01

    Exosomes are lipid nanovesicles released following fusion of the endosoma limiting membrane with the plasma membrane; however, their fate in lymphoid organs after their release remains controversial. We determined that sialoadhesin (CD169; Siglec-1) is required for the capture of B cell-derived exosomes via their surface-expressed α2,3-linked sialic acids. Exosome-capturing macrophages were present in the marginal zone of the spleen and in the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. In vitro assays performed on spleen and lymph node sections confirmed that exosome binding to CD169 was not solely due to preferential fluid flow to these areas. Although the circulation half-life of exosomes in blood of wild-type and CD169−/− mice was similar, exosomes displayed altered distribution in CD169−/− mice, with exosomes freely accessing the outer marginal zone rim of SIGN-R1+ macrophages and F4/80+ red pulp macrophages. In the lymph node, exosomes were not retained in the subcapsular sinus of CD169−/− mice but penetrated deeper into the paracortex. Interestingly, CD169−/− mice demonstrated an enhanced response to antigen-pulsed exosomes. This is the first report of a role for CD169 in the capture of exosomes and its potential to mediate the immune response to exosomal antigen. PMID:24255917

  7. Progesterone receptors in routinely paraffin-embedded primary breast carcinomas and lymph node metastases.

    PubMed

    Müller-Holzner, E; Zeimet, A G; Daxenbichler, G; Marth, C; Müller, L C; Dapunt, O

    1993-01-01

    Described here is an immunohistochemical technique using the commercially available monoclonal progesterone receptor (PR) antibody KD 68 in routinely fixed and paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas and lymph node metastases. The authors' technique is compared with several incubation variations. The method applying the primary antibody in a dilution of 1:10 overnight followed by a biotinylated second antibody showed the best results when Triton X-100 was added to the buffer. Using this method, comparison with the results on frozen sections of 34 breast carcinomas yielded a significant concordance of 94%. Correlation between the results on paraffin sections and those obtained by the standard dextran-coated charcoal cytosol assay was 80%. The value of the method for predicting endocrine therapy response was shown in 20 patients. Thus the reliability of the method has been demonstrated and was applied on 151 lymph node metastases and the corresponding primary breast carcinomas from 50 patients. Generally PR content in the metastases was lower than in the primary tumors (p < 0.001). This finding indicates that evaluation of PR in lymph node metastases should be included in the decision for endocrine therapy of breast cancer. PMID:7686056

  8. Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Murawski, Marek; Woźniak, Marta; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Kołodziej, Paweł; Rzeszutko, Marta; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC), and nodal metastases (p < 0.001). Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available. PMID:27110764

  9. Detecting hidden nodes in complex networks from time series.

    PubMed

    Su, Ri-Qi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    We develop a general method to detect hidden nodes in complex networks, using only time series from nodes that are accessible to external observation. Our method is based on compressive sensing and we formulate a general framework encompassing continuous- and discrete-time and the evolutionary-game type of dynamical systems as well. For concrete demonstration, we present an example of detecting hidden nodes from an experimental social network. Our paradigm for detecting hidden nodes is expected to find applications in a variety of fields where identifying hidden or black-boxed objects based on a limited amount of data is of interest. PMID:23005153

  10. SpicyNodes: radial layout authoring for the general public.

    PubMed

    Douma, Michael; Ligierko, Grzegorz; Ancuta, Ovidiu; Gritsai, Pavel; Liu, Sean

    2009-01-01

    Trees and graphs are relevant to many online tasks such as visualizing social networks, product catalogs, educational portals, digital libraries, the semantic web, concept maps and personalized information management. SpicyNodes is an information-visualization technology that builds upon existing research on radial tree layouts and graph structures. Users can browse a tree, clicking from node to node, as well as successively viewing a node, immediately related nodes and the path back to the "home" nodes. SpicyNodes' layout algorithms maintain balanced layouts using a hybrid mixture of a geometric layout (a succession of spanning radial trees) and force-directed layouts to minimize overlapping nodes, plus several other improvements over prior art. It provides XML-based API and GUI authoring tools. The goal of the SpicyNodes project is to implement familiar principles of radial maps and focus+context with an attractive and inviting look and feel in an open system that is accessible to virtually any Internet user. PMID:19834176

  11. Vascularized Free Lymph Node Flap Transfer in Advanced Lymphedema Patient after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Kyung Hoon; Park, Myong Chul; Lim, Seong Yoon; Jung, Yong Sik

    2016-01-01

    Lymphedema is a condition characterized by tissue swelling caused by localized fluid retention. Advanced lymphedema is characterized by irreversible skin fibrosis (stage IIIb) and nonpitting edema, with leather-like skin, skin crypts, and ulcers with or without involvement of the toes (stage IVa and IVb, respectively). Recently, surgical treatment of advanced lymphedema has been a challenging reconstructive modality. Microvascular techniques such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node flap transfer are effective for early stage lymphedema. In this study, we performed a two-stage operation in an advanced lymphedema patient. First, a debulking procedure was performed using liposuction. A vascularized free lymph node flap transfer was then conducted 10 weeks after the first operation. In this case, good results were obtained, with reduced circumferences in various parts of the upper extremity noted immediately postoperation. PMID:27064862

  12. Vascularized Free Lymph Node Flap Transfer in Advanced Lymphedema Patient after Axillary Lymph Node Dissection.

    PubMed

    Cook, Kyung Hoon; Park, Myong Chul; Lee, Il Jae; Lim, Seong Yoon; Jung, Yong Sik

    2016-03-01

    Lymphedema is a condition characterized by tissue swelling caused by localized fluid retention. Advanced lymphedema is characterized by irreversible skin fibrosis (stage IIIb) and nonpitting edema, with leather-like skin, skin crypts, and ulcers with or without involvement of the toes (stage IVa and IVb, respectively). Recently, surgical treatment of advanced lymphedema has been a challenging reconstructive modality. Microvascular techniques such as lymphaticovenous anastomosis and vascularized lymph node flap transfer are effective for early stage lymphedema. In this study, we performed a two-stage operation in an advanced lymphedema patient. First, a debulking procedure was performed using liposuction. A vascularized free lymph node flap transfer was then conducted 10 weeks after the first operation. In this case, good results were obtained, with reduced circumferences in various parts of the upper extremity noted immediately postoperation. PMID:27064862

  13. Three Different Locations of a Sentinel Node Highlight the Importance of Performing a Sentinel Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Adrien; Huyghe, Ivan; Stroobants, Sigrid; Tjalma, Wiebren A.A.

    2016-01-01

    A local breast cancer recurrence or a new breast cancer in the previously treated breast is a staging challenge. Staging is important to tailor the local and the systemic treatment. Earlier treatment(s) can disrupt the primary lymphatic drainage. After the disruption, new lymphatic drainage pathways are often created. The identification of these new pathways together with their sentinel node(s) (SN) is important for retreatment. A fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computerized tomography could be useful to identify the involved node(s), but, unfortunately, there is no evidence to support this. Ideally, in the case of a recurrence, an SN biopsy should be performed in order to identify the “new” draining lymph node(s). This new draining SN(s) can be located in unexpected places, and tumor invasion will lead to a change in the management. PMID:26792995

  14. An assay for adjuvanticity

    PubMed Central

    Dresser, D. W.

    1968-01-01

    Adult mice injected with an adequate amount of a non-immunogenic antigen progress to a specific state of immunological paralysis, unless a substance with `extrinsic' adjuvanticity is injected before the induction of paralysis is completed. Consequently incipiently paralysed mice can be used to assay substances for adjuvanticity. Conventional adjuvants such as Freund's adjuvant and pertussis possess adjuvanticity; other substances with varying degrees of adjuvanticity are listed in the tables. It has been shown that the adjuvanticity effect of an injection of pertussis lasts for only a few days, although the effect of such an injection of pertussis on phagocytosis of carbon particles does not reach a maximum until 2 weeks after the injection. The dose-effectiveness of alum precipitated (highly phagocytosable) bovine γ-globulin was greatly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of pertussis. The evidence is considered to be incompatible with increased phagocytosis being either an essential factor in the role of pertussis as a conventional adjuvant, or in the adjuvanticity effect of pertussis. PMID:4179956

  15. Membrane Flotation Assay

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Dorothee A; Ott, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Many postitive-stranded RNA viruses, such as Hepatitis C virus (HCV), highjack cellular membranes, including the Golgi, ER, mitchondria, lipid droplets, and utilize them for replication of their RNA genome or assembly of new virions. By investigating how viral proteins associate with cellular membranes we will better understand the roles of cellular membranes in the viral life cycle. Our lab has focused specifically on the role of lipid droplets and lipid-rich membranes in the life cycle of HCV. To analyze the role of lipid-rich membranes in HCV RNA replication, we utilized a membrane flotation assay based on an 10–20–30% iodixanol density gradient developed by Yeaman et al. (2001). This gradient results in a linear increase in density over almost the entire length of the gradient, and membrane particles are separated in the gradient based on their buoyant characteristics. To preserve membranes in the lysate, cells are broken mechanically in a buffer lacking detergent. The cell lysate is loaded on the bottom of the gradient, overlaid with the gradient, and membranes float up as the iodixanol gradient self-generates. The lipid content of membranes and the concentration of associated proteins will determine the separation of different membranes within the gradient. After centrifugation, fractions can be sampled from the top of the gradient and analyzed using standard SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis for proteins of interest.

  16. Increased B Regulatory Phenotype in Non-Metastatic Lymph Nodes of Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Mehdipour, F; Razmkhah, M; Hosseini, A; Bagheri, M; Safaei, A; Talei, A-R; Ghaderi, A

    2016-03-01

    Tumour-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) are centre in orchestrating the immune responses against cancer. The cellularity and lymphocyte subpopulations change in the process of cancer progression and lymph node involvement. B lymphocyte subsets and their function in breast cancer-draining lymph nodes have not been well elucidated. Here, we studied the influence of tumour metastasis on the frequencies of different B cell subsets including naïve and memory B cells as well as those which are known to be enriched in the regulatory pool in TDLNs of 30 patients with breast cancer. Lymphocytes were obtained from a fresh piece of each lymph node and stained for CD19 and other B cell-associated markers and subjected to flow cytometry. Our investigation revealed that metastatic TDLN showed a significant decrease in active, memory and class-switched B cells while the frequencies of B cells with regulatory phenotypes were not changed. However, CD27(hi) CD25(+) and CD1d(hi) CD5(+) B regulatory subsets significantly increased in non-metastatic lymph nodes (nMLNs) of node-positive patients compared with node-negative patients. Our data provided evidence that in breast cancer, metastasis of tumour to axillary lymph nodes altered B cell populations in favour of resting, inactive and unswitched phenotypes. We assume that the lymphatic involvement may cause an increase in a subset of regulatory B cells in non-metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:26708831

  17. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-03-27

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  18. Identifying highly influential nodes in the complicated grief network.

    PubMed

    Robinaugh, Donald J; Millner, Alexander J; McNally, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The network approach to psychopathology conceptualizes mental disorders as networks of mutually reinforcing nodes (i.e., symptoms). Researchers adopting this approach have suggested that network topology can be used to identify influential nodes, with nodes central to the network having the greatest influence on the development and maintenance of the disorder. However, because commonly used centrality indices do not distinguish between positive and negative edges, they may not adequately assess the nature and strength of a node's influence within the network. To address this limitation, we developed 2 indices of a node's expected influence (EI) that account for the presence of negative edges. To evaluate centrality and EI indices, we simulated single-node interventions on randomly generated networks. In networks with exclusively positive edges, centrality and EI were both strongly associated with observed node influence. In networks with negative edges, EI was more strongly associated with observed influence than was centrality. We then used data from a longitudinal study of bereavement to examine the association between (a) a node's centrality and EI in the complicated grief (CG) network and (b) the strength of association between change in that node and change in the remainder of the CG network from 6- to 18-months postloss. Centrality and EI were both correlated with the strength of the association between node change and network change. Together, these findings suggest high-EI nodes, such as emotional pain and feelings of emptiness, may be especially important to the etiology and treatment of CG. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505622

  19. Assessment of lymph node involvement in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Mark L H; Schofield, John B

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis informs prognosis and is a key factor in deciding further management, particularly adjuvant chemotherapy. It is core to all contemporary staging systems, including the widely used tumor node metastasis staging system. Patients with node-negative disease have 5-year survival rates of 70%-80%, implying a significant minority of patients with occult lymph node metastases will succumb to disease recurrence. Enhanced staging techniques may help to identify this subset of patients, who might benefit from further treatment. Obtaining adequate numbers of lymph nodes is essential for accurate staging. Lymph node yields are affected by numerous factors, many inherent to the patient and the tumour, but others related to surgical and histopathological practice. Good lymph node recovery relies on close collaboration between surgeon and pathologist. The optimal extent of surgical resection remains a subject of debate. Extended lymphadenectomy, extra-mesenteric lymph node dissection, high arterial ligation and complete mesocolic excision are amongst the surgical techniques with plausible oncological bases, but which are not supported by the highest levels of evidence. With further development and refinement, intra-operative lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy may provide a guide to the optimum extent of lymphadenectomy, but in its present form, it is beset by false negatives, skip lesions and failures to identify a sentinel node. Once resected, histopathological assessment of the surgical specimen can be improved by thorough dissection techniques, step-sectioning of tissue blocks and immunohistochemistry. More recently, molecular methods have been employed. In this review, we consider the numerous factors that affect lymph node yields, including the impact of the surgical and histopathological techniques. Potential future strategies, including the use of evolving technologies, are also discussed. PMID:27022445

  20. The Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Occult Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xingqiang; Zeng, Ruichao; Ma, Zhaosheng; Chen, Chengze; Chen, Endong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cao, Feilin

    2015-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first draining node from the primary lesion, and it has proven to be a good indicator of the metastatic status of regional lymph nodes in solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of SLN biopsy (SLNB) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with occult lymph nodes. Methods From April 2006 to October 2012, 212 consecutive PTC patients were treated with SLNB using carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNS). Then, the stained nodes defined as SLN were collected, and prophylactic central compartment neck dissection (CCND) followed by total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy were performed. All the samples were sent for pathological examination. Results There were 78 (36.8%) SLN metastasis (SLNM)-positive cases and 134 (63.2%) SLNM-negative cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false-positive and false-negative rates of SLNB were 78.8%, 100%, 100%, 84.3%, 0%, and 21.2%, respectively. The PTC patients with SLNM were more likely to be male (48.2% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.039) and exhibited multifocality (52.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.025) and extrathyroidal extension (56.7% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.015). A greater incidence of non-SLN metastases in the central compartment was found in patients with SLNM (41/78, 52.6%) than in those without SLNM (21/134, 15.7%; p < 0.05). However, the SLNM-negative PTC patients with non-SLN metastases were more likely to be male (37.9% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of SLNB using CNS is technically feasible, safe, and useful, especially for male patients with co-existing multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, the sensitivity of SLNB must be improved and its false-negative rate reduced before it can be a routine procedure and replace prophylactic CCND. More attention should be paid to PTC patients (especially males) without SLNM for signs of non-SLN metastases. PMID:26046782

  1. Lymph node trafficking of regulatory T cells is prerequisite for immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Huang, Miao-Tzu; Lin, Been-Ren; Liu, Wei-Liang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2016-04-01

    Regulatory T cells have a crucial role in health and disease because of their immune regulation function. However, the anatomic sites where regulatory T cells exert optimal immune regulation are open to debate. In our current study with the use of a shear-stress flow assay, we found that regulatory T cells exhibited significantly decreased adhesion to either activated endothelial monolayer or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or E-selectin-coated surfaces compared with activated effector T cells. The less transmigration capacity of the regulatory T cells prompted our speculation of preferential lymph node localization for the regulatory T cells that endowed these cells with immune regulation function in the most efficient manner. To test this hypothesis, the role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression was evaluated with a footpad inflammation model. We found that adoptively transferred regulatory T cells inhibited the development of footpad inflammation. In addition, although blockage of CCR7 or CD62L had no effect on the immune suppressive function of the regulatory T cells per se, pretreatment of the regulatory T cells with either CCR7 or CD62L blocking antibodies prevented their recruitment into draining lymph nodes and concomitantly abrogated the immune suppressive effects of adoptively transferred regulatory T cells during footpad inflammation. Our data demonstrate the crucial role of lymph node localization in regulatory T cell-mediated immune suppression and suggest a probable hierarchy in the anatomic sites for optimal immune regulation. Elucidating the relationships between the transmigration characteristics of the regulatory T cells and their immune regulation function will provide insightful information for regulatory T cell-based cell therapy. PMID:26543091

  2. The Pyruvate-Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Node

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [13C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia. PMID:25164818

  3. Transportation node space station conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent studies have addressed the problem of a transportation node space station. How things would change or what addition facilities would be needed to support a major lunar or Mars initiative is a much often asked question. The support of a lunar base, requiring stacks on the order of 200 metric tons each to land 25 m tons on the lunar surface with reusable vehicles is addressed. The problem of maintaining and reusing large single stage Orbit Transfer Vehicles (OTVs) and single stage lander/launchers in space are examined. The required people and equipment needed, to maintain these vehicles are only vaguely known at present. The people and equipment needed depend on how well the OTV and lander/launcher can be designed for easy reuse. Since the OTV and lander/launcher are only conceptually defined at present, the real maintenance and refurbishment requirements are unobtainable. An estimate of what is needed, based on previous studies and obvious requirements was therefore made. An attempt was made to err on the conservative side.

  4. Temporal node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungshick; Anderson, Ross

    2012-02-01

    Many networks are dynamic in that their topology changes rapidly—on the same time scale as the communications of interest between network nodes. Examples are the human contact networks involved in the transmission of disease, ad hoc radio networks between moving vehicles, and the transactions between principals in a market. While we have good models of static networks, so far these have been lacking for the dynamic case. In this paper we present a simple but powerful model, the time-ordered graph, which reduces a dynamic network to a static network with directed flows. This enables us to extend network properties such as vertex degree, closeness, and betweenness centrality metrics in a very natural way to the dynamic case. We then demonstrate how our model applies to a number of interesting edge cases, such as where the network connectivity depends on a small number of highly mobile vertices or edges, and show that our centrality definition allows us to track the evolution of connectivity. Finally we apply our model and techniques to two real-world dynamic graphs of human contact networks and then discuss the implication of temporal centrality metrics in the real world.

  5. Build Your Own SkyNode!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purger, N.; Budavári, T.; Szalay, A. S.; Thakar, A.; Csabai, I.

    2004-07-01

    SkyQuery is an excellent VO prototype application that marries Web Services technology with emerging VO standards to enable dynamic cross-matching queries between different VO-enabled archives. The archive data is stored in databases that are published online as SkyNodes. As the available data from Sky Surveys and new digital archives rapidly multiplies every year, more than 80 percent of the data will exist outside of large data centers at any given moment, making it very important to have dynamic cross-identification tools like SkyQuery. Loading an entire survey like 2MASS or SDSS into a database involves making decisions about issues like data formats and indices for tables. We describe the process of loading such a large amount of data into a relational DBMS (SQL Server) and generating a sky index using the Hierarchical Triangular Mesh (HTM), which provides a really fast way to find objects. This can be easily done even for a large survey like the 2MASS All-Sky Data Release (150GB uncompressed, 471M objects) in as little as 2 days including the required computation time for HTM.

  6. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large.

  7. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothing (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.

  8. Wireless Sensor Networks - Node Localization for Various Industry Problems

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Derr, Kurt; Manic, Milos

    2015-06-01

    Fast, effective monitoring following airborne releases of toxic substances is critical to mitigate risks to threatened population areas. Wireless sensor nodes at fixed predetermined locations may monitor such airborne releases and provide early warnings to the public. A challenging algorithmic problem is determining the locations to place these sensor nodes while meeting several criteria: 1) provide complete coverage of the domain, and 2) create a topology with problem dependent node densities, while 3) minimizing the number of sensor nodes. This manuscript presents a novel approach to determining optimal sensor placement, Advancing Front mEsh generation with Constrained dElaunay Triangulation and Smoothingmore » (AFECETS) that addresses these criteria. A unique aspect of AFECETS is the ability to determine wireless sensor node locations for areas of high interest (hospitals, schools, high population density areas) that require higher density of nodes for monitoring environmental conditions, a feature that is difficult to find in other research work. The AFECETS algorithm was tested on several arbitrary shaped domains. AFECETS simulation results show that the algorithm 1) provides significant reduction in the number of nodes, in some cases over 40%, compared to an advancing front mesh generation algorithm, 2) maintains and improves optimal spacing between nodes, and 3) produces simulation run times suitable for real-time applications.« less

  9. A comparison of transportation node costs and their primary drivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, Douglas A.; Shepard, Kyle M.; Youngs, Jack M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the process for defining and evaluating the costs of alternative transportation node concepts for Space Station Freedom. A cost estimating methodology including costs of development, production, delivery, assembly, steady state operations, and mission-specific operations is described in detail. The primary drivers of transportation node costs are identified and discussed.

  10. Control of node crossings in Saturnian gravity-assist tours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strange, Nathan

    2003-01-01

    In the Saturnian system, the control of the node-crossing point is important to avoid debris in Saturn's ring plane and to target flybys of moons other than Titan. This paper describes how to use gravity assists to control a spacecrft's node crossings.

  11. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    PubMed Central

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large. PMID:25727453

  12. Detecting and isolating malicious nodes in wireless ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fanzhi; Jassim, Sabah

    2007-04-01

    Malicious nodes can seriously impair the performance of wireless ad hoc networks as a result of different actions such as packet dropping. Secure routes are shortest paths on which every node on the route is trusted even if unknown. Secure route discovery requires the adoption of mechanisms of associating trust to nodes. Most existing secure route discovery mechanisms rely on shared keys and digital signature. In the absence of central nodes that act as certification authority, such protocols suffer from heavy computational burden and are vulnerable to malicious attacks. In this paper we shall review existing techniques for secure routing and propose to complement route finding with creditability scores. Each node would have a credit list for its neighbors. Each node monitors its neighbors' pattern of delivering packets and regularly credits are reviewed and updated accordingly. Unlike most existing schemes the focus of our work is based on post route discovery stage, i.e. when packets are transmitted on discovered routes. The level of trust in any route will be based on the credits associated with the neighbors belonging to the discovered route. We shall evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme by modifying our simulation system so that each node has a dynamic changing "credit list" for its neighbors' behavior. We shall conduct a series of simulations with and without the proposed scheme and compare the results. We will demonstrate that the proposed mechanism is capable of isolating malicious nodes and thereby counteracting black hole attacks.

  13. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Salmonella can invade and survive within host immune cells. Once internalized, these pathogens have the potential to disseminate throughout the lymphatic system and reside within lymph nodes. If so, because some lymph nodes are located within muscle and fat tissues, Salmonella-positiv...

  14. The number of tumor-free axillary lymph nodes removed as a prognostic parameter for node-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; He, Ni; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been controversy about the relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and survival of patients diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer. To assess this relationship, 603 cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer with a median of 126 months of follow-up data were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group A, 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed; Group B, more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed). The number of tumor-free lymph nodes in ipsilateral axillary resections as well as 5 other disease parameters were analyzed for prognostic value. Our results revealed that the risk of death from breast cancer was significantly associated with patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. The 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed was 88.0% and 66.4%, respectively, compared with 69.2% and 51.1%, respectively, for patients with more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed. For patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for risk of death from breast cancer was 0.579 (95% confidence interval, 0.492-0.687, P < 0.001), independent of patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. Our study suggests that the number of tumor-free lymph nodes removed is an independent predictor in cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25322865

  15. Enhancing the Reliability of Head Nodes in Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Min, Hong; Cho, Yookun; Heo, Junyoung

    2012-01-01

    Underwater environments are quite different from terrestrial environments in terms of the communication media and operating conditions associated with those environments. In underwater sensor networks, the probability of node failure is high because sensor nodes are deployed in harsher environments than ground-based networks. The sensor nodes are surrounded by salt water and moved around by waves and currents. Many studies have focused on underwater communication environments in an effort to improve the data transmission throughput. In this paper, we present a checkpointing scheme for the head nodes to quickly recover from a head node failure. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme enhances the reliability of the networks and makes them more efficient in terms of energy consumption and the recovery latency compared to the previous scheme without checkpointing. PMID:22438707

  16. Treatment plan for breast cancer with sentinel node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Efrén Bolívar; Martinez, Pedro; Betancourt, Luis; Romero, Gabriel; Godoy, Ali; Bergamo, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node involvement is considered to be one of the most important independent prognostic factors in breast cancer. In patients without palpable lymphadenopathies, the method of choice for determining this involvement is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. In the presence of macrometastases, the current standard is to perform axillary lymph node dissection in spite of the knowledge that the involvement of non-sentinel lymph nodes is approximately 50%. When lymph node involvement is micrometastasic, the decision as to whether or not to proceed with lymphadenectomy remains in dispute. We set out, on the basis of the current scientific evidence and our own experience, to create guidelines that allow us to individualise each case and decide whether or not to perform a lymphadenectomy. We will discuss the arguments that support our position. PMID:24478806

  17. Diffusion inspires selection of pinning nodes in pinning control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ming-Yang; He, Xingsheng; Fu, Zhong-Qian; Liao, Hao; Cai, Shi-min; Zhuo, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    The outstanding problem of controlling a complex network via pinning is related to network dynamics and has the potential to master large-scale real-world systems as well. This paper addresses the heart issue about how to choose pinning nodes for pinning control, where pinning control aims to control a network to an identical state by injecting feedback control signals to a small fraction of nodes. We explore networks' controllability from not only mathematical analysis, but also the aspects of network topology and information diffusion. Then, the connection between pinning control and information diffusion is given, and pinning node selection is transferred into multi-spreader problem in information diffusion. Based on information diffusion, a heuristic method is proposed to select pinning nodes by optimizing the spreading ability of multiple spreaders. The proposed method greatly improves the controllability of large practical networks, and provides a new perspective to investigate pinning node selection.

  18. Effective number of accessed nodes in complex networks.

    PubMed

    Viana, Matheus P; Batista, João L B; Costa, Luciano da F

    2012-03-01

    The measurement called accessibility has been proposed as a means to quantify the efficiency of the communication between nodes in complex networks. This article reports results regarding the properties of accessibility, including its relationship with the average minimal time to visit all nodes reachable after h steps along a random walk starting from a source, as well as the number of nodes that are visited after a finite period of time. We characterize the relationship between accessibility and the average number of walks required in order to visit all reachable nodes (the exploration time), conjecture that the maximum accessibility implies the minimal exploration time, and confirm the relationship between the accessibility values and the number of nodes visited after a basic time unit. The latter relationship is investigated with respect to three types of dynamics: traditional random walks, self-avoiding random walks, and preferential random walks. PMID:22587147

  19. Isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis in ultrasonography. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Urbańska-Krawiec, Dagmara; Kajor, Maciej; Stefański, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    We present a rare case of isolated axillary lymph node tuberculosis. A 66-year-old patient was admitted in order to perform the diagnostics of a painless tumor of the left armpit. Blood biochemistry tests and chest X-ray did not show any abnormalities. In the ultrasound examination a solid structure of the dimensions of 1.8×1 cm of irregular outline with adjacent hypoechogenic lymph nodes was visualized. The diagnosis of tuberculosis was based on histopathologic examination of the excised tumor. In the latter years an increase in extrapulmonary type of tuberculosis has been observed. Extrapulmonary tuberculosis may appear in practically each organ, nevertheless it affects pleura most often. Lymph node tuberculosis is the second, when it comes to the prevalence rate, type of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. In the majority of cases of lymph node tuberculosis it affects superficial lymph nodes. In the ultrasound examination a packet of pathological, enlarged and hypoechogenic lymph nodes is stated. In 1/3 of cases the central part of the nodes is hyperechogenic which indicates its caseation necrosis. Lymph nodes have a tendency to be matted and they have blurred outline. We observed this type of lymph node image in the presented patient. This image may be a diagnostic hint. Nevertheless, in the differentiation diagnostics one should take many other disease entities into consideration, inter alia: sarcoidosis, lymphomas, fungal infections, neoplastic metastases; the latter ones have an image most similar to tuberculosis lymph nodes. Tuberculosis ought to be considered in differential diagnosis of atypical masses. PMID:26674808

  20. [New insights on the organization of the nodes of Ranvier].

    PubMed

    Devaux, J J

    2014-12-01

    Myelin plays a crucial role in the rapid and saltatory conduction of the nerve impulse along myelinated axons. In addition, myelin closely regulates the organization of the axonal compartments. This organization involves several complex mechanisms including axo-glial contact, diffusion barriers, the cytoskeletal network, and the extracellular matrix. In peripheral nerves, the axo-glial contact dictates the formation of the nodes and the clustering of the voltage-gated sodium channels (Nav). The axo-glial contact at nodes implicates adhesion molecules expressed by the Schwann cell (gliomedin and NrCAM), which binds a partner, neurofascin-186, on the axonal side. This complex is essential for the recruitment of ankyrin-G, a cytoskeletal scaffolding protein, which binds and concentrates Nav channels at nodes. The paranodal junctions flanking the nodes also play a complementary function in node formation. These junctions are formed by the association of contactin-1/caspr-1/neurofascin-155 and create a diffusion barrier, which traps proteins at the nodes and dampens their diffusion along the internode. In the central nervous system, the mechanisms of node formation are different and the formation of the paranodal junctions precedes the aggregation of Nav channels at nodes. However, node formation can still happen in absence of paranodal junctions in the CNS. One explanation is that NF186 interacts with components of the extracellular matrix around the node and thereby stabilizes the aggregation of nodal proteins. It is likely that many other proteins are also implicated in the signaling pathways that regulate the differentiation of the axonal compartments. The nature and function of these proteins are yet to be identified. PMID:25459119

  1. Function and dysfunction of human sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Joung, Boyoung; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Sinoatrial node (SAN) automaticity is jointly regulated by a voltage (cyclic activation and deactivation of membrane ion channels) and Ca(2+) clocks (rhythmic spontaneous sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release). Using optical mapping in Langendorff-perfused canine right atrium, we previously demonstrated that the β-adrenergic stimulation pushes the leading pacemaker to the superior SAN, which has the fastest activation rate and the most robust late diastolic intracellular calcium (Cai) elevation. Dysfunction of the superior SAN is commonly observed in animal models of heart failure and atrial fibrillation (AF), which are known to be associated with abnormal SAN automaticity. Using the 3D electroanatomic mapping techniques, we demonstrated that superior SAN served as the earliest atrial activation site (EAS) during sympathetic stimulation in healthy humans. In contrast, unresponsiveness of superior SAN to sympathetic stimulation was a characteristic finding in patients with AF and SAN dysfunction, and the 3D electroanatomic mapping technique had better diagnostic sensitivity than corrected SAN recovery time testing. However, both tests have significant limitations in detecting patients with symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. Recently, we reported that the location of the EAS can be predicted by the amplitudes of P-wave in the inferior leads. The inferior P-wave amplitudes can also be used to assess the superior SAN responsiveness to sympathetic stimulation. Inverted or isoelectric P-waves at baseline that fail to normalize during isoproterenol infusion suggest SAN dysfunction. P-wave morphology analyses may be helpful in determining the SAN function in patients at risk of symptomatic sick sinus syndrome. PMID:26023305

  2. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  3. Laser links for mobile airborne nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griethe, Wolfgang; Knapek, Markus; Horwath, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Remotely Piloted Aircrafts (RPA's) and especially Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) and High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) are currently operated over long distances, often across several continents. This is only made possible by maintaining Beyond Line Of Side (BLOS) radio links between ground control stations and unmanned vehicles via geostationary (GEO) satellites. The radio links are usually operated in the Ku-frequency band and used for both, vehicle command & control (C2) - it also refers to Command and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) - as well as transmission of intelligence data - the associated communication stream also refers to Payload Link (PL). Even though this scheme of communication is common practice today, various other issues are raised thereby. The paper shows that the current existing problems can be solved by using the latest technologies combined with altered intuitive communication strategies. In this context laser communication is discussed as a promising technology for airborne applications. It is clearly seen that for tactical reasons, as for instance RPA cooperative flying, Air-to-Air communications (A2A) is more advantageous than GEO satellite communications (SatCom). Hence, together with in-flight test results the paper presents a design for a lightweight airborne laser terminal, suitable for use onboard manned or unmanned airborne nodes. The advantages of LaserCom in combination with Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) technologies particularly for Persistent Wide Area Surveillance (PWAS) are highlighted. Technical challenges for flying LaserCom terminals aboard RPA's are outlined. The paper leads to the conclusion that by combining both, LaserCom and ISR, a new quality for an overall system arises which is more than just the sum of two separate key technologies.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too. PMID:22119457

  5. From Antenna to Assay

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Evan G.; Samuel, Amanda P. S.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2009-01-01

    Conspectus Ligand-sensitized, luminescent lanthanide(III) complexes are of considerable importance because their unique photophysical properties (microsecond to millisecond lifetimes, characteristic and narrow emission bands, and large Stokes shifts) make them well suited as labels in fluorescence-based bioassays. The long-lived emission of lanthanide(III) cations can be temporally resolved from scattered light and background fluorescence to vastly enhance measurement sensitivity. One challenge in this field is the design of sensitizing ligands that provide highly emissive complexes with sufficient stability and aqueous solubility for practical applications. In this Account, we give an overview of some of the general properties of the trivalent lanthanides and follow with a summary of advances made in our laboratory in the development of highly luminescent Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes for applications in biotechnology. A focus of our research has been the optimization of these compounds as potential commercial agents for use in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Fluorescence (HTRF) technology. Our approach involves developing high-stability octadentate Tb(III) and Eu(III) complexes that rely on all-oxygen donor atoms and using multi-chromophore chelates to increase molar absorptivity; earlier examples utilized a single pendant chromophore (that is, a single “antenna”). Ligands based on 2-hydroxyisophthalamide (IAM) provide exceptionally emissive Tb(III) complexes with quantum yield values up to ∼60% that are stable at the nanomolar concentrations required for commercial assays. Through synthetic modification of the IAM chromophore and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations, we have developed a method to predict absorption and emission properties of these chromophores as a tool to guide ligand design. Additionally, we have investigated chiral IAM ligands that yield Tb(III) complexes possessing both high quantum yield values and strong

  6. Rice BRITTLE CULM 5 (BRITTLE NODE) is Involved in Secondary Cell Wall Formation in the Sclerenchyma Tissue of Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Aohara, Tsutomu; Kotake, Toshihisa; Kaneko, Yasuko; Takatsuji, Hiroshi; Tsumuraya, Yoichi; Kawasaki, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Several brittle culm (bc) mutants known in grasses are considered excellent materials to study the process of secondary cell wall formation. The brittle phenotype of the rice bc5 (brittle node) mutant appears exclusively in the developed nodes, which is distinct from other bc mutants (bc1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7) that show the brittle phenotype in culms and leaves. To address the defects of the rice bc5 mutant in node-specific cell wall formation, we analyzed tissue morphology and cell wall composition. The bc5 mutation was found to affect the cell wall deposition of node sclerenchyma tissues at 1 week after heading, the stage at which the cell wall sugar content is reduced, in the bc5 nodes, compared with wild-type nodes. Moreover, decreased accumulation of lignin and thickness of cell walls in the sclerenchyma tissues were also observed in the bc5 nodes. The amounts of cellulose and hemicellulose were reduced to 53 and 65% of those in the wild-type plants, respectively. Sugar composition and glycosidic linkage analyses of the hemicellulose showed that the accumulation of glucuronosyl arabinoxylan in bc5 nodes was perturbed by the mutation. The bc5 locus was narrowed to an approximately 3.1 Mb region of chromosome 2, where none of the other bc genes is located. The bc5 mutation appeared to reduce the expression levels of the OsCesA genes in the nodes after heading. The results indicate that the BC5 gene regulates the development of secondary cell walls of node sclerenchyma tissues. PMID:19812064

  7. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  8. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-09-13

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  9. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-08-09

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  10. Transporter assays and assay ontologies: useful tools for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Zdrazil, Barbara; Chichester, Christine; Zander Balderud, Linda; Engkvist, Ola; Gaulton, Anna; Overington, John P

    2014-06-01

    Transport proteins represent an eminent class of drug targets and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity) associated genes. There exists a large number of distinct activity assays for transport proteins, depending on not only the measurement needed (e.g. transport activity, strength of ligand–protein interaction), but also due to heterogeneous assay setups used by different research groups. Efforts to systematically organize this (divergent) bioassay data have large potential impact in Public-Private partnership and conventional commercial drug discovery. In this short review, we highlight some of the frequently used high-throughput assays for transport proteins, and we discuss emerging assay ontologies and their application to this field. Focusing on human P-glycoprotein (Multidrug resistance protein 1; gene name: ABCB1, MDR1), we exemplify how annotation of bioassay data per target class could improve and add to existing ontologies, and we propose to include an additional layer of metadata supporting data fusion across different bioassays. PMID:25027375

  11. The assay of diphtheria toxin

    PubMed Central

    Gerwing, Julia; Long, D. A.; Mussett, Marjorie V.

    1957-01-01

    A precise assay of diphtheria toxin is described, based on the linear relationship between the diameter of the skin reaction to, and logarithm of the dose of, toxin. It eliminates the need for preliminary titrations, is economical, provides information about the slope of the log-dose response lines and, therefore, of the validity of the assay, and yields limits of error of potency from the internal evidence of the assay. A study has been made of the effects of avidity, combining power, toxicity and buffering on the assay of diphtheria toxins against the International Standards for both Diphtheria Antitoxin and Schick-Test Toxin. All the toxins assayed against the standard toxin, whatever their other properties might be, gave log-dose response lines of similar slope provided that they were diluted in buffered physiological saline. The assays were therefore valid. These experiments were repeated concurrently in non-immune and in actively immunized guinea-pigs, and comparable figures for potency obtained in both groups. The result was not significantly affected by the avidity or combining power of the toxin. However, non-avid toxins gave low values in Schick units when assayed, by the Römer & Sames technique, in terms of the International Standard for Diphtheria Antitoxin. The problem of the ultimate standard and the implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:13511133

  12. Transwell(®) invasion assays.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John

    2011-01-01

    The need to identify inhibitors of cancer invasion has driven the development of quantitative in vitro invasion assays. The most common assays used are based on the original Boyden assay system. Today commercially available plastic inserts for multi-well plates, which possess a cell-permeable membrane, as typified by Transwell(®) Permeable Supports, permit accurate repeatable invasion assays. When placed in the well of a multi-well tissue culture plate these inserts create a two-chamber system separated by the cell-permeable membrane. To create an invasion assay the pores in the membrane are blocked with a gel composed of extracellular matrix that is meant to mimic the typical matrices that tumour cells encounter during the invasion process in vivo. By placing the cells on one side of the gel and a chemoattractant on the other side of the gel, invasion is determined by counting those cells that have traversed the cell-permeable membrane having invaded towards the higher concentration of chemoattractant. In this chapter, in addition to protocols for performing Transwell invasion assays, there is consideration of the limitations of current assay designs with regard to available matrices and the absence of tumour microenvironment cells. PMID:21748672

  13. Sinus node function in first three weeks after cardiac transplantation.

    PubMed Central

    Mackintosh, A F; Carmichael, D J; Wren, C; Cory-Pearce, R; English, T A

    1982-01-01

    Donor sinus node function was studied in 10 patients from day 4 to day 24 after cardiac transplantation. Cycle length, atrial arrhythmias, corrected sinus node recovery time, and estimated sinoatrial conduction time were recorded daily. Five patients had at least two sets of results suggesting sinus node dysfunction (group A) while five patients had no such abnormalities (group B). The prognosis in group A was poor, with four of the five patients dying within four months of the operation; one unexpected death from arrhythmias was recorded by ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. All five patients in group B survived for at least eight months. In nine patients sinus node function varied from day to day, with corrected sinus node recovery time reaching a peak at 11 to 18 days after operation. The longest corrected sinus node recovery time was 11 160 ms. Neither the differences between the patients, nor the day to day variation, could be explained solely by the degree of rejection as assessed by biopsy or by the ischaemia time of the heart during procurement. Sinus node dysfunction soon after transplantation is associated with a poorer prognosis and might be the terminal event in some cases. Images PMID:6756446

  14. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  15. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  16. PVM Enhancement for Beowulf Multiple-Processor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    A recent version of the Parallel Virtual Machine (PVM) computer program has been enhanced to enable use of multiple processors in a single node of a Beowulf system (a cluster of personal computers that runs the Linux operating system). A previous version of PVM had been enhanced by addition of a software port, denoted BEOLIN, that enables the incorporation of a Beowulf system into a larger parallel processing system administered by PVM, as though the Beowulf system were a single computer in the larger system. BEOLIN spawns tasks on (that is, automatically assigns tasks to) individual nodes within the cluster. However, BEOLIN does not enable the use of multiple processors in a single node. The present enhancement adds support for a parameter in the PVM command line that enables the user to specify which Internet Protocol host address the code should use in communicating with other Beowulf nodes. This enhancement also provides for the case in which each node in a Beowulf system contains multiple processors. In this case, by making multiple references to a single node, the user can cause the software to spawn multiple tasks on the multiple processors in that node.

  17. Hemangioma in a pulmonary hilar lymph node: Case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Different types of vascular proliferation may occur in lymph nodes, but hemangiomas in lymph nodes are extremely rare. Case Presentation A 73-year-old man was found to have a 15-mm nodular shadow in the left lung on computed tomography, and bronchoscopic brush cytology yielded a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma. Chest computed tomography showed no evidence of hilar or mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Left lower lobectomy with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissection was performed. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed squamous cell carcinoma and no lymph node metastasis. On the other hand, a lobar bronchial lymph node presented a small lesion showing the dense proliferation of capillary blood vessels with elastic change. Immunohistochemically, the lesion was positive for factor VIII and CD34, leading to a diagnosis of primary hemangioma of the lymph node. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature of hemangioma in a pulmonary hilar lymph node. Intranodal hemangioma needs to be differentiated from malignant vascular tumors. PMID:21266086

  18. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  19. Fluorescence imaging to study cancer burden on lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Alisha V.; Elliott, Jonathan T.; Gunn, Jason R.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2015-03-01

    Morbidity and complexity involved in lymph node staging via surgical resection and biopsy calls for staging techniques that are less invasive. While visible blue dyes are commonly used in locating sentinel lymph nodes, since they follow tumor-draining lymphatic vessels, they do not provide a metric to evaluate presence of cancer. An area of active research is to use fluorescent dyes to assess tumor burden of sentinel and secondary lymph nodes. The goal of this work was to successfully deploy and test an intra-nodal cancer-cell injection model to enable planar fluorescence imaging of a clinically relevant blue dye, specifically methylene blue along with a cancer targeting tracer, Affibody labeled with IRDYE800CW and subsequently segregate tumor-bearing from normal lymph nodes. This direct-injection based tumor model was employed in athymic rats (6 normal, 4 controls, 6 cancer-bearing), where luciferase-expressing breast cancer cells were injected into axillary lymph nodes. Tumor presence in nodes was confirmed by bioluminescence imaging before and after fluorescence imaging. Lymphatic uptake from the injection site (intradermal on forepaw) to lymph node was imaged at approximately 2 frames/minute. Large variability was observed within each cohort.

  20. An evaluation of molecular markers for improved detection of breast cancer metastases in sentinel nodes

    PubMed Central

    Abdul‐Rasool, S; Kidson, S H; Panieri, E; Dent, D; Pillay, K; Hanekom, G S

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives In patients with breast cancer (BC), the sentinel node (SN) is the first node in the axillary basin that receives the primary lymphatic flow and can be used to accurately assess the axillary nodal status without removal of the axillary contents. Currently, histology and/or immunohistochemistry are the routine methods of SN analysis. The primary objective of this study was to develop a reproducible reverse transcription (RT) PCR assay, with emphasis on achieving high specificity for accurate detection of BC micrometastases in the SN. To correct for the heterogeneity of BC cells, a multimarker approach was followed, with the further aim of improving the detection rate of the assay. Methods In total, 73 markers were evaluated, of which 7 were breast epithelial markers and 66 were either cancer testis or tumour associated antigens. Twelve BC cell lines and 30 SNs (from 30 patients) were analysed using RT‐PCR to determine the in vitro and in vivo detection rates for each of the markers. In addition, 20 axillary nodes obtained from a patient with brain death were used as controls to optimise the PCR cycle numbers for all the markers. Results Of the 30 SNs, 37% (11/30) were positive on haematoxylin and eosin analysis. Extensive immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of the haematoxylin and eosin negative nodes confirmed the presence of very small numbers of BC cells in an additional 40% (12/30) of SNs. Molecular analysis with the hMAM‐A alone identified metastases in 70% (21/30) of SNs. Using MAGE‐A3 in combination with hMAM‐A identified metastases in 90% (27/30) of patients. Seven SNs (23%) were negative for micrometastases (with haematoxylin and eosin and IHC) but RT‐PCR positive for either hMAM‐A or MAGE‐A3. Conclusions As IHC analysis resulted in a 77% detection rate compared with 37% for haematoxylin and eosin analysis, we consider that IHC is essential in order not to miss SN micrometastases. Molecular analysis with hMAM‐A and

  1. Improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant derived from mature seed for efficient Agrobacterium-mediated soybean transformation.

    PubMed

    Paz, Margie M; Martinez, Juan Carlos; Kalvig, Andrea B; Fonger, Tina M; Wang, Kan

    2006-03-01

    The utility of transformation for soybean improvement requires an efficient system for production of stable transgenic lines. We describe here an improved cotyledonary node method using an alternative explant for Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated soybean transformation. We use the term "half-seed" to refer to this alternative cotyledonary explant that is derived from mature seed of soybean following an overnight imbibition and to distinguish it from cotyledonary node derived from 5-7-day-old seedlings. Transformation efficiencies using half-seed explants ranged between 1.4 and 8.7% with an overall efficiency of 3.8% based on the number of transformed events that have been confirmed in the T1 generation by phenotypic assay using the herbicide Liberty (active ingredient glufosinate) and by Southern analysis. This efficiency is 1.5-fold higher than the cotyledonary node method used in our laboratory. Significantly, the half-seed system is simple and does not require deliberate wounding of explants, which is a critical and technically demanding step in the cotyledonary node method. PMID:16249869

  2. The status of ESG-BNU node in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wu, Q.; Wang, L.; Cheng, H.; Ji, D.; Feng, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is an operational system for serving climate data from multiple locations and sources.The ESG-BNU node, established in 2012, is one of the ESGF data nodes, and also the only idp/index node in China. Until now, ESG-BNU node has published 17 experiments of 10,595 GB dataset for CMIP5 and 4 experiments of 1174 GB dataset for GeoMIP generated by the Earth System Model of Beijing Normal University (BNU-ESM) It has provided over 43.0TB data with an average 700 KB/s download speed to scientists all over the world. Especially in China, data users can download the datasets more than 1MB/s. In BNU the speed can reach to over 10MB/s.(Fig.1) As an ESGF Portal node we try to make replicas of other model centers so that data users in China can get the datasets much faster . By analyzing the download information extracted from the thredds log files we found that over 95% data requests were from China, U.S. and Japan.(Fig.2) About 75% downloads came from historical, rcp45 and rcp85 experiments.(Fig.3) And over 79% downloads came from the monthly datasets. So making replicas for those datasets with most interested can meet the needs of most model users and will save over 50% disk space of the data nodes. In our plan, the data volume of the ESG-BNU node will reach to 200TB in the next year. As for the coming CMIP6, data volume may reach to over 3.5EB. Making replica of all experiments maybe too expensive and not necessary for many ESGF nodes. We hope such download statistical analysis can be helpful for ESGF data nodes to decide which experiments should be replicated or be replicated with priority.

  3. Node-based measures of connectivity in genetic networks.

    PubMed

    Koen, Erin L; Bowman, Jeff; Wilson, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    At-site environmental conditions can have strong influences on genetic connectivity, and in particular on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. However, at-site processes are rarely explored in landscape genetic analyses. Networks can facilitate the study of at-site processes, where network nodes are used to model site-level effects. We used simulated genetic networks to compare and contrast the performance of 7 node-based (as opposed to edge-based) genetic connectivity metrics. We simulated increasing node connectivity by varying migration in two ways: we increased the number of migrants moving between a focal node and a set number of recipient nodes, and we increased the number of recipient nodes receiving a set number of migrants. We found that two metrics in particular, the average edge weight and the average inverse edge weight, varied linearly with simulated connectivity. Conversely, node degree was not a good measure of connectivity. We demonstrated the use of average inverse edge weight to describe the influence of at-site habitat characteristics on genetic connectivity of 653 American martens (Martes americana) in Ontario, Canada. We found that highly connected nodes had high habitat quality for marten (deep snow and high proportions of coniferous and mature forest) and were farther from the range edge. We recommend the use of node-based genetic connectivity metrics, in particular, average edge weight or average inverse edge weight, to model the influences of at-site habitat conditions on the immigration and settlement phases of dispersal. PMID:25917123

  4. Cascading failures in networks with proximate dependent nodes.

    PubMed

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey V

    2014-03-01

    We study the mutual percolation of a system composed of two interdependent random regular networks. We introduce a notion of distance to explore the effects of the proximity of interdependent nodes on the cascade of failures after an initial attack. We find a nontrivial relation between the nature of the transition through which the networks disintegrate and the parameters of the system, which are the degree of the nodes and the maximum distance between interdependent nodes. We explain this relation by solving the problem analytically for the relevant set of cases. In the process, we solve a variant of Rényi's parking problem on treelike graphs. PMID:24730900

  5. Node of Ranvier disruption as a cause of neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    Susuki, Keiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction and/or disruption of nodes of Ranvier are now recognized as key contributors to the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. One reason is that the excitable nodal axolemma contains a high density of Nav (voltage-gated Na+ channels) that are required for the rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Nodal physiology is disturbed by altered function, localization, and expression of voltage-gated ion channels clustered at nodes and juxtaparanodes, and by disrupted axon–glial interactions at paranodes. This paper reviews recent discoveries in molecular/cellular neuroscience, genetics, immunology, and neurology that highlight the critical roles of nodes of Ranvier in health and disease. PMID:23834220

  6. Identifying influential nodes in complex networks based on expansion factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Jing, Yun; Chang, Baofang

    2016-03-01

    Identifying the top influential spreaders in a network has practical significance. In this paper, we propose a novel centrality to identify influential spreaders based on expansion factor. Nodes with high expansion factor centrality (EFC) have strong spreading capability. During the course of the work, an improved strategy is proposed to reduce the time complexity of EFC. We discuss the correlations between EFC and the other five classical indicators. Simulation results on the Susceptible-Infected-Removed (SIR) model manifest that EFC can identify influential nodes and find some critical influential nodes neglected by other indicators.

  7. Identifying influential nodes in weighted networks based on evidence theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Daijun; Deng, Xinyang; Zhang, Xiaoge; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2013-05-01

    The design of an effective ranking method to identify influential nodes is an important problem in the study of complex networks. In this paper, a new centrality measure is proposed based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. The proposed measure trades off between the degree and strength of every node in a weighted network. The influences of both the degree and the strength of each node are represented by basic probability assignment (BPA). The proposed centrality measure is determined by the combination of these BPAs. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  8. Diffusion on a tree with stochastically gated nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2016-06-01

    We consider diffusion on a tree with nodes that randomly switch between allowing and prohibiting particles to pass. We find exact expressions for various splitting probabilities and mean first passage times for a single diffusing particle and show how the many parameters in the problem, such as the node gating statistics and tree topology, contribute to these exit statistics. We also consider a concentration of particles that can always pass through interior branch nodes and determine how an intermittent source at one end of the tree affects the flux at the other end. The latter problem is motivated by applications to insect respiration.

  9. Design & implementation of distributed spatial computing node based on WPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jibo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, the research work of SIG (Spatial Information Grid) technology mostly emphasizes on the spatial data sharing in grid environment, while the importance of spatial computing resources is ignored. In order to implement the sharing and cooperation of spatial computing resources in grid environment, this paper does a systematical research of the key technologies to construct Spatial Computing Node based on the WPS (Web Processing Service) specification by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). And a framework of Spatial Computing Node is designed according to the features of spatial computing resources. Finally, a prototype of Spatial Computing Node is implemented and the relevant verification work under the environment is completed.

  10. Node of Ranvier disruption as a cause of neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Susuki, Keiichiro

    2013-01-01

    Dysfunction and/or disruption of nodes of Ranvier are now recognized as key contributors to the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases. One reason is that the excitable nodal axolemma contains a high density of Nav (voltage-gated Na+ channels) that are required for the rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Nodal physiology is disturbed by altered function, localization, and expression of voltage-gated ion channels clustered at nodes and juxtaparanodes, and by disrupted axon-glial interactions at paranodes. This paper reviews recent discoveries in molecular/cellular neuroscience, genetics, immunology, and neurology that highlight the critical roles of nodes of Ranvier in health and disease. PMID:23834220

  11. Glial regulation of the axonal membrane at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Dorothy P; Rasband, Matthew N

    2006-10-01

    Action potential conduction in myelinated nerve fibers depends on a polarized axonal membrane. Voltage-gated Na(+) and K(+) channels are clustered at nodes of Ranvier and mediate the transmembrane currents necessary for rapid saltatory conduction. Paranodal junctions flank nodes and function as attachment sites for myelin and as paracellular and membrane protein diffusion barriers. Common molecular mechanisms, directed by myelinating glia, are used to establish these axonal membrane domains. Initially, heterophilic interactions between glial and axonal cell adhesion molecules define the locations where nodes or paranodes form. Subsequently, within each domain, axonal cell adhesion molecules are stabilized and retained through interactions with cytoskeletal and scaffolding proteins, including ankyrins and spectrins. PMID:16945520

  12. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  13. Methods to assay Drosophila behavior.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Becnel, Jaime; Pandey, Udai B

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, has been used to study molecular mechanisms of a wide range of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and various neurological diseases(1). We have optimized simple and robust behavioral assays for determining larval locomotion, adult climbing ability (RING assay), and courtship behaviors of Drosophila. These behavioral assays are widely applicable for studying the role of genetic and environmental factors on fly behavior. Larval crawling ability can be reliably used for determining early stage changes in the crawling abilities of Drosophila larvae and also for examining effect of drugs or human disease genes (in transgenic flies) on their locomotion. The larval crawling assay becomes more applicable if expression or abolition of a gene causes lethality in pupal or adult stages, as these flies do not survive to adulthood where they otherwise could be assessed. This basic assay can also be used in conjunction with bright light or stress to examine additional behavioral responses in Drosophila larvae. Courtship behavior has been widely used to investigate genetic basis of sexual behavior, and can also be used to examine activity and coordination, as well as learning and memory. Drosophila courtship behavior involves the exchange of various sensory stimuli including visual, auditory, and chemosensory signals between males and females that lead to a complex series of well characterized motor behaviors culminating in successful copulation. Traditional adult climbing assays (negative geotaxis) are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming, with significant variation between different trials(2-4). The rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay(5) has many advantages over more widely employed protocols, providing a reproducible, sensitive, and high throughput approach to quantify adult locomotor and negative geotaxis behaviors. In the RING assay, several genotypes or drug treatments can be tested simultaneously

  14. Predicting lymph node output efficiency using systems biology

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chang; Mattila, Joshua T.; Miller, Mark; Flynn, JoAnne L.; Linderman, Jennifer J.; Kirschner, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture pathogens and foreign antigen (Ag) in peripheral tissues and migrate to secondary lymphoid tissues, such as lymph nodes (LNs), where they present processed Ag as MHC-bound peptide (pMHC) to naïve T cells. Interactions between DCs and T cells result, over periods of hours, in activation, clonal expansion and differentiation of antigen-specific T cells, leading to primed cells that can now participate in immune responses. Two-photon microscopy (2PM) has been widely adopted to analyze lymphocyte dynamics and can serve as a powerful in vivo assay for cell trafficking and activation over short length and time scales. Linking biological phenomena between vastly different spatiotemporal scales can be achieved using a systems biology approach. We developed a 3D agent-based cellular model of a LN that allows for the simultaneous in silico simulation of T cell trafficking, activation and production of effector cells under different antigen (Ag) conditions. The model anatomy is based on in situ analysis of LN sections (from primates and mice) and cell dynamics based on quantitative measurements from 2PM imaging of mice. Our simulations make three important predictions. First, T cell encounters by DCs and T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire scanning are more efficient in a 3D model compared with 2D, suggesting that a 3D model is needed to analyze LN function. Second, LNs are able to produce primed CD4+T cells at the same efficiency over broad ranges of cognate frequencies (from 10−5 to 10−2). Third, reducing the time that naïve T cells are required to bind DCs before becoming activated will increase the rate at which effector cells are produced. This 3D model provides a robust platform to study how T cell trafficking and activation dynamics relate to the efficiency of T cell priming and clonal expansion. We envision that this systems biology approach will provide novel insights for guiding vaccine development and understanding immune responses

  15. Microbiological assay using bioluminescent organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stiffey, A.V.

    1987-12-21

    This invention relates to testing processes for toxicity involving microorganisms and, more particularly, to testing processes for toxicity involving bioluminescent organisms. The present known method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity employs the mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia) as the assay organism. The shrimp are difficult to raise and handle as laboratory assay organisms. This method is labor-intensive, because it requires a assay time of about 96 hours. Summary of the Invention: A microbiological assay in which the assay organism is the dinoflagellate, Pyrocystis lunula. A sample of a substance to be assayed is added to known numbers of the bioluminescent dinoflagellate and the mixture is agitated to subject the organisms to a shear stress causing them to emit light. The amount of light emitted is measured and compared with the amount of light emitted by a known non-toxic control mixture to determine if there is diminution or non-diminution of light emitted by the sample under test which is an indication of the presence or absence of toxicity, respectively. Accordingly, an object of the present invention is the provision of an improved method of testing substances for toxicity. A further object of the invention is the provision of an improved method of testing oil-well drilling fluids for toxicity using bioluminescent dinoflagellate (Pyrocystis lunula).

  16. Regional Seismic Travel Time Node Get and Set

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, S. C.

    2012-10-24

    RSTT_NOGS allows users to easily get and set seismic velocity vs. depth profiles at specified model tessellation nodes. RSTT_NOGS uses the Sandia Seismic Location Baseline Model code that was released under BSD license in 2009.

  17. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow. PMID:25962306

  18. Coexisting coherent and incoherent domains near saddle-node bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V. K.; Suresh, R.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-09-01

    A common external forcing can cause a saddle-node bifurcation in an ensemble of identical Duffing oscillators by breaking the symmetry of the individual bistable (double-well) unit. The strength of the forcing determines the separation between the saddle and the node, which in turn dictates different dynamical transitions depending on the distribution of the initial states of the oscillators. In particular, chimera-like states appear in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for which theoretical explanation is provided from the stability of the steady state of the slow-scale dynamics of the original system of equations. Further, we have also established similar states by replacing the external forcing with an appropriate coupling between the oscillators in the same parameter space. Additionally, we have also designed an appropriate coupling that can lead to saddle-node bifurcation due to symmetry breaking of the bistable systems in the vicinity of which the synchronized and desynchronized domains coexist.

  19. Hidden link prediction based on node centrality and weak ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifeng; Hu, Zheng; Haddadi, Hamed; Tian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Link prediction has been widely used to extract missing information, identify spurious interactions, evaluate network evolving mechanisms, and so on. In this context, similarity-based algorithms have become the mainstream. However, most of them take into account the contributions of each common neighbor equally to the connection likelihood of two nodes. This paper proposes a model for link prediction, which is based on the node centrality of common neighbors. Three node centralities are discussed: degree, closeness and betweenness centrality. In our model, each common neighbor plays a different role to the node connection likelihood according to their centralities. Moreover, the weak-tie theory is considered for improving the prediction accuracy. Finally, extensive experiments on five real-world networks show that the proposed model can outperform the Common Neighbor (CN) algorithm and gives competitively good prediction of or even better than Adamic-Adar (AA) index and Resource Allocation (RA) index.

  20. [Low-power Wireless Micro Ambulatory Electrocardiogram Node].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zhipeng; Luo, Kan; Li, Jianqing

    2016-02-01

    Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring can effectively reduce the risk and death rate of patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The Body Sensor Network (BSN) based ECG monitoring is a new and efficien method to protect the CVDs patients. To meet the challenges of miniaturization, low power and high signal quality of the node, we proposed a novel 50 mmX 50 mmX 10 mm, 30 g wireless ECG node, which includes the single-chip an alog front-end AD8232, ultra-low power microprocessor MSP430F1611 and Bluetooth module HM-11. The ECG signal quality is guaranteed by the on-line digital filtering. The difference threshold algorithm results in accuracy of R-wave detection and heart rate. Experiments were carried out to test the node and the results showed that the pro posed node reached the design target, and it has great potential in application of wireless ECG monitoring. PMID:27382732

  1. Using mapping entropy to identify node centrality in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Tingyuan; Guo, Zheng; Zhao, Kun; Lu, Zhe-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The problem of finding the best strategy to attack a network or immunize a population with a minimal number of nodes has attracted much current research interest. The assessment of node importance has been a fundamental issue in the research of complex networks. In this paper, we propose a new concept called mapping entropy (ME) to identify the importance of a node in the complex network. The concept is established according to the local information which considers the correlation among all neighbors of a node. We evaluate the efficiency of the centrality by static and dynamic attacks on standard network models and real-world networks. The simulation result shows that the new centrality is more efficient than traditional attack strategies, whether it is static or dynamic.

  2. Active Sensing and Its Application to Sensor Node Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a perturbation/correlation-based active sensing method and its application to sensor node configuration for environment monitoring. Sensor networks are widely used as data measurement tools, especially in dangerous environments. For large scale environment monitoring, a large number of nodes is required. For optimal measurements, the placement of nodes is very important. Nonlinear spring force-based configuration is introduced. Perturbation/correlation-based estimation of the gradient is developed and it is much more robust because it does not require any differentiation. An algorithm for tuning the stiffness using the estimated gradient for node reconfiguration is presented. The performance of the proposed algorithm is discussed with simulation results. PMID:25299949

  3. 100-nm node lithography with KrF?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritze, Michael; Tyrrell, Brian; Astolfi, David K.; Yost, Donna; Davis, Paul; Wheeler, Bruce; Mallen, Renee D.; Jarmolowicz, J.; Cann, Susan G.; Liu, Hua-Yu; Ma, M.; Chan, David Y.; Rhyins, Peter D.; Carney, Chris; Ferri, John E.; Blachowicz, B. A.

    2001-09-01

    We present results looking into the feasibility of 100-nm Node imaging using KrF, 248-nm, exposure technology. This possibility is not currently envisioned by the 1999 ITRS Roadmap which lists 5 possible options for this 2005 Node, not including KrF. We show that double-exposure strong phase- shift, combined with two mask OPC, is capable of correcting the significant proximity effects present for 100-nm Node imaging at these low k1 factors. We also introduce a new PSM Paradigm, dubbed 'GRATEFUL,' that can image aggressive 100-nm Node features without using OPC. This is achieved by utilizing an optimized 'dense-only' imaging approach. The method also allows the re-use of a single PSM for multiple levels and designs, thus addressing the mask cost and turnaround time issues of concern in PSM technology.

  4. Browsing schematics: Query-filtered graphs with context nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciccarelli, Eugene C.; Nardi, Bonnie A.

    1988-01-01

    The early results of a research project to create tools for building interfaces to intelligent systems on the NASA Space Station are reported. One such tool is the Schematic Browser which helps users engaged in engineering problem solving find and select schematics from among a large set. Users query for schematics with certain components, and the Schematic Browser presents a graph whose nodes represent the schematics with those components. The query greatly reduces the number of choices presented to the user, filtering the graph to a manageable size. Users can reformulate and refine the query serially until they locate the schematics of interest. To help users maintain orientation as they navigate a large body of data, the graph also includes nodes that are not matches but provide global and local context for the matching nodes. Context nodes include landmarks, ancestors, siblings, children and previous matches.

  5. Scaling of nascent nodes in extended-s-wave superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rafael M.; Schmalian, Jörg

    2011-07-01

    We analyze the low-energy properties of superconductors near the onset of accidental nodes, i.e., zeros of the gap function not enforced by symmetry. The existence of such nodes has been motivated by recent experiments, suggesting a transition between nodeless and nodal superconductivity in iron-based compounds. We find that the low-temperature behavior of the penetration depth, the specific heat, and the NMR-nuclear quadrupole resonance spin-lattice relaxation rate are determined by the scaling properties of a quantum critical point associated with the nascent nodes. Although the power-law exponents are insensitive to weak short-range electronic interactions, they can be significantly altered by the curvature of the Fermi surface or by the three-dimensional character of the gap. Consequently, the behavior of macroscopic quantities near the onset of nodes can be used as a criterion to determine the nodal structure of the gap function.

  6. Error recovery to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Coteus, Paul W.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Takken, Todd; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2016-01-26

    An error-recovery method to enable error-free message transfer between nodes of a computer network. A first node of the network sends a packet to a second node of the network over a link between the nodes, and the first node keeps a copy of the packet on a sending end of the link until the first node receives acknowledgment from the second node that the packet was received without error. The second node tests the packet to determine if the packet is error free. If the packet is not error free, the second node sets a flag to mark the packet as corrupt. The second node returns acknowledgement to the first node specifying whether the packet was received with or without error. When the packet is received with error, the link is returned to a known state and the packet is sent again to the second node.

  7. Single-node orbit analsyis with radiation heat transfer only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peoples, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The steady-state temperature of a single node which dissipates energy by radiation only is discussed for a nontime varying thermal environment. Relationships are developed to illustrate how shields can be utilized to represent a louver system. A computer program is presented which can assess periodic temperature characteristics of a single node in a time varying thermal environment having energy dissipation by radiation only. The computer program performs thermal orbital analysis for five combinations of plate, shields, and louvers.

  8. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  9. Reconstruction of Graph Signals Through Percolation from Seeding Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segarra, Santiago; Marques, Antonio G.; Leus, Geert; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    New schemes to recover signals defined in the nodes of a graph are proposed. Our focus is on reconstructing bandlimited graph signals, which are signals that admit a sparse representation in a frequency domain related to the structure of the graph. Most existing formulations focus on estimating an unknown graph signal by observing its value on a subset of nodes. By contrast, in this paper, we study the problem of reconstructing a known graph signal using as input a graph signal that is non-zero only for a small subset of nodes (seeding nodes). The sparse signal is then percolated (interpolated) across the graph using a graph filter. Graph filters are a generalization of classical time-invariant systems and represent linear transformations that can be implemented distributedly across the nodes of the graph. Three setups are investigated. In the first one, a single simultaneous injection takes place on several nodes in the graph. In the second one, successive value injections take place on a single node. The third one is a generalization where multiple nodes inject multiple signal values. For noiseless settings, conditions under which perfect reconstruction is feasible are given, and the corresponding schemes to recover the desired signal are specified. Scenarios leading to imperfect reconstruction, either due to insufficient or noisy signal value injections, are also analyzed. Moreover, connections with classical interpolation in the time domain are discussed. The last part of the paper presents numerical experiments that illustrate the results developed through synthetic graph signals and two real-world signal reconstruction problems: influencing opinions in a social network and inducing a desired brain state in humans.

  10. Modelling the Energy Efficient Sensor Nodes for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, R.; Arora, A. K.; Singh, V. R.

    2015-09-01

    Energy is an important requirement of wireless sensor networks for better performance. A widely employed energy-saving technique is to place nodes in sleep mode, corresponding to low-power consumption as well as to reduce operational capabilities. In this paper, Markov model of a sensor network is developed. The node is considered to enter a sleep mode. This model is used to investigate the system performance in terms of energy consumption, network capacity and data delivery delay.

  11. Patterns of Retropharyngeal Node Metastasis in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiaoshen; Hu Chaosu Ying Hongmei; Zhou Zhengrong; Ding Jianhui; Feng Yan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the pattern of metastasis to retropharyngeal lymph nodes (RLN) and its relationship with tumor range in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients by using magnetic resonance imaging. Methods and Materials: Magnetic resonance images of 618 NPC patients were reviewed. Nodes were classified as metastatic on the basis of size criteria, the presence of nodal necrosis, and extracapsular spread. Results: A total of 597 involved RLN were detected in 392 patients (63.4%). The sites of RLN metastasis included occipital bone, 37 (6.2%); first cervical vertebra (C1), 453 (75.9%); second cervical vertebra (C2), 104 (17.4%); and third cervical vertebra (C3), 3 (0.5%). The incidence of RLN involvement was less than that of Level IIb node involvement (72.2% vs. 86.5%) in 543 patients with lymphadenopathy. The incidence of RLN metastasis was significantly higher in cases of parapharyngeal space invasion or involvement of Level II, Level III, Level IV, and/or Level V nodes and significantly lower in N0 and Stage I disease. Conversely, the incidence of RLN metastasis did not differ significantly among T1, 2, 3, and 4 disease or among Stage II, III, and IV disease. Conclusions: Level IIb nodes, rather than RLN, seem to be the first-echelon nodes in NPC. The incidence of RLN metastasis decreases steadily from level C1 to level C3. Retropharyngeal lymph node metastasis correlates well with involvement of the parapharyngeal space and metastases to Level II, III, IV, and/or V nodes but not with T stage.

  12. Interdependent networks with identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Shere, Nathaniel W.; Cwilich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    We study a problem of failure of two interdependent networks in the case of identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes. We assume that both networks (A and B) have the same number of nodes N connected by the bidirectional dependency links establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the nodes of the two networks in a such a way that the mutually dependent nodes have the same number of connectivity links; i.e., their degrees coincide. This implies that both networks have the same degree distribution P(k). We call such networks correspondently coupled networks (CCNs). We assume that the nodes in each network are randomly connected. We define the mutually connected clusters and the mutual giant component as in earlier works on randomly coupled interdependent networks and assume that only the nodes that belong to the mutual giant component remain functional. We assume that initially a 1-p fraction of nodes are randomly removed because of an attack or failure and find analytically, for an arbitrary P(k), the fraction of nodes μ(p) that belong to the mutual giant component. We find that the system undergoes a percolation transition at a certain fraction p=pc, which is always smaller than pc for randomly coupled networks with the same P(k). We also find that the system undergoes a first-order transition at pc>0 if P(k) has a finite second moment. For the case of scale-free networks with 2<λ⩽3, the transition becomes a second-order transition. Moreover, if λ<3, we find pc=0, as in percolation of a single network. For λ=3 we find an exact analytical expression for pc>0. Finally, we find that the robustness of CCN increases with the broadness of their degree distribution.

  13. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  14. Rapid identifying high-influence nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bo; Jiang, Guo-Ping; Song, Yu-Rong; Xia, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    A tiny fraction of influential individuals play a critical role in the dynamics on complex systems. Identifying the influential nodes in complex networks has theoretical and practical significance. Considering the uncertainties of network scale and topology, and the timeliness of dynamic behaviors in real networks, we propose a rapid identifying method (RIM) to find the fraction of high-influential nodes. Instead of ranking all nodes, our method only aims at ranking a small number of nodes in network. We set the high-influential nodes as initial spreaders, and evaluate the performance of RIM by the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model. The simulations show that in different networks, RIM performs well on rapid identifying high-influential nodes, which is verified by typical ranking methods, such as degree, closeness, betweenness, and eigenvector centrality methods. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61374180 and 61373136), the Ministry of Education Research in the Humanities and Social Sciences Planning Fund Project, China (Grant No. 12YJAZH120), and the Six Projects Sponsoring Talent Summits of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. RLD201212).

  15. The Imaging Node for the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; LaVoie, Susan K.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  16. Inguinal Lymph Nodes in Carcinoma Penis-Observation or Surgery?

    PubMed Central

    Althaf, Syed; Gangaiah, Dinesh M.; Dev, Kapil; Kurpad, Vishnu P.; Gurawalia, Jaiprakash

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Indian sub-continent the presentation of carcinoma penis is variable. Mostly presents with palpable inguinal lymph nodes but not confirm of metastases. Aim To evaluate whether all clinically positive nodes are metastatic and decide when to address inguinal lymph node. Materials and Methods A retrospective observational study on carcinoma penis from a regional cancer centre of south India over a period from 2001 to 2012. All the clinical, investigational, operative, pathology details and follow-up data were collected from patient records. Results Two hundred and thirty cases of carcinoma penis have been identified and 112 cases had clinically positive nodes. In 74 cases fine needle cytology was positive for malignancy and they have been addressed with block dissection with surgery of primary lesion. At two years follow up, 70 patients were identified with inguinal lymph node metastasis and block dissection was performed and all was were positive for malignancy on histology. The rate of recurrence is related to the T stage of the primary tumour. Conclusion It can be concluded that elective surgery is appropriate for palpable inguinal lymph nodes and prophylactic nodal dissection in high risk cases of carcinoma penis. PMID:26894163

  17. Dirac node arcs in PtSn4

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Yun; Wang, Lin -Lin; Mun, Eundeok; Johnson, D. D.; Mou, Daixiang; Huang, Lunan; Lee, Yongbin; Bud’ko, S. L.; Canfield, P. C.; Kaminski, Adam

    2016-04-04

    In topological quantum materials1,2,3 the conduction and valence bands are connected at points or along lines in the momentum space. A number of studies have demonstrated that several materials are indeed Dirac/Weyl semimetals4,5,6,7,8. However, there is still no experimental confirmation of materials with line nodes, in which the Dirac nodes form closed loops in the momentum space2,3. Here we report the discovery of a novel topological structure—Dirac node arcs—in the ultrahigh magnetoresistive material PtSn4 using laser-based angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy data and density functional theory calculations. Unlike the closed loops of line nodes, the Dirac node arc structure arises owing tomore » the surface states and resembles the Dirac dispersion in graphene that is extended along a short line in the momentum space. Here, we propose that this reported Dirac node arc structure is a novel topological state that provides an exciting platform for studying the exotic properties of Dirac fermions.« less

  18. A novel node-structural map for angiogenesis analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yizhi; Zhao, Tong; Talavera, Dodanim; Honigmann, Rocio S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce a novel node-structural map method for digital image-based analysis of angiogenesis, and apply it to quantitate the effect of pro-angiogenic (e.g. VEGF) and anti-angiogenic (e.g. anti-VEGF) treatments on blood vessel patterns in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in vivo model. After vessel segmentation and skeletonization, a node-structural map is derived to represent the structural property of each pixel in the skeletonized image, such as end nodes (root and leaf), branch and furcation/junction nodes. By combining the node-structural map with vascular thickness map, our proposed method provides more detailed morphometric and structural measurement of vascular angiogenesis, such as average diameter, average branch length, branch thickness distribution, density of branch and furcation nodes, etc. Furthermore, the concept of vascular generations will be proposed. Accordingly, more detailed measurements related to the generations of the vascular tree can be easily evaluated. From the quantitative analysis results, it correctly shows the fact that VEGF/anti-VEGF can modify the blood vessel pattern and increase/decrease the vessel density in CAM significantly, compared to the phosphate-buffered saline treated controls.

  19. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, A.G.; Atiya, A.F.; Fernandez, B.; Tsai, W.K.; Chong, K.T.

    1995-12-26

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer. The hidden layer includes nodes in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device occurring in the feedback path (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit from all the other nodes within the same layer. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing. 21 figs.

  20. Neural node network and model, and method of teaching same

    DOEpatents

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Atiya, Amir F.; Fernandez, Benito; Tsai, Wei K.; Chong, Kil T.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a fully connected feed forward network that includes at least one hidden layer 16. The hidden layer 16 includes nodes 20 in which the output of the node is fed back to that node as an input with a unit delay produced by a delay device 24 occurring in the feedback path 22 (local feedback). Each node within each layer also receives a delayed output (crosstalk) produced by a delay unit 36 from all the other nodes within the same layer 16. The node performs a transfer function operation based on the inputs from the previous layer and the delayed outputs. The network can be implemented as analog or digital or within a general purpose processor. Two teaching methods can be used: (1) back propagation of weight calculation that includes the local feedback and the crosstalk or (2) more preferably a feed forward gradient decent which immediately follows the output computations and which also includes the local feedback and the crosstalk. Subsequent to the gradient propagation, the weights can be normalized, thereby preventing convergence to a local optimum. Education of the network can be incremental both on and off-line. An educated network is suitable for modeling and controlling dynamic nonlinear systems and time series systems and predicting the outputs as well as hidden states and parameters. The educated network can also be further educated during on-line processing.

  1. Measures of node centrality in mobile social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhenxiang; Shi, Yan; Chen, Shanzhi

    2015-02-01

    Mobile social networks exploit human mobility and consequent device-to-device contact to opportunistically create data paths over time. While links in mobile social networks are time-varied and strongly impacted by human mobility, discovering influential nodes is one of the important issues for efficient information propagation in mobile social networks. Although traditional centrality definitions give metrics to identify the nodes with central positions in static binary networks, they cannot effectively identify the influential nodes for information propagation in mobile social networks. In this paper, we address the problems of discovering the influential nodes in mobile social networks. We first use the temporal evolution graph model which can more accurately capture the topology dynamics of the mobile social network over time. Based on the model, we explore human social relations and mobility patterns to redefine three common centrality metrics: degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality. We then employ empirical traces to evaluate the benefits of the proposed centrality metrics, and discuss the predictability of nodes' global centrality ranking by nodes' local centrality ranking. Results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed centrality metrics.

  2. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  3. The human peripheral lymph node vascular addressin. An inducible endothelial antigen involved in lymphocyte homing.

    PubMed Central

    Michie, S. A.; Streeter, P. R.; Bolt, P. A.; Butcher, E. C.; Picker, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The extravasation of blood-borne lymphocytes into organized lymphoid tissues and sites of chronic inflammation is directed in part by interactions of lymphocyte surface adhesion molecules, known as homing receptors, with tissue-selective endothelial ligands called vascular addressins. In mice and humans, lymphocyte L-selectin and the peripheral lymph node addressin (PNAd) form a homing receptor-endothelial ligand pair involved in lymphocyte traffic to peripheral lymph node (PLN). We have examined the tissue distribution and function of human PNAd, using monoclonal antibody MECA-79 and in vitro assays of L-selectin-dependent lymphocyte binding. We demonstrate that PNAd is expressed by human high endothelial venules (HEV) in lymphoid tissues which support lymphocyte adhesion via a PLN-associated recognition system. MECA-79 inhibits adhesion to these HEV of a cell line that binds predominantly via the PLN-homing receptor, L-selectin, but has no effect on adhesion by a mucosal HEV-binding cell line. Furthermore, MECA-79 blocks binding of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to both PLN and tonsil HEV, but not significantly to HEV in the appendix. In addition, we demonstrate PNAd induction on venules at chronic inflammatory sites in humans, particularly sites with severe or long-standing chronic inflammatory involvement. These results confirm that PNAd functions as a PLN vascular addressin in humans, and that in addition to directing normal lymphocyte recirculation to lymph nodes and tonsils, this addressin likely participates in lymphocyte recruitment to sites of chronic inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8256856

  4. Information-based self-organization of sensor nodes of a sensor network

    DOEpatents

    Ko, Teresa H.; Berry, Nina M.

    2011-09-20

    A sensor node detects a plurality of information-based events. The sensor node determines whether at least one other sensor node is an information neighbor of the sensor node based on at least a portion of the plurality of information-based events. The information neighbor has an overlapping field of view with the sensor node. The sensor node sends at least one communication to the at least one other sensor node that is an information neighbor of the sensor node in response to at least one information-based event of the plurality of information-based events.

  5. Increased copy number of the DLX4 homeobox gene in breast axillary lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Torresan, Clarissa; Oliveira, Márcia M C; Pereira, Silma R F; Ribeiro, Enilze M S F; Marian, Catalin; Gusev, Yuriy; Lima, Rubens S; Urban, Cicero A; Berg, Patricia E; Haddad, Bassem R; Cavalli, Iglenir J; Cavalli, Luciane R

    2014-05-01

    DLX4 is a homeobox gene strongly implicated in breast tumor progression and invasion. Our main objective was to determine the DLX4 copy number status in sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis to assess its involvement in the initial stages of the axillary metastatic process. A total of 37 paired samples of SLN metastasis and primary breast tumors (PBT) were evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and array comparative genomic hybridization assays. DLX4 increased copy number was observed in 21.6% of the PBT and 24.3% of the SLN metastasis; regression analysis demonstrated that the DLX4 alterations observed in the SLN metastasis were dependent on the ones in the PBT, indicating that they occur in the primary tumor cell populations and are maintained in the early axillary metastatic site. In addition, regression analysis demonstrated that DLX4 alterations (and other DLX and HOXB family members) occurred independently of the ones in the HER2/NEU gene, the main amplification driver on the 17q region. Additional studies evaluating DLX4 copy number in non-SLN axillary lymph nodes and/or distant breast cancer metastasis are necessary to determine if these alterations are carried on and maintained during more advanced stages of tumor progression and if could be used as a predictive marker for axillary involvement. PMID:24947980

  6. HIV-1 Capsid Stabilization Assay.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Thomas; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The stability of the HIV-1 core in the cytoplasm is crucial for productive HIV-1 infection. Mutations that stabilize or destabilize the core showed defects in HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection. We developed a novel and simple assay to measure stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes. This assay allowed us to demonstrate that cytosolic extracts strongly stabilize the HIV-1 core (Fricke et al., J Virol 87:10587-10597, 2013). By using our novel assay, one can measure the ability of different drugs to modulate the stability of in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes, such as PF74, CAP-1, IXN-053, cyclosporine A, Bi2, and the peptide CAI. We also found that purified CPSF6 (1-321) protein stabilizes in vitro-assembled HIV-1 CA-NC complexes (Fricke et al., J Virol 87:10587-10597, 2013). Here we describe in detail the use of this capsid stability assay. We believe that our assay can be a powerful tool to assess HIV-1 capsid stability in vitro. PMID:26714703

  7. The GARD assay for assessment of chemical skin sensitizers.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Henrik; Albrekt, Ann-Sofie; Borrebaeck, Carl A K; Lindstedt, Malin

    2013-04-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis is a skin disease caused by an immunologic reaction to low molecular weight compounds, so called haptens. These substances are commonly present in products used by humans in daily life, such as in cosmetics and fragrances, as well as within chemical industry and in pharmaceuticals. The frequent usage of these compounds in different applications has led to increasing incidences of allergic contact dermatitis, which has become a substantial economic burden for society. As a consequence, chemicals are routinely tested for their ability to induce skin sensitization, using animal models such as the murine Local Lymph Node Assay. However, recent legislations regulate the use of animal models within chemical testing. Thus, there is an urgent need for in vitro alternatives to replace these assays for safety assessment of chemicals. Recently, we identified a signature of predictive genes, which are differentially regulated in the human myeloid cell-line MUTZ-3 when stimulated with sensitizing compounds compared to non-sensitizing compounds. Based on these findings, we have formulated a test strategy for assessment of sensitizing compounds, called Genomic Allergen Rapid Detection, GARD. In this paper, we present a detailed method description of how the assay should be performed. PMID:23032079

  8. Methods and apparatus using commutative error detection values for fault isolation in multiple node computers

    DOEpatents

    Almasi, Gheorghe [Ardsley, NY; Blumrich, Matthias Augustin [Ridgefield, CT; Chen, Dong [Croton-On-Hudson, NY; Coteus, Paul [Yorktown, NY; Gara, Alan [Mount Kisco, NY; Giampapa, Mark E [Irvington, NY; Heidelberger, Philip [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Hoenicke, Dirk I [Ossining, NY; Singh, Sarabjeet [Mississauga, CA; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D [Wernau, DE; Takken, Todd [Brewster, NY; Vranas, Pavlos [Bedford Hills, NY

    2008-06-03

    Methods and apparatus perform fault isolation in multiple node computing systems using commutative error detection values for--example, checksums--to identify and to isolate faulty nodes. When information associated with a reproducible portion of a computer program is injected into a network by a node, a commutative error detection value is calculated. At intervals, node fault detection apparatus associated with the multiple node computer system retrieve commutative error detection values associated with the node and stores them in memory. When the computer program is executed again by the multiple node computer system, new commutative error detection values are created and stored in memory. The node fault detection apparatus identifies faulty nodes by comparing commutative error detection values associated with reproducible portions of the application program generated by a particular node from different runs of the application program. Differences in values indicate a possible faulty node.

  9. 76 FR 45254 - Report and Recommendations on the Usefulness and Limitations of the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-28

    ... classification and labeling. NICEATM published a Federal Register notice (72 FR 27815) requesting public comments... (BRDs), released them for public comment in January 2008 (73 FR 1360), and convened a public meeting of... May 2008 (73 FR 29136) for public comment. The draft ICCVAM BRDs, draft ICCVAM test...

  10. [The validity of the sentinel node concept in gastrointestinal cancers].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Mukai, M; Ando, N; Kubota, T; Ikeda, T; Ohgami, M; Watanabe, M; Otani, Y; Ozawa, S; Hasegawa, H; Furukawa, T; Nakahara, T; Kubo, A; Kumai, K; Kitajima, M

    2000-03-01

    Although the sentinel node concept has been validated and clinically applied to breast cancer and malignant melanoma, its clinical significance in other solid tumors has not been thoroughly investigated. With regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in particular, our surgeons have been cautious because of the high frequency of skip metastasis and the complicated lymphatic system in the GI tract. We would like to emphasize that so-called skip metastasis has been defined according to anatomic classification of regional lymph nodes and that the lymphatic drainage route must be patient or lesion specific. To test the validity and feasibility of this concept in GI cancers, we have established a radio-guided intraoperative sentinel node navigation system using preoperative endoscopic submucosal injection of radioactive tracer followed by intra-operative gamma-probing. In 131 patients with GI cancers (esophagus: 22, stomach: 71, colorectum: 38), the detection rate of sentinel nades was 91% and overall diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis by sentinel node status was 97%. Initial results suggest further investigation of this procedure as an accurate staging and a minimally invasive approach to early GI cancers. PMID:10774000

  11. Node similarity within subgraphs of protein interaction networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penner, Orion; Sood, Vishal; Musso, Gabriel; Baskerville, Kim; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2008-06-01

    We propose a biologically motivated quantity, twinness, to evaluate local similarity between nodes in a network. The twinness of a pair of nodes is the number of connected, labeled subgraphs of size n in which the two nodes possess identical neighbours. The graph animal algorithm is used to estimate twinness for each pair of nodes (for subgraph sizes n=4 to n=12) in four different protein interaction networks (PINs). These include an Escherichia coli PIN and three Saccharomyces cerevisiae PINs - each obtained using state-of-the-art high-throughput methods. In almost all cases, the average twinness of node pairs is vastly higher than that expected from a null model obtained by switching links. For all n, we observe a difference in the ratio of type A twins (which are unlinked pairs) to type B twins (which are linked pairs) distinguishing the prokaryote E. coli from the eukaryote S. cerevisiae. Interaction similarity is expected due to gene duplication, and whole genome duplication paralogues in S. cerevisiae have been reported to co-cluster into the same complexes. Indeed, we find that these paralogous proteins are over-represented as twins compared to pairs chosen at random. These results indicate that twinness can detect ancestral relationships from currently available PIN data.

  12. Automatic mediastinal lymph node detection in chest CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerstein, Marco; Deguchi, Daisuke; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Iwano, Shingo; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Suenaga, Yasuhito; Mori, Kensaku

    2009-02-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the chest is a very common staging investigation for the assessment of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph nodes in the context of lung cancer. In the current clinical workflow, the detection and assessment of lymph nodes is usually performed manually, which can be error-prone and timeconsuming. We therefore propose a method for the automatic detection of mediastinal, hilar, and intrapulmonary lymph node candidates in contrast-enhanced chest CT. Based on the segmentation of important mediastinal anatomy (bronchial tree, aortic arch) and making use of anatomical knowledge, we utilize Hessian eigenvalues to detect lymph node candidates. As lymph nodes can be characterized as blob-like structures of varying size and shape within a specific intensity interval, we can utilize these characteristics to reduce the number of false positive candidates significantly. We applied our method to 5 cases suspected to have lung cancer. The processing time of our algorithm did not exceed 6 minutes, and we achieved an average sensitivity of 82.1% and an average precision of 13.3%.

  13. Breast cancer recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    AlSaif, Abdulaziz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To look into the pattern of breast cancer recurrence following mastectomy, breast conservative surgery and radiotherapy or chemotherapy after SLNB at our institution. Methods: Between January 2005 and December 2014, all patients diagnosed with breast cancer with clinically negative axilla, underwent SLNB. We reviewed their medical records to identify pattern of cancer recurrence. Results: The median follow-up was 35.5 months. Eighty five patients (70.8%) had a negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) and subsequently had no further axillary treatment, one of them (1.2%) developed axillary recurrence 25 months postoperatively. Twenty five patients (20.8%) had a positive SLN (macrometastases) and subsequently had immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Ten patients (8.3%) had a positive SLN (micrometastases). In the positive SLN patients (macrometastases and micrometastases), there were two ipsilateral breast recurrences (5.7%), seen three and four years postoperatively. Also in this group, there was one (2.9%) distant metastasis to bone three years postoperatively. Conclusion: In this series, the clinical axillary false negative rate for SLNB was 1.2% which is in accordance with the published literature. This supports the use of SLNB as the sole axillary staging procedure in breast cancer patients with negative SLNB. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in patients with micrometastases in their sentinel lymph node(s). PMID:26870109

  14. Community centrality for node's influential ranking in complex network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Biao; Tuo, Xian-Guo; Yang, Kai-Xue; Liu, Ming-Zhe

    2014-10-01

    Some tiny party of influential nodes may highly affect spread of information in complex networks. For the case of very high time complexity in the shortest path computation of global centralities, making use of local community centrality to identify influential nodes is an open and possible problem. Compared to degree and local centralities, a five-heartbeat forward community centrality is proposed in this paper, in which a five-step induced sub-graph of certain node in the network will be achieved. Next, we induce the minimal spanning tree (MMT) of the sub-graph. Finally, we take the sum of all weights of the MMT as community centrality measurement that needs to be the influential ranking of the node. We use the susceptible, infected and recovered (SIR) model to evaluate the performance of this method on several public test network data and explore the forward steps of community centrality by experiments. Simulative results show that our method with five steps can identify the influential ranking of nodes in complex network as well.

  15. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  16. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach – more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy – clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  17. Mandatory leaf node prediction in hierarchical multilabel classification.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei; Kwok, James T

    2014-12-01

    In hierarchical classification, the output labels reside on a tree- or directed acyclic graph (DAG)-structured hierarchy. On testing, the prediction paths of a given test example may be required to end at leaf nodes of the label hierarchy. This is called mandatory leaf node prediction (MLNP) and is particularly useful, when the leaf nodes have much stronger semantic meaning than the internal nodes. However, while there have been a lot of MLNP methods in hierarchical multiclass classification, performing MLNP in hierarchical multilabel classification is difficult. In this paper, we propose novel MLNP algorithms that consider the global label hierarchy structure. We show that the joint posterior probability over all the node labels can be efficiently maximized by dynamic programming for label trees, or greedy algorithm for label DAGs. In addition, both algorithms can be further extended for the minimization of the expected symmetric loss. Experiments are performed on real-world MLNP data sets with label trees and label DAGs. The proposed method consistently outperforms other hierarchical and flat multilabel classification methods. PMID:25420248

  18. Network structure exploration in networks with node attributes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Wang, Xiaolong; Bu, Junzhao; Tang, Buzhou; Xiang, Xin

    2016-05-01

    Complex networks provide a powerful way to represent complex systems and have been widely studied during the past several years. One of the most important tasks of network analysis is to detect structures (also called structural regularities) embedded in networks by determining group number and group partition. Most of network structure exploration models only consider network links. However, in real world networks, nodes may have attributes that are useful for network structure exploration. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) model to explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes, called Bayesian nonparametric attribute (BNPA) model. This model does not only take full advantage of both links between nodes and node attributes for group partition via shared hidden variables, but also determine group number automatically via the Bayesian nonparametric theory. Experiments conducted on a number of real and synthetic networks show that our BNPA model is able to automatically explore structural regularities in networks with node attributes and is competitive with other state-of-the-art models.

  19. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach - more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy - clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  20. Malicious node detection in ad-hoc wireless networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griswold, Richard L.; Medidi, Sirisha R.

    2003-07-01

    Advances in wireless communications and the proliferation of mobile computing devices has led to the rise of a new type of computer network: the ad-hoc wireless network. Ad-hoc networks are characterized by a lack of fixed infrastructure, which give ad-hoc networks a great deal of flexibility, but also increases the risk of security problems. In wired networks, key pieces of network infrastructure are secured to prevent unauthorized physical access and tampering. Network administrators ensure that everything is properly configured and are on-hand to fix problems and deal with intrusions. In contrast, the nodes in an ad-hoc network are responsible for routing and forwarding data in the network, and there are no network administrators to handle potential problems. This makes an ad-hoc network more vulnerable to a misconfigured, faulty, or compromised node. We propose a means for a node in an ad-hoc network to detect and handle these malicious nodes by comparing data available to the routing protocol, such as cached routes in Dynamic Source Routing, ICMP messages, and transport layer information, such as TCP timeouts. This data can then be used along with network probes to isolate the malicious node.

  1. Enhancing regional lymph nodes from endoscopic ultrasound images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwogu, Ifeoma; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2008-03-01

    Esophageal ultrasound (EUS) is particularly useful for isolating lymph nodes in the N-staging of esophageal cancer, a disease with very poor overall prognosis. Although EUS is relatively low-cost and real time, and it provides valuable information to the clinician, its usefulness to less trained "users" including opportunities for computer-aided diagnosis is still limited due to the strong presence of spatially correlated interference noise called speckles. To this end, in this paper, we present a technique for enhancing lymph nodes in EUS images by first reducing the spatial correlation of the specular noise and then using a modified structured tensor-based anisotropic filter to complete the speckle reduction process. We report on a measure of the enhancement and also on the extent of automatic processing possible, after the speckle reduction process has taken place. Also, we show the limitations of the enhancement process by extracting relevant lymph node features from the despeckled images. When tested on five representative classes of esophageal lymph nodes, we found the despeckling process to greatly reduce the specularity of the original EUS images, therefore proving very useful for visualization purposes. But it still requires additional work for the complete automation of the lymph node characterizing process.

  2. Significance of Lymph Node Ratio in Defining Risk Category in Node-positive Early Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Nicole D.; Frumovitz, Michael; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; dos Reis, Ricardo; Munsell, Mark F.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Nick, Alpa M.; Westin, Shannon N.; Ramirez, Pedro T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The ratio of positive to negative lymph nodes, or lymph node ratio (LNR), is an important prognostic factor in several solid tumors. The objective of this study was to determine if LNR can be used to define a high-risk category of patients with node-positive early stage cervical cancer. Methods We performed a retrospective review of patients diagnosed with node-positive stage I or II cervical cancer who underwent radical hysterectomy and pelvic +/− para-aortic lymphadenectomy at MD Anderson from January 1990 through December 2011. Univariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify prognostic factors for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results Ninety-five patients met inclusion criteria and were included in the analysis. Median total nodes removed were 19 (range 1–58), and median number of positive nodes was 1 (range 1–12). Fifty-eight patients (61%) received radiation with concurrent cisplatin and 27 patients (28%) received radiotherapy alone. Twenty-one (22%) patients recurred. On multivariate analysis, a LNR > 6.6% was associated with a worse PFS (HR=2.97, 95% CI 1.26–7.02, p=0.01), and a LNR > 7.6% with a worse OS (HR=3.96, 95% CI 1.31–11.98, p=0.01). On multivariate analysis, positive margins were associated with worse PFS (p=0.001) and OS (p=0.002), and adjuvant radiotherapy (p=0.01) with improved OS. Conclusions LNR appears to be a useful tool to identify patients with worse prognosis in node-positive early stage cervical cancer. LNR may be used in addition to pathologic risk factors to tailor adjuvant treatment in this population. PMID:25451695

  3. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Charych, D.; Reichart, A.

    2000-06-27

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  4. Three dimensional colorimetric assay assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah; Reichart, Anke

    2000-01-01

    A direct assay is described using novel three-dimensional polymeric assemblies which change from a blue to red color when exposed to an analyte, in one case a flu virus. The assemblies are typically in the form of liposomes which can be maintained in a suspension, and show great intensity in their color changes. Their method of production is also described.

  5. Biochemical Assays of Cultured Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, G. H.

    1985-01-01

    Subpopulations of human embryonic kidney cells isolated from continuous flow electrophoresis experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas and on STS-8 have been analyzed. These analyses have included plasminogen activator assays involving indirect methodology on fibrin plated and direct methodology using chromogenic substrates. Immunological studies were performed and the conditioned media for erythropoietin activity and human granulocyte colony stimulating (HGCSF) activity was analyzed.

  6. An improved choline monooxygenase assay

    SciTech Connect

    Lafontaine, P.J.; Hanson, A.D. )

    1991-05-01

    Glycine betaine accumulates in leaves of plants from several angiosperm families in response to drought or salinization. Its synthesis, from the oxidation of choline, is mediated by a two step pathway. In spinach the first enzyme of this pathway is a ferredoxin-dependent choline monooxygenase (CMO). In order to purify this enzyme a sensitive and reliable assay is necessary. Two types of modifications were explored to improve the existing assay. (1) Ferredoxin reduction - one way of providing reduced Fd to CMO is by the addition of isolated spinach thylakoids in the assay mixture. In order to optimize the reduction of Fd two different systems were compared: (a) where only PS is active, by adding DCMU to inhibit electron transport from PS II and DAD as electron donor for PS I; (b) where both PS II and PS I are active. (2) Betaine aldehyde estimation - to simplify this, it is possible to couple the CMO reaction with betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH) from E. coli. BADH converts betaine aldehyde to betaine as it is formed in the assay, eliminating the need for a chemical oxidation step.

  7. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  8. Assays for B lymphocyte function.

    PubMed

    Bondada, Subbarao; Robertson, Darrell A

    2003-11-01

    This unit describes the antigenic stimulation of in vitro antibody production by B cells and the subsequent measurement of secreted antibodies. The first basic protocol is a generalized system for inducing in vitro antibody production and can accommodate various types of antigens under study. Secreted antibodies can then be measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or other soluble-antibody detection systems. Alternatively, the number of antibody-producing cells can be quantified by plaque-forming cell (PFC) assays presented in this unit: the Cunningham-Szenberg and the Jerne-Nordin techniques. Both methods employ specially prepared slide chambers, described here, in which the antibody-producing B cells are mixed with complement and indicator sheep red blood cells (SRBC), or with trinitrophenol-modified SRBC (TNP-SRBC), with subsequent lysis and counting of plaques. Because IgM antibodies fix complement efficiently, whereas IgG and IgA antibodies do not, unmodified PFC assays measure only IgM antibodies. The assay can be modified, however, to measure all classes of antibodies or to enumerate total immunoglobulin-secreting B cells, as described in alternate protocols. Yet another method of measuring the number of antibody-producing B cells (in a class-specific fashion) is to use the ELISPOT technique described in UNIT 7.14. The resting B cells used in these procedures are prepared as described in the final support protocols for Percoll gradient centrifugation. PMID:18432909

  9. Effect of topical cis-urocanic acid on local lymph node activation during contact sensitization in mouse, rat and guinea-pig.

    PubMed

    Lauerma, A I; Homey, B; Vohr, H W; Lee, C H; Bloom, E; Maibach, H I

    1996-05-01

    Cis-urocanic acid (cUCA) has been suggested as a mediator of impairment of contact hypersensitivity induction by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. We ascertained whether topical cUCA influences local lymph node activation during induction of contact hypersensitivity. Topical cUCA or vehicle was applied during the local lymph node assay to oxazolone. Local lymph node weight and cell number were assessed in all animals. Additionally, cell proliferation rate was studied in Hartley guinea-pigs and CBA/Ca mice, whereas activation of antigen-presenting cells was quantified in NMRI mice and Wistar rats. Topical cUCA suppressed all parameters of local lymph node activation due to oxazolone application in guinea-pigs. No effect, with the exception of a suppression of antigen-presenting cell activity, was seen in mice. No effect was seen in rats. The study shows that topical cUCA may suppress local lymph node activation during contact sensitization and suggests that differences between the effect of cUCA in different animal species may exist. PMID:8736333

  10. Management of the lymph nodes in penile cancer.

    PubMed

    Heyns, Chris F; Fleshner, Neil; Sangar, Vijay; Schlenker, Boris; Yuvaraja, Thyavihally B; van Poppel, Hendrik

    2010-08-01

    A comprehensive literature study was conducted to evaluate the levels of evidence (LEs) in publications on the diagnosis and staging of penile cancer. Recommendations from the available evidence were formulated and discussed by the full panel of the International Consultation on Penile Cancer in November 2008. The final grades of recommendation (GRs) were assigned according to the LE of the relevant publications. The following consensus recommendations were accepted. Fine needle aspiration cytology should be performed in all patients (with ultrasound guidance in those with nonpalpable nodes). If the findings are positive, therapeutic, rather than diagnostic, inguinal lymph node dissection (ILND) can be performed (GR B). Antibiotic treatment for 3-6 weeks before ILND in patients with palpable inguinal nodes is not recommended (GR B). Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are not useful in patients with nonpalpable nodes. However, they can be used in those with large, palpable inguinal nodes (GR B). The statistical probability of inguinal micrometastases can be estimated using risk group stratification or a risk calculation nomogram (GR B). Surveillance is recommended if the nomogram probability of positive nodes is <0.1 (10%). Surveillance is also recommended if the primary lesion is grade 1, pTis, pTa (verrucous carcinoma), or pT1, with no lymphovascular invasion, and clinically nonpalpable inguinal nodes, but only provided the patient is willing to comply with regular follow-up (GR B). In the presence of factors that impede reliable surveillance (obesity, previous inguinal surgery, or radiotherapy) prophylactic ILND might be a preferable option (GR C). In the intermediate-risk group (nomogram probability .1-.5 [10%-50%] or primary tumor grade 1-2, T1-T2, cN0, no lymphovascular invasion), surveillance is acceptable, provided the patient is informed of the risks and is willing and able to comply. If not, sentinel node biopsy

  11. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  12. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  13. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  14. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  15. 21 CFR 225.158 - Laboratory assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Laboratory assays. 225.158 Section 225.158 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Laboratory assays. Where the results of laboratory assays of drug components, including assays by State...

  16. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. MATERIAL AND METHODS A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. RESULTS Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. CONCLUSIONS The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells. PMID:27385226

  17. Experimental Study of Magnetic Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube-Doxorubicin Conjugate in a Lymph Node Metastatic Model of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jian; Liu, Minfeng; Meng, Yue; Liu, Runqi; Yan, Yan; Dong, Jianyu; Guo, Zhaoze; Ye, Changsheng

    2016-01-01

    Background The lymphatic system plays a significant role in the defense of a subject against breast cancer and is one of the major pathways for the metastasis of breast cancer. To improve the prognosis, many means, including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have been used. However, the combination of all these modalities has limited efficacy. Lymph nodes, therefore, have become an exceptionally potential target organ in cancer chemotherapy. Material/Methods A lymph node metastatic model of breast cancer was established in BALB/c mice. Magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube carrier with good adsorption and lymph node-targeting capacity was prepared and conjugated with doxorubicin to make the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin suspension. Dispersions of doxorubicin, magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin, and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube were injected into lymph node metastatic mice to compare their inhibitory effects on tumor cells in vivo. Inhibition of these dispersions on EMT-6 breast cancer cells was detected via MTT assay in vitro. Results Although no significant difference was found between the effects of doxorubicin and magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin with the same concentration of doxorubicin on EMT-6 breast cancer cells in vitro, in terms of sizes of metastatic lymph nodes and xenograft tumors, apoptosis in metastatic lymph nodes, and adverse reactions, the magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin group differed significantly from the other groups. Conclusions The magnetic multi-walled carbon nanotube-doxorubicin clearly played an inhibitory role in lymph node metastases to EMT-6 breast cancer cells. PMID:27385226

  18. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  19. Earth System Grid (ESG) Data Node Software Stack

    SciTech Connect

    2009-12-01

    The ESG-CET system consist of two major components: 1) Gateways that support portal services, which serve as interfaces to end-users who can search, discover, and request data and data products, and 2) Data Nodes where the data actually resides. The Data is "published" to the Data Node, which makes the data visible to a Gateway and enables its delivery to end-users. It is expected that Gateways will only be installed by a small number of centers devoted to serving data (e.g., LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, GFDL, DADC, DKRZ, ANU, JAMSTEC), whereas it is hoped that most climate modeling centers will install the Data Node software through which they can serve their model output.

  20. Propionibacterium acnes isolated from lymph nodes of patients with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    de Brouwer, Bart; Veltkamp, Marcel; Wauters, Carla A; Grutters, Jan C; Janssen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes has been repeatedly suggested as a candidate causative agent of sarcoidosis. It is the only microorganism that has been isolated from sarcoid lesions by bacterial culture so far and this has been described in Japanese patients only. We report two non-Japanese patients in whom mediastinoscopy was performed in order to obtain lymph node tissue for histopathology, which was suggestive for sarcoidosis. Bacterial culture of these uncontaminated mediastinal lymph nodes revealed P. acnes in both patients. As shown in these two cases, P. acnes can be isolated from sterile biopsied sarcoid lymph nodes of non-Japanese patients and supports the belief that there is an etiologic link between P. acnes sarcoidosis. Further elucidation could provide an opening to novel strategies using antibiotics for treating sarcoidosis. PMID:26422574

  1. Lymph node hemangioma in one-humped camel

    PubMed Central

    Aljameel, M.A.; Halima, M.O.

    2015-01-01

    Hemangioma is a benign tumor of blood and lymphatic vessels. It is common in skin, mucosa and soft tissues, and its occurrence in lymph nodes is extremely rare. A 10 year-old she-camel was slaughtered at Nyala slaughterhouse, South Darfur State, Sudan. Grossly, the carcass was emaciated. The left ventral superficial cervical lymph node was enlarged, hard on palpation and protruded outside the body. Its cut surface was dark red in color and measured (18 cm) in diameter. Histopathologically, the sections revealed vascular masses were composed of non-encapsulated clusters of small and medium sized with thick and thin-walled, filled with blood, separated by courageous stroma and surrounded by closely packed proliferating capillaries. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of the left ventral superficial cervical lymph node hemangioma in a camel in the Sudan. PMID:26753134

  2. Saddle-Node Bifurcations in Classical and Memristive Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García de La Vega, Ignacio; Riaza, Ricardo

    This paper addresses a systematic characterization of saddle-node bifurcations in nonlinear electrical and electronic circuits. Our approach is a circuit-theoretic one, meaning that the bifurcation is analyzed in terms of the devices’ characteristics and the graph-theoretic properties of the digraph underlying the circuit. The analysis is based on a reformulation of independent interest of the saddle-node theorem of Sotomayor for semiexplicit index one differential-algebraic equations (DAEs), which define the natural context to set up nonlinear circuit models. The bifurcation is addressed not only for classical circuits, but also for circuits with memristors. The presence of this device systematically leads to nonisolated equilibria, and in this context the saddle-node bifurcation is shown to yield a bifurcation of manifolds of equilibria; in cases with a single memristor, this phenomenon describes the splitting of a line of equilibria into two, with different stability properties.

  3. Local immunization strategy based on the scores of nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Deng, Yong; Wei, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention because of its great theoretical significance and wide application. In this paper, we propose a successful immunization strategy only depending on local information. Our strategy initializes the scores of nodes with the values of their degree and recalculates the score of a certain immunized node based on its local information, and then replaces the certain immunized node with its nonimmunized higher-score neighbor. To test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, we conduct the experiments on several synthetic networks and real-world networks. The results show that the proposed strategy outperforms the existing well-known local strategies, even the degree centrality targeted strategy.

  4. A fast multipole hybrid boundary node method for composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiao; Miao, Yu; Zhu, Hongping

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a multi-domain fast multipole hybrid boundary node method for composite materials in 3D elasticity. The hybrid boundary node method (hybrid BNM) is a meshless method which only requires nodes constructed on the surface of a domain. The method is applied to 3D simulation of composite materials by a multi-domain solver and accelerated by the fast multipole method (FMM) in this paper. The preconditioned GMRES is employed to solve the final system equation and precondition techniques are discussed. The matrix-vector multiplication in each iteration is divided into smaller scale ones at the sub-domain level and then accelerated by FMM within individual sub-domains. The computed matrix-vector products at the sub-domain level are then combined according to the continuity conditions on the interfaces. The algorithm is implemented on a computer code written in C + +. Numerical results show that the technique is accurate and efficient.

  5. Axillary lymph nodes in breast cancer patients: sonographic evaluation*

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Denise Joffily Pereira da Costa; Elias, Simone; Nazário, Afonso Celso Pinto

    2014-01-01

    Axillary staging of patients with early-stage breast cancer is essential in the treatment planning. Currently such staging is intraoperatively performed, but there is a tendency to seek a preoperative and less invasive technique to detect lymph node metastasis. Ultrasonography is widely utilized for this purpose, many times in association with fine-needle aspiration biopsy or core needle biopsy. However, the sonographic criteria for determining malignancy in axillary lymph nodes do not present significant predictive values, producing discrepant results in studies evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of this method. The present study was aimed at reviewing the literature approaching the utilization of ultrasonography in the axillary staging as well as the main morphological features of metastatic lymph nodes. PMID:25741091

  6. Handling Irreducible Loops: Optimized Node Splitting vs. DJ-Graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, S; Mueller, F

    2001-05-10

    This paper addresses the question of how to handle irreducible regions during optimization, which has become even more relevant for contemporary processors since recent VLIW-like architectures highly rely on instruction scheduling. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, a method of optimized node splitting to transform irreducible regions of control flow into reducible regions is derived. This method is superior to approaches previously published since it reduces the number of replicated nodes by comparison. Second, three methods that handle regions of irreducible control flow are evaluated with respect to their impact on compiler optimizations: traditional and optimized node splitting as well as loop analysis through DJ graphs. Measurements show improvements of 1-40% for these methods of handling irreducible loop over the unoptimized case.

  7. Dynamics of neutrophil migration in lymph nodes during infection

    PubMed Central

    Chtanova, Tatyana; Schaeffer, Marie; Han, Seong-Ji; van Dooren, Giel G.; Nollmann, Marcelo; Herzmark, Paul; Chan, Shiao Wei; Satija, Harshita; Camfield, Kristin; Aaron, Holly; Striepen, Boris; Robey, Ellen A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary While the signals that control neutrophil migration from the blood to sites of infection have been well characterized, little is known about their migration patterns within lymph nodes, or the strategies that neutrophils use to find their local sites of action. To address these questions, we used two-photon scanning laser microscopy (TPSLM) to examine neutrophil migration in intact lymph nodes during infection with an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. We find that neutrophils form both small, transient or large, persistent swarms via a strikingly coordinated migration pattern. We provide evidence that cooperative action of neutrophils and parasite egress from host cells can trigger swarm formation. Neutrophil swarm formation coincides in space and time with the removal of macrophages that line the subcapsular sinus of the lymph node. Our data provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying neutrophil swarming and suggest new roles for neutrophils in shaping immune responses. PMID:18718768

  8. Ranking in interconnected multilayer networks reveals versatile nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Domenico, Manlio; Solé-Ribalta, Albert; Omodei, Elisa; Gómez, Sergio; Arenas, Alex

    2015-04-01

    The determination of the most central agents in complex networks is important because they are responsible for a faster propagation of information, epidemics, failures and congestion, among others. A challenging problem is to identify them in networked systems characterized by different types of interactions, forming interconnected multilayer networks. Here we describe a mathematical framework that allows us to calculate centrality in such networks and rank nodes accordingly, finding the ones that play the most central roles in the cohesion of the whole structure, bridging together different types of relations. These nodes are the most versatile in the multilayer network. We investigate empirical interconnected multilayer networks and show that the approaches based on aggregating--or neglecting--the multilayer structure lead to a wrong identification of the most versatile nodes, overestimating the importance of more marginal agents and demonstrating the power of versatility in predicting their role in diffusive and congestion processes.

  9. Synchronous firings in small-world networks of excitable nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Weifeng; Liao, Xuhong; Zhang, Lisheng; Huang, Xuhui; Hu, Gang; Mi, Yuanyuan

    2013-04-01

    The phenomenon of synchronous firings is investigated in excitable small-world networks (ESWNs) of 2D lattices. Two sharply different types of patterns, wavelet turbulence (WT) patterns and synchronous firing (SF) patterns, and the associated transitions and hysteresis are found in wide parameter regions and in different excitable models. The WT state is maintained by wavelet defects while the SF state is due to iterative excitations between majority nodes and minority nodes where defects do not play essential roles. Moreover, a dominant phase-advanced driving method is applied to explain how self-sustained SFs can be maintained in ESWN and why SF and WT states show distinctive characteristic features. Since excitability of node and small-world network structure are two essential ingredients of some neural subsystems and SFs are important for many neural functions, the results in this paper are thus expected to be instructive for understanding the dynamics of some neural networks.

  10. Application of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cutaneous Basosquamous Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kovacevic, Predrag; Visnjic, Milan; Jankovic, Dimitrije; Binic, Ivana; Jankovic, Aleksandar; Ilic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Basosquamous carcinoma of the skin is a relatively rare cutaneous neoplasm that has significant metastatic potential and a metastatic rate greater than that of basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. We describe the use of lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy in a 63-year-old man after identification of basosquamous carcinoma. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which is a standard tool to detect regional lymphatic metastasis in cutaneous melanoma, has been rarely employed to detect lymphatic metastasis of basosquamous carcinoma. The approach was successful in detecting a regional lymphatic metastasis of two nodal basins with minor morbidity. Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be useful for certain high-risk lesions of basosquamous carcinoma. PMID:22028558

  11. RANK is essential for osteoclast and lymph node development

    PubMed Central

    Dougall, William C.; Glaccum, Moira; Charrier, Keith; Rohrbach, Kathy; Brasel, Kenneth; De Smedt, Thibaut; Daro, Elizabeth; Smith, Jeffery; Tometsko, Mark E.; Maliszewski, Charles R.; Armstrong, Allison; Shen, Victor; Bain, Steven; Cosman, David; Anderson, Dirk; Morrissey, Philip J.; Peschon, Jacques J.; Schuh, JoAnn

    1999-01-01

    The physiological role of the TNF receptor (TNFR) family member, RANK, was investigated by generating RANK-deficient mice. RANK−/− mice were characterized by profound osteopetrosis resulting from an apparent block in osteoclast differentiation. RANK expression was not required for the commitment, differentiation, and functional maturation of macrophages and dendritic cells from their myeloid precursors but provided a necessary and specific signal for the differentiation of myeloid-derived osteoclasts. RANK−/− mice also exhibited a marked deficiency of B cells in the spleen. RANK−/− mice retained mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues including Peyer’s patches but completely lacked all other peripheral lymph nodes, highlighting an additional major role for RANK in lymph node formation. These experiments reveal that RANK provides critical signals necessary for lymph node organogenesis and osteoclast differentiation. PMID:10500098

  12. Immunization strategy based on the critical node in percolation transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Wei, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Deng, Yong

    2015-11-01

    The problem of finding a better immunization strategy for controlling the spreading of the epidemic with limited resources has attracted much attention since its great theoretical significance and wide application. In this letter, we propose a novel and successful targeted immunization strategy based on percolation transition. Our strategy repeatedly looks for the critical nodes for immunizing. The critical node, which leads to the emergence of the giant connected component as the degree threshold increases, is determined when the maximal second-largest connected component disappears. To test the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conduct the experiments on several artificial networks and real-world networks. The results show that the proposed method outperforms the degree centrality strategy, the betweenness centrality strategy and the adaptive degree centrality strategy with 18% to 50% fewer immunized nodes for same amount of immunization.

  13. Cutaneous silica granuloma with generalized involvement of lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Maihua; Zhu, Wenyuan; Ye, Yuda

    2011-07-01

    We report a case of cutaneous silica granuloma with generalized involvement of distal lymph nodes; no similar case has been reported in the published work. The 45-year-old man was a stonemason who had been incidentally sprayed with rock dust from a saw 22 years ago. The subject presented with nodules and erythematous areas on his face and chin. In addition, there was swelling in the cervical and inguinal lymph nodes. An excised lymph node had normal architecture with numerous non-caseating epithelioid cell granuloma and silicotic nodules which contained scattered, multinucleated, giant cells. There were particles in the granuloma exhibiting birefringence under polarized light microscopy. Elemental X-ray spectra of these lesions showed the presence of silica in these granulomas. PMID:21545493

  14. Earth System Grid (ESG) Data Node Software Stack

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2009-12-01

    The ESG-CET system consist of two major components: 1) Gateways that support portal services, which serve as interfaces to end-users who can search, discover, and request data and data products, and 2) Data Nodes where the data actually resides. The Data is "published" to the Data Node, which makes the data visible to a Gateway and enables its delivery to end-users. It is expected that Gateways will only be installed by a small number ofmore » centers devoted to serving data (e.g., LLNL/PCMDI, NCAR, GFDL, DADC, DKRZ, ANU, JAMSTEC), whereas it is hoped that most climate modeling centers will install the Data Node software through which they can serve their model output.« less

  15. Weyl Node and Spin Texture in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    We study Weyl nodes in materials with broken inversion symmetry. We find based on first-principles calculations that trigonal Te and Se have multiple Weyl nodes near the Fermi level. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture around the H points, with a nonzero Pontryagin index for each spin-split conduction band. The Weyl semimetal phase, which has never been observed in real materials without inversion symmetry, is realized under pressure. The evolution of the spin texture by varying the pressure can be explained by the evolution of the Weyl nodes in k space.

  16. Ranking the spreading ability of nodes in network core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jiang-Pan; Guo, Qiang; Ni, Jing

    2015-11-01

    Ranking nodes by their spreading ability in complex networks is of vital significance to better understand the network structure and more efficiently spread information. The k-shell decomposition method could identify the most influential nodes, namely network core, with the same ks values regardless to their different spreading influence. In this paper, we present an improved method based on the k-shell decomposition method and closeness centrality (CC) to rank the node spreading influence of the network core. Experiment results on the data from the scientific collaboration network and U.S. aviation network show that the accuracy of the presented method could be increased by 31% and 45% than the one obtained by the degree k, 32% and 31% than the one by the betweenness.

  17. Broad base biological assay using liquid based detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Milanovich, F; Albala, J; Colston, B; Langlois, R; Venkateswaren, K

    2000-10-31

    The release of a biological agent by terrorists represents a serious threat to the safety of US citizens. At present there are over 50 pathogens and toxins on various agency threat lists. Most of these pathogens are rarely seen by public health personnel so the ability to rapidly identify their infection is limited. Since many pathogenic infections have symptomatic delays as long as several days, effective treatment is often compromised. This translates into two major deficiencies in our ability to counter biological terrorism (1) the lack of any credible technology to rapidly detect and identify all the pathogens or toxins on current threat lists and (2) the lack of a credible means to rapidly diagnose thousands of potential victims. In this SI we are developing a rapid, flexible, inexpensive, high throughput, and deeply multiplex-capable biological assay technology. The technology, which we call the Liquid Array (LA), utilizes optical encoding of small diameter beads which serve as the templates for biological capture assays. Once exposed to a fluid sample these beads can be identified and probed for target pathogens at rates of several thousand beads per second. Since each bead can be separately identified, one can perform parallel assays by assigning a different assay to each bead in the encoded set. The goal for this development is a detection technology capable of simultaneously identifying 100s of different bioagents and/or of rapidly diagnosing several thousand individuals. We are pursuing this research in three thrusts. In the first we are exploring the fundamental interactions of the beads with proteins and nucleic acids in complex mixtures. This will provide us with a complete understanding of the limits of the technology with respect to throughput and complex environment. A major spin-off of this activity is in the rapidly emerging field of proteomics where we may be able to rapidly assess the interactions responsible for cell metabolism, structural

  18. Clinical relevance of lymph node ratio in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S I; Cho, S-H; Lee, J S; Moon, H-G; Noh, W C; Youn, H J; Ko, B K; Park, B-W

    2013-01-01

    Background: To test the hypotheses that breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes (pN1) consist of heterogeneous prognostic subsets and that the ratio of positive nodes to total nodes dissected (lymph node ratio, LNR) might discriminate patients with a higher risk as candidates for post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods: Using information from 7741 node-positive patients, we first identified cutoff values of the LNR using the nonparametric bootstrap method. Focusing on 3477 patients with pN1 disease, we then evaluated the clinical relevance of the LNR categorised by the estimated cutoff values (categorised LNR, cLNR). Results: Among 3477 patients with pN1 disease, 3059 and 418 patients were assigned into the low and intermediate cLNR groups, respectively, based on a cutoff value of 0.18. The prognostic factors associated with poor overall survival (OS) included younger age, T2 stage, negative oestrogen/progesterone receptors, high histologic grade, and intermediate cLNR. Post-mastectomy radiation therapy significantly increased OS in patients assigned to the intermediate cLNR (hazard ratio, 0.39; 95% confidence interval, 0.17–0.89; P=0.0248), whereas patients in the low cLNR group derived no additional survival benefit from PMRT. Conclusion: This study suggests that PMRT should be recommended for patients with pN1 disease and an intermediate cLNR. PMID:23942073

  19. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted. PMID:26350662

  20. Lymphangiogenesis in breast cancer is associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastases in sentinel node positive patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Lin; Ma, Rui-Min; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Huang, Du-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is not suggested in breast cancer patients with negative sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies, and SLN is the only positive node in 40-70% of the remaining cases. To distinguish a subgroup in which ALND would be omitted, we investigated the role of lymphangiogenesis in primary breast cancer as a risk factor for distal lymph node involvements in patients with positive SLNs. 86 patients were included in this study. The frequency of proliferative lymphatic endothelial cells (LECP%) was evaluated in each specimen after immunohistochemical double staining for D2-40 and Ki-67. Larger primary tumor size, increased number of positive SLNs, lymphatic vessel invasion and LECP% were significantly associated with non-SLN metastases in the univariate analysis, but only LECP% retained significance in the multivariate model. A positive correlation between LECP% and lymphatic vessel invasion was also revealed. Our study confirmed the important role of lymphangiogenesis in tumor spread, and suggested that LECP% is a promising predictor for additional axillary lymph node involvements. PMID:26617838

  1. Robust automated lymph node segmentation with random forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David; Lu, Le; Yao, Jianhua; Liu, Jiamin; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2014-03-01

    Enlarged lymph nodes may indicate the presence of illness. Therefore, identification and measurement of lymph nodes provide essential biomarkers for diagnosing disease. Accurate automatic detection and measurement of lymph nodes can assist radiologists for better repeatability and quality assurance, but is challenging as well because lymph nodes are often very small and have a highly variable shape. In this paper, we propose to tackle this problem via supervised statistical learning-based robust voxel labeling, specifically the random forest algorithm. Random forest employs an ensemble of decision trees that are trained on labeled multi-class data to recognize the data features and is adopted to handle lowlevel image features sampled and extracted from 3D medical scans. Here we exploit three types of image features (intensity, order-1 contrast and order-2 contrast) and evaluate their effectiveness in random forest feature selection setting. The trained forest can then be applied to unseen data by voxel scanning via sliding windows (11×11×11), to assign the class label and class-conditional probability to each unlabeled voxel at the center of window. Voxels from the manually annotated lymph nodes in a CT volume are treated as positive class; background non-lymph node voxels as negatives. We show that the random forest algorithm can be adapted and perform the voxel labeling task accurately and efficiently. The experimental results are very promising, with AUCs (area under curve) of the training and validation ROC (receiver operating characteristic) of 0.972 and 0.959, respectively. The visualized voxel labeling results also confirm the validity.

  2. Lymph Node Ratio Predicts Recurrence in Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mazeh, Haggi; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lymph node metastasis occurs in 20%–50% of patients presenting for initial treatment of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). The significance of lymph node metastases remains controversial, and the aim of this study is to determine how the lymph node ratio (LNR) may predict the likelihood of disease recurrence. Methods. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for PTC at our institution from 2005 to 2010. A total LNR (positive nodes to total nodes) and central lymph node ratio (cLNR) was calculated. Regression was used to determine a threshold LNR that best predicted recurrence. Multivariate logistic regression then determined the influence of LNR on recurrence while accounting for other known predictors of recurrence. Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank test were used to compare differences in disease-free survival. Results. Of the 217 patients undergoing total thyroidectomy for PTC, 69 patients had concomitant neck dissections. Sixteen (23.2%) patients developed disease recurrence. When disease-free survival functions were compared, we found that patients with a total LNR ≥0.7 (p < .01) or a cLNR ≥0.86 (p = .04) had significantly worse disease-free survival rates than patients with ratios below these threshold values. Considering other known predictors of recurrence, we found that LNR was significantly associated with recurrence (odds ratio: 19.5, 95% confidence interval: 4.1–22.9; p < .01). Conclusions. Elevated total LNR and cLNR are strongly associated with recurrence of PTC after initial operation. LNR in PTC is a tool that can be used to determine the likelihood of the patient developing recurrent disease and inform postoperative follow-up. PMID:23345543

  3. LEGION: Lightweight Expandable Group of Independently Operating Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    LEGION is a lightweight C-language software library that enables distributed asynchronous data processing with a loosely coupled set of compute nodes. Loosely coupled means that a node can offer itself in service to a larger task at any time and can withdraw itself from service at any time, provided it is not actively engaged in an assignment. The main program, i.e., the one attempting to solve the larger task, does not need to know up front which nodes will be available, how many nodes will be available, or at what times the nodes will be available, which is normally the case in a "volunteer computing" framework. The LEGION software accomplishes its goals by providing message-based, inter-process communication similar to MPI (message passing interface), but without the tight coupling requirements. The software is lightweight and easy to install as it is written in standard C with no exotic library dependencies. LEGION has been demonstrated in a challenging planetary science application in which a machine learning system is used in closed-loop fashion to efficiently explore the input parameter space of a complex numerical simulation. The machine learning system decides which jobs to run through the simulator; then, through LEGION calls, the system farms those jobs out to a collection of compute nodes, retrieves the job results as they become available, and updates a predictive model of how the simulator maps inputs to outputs. The machine learning system decides which new set of jobs would be most informative to run given the results so far; this basic loop is repeated until sufficient insight into the physical system modeled by the simulator is obtained.

  4. 28nm node process optimization: a lithography centric view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seltmann, Rolf

    2014-10-01

    Many experts claim that the 28nm technology node will be the most cost effective technology node forever. This results from primarily from the cost of manufacturing due to the fact that 28nm is the last true Single Patterning (SP) node. It is also affected by the dramatic increase of design costs and the limited shrink factor of the next following nodes. Thus, it is assumed that this technology still will be alive still for many years. To be cost competitive, high yields are mandatory. Meanwhile, leading edge foundries have optimized the yield of the 28nm node to such a level that that it is nearly exclusively defined by random defectivity. However, it was a long way to go to come to that level. In my talk I will concentrate on the contribution of lithography to this yield learning curve. I will choose a critical metal patterning application. I will show what was needed to optimize the process window to a level beyond the usual OPC model work that was common on previous nodes. Reducing the process (in particular focus) variability is a complementary need. It will be shown which improvements were needed in tooling, process control and design-mask-wafer interaction to remove all systematic yield detractors. Over the last couple of years new scanner platforms were introduced that were targeted for both better productivity and better parametric performance. But this was not a clear run-path. It needed some extra affords of the tool suppliers together with the Fab to bring the tool variability down to the necessary level. Another important topic to reduce variability is the interaction of wafer none-planarity and lithography optimization. Having an accurate knowledge of within die topography is essential for optimum patterning. By completing both the variability reduction work and the process window enhancement work we were able to transfer the original marginal process budget to a robust positive budget and thus ensuring high yield and low costs.

  5. Cellular and extracellular components at nodes of Ranvier in rat white matter.

    PubMed

    Bjartmar, C; Karlsson, B; Hildebrand, C

    1994-12-19

    Rat CNS nodes of Ranvier were investigated by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. Nodes along thin callosal axons possess tiny node gaps containing few or no astrocytic processes. Nodes along thick spinal axons exhibit spatious node gaps containing relatively few irregularly arranged astrocytic processes. Antibodies against HNK-1, chondroitin sulfate, tenascin or NSP-4 do not label small nodes but stain large nodes. We conclude that rat CNS fibers do not exhibit a strict relation between nodal complexity and fiber size comparable to that found in rat PNS fibers. PMID:7534606

  6. Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography.

    PubMed

    Ying, M; Bhatia, K S S; Lee, Y P; Yuen, H Y; Ahuja, A T

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of neck lymph nodes is essential in patients with head and neck cancers for predicting the patient's prognosis and selecting the appropriate treatment. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the assessment of neck lymph nodes. Greyscale ultrasonography assesses the size, distribution, and internal architecture of lymph nodes. Doppler ultrasonography evaluates the intranodal vascular pattern and resistance of lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides information on lymph node parenchymal perfusion. Elastography allows qualitative and quantitative assessment of lymph node stiffness. This article reviews the value of greyscale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as elastography in the assessment of malignant nodes in the neck. PMID:24434158

  7. A cellular genetics approach identifies gene-drug interactions and pinpoints drug toxicity pathway nodes

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Oscar T.; Frick, Amber; Parks, Bethany B.; Trask, O. Joseph; Butz, Natasha; Steffy, Brian; Chan, Emmanuel; Scoville, David K.; Healy, Eric; Benton, Cristina; McQuaid, Patricia E.; Thomas, Russell S.; Wiltshire, Tim

    2014-01-01

    New approaches to toxicity testing have incorporated high-throughput screening across a broad-range of in vitro assays to identify potential key events in response to chemical or drug treatment. To date, these approaches have primarily utilized repurposed drug discovery assays. In this study, we describe an approach that combines in vitro screening with genetic approaches for the experimental identification of genes and pathways involved in chemical or drug toxicity. Primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from 32 genetically-characterized inbred mouse strains were treated in concentration-response format with 65 compounds, including pharmaceutical drugs, environmental chemicals, and compounds with known modes-of-action. Integrated cellular responses were measured at 24 and 72 h using high-content imaging and included cell loss, membrane permeability, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis. Genetic association analysis of cross-strain differences in the cellular responses resulted in a collection of candidate loci potentially underlying the variable strain response to each chemical. As a demonstration of the approach, one candidate gene involved in rotenone sensitivity, Cybb, was experimentally validated in vitro and in vivo. Pathway analysis on the combined list of candidate loci across all chemicals identified a number of over-connected nodes that may serve as core regulatory points in toxicity pathways. PMID:25221565

  8. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christoppher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2014-05-20

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  9. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Klint A; Fisher, Karl A; Wajda, Douglas A; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D

    2015-03-31

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum, pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  10. Microfluidic ultrasonic particle separators with engineered node locations and geometries

    DOEpatents

    Rose, Klint A.; Fisher, Karl A.; Wajda, Douglas A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher; Dehlinger, Dietrich; Shusteff, Maxim; Jung, Byoungsok; Ness, Kevin D.

    2016-04-26

    An ultrasonic microfluidic system includes a separation channel for conveying a sample fluid containing small particles and large particles, flowing substantially parallel, adjacent to a recovery fluid, with which it is in contact. An acoustic transducer produces an ultrasound standing wave, that generates a pressure field having at least one node of minimum pressure amplitude. An acoustic extension structure is located proximate to said separation channel for positioning said acoustic node off center in said acoustic area and concentrating the large particles in said recovery fluid stream.

  11. Percutaneous tattoo pigment simulating calcific deposits in axillary lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Yactor, Amy R; Michell, Michael N; Koch, Meghan S; Leete, Tyler G; Shah, Zeeshan A; Carter, Brett W

    2013-01-01

    The isolated finding of calcific deposits within axillary lymph nodes on mammography suggests a broad range of differential diagnoses, from benign causes such as granulomatous reaction secondary to previous histoplasmosis infection to malignancies such as breast cancer and metastatic disease from extramammary primary malignancies. Therefore, the isolated finding of intranodal calcium may warrant biopsy for a definitive diagnosis when a benign etiology is not apparent. We present a patient with isolated axillary lymph node densities on mammography and chest computed tomography, which were subsequently proven to represent deposition of tattoo pigment. PMID:23382606

  12. Vascularized Lymph Node Transfer: A Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Tourani, Saam S; Taylor, G Ian; Ashton, Mark W

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade, lymph node transfer has rapidly gained popularity among plastic surgeons for the treatment of chronic lymphedema because of the initial promising results and its unique technical advantages compared with the other reconstructive options. However, its functional mechanism is still a matter of great debate, and some concerning reports have emerged regarding the safety of this procedure in patients with chronic lymphedema. The authors review the literature on the experimental and clinical evidence for lymph node transfer, discuss its proposed functional mechanisms, review the potential risk of iatrogenic lymphedema following this procedure, and discuss the suggested strategies to avoid this complication. PMID:26809038

  13. The Nodes of Ranvier: Molecular Assembly and Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rasband, Matthew N; Peles, Elior

    2016-03-01

    Action potential (AP) propagation in myelinated nerves requires clustered voltage gated sodium and potassium channels. These channels must be specifically localized to nodes of Ranvier where the AP is regenerated. Several mechanisms have evolved to facilitate and ensure the correct assembly and stabilization of these essential axonal domains. This review highlights the current understanding of the axon intrinsic and glial extrinsic mechanisms that control the formation and maintenance of the nodes of Ranvier in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). PMID:26354894

  14. [Specifics of the blood supply of the sinoatrial node].

    PubMed

    Onciu, M; Tuţă, Liliana-Ana; Baz, R; Leonte, T

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the heart nodal system blood supply sources and especially those of the sinoatrial node. It included 50 unpreserved and preserved human hearts from subjects of both sexes (40 males and 10 females) aged 12 to 68, of Romanian (42) and non-Romanian origin (8). The used denominations are those recommended by DiDio & Wakefield, based on splitting of the atrial walls into four quadrants (right and left, both anterior and posterior) which are further divided into three parts (medial, middle and lateral). We used special dissection techniques and plastic mass injections followed by corrosion. Our results confirm the opinion shared by most authors, in favour of the predominance of the origin of sinoatrial node artery from the right coronary artery. The sinoatrial node was supplied by a unique source represented by the right coronary artery in 37 cases (74%) and by the circumflex artery in 8 cases (16%), and by a double source represented by two branches of the right coronary artery in 2 cases (4%) and of both coronary arteries in 3 cases (6%). The direct arterial branches to the sinoatrial node were represented mainly by the right anteromedial atrial artery with origin from the right coronary artery level with the medial third of the right anterior quadrant of the atrial wall. From the left coronary system, the left anteromedial artery is the one responsible with the sinoatrial node supply; the source is the circumflex artery and its origin is the medial third of the left anterior quadrant. Contrary to DiDio et al., we found in addition to the mainly unilateral blood supply, the bilateral one. We didn't find any case with a sinoatrial node artery originating from the trunk of the left coronary artery, or with an extracardiac origin. We may state there are no significant differences of the origin and distribution of the sinoatrial node artery related to sex or country of origin. Thus, we cannot fully confirm the theories about the influence

  15. Determining nodes for the Ginzburg-Landau equations of superconductivity.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaper, H. G.; Wang, B.; Wang, S.; Mathematics and Computer Science; Tsinghua Univ.; Indiana Univ.

    1998-04-01

    It is shown that a solution of the time-independent Ginsburg-Landau equations of superconductivity is determined completely and exactly by its values at a finite but sufficiently dense set of determining nodes in the domain. If the applied magnetic field is time dependent and asymptotically stationary, the large-time asymptotic behavior of a solution of the time-dependent Ginsburg-Landau equations of superconductivity is determined similarly by its values at a finite set of determining nodes, whose positions may vary with time.

  16. Superconducting quantum node for entanglement and storage of microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Flurin, E; Roch, N; Pillet, J D; Mallet, F; Huard, B

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting circuits and microwave signals are good candidates to realize quantum networks, which are the backbone of quantum computers. We have realized a quantum node based on a 3D microwave superconducting cavity parametrically coupled to a transmission line by a Josephson ring modulator. We first demonstrate the time-controlled capture, storage, and retrieval of an optimally shaped propagating microwave field, with an efficiency as high as 80%. We then demonstrate a second essential ability, which is the time-controlled generation of an entangled state distributed between the node and a microwave channel. PMID:25793790

  17. Quasi-Topological Electromagnetic Response of Line-node Semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Srinidhi; Hughes, Taylor

    Topological semimetals are gapless states of matter which have robust surface states and interesting electromagnetic responses. We consider the electromagnetic response of gapless phases in 3 + 1 -dimensions with line nodes. We show through a layering approach that an intrinsic 2-form Bμν emerges in the effective response field theory that is determined by the geometry and energy-embedding of the nodal lines. This 2-form is shown to be simply related to the charge polarization and orbital magnetization of the sample. We conclude by discussing the relevance for recently proposed materials and heterostructures with line-node fermi-surfaces. ONR YIP Award N00014-15-1-2383.

  18. A rheumatoid nodule in an unusual location: mediastinal lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Yachoui, Ralph; Ward, Celine; Kreidy, Mazen

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multisystem inflammatory disease characterised by destructive synovitis and varied extra-articular involvement. Rheumatoid lung nodules are the most common pulmonary manifestations of RA. Rheumatoid nodules in mediastinal lymph nodes are extremely uncommon. We describe a male patient with long-standing RA and subcutaneous rheumatoid nodules presenting with multiple lung nodules and mediastinal lymphadenopathies. Definite histopathology of a lymph node was consistent with necrobiotic granuloma due to RA. Clinicians should be aware of rheumatoid nodules as a potential cause of mediastinal lymphadenopathies, mainly in advanced rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:23645652

  19. Single benign metastasising leiomyoma of an inguinal lymph node.

    PubMed

    Laban, Kamil G; Tobon-Morales, Roberto E; Hodge, Janice A L; Schreuder, Henk W R

    2016-01-01

    Benign metastasising leiomyoma (BML) is a rare benign disease associated with uterine leiomyoma and history of uterine surgery. It most frequently occurs in premenopausal woman, with a pulmonary localisation, and consisting of multiple nodules. We present an uncommon case of a 69-year-old woman with a single BML of an inguinal lymph node. CT scans of thorax and abdomen excluded other metastasis localisation. The patient was cured with surgical excision of the mass. Lymph node involvement has been reported incidentally in BML literature. Lymphangitic spread can be considered a possible mechanism of BML metastasis. PMID:27511755

  20. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations. PMID:26761009

  1. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-07-09

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: establishing, for each node, a plurality of logical rings, each ring including a different set of at least one core on that node, each ring including the cores on at least two of the nodes; iteratively for each node: assigning each core of that node to one of the rings established for that node to which the core has not previously been assigned, and performing, for each ring for that node, a global allreduce operation using contribution data for the cores assigned to that ring or any global allreduce results from previous global allreduce operations, yielding current global allreduce results for each core; and performing, for each node, a local allreduce operation using the global allreduce results.

  2. Performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Faraj, Ahmad

    2013-02-12

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for performing an allreduce operation on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer, each node including at least two processing cores, that include: performing, for each node, a local reduction operation using allreduce contribution data for the cores of that node, yielding, for each node, a local reduction result for one or more representative cores for that node; establishing one or more logical rings among the nodes, each logical ring including only one of the representative cores from each node; performing, for each logical ring, a global allreduce operation using the local reduction result for the representative cores included in that logical ring, yielding a global allreduce result for each representative core included in that logical ring; and performing, for each node, a local broadcast operation using the global allreduce results for each representative core on that node.

  3. A New Node Deployment and Location Dispatch Algorithm for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Liu, Jun; Ruan, Binfeng; Jiang, Lurong; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Considering that deployment strategies for underwater sensor networks should contribute to fully connecting the networks, a Guaranteed Full Connectivity Node Deployment (GFCND) algorithm is proposed in this study. The GFCND algorithm attempts to deploy the coverage nodes according to the greedy iterative strategy, after which the connectivity nodes are used to improve network connectivity and fully connect the whole network. Furthermore, a Location Dispatch Based on Command Nodes (LDBCN) algorithm is proposed, which accomplishes the location adjustment of the common nodes with the help of the SINK node and the command nodes. The command nodes then dispatch the common nodes. Simulation results show that the GFCND algorithm achieves a comparatively large coverage percentage and a fully connected network; furthermore, the LDBCN algorithm helps the common nodes preserve more total energy when they reach their destination locations. PMID:26761009

  4. Myeloid Cell Isolation from Mouse Skin and Draining Lymph Node Following Intradermal Immunization with Live Attenuated Plasmodium Sporozoites.

    PubMed

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Buckwalter, Matthew R; Gueirard, Pascale; Ménard, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Malaria infection begins when the sporozoite stage of Plasmodium is inoculated into the skin of a mammalian host through a mosquito bite. The highly motile parasite not only reaches the liver to invade hepatocytes and transform into erythrocyte-infective form. It also migrates into the skin and to the proximal lymph node draining the injection site, where it can be recognized and degraded by resident and/or recruited myeloid cells. Intravital imaging reported the early recruitment of brightly fluorescent Lys-GFP positive leukocytes in the skin and the interactions between sporozoites and CD11c(+) cells in the draining lymph node. We present here an efficient procedure to recover, identify and enumerate the myeloid cell subsets that are recruited to the mouse skin and draining lymph node following intradermal injection of immunizing doses of sporozoites in a murine model. Phenotypic characterization using multi-parametric flow cytometry provides a reliable assay to assess early dynamic cellular changes during inflammatory response to Plasmodium infection. PMID:27286053

  5. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    2009-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node 1 was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  6. Microbiologic assay of space hardware.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Favero, M. S.

    1971-01-01

    Review of the procedures used in the microbiological examination of space hardware. The general procedure for enumerating aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms and spores is outlined. Culture media and temperature-time cycles used for incubation are reviewed, along with assay systems designed for the enumeration of aerobic and anaerobic spores. The special problems which are discussed are involved in the precise and accurate enumeration of microorganisms on surfaces and in the neutralization of viable organisms buried inside solid materials that could be released to a planet's surface if the solid should be fractured. Special attention is given to sampling procedures including also the indirect techniques of surface assays of space hardware such as those using detachable or fallout strips. Some data on comparative levels of microbial contamination on lunar and planetary spacecraft are presented.

  7. Important Norwegian crude assays updated

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, R.A

    1990-03-12

    New assays on two important Norwegian North Sea crude oils, Statfjord and Gullfaks, are presented. Both are high-quality, low-sulfur crudes that will yield a full range of good-quality products. All assay data came from industry-standard test procedures. The Statfjord field is the largest in the North Sea. Production started in 1979. Statfjord is a typical North Sea crude, produced from three separate platforms and three separate loading buoys with interconnecting lines. Current production is about 700,000 b/d. Gullfaks is produced from a large field in Block 34/10 of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea production area. Gullfaks crude oil is more biodegraded than other crudes from the region. Biodegradation has removed most of the waxy normal paraffins, resulting in a heavier, more naphthenic and aromatic crude.

  8. Comet Assay in Cancer Chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Raffaela; Ferraiuolo, Maria; Morgano, Gian Paolo; Muti, Paola; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The comet assay can be useful in monitoring DNA damage in single cells caused by exposure to genotoxic agents, such as those causing air, water, and soil pollution (e.g., pesticides, dioxins, electromagnetic fields) and chemo- and radiotherapy in cancer patients, or in the assessment of genoprotective effects of chemopreventive molecules. Therefore, it has particular importance in the fields of pharmacology and toxicology, and in both environmental and human biomonitoring. It allows the detection of single strand breaks as well as double-strand breaks and can be used in both normal and cancer cells. Here we describe the alkali method for comet assay, which allows to detect both single- and double-strand DNA breaks. PMID:26608293

  9. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11–51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND. PMID:25038184

  10. Protein binding assay for hyaluronate

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, B.E.; Underhill, C.B.

    1986-11-01

    A relatively quick and simple assay for hyaluronate was developed using the specific binding protein, hyaluronectin. The hyaluronectin was obtained by homogenizing the brains of Sprague-Dawley rats, and then centrifuging the homogenate. The resulting supernatant was used as a source of crude hyaluronectin. In the binding assay, the hyaluronectin was mixed with (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate, followed by an equal volume of saturated (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, which precipitated the hyaluronectin and any (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate associated with it, but left free (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in solution. The mixture was then centrifuged, and the amount of bound (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate in the precipitate was determined. Using this assay, the authors found that hyaluronectin specifically bound hyaluronate, since other glycosaminoglycans failed to compete for the binding protein. In addition, the interaction between hyaluronectin and hyaluronate was of relatively high affinity, and the size of the hyaluronate did not appear to substantially alter the amount of binding. To determine the amount of hyaluronate in an unknown sample, they used a competition assay in which the binding of a set amount of (/sup 3/H)hyaluronate was blocked by the addition of unlabeled hyaluronate. By comparing the degree of competition of the unknown samples with that of known amounts of hyaluronate, it was possible to determine the amount of hyaluronate in the unknowns. They have found that this method is sensitive to 1 ..mu..g or less of hyaluronate, and is unaffected by the presence of proteins.

  11. Two offshore Australian crudes assayed

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1994-05-09

    Two light, sweet crudes from offshore Australia have been assayed. Gippsland crude, also called Bass Strait, is produced off the coast of Victoria, in southeastern Australia. The 47 API, 0.09% sulfur crude was analyzed in mid-1993. Skua, a 42 API, 0.06 wt % sulfur crude, is produced in the Timor Sea. Data are given on the whole crude and fractions for both deposits. Both chemical and physical properties are listed.

  12. Node retraction during patterning of the urinary collecting duct system.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Nils O; Chang, C-Hong; Valerius, M Todd; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a novel mechanism for remodelling a branched epithelial tree. The mouse renal collecting duct develops by growth and repeated branching of an initially unbranched ureteric bud: this mechanism initially produces an almost fractal form with young branches connected to the centre of the kidney via a sequence of nodes (branch points) distributed widely throughout the developing organ. The collecting ducts of a mature kidney have a different form: from the nephrons in the renal cortex, long, straight lengths of collecting duct run almost parallel to one another through the renal medulla, and open together to the renal pelvis. Here we present time-lapse studies of E11.5 kidneys growing in culture: after about 5 days, the collecting duct trees show evidence of 'node retraction', in which the node of a 'Y'-shaped branch moves downwards, shortening the stalk of the 'Y', lengthening its arms and narrowing their divergence angle so that the 'Y' becomes a 'V'. Computer simulation suggests that node retraction can transform a spread tree, like that of an early kidney, into one with long, almost-parallel medullary rays similar to those seen in a mature real kidney. PMID:25292187

  13. Weighted Markov Chains and Graphic State Nodes for Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, G.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses users' search behavior and decision making in data mining and information retrieval. Describes iterative information seeking as a Markov process during which users advance through states of nodes; and explains how the information system records the decision as weights, allowing the incorporation of users' decisions into the Markov…

  14. NIM: A Node Influence Based Method for Cancer Classification

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yiwen; Yang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    The classification of different cancer types owns great significance in the medical field. However, the great majority of existing cancer classification methods are clinical-based and have relatively weak diagnostic ability. With the rapid development of gene expression technology, it is able to classify different kinds of cancers using DNA microarray. Our main idea is to confront the problem of cancer classification using gene expression data from a graph-based view. Based on a new node influence model we proposed, this paper presents a novel high accuracy method for cancer classification, which is composed of four parts: the first is to calculate the similarity matrix of all samples, the second is to compute the node influence of training samples, the third is to obtain the similarity between every test sample and each class using weighted sum of node influence and similarity matrix, and the last is to classify each test sample based on its similarity between every class. The data sets used in our experiments are breast cancer, central nervous system, colon tumor, prostate cancer, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and lung cancer. experimental results showed that our node influence based method (NIM) is more efficient and robust than the support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, C4.5, naive Bayes, and CART. PMID:25180045

  15. Hidden Node Problem Aware Routing Metrics for WLAN Mesh Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiamwong, Jaturong; Yagyu, Kengo; Suzuki, Toshihiro

    This paper proposes two novel hidden node problem aware routing metrics for wireless local area network (WLAN) mesh networks. To select the path that is least affected by the serious hidden node problem, we propose two routing metrics, MNn and MPCP, that take into account the number of neighboring nodes (Nn) and the packet collision probability (PCP), respectively. The PCP is estimated from neighbor information that is periodically gathered as state announcement packets, which include the transmission time ratio and the neighbor list. Simulation results show that the first proposed MNn routing metric tends to be less effective as the number of WLAN nodes increases, i. e., the mesh network becomes denser. On the other hand, with an acceptable increased in the control overhead in the mesh network due to the neighbor information, the second proposed MPCP routing metric improves the number of allowable concurrent voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) calls and the user datagram protocol (UDP) data throughput compared to the MNn metric. The MPCP also provides better performance than the other conventional routing metrics, the hop count, and the Airtime proposed in IEEE 802.11s.

  16. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  17. Sentinel node navigation surgery for gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Okubo, Keishi; Kijima, Takashi; Matsushita, Daisuke; Amatatsu, Masahiko; Hagihara, Takahiko; Haraguchi, Naoto; Mataki, Yuko; Ehi, Katsuhiko; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The percentage of gastroduodenal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) among all gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) NETs has gradually increased worldwide. Sentinel node navigation surgery (SNNS) has been developed as a personalized approach in the surgical strategy for early gastrointestinal tract cancers. We herein report 2 cases of gastroduodenal NETs treated with SNNS. 99m Technetium-tin colloid including indocyanine green was endoscopically injected into the submucosa around a tumor the day before surgery. Basin dissection including the sentinel nodes (SNs), which were identified by Navigator GPS and near-infrared fluorescence imaging, was performed during laparoscopic surgery. SNs were intraoperatively examined using hematoxylin–eosin (HE) staining. SNs were detected in 2 patients. Lymph node metastasis was intraoperatively identified in 1 of the 2 patients. Consequently, 1 patient with metastatic SNs underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy. Pathological findings identified submucosal NET measuring 6.0 mm × 5.0 mm. Our results suggest that SNNS is a promising surgical tool for detecting subclinical lymph node metastasis in patients with gastroduodenal NETs. PMID:27368046

  18. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-01-01

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements. PMID:24084114

  19. A wind energy powered wireless temperature sensor node.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  20. Autonomous solutions for powering wireless sensor nodes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenar, E.; Maćešić, S.; Gregov, G.; Blažević, D.; Zelenika, S.; Marković, K.; Glažar, V.

    2015-05-01

    There is an evident need for monitoring pollutants and/or other conditions in river flows via wireless sensor networks. In a typical wireless sensor network topography, a series of sensor nodes is to be deployed in the environment, all wirelessly connected to each other and/or their gateways. Each sensor node is composed of active electronic devices that have to be constantly powered. In general, batteries can be used for this purpose, but problems may occur when they have to be replaced. In the case of large networks, when sensor nodes can be placed in hardly accessible locations, energy harvesting can thus be a viable powering solution. The possibility to use three different small-scale river flow energy harvesting principles is hence thoroughly studied in this work: a miniaturized underwater turbine, a so-called `piezoelectric eel' and a hybrid turbine solution coupled with a rigid piezoelectric beam. The first two concepts are then validated experimentally in laboratory as well as in real river conditions. The concept of the miniaturised hydro-generator is finally embedded into the actual wireless sensor node system and its functionality is confirmed.

  1. Modeling the Sinoatrial Node by Cellular Automata with Irregular Topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowiec, Danuta

    The role of irregularity in intercellular connections is studied in the first natural human pacemaker called the sinoatrial node by modeling with the Greenberg-Hastings cellular automata. Facts from modern physiology about the sinoatrial node drive modeling. Heterogeneity between cell connections is reproduced by a rewiring procedure applied to a square lattice. The Greenberg-Hastings rule, representing the intrinsic cellular dynamics, is modified to imitate self-excitation of each pacemaker cell. Moreover, interactions with nearest neighbors are changed to heterogeneous ones by enhancing horizontal connections. Stationary states of the modeled system emerge as self-organized robust oscillatory states. Since the sinoatrial node role relies on a single cell cyclic activity, properties of single cells are studied. It appears that the strength and diversity of cellular oscillations depend directly on properties of intrinsic cellular dynamics. But these oscillations also depend on the underlying topology. Moderate nonuniformity of intercellular connections are found vital for proper function of the sinoatrial node, namely, for producing robust oscillatory states that are able to respond effectively to the autonomic system control.

  2. Lymph node pick up by separate stations: Option or necessity

    PubMed Central

    Morgagni, Paolo; Nanni, Oriana; Carretta, Elisa; Altini, Mattia; Saragoni, Luca; Falcini, Fabio; Garcea, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether lymph node pick up by separate stations could be an indicator of patients submitted to appropriate surgical treatment. METHODS: One thousand two hundred and three consecutive gastric cancer patients submitted to radical resection in 7 general hospitals and for whom no information was available on the extension of lymphatic dissection were included in this retrospective study. RESULTS: Patients were divided into 2 groups: group A, where the stomach specimen was directly formalin-fixed and sent to the pathologist, and group B, where lymph nodes were picked up after surgery and fixed for separate stations. Sixty-two point three percent of group A patients showed < 16 retrieved lymph nodes compared to 19.4% of group B (P < 0.0001). Group B (separate stations) patients had significantly higher survival rates than those in group A [46.1 mo (95%CI: 36.5-56.0) vs 27.7 mo (95%CI: 21.3-31.9); P = 0.0001], independently of T or N stage. In multivariate analysis, group A also showed a higher risk of death than group B (HR = 1.24; 95%CI: 1.05-1.46). CONCLUSION: Separate lymphatic station dissection increases the number of retrieved nodes, leads to better tumor staging, and permits verification of the surgical dissection. The number of dissected stations could potentially be used as an index to evaluate the quality of treatment received. PMID:26015852

  3. Surface states of massive Dirac fermions with separated Weyl nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buividovich, P. V.

    2016-01-01

    We derive the spectra of surface states for massive Dirac Hamiltonians with either momentum or energy separation between the left- and right-handed Weyl nodes. Momentum separation between the Weyl nodes corresponds to the explicitly broken time-reversal symmetry and the energy separation - to broken parity. Such Hamiltonians provide the simplest model description of Weyl semimetals. We find that the only effect of the energy separation between the Weyl nodes is to decrease the Fermi velocity in the linear dispersion relation of the surface states of massive Dirac Hamiltonian. In the case of broken time-reversal symmetry, the spectrum of surface states interpolates in a nontrivial way between the Fermi arc-type and the Dirac cone-type dispersion relations. In particular we find that for all values of the mass and the momentum separation between the Weyl nodes the surface states only exist in a strip of finite width in momentum space. We give also some simpler examples of surface states in order to make these notes more pedagogical.

  4. Electrophysiological Effects of Dexmedetomidine on Sinoatrial Nodes of Rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xia; Zhang, Zhen; Huang, Ya-Yi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Long

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the electrophysiological effects of dexmedetomidine on pacemaker cells in sinoatrial nodes of rabbits. Methods Healthy rabbits were anesthetized intravenously with sodium pentobarbital, and the hearts were quickly dissected and mounted in a tissue bath. Machine-pulled glass capillary microelectrodes which were connected to a high input impedance amplifier and impaled in dominant pacemaker cells. Thereafter, an intracellular microelectrode technique was used to record action potential. Results The amplitude of action potential, velocity of diastolic (phase 4) depolarization, and rate of pacemaker firing in normal pacemaker cells in sinoatrial node were decreased by use of dexmedetomidine (0.5 ng/ml, 5 ng/ml, 50 ng/ml) in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with yohimbine (1 μM), did not alter the effects of dexmedetomidine (5 ng/ml) on sinoatrial node pacemaker cells. Pretreatment with CsCl (2 mmol/L), dexmedetomidine (5 ng/ml) decreased the amplitude of action potential, but had no significant effect on other parameters of action potential. Conclusions Dexmedetomidine exerts inhibitory electrophysiological effects on pacemaker cells in sinoatrial nodes of rabbits in a concentration-dependent manner, which may not be mediated by alpha 2-adrenoreceptor. PMID:27122920

  5. Node retraction during patterning of the urinary collecting duct system

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Nils O; Chang, C-Hong; Valerius, M Todd; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a novel mechanism for remodelling a branched epithelial tree. The mouse renal collecting duct develops by growth and repeated branching of an initially unbranched ureteric bud: this mechanism initially produces an almost fractal form with young branches connected to the centre of the kidney via a sequence of nodes (branch points) distributed widely throughout the developing organ. The collecting ducts of a mature kidney have a different form: from the nephrons in the renal cortex, long, straight lengths of collecting duct run almost parallel to one another through the renal medulla, and open together to the renal pelvis. Here we present time-lapse studies of E11.5 kidneys growing in culture: after about 5 days, the collecting duct trees show evidence of ‘node retraction’, in which the node of a ‘Y’-shaped branch moves downwards, shortening the stalk of the ‘Y’, lengthening its arms and narrowing their divergence angle so that the ‘Y’ becomes a ‘V’. Computer simulation suggests that node retraction can transform a spread tree, like that of an early kidney, into one with long, almost-parallel medullary rays similar to those seen in a mature real kidney. PMID:25292187

  6. [Sentinel node in melanoma and breast cancer. Current considerations].

    PubMed

    Vidal-Sicart, S; Vilalta Solsona, A; Alonso Vargas, M I

    2015-01-01

    The main objectives of sentinel node (SN) biopsy is to avoid unnecessary lymphadenectomies and to identify the 20-25% of patients with occult regional metastatic involvement. This technique reduces the associated morbidity from lymphadenectomy and increases the occult lymphatic metastases identification rate by offering the pathologist the or those lymph nodes with the highest probability of containing metastatic cells. Pre-surgical lymphoscintigraphy is considered a "road map" to guide the surgeon towards the sentinel nodes and to localize unpredictable lymphatic drainage patterns. The SPECT/CT advantages include a better SN detection rate than planar images, the ability to detect SNs in difficult to interpret studies, better SN depiction, especially in sites closer to the injection site and better anatomic localization. These advantages may result in a change in the patient's clinical management both in melanoma and breast cancer. The correct SN evaluation by pathology implies a tumoral load stratification and further prognostic implication. The use of intraoperative imaging devices allows the surgeon a better surgical approach and precise SN localization. Several studies reports the added value of such devices for more sentinel nodes excision and a complete monitoring of the whole procedure. New techniques, by using fluorescent or hybrid tracers, are currently being developed. PMID:25455506

  7. A Wind Energy Powered Wireless Temperature Sensor Node

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chuang; He, Xue-Feng; Li, Si-Yu; Cheng, Yao-Qing; Rao, Yang

    2015-01-01

    A wireless temperature sensor node composed of a piezoelectric wind energy harvester, a temperature sensor, a microcontroller, a power management circuit and a wireless transmitting module was developed. The wind-induced vibration energy harvester with a cuboid chamber of 62 mm × 19.6 mm × 10 mm converts ambient wind energy into electrical energy to power the sensor node. A TMP102 temperature sensor and the MSP430 microcontroller are used to measure the temperature. The power management module consists of LTC3588-1 and LT3009 units. The measured temperature is transmitted by the nRF24l01 transceiver. Experimental results show that the critical wind speed of the harvester was about 5.4 m/s and the output power of the harvester was about 1.59 mW for the electrical load of 20 kΩ at wind speed of 11.2 m/s, which was sufficient to power the wireless sensor node to measure and transmit the temperature every 13 s. When the wind speed increased from 6 m/s to 11.5 m/s, the self-powered wireless sensor node worked normally. PMID:25734649

  8. Quality metric for accurate overlay control in <20nm nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Dana; Amit, Eran; Cohen, Guy; Amir, Nuriel; Har-Zvi, Michael; Huang, Chin-Chou Kevin; Karur-Shanmugam, Ramkumar; Pierson, Bill; Kato, Cindy; Kurita, Hiroyuki

    2013-04-01

    The semiconductor industry is moving toward 20nm nodes and below. As the Overlay (OVL) budget is getting tighter at these advanced nodes, the importance in the accuracy in each nanometer of OVL error is critical. When process owners select OVL targets and methods for their process, they must do it wisely; otherwise the reported OVL could be inaccurate, resulting in yield loss. The same problem can occur when the target sampling map is chosen incorrectly, consisting of asymmetric targets that will cause biased correctable terms and a corrupted wafer. Total measurement uncertainty (TMU) is the main parameter that process owners use when choosing an OVL target per layer. Going towards the 20nm nodes and below, TMU will not be enough for accurate OVL control. KLA-Tencor has introduced a quality score named `Qmerit' for its imaging based OVL (IBO) targets, which is obtained on the-fly for each OVL measurement point in X & Y. This Qmerit score will enable the process owners to select compatible targets which provide accurate OVL values for their process and thereby improve their yield. Together with K-T Analyzer's ability to detect the symmetric targets across the wafer and within the field, the Archer tools will continue to provide an independent, reliable measurement of OVL error into the next advanced nodes, enabling fabs to manufacture devices that meet their tight OVL error budgets.

  9. Combinatorial evolution of regression nodes in feedforward neural networks.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Gregor P.J.; Aldrich, Chris

    1999-01-01

    A number of techniques exist with which neural network architectures such as multilayer perceptrons and radial basis function networks can be trained. These include backpropagation, k-means clustering and evolutionary algorithms. The latter method is particularly useful as it is able to avoid local optima in the search space and can optimise parameters for which no gradient information exists. Unfortunately, only moderately sized networks can be trained by this method, owing to the fact that evolutionary optimisation is very computationally intensive. In this paper a novel algorithm (CERN) is therefore proposed which uses a special form of combinatorial search to optimise groups of neural nodes. Oriented, ellipsoidal basis nodes optimised with CERN achieved significantly better accuracy with fewer nodes than spherical basis nodes optimised by k-means clustering. Multilayer perceptrons optimised by CERN were found to be as accurate as those trained by advanced gradient descent techniques. CERN was also found to be significantly more efficient than a conventional evolutionary algorithm that does not use a combinatorial search. PMID:12662726

  10. Applying Quadrature Rules with Multiple Nodes to Solving Integral Equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hashemiparast, S. M.; Avazpour, L.

    2008-09-01

    There are many procedures for the numerical solution of Fredholm integral equations. The main idea in these procedures is accuracy of the solution. In this paper, we use Gaussian quadrature with multiple nodes to improve the solution of these integral equations. The application of this method is illustrated via some examples, the related tables are given at the end.

  11. Staging lymph node metastases from lung cancer in the mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Terán, Mario D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The presence of tumor metastases in the mediastinum is one of the most important elements in determining the optimal treatment strategy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. This review is aimed at examining the current strategies for investigating lymph node metastases corresponding to an “N2” classification delineated by The International Staging Committee of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). Methods Extensive review of the existing scientific literature related to the investigation of mediastinal lymph node metastases was undertaken in order to summarize and report current best practices. Conclusions N2 disease is very heterogeneous requiring multiple modalities for thorough investigation. New research is now focusing on better identifying, defining, and classifying lymph node metastases in the mediastinum. Molecular staging and sub-classifying mediastinal lymph node metastases are being actively researched in order to provide better prognostic value and to optimize treatment strategies. Non-invasive imaging, such as PET/CT and minimally invasive techniques such as endobronchial and endoscopic ultrasound guided biopsy, are now the lead investigative methods in evaluating the mediastinum for metastatic presence. PMID:24624287

  12. Lessons Learned from the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design of the Node 1 Sample Delivery Subsystem (SDS) and it will document some of the lessons that have been learned to date for this part of the subsystem.

  13. Soft-core processor study for node-based architectures.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Houten, Jonathan Roger; Jarosz, Jason P.; Welch, Benjamin James; Gallegos, Daniel E.; Learn, Mark Walter

    2008-09-01

    Node-based architecture (NBA) designs for future satellite projects hold the promise of decreasing system development time and costs, size, weight, and power and positioning the laboratory to address other emerging mission opportunities quickly. Reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based modules will comprise the core of several of the NBA nodes. Microprocessing capabilities will be necessary with varying degrees of mission-specific performance requirements on these nodes. To enable the flexibility of these reconfigurable nodes, it is advantageous to incorporate the microprocessor into the FPGA itself, either as a hardcore processor built into the FPGA or as a soft-core processor built out of FPGA elements. This document describes the evaluation of three reconfigurable FPGA based processors for use in future NBA systems--two soft cores (MicroBlaze and non-fault-tolerant LEON) and one hard core (PowerPC 405). Two standard performance benchmark applications were developed for each processor. The first, Dhrystone, is a fixed-point operation metric. The second, Whetstone, is a floating-point operation metric. Several trials were run at varying code locations, loop counts, processor speeds, and cache configurations. FPGA resource utilization was recorded for each configuration. Cache configurations impacted the results greatly; for optimal processor efficiency it is necessary to enable caches on the processors. Processor caches carry a penalty; cache error mitigation is necessary when operating in a radiation environment.

  14. Lymph node mapping using quantum dot-labeled polymersomes.

    PubMed

    Bakalova, Rumiana; Zhelev, Zhivko; Nikolova, Biliana; Murayama, Shuhei; Lazarova, Desislava; Tsoneva, Iana; Aoki, Ichio

    2015-10-01

    The present study was designed to investigate whether poly-ion complex hollow vesicles (polymersomes), based on chemically-modified chitosan, are appropriate for lymph node mapping in the context of their application in the development of theranostic nanosized drug delivery systems (nano-DDS). The experiments were performed on Balb/c nude mice (colon cancer-grafted). The mice were subjected to anesthesia and quantum dot (QD(705))-labeled polymersomes (d-120 nm) were injected intravenously via the tail vein. The optical imaging was carried out on Maestro EX Imaging System (excitation filter: 435-480 nm; emission filter: 700 nm). A strong fluorescent signal, corresponding to QD(705) fluorescence, was detected in the lymph nodes, as well as in the tumor. A very weak fluorescent signal was found in the liver area. The half-life of QD(705)-labelled polymersomes was 6 ± 2 hours in the bloodstream and 11 ± 3 hours in the lymph nodes. The data suggest that polymersomes are very promising carriers for lymph node mapping using QD as a contrast agent. They are useful matrix for development of nano-formulations with theranostic capabilities. PMID:26221745

  15. Assessing the relevance of node features for network structure

    PubMed Central

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Pin, Paolo; Marsili, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    Networks describe a variety of interacting complex systems in social science, biology, and information technology. Usually the nodes of real networks are identified not only by their connections but also by some other characteristics. Examples of characteristics of nodes can be age, gender, or nationality of a person in a social network, the abundance of proteins in the cell taking part in protein-interaction networks, or the geographical position of airports that are connected by directed flights. Integrating the information on the connections of each node with the information about its characteristics is crucial to discriminating between the essential and negligible characteristics of nodes for the structure of the network. In this paper we propose a general indicator Θ, based on entropy measures, to quantify the dependence of a network's structure on a given set of features. We apply this method to social networks of friendships in U.S. schools, to the protein-interaction network of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and to the U.S. airport network, showing that the proposed measure provides information that complements other known measures. PMID:19571013

  16. Filtering role of the atrioventricular node in atrial fibrillations.

    PubMed

    Mazgalev, T

    1985-01-01

    Experiments on rabbit heart preparations were carried out with the aim of studying the causal relation between the signals at the input and at the output of the atrioventricular node (AVN) during atrial fibrillations (AF). Electrograms were recorded simultaneously from the posterior and anterior inputs and from the output of AVN, together with cellular action potentials from one or two structures of the node. AVN is shown to play the role of a filtering unit for the excitatory waves passing from the atria to the ventricles during AF. The random and fragmentary character of the atrial excitatory front during AF causes summation of excitatory waves, local and manifested re-entry, and conduction along competitive pathways. These processes accompany both the successful conduction through AVN and the blocking of the excitation at different levels in the node. The filtration process takes place mainly in the AN- and N-zones of the node. In the NH-zone conduction does not differ compared to that in the case of spontaneous rhythm. The results obtained show that conduction through AVN during AF does not take place through triggering of specific mechanisms, but through a complex combination of the mechanisms characterizing the deteriorated conduction under extreme conditions. PMID:4050465

  17. Space station freedom resource nodes internal thermal control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merhoff, Paul; Dellinger, Brent; Taggert, Shawn; Cornwell, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the design and operation of the internal thermal control system (ITCS) developed for Space Station Freedom by the NASA-Johnson Space Center and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to provide cooling for the resource nodes, airlock, and pressurized logistics modules. The ITCS collects, transports and rejects waste heat from these modules by a dual-loop, single-phase water cooling system. ITCS performance, cooling, and flow rate requirements are presented. An ITCS fluid schematic is shown and an overview of the current baseline system design and its operation is presented. Assembly sequence of the ITCS is explained as its configuration develops from Man Tended Capability (MTC), for which node 2 alone is cooled, to Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) where the airlock, a pressurized logistics module, and node 1 are cooled, in addition to node 2. A SINDA/FLUINT math model of the ITCS is described, and results of analyses for an MTC and a PMC case are shown and discussed.

  18. Matching mitochondria to metabolic needs at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shing Y

    2011-08-01

    Myelinated axons conduct nerve impulses at high speed using a unique mode of excitation, referred to as saltatory conduction, which is enabled structurally by the narrowing of the site of action potentials to a tiny gap in the axon called the node of Ranvier. With this structural specialization comes an interesting metabolic matching problem. How do mitochondria find and supply energy to these tiny nodes of Ranvier distributed sparsely along a myelinated axon? Does the intense Na(+) influx at the node, which is produced by the highest known sodium channel density in all excitable membranes, help guide where mitochondria stop? Evidence suggests that during excitation in the peripheral nervous system, Na(+) influx recruits mitochondria to the node by triggering Ca(2+) elevation and activating Na(+) pumps. Intriguingly, indirect evidence suggests that in the central nervous system, activity recruits mitochondria to the internode (myelin-covered portion of the axon). Metabolic dysfunction thus might produce spatially distinct lesions in PNS and CNS myelinated fibers. Future dissection of regional variation in mitochondrial biology in myelinated axons using live imaging will likely yield surprises about sites of vulnerability in demyelinating diseases and clues for therapeutic intervention strategy. PMID:21518813

  19. Delineating transcriptional networks of prognostic gene signatures refines treatment recommendations for lymph node-negative breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, Fiona; Brien, Gerard L; Fan, Yue; Madden, Stephen F; Jerman, Emilia; Maratha, Ashwini; Aloraifi, Fatima; Hokamp, Karsten; Dunne, Eiseart J; Lohan, Amanda J; Flanagan, Louise; Garbe, James C; Stampfer, Martha R; Fridberg, Marie; Jirstrom, Karin; Quinn, Cecily M; Loftus, Brendan; Gallagher, William M; Geraghty, James; Bracken, Adrian P

    2015-09-01

    The majority of women diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer are unnecessarily treated with damaging chemotherapeutics after surgical resection. This highlights the importance of understanding and more accurately predicting patient prognosis. In the present study, we define the transcriptional networks regulating well-established prognostic gene expression signatures. We find that the same set of transcriptional regulators consistently lie upstream of both 'prognosis' and 'proliferation' gene signatures, suggesting that a central transcriptional network underpins a shared phenotype within these signatures. Strikingly, the master transcriptional regulators within this network predict recurrence risk for lymph node-negative breast cancer better than currently used multigene prognostic assays, particularly in estrogen receptor-positive patients. Simultaneous examination of p16(INK4A) expression, which predicts tumours that have bypassed cellular senescence, revealed that intermediate levels of p16(INK4A) correlate with an intact pRB pathway and improved survival. A combination of these master transcriptional regulators and p16(INK4A), termed the OncoMasTR score, stratifies tumours based on their proliferative and senescence capacity, facilitating a clearer delineation of lymph node-negative breast cancer patients at high risk of recurrence, and thus requiring chemotherapy. Furthermore, OncoMasTR accurately classifies over 60% of patients as 'low risk', an improvement on existing prognostic assays, which has the potential to reduce overtreatment in early-stage patients. Taken together, the present study provides new insights into the transcriptional regulation of cellular proliferation in breast cancer and provides an opportunity to enhance and streamline methods of predicting breast cancer prognosis. PMID:26094870

  20. LCP nanoparticle for tumor and lymph node metastasis imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Cheng

    A lipid/calcium/phosphate (LCP) nanoparticle formulation (particle diameter ˜25 nm) has previously been developed to delivery siRNA with superior efficiency. In this work, 111In was formulated into LCP nanoparticles to form 111In-LCP for SPECT/CT imaging. With necessary modifications and improvements of the LCP core-washing and surface-coating methods, 111In-LCP grafted with polyethylene glycol exhibited reduced uptake by the mononuclear phagocytic system. SPECT/CT imaging supported performed biodistribution studies, showing clear tumor images with accumulation of 8% or higher injected dose per gram tissue (ID/g) in subcutaneous, human-H460, lung-cancer xenograft and mouse-4T1, breast cancer metastasis models. Both the liver and the spleen accumulated ˜20% ID/g. Accumulation in the tumor was limited by the enhanced permeation and retention effect and was independent of the presence of a targeting ligand. A surprisingly high accumulation in the lymph nodes (˜70% ID/g) was observed. In the 4T1 lymph node metastasis model, the capability of intravenously injected 111In-LCP to visualize the size-enlarged and tumor-loaded sentinel lymph node was demonstrated. By analyzing the SPECT/CT images taken at different time points, the PK profiles of 111In-LCP in the blood and major organs were determined. The results indicated that the decrement of 111In-LCP blood concentration was not due to excretion, but to tissue penetration, leading to lymphatic accumulation. Larger LCP (diameter ˜65 nm) nanoparticles were also prepared for the purpose of comparison. Results indicated that larger LCP achieved slightly lower accumulation in the tumor and lymph nodes, but much higher accumulation in the liver and spleen; thus, larger nanoparticles might not be favorable for imaging purposes. We also demonstrated that LCP with a diameter of ˜25 nm were better able to penetrate into tissues, travel in the lymphatic system and preferentially accumulate in the lymph nodes due to 1) small

  1. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  2. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  3. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma: Case Report of a Positive Sentinel Lymph Node and Discussion of Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Steve J; Navarrete, Andrew D; Salyapongse, A Neil

    2015-07-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is an uncommon eccrine sweat gland tumor of the distal extremities that is associated with a high rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Current opinion suggests that sentinel lymph node evaluation should be done for high-risk tumors where lymph node spread is a concern. Despite documented spread to regional lymph nodes, information on sentinel lymph node status in ADPA is reported infrequently, with only 1 documented case of positive findings. We report on a case of ADPA of the right long finger where sentinel lymph node biopsy was done and positive for metastases in the axilla, resulting in a subsequent completion lymphadenectomy. To determine the benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy in ADPA, there is a need for more cases of sentinel lymph node evaluation along with data on local recurrence and distant metastasis in those with positive and negative findings. PMID:25954845

  4. Executing scatter operation to parallel computer nodes by repeatedly broadcasting content of send buffer partition corresponding to each node upon bitwise OR operation

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2009-11-06

    Executing a scatter operation on a parallel computer includes: configuring a send buffer on a logical root, the send buffer having positions, each position corresponding to a ranked node in an operational group of compute nodes and for storing contents scattered to that ranked node; and repeatedly for each position in the send buffer: broadcasting, by the logical root to each of the other compute nodes on a global combining network, the contents of the current position of the send buffer using a bitwise OR operation, determining, by each compute node, whether the current position in the send buffer corresponds with the rank of that compute node, if the current position corresponds with the rank, receiving the contents and storing the contents in a reception buffer of that compute node, and if the current position does not correspond with the rank, discarding the contents.

  5. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. PMID:20868896

  6. Implementing asyncronous collective operations in a multi-node processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Dong; Eisley, Noel A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard

    2014-07-08

    A method, system, and computer program product are disclosed for implementing an asynchronous collective operation in a multi-node data processing system. In one embodiment, the method comprises sending data to a plurality of nodes in the data processing system, broadcasting a remote get to the plurality of nodes, and using this remote get to implement asynchronous collective operations on the data by the plurality of nodes. In one embodiment, each of the nodes performs only one task in the asynchronous operations, and each nodes sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with said each node. In another embodiment, each of the nodes performs a plurality of tasks in said collective operations, and each task of each node sets up a base address table with an entry for a base address of a memory buffer associated with the task.

  7. Self-pacing direct memory access data transfer operations for compute nodes in a parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Blocksome, Michael A

    2015-02-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for self-pacing DMA data transfer operations for nodes in a parallel computer that include: transferring, by an origin DMA on an origin node, a RTS message to a target node, the RTS message specifying an message on the origin node for transfer to the target node; receiving, in an origin injection FIFO for the origin DMA from a target DMA on the target node in response to transferring the RTS message, a target RGET descriptor followed by a DMA transfer operation descriptor, the DMA descriptor for transmitting a message portion to the target node, the target RGET descriptor specifying an origin RGET descriptor on the origin node that specifies an additional DMA descriptor for transmitting an additional message portion to the target node; processing, by the origin DMA, the target RGET descriptor; and processing, by the origin DMA, the DMA transfer operation descriptor.

  8. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  9. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  10. Prognostic significance of drainage to pelvic nodes at sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with extremity melanoma.

    PubMed

    Karakousis, Giorgos C; Pandit-Taskar, Neeta; Hsu, Meier; Panageas, Katherine; Atherton, Sonny; Ariyan, Charlotte; Brady, Mary S

    2013-02-01

    Patients undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for lower extremity melanoma may have drainage to pelvic nodes (DPN) in addition to superficial inguinal nodes. These nodes are not sampled routinely at SLN biopsy. Factors predicting DPN and its prognostic significance were assessed in a large cohort of patients undergoing an SLN biopsy. Three hundred and twenty five patients with single primary melanomas of the lower extremity or buttocks who underwent SLN mapping were identified from our prospective melanoma database (December 1995-October 2008). Associations of clinical and pathologic factors with DPN and time to melanoma recurrence (TTR) were analyzed by logistic and Cox regression, respectively. DPN was common, occurring in 23% of cases. Increased Breslow's thickness (P=0.007) and age (P=0.01) were associated with DPN by multivariate analysis. Patients with DPN were not more likely to have a positive SLN; however, SLN- patients with DPN showed a shorter TTR (P=0.02) in a multivariable model including thickness and ulceration. With age included in the model, DPN remained marginally associated with TTR in this group (P=0.08). The pelvic recurrence rates observed were similar in recurrent patients with DPN compared with those without DPN (39% in both groups). In conclusion, DPN occurs in almost one-quarter of patients with lower extremity melanoma and is marginally associated with a shorter TTR in SLN- patients. PMID:23250048

  11. Predictive assays in radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.M.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are reports of promising correlations between patient response to radiotherapy and laboratory measurements of tumor radiosensitivity, fibroblast radiosensitivity, tumor proliferation, and tumor oxygenation status. These all need to be substantiated in large clinical studies. The development of rapid, reliable assays, in particular for determining intrinsic radiosensitivity, would greatly facilitate this work. If the results illustrated in the figures in the chapter can be combined and shown to be feasible on a routine clinical basis, then radiobiologists would be able to provide radiotherapists with a useful aid for the individualization of patient treatment. 162 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Automated cytopathic effect (CPE) assays.

    PubMed

    McAleer, W J; Miller, W J; Hurni, W M; Machlowitz, R A; Hilleman, M R

    1983-07-01

    An automated CPE procedure has been developed that increases the precision and ease of performing titrations of measles, mumps and rubella viruses in vaccine materials. By this procedure, additions of cell suspensions and reagents and the dilution of samples are performed automatically by a modified Dynatiter instrument, using 96-well microtitre plates. Cell monolayers are stained with carbolfuchsin dye to eliminate the need for microscopic examination. Finally, the trays are read in an optical scanner and the end points calculated automatically by a programmable calculator. The increased accuracy and precision attained by performing greater numbers of replicate assays at reasonable cost will be of particular value to vaccine manufacturers. PMID:6885830

  13. Lymph Node Ratio as a Risk Factor for Locoregional Recurrence in Breast Cancer Patients with 10 or More Axillary Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Park, Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Im, Young-Hyuck; Ahn, Jin Seok; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed the association of lymph node ratio (LNR) wth locoregional control (LRC) in breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes who underwent multimodality treatment. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 234 breast cancer patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes between 2000 and 2011. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) after radical surgery. The cutoff value of LNR was obtained using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The majority of patients (87.2%) received chemotherapeutic regimen including taxane. RT consisted of tangential fields to the chest wall or intact breast, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy, and a single anterior port to the supraclavicular lymph node area, delivered at a median dose of 50 Gy. For patients who underwent breast-conserving surgery, an electron boost with a total dose of 9 to 15 Gy was delivered to the tumor bed. Results Within a median follow-up period of 73.5 months (range, 11-183 months), locoregional recurrence (LRR) occurred in 30 patients (12.8%) and the 5-year LRC rate was 88.8%. After multivariate analysis, LNR ≥0.7 was the only independent factor significantly associated with LRC (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-4.29; p=0.05). Conclusion An aggressive multimodal treatment approach showed favorable locoregional outcome in patients with ≥10 involved axillary lymph nodes. However, patients with a high LNR ≥0.7 still had an increased risk for LRR, even in the setting of current local treatments. PMID:27382393

  14. Diagnostic value of preoperative axillary lymph node ultrasound assessment in patients with breast cancer qualified for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Adam; Wiśniewska, Magdalena; Wiśniewski, Michał; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a standard procedure in the therapeutic management of patients with non-advanced breast cancer. Aim To analyse the utility of ultrasound scan (USS) examination in the process of patient qualification for SLNB and to estimate the optimal time to perform USS in the clinical preoperational assessment of axillary lymph nodes. Material and methods A prospective analysis of 702 patients with invasive breast cancer treated with SLNB between 7.03.2012 and 27.05.2013 was performed. The patients were divided into three groups: I (USS < 8 weeks before SLNB), II (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB and another one on the day before SLNB) and III (USS > 8 weeks before SLNB without perioperative USS). In these patients the percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node and the clinical factors influencing the diagnostic value of preoperative ultrasound scan were assessed. Results Metastatic lesions in sentinel lymph nodes were found in 154 (21.9%) patients. The highest percentage of metastases was noted in patients operated on in the second and third month from the beginning of preoperative diagnostics. None of the factors tested (size of the original tumour, histological malignancy grading, kind of preoperative diagnostics, Ki-67 value, biological type of the tumour, age) had a statistically significant influence on the diagnostic value of perioperative USS examination in the analysed time span. Conclusions The lowest percentage of metastases in the sentinel lymph node was noted in the patients qualified for SLNB who had the ultrasound performed directly before the surgical procedure (not more than 4 weeks before the surgery). PMID:26240616

  15. Tape underlayment rotary-node (TURN) valves for simple on-chip microfluidic flow control

    PubMed Central

    Markov, Dmitry A.; Manuel, Steven; Shor, Leslie M.; Opalenik, Susan R.; Wikswo, John P.; Samson, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple and reliable fabrication method for producing multiple, manually activated microfluidic control valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. These screwdriver-actuated valves reside directly on the microfluidic chip and can provide both simple on/off operation as well as graded control of fluid flow. The fabrication procedure can be easily implemented in any soft lithography lab and requires only two specialized tools – a hot-glue gun and a machined brass mold. To facilitate use in multi-valve fluidic systems, the mold is designed to produce a linear tape that contains a series of plastic rotary nodes with small stainless steel machine screws that form individual valves which can be easily separated for applications when only single valves are required. The tape and its valves are placed on the surface of a partially cured thin PDMS microchannel device while the PDMS is still on the soft-lithographic master, with the master providing alignment marks for the tape. The tape is permanently affixed to the microchannel device by pouring an over-layer of PDMS, to form a full-thickness device with the tape as an enclosed underlayment. The advantages of these Tape Underlayment Rotary-Node (TURN) valves include parallel fabrication of multiple valves, low risk of damaging a microfluidic device during valve installation, high torque, elimination of stripped threads, the capabilities of TURN hydraulic actuators, and facile customization of TURN molds. We have utilized these valves to control microfluidic flow, to control the onset of molecular diffusion, and to manipulate channel connectivity. Practical applications of TURN valves include control of loading and chemokine release in chemotaxis assay devices, flow in microfluidic bioreactors, and channel connectivity in microfluidic devices intended to study competition and predator / prey relationships among microbes. PMID:19859812

  16. Tape underlayment rotary-node (TURN) valves for simple on-chip microfluidic flow control.

    PubMed

    Markov, Dmitry A; Manuel, Steven; Shor, Leslie M; Opalenik, Susan R; Wikswo, John P; Samson, Philip C

    2010-02-01

    We describe a simple and reliable fabrication method for producing multiple, manually activated microfluidic control valves in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices. These screwdriver-actuated valves reside directly on the microfluidic chip and can provide both simple on/off operation as well as graded control of fluid flow. The fabrication procedure can be easily implemented in any soft lithography lab and requires only two specialized tools-a hot-glue gun and a machined brass mold. To facilitate use in multi-valve fluidic systems, the mold is designed to produce a linear tape that contains a series of plastic rotary nodes with small stainless steel machine screws that form individual valves which can be easily separated for applications when only single valves are required. The tape and its valves are placed on the surface of a partially cured thin PDMS microchannel device while the PDMS is still on the soft-lithographic master, with the master providing alignment marks for the tape. The tape is permanently affixed to the microchannel device by pouring an over-layer of PDMS, to form a full-thickness device with the tape as an enclosed underlayment. The advantages of these Tape Underlayment Rotary-Node (TURN) valves include parallel fabrication of multiple valves, low risk of damaging a microfluidic device during valve installation, high torque, elimination of stripped threads, the capabilities of TURN hydraulic actuators, and facile customization of TURN molds. We have utilized these valves to control microfluidic flow, to control the onset of molecular diffusion, and to manipulate channel connectivity. Practical applications of TURN valves include control of loading and chemokine release in chemotaxis assay devices, flow in microfluidic bioreactors, and channel connectivity in microfluidic devices intended to study competition and predator/prey relationships among microbes. PMID:19859812

  17. Animal models and molecular imaging tools to investigate lymph node metastases

    PubMed Central

    Servais, Elliot L.; Colovos, Christos; Bograd, Adam J.; White, Julie; Sadelain, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis is a strong predictor of poor outcome in cancer patients. Animal studies of lymph node metastasis are constrained by difficulties in the establishment of appropriate animal models, limitations in the noninvasive monitoring of lymph node metastasis progression, and challenges in the pathologic confirmation of lymph node metastases. In this comprehensive review, we summarize available preclinical animal cancer models for noninvasive imaging and identification of lymph node metastases of non-hematogenous cancers. Furthermore, we discuss the strengths and weaknesses of common noninvasive imaging modalities used to identify tumor-bearing lymph nodes and provide guidelines for their pathological confirmation. PMID:21556810

  18. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal

  19. Indirect conductimetric assay of antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Sawai, J; Doi, R; Maekawa, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Kojima, H

    2002-11-01

    The applicability of indirect conductimetric assays for evaluation of antibacterial activity was examined. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) obtained by the indirect method was consistent with that by the direct conductimetric assay and the turbidity method. The indirect assay allows use of growth media, which cannot be used in the direct conductimetric assay, making it possible to evaluate the antibacterial activity of insoluble or slightly soluble materials with high turbidity, such as antibacterial ceramic powders. PMID:12407467

  20. The chemistry behind antioxidant capacity assays.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dejian; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2005-03-23

    This review summarizes the multifaceted aspects of antioxidants and the basic kinetic models of inhibited autoxidation and analyzes the chemical principles of antioxidant capacity assays. Depending upon the reactions involved, these assays can roughly be classified into two types: assays based on hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions and assays based on electron transfer (ET). The majority of HAT-based assays apply a competitive reaction scheme, in which antioxidant and substrate compete for thermally generated peroxyl radicals through the decomposition of azo compounds. These assays include inhibition of induced low-density lipoprotein autoxidation, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total radical trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), and crocin bleaching assays. ET-based assays measure the capacity of an antioxidant in the reduction of an oxidant, which changes color when reduced. The degree of color change is correlated with the sample's antioxidant concentrations. ET-based assays include the total phenols assay by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (FCR), Trolox equivalence antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), "total antioxidant potential" assay using a Cu(II) complex as an oxidant, and DPPH. In addition, other assays intended to measure a sample's scavenging capacity of biologically relevant oxidants such as singlet oxygen, superoxide anion, peroxynitrite, and hydroxyl radical are also summarized. On the basis of this analysis, it is suggested that the total phenols assay by FCR be used to quantify an antioxidant's reducing capacity and the ORAC assay to quantify peroxyl radical scavenging capacity. To comprehensively study different aspects of antioxidants, validated and specific assays are needed in addition to these two commonly accepted assays. PMID:15769103

  1. Serum indices: managing assay interference.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Christopher-John L; Carter, Andrew C

    2016-09-01

    Clinical laboratories frequently encounter samples showing significant haemolysis, icterus or lipaemia. Technical advances, utilizing spectrophotometric measurements on automated chemistry analysers, allow rapid and accurate identification of such samples. However, accurate quantification of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference is of limited value if laboratories do not set rational alert limits, based on sound interference testing experiments. Furthermore, in the context of increasing consolidation of laboratories and the formation of laboratory networks, there is an increasing requirement for harmonization of the handling of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia-affected samples across different analytical platforms. Harmonization may be best achieved by considering both the analytical aspects of index measurement and the possible variations in the effects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interferences on assays from different manufacturers. Initial verification studies, followed up with ongoing quality control testing, can help a laboratory ensure the accuracy of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia index results, as well as assist in managing any biases in index results from analysers from different manufacturers. Similarities, and variations, in the effect of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference in assays from different manufacturers can often be predicted from the mechanism of interference. Nevertheless, interference testing is required to confirm expected similarities or to quantify differences. It is important that laboratories are familiar with a number of interference testing protocols and the particular strengths and weaknesses of each. A rigorous approach to all aspects of haemolysis, icterus and lipaemia interference testing allows the analytical progress in index measurement to be translated into improved patient care. PMID:27147624

  2. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  3. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  4. The validity of androgen assays

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Malcolm; Trinick, Tom R.; Wheeler, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Problems in the measurement of androgens and in interpreting results have been reviewed and classified as follows: Preanalytical factors The exact sampling conditions in relation to circadian and seasonal variations, diet, alcohol, physical activity and posture. Physiological and medical factors Androgen levels vary according to the patient's general health, stress, sexual activity and smoking habits. Analytical variables Sample preservation and storage variables are often unknown. The different androgen assays used have widely differing accuracy and precision and are subject to large inter-laboratory variation, which especially in women and children can render the results of routinely available direct immunoassays meaningless. Interpretation of results Laboratory reference ranges vary widely, largely independent of methodology, and fail to take into account the log-normal distribution of androgen values, causing errors in clinical diagnosis and treatment. Other unknowns are antagonists such as SHBG, estrogens, catecholamines, cortisol, and anti-androgens. As well as age, androgen receptor polymorphisms play a major role in regulating androgen levels and resistance to their action. Conclusions Though laboratory assays can support a diagnosis of androgen deficiency in men, they should not be used to exclude it. It is suggested that there needs to be greater reliance on the history and clinical features, together with careful evaluation of the symptomatology, and where necessary a therapeutic trial of androgen treatment given. PMID:17701661

  5. In vitro Tumorsphere Formation Assays

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sara; Chen, Hexin; Lo, Pang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    A tumorsphere is a solid, spherical formation developed from the proliferation of one cancer stem/progenitor cell. These tumorspheres (Figure 1a) are easily distinguishable from single or aggregated cells (Figure 1b) as the cells appear to become fused together and individual cells cannot be identified. Cells are grown in serum-free, non-adherent conditions in order to enrich the cancer stem/progenitor cell population as only cancer stem/progenitor cells can survive and proliferate in this environment. This assay can be used to estimate the percentage of cancer stem/progenitor cells present in a population of tumor cells. The size, which can vary from less than 50 micrometers to 250 micrometers, and number of tumorspheres formed can be used to characterize the cancer stem/progenitor cell population within a population of in vitro cultured cancer cells and within in vivo tumors (Lo et al., 2012; Liu et al., 2009). While several cell lines can be used for tumorsphere formation assay (e.g. primary mammary tumor cells from Her2/neu-transgenic mice, MCF7, BT474 and HCC1954), some cell lines may not form typical tumorsphere structures and may be difficult to count or classify definitively as tumorspheres.

  6. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, R.; Vazquez-Jauregui, E.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.

    2011-04-27

    We describe the R and D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O{sub 2}, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed ''natural'' radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  7. Proteasome Assay in Cell Lysates

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) mediates the majority of the proteolysis seen in the cytoplasm and nucleus of mammalian cells. As such it plays an important role in the regulation of a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes including tumorigenesis, inflammation and cell death (Ciechanover, 2005; Kisselev and Goldberg, 2001). A number of recent studies have shown that proteasome activity is decreased in a variety of neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and stroke as well as during normal aging (Chung et al., 2001; Ciechanover and Brundin, 2003; Betarbet et al., 2005). This decrease in proteasome activity is thought to play a critical role in the accumulation of abnormal and oxidized proteins. Protein clearance by the UPS involves two sequential reactions. The first is the tagging of protein lysine residues with ubiquitin (Ub) and the second is the subsequent degradation of the tagged proteins by the proteasome. We herein describe an assay for the second of these two reactions (Valera et al., 2013). This assay uses fluorogenic substrates for each of the three activities of the proteasome: chymotrypsin-like activity, trypsin-like activity and caspase-like activity. Cleavage of the fluorophore from the substrate by the proteasome results in fluorescence that can be detected with a fluorescent plate reader.

  8. Assay of potentially contaminated propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Koster, J.E.; Williams, H.E. III; Scott, W.S.

    1995-02-01

    One of the decontamination and decommissioning projects within DOD is demilitarization of an aging stockpile of munitions. A large portion of the stockpile contains depleted uranium (DU) as an armor piercing core and so these munitions must be assayed for the presence of uranium in other components. The assay method must be fast and preferably easy to implement. Presence of DU is indicated by its alpha decay. The alpha particles in turn produce ions in the ambient air. If a significant fraction of these ions can escape the quantity of propellant, the ions can be detected instead of the alpha particles. As a test of the feasibility of detecting alpha emissions from DU somewhere within a cartridge of propellant, the transmission of ions through layers of real propellant was measured. The propellant is in the form of graphite-coated cylindrical pellets. A 105nun cartridge was modified for use as a pellet chamber. A check source served as an ion source. The ion detector consisted of a grid held at 300V coupled to an ammeter. Results confirm that this is a promising technique for testing the propellant for the presence of DU quickly yet with sensitivity.

  9. SNO+ Scintillator Purification and Assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, R.; Chen, M.; Chkvorets, O.; Hallman, D.; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E.

    2011-04-01

    We describe the R&D on the scintillator purification and assay methods and technology for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment. The SNO+ experiment is a replacement of the SNO heavy water with liquid scintillator comprised of 2 g/L PPO in linear alkylbenzene (LAB). During filling the LAB will be transported underground by rail car and purified by multi-stage distillation and steam stripping at a flow rate of 19 LPM. While the detector is operational the scintillator can be recirculated at 150 LPM (full detector volume in 4 days) to provide repurification as necessary by either water extraction (for Ra, K, Bi) or by functional metal scavenger columns (for Pb, Ra, Bi, Ac, Th) followed by steam stripping to remove noble gases and oxygen (Rn, O2, Kr, Ar). The metal scavenger columns also provide a method for scintillator assay for ex-situ measurement of the U and Th chain radioactivity. We have developed "natural" radioactive spikes of Pb and Ra in LAB and use these for purification testing. Lastly, we present the planned operating modes and purification strategies and the plant specifications and design.

  10. A Robust and Flexible Design for GCEP Unattended Online Enrichment Monitoring: An OLEM Collection Node Network

    SciTech Connect

    Younkin, James R; March-Leuba, Jose A; Garner, James R

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laoratory (ORNL) has engineered an on-line enrichment monitor (OLEM) to continuously measure U-235 emissions from the UF6 gas flowing through a unit header pipe of a gas centrifuge enrichment plant (GCEP) as a component of the International Atomic Energy Agency s (IAEA) new generation of technology to support enrichment plant safeguards1. In contrast to other enrichment monitoring approaches, OLEM calibrates and corrects for the pressure and temperature dependent UF6 gas-density without external radiation sources by using the inherent unit header pipe pressure dynamics and combining U-235 gamma-ray spectrometery using a shielded NaI detector with gas pressure and temperature data near the spectrum measurement point to obtain the enrichment of the gas as a function of time. From a safeguards perspective, OLEM can provide early detection of a GCEP being misused for production of highly enriched uranium, but would not detect directly the isolation and use of a cascade within the production unit to produce HEU. OLEM may also reduce the number of samples collected for destructive assay and, if coupled with load cell monitoring, could support isotope mass balance verification and unattended cylinder verification. The earlier paper presented OLEM as one component along with shared load cells and unattended cylinder verification, in the IAEA emering toolbox for unattended instruments at GCEPs1 and described the OLEM concept and how previous modeling studies and field measurements helped confirm the viability of a passive on-line enrichment monitor for meeting IAEA objectives and to support the development of performance targets. Phase I of the United States Support Program (USSP) OLEM project completed a preliminary hardware, software and communications design; phase II will build and test field prototypes in controlled laboratory settings and then at an operational facility. That paper also discussed many of the OLEM collection node commercial off the

  11. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  12. Pathological assessment of mediastinal lymph nodes in lung cancer: implications for non-invasive mediastinal staging.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, K M; Lamb, D; Wathen, C G; Walker, W S; Douglas, N J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of computed tomography in mediastinal staging of lung cancer relies on the premiss that malignant lymph nodes are larger than benign ones. This hypothesis was tested by linking node size and presence or absence of malignancy and looking at factors possibly influencing the size of benign nodes. METHODS: All accessible mediastinal lymph nodes were taken from 56 consecutive patients with lung cancer who underwent thoracotomy. Nodes were measured and histologically examined. Resected cancer bearing lung from 44 of these patients was assessed for degree of acute and chronic inflammation. RESULTS: Lymph node size was not significantly related to the presence of metastatic disease, 58% of malignant and 43% of benign lymph nodes measuring over 15 mm. Similarly, there was no statistically significant relation between size of lymph nodes and the likelihood of malignancy, 20% of lymph nodes of 10 mm or more but also 15% of those less than 10 mm being malignant. Thresholds of 15 and 20 mm showed similar results. The maximum size of benign lymph nodes was significantly greater in those patients with histological evidence of acute pulmonary inflammation than in those without. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that in patients with lung cancer (1) malignant mediastinal lymph nodes are not larger than benign nodes; (2) small mediastinal lymph nodes are not infrequently malignant; and (3) benign adenopathy is more common in patients with acute pulmonary inflammation. Images PMID:1609375

  13. Value of peripheral nodes in controlling multilayer scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the controllability of a two-layer network, where driver nodes can be chosen randomly only from one layer. Each layer contains a scale-free network with directed links and the node dynamics depends on the incoming links from other nodes. We combine the in-degree and out-degree values to assign an importance value w to each node, and distinguish between peripheral nodes with low w and central nodes with high w . Based on numerical simulations, we find that the controllable part of the network is larger when choosing low w nodes to connect the two layers. The control is as efficient when peripheral nodes are driver nodes as it is for the case of more central nodes. However, if we assume a cost to utilize nodes that is proportional to their overall degree, utilizing peripheral nodes to connect the two layers or to act as driver nodes is not only the most cost-efficient solution, it is also the one that performs best in controlling the two-layer network among the different interconnecting strategies we have tested.

  14. Epidemic spreading and immunization in node-activity networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qingchu; Chen, Shufang

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we study the epidemic spreading in node-activity networks, where an individual participates in social networks with a certain rate h. There are two cases for h: the state-independent case and the state-dependent case. We investigate the epidemic threshold as a function of h compared to the static network. Our results suggest the epidemic threshold cannot be exactly predicted by using the analysis approach in the static network. In addition, we further propose a local information-based immunization protocol on node-activity networks. Simulation analysis shows that the immunization can not only eliminate the infectious disease, but also change the epidemic threshold via increasing the immunization parameter.

  15. Lunar Data Node: Apollo Data Restoration and Archiving Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, Howard K.; Guiness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie Julia

    2013-01-01

    The Lunar Data Node (LDN) of the Planetary Data System (PDS) is responsible for the restoration and archiving of Apollo data. The LDN is located at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), which holds much of the extant Apollo data on microfilm, microfiche, hard-copy documents, and magnetic tapes in older formats. The goal of the restoration effort is to convert the data into user-accessible PDS formats, create a full set of explanatory supporting data (metadata), archive the full data sets through PDS, and post the data online at the PDS Geosciences Node. This will both enable easy use of the data by current researchers and ensure that the data and metadata are securely preserved for future use. We are also attempting to locate and preserve Apollo data which were never archived at NSSDC. We will give a progress report on the data sets we have been restoring and future work.

  16. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  17. A modular architecture for wireless sensor network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jesse; Berry, Nina

    2004-09-01

    The system level hardware architecture of individual nodes in a wireless distributed sensor network has not received adequate attention. A large portion of the development work in wireless sensor networks has been devoted to the networking layer or the network communications, but considering the tight integration required between the hardware and software on each node can result in major benefits in power, performance, and usability as well. A novel hardware architecture based on the concept of task specific modular computing provides both the high flexibility and power efficiency required for effective distributed sensing solutions. A comparative power analysis with a traditional, centralized architecture gives a justifying motivation for pursuing the modular architecture. Finally, three decentralized module self-control mechanisms developed to minimize total system power will be presented and explained in detail.

  18. Dendronized iron oxide colloids for imaging the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouhannaud, J.; Garofalo, A.; Felder-Flesch, D.; Pourroy, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been used in medicine for more than one century to explore the lymphatic system. Radioactive colloids (RuS labelled with 99mTc) or/and Vital Blue dye are injected around the primary tumour and detected by means of nuclear probe or visual colour inspection respectively. The simultaneous clinical use of both markers (dye and radionuclide) improves the sensitivity of detection close to 100%. Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are currently receiving much attention as strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel nodes, but also for peroperative detection of sentinel node using hand-held probes. In that context, we present the elaboration of dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles elaborated at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Materials of Strasbourg.

  19. Performance of wireless sensor networks under random node failures

    SciTech Connect

    Bradonjic, Milan; Hagberg, Aric; Feng, Pan

    2011-01-28

    Networks are essential to the function of a modern society and the consequence of damages to a network can be large. Assessing network performance of a damaged network is an important step in network recovery and network design. Connectivity, distance between nodes, and alternative routes are some of the key indicators to network performance. In this paper, random geometric graph (RGG) is used with two types of node failure, uniform failure and localized failure. Since the network performance are multi-facet and assessment can be time constrained, we introduce four measures, which can be computed in polynomial time, to estimate performance of damaged RGG. Simulation experiments are conducted to investigate the deterioration of networks through a period of time. With the empirical results, the performance measures are analyzed and compared to provide understanding of different failure scenarios in a RGG.

  20. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  1. Axillary web syndrome following sentinel node biopsy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nieves Maldonado, S M; Pubul Núñez, V; Argibay Vázquez, S; Macías Cortiñas, M; Ruibal Morell, Á

    2016-01-01

    A 49 year-old woman diagnosed with infiltrating lobular breast carcinoma, underwent a right mastectomy and sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The resected sentinel lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, with an axillary lymphadenectomy not being performed. In the early post-operative period, the patient reported an axillary skin tension sensation, associated with a painful palpable cord. These are typical manifestations of axillary web syndrome (AWS), a poorly known axillary surgery complication, from both invasive and conservative interventions. By presenting this case we want to focus the attention on a pathological condition, for which its incidence may be underestimated by not including it in SLNB studies. It is important for nuclear medicine physicians to be aware of AWS as a more common complication than infection, seroma, or lymphoedema, and to discuss this possible event with the patient who is consenting to the procedure. PMID:27246290

  2. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  3. Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP): a rare association of lymph node tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Surana, Anuj P; Shelgikar, Kishor M; Melinkeri, Sameer; Phadke, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Although various haematologic abnormalities are known to occur with tuberculosis, association of immune thrombocytopenia with tuberculosis is uncommon. We report a case of retroperitoneal lymph node tuberculosis who presented with ITP. A 76 year old female was admitted to our hospital with oral mucosal bleed and petechial lesions over extremities and abdomen. A diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) was established. Intravenous Anti-D immunoglobulin and Dexamethasone therapy was started, but failed to elicit any sustained platelet response. CT abdomen revealed multiple retroperitoneal lymph nodes with central necrosis. Histopathology (HPE) of these revealed caseating lymphadenitis suggestive of tuberculosis. After 2 months of anti-tuberculous therapy, the platelet counts returned to normal and patient was off all therapy for ITP thereby suggesting likely association between tuberculosis and immune thrombocytopenia. PMID:25327103

  4. Sinus Node Dysfunction After Acute Lithium Treatment at Therapeutic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Nakatsu, Keigo; Nagamine, Takahiko

    2015-01-01

    Lithium carbonate (lithium) has been used extensively for the treatment of a variety of psychiatric conditions. It requires close monitoring of serum concentration due to its narrow therapeutic window. Cardiac toxicity range from asymptomatic electrocardiographic changes to fatal arrhythmias may occur even at the therapeutic levels. We report a case of psychiatric inpatient who developed asymptomatic severe bradycardia most likely related to sinus node dysfunction due to acute lithium treatment at therapeutic level. After withdrawal of lithium, a time sequential improvement of severe bradycardia examined by repeated electrocardiogram, including Holter monitoring, suggested a relationship between the lithium toxicity and sinus node dysfunction. Other factors such as baseline sinus bradycardia and lower limit of normal thyroid function might be associated with severe bradycardia. This case emphasizes the need, when prescribing lithium, for clinicians to regularly monitor their patients’ electrocardiogram and serum lithium levels to prevent serious or fatal complications, such as cardiac arrest. PMID:27222761

  5. The International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Bassler, J. A.; McDougal, J. M.; Harris, D. W.; Hill, L.; Hammond, M. S.; Morse, B. J.; Reed, C. L. B.; Kirby, K. W.; Morgan, T. H.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Science Mission Directorate (SMD) established the Lunar Quest Program (LQP) to accomplish lunar science objectives embodied in the National Academies report The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon (2007) and the NASA Advisory Council-sponsored Workshop on Science Associated with the Lunar Exploration Architecture (2007). A major element of LQP's lunar flight projects is the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of small geophysical nodes on the lunar surface. NASA plans to provide the first two stations around 2014 and a second pair in the 2016-2017 timeframe. International involvement to provide additional stations will build up the network so that 8-10 nodes could be simultaneously operating. This flight project complements SMD's initiatives to build a robust lunar science community through R&A lines and increases international participation in NASA's robotic exploration of the moon.

  6. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Inhibits Spontaneous Contractile Activity of Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lobov, G I; Pan'kova, M N

    2016-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide dose-dependently inhibited spontaneous phase and tonic activity of smooth muscle strips from the capsule of isolated bovine mesenteric lymph nodes. Pretreatment with L-NAME, diclofenac, and methylene blue had practically no effect on the peptide-induced relaxation responses. In contrast, glibenclamide significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide. We suppose that the NO-dependent and cyclooxygenase signaling pathways are not involved in implementation of the inhibitory effects of atrial natriuretic peptide. ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels of the smooth muscle cell membrane are the last component in the signaling pathway leading to relaxation of smooth muscles of the lymph node capsule caused by atrial natriuretic peptide; activation of these channels leads to membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:27383173

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. PMID:25595513

  8. Optimal Allocation of Node Capacity in Cascade-Robustness Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Lordan, Oriol; Tang, Jiangjun

    2015-01-01

    The robustness of large scale critical infrastructures, which can be modeled as complex networks, is of great significance. One of the most important means to enhance robustness is to optimize the allocation of resources. Traditional allocation of resources is mainly based on the topology information, which is neither realistic nor systematic. In this paper, we try to build a framework for searching for the most favorable pattern of node capacity allocation to reduce the vulnerability to cascading failures at a low cost. A nonlinear and multi-objective optimization model is proposed and tackled using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). It is found that the network becomes more robust and economical when less capacity is left on the heavily loaded nodes and the optimized network performs better resisting noise. Our work is helpful in designing a robust economical network. PMID:26496705

  9. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  10. Role of lymphocyte activation products (LAP) in cell-mediated immunity. II. Effects of lymphocyte activation products on lymph node architecture and evidence for peripheral release of LAP following antigenic stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, R. H.; Wolstencroft, R. A.; Dumonde, D. C.; Balfour, Brigid M.

    1972-01-01

    The experiments reported here were concerned with determining the effects of lymphocyte activation products (LAP) on lymph node architecture, and with assaying afferent lymph for evidence of the peripheral release of LAP during the induction of an immune response. Intralymphatic inoculation of purified homologous LAP into guinea-pigs resulted in increased weight and cellular content of the draining node. Histologically these nodes showed paracortical distension and dense aggregations of lymphoid cells or `cellular plugs' in the paracortical sinuses. It was suggested that one effect of LAP may be to cause cellular retention in the paracortex of lymph nodes by regulating the rate of cell exit via the sinuses of the node. The peripheral lymph of rabbits was assayed for its ability to inhibit macrophage migration and to accelerate lymphocyte DNA synthesis after stimulation with three different antigens. The antigens were chosen to give a spectrum which ranged from a primarily humoral response (erythrocyte stimulation) through a mixed humoral and cell-mediated response (diphtheria toxoid stimulation) to a predominantly cell-mediated type of response (skin contact sensitization to fluorodinitrobenzene–FDNB). Paracortical distension with lymphoid cell sinus plugging, similar to that observed in the guinea-pig nodes following intralymphatic injection of LAP, were common features of both the diphtheria toxoid and FDNB responses. It was concluded that the development of this type of sinus plugging and paracortical distension might be related to multiple activities of LAP generated and released either at the peripheral antigen depot or within the draining node. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4111695

  11. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms. PMID:16624319

  12. Comparison of Established and Emerging Biodosimetry Assays

    PubMed Central

    Rothkamm, K.; Beinke, C.; Romm, H.; Badie, C.; Balagurunathan, Y.; Barnard, S.; Bernard, N.; Boulay-Greene, H.; Brengues, M.; De Amicis, A.; De Sanctis, S.; Greither, R.; Herodin, F.; Jones, A.; Kabacik, S.; Knie, T.; Kulka, U.; Lista, F.; Martigne, P.; Missel, A.; Moquet, J.; Oestreicher, U.; Peinnequin, A.; Poyot, T.; Roessler, U.; Scherthan, H.; Terbrueggen, B.; Thierens, H.; Valente, M.; Vral, A.; Zenhausern, F.; Meineke, V.; Braselmann, H.; Abend, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid biodosimetry tools are required to assist with triage in the case of a large-scale radiation incident. Here, we aimed to determine the dose-assessment accuracy of the well-established dicentric chromosome assay (DCA) and cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (CBMN) in comparison to the emerging γ-H2AX foci and gene expression assays for triage mode biodosimetry and radiation injury assessment. Coded blood samples exposed to 10 X-ray doses (240 kVp, 1 Gy/min) of up to 6.4 Gy were sent to participants for dose estimation. Report times were documented for each laboratory and assay. The mean absolute difference (MAD) of estimated doses relative to the true doses was calculated. We also merged doses into binary dose categories of clinical relevance and examined accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the assays. Dose estimates were reported by the first laboratories within 0.3–0.4 days of receipt of samples for the γ-H2AX and gene expression assays compared to 2.4 and 4 days for the DCA and CBMN assays, respectively. Irrespective of the assay we found a 2.5–4-fold variation of interlaboratory accuracy per assay and lowest MAD values for the DCA assay (0.16 Gy) followed by CBMN (0.34 Gy), gene expression (0.34 Gy) and γ-H2AX (0.45 Gy) foci assay. Binary categories of dose estimates could be discriminated with equal efficiency for all assays, but at doses ≥1.5 Gy a 10% decrease in efficiency was observed for the foci assay, which was still comparable to the CBMN assay. In conclusion, the DCA has been confirmed as the gold standard biodosimetry method, but in situations where speed and throughput are more important than ultimate accuracy, the emerging rapid molecular assays have the potential to become useful triage tools. PMID:23862692

  13. Random forest construction with robust semisupervised node splitting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Song, Mingli; Tao, Dacheng; Liu, Zicheng; Zhang, Luming; Chen, Chun; Bu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Random forest (RF) is a very important classifier with applications in various machine learning tasks, but its promising performance heavily relies on the size of labeled training data. In this paper, we investigate constructing of RFs with a small size of labeled data and find that the performance bottleneck is located in the node splitting procedures; hence, existing solutions fail to properly partition the feature space if there are insufficient training data. To achieve robust node splitting with insufficient data, we present semisupervised splitting to overcome this limitation by splitting nodes with the guidance of both labeled and abundant unlabeled data. In particular, an accurate quality measure of node splitting is obtained by carrying out the kernel-based density estimation, whereby a multiclass version of asymptotic mean integrated squared error criterion is proposed to adaptively select the optimal bandwidth of the kernel. To avoid the curse of dimensionality, we project the data points from the original high-dimensional feature space onto a low-dimensional subspace before estimation. A unified optimization framework is proposed to select a coupled pair of subspace and separating hyperplane such that the smoothness of the subspace and the quality of the splitting are guaranteed simultaneously. Our algorithm efficiently avoids overfitting caused by bad initialization and local maxima when compared with conventional margin maximization-based semisupervised methods. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm by comparing it with state-of-the-art supervised and semisupervised algorithms for typical computer vision applications, such as object categorization, face recognition, and image segmentation, on publicly available data sets. PMID:25494503

  14. Locating influential nodes via dynamics-sensitive centrality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Lin, Jian-Hong; Guo, Qiang; Zhou, Tao

    2016-02-01

    With great theoretical and practical significance, locating influential nodes of complex networks is a promising issue. In this paper, we present a dynamics-sensitive (DS) centrality by integrating topological features and dynamical properties. The DS centrality can be directly applied in locating influential spreaders. According to the empirical results on four real networks for both susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infected (SI) spreading models, the DS centrality is more accurate than degree, k-shell index and eigenvector centrality.

  15. Lambda network having 2.sup.m-1 nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, Jr., Leonard M.

    1995-01-01

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance.

  16. Ca2+-activated Cl− current in rabbit sinoatrial node cells

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, Arie O; Wilders, Ronald; Zegers, Jan G; van Borren, Marcel M G J; Ravesloot, Jan H; Verheijck, E Etienne

    2002-01-01

    The Ca2+-activated Cl− current (ICl(Ca)) has been identified in atrial, Purkinje and ventricular cells, where it plays a substantial role in phase-1 repolarization and delayed after-depolarizations. In sinoatrial (SA) node cells, however, the presence and functional role of ICl(Ca) is unknown. In the present study we address this issue using perforated patch-clamp methodology and computer simulations. Single SA node cells were enzymatically isolated from rabbit hearts. ICl(Ca) was measured, using the perforated patch-clamp technique, as the current sensitive to the anion blocker 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS). Voltage clamp experiments demonstrate the presence of ICl(Ca) in one third of the spontaneously active SA node cells. The current was transient outward with a bell-shaped current-voltage relationship. Adrenoceptor stimulation with 1 μm noradrenaline doubled the ICl(Ca) density. Action potential clamp measurements demonstrate that ICl(Ca) is activate late during the action potential upstroke. Current clamp experiments show, both in the absence and presence of 1 μm noradrenaline, that blockade of ICl(Ca) increases the action potential overshoot and duration, measured at 20 % repolarization. However, intrinsic interbeat interval, upstroke velocity, diastolic depolarization rate and the action potential duration measured at 50 and 90 % repolarization were not affected. Our experimental data are supported by computer simulations, which additionally demonstrate that ICl(Ca) has a limited role in pacemaker synchronization or action potential conduction. In conclusion, ICl(Ca) is present in one third of SA node cells and is activated during the pacemaker cycle. However, ICl(Ca) does not modulate intrinsic interbeat interval, pacemaker synchronization or action potential conduction. PMID:11927673

  17. Micro-Avionics Node for Distributed Avionics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.

    2001-01-01

    An avionics system is a platform residing on a flight vehicle that provides the resources (hardware and software) needed to manage the flight mission. Distributing the avionics system components, both functionally and spatially, can provide characteristics that benefit the overall system robustness, reliability, testability, and maintainability. This abstract discusses the concept of a distributed avionics system consisting of a network of micro-avionics nodes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Development of GaN-based micro chemical sensor nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Son, Kyung-ah; Prokopuk, Nicholas; George, Thomas; Moon, Jeong S.

    2005-01-01

    Sensors based on III-N technology are gaining significant interest due to their potential for monolithic integration of RF transceivers and light sources and the capability of high temperature operations. We are developing a GaN-based micro chemical sensor node for remote detection of chemical toxins, and present electrical responses of AlGaN/GaN HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) sensors to chemical toxins as well as other common gases.

  19. Method and apparatus for obtaining stack traceback data for multiple computing nodes of a massively parallel computer system

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas Michael; McCarthy, Patrick Joseph

    2010-03-02

    A data collector for a massively parallel computer system obtains call-return stack traceback data for multiple nodes by retrieving partial call-return stack traceback data from each node, grouping the nodes in subsets according to the partial traceback data, and obtaining further call-return stack traceback data from a representative node or nodes of each subset. Preferably, the partial data is a respective instruction address from each node, nodes having identical instruction address being grouped together in the same subset. Preferably, a single node of each subset is chosen and full stack traceback data is retrieved from the call-return stack within the chosen node.

  20. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity. PMID:26492958