Science.gov

Sample records for node status distribution

  1. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  2. Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, Michael E.; Attinella, John E.; Gooding, Thomas M.; Mundy, Michael B.

    2015-07-21

    Aggregating job exit statuses of a plurality of compute nodes executing a parallel application, including: identifying a subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer to execute the parallel application; selecting one compute node in the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer as a job leader compute node; initiating execution of the parallel application on the subset of compute nodes; receiving an exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes, where the exit status for each compute node includes information describing execution of some portion of the parallel application by the compute node; aggregating each exit status from each compute node in the subset of compute nodes; and sending an aggregated exit status for the subset of compute nodes in the parallel computer.

  3. Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John; Martinez, Andres; Petro, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Nodes is a technology demonstration mission that is scheduled for launch to the International SpaceStation no earlier than Nov.19, 2015. The two Nodes satellites will be deployed from the Station in early 2016 todemonstrate new network capabilities critical to the operation of swarms of spacecraft. They will demonstrate the ability ofmulti spacecraft swarms to receive and distribute ground commands, exchange information periodically, andautonomously configure the network by determining which spacecraft should communicate with the ground each day ofthe mission.

  4. Distributed intelligent control and status networking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fortin, Andre; Patel, Manoj

    1993-01-01

    Over the past two years, the Network Control Systems Branch (Code 532) has been investigating control and status networking technologies. These emerging technologies use distributed processing over a network to accomplish a particular custom task. These networks consist of small intelligent 'nodes' that perform simple tasks. Containing simple, inexpensive hardware and software, these nodes can be easily developed and maintained. Once networked, the nodes can perform a complex operation without a central host. This type of system provides an alternative to more complex control and status systems which require a central computer. This paper will provide some background and discuss some applications of this technology. It will also demonstrate the suitability of one particular technology for the Space Network (SN) and discuss the prototyping activities of Code 532 utilizing this technology.

  5. Micro-Avionics Node for Distributed Avionics System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blaes, B. R.

    2001-01-01

    An avionics system is a platform residing on a flight vehicle that provides the resources (hardware and software) needed to manage the flight mission. Distributing the avionics system components, both functionally and spatially, can provide characteristics that benefit the overall system robustness, reliability, testability, and maintainability. This abstract discusses the concept of a distributed avionics system consisting of a network of micro-avionics nodes. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector Lawrence N.

    2010-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node I was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node I nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit for Node 1, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  7. Node 3 Relocation Environmental Control and Life Support System Modification Kit Verification and Updated Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.; Spector, Lawrence N.

    2009-01-01

    Node 1 (Unity) flew to International Space Station (ISS) on Flight 2A. Node 1 was the first module of the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) launched to ISS. The Node 1 ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) design featured limited ECLS capability. The main purpose of Node 1 was to provide internal storage by providing four stowage rack locations within the module and to allow docking of multiple modules and a truss segment to it. The ECLS subsystems inside Node 1 were routed through the element prior to launch to allow for easy integration of the attached future elements, particularly the Habitation Module which was planned to be located at the nadir docking port of Node 1. After Node 1 was on-orbit, the Program decided not to launch the Habitation Module and instead, to replace it with Node 3 (Tranquility). In 2007, the Program became concerned with a potential Russian docking port approach issue for the Russian FGB nadir docking port after Node 3 is attached to Node 1. To solve this concern the Program decided to relocate Node 3 from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port. To support the movement of Node 3 the Program decided to build a modification kit for Node 1, an on-orbit feedthrough leak test device, and new vestibule jumpers to support the ECLS part of the relocation. This paper provides a design overview of the modification kit, a summary of the Node 1 ECLS re-verification to support the Node 3 relocation from Node 1 nadir to Node 1 port, and a status of the ECLS modification kit installation into Node 1.

  8. Extended lymph node dissection in robotic radical prostatectomy: Current status

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Sameer; Alemozaffar, Mehrdad; Gill, Inderbir; Aron, Monish

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The role and extent of extended pelvic lymph node dissection (ePLND) during radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer patients remains unclear. Materials and Methods: A PubMed literature search was performed for studies reporting on treatment regimens and outcomes in patients with prostate cancer treated by RP and extended lymph node dissection between 1999 and 2013. Results: Studies have shown that RP can improve progression-free and overall survival in patients with lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While this finding requires further validation, it does allow urologists to question the former treatment paradigm of aborting surgery when lymph node invasion from prostate cancer occurred, especially in patients with limited lymph node tumor infiltration. Studies show that intermediate- and high-risk patients should undergo ePLND up to the common iliac arteries in order to improve nodal staging. Conclusions: Evidence from the literature suggests that RP with ePLND improves survival in lymph node-positive prostate cancer. While studies have shown promising results, further improvements and understanding of the surgical technique and post-operative treatment are required to improve treatment for prostate cancer patients with lymph node involvement. PMID:27127352

  9. The status of ESG-BNU node in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Wu, Q.; Wang, L.; Cheng, H.; Ji, D.; Feng, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) Peer-to-Peer (P2P) is an operational system for serving climate data from multiple locations and sources.The ESG-BNU node, established in 2012, is one of the ESGF data nodes, and also the only idp/index node in China. Until now, ESG-BNU node has published 17 experiments of 10,595 GB dataset for CMIP5 and 4 experiments of 1174 GB dataset for GeoMIP generated by the Earth System Model of Beijing Normal University (BNU-ESM) It has provided over 43.0TB data with an average 700 KB/s download speed to scientists all over the world. Especially in China, data users can download the datasets more than 1MB/s. In BNU the speed can reach to over 10MB/s.(Fig.1) As an ESGF Portal node we try to make replicas of other model centers so that data users in China can get the datasets much faster . By analyzing the download information extracted from the thredds log files we found that over 95% data requests were from China, U.S. and Japan.(Fig.2) About 75% downloads came from historical, rcp45 and rcp85 experiments.(Fig.3) And over 79% downloads came from the monthly datasets. So making replicas for those datasets with most interested can meet the needs of most model users and will save over 50% disk space of the data nodes. In our plan, the data volume of the ESG-BNU node will reach to 200TB in the next year. As for the coming CMIP6, data volume may reach to over 3.5EB. Making replica of all experiments maybe too expensive and not necessary for many ESGF nodes. We hope such download statistical analysis can be helpful for ESGF data nodes to decide which experiments should be replicated or be replicated with priority.

  10. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-09-13

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  11. Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Gooding, Thomas M.

    2016-08-09

    Distributing an executable job load file to compute nodes in a parallel computer, the parallel computer comprising a plurality of compute nodes, including: determining, by a compute node in the parallel computer, whether the compute node is participating in a job; determining, by the compute node in the parallel computer, whether a descendant compute node is participating in the job; responsive to determining that the compute node is participating in the job or that the descendant compute node is participating in the job, communicating, by the compute node to a parent compute node, an identification of a data communications link over which the compute node receives data from the parent compute node; constructing a class route for the job, wherein the class route identifies all compute nodes participating in the job; and broadcasting the executable load file for the job along the class route for the job.

  12. Current status of sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nieweg, O E

    2014-10-01

    The sentinel node is defined as a lymph node on a direct lymphatic drainage pathway from the primary tumour. The sentinel node biopsy is an invasive and potentially complex diagnostic test that requires considerable skill and experience from nuclear medicine physicians, surgeons and pathologists involved in the process. The procedure provides important staging information. The tumour bearing status of a regional lymph node basin is the most important prognostic factor for patients with a clinically localised melanoma. The recently published final report of the first Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (MSLT-1) shows that sentinel node biopsy with subsequent regional node dissection improves the survival rate in patients with nodal metastases from an intermediate Breslow thickness melanoma (1.23.5 mm). The false negative rate is substantial but can be limited by experience, a meticulous technique and close cooperation of the specialists involved. The surgical procurement of the sentinel nodes is associated with minor morbidity. Sentinel node biopsy is now part of the standard work-up in patients with intermediate thickness melanoma and can be considered in patients with a thinner or thicker melanoma. New lymph node tracers and innovative imaging techniques are likely to improve the sensitivity of the procedure further. Now that the results of MSLT-1 are available, the next question is whether sentinel node-positive patients require further surgery. This issue is addressed by EORTCs Minitub study and the MSLT-2. Until these studies yield results, regional node dissection is recommended for patients with sentinel node metastases. PMID:25340862

  13. Lymph node status of lateral neck compartment in patients with N1b papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Wang, Soo-Geun; Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, In-Ju; Son, Seok-Man; Lee, Byung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Loco-regional recurrence-free survival was significantly decreased in the papillary thyroid cancer patients with > 6 metastatic lymph nodes and a lymph node ratio > 0.22. Also, the risk of lung metastasis was significantly increased in cases with bilateral neck node metastases. Objective This study focused on the metastatic lymph node status of the lateral neck compartment to understand its prognostic significance for loco-regional recurrence and distant metastasis. Methods Between January 2004 and December 2009, 1040 patients were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent treatment. Results In a multivariate analysis, sex, the number of metastatic lymph nodes, and the lymph node ratio was significantly associated with loco-regional recurrence. The sensitivity/specificity of > 6 metastatic lymph nodes for predicting recurrence was 64.0%/69.7%. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with 0-6 metastatic lymph nodes and > 6 metastatic lymph nodes were 93.4% and 79.2%, respectively. The 5-year loco-regional recurrence-free survival of patients with a lymph node ratio ≤ 0.22 and a lymph node ratio > 0.22 were 97.1% and 78.8%, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, only bilateral neck node metastases were significantly associated with lung metastasis. PMID:26635131

  14. Distributed systems status and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreidler, David; Vickers, David

    1990-01-01

    Concepts are investigated for an automated status and control system for a distributed processing environment. System characteristics, data requirements for health assessment, data acquisition methods, system diagnosis methods and control methods were investigated in an attempt to determine the high-level requirements for a system which can be used to assess the health of a distributed processing system and implement control procedures to maintain an accepted level of health for the system. A potential concept for automated status and control includes the use of expert system techniques to assess the health of the system, detect and diagnose faults, and initiate or recommend actions to correct the faults. Therefore, this research included the investigation of methods by which expert systems were developed for real-time environments and distributed systems. The focus is on the features required by real-time expert systems and the tools available to develop real-time expert systems.

  15. Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system

    DOEpatents

    Grice, Warren P

    2015-02-24

    An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.

  16. Gastric cancer: Current status of lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Degiuli, Maurizio; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Di Leo, Alberto; D'Ugo, Domenico; Galasso, Erica; Marrelli, Daniele; Petrioli, Roberto; Polom, Karol; Roviello, Franco; Santullo, Francesco; Morino, Mario

    2016-03-14

    D2 procedure has been accepted in Far East as the standard treatment for both early (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) for many decades. Recently EGC has been successfully treated with endoscopy by endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, when restricted or extended Gotoda's criteria can be applied and D1+ surgery is offered only to patients not fitted for less invasive treatment. Furthermore, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been demonstrating the non inferiority of minimally invasive technique as compared to standard open surgery for the treatment of early cases and recently the feasibility of adequate D1+ dissection has been demonstrated also for the robot assisted technique. In case of AGC the debate on the extent of nodal dissection has been open for many decades. While D2 gastrectomy was performed as the standard procedure in eastern countries, mostly based on observational and retrospective studies, in the west the Medical Research Council (MRC), Dutch and Italian RCTs have been conducted to show a survival benefit of D2 over D1 with evidence based medicine. Unfortunately both the MRC and the Dutch trials failed to show a survival benefit after the D2 procedure, mostly due to the significant increase of postoperative morbidity and mortality, which was referred to splenopancreatectomy. Only 15 years after the conclusion of its accrual, the Dutch trial could report a significant decrease of recurrence after D2 procedure. Recently the long term survival analysis of the Italian RCT could demonstrate a benefit for patients with positive nodes treated with D2 gastrectomy without splenopancreatectomy. As nowadays also in western countries D2 procedure can be done safely with pancreas preserving technique and without preventive splenectomy, it has been suggested in several national guidelines as the recommended procedure for patients with AGC. PMID:26973384

  17. Gastric cancer: Current status of lymph node dissection

    PubMed Central

    Degiuli, Maurizio; De Manzoni, Giovanni; Di Leo, Alberto; D’Ugo, Domenico; Galasso, Erica; Marrelli, Daniele; Petrioli, Roberto; Polom, Karol; Roviello, Franco; Santullo, Francesco; Morino, Mario

    2016-01-01

    D2 procedure has been accepted in Far East as the standard treatment for both early (EGC) and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) for many decades. Recently EGC has been successfully treated with endoscopy by endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection, when restricted or extended Gotoda's criteria can be applied and D1+ surgery is offered only to patients not fitted for less invasive treatment. Furthermore, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have been demonstrating the non inferiority of minimally invasive technique as compared to standard open surgery for the treatment of early cases and recently the feasibility of adequate D1+ dissection has been demonstrated also for the robot assisted technique. In case of AGC the debate on the extent of nodal dissection has been open for many decades. While D2 gastrectomy was performed as the standard procedure in eastern countries, mostly based on observational and retrospective studies, in the west the Medical Research Council (MRC), Dutch and Italian RCTs have been conducted to show a survival benefit of D2 over D1 with evidence based medicine. Unfortunately both the MRC and the Dutch trials failed to show a survival benefit after the D2 procedure, mostly due to the significant increase of postoperative morbidity and mortality, which was referred to splenopancreatectomy. Only 15 years after the conclusion of its accrual, the Dutch trial could report a significant decrease of recurrence after D2 procedure. Recently the long term survival analysis of the Italian RCT could demonstrate a benefit for patients with positive nodes treated with D2 gastrectomy without splenopancreatectomy. As nowadays also in western countries D2 procedure can be done safely with pancreas preserving technique and without preventive splenectomy, it has been suggested in several national guidelines as the recommended procedure for patients with AGC. PMID:26973384

  18. Design & implementation of distributed spatial computing node based on WPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jibo

    2014-03-01

    Currently, the research work of SIG (Spatial Information Grid) technology mostly emphasizes on the spatial data sharing in grid environment, while the importance of spatial computing resources is ignored. In order to implement the sharing and cooperation of spatial computing resources in grid environment, this paper does a systematical research of the key technologies to construct Spatial Computing Node based on the WPS (Web Processing Service) specification by OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium). And a framework of Spatial Computing Node is designed according to the features of spatial computing resources. Finally, a prototype of Spatial Computing Node is implemented and the relevant verification work under the environment is completed.

  19. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  20. Bayes Node Energy Polynomial Distribution to Improve Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Thirumoorthy; Krishnasamy, Karthikeyan N.

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network monitor and control the physical world via large number of small, low-priced sensor nodes. Existing method on Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) presented sensed data communication through continuous data collection resulting in higher delay and energy consumption. To conquer the routing issue and reduce energy drain rate, Bayes Node Energy and Polynomial Distribution (BNEPD) technique is introduced with energy aware routing in the wireless sensor network. The Bayes Node Energy Distribution initially distributes the sensor nodes that detect an object of similar event (i.e., temperature, pressure, flow) into specific regions with the application of Bayes rule. The object detection of similar events is accomplished based on the bayes probabilities and is sent to the sink node resulting in minimizing the energy consumption. Next, the Polynomial Regression Function is applied to the target object of similar events considered for different sensors are combined. They are based on the minimum and maximum value of object events and are transferred to the sink node. Finally, the Poly Distribute algorithm effectively distributes the sensor nodes. The energy efficient routing path for each sensor nodes are created by data aggregation at the sink based on polynomial regression function which reduces the energy drain rate with minimum communication overhead. Experimental performance is evaluated using Dodgers Loop Sensor Data Set from UCI repository. Simulation results show that the proposed distribution algorithm significantly reduce the node energy drain rate and ensure fairness among different users reducing the communication overhead. PMID:26426701

  1. Lifetime optimization of wireless sensor network by a better nodes positioning and energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J. M.; Murad, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a method of energy distribution on a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN). Nodes are randomly positioned and the sink is placed at the centre of the surface. Simulations show that relay nodes around the sink are too much requested to convey data, which substantially reduces their lifetime. So, several algorithmic solutions are presented to optimize the energy distribution on each node, compared to the classical uniform energy distribution. Their performance is discussed in terms of failure rate of data transmission and network lifetime. Moreover, the total energy distributed on all nodes before the deployment is invariable and some non-uniform energy distributions are created. Finally, simulations show that every energy distributions greatly improve the WSN lifetime and decrease the failure rate of data transmission.

  2. The role of nodes in arsenic storage and distribution in rice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi; Moore, Katie L.; Miller, Anthony J.; McGrath, Steve P.; Ma, Jian Feng; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important for minimizing As transfer to the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rice nodes in As storage and distribution. Synchrotron μX-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) was used to map As distribution in the top node and internode of a lsi2 mutant defective in silicon/arsenite efflux carrier and its wild-type (WT) grown in soil. Lsi2 expression in different tissues during grain filling was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Arsenite or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was supplied to excised panicles to investigate the roles of Lsi2 and phytochelatins (PC) in As distribution. μ-XRF mapping revealed As storage in the phloem of different vascular bundles in the top node and internode. Soil-grown plants of lsi2 had markedly decreased As accumulation in the phloem compared with the WT. Lsi2 was strongly expressed, not only in the roots but also in the nodes. When excised panicles were exposed to As(III), the lsi2 mutant distributed more As to the node and flag leaf but less As to the grain compared with the WT, while there was no significant difference in DMA distribution. Inhibition of PC synthesis by l-buthionine-sulphoximine decreased As(III) deposition in the top node but increased As accumulation in the grain and flag leaf. The results suggest that rice nodes serve as a filter restricting As(III) distribution to the grain. Furthermore, Lsi2 plays a role in As(III) distribution in rice nodes and phytochelatins are important compounds for As(III) storage in the nodes. PMID:25922485

  3. The role of nodes in arsenic storage and distribution in rice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Moore, Katie L; Miller, Anthony J; McGrath, Steve P; Ma, Jian Feng; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of arsenic (As) accumulation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is important for minimizing As transfer to the food chain. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rice nodes in As storage and distribution. Synchrotron μX-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) was used to map As distribution in the top node and internode of a lsi2 mutant defective in silicon/arsenite efflux carrier and its wild-type (WT) grown in soil. Lsi2 expression in different tissues during grain filling was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. Arsenite or dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) was supplied to excised panicles to investigate the roles of Lsi2 and phytochelatins (PC) in As distribution. μ-XRF mapping revealed As storage in the phloem of different vascular bundles in the top node and internode. Soil-grown plants of lsi2 had markedly decreased As accumulation in the phloem compared with the WT. Lsi2 was strongly expressed, not only in the roots but also in the nodes. When excised panicles were exposed to As(III), the lsi2 mutant distributed more As to the node and flag leaf but less As to the grain compared with the WT, while there was no significant difference in DMA distribution. Inhibition of PC synthesis by l-buthionine-sulphoximine decreased As(III) deposition in the top node but increased As accumulation in the grain and flag leaf. The results suggest that rice nodes serve as a filter restricting As(III) distribution to the grain. Furthermore, Lsi2 plays a role in As(III) distribution in rice nodes and phytochelatins are important compounds for As(III) storage in the nodes. PMID:25922485

  4. Quantitative Molecular Analysis of Sentinel Lymph Node May Be Predictive of Axillary Node Status in Breast Cancer Classified by Molecular Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Buglioni, Simonetta; Di Filippo, Franco; Terrenato, Irene; Casini, Beatrice; Gallo, Enzo; Marandino, Ferdinando; Maini, Carlo L.; Pasqualoni, Rossella; Botti, Claudio; Di Filippo, Simona; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Mottolese, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    To determine the performance of intraoperative one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) assay in detecting sentinel lymph node metastases compared to postoperative histology taking into account breast cancer molecular classification and to evaluate whether the level of cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number may be useful in predicting the likelihood of a positive axillary lymph node dissection. OSNA assay was performed in a prospective series of 903 consecutive sentinel lymph nodes from 709 breast cancer patients using 2 alternate slices of each sentinel lymph node. The remaining 2 slices were investigated by histology. Cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number, which distinguishes negative cases (<250 copies), micrometastases (+, ≥250≤5000 copies) and macrometastases (++, >5000 copies), was compared to axillary lymph node dissection status and to the biological tumor profile. Concordance between OSNA and histopathology was 95%, specificity 95% and sensitivity 93%. Multiple Corresponce Analysis and logistic regression evidenced that positive axillary lymph node dissection was significantly associated with a higher cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number (>5000; p<0.0001), HER2 subtype (p = 0.007) and lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001). Conversely, breast cancer patients with cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 mostly presented a luminal subtype and a negative axillary lymph node dissection. We confirmed that OSNA assay can provide standardized and reproducible results and that it represents a fast and quantitative tool for intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph node. Omission of axillary lymph node dissection could be proposed in patients presenting a sentinel lymph node with a cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number <2000 and a Luminal tumor phenotype. PMID:23533593

  5. Computed tomography–based distribution of involved lymph nodes in patients with upper esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, M.; Liu, Y.; Xu, L.; Huang, Y.; Li, W.; Yu, J.; Kong, L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Delineating the nodal clinical target volume (ctvn) remains a challenging task in patients with cervical or upper thoracic esophageal carcinoma (ec). In particular, the extent of the lymph area that should be included in the irradiation field remains controversial. In the present study, the extent of the ctvn was determined based on the incidence of lymph node involvement mapped by computed tomography (ct) imaging. Methods Our study included 468 patients who were diagnosed with cervical and upper thoracic ec and who received staging information between June 2005 and April 2011. The anatomic distribution of metastatic regional lymph nodes was mapped using ct images and grouped using the levels established by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. The probability of the various groups being involved was examined. If a lymph node group had a probability of 10% or more of being involved, it was considered at high risk for metastasis, and elective treatment as part of the ctvn was recommended. Results Lymph node involvement was mapped by ct in 256 patients (54.7%). Not all lymph node groups should be included in the ctvn. For cervical lesions, the involved lymph nodes were located mainly between the hyoid bone and the arcus aortae; the recommended ctvn should consist of the neck lymph nodes at levels iii and iv (supraclavicular group) and thoracic groups 2 and 3P. In upper thoracic ec patients, most of the involved lymph nodes were distributed between the cricoid cartilage and the subcarinal area; the ctvn should cover the supraclavicular group and thoracic nodal groups 2, 3P, 4, 5, and 7. Conclusions Our ct-based study indicates a specific distribution and incidence of metastatic lymph node groups in patients with cervical and upper thoracic ec. The results suggest that regional lymph node groups should be electively included in the ctvn for precise radiation administration. PMID:26089729

  6. Efficient packet transportation on complex networks with nonuniform node capacity distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xuan; Niu, Kai; He, Zhiqiang; Lin, Jiaru; Jiang, Zhong-Yuan

    2015-03-01

    Provided that node delivery capacity may be not uniformly distributed in many realistic networks, we present a node delivery capacity distribution in which each node capacity is composed of uniform fraction and degree related proportion. Based on the node delivery capacity distribution, we construct a novel routing mechanism called efficient weighted routing (EWR) strategy to enhance network traffic capacity and transportation efficiency. Compared with the shortest path routing and the efficient routing strategies, the EWR achieves the highest traffic capacity. After investigating average path length, network diameter, maximum efficient betweenness, average efficient betweenness, average travel time and average traffic load under extensive simulations, it indicates that the EWR appears to be a very effective routing method. The idea of this routing mechanism gives us a good insight into network science research. The practical use of this work is prospective in some real complex systems such as the Internet.

  7. Distributed Pedagogical Leadership and Generative Dialogue in Educational Nodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jappinen, Aini-Kristiina; Sarja, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The article presents practices of distributed pedagogical leadership and generative dialogue as a tool with which management and personnel can better operate in the increasingly turbulent world of education. Distributed pedagogical leadership includes common characteristics of a professional learning community when the educational actors…

  8. Distribution of Prostate Sentinel Nodes: A SPECT-Derived Anatomic Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Ganswindt, Ute; Schilling, David; Mueller, Arndt-Christian; Bares, Roland; Bartenstein, Peter; Belka, Claus

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: The randomized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 94-13 trial revealed that coverage of the pelvic lymph nodes in high-risk prostate cancer confers an advantage (progression-free survival and biochemical failure) in patients with {>=}15% risk of lymph node involvement. To facilitate an improved definition of the adjuvant target volume, precise knowledge regarding the location of the relevant lymph nodes is necessary. Therefore, we generated a three-dimensional sentinel lymph node atlas. Methods and Materials: In 61 patients with high-risk prostate cancer, a three-dimensional visualization of sentinel lymph nodes was performed using a single photon emission computed tomography system after transrectal intraprostatic injection of 150 to 362 (median 295) mega becquerel (MBq) {sup 99m}Technetium-nanocolloid (1.5-3h after injection) followed by an anatomic functional image fusion. Results: In all, 324 sentinel nodes in 59 of 61 patients (96.7%) were detected, with 0 to 13 nodes per patient (median 5, mean 5.3). The anatomic distribution of the sentinel nodes was as follows: external iliac 34.3%, internal iliac 17.9%, common iliac 12.7%, sacral 8.6%, perirectal 6.2%, left paraaortic 5.3%, right paraaortic 5.3%, seminal vesicle lymphatic plexus 3.1%, deep inguinal 1.5%, superior rectal 1.2%, internal pudendal 1.2%, perivesical 0.9%, inferior rectal 0.9%, retroaortic 0.3%, superficial inguinal 0.3%, and periprostatic 0.3%. Conclusions: The distribution of sentinel nodes as detected by single photon emission computed tomography imaging correlates well with the distribution determined by intraoperative gamma probe detection. A lower detection rate of sentinels in close proximity to the bladder and seminal vesicles is probably caused by the radionuclide accumulation in the bladder. In regard to intensity-modulated radiotherapy techniques, the presented anatomic atlas may allow optimized target volume definitions.

  9. Anatomic Distribution of FDG-Avid Paraaortic Lymph Nodes in Patients with Cervical Cancer1

    PubMed Central

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Summary This study presents a map of PET-positive paraaortic nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer. Available information about the location of PAN metastases in cervical cancer is not adequately detailed to guide treatment planning for highly conformal radiation therapy. Our population based atlas outlines the spatial distribution of these lymph nodes to facilitate target delineation and treatment planning. Suggested clinical target volume contours are included, which provide coverage of PAN nodes for the treatment of cervical cancer. Purpose Conformal treatment of paraaortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing FDG-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on PET/CT scans in patients with cervical cancer. Materials/Methods We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly-diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral paraaortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template CT to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results We identified 72 PET positive paraaortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior 1/3 of the paraaortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range 3 to 17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range 2 to 10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third and 4% were in the upper third of the paraaortic region. 29/30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to

  10. Impact of Lymph Node Status on Clinical Outcomes After Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Chirag; Wilkinson, J. Ben; Shaitelman, Simona; Grills, Inga S.; Chen, Peter Y.; Dekhne, Nayana; Jaiyesimi, Ishmael; Wallace, Michelle; Mitchell, Christina K.; Vicini, Frank A.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To compare outcomes after accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) between node-negative and node-positive patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 534 patients with early-stage breast cancer received APBI including 39 node-positive (N+) cases. Clinical, pathologic, and treatment-related factors were compared between node-negative (N-) and N+ cohorts. Local recurrence (LR), regional recurrence (RR), axillary failure (AF), distant metastases (DM), disease-free survival (DFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. Results: N+ patients were younger (p = 0.04), had larger tumors (p < 0.001), and were more likely to receive chemotherapy (p < 0.001). Mean follow-up was 7.8 years for N+ patients and 6.3 years for N- patients (p = 0.06). No differences were seen in 5-year actuarial rates of LR (2.2% vs. 2.6%, p = 0.86), AF (0% vs. 0%, p = 0.69), DFS (90.0% vs. 88.0%, p = 0.79), or OS (91.0 vs. 84.0%, p = 0.65) between the two groups, whereas higher rates of RR (0% vs. 6.1%, p < 0.001) and DM (2.2% vs. 8.9%, p = 0.005) were noted in N+ patients. A trend for improved CSS (p = 0.06), was seen in N- patients. Age, tumor size, receptor status, T-stage, chemotherapy, APBI technique, and nodal status (p = 0.86) were not associated with LR, while a trend for an association with LR was noted with close/positive margins, (p = 0.07), and failure to receive adjuvant hormonal therapy (p = 0.06). Conclusions: No differences were seen in the rates of LR or AF between N- and N+ patients after APBI. These results support the continued enrollment of node-positive patients in Phase III trials evaluating the efficacy of APBI including the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project-B39/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0413.

  11. Comparison between Ultrasound and Pathologic Status of Axillary Lymph Nodes in Clinically Node-negative Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Amanda; Layne, Ginger; Shahan, Cimmie; Zhang, Jianjun; Wen, Siji; Radis, Sarah; Richmond, Bryan; Partin, Jessica; Hazard, Hannah

    2015-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Ultrasound (US) has shown promise when used to assess axillary lymph nodes preoperatively, thus aiding surgical decision making. We examined the correlation between preoperative US and SLNB results to further clarify the role of US in clinicopathologic staging of breast cancer when the axilla is clinically negative on physical examination. Our institutional cancer registry was used to identify clinically node-negative patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2012. Variables including age, body mass index, date of surgery, date of diagnosis, US results, US-directed biopsy results, SLNB results, and final pathology were recorded. Incomplete charts were excluded. In all, 249 patients were included. Sensitivity/specificity of US in the clinically negative axilla were 7.4 per cent and 91.8 per cent, respectively. The false-positive rate was 80 per cent, whereas the negative predictive value was 78 per cent. The effect of time from diagnosis/US to SLNB, interpreting radiologist, year in which US was performed, and body mass index were not statistically significant. US in the clinically node-negative patient, although useful when it leads to a positive needle biopsy result, is unlikely to replace SLNB owing to its low sensitivity and a high false-positive rate. Further prospective study into the role of US in the evaluation of the clinically negative axilla is warranted. PMID:26350662

  12. Assessment of methylation status of locoregional lymph nodes in lung cancer using EBUS-NA.

    PubMed

    Millares, Laura; Serra, Mireia; Andreo, Felipe; Sanz-Santos, Jose; Montón, Concepción; Grimau, Carles; Gallego, Miguel; Setó, Laia; Combalia, Neus; Llatjos, Mariona; Escoda, Rosa; Castellà, Eva; Monsó, Eduard

    2015-10-01

    Hypermethylation of the promoter region of tumor suppressor genes is associated with carcinogenesis in lung cancer (LC). Endobronchial ultrasound with needle aspiration (EBUS-NA) is a semi-invasive method for obtaining cell blocks from lymph nodes, which can be used for epigenetic analyses. To establish the relationship between methylation status of p16, DAPK, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes in lymph nodes sampled by EBUS-NA, tumor staging and prognosis. Methylation status of DAPK, p16, RASSF1a, APC and CDH13 genes was assessed in EBUS-NA cell blocks from LC patients and related to stage and survival. Eighty-five consecutive patients [mean age 67 (SD 8)] were included. Methylation of ≥1 gene was found in 43 malignant nodes (67 %). A higher prevalence of RASSF1a methylation was observed in small cell lung cancer patients [9/10 (90 %) vs. 15/53 (28 %); p < 0.001 χ(2) test]. Methylation of APC and/or p16 was related to advanced staging in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) [15/29 (52 %) vs. 6/24 (25 %), p = 0.048, χ(2) test]. Patients with NSCLC showing methylation of APC and/or p16 had also lower 6-month survival (p = 0.019, log rank test), which persisted after adjustment for age and subtyping (HR = 6, 95 % CI [1.8-19.5], p = 0.003, Cox regression). Epigenetic analyses are feasible in EBUS-NA cell blocks and may identify methylation patterns associated with worse prognosis. Methylation of p16 and APC genes in NSCLC patients was associated with advanced staging and lower 6-month survival. PMID:26119430

  13. Is Regional Lymph Node Irradiation Necessary in Stage II to III Breast Cancer Patients With Negative Pathologic Node Status After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy?

    SciTech Connect

    Daveau, Caroline; Stevens, Denise; Brain, Etienne

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) generally induces significant changes in the pathologic extent of disease. This potential down-staging challenges the standard indications of adjuvant radiation therapy. We assessed the utility of lymph node irradiation (LNI) in breast cancer (BC) patients with pathologic N0 status (pN0) after NAC and breast-conserving surgery (BCS). Methods and Materials: Among 1,054 BC patients treated with NAC in our institution between 1990 and 2004, 248 patients with clinical N0 or N1 to N2 lymph node status at diagnosis had pN0 status after NAC and BCS. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRR-FS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results: All 248 patients underwent breast irradiation, and 158 patients (63.7%) also received LNI. With a median follow-up of 88 months, the 5-year LRR-FS and OS rates were respectively 89.4% and 88.7% with LNI and 86.2% and 92% without LNI (no significant difference). Survival was poorer among patients who did not have a pathologic complete primary tumor response (hazard ratio, 3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-7.99) and in patients with N1 to N2 clinical status at diagnosis (hazard ratio = 2.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.36). LNI did not significantly affect survival. Conclusions: Relative to combined breast and local lymph node irradiation, isolated breast irradiation does not appear to be associated with a higher risk of locoregional relapse or death among cN0 to cN2 breast cancer patients with pN0 status after NAC. These results need to be confirmed in a prospective study.

  14. Correlation between serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor-C and sentinel lymph node status in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Diego; Rohde, Alexander; Callejón, Gonzalo; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Rodrigo, Isabel; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Ramos, Belen; Medina, Francisco; Villatoro, Rosa; Redondo, Maximino; Zarcos, Irene; Maañón, Claudio; Rueda, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    Axillary lymph nodes status is the most important prognosis factor in early breast cancer. This status is known by a selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and/or lymphadenectomy. Immunohistochemical studies of breast cancer tumour tissue have reported a relation between the increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) and the risk of lymph node metastasis. We researched whether serum levels of VEGF-C could be a predictor factor of sentinel lymph node status in these patients. A prospective analysis was performed on serum from 174 patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB. The level of VEGF-C was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clinical-pathologic variables were collected. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression were conducted, taking SLNB positivity as the segmentation variable. The predictive value of VEGF-C was assessed using ROC curves. Of the sample group of 167 patients, 64 (38.3 %) had affected lymph node. Eighteen patients (28.1 %) presented micrometastasis; there were isolated tumour cells in 11 cases (17.2 %) and macrometastasis in 35 (54.6 %). The median value of VEGF-C was 6561.5 pg/ml. These values did not correlate with any clinical variables, and there was no association between the level of VEGF-C and SLNB status (p = 0.626). In the multivariate analysis, tumour size (p = 0.009) and the presence of vascular invasion (p < 0.001) were independently associated with sentinel lymph node affected. Serum levels of VEGF-C do not appear to predict sentinel lymph node status in patients with early breast cancer who undergo SLNB. PMID:26104766

  15. Status of the Node 3 Regenerative Environmental Cpntrol& Life Support System Water Recovery & Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.

    2003-01-01

    NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center is providing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for flight on the lnternational Space Station s (ISS) Node 3 element. The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems lnternational (HSSSI), while the UPA and PSM are being designed and manufactured in-house by MSFC. The assemblies are currently in the manufacturing and test phase and are to be completed and integrated into flight racks this year. This paper gives an overview of the technologies and system designs, technical challenges encountered and solved, and the current status.

  16. Status of the Node 3 Regenerative ECLSS Water Recovery and Oxygen Generation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Cloud, Dale; Bedard, Jake

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is providing three racks containing regenerative water recovery and oxygen generation systems (WRS and OGS) for flight on the International Space Station's (ISS) Node 3 element. The major assemblies included in these racks are the Water Processor Assembly (WPA), Urine Processor Assembly (UPA), Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA), and the Power Supply Module (PSM) supporting the OGA. The WPA and OGA are provided by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), while the UPA and PSM are being designed and manufactured in-house by MSFC. The assemblies are completing the manufacturing phase and are in various stages of ORU and system level testing, to be followed by integration into the flight racks. This paper gives a current status, along with technical challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  17. Lymph node localization and whole body distribution of radioiodinated encephalitogenic polypeptide in guinea-pigs*

    PubMed Central

    Lamoureux, G.; McPherson, T. A.; Carnegie, P. R.; Mackay, I. R.

    1968-01-01

    A bovine encephalitogenic polypeptide (BEP) labelled with radioiodide retained its capacity to induce experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE). Guinea-pigs were injected with 125I BEP in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), to study changes in the architecture and the distribution of radioactivity in draining lymph nodes, and the amount of radioactivity in various organs. After injection of BEP in FCA the lymph node rapidly enlarged. Within 48 hr there was depletion of lymphocytes, the enlarging lymphoid follicles had become confluent and there was proliferation of large `epithelioid' cells throughout the node. At 5 days the lymph node architecture was disorganized and lymph follicles with germinal centres could not be recognized; similar but less pronounced changes were present in regional nodes. By contrast, after injection of flagellin in FCA, there were numerous lymphocytes, plasmablasts and pyroninophilic cells, germinal centres were prominent, and the architecture was preserved. From 0·5 to 0·8% of the total injected radioactivity was concentrated in the popliteal lymph node 2–5 days after injection of 125I BEP in FCA. No radioactivity was concentrated in the node after injection of 125I BEP without FCA, and animals thus immunized did not develop encephalomyelitis. The popliteal lymph node was examined by autoradiography after injection of 125I BEP in FCA. At 24 hr radioactive encephalitogen associated with droplets of adjuvant was present mainly in the peripheral sinus and at 48 hr encephalitogen–adjuvant droplets were deposited randomly throughout cortex and medulla. These droplets appeared to represent sites where lymphoid cells acquired their capacity for pathogenic reactivity with their target antigen in the central nervous system. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:5642447

  18. Anatomic Distribution of Fluorodeoxyglucose-Avid Para-aortic Lymph Nodes in Patients With Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takiar, Vinita; Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Eifel, Patricia J.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Klopp, Ann

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: Conformal treatment of para-aortic lymph nodes (PAN) in cervical cancer allows dose escalation and reduces normal tissue toxicity. Currently, data documenting the precise location of involved PAN are lacking. We define the spatial distribution of this high-risk nodal volume by analyzing fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid lymph nodes (LNs) on positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We identified 72 PANs on pretreatment PET/CT of 30 patients with newly diagnosed stage IB-IVA cervical cancer treated with definitive chemoradiation. LNs were classified as left-lateral para-aortic (LPA), aortocaval (AC), or right paracaval (RPC). Distances from the LN center to the closest vessel and adjacent vertebral body were calculated. Using deformable image registration, nodes were mapped to a template computed tomogram to provide a visual impression of nodal frequencies and anatomic distribution. Results: We identified 72 PET-positive para-aortic lymph nodes (37 LPA, 32 AC, 3 RPC). All RPC lymph nodes were in the inferior third of the para-aortic region. The mean distance from aorta for all lymph nodes was 8.3 mm (range, 3-17 mm), and from the inferior vena cava was 5.6 mm (range, 2-10 mm). Of the 72 lymph nodes, 60% were in the inferior third, 36% were in the middle third, and 4% were in the upper third of the para-aortic region. In all, 29 of 30 patients also had FDG-avid pelvic lymph nodes. Conclusions: A total of 96% of PET positive nodes were adjacent to the aorta; PET positive nodes to the right of the IVC were rare and were all located distally, within 3 cm of the aortic bifurcation. Our findings suggest that circumferential margins around the vessels do not accurately define the nodal region at risk. Instead, the anatomical extent of the nodal basin should be contoured on each axial image to provide optimal coverage of the para-aortic nodal compartment.

  19. Predictive role of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy on the status of the sentinel lymph node in clinically node-negative patients with cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Solari, Nicola; Gipponi, Marco; Stella, Mattia; Queirolo, Paola; di Somma, Carmine; Villa, Giuseppe; Piccardo, Arnoldo; Gualco, Marina; Cardinale, Francesco; Cafiero, Ferdinando

    2009-08-01

    We reviewed our experience to assess the predictive role of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with regard to the pathological status of sentinel lymph node (sN) in patients with cutaneous melanoma, to optimize the surgical treatment planning with regard to the use of intraoperative frozen section examination of sN. Eighty-eight patients with clinically node-negative cutaneous melanoma pT1b-T4 stage underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy for the lymphatic mapping of sN. A lymphoscintigraphic 'score' (from L1 to L5) was developed based on the ratio of radiotracer concentration within sN nodes as compared with the injection site. Our score allowed us to foresee that sN of patients with thick melanomas (T3 and T4) and a low preoperative score (L1-L2-L3) had a 90% expected likelihood (P<0.001) of harboring metastasis, whereas sN in patients with thin melanomas (T1b-T2) and high preoperative score (from L4 to L5) showed a 100% likelihood of being metastasis free. In conclusion, the sN is a reliable predictor of regional lymph node status in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma. Moreover, we suggest that a low score (L1-L2-L3) associated with a thick melanoma is a good predictive factor of the positive sN involvement. This information could be useful in scheduling the intraoperative frozen-section examination with an expected benefit of a positive test in almost 90% of patients. Such patients might be selected for a 'one-stage' procedure with a more effective cost/benefit ratio and decreased hospitalization costs. PMID:19584766

  20. Grid Data Access on Widely Distributed Worker Nodes Using Scalla and SRM

    SciTech Connect

    Jakl, Pavel; Lauret, Jerome; Hanushevsky, Andrew; Shoshani, Arie; Sim, Alex; Gu, Junmin; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-11-10

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  1. Grid data access on widely distributed worker nodes using scalla and SRM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakl, P.; Lauret, J.; Hanushevsky, A.; Shoshani, A.; Sim, A.; Gu, J.

    2008-07-01

    Facing the reality of storage economics, NP experiments such as RHIC/STAR have been engaged in a shift of the analysis model, and now heavily rely on using cheap disks attached to processing nodes, as such a model is extremely beneficial over expensive centralized storage. Additionally, exploiting storage aggregates with enhanced distributed computing capabilities such as dynamic space allocation (lifetime of spaces), file management on shared storages (lifetime of files, pinning file), storage policies or a uniform access to heterogeneous storage solutions is not an easy task. The Xrootd/Scalla system allows for storage aggregation. We will present an overview of the largest deployment of Scalla (Structured Cluster Architecture for Low Latency Access) in the world spanning over 1000 CPUs co-sharing the 350 TB Storage Elements and the experience on how to make such a model work in the RHIC/STAR standard analysis framework. We will explain the key features and approach on how to make access to mass storage (HPSS) possible in such a large deployment context. Furthermore, we will give an overview of a fully 'gridified' solution using the plug-and-play features of Scalla architecture, replacing standard storage access with grid middleware SRM (Storage Resource Manager) components designed for space management and will compare the solution with the standard Scalla approach in use in STAR for the past 2 years. Integration details, future plans and status of development will be explained in the area of best transfer strategy between multiple-choice data pools and best placement with respect of load balancing and interoperability with other SRM aware tools or implementations.

  2. Robust Distributed Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids with External Acoustic Sensor Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Alexander; Moonen, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The benefit of using external acoustic sensor nodes for noise reduction in hearing aids is demonstrated in a simulated acoustic scenario with multiple sound sources. A distributed adaptive node-specific signal estimation (DANSE) algorithm, that has a reduced communication bandwidth and computational load, is evaluated. Batch-mode simulations compare the noise reduction performance of a centralized multi-channel Wiener filter (MWF) with DANSE. In the simulated scenario, DANSE is observed not to be able to achieve the same performance as its centralized MWF equivalent, although in theory both should generate the same set of filters. A modification to DANSE is proposed to increase its robustness, yielding smaller discrepancy between the performance of DANSE and the centralized MWF. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters such as the DFT size used for frequency domain processing and possible delays in the communication link between nodes is investigated.

  3. Clinical significance of accurate identification of lymph node status in distant metastatic gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Wang, Hongqiang; Su, Yuqi; Huang, Na; Shi, Min; Bin, Jianping; Liao, Yulin; Liao, Wangjun

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The clinical consequences of accurately identifying lymph node (LN) status in distant metastatic gastric cancer (DMGC) are unclear. We aimed to determine the prognostic significance of N stage, positive LN (PLN) count, and the positive LN ratio (LNR). We also retrospectively compared survival outcomes of DMGC patients stratified by LN dissection (LND). RESULTS LND was performed in 1593 patients. The CSS was significantly different between groups divided according to N stage, PLN, and LNR in DMGC patients who underwent LND. Lower LNR was an independent predictor of longer survival in all kinds of patients cohorts, whereas PLN was not such a predictor. PLN count correlated with LND number and LNR. No correlation existed between LNR and LND number. Undergoing LND and having a higher number of dissected LNs were associated with superior CSS. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data from 1889 DMGC patients treated between 2004 and 2009, and documented in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry, were reviewed. Pearson's correlation coefficient and the Chi-square test were used to study the relationships between LND number, PLN count, N stage, and the LNR. Cancer-specific survival (CSS) was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis, with the log-rank test performed for univariate analysis (UVA) and the Cox proportional hazards model employed for multivariate analysis (MVA). CONCLUSION LN metastatic variables play important roles in the prognostic evaluation and treatment decisions of DMGC patients. Accurate identification of LN status in DMGC patients is critical. LND performance is associated with increased survival and has clinical practicability. PMID:26556854

  4. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic

  5. Efficient implementation of a multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2008-01-01

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  6. Efficient implementation of multidimensional fast fourier transform on a distributed-memory parallel multi-node computer

    DOEpatents

    Bhanot, Gyan V.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2012-01-10

    The present in invention is directed to a method, system and program storage device for efficiently implementing a multidimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of a multidimensional array comprising a plurality of elements initially distributed in a multi-node computer system comprising a plurality of nodes in communication over a network, comprising: distributing the plurality of elements of the array in a first dimension across the plurality of nodes of the computer system over the network to facilitate a first one-dimensional FFT; performing the first one-dimensional FFT on the elements of the array distributed at each node in the first dimension; re-distributing the one-dimensional FFT-transformed elements at each node in a second dimension via "all-to-all" distribution in random order across other nodes of the computer system over the network; and performing a second one-dimensional FFT on elements of the array re-distributed at each node in the second dimension, wherein the random order facilitates efficient utilization of the network thereby efficiently implementing the multidimensional FFT. The "all-to-all" re-distribution of array elements is further efficiently implemented in applications other than the multidimensional FFT on the distributed-memory parallel supercomputer.

  7. Extended lymph node dissection in robot-assisted radical prostatectomy: lymph node yield and distribution of metastases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang Hyun; Lim, Sey Kiat; Koo, Kyo Chul; Han, Woong Kyu; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we reported our experience performing robotic extended lymph node dissection (eLND) in patients with prostate cancer. A total of 147 patients with intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer who underwent robotic eLND from May 2008 to December 2011 were included in this analysis. The dissection template extended to the ureter crossing the iliac vessels. We assessed lymph node yield, lymph node positivity, and perioperative outcomes. Lymph node positivity was also evaluated according to the number of lymph nodes (LNs) removed (<22 vs ≥22). The median number of LNs removed was 22 (11–51), and 97 positive LNs were found in 24 patients (16.3%). While the obturator fossa was the most common site for LN metastases (42.3%, 41/97), the internal iliac area was the most common area for a single positive LN packet (20.8%, 5/24). Eight patients (33.3%, 8/24) had positive LNs at the common iliac area. The incidence of positive LNs did not differ according to the number of LNs removed. Complications associated with eLND occurred in 21 patients (14.3%) and symptomatic lymphocele was found in five patients (3.4%). In conclusion, robotic eLND can be performed with minimal morbidity. Furthermore, LN yield and the node positive rate achieved using this robotic technique are comparable to those of open series. In addition, the extent of dissection is more important than the absolute number of LNs removed in eLND, and the robotic technique is not a prohibitive factor for performing eLND. PMID:25038184

  8. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts tomore » the grid.« less

  9. Impact of electric vehicles on the IEEE 34 node distribution infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Zeming; Shalalfel, Laith; Beshir, Mohammed J.

    2014-10-01

    With the growing penetration of the electric vehicles to our daily life owing to their economic and environmental benefits, there will be both opportunities and challenges to the utilities when adopting plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) to the distribution network. In this study, a thorough analysis based on real-world project is conducted to evaluate the impacts of electric vehicles infrastructure on the grid relating to system load flow, load factor, and voltage stability. IEEE 34 node test feeder was selected and tested along with different case scenarios utilizing the electrical distribution design (EDD) software to find out the potential impacts to the grid.

  10. Molecular markers to complement sentinel node status in predicting survival in patients with high-risk locally invasive melanoma.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Casey J; Tang, Fiona; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Rodero, Mathieu P; Malt, Maryrose; Lambie, Duncan; Barbour, Andrew; Hayward, Nicholas K; Smithers, B Mark; Green, Adele C; Khosrotehrani, Kiarash

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node status is a major prognostic marker in locally invasive cutaneous melanoma. However, this procedure is not always feasible, requires advanced logistics and carries rare but significant morbidity. Previous studies have linked markers of tumour biology to patient survival. In this study, we aimed to combine the predictive value of established biomarkers in addition to clinical parameters as indicators of survival in addition to or instead of sentinel node biopsy in a cohort of high-risk melanoma patients. Patients with locally invasive melanomas undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy were ascertained and prospectively followed. Information on mortality was validated through the National Death Index. Immunohistochemistry was used to analyse proteins previously reported to be associated with melanoma survival, namely Ki67, p16 and CD163. Evaluation and multivariate analyses according to REMARK criteria were used to generate models to predict disease-free and melanoma-specific survival. A total of 189 patients with available archival material of their primary tumour were analysed. Our study sample was representative of the entire cohort (N = 559). Average Breslow thickness was 2.5 mm. Thirty-two (17%) patients in the study sample died from melanoma during the follow-up period. A prognostic score was developed and was strongly predictive of survival, independent of sentinel node status. The score allowed classification of risk of melanoma death in sentinel node-negative patients. Combining clinicopathological factors and established biomarkers allows prediction of outcome in locally invasive melanoma and might be implemented in addition to or in cases when sentinel node biopsy cannot be performed. PMID:26990817

  11. Real-time ultrasound elastography in 180 axillary lymph nodes: elasticity distribution in healthy lymph nodes and prediction of breast cancer metastases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the general appearance of normal axillary lymph nodes (LNs) in real-time tissue sonoelastography and to explore the method′s potential value in the prediction of LN metastases. Methods Axillary LNs in healthy probands (n=165) and metastatic LNs in breast cancer patients (n=15) were examined with palpation, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler and sonoelastography (assessment of the elasticity of the cortex and the medulla). The elasticity distributions were compared and sensitivity (SE) and specificity (SP) were calculated. In an exploratory analysis, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated based upon the estimated prevalence of LN metastases in different risk groups. Results In the elastogram, the LN cortex was significantly harder than the medulla in both healthy (p=0.004) and metastatic LNs (p=0.005). Comparing healthy and metastatic LNs, there was no difference in the elasticity distribution of the medulla (p=0.281), but we found a significantly harder cortex in metastatic LNs (p=0.006). The SE of clinical examination, B-mode ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound and sonoelastography was revealed to be 13.3%, 40.0%, 14.3% and 60.0%, respectively, and SP was 88.4%, 96.8%, 95.6% and 79.6%, respectively. The highest SE was achieved by the disjunctive combination of B-mode and elastographic features (cortex >3mm in B-mode or blue cortex in the elastogram, SE=73.3%). The highest SP was achieved by the conjunctive combination of B-mode ultrasound and elastography (cortex >3mm in B-mode and blue cortex in the elastogram, SP=99.3%). Conclusions Sonoelastography is a feasible method to visualize the elasticity distribution of LNs. Moreover, sonoelastography is capable of detecting elasticity differences between the cortex and medulla, and between metastatic and healthy LNs. Therefore, sonoelastography yields additional information about axillary LN status and can improve the PPV, although this method is still experimental. PMID

  12. Status in the development of self-powered wireless sensor node for structural health monitoring and prognosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Farmer, Justin; Ziehl, Paul H.; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Nanni, Antonio; Inman, Daniel J.

    2012-04-01

    This paper discusses the development status of a self-powered wireless sensor node for steel and concrete bridges monitoring and prognosis. By the end of the third year in this four-year cross-disciplinary project, the 4-channel acoustic emission wireless node, developed by Mistras Group Inc, has already been deployed in concrete structures by the University of Miami. Also, extensive testing is underway with the node powered by structural vibration and wind energy harvesting modules developed by Virginia Tech. The development of diagnosis tools and models for bridge prognosis, which will be discussed in the paper, continues and the diagnosis tools are expected to be programmed in the node's AVR during the 4th year of the project. The impact of this development extends beyond the area of bridge health monitoring into several fields, such as offshore oil platforms, composite components on military ships and race boats, combat deployable bridges and wind turbine blades. Some of these applications will also be discussed. This project was awarded to a joint venture formed by Mistras Group Inc, Virginia Tech, University of South Carolina and University of Miami by the National Institute of Standards and Technology through its Technology Innovation Program Grant #70NANB9H007.

  13. The Jellyfish: smart electro-active polymers for an autonomous distributed sensing node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blottman, John B.; Richards, Roger T.

    2006-05-01

    The US Navy has recently placed emphasis on deployable, distributed sensors for Force Protection, Anti-Terrorism and Homeland Defense missions. The Naval Undersea Warfare Center has embarked on the development of a self-contained deployable node that is composed of electro-active polymers (EAP) for use in a covert persistent distributed surveillance system. Electro-Active Polymers (EAP) have matured to a level that permits their application in energy harvesting, hydrophones, electro-elastic actuation and electroluminescence. The problem to resolve is combining each of these functions into an autonomous sensing platform. The concept presented here promises an operational life several orders of magnitude beyond what is expected of a Sonobuoy due to energy conservation and harvesting, and at a reasonable cost. The embodiment envisioned is that of a deployed device resembling a jellyfish, made in most part of polymers, with the body encapsulating the necessary electronic processing and communications package and the tentacles of the jellyfish housing the sonar sensors. It will be small, neutrally buoyant, and will survey the water column much in the manner of a Cartesian Diver. By using the Electro-Active Polymers as artificial muscles, the motion of the jellyfish can be finely controlled. An increased range of detection and true node autonomy is achieved through volumetric array beamforming to focus the direction of interrogation and to null-out extraneous ambient noise.

  14. Prognostic value of regional lymph node status in canine mammary carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Szczubiał, M; Łopuszynski, W

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we have determined the prognostic value of the presence of the micrometastases and metastases greater than 2 mm in the regional lymph nodes for bitches with mammary carcinomas. The study involved 51 dogs diagnosed with a single malignant epithelial tumour in the 4th or 5th mammary gland. All animals underwent regional mastectomy; the 4th and 5th mammary glands were removed together with the inguinal lymph node. The lymph nodes were examined immunohistochemically using the anti-cytokeratin antibody, clone AE1/AE3. The bitches were followed up every 6 months for 2 years after surgery to determine the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a statistically significant difference in DFS and OS only between the group of bitches without metastases and the group with lymph node metastases greater than 2 mm. No significant differences between these two groups versus bitches with lymph node micrometastases were found. PMID:22077411

  15. Spectral CT Imaging of Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Evaluation of Image Quality and Status of Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wang, Zhongzhou; Pang, Tao; Li, Jun; Shi, Hao; Zhang, Chengqi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate image quality and status of lymph nodes in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients using spectral CT imaging. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal SCCs were scanned with spectral CT mode in venous phase. The conventional 140-kVp polychromatic images and one hundred and one sets of monochromatic images were generated ranging from 40 keV to 140 keV. The mean optimal keV was calculated on the monochromatic images. The image quality of the mean optimal keV monochromatic images and polychromatic images was compared with two different methods including a quantitative analysis method and a qualitative analysis method. The HU curve slope (λHU) in the target lymph nodes and the primary lesion was calculated respectively. The ratio of λHU was studied between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes group. Results A total of 38 primary lesions were included. The mean optimal keV was obtained at 55±1.77 keV on the monochromatic images. The image quality evaluated by two different methods including a quantitative analysis method and a qualitative analysis method was obviously increased on monochromatic images than polychromatic images (p<0.05). The ratio of λHU between metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes was significantly different in the venous phase images (p<0.05). Conclusion The monochromatic images obtained with spectral CT can be used to improve the image quality of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal SCC and the N-staging accuracy. The quantitative ratio of λHU may be helpful for differentiating between metastatic and non-metastatic cervical lymph nodes. PMID:24386214

  16. Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessment of Internal Mammary Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of malignant internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) and benign IMLNs in breast cancer patients. Methods From 2009 to 2014, the records of 85 patients with IMLNs were archived using MRI report data; 26 patients with small size (long axis diameter <5 mm) nodes were subsequently excluded. The current study evaluated internal mammary lymph nodes in 59 patients who underwent breast MRI for breast cancer staging and for posttherapy follow-up. All MRI findings were retrospectively evaluated. Malignancy was determined based on pathologic examination and positron emission tomography computed tomography findings. Independent t-tests, Mann-Whitney U tests, chi-square tests, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis were used. Results Among MRI features, there were statistically significant differences between benign and malignant IMLN groups, in short axis length (3.6±1.3 vs. 8.2±2.9 mm, respectively), long axis length (8.1±2.4 vs. 14.5±4.8 mm, respectively), short/long axis ratio (0.45±0.10 vs. 0.59±0.17, respectively), absent fatty hilum (mean, 0% vs. 95%, respectively), and restricted diffusion (15.8% vs. 85.0%, respectively) (p<0.050). Multiplicity and location of intercostal spaces was not different between the two groups. Short axis length was the most discriminative variable for predicting metastatic nodes (area under the ROC curve, 0.951; threshold, 4 mm; sensitivity, 92.5%; specificity, 84.2%). Conclusion Conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI are helpful to detect metastasis of internal mammary lymph nodes in breast cancer. PMID:27382396

  17. Design constraints for third-order PLL nodes in master-slave clock distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A. M.; Rigon, A. G.; Ferreira, A. A.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2010-09-01

    Clock signal distribution in telecommunication commercial systems usually adopts a master-slave architecture, with a precise time basis generator as a master and phase-locked loops (PLLs) as slaves. In the majority of the networks, second-order PLLs are adopted due to their simplicity and stability. Nevertheless, in some applications better transient responses are necessary and, consequently, greater order PLLs need to be used, in spite of the possibility of bifurcations and chaotic attractors. Here a master-slave network with third-order PLLs is analyzed and conditions for the stability of the synchronous state are derived, providing design constraints for the node parameters, in order to guarantee stability and reachability of the synchronous state for the whole network. Numerical simulations are carried out in order to confirm the analytical results.

  18. Collecting lymphatic vessel permeability facilitates adipose tissue inflammation and distribution of antigen to lymph node-homing adipose tissue DCs

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Emma L.; Ivanov, Stoyan; Bridenbaugh, Eric A.; Victora, Gabriel; Wang, Wei; Childs, Ed W.; Platt, Andrew M.; Jakubzick, Claudia V.; Mason, Robert J.; Gashev, Anatoliy A.; Nussenzweig, Michel; Swartz, Melody A.; Dustin, Michael L.; Zawieja, David C.; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Collecting lymphatic vessels (CLVs), surrounded by fat and endowed with contractile muscle and valves, transport lymph from tissues after it is absorbed into lymphatic capillaries. CLVs are not known to participate in immune responses. Here, we observed that the inherent permeability of CLVs allowed broad distribution of lymph components within surrounding fat for uptake by adjacent macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) that actively interacted with CLVs. Endocytosis of lymph-derived antigens by these cells supported recall T cell responses in the fat and also generated antigen-bearing DCs for emigration into adjacent lymph nodes. Enhanced recruitment of DCs to inflammation-reactive lymph nodes significantly relied on adipose tissue DCs to maintain sufficient numbers of antigen-bearing DCs as the lymph node expanded. Thus, CLVs coordinate inflammation and immunity within adipose depots and foster the generation of an unexpected pool of APCs for antigen transport into the adjacent lymph node. PMID:25917096

  19. Anatomic Distribution of FDG-Avid Lymph Nodes in Patients with Cervical Cancer1,2

    PubMed Central

    Fontanilla, Hiral P.; Klopp, Ann H.; Lindberg, Mary E.; Jhingran, Anuja; Kelly, Patrick; Takiar, Vinita; Iyer, Revathy B.; Levenback, Charles F.; Zhang, Yongbin; Dong, Lei; Eifel, Patricia J.

    2016-01-01

    This is a PDF file of an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. As a service to our customers we are providing this early version of the manuscript. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting, and review of the resulting proof before it is published in its final citable form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain. Purpose Current information about the anatomic distribution of lymph node (LN) metastases from cervical cancer is not precise enough for optimal treatment planning for highly conformal radiation therapy. To accurately define the anatomic distribution of these LN metastases, we mapped 2-deoxy-2-[18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)-positive LNs from 50 women with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials Records of patients with cervical cancer treated from 2006 to 2010 who had pretreatment PET/computed tomography (CT) scans available were retrospectively reviewed. Forty-one consecutive patients (group 1) with FDG-avid LNs were identified; because there were few positive paraaortic LNs in group 1, 9 additional patients (group 2) with positive paraaortic LNs were added. Involved LNs were contoured on individual PET/CT images, mapped to a template CT scan by deformable image registration, and edited as necessary by a diagnostic radiologist and radiation oncologists to most accurately represent the location on the original PET/CT scan. Results We identified 190 FDG-avid LNs, 122 in group 1 and 68 in group 2. The highest concentrations of FDG-avid nodes were in the external iliac, common iliac, and paraaortic regions. The anatomic distribution of the 122 positive LNs in group 1 was as follows: external iliac, 78 (63.9%); common iliac, 21 (17.2%); paraaortic, 9 (7.4%); internal iliac, 8 (6.6%); presacral, 2 (1.6%); perirectal, 2 (1.6%); and medial inguinal, 2 (1.6%). Twelve pelvic LNs

  20. The Equilibrium Distribution of Income and the Market for Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Gary S.; Murphy, Kevin M.; Werning, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the implications for risk-taking behavior and the equilibrium distribution of income of assuming that the desire for status positions is a powerful motive and that it raises the marginal utility of consumption. In contrast to previous analyses, we consider the case in which status positions are sold in a hedonic market. We show…

  1. Spatial distribution of nerve processes and β-adrenoreceptors in the rat atrioventricular node

    PubMed Central

    PETRECCA, KEVIN; SHRIER, ALVIN

    1998-01-01

    Atrioventricular (AV) nodal conduction time is known to be modulated by the autonomic nervous system. The presence of numerous parasympathetic and sympathetic nerve fibres in association with conduction tissue in the heart is well authenticated. In this study, confocal microscopy was used to image the distribution of antibodies directed against the general neuronal marker PGP 9.5, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and β1 and β2-adrenoreceptors. Serial 12 μm sections of fresh frozen tissue taken from the frontal plane of the rat atrioventricular node, His bundle and bundle branches were processed for histology, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and immunohistochemistry. It was found that the AV and ventricular conduction systems were more densely innervated than the atrial and ventricular myocardium as revealed by PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. Furthermore, the transitional cell region was more densely innervated than the midnodal cell region, while spatial distribution of total innervation was uniform throughout all AV nodal regions. AChE-reactive nerve processes were found throughout the AV and ventricular conduction systems, the spatial distribution of which was nonuniform exhibiting a paucity of AChE-reactive nerve processes in the central midnodal cell region and a preponderance in the circumferential transitional cell region. TH-immunoreactivity was uniformly distributed throughout the AV and ventricular conduction systems including the central midnodal and circumferential transitional cell regions. β1-adrenoreceptors were found throughout the AV and ventricular conduction systems with a preponderance in the circumferential transitional cell region. β2-adrenoreceptors were localised predominantly in AV and ventricular conduction systems with a paucity of expression in the circumferential transitional cell region. These results demonstrate that the overall uniform distribution of total

  2. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-12-31

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company`s Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  3. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using a neural network with dynamic node architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, A.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is part of an ongoing project at Iowa State University to develop ANN based fault diagnostic systems to detect and classify operational transients at nuclear power plants. The project envisages the deployment of such an advisor at Iowa Electric Light and Power Company's Duane Arnold Energy Center nuclear power plant located at Palo, IA. This advisor is expected to make status diagnosis in real time, thus providing the operators with more time for corrective measures.

  4. Stress Exposure in Significant Relationships Is Associated with Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Renzi, Chiara; Vadilonga, Valeria; Gandini, Sara; Perinel, Giada; Rotmensz, Nicole; Didier, Florence; Rescigno, Maria; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Objective Life stress exposure may impact on health and disease. Previous literature showed that stressful life events are associated with cancer incidence, survival and mortality. In animal models, patterns of maternal care have been shown to critically affect stress sensitivity and immunity trajectories later in life, by modifying DNA methylation during critical periods early in life. However, the role of parental care in breast cancer progression and survival has only limitedly been explored. Here, we investigated whether these factors may be linked to biological prognostic variables. Methods One hundred twenty-three women hospitalized for surgery of primary breast cancer completed a questionnaire assessing parental bonding. Stressful events throughout the life span were also assessed. Results We found that the absence of optimal parental relationships is significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node involvement, adjusting for confounders, while cumulative stress in the area of sentimental relationships is borderline significantly associated with the same prognostic factor. Conclusions Our results suggest that parental bonding and sentimental relations may have a role in breast cancer progression. These variables represent an important evolutionary aspect which may modulate cancer progression through psycho-physiological stress pathways and influence the immune system. PMID:26910901

  5. The statistical parton distributions: status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourrely, C.; Soffer, J.; Buccella, F.

    2005-06-01

    New experimental results on polarized structure functions, cross sections for e^{±}p neutral and charge current reactions and ν (bar{ν}) charge current on isoscalar targets are compared with predictions using the statistical parton distributions, which were previously determined. New data on cross sections for Drell-Yan processes, single-jet data in pbar{p} collisions and inclusive π^0 production data in pp collisions are also compared with predictions from this theoretical approach. The good agreement which we find with all these tests against experiment strengthens our opinion on the relevance of the role of quantum statistics for parton distributions. We will also discuss the prospects of this physical framework.

  6. Non-specific phospholipase C1 affects silicon distribution and mechanical strength in stem nodes of rice.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huasheng; Zhuo, Lin; Su, Yuan; Sun, Linxiao; Wang, Xuemin

    2016-05-01

    Silicon, the second abundant element in the crust, is beneficial for plant growth, mechanical strength, and stress responses. Here we show that manipulation of the non-specific phospholipase C1, NPC1, alters silicon content in nodes and husks of rice (Oryza sativa). Silicon content in NPC1-overexpressing (OE) plants was decreased in nodes but increased in husks compared to wild-type, whereas RNAi suppression of NPC1 resulted in the opposite changes to those of NPC1-OE plants. NPC1 from rice hydrolyzed phospholipids and galactolipids to generate diacylglycerol that can be phosphorylated to phosphatidic acid. Phosphatidic acid interacts with Lsi6, a silicon transporter that is expressed at the highest level in nodes. In addition, the node cells of NPC1-OE plants have lower contents of cellulose and hemicellulose, and thinner sclerenchyma and vascular bundle fibre cells than wild-type plants; whereas NPC1-RNAi plants displayed the opposite changes. These data indicate that NPC1 modulates silicon distribution and secondary cell wall deposition in nodes and grains, affecting mechanical strength and seed shattering. PMID:26991499

  7. FRIB Cryogenic Distribution System and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Yang, Shuo; Nellis, Timothy; Jones, S.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    The MSU-FRIB cryogenic distribution system supports the 2 K primary, 4 K primary, and 35 - 55 K shield operation of more than 70 loads in the accelerator and the experimental areas. It is based on JLab and SNS experience with bayonet-type disconnects between the loads and the distribution system for phased commissioning and maintenance. The linac transfer line, which features three separate transfer line segments for additional independence during phased commissioning at 4 K and 2 K, connects the folded arrangement of 49 cryomodules and 4 superconducting dipole magnets and a fourth transfer line supports the separator area cryo loads. The pressure reliefs for the transfer line process lines, located in the refrigeration room outside the tunnel/accelerator area, are piped to be vented outdoors. The transfer line designs integrate supply and return flow paths into a combined vacuum space. The main linac distribution segments are produced in a small number of standard configurations; a prototype of one such configuration has been fabricated at Jefferson Lab and has been installed at MSU to support testing of a prototype FRIB cryomodule.

  8. LBT Distributed Archive: Status and Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Thompson, D.; Grede, G.

    2011-07-01

    After the first release of the LBT Distributed Archive, this successful collaboration is continuing within the LBT corporation. The IA2 (Italian Center for Astronomical Archive) team had updated the LBT DA with new features in order to facilitate user data retrieval while abiding by VO standards. To facilitate the integration of data from any new instruments, we have migrated to a new database, developed new data distribution software, and enhanced features in the LBT User Interface. The DBMS engine has been changed to MySQL. Consequently, the data handling software now uses java thread technology to update and synchronize the main storage archives on Mt. Graham and in Tucson, as well as archives in Trieste and Heidelberg, with all metadata and proprietary data. The LBT UI has been updated with additional features allowing users to search by instrument and some of the more important characteristics of the images. Finally, instead of a simple cone search service over all LBT image data, new instrument specific SIAP and cone search services have been developed. They will be published in the IVOA framework later this fall.

  9. Phosphorylation of Ser78 of Hsp27 correlated with HER-2/neu status and lymph node positivity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daohai; Wong, Lee Lee; Koay, Evelyn SC

    2007-01-01

    Background Abnormal amplification/expression of HER-2/neu oncogene has been causally linked with tumorigenesis and metastasis in breast cancer and associated with shortened overall survival of patients. Recently, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) was reported to be highly expressed in HER-2/neu positive tumors and cell lines. However, putative functional links between phosphorylation of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu status and other clinicopathological features remain to be elucidated. Results Comparative phosphoproteomic studies of HER-2/neu positive and -negative breast tumors revealed that Hsp27, one of the identified phosphoproteins, was highly phosphorylated in HER-2/neu positive tumors. The extent of Hsp27 phosphorylation at its Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82 residues were further evaluated with site-specific antibodies in tumor samples by tissue lysate array- and tissue microarray-based analyses, and in the BT474 breast cancer cell line treated with heregulin α1 (HRG α1) or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. The tissue lysate array study indicated that only the level of pSer78 in HER-2/neu positive tumors was more than 2-fold that in HER-2/neu negative tumors. Treatment of BT474 cells with HRG α1 and SB203580 indicated that Ser78 phosphorylation was mainly regulated by the HER-2/neu-p38 MAPK pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of sections from a tissue microarray with 97 breast tumors showed that positive staining of pSer78 significantly correlated with HER-2/neu (p = 0.004) and lymph node positivity (p = 0.026). Conclusion This investigation demonstrated the significant correlation of enhanced phosphorylation of the Ser78 residue of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu and lymph node positivity in breast cancer. PMID:17697330

  10. Space Power Management and Distribution Status and Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reppucci, G. M.; Biess, J. J.; Inouye, L.

    1984-01-01

    An overview of space power management and distribution (PMAD) is provided which encompasses historical and current technology trends. The PMAD components discussed include power source control, energy storage control, and load power processing electronic equipment. The status of distribution equipment comprised of rotary joints and power switchgear is evaluated based on power level trends in the public, military, and commercial sectors. Component level technology thrusts, as driven by perceived system level trends, are compared to technology status of piece-parts such as power semiconductors, capacitors, and magnetics to determine critical barriers.

  11. Node Resource Manager: A Distributed Computing Software Framework Used for Solving Geophysical Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawry, B. J.; Encarnacao, A.; Hipp, J. R.; Chang, M.; Young, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    With the rapid growth of multi-core computing hardware, it is now possible for scientific researchers to run complex, computationally intensive software on affordable, in-house commodity hardware. Multi-core CPUs (Central Processing Unit) and GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit) are now commonplace in desktops and servers. Developers today have access to extremely powerful hardware that enables the execution of software that could previously only be run on expensive, massively-parallel systems. It is no longer cost-prohibitive for an institution to build a parallel computing cluster consisting of commodity multi-core servers. In recent years, our research team has developed a distributed, multi-core computing system and used it to construct global 3D earth models using seismic tomography. Traditionally, computational limitations forced certain assumptions and shortcuts in the calculation of tomographic models; however, with the recent rapid growth in computational hardware including faster CPU's, increased RAM, and the development of multi-core computers, we are now able to perform seismic tomography, 3D ray tracing and seismic event location using distributed parallel algorithms running on commodity hardware, thereby eliminating the need for many of these shortcuts. We describe Node Resource Manager (NRM), a system we developed that leverages the capabilities of a parallel computing cluster. NRM is a software-based parallel computing management framework that works in tandem with the Java Parallel Processing Framework (JPPF, http://www.jppf.org/), a third party library that provides a flexible and innovative way to take advantage of modern multi-core hardware. NRM enables multiple applications to use and share a common set of networked computers, regardless of their hardware platform or operating system. Using NRM, algorithms can be parallelized to run on multiple processing cores of a distributed computing cluster of servers and desktops, which results in a dramatic

  12. 75 FR 8920 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; IKEA Distribution Services (Distribution of Home...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 33415, July 13, 2009... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; IKEA Distribution Services (Distribution... for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility...

  13. History, present status and future of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. The Mary Béves Lecture.

    PubMed

    Mansel, R E; Khonji, N I; Clarke, D

    2000-01-01

    The word Sentinel' is defined in The Oxford English Dictionary as 'a guard, one who keeps watch or a sentry'. When translated to the concept of a tumour and its lymph node drainage, the sentinel node could be interpreted to mean the lymph node that guards or keeps watch over a tumour. The sentinel lymph node can thus be defined as the first lymph node that drains a primary tumour within the regional lymphatic basin of that tumour. We know that tumour progression in breast cancer often occurs in an orderly, progressive fashion. So in theory, if the sentinel node is tumour free then the rest of the nodes in the lymphatic basin should also be uninvolved by the tumour. PMID:10987219

  14. Prognosis and status of lymph node involvement in patients with adenocarcinoma in situ and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma—a systematic literature review and pooled-data analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Long; Yin, Weiqiang; Peng, Guilin; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianrong; Liu, Yang; Zhong, Shengyi; He, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) have been brought up that substitute for bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC), according to the new classification of lung adenocarcinoma. There has been increasing opinions that argues for the adjustment of lymph node disposition in patients with such early stage tumors. Therefore, we sought to overview the prognosis and status of lymph node involvement in AIS/MIA patients. Methods PubMed, Springer and Ovid databases were searched for relevant studies. Data was extracted and results summarized to demonstrate the disposition of lymph nodes in AIS/MIA. Results Twenty-three studies consisting of 6,137 lung adenocarcinoma were included. AIS/MIA accounted for 821 of the total 6,137. All included patients received curative surgery. After a review of the summarized data we found that only one patient (with MIA) had N1 node metastasis, N2 disease was not found in any of the included patients. In concordance with this, studies that reported 5-year disease free survival (5-year DFS) have almost 100% rate. Conclusions Our findings indicated that patients with AIS/MIA have good survival prognosis after surgical resection, and that recurrence and lymph node metastasis in these patients is rare. Therefore, we strongly encouraged further studies to determine the role of different lymph node disposition strategies. PMID:26716039

  15. Children in classrooms: peer status, status distribution and mental well-being.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Viveca

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on social relations in school classes and their importance for mental well-being in middle childhood in a Scottish city. The aspect of social relations under study is peer status and both the individual's own status position and the status distribution of the school class as a whole was considered. The number of children analysed was 13,932 and the number of school classes 524. The results show a clear association at individual level: the higher the status position the more uncommon is malaise. This is true both when malaise is reported by the teacher and by a parent, for both boys and girls and irrespective of the number of friends. The association was also generally present within school. It exists regardless of grade, type of school and class size. Furthermore, a minority of the classes had a more compressed status distribution and here malaise was less common in all status positions. This was especially the case when the school class did not contain marginalized children. Consequently, that some children are marginalized in the group indicates problematic conditions for the persons in question but also for the other group members. PMID:12435548

  16. A fractal analysis of the spatial distribution of tumoral mast cells in lymph nodes and bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Guidolin, Diego; Marinaccio, Christian; Tortorella, Cinzia; Ruggieri, Simona; Rizzi, Anna; Maiorano, Eugenio; Specchia, Giorgina; Ribatti, Domenico

    2015-11-15

    The spatial distribution of mast cells inside the tumor stroma has been little investigated. In this study, we have evaluated tumor mast cells distribution through the analysis of the morphological features of the spatial patterns generated by these cells, including size, shape, and architecture of the cell pattern. We have compared diffuse large B cells lymphoma (DLBCL) and systemic mastocytosis in two different anatomical localizations (lymph nodes for DLBCL and, respectively, bone marrow for mastocytosis). Results have indicated that, despite the high difference in size exhibited by the mast cells patterns in the two conditions, the spatial relationship between the mast cells forming the aggregates resulted similar, characterized by a significant tendency of the mast cells to self-organize in clusters. PMID:26358232

  17. [Current status and new applications of sentinel lymph node mapping in non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Jun-Ichi

    2009-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has become a common procedure in the treatment of breast cancer and malignant melanoma. Its primary benefit is that it enables surgeons to avoid nontherapeutic lymph node dissection and the complications that may follow. All present evidence demonstrates the existence of SLNs in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, SLN mapping is not widely used in the treatment of NSCLC for several reasons: first, special precautions are required to minimize exposure to radioisotopes; second, it is difficult to detect a dye within anthoracotic thoracic lymph nodes; and third, major complications comparable to the arm edema seen in breast cancer or the lymphedema and nerve injury seen in melanoma are not seen with mediastinal lymph node dissection. However, if the SLN mapping procedure were simplified, it could be used to avoid nontherapeutic mediastinal lymph node dissection in NSCLC. Recently, new applications of SLN mapping have been reported, such as the detection of lymph node micrometastases and segmentectomy for NSCLC. We expect SLN mapping to become a common clinical practice in the treatment of NSCLC in the near future PMID:19348199

  18. Manifestations of Perihepatic Lymph Nodes in Acute Flare of Chronic Hepatitis B: Association with HBeAg Status and with HBeAg Seroconversion

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yen-Ling; Sun, Chi-Shu; Chung, Kun-Ming; Lin, Yu-Min; Feng, I-Che; Sheu, Ming-Jen; Koay, Lok-Beng; Lin, Ching-Yih; Ho, Chung-Han; Kuo, Hsing-Tao

    2015-01-01

    It has been observed that enlargement of perihepatic lymph nodes may be seen in patients with chronic hepatitis B, particularly during acute flares of CHB. We hypothesized that there may be a correlation between the nodal change patterns in CHB patients with acute flare and HBeAg status. Perihepatic lymph node sizes of 87 patients with acute flares of CHB were documented, with a median follow up of 43 months. Patients were separated into 3 groups, HBeAg-positive with HBe seroconversion (group 1), HBeAg-positive without HBe seroconversion (group 2), and HBeAg-negative (group 3). Group 1 has the highest incidence of enlarged lymph nodes (92.3%) compared with group 2 (75.8%) and group 3 (46.8%) (p = 0.003). And if nodal width at acute flare was > 8mm and interval change of nodal width was >3mm, the incidence of HBeAg seroconversion will be 75% (p<0.001). Conclusion Larger perihepatic lymph nodes are seen in CHB acute flare patients with positive HBeAg and the magnitude of nodal width change may predict HBeAg seroconversion at recovery. PMID:25689069

  19. Modular sensor network node

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Jesse Harper Zehring; Stark, Jr., Douglas Paul; Kershaw, Christopher Patrick; Kyker, Ronald Dean

    2008-06-10

    A distributed wireless sensor network node is disclosed. The wireless sensor network node includes a plurality of sensor modules coupled to a system bus and configured to sense a parameter. The parameter may be an object, an event or any other parameter. The node collects data representative of the parameter. The node also includes a communication module coupled to the system bus and configured to allow the node to communicate with other nodes. The node also includes a processing module coupled to the system bus and adapted to receive the data from the sensor module and operable to analyze the data. The node also includes a power module connected to the system bus and operable to generate a regulated voltage.

  20. Superresolution imaging reveals nanometer- and micrometer-scale spatial distributions of T-cell receptors in lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ying S; Cang, Hu; Lillemeier, Björn F

    2016-06-28

    T cells become activated when T-cell receptors (TCRs) recognize agonist peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex molecules on antigen-presenting cells. T-cell activation critically relies on the spatiotemporal arrangements of TCRs on the plasma membrane. However, the molecular organizations of TCRs on lymph node-resident T cells have not yet been determined, owing to the diffraction limit of light. Here we visualized nanometer- and micrometer-scale TCR distributions in lymph nodes by light sheet direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) and structured illumination microscopy (SIM). This dSTORM and SIM approach provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, of multiscale reorganization of TCRs during in vivo immune responses. We observed nanometer-scale plasma membrane domains, known as protein islands, on naïve T cells. These protein islands were enriched within micrometer-sized surface areas that we call territories. In vivo T-cell activation caused the TCR territories to contract, leading to the coalescence of protein islands and formation of stable TCR microclusters. PMID:27303041

  1. New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR): Status and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Marco, M.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2015-09-01

    The New Archiving Distributed InfrastructuRe (NADIR) has been developed at INAF-OATs IA2 (Italian National Institute for Astrophysics - Astronomical Observatory of Trieste, Italian center of Astronomical Archives), as an evolution of the previous archiving and distribution system, used on several telescopes (LBT, TNG, Asiago, etc.) to improve performance, efficiency and reliability. At the present, NADIR system is running on LBT telescope and Vespa (Italian telescopes network for outreach) Ramella et al. (2014), and will be used on TNG, Asiago and IRA (Istituto Radio Astronomia) archives of Medicina, Noto and SRT radio telescopes Zanichelli et al. (2014) as the data models for radio data will be ready. This paper will discuss the progress status, the architectural choices and the solutions adopted, during the development and the commissioning phase of the project. A special attention will be given to the LBT case, due to some critical aspect of data flow and policies and standards compliance, adopted by the LBT organization.

  2. MSFC Robotic Lunar Lander Testbed and Current Status of the International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara; Bassler, Julie; Harris, Danny; Morse, Brian; Reed, Cheryl; Kirby, Karen; Eng, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    The lunar lander robotic exploration testbed at Marshall Spaceflight Center provides a test environment for robotic lander test articles, components and algorithms to reduce the risk on the airless body designs during lunar landing. Also included is a chart comparing the two different types of Anchor nodes for the International Lunar Network (ILN): Solar/Battery and the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope generator (ARSG.)

  3. Distribution of High-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Hypertensive Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Gao, Ying; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The exact mechanisms of hypertension contributing to atherosclerosis have not been fully elucidated. Although multiple studies have clarified the association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subfractions, uncertainty remains about its relationship with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subfractions. Therefore, we aimed to comprehensively determine the relationship between distribution of HDL subfractions and hypertensive status. A total of 953 consecutive subjects without previous lipid-lowering drug treatment were enrolled and were categorized based on hypertension history (with hypertension [n = 550] or without hypertension [n = 403]). Baseline clinical and laboratory data were collected. HDL separation was performed using the Lipoprint System. Plasma large HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and large HDL percentage were dramatically lower whereas the small HDL-C and small HDL percentage were higher in patients with hypertension (all P < 0.05). The antihypertensive drug therapy was not associated with large or small HDL subfractions (on treatment vs not on treatment, P > 0.05; combination vs single drug therapy, P > 0.05). However, the blood pressure well-controlled patients have significantly lower small HDL subfraction (P < 0.05). Moreover, large HDL-C and percentage were inversely whereas small HDL percentage was positively associated with incident hypertension after adjusting potential confounders (all P < 0.05). In the multivariate model conducted in patients with and without hypertension separately, the cardio-protective value of large HDL-C was disappeared in patients with hypertension (OR 95%CI: 1.011 [0.974–1.049]). The distribution of HDL subfractions is closely associated with hypertensive status and hypertension may potentially impact the cardio-protective value of large HDL subfraction. PMID:26512616

  4. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The lymphatic system is a complex network of thin vessels, valves, ducts, nodes, and organs. It helps to protect and maintain the fluid ... The most common cause of swollen lymph nodes is infection, which might occur even if the infection ...

  5. Lymph nodes

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and conveying lymph and by producing various blood cells. Lymph nodes play an important part in the ... the microorganisms being trapped inside collections of lymph cells or nodes. Eventually, these organisms are destroyed and ...

  6. Influence of Metastatic Status and Number of Removed Lymph Nodes on Survival of Patients With Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Feng; Qingfeng, Zheng; Jia, Wang; Chao, Lv; Shi, Yan; Yuzhao, Wang; Chao, An; Yue, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the impact of lymph node (LN) metastasis conditions on the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the minimum number of LNs that should be removed to maximize overall postoperative survival among patients with this specific pathologic subtype. In this study, 312 patients with thoracic squamous esophageal carcinoma who received in-patient thoracic surgery by the same surgeon in our hospital from August 1, 2003 to December 31, 2009 were recruited. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine associations between LN metastasis conditions and mortality and between the numbers of LNs removed during esophagectomy and mortality. Cox regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding covariates. According to Kaplan-Meier analyses, the number of metastatic LNs was a good predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the dissection of ≥29 LNs during thoracic surgery significantly improved patient survival (P = 0.011). Lymph node metastasis rates may be a significant predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma. The number of LNs removed during esophagectomy is an independent predictor for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma with maximal postoperative survival after the removal of ≥29 LNs. PMID:26632887

  7. Influence of Metastatic Status and Number of Removed Lymph Nodes on Survival of Patients With Squamous Esophageal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng; Qingfeng, Zheng; Jia, Wang; Chao, Lv; Shi, Yan; Yuzhao, Wang; Chao, An; Yue, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of lymph node (LN) metastasis conditions on the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the minimum number of LNs that should be removed to maximize overall postoperative survival among patients with this specific pathologic subtype. In this study, 312 patients with thoracic squamous esophageal carcinoma who received in-patient thoracic surgery by the same surgeon in our hospital from August 1, 2003 to December 31, 2009 were recruited. Subsequently, Kaplan-Meier methods were used to determine associations between LN metastasis conditions and mortality and between the numbers of LNs removed during esophagectomy and mortality. Cox regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding covariates. According to Kaplan-Meier analyses, the number of metastatic LNs was a good predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma and the dissection of ≥ 29 LNs during thoracic surgery significantly improved patient survival (P = 0.011).Lymph node metastasis rates may be a significant predictor for the prognosis of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma. The number of LNs removed during esophagectomy is an independent predictor for the survival of patients with esophageal squamous carcinoma with maximal postoperative survival after the removal of ≥ 29 LNs. PMID:26632887

  8. DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGES AND POPULATION STATUS FOR AMPHIBIANS IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert of western North America, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distributional changes for amphi...

  9. Effects of preference for attachment to low-degree nodes on the degree distributions of a growing directed network and a simple food-web model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevim, Volkan; Rikvold, Per Arne

    2006-05-01

    We study the growth of a directed network, in which the growth is constrained by the cost of adding links to the existing nodes. We propose a preferential-attachment scheme, in which a new node attaches to an existing node i with probability Π(ki)∝ki-1 , where ki is the number of outgoing links at i . We calculate the degree distribution for the outgoing links in the asymptotic regime (t→∞) , nk* , both analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations. The distribution decays like kμk/Γ(k) for large k , where μ is a constant. We investigate the effect of this preferential-attachment scheme, by comparing the results to an equivalent growth model with a degree-independent probability of attachment, which gives an exponential outdegree distribution. Also, we relate this mechanism to simple food-web models by implementing it in the cascade model. We show that the low-degree preferential-attachment mechanism breaks the symmetry between in- and outdegree distributions in the cascade model. It also causes a faster decay in the tails of the outdegree distributions for both our network growth model and the cascade model.

  10. Impact of lymph node status in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma treated by major hepatectomy: a review of the National Cancer Database

    PubMed Central

    Jutric, Zeljka; Johnston, W. Cory; Hoen, Helena M.; Newell, Pippa H.; Cassera, Maria A.; Hammill, Chet W.; Wolf, Ronald F.; Hansen, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Routine lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is not routinely performed. We aim to define predictive indicators of survival in patients with positive lymph nodes. Methods The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) was queried for patients who underwent major hepatectomy for ICC between 1998 and 2011. Clinical and pathologic data were assessed using uni- and multi-variate analyses. A sub-analysis was performed on the 160 patients with positive lymph nodes. Results Of 849 patients with lymph node data, 57% had at least one lymph node examined. Median survival for lymph node negative patients was 37 months versus 15 months for lymph node positive patients. In lymph node positive patients, poorer survival was associated with not receiving chemotherapy (HR 1.83, p = 0.003), tumor size > 5 cm (p = 0.029), and older age (p < 0.0001). Lymph node positive patients age less than 45 had a median survival of 27 months. Conclusions Overall survival in patients with lymph node metastases from ICC is poor. Adjuvant therapy was associated with a longer survival in lymph node positive patients, although prospective data are needed. Routine lymphadenectomy should be strongly considered to provide prognostic information and guidance for adjuvant therapy. PMID:26776855

  11. Connecting Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Raboin, Jasen L.; Spexarth, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    A paper describes the Octanode, a connecting node that facilitates the integration of multiple docking mechanisms, hatches, windows, and internal and external systems with the use of flat surfaces. The Octanode is a 26- faced Great Rhombicuboctahedron Archi medean solid with six octagonshaped panels, eight hexagon-shaped panels, and 12 square panels using three unique, simple, flat shapes to construct a spherical approximation. Each flat shape can be constructed with a variety of material and manufacturing techniques, such as honeycomb composite panels or a pocketed skinstringer configuration, using conventional means. The flat shapes can be connected together and sealed to create a pressurizable volume by the use of any conventional means including welding or fastening devices and sealant. The node can then be connected to other elements to allow transfer between those elements, or it could serve as an airlock. The Octanode can be manufactured on the ground and can be integrated with subsystems including hatches and ports. The node can then be transported to its intended location, whether on orbit or on surface. Any of the flat panels could be replaced by curved ones, turning the node into a copula. Windows may be placed on flat panes with optimal viewing angles that are not blocked by large connecting nodes. The advantage of using flat panels to represent a spherical approximation is that this allows for easier integration of subsystems and design features.

  12. [STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF THE LYMPH TISSUE OF MICE LYMPHATIC NODES FOLLOWING THE 30-DAY FLIGHT ONBOARD SPACECRAFT BION-M1].

    PubMed

    Bulekbaeva, L E; Demchenko, G A; Ilyin, E A; Erofeeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the results of studying the lymph tissue of mesenteric and cervical lymphatic nodes in C57BL/6N mice after the 30-day orbital flight onboard biosatellite Bion-M1. Histological and morphometric investigations revealed changes in the ratio of the nodes structural-functional zones and microstructure. Reductions in reticular cells, plasmocytes, macrophages and blasts in the nodes point to degradation of both humoral and cellular immunity. PMID:26554128

  13. 76 FR 87 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Skechers USA, LLC (Distribution of Footwear); Moreno...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... comment has been given in the Federal Register (73 FR 8031, 2/12/2008) and the application has been... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Skechers USA, LLC (Distribution of... establish a special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of Skechers USA, LLC,...

  14. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  15. Distributed photovoltaic systems: Utility interface issues and their present status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, M.; Klein, J.

    1981-01-01

    Major technical issues involving the integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) into electric utility systems are defined and their impacts are described quantitatively. An extensive literature search, interviews, and analysis yielded information about the work in progress and highlighted problem areas in which additional work and research are needed. The findings from the literature search were used to determine whether satisfactory solutions to the problems exist or whether satisfactory approaches to a solution are underway. It was discovered that very few standards, specifications, or guidelines currently exist that will aid industry in integrating PV into the utility system. Specific areas of concern identified are: (1) protection, (2) stability, (3) system unbalance, (4) voltage regulation and reactive power requirements, (5) harmonics, (6) utility operations, (7) safety, (8) metering, and (9) distribution system planning and design.

  16. The gluon Sivers distribution: Status and future prospects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Boer, Daniël; Lorcé, Cédric; Pisano, Cristian; Zhou, Jian

    2015-06-28

    In this study, we review what is currently known about the gluon Sivers distribution and what are the opportunities to learn more about it. Because single transverse spin asymmetries in p↑p → πX provide only indirect information about the gluon Sivers function through the relation with the quark-gluon and tri-gluon Qiu-Sterman functions, current data from hadronic collisions at RHIC have not yet been translated into a solid constraint on the gluon Sivers function.

  17. Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I. I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Plačakytė, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    We provide a concise overview on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum q_T spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low q_T, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present an application of a new tool, TMDlib, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  18. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; et al

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  19. Time course and distribution of tungsten-laden macrophages in the hilar lymph nodes of the dog lung after experimental instillation of calcium tungstate into the left apical bronchus.

    PubMed

    Grande, N R; de Sá, C M; Aguas, A P; Carvalho, E; Soares, M

    1990-12-01

    We sprayed a tungsten powder (CaWO4) into the airway of a single lobe (left apical) of the dog lung in order to study: (a) the kinetics of particle translocation from the bronchoalveolar lining to hilar lymph nodes, and (b) the sorting in lung lymph nodes of inhaled microcrystals. We found that the transport of the tungsten particles to the regional lymph node takes at least 24 hours and reaches its peak at day 7. In situ detection of tungsten by elemental particle analysis of lymph node sections by scanning electron microscopy allowed precise mapping of the marker in the node; the method was complemented by light microscopy and thin-section electron microscopy of the same nodes. Virtually all of the lymph node tungsten was located inside macrophages. The first tungsten-positive macrophages seen in the regional lymph nodes (day 1 to day 3) were restricted to the subcapsular space. This was followed by massive filling of the same sinus and of the narrow interfollicular areas by the particle-laden macrophages (day 3 to day 7). The even distribution of the tungsten-bearing phagocytes found in these anatomical regions of the node indicated that the subcapsular area in the dog was a continuous domain rather than the segmented region observed in nodes of common laboratory animals such as the rat. By day 7 after tungsten instillation, a moderate number of tungsten-positive macrophages was also detected in the paracortical region of the node. Finally, the presence of tungsten-bearing macrophages was extended to the outer lymph node medulla (day 7 to day 14); here, the macrophages were located in association with cords of plasmacytes and showed interdigitations with these lymphocytes. Only minimal amounts of tungsten were detected inside lymphoid follicles in association with dendritic cells. Some of the tungsten initially deposited in the airway of the apical left lung lobe was detected in contralateral hilar lymph nodes. We conclude that: (i) particle translocation from

  20. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  1. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  2. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  3. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  4. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  5. 21 CFR 810.16 - Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall order status reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recall order status reports. 810.16 Section 810.16 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL AUTHORITY Mandatory Medical Device Recall Procedures § 810.16 Cease distribution and notification or mandatory recall...

  6. Influence of Pathological Nodal Status and Maximal Standardized Uptake Value of the Primary Tumor and Regional Lymph Nodes on Treatment Plans in Patients With Advanced Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C.-T.; Wang, H.-M.; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Lin, C.-Y.; Ng, S.-H.; Huang, S.-F.; Chen, I.-H.; Hsueh Chuen; Lee, L.-Y.; Lin, C.-H.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: A better understanding of the prognostic factors in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may optimize the therapeutic approach. In this study, we sought to investigate whether the combination of clinical information, pathologic results, and preoperative maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes might improve the prognostic stratification in this patient group. Methods and Materials: A total of 347 consecutive OSCC patients were investigated. All participants underwent fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography within 2 weeks before surgery and neck dissection. The duration of follow-up was at least 24 months in all surviving patients. The optimal cutoff values for SUVmax at the primary tumor (SUVtumor-max) and regional lymph nodes (SUVnodal-max) were selected according to the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate. Independent prognosticators were identified by Cox regression analysis. Results: In multivariate analysis, a cutoff SUVtumor-max of 8.6, a cutoff SUVnodal-max of 5.7, and the presence of pathologic lymph node metastases were found to be significant prognosticators for the 5-year DFS. A scoring system using these three prognostic factors was formulated to define distinct prognostic groups. The 5-year rates for patients with a score between 0 and 3 were as follows: neck control, 94%, 86%, 77%, 59% (p < 0.0001); distant metastases, 1%, 7%, 22%, 47% (p < 0.0001); disease-specific survival, 93%, 85%, 61%, 36%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Based on the study findings, the combined evaluation of pathologic node status and SUVmax at the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes may improve prognostic stratification in OSCC patients.

  7. Generating Within-Plant Spatial Distributions of an Insect Herbivore Based on Aggregation Patterns and Per-Node Infestation Probabilities.

    PubMed

    Rincon, Diego F; Hoy, Casey W; Cañas, Luis A

    2015-04-01

    Most predator-prey models extrapolate functional responses from small-scale experiments assuming spatially uniform within-plant predator-prey interactions. However, some predators focus their search in certain plant regions, and herbivores tend to select leaves to balance their nutrient uptake and exposure to plant defenses. Individual-based models that account for heterogeneous within-plant predator-prey interactions can be used to scale-up functional responses, but they would require the generation of explicit prey spatial distributions within-plant architecture models. The silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a significant pest of tomato crops worldwide that exhibits highly aggregated populations at several spatial scales, including within the plant. As part of an analytical framework to understand predator-silverleaf whitefly interactions, the objective of this research was to develop an algorithm to generate explicit spatial counts of silverleaf whitefly nymphs within tomato plants. The algorithm requires the plant size and the number of silverleaf whitefly individuals to distribute as inputs, and includes models that describe infestation probabilities per leaf nodal position and the aggregation pattern of the silverleaf whitefly within tomato plants and leaves. The output is a simulated number of silverleaf whitefly individuals for each leaf and leaflet on one or more plants. Parameter estimation was performed using nymph counts per leaflet censused from 30 artificially infested tomato plants. Validation revealed a substantial agreement between algorithm outputs and independent data that included the distribution of counts of both eggs and nymphs. This algorithm can be used in simulation models that explore the effect of local heterogeneity on whitefly-predator dynamics. PMID:26313173

  8. Reconfigureable network node

    DOEpatents

    Vanderveen, Keith B.; Talbot, Edward B.; Mayer, Laurence E.

    2008-04-08

    Nodes in a network having a plurality of nodes establish communication links with other nodes using available transmission media, as the ability to establish such links becomes available and desirable. The nodes predict when existing communications links will fail, become overloaded or otherwise degrade network effectiveness and act to establish substitute or additional links before the node's ability to communicate with the other nodes on the network is adversely affected. A node stores network topology information and programmed link establishment rules and criteria. The node evaluates characteristics that predict existing links with other nodes becoming unavailable or degraded. The node then determines whether it can form a communication link with a substitute node, in order to maintain connectivity with the network. When changing its communication links, a node broadcasts that information to the network. Other nodes update their stored topology information and consider the updated topology when establishing new communications links for themselves.

  9. One node driving synchronisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators.

  10. One node driving synchronisation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengwei; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2015-01-01

    Abrupt changes of behaviour in complex networks can be triggered by a single node. This work describes the dynamical fundamentals of how the behaviour of one node affects the whole network formed by coupled phase-oscillators with heterogeneous coupling strengths. The synchronisation of phase-oscillators is independent of the distribution of the natural frequencies, weakly depends on the network size, but highly depends on only one key oscillator whose ratio between its natural frequency in a rotating frame and its coupling strength is maximum. This result is based on a novel method to calculate the critical coupling strength with which the phase-oscillators emerge into frequency synchronisation. In addition, we put forward an analytical method to approximately calculate the phase-angles for the synchronous oscillators. PMID:26656718

  11. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Hattem, M V; Paterson, L; Woollett, J

    2008-08-20

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast to the mostly undeveloped Site 300. Yet both sites have significant issues threatening the long-term sustainability of their respective amphibian populations. Livermore Site amphibians are presented with a suite of challenges inherent of urban interfaces, most predictably the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), while Site 300's erosion issues and periodic feral pig (Sus scrofa) infestations reduce and threaten populations. The long-term sustainability of LLNL's special status amphibians will require active management and resource commitment to maintain and restore amphibian habitat at both sites.

  12. Testnodes: a Lightweight Node-Testing Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, R.; Bland, J.

    2014-06-01

    A key aspect of ensuring optimum cluster reliability and productivity lies in keeping worker nodes in a healthy state. Testnodes is a lightweight node testing solution developed at Liverpool. While Nagios has been used locally for general monitoring of hosts and services, Testnodes is optimised to answer one question: is there any reason this node should not be accepting jobs? This tight focus enables Testnodes to inspect nodes frequently with minimal impact and provide a comprehensive and easily extended check with each inspection. On the server side, Testnodes, implemented in python, interoperates with the Torque batch server to control the nodes production status. Testnodes remotely and in parallel executes client-side test scripts and processes the return codes and output, adjusting the node's online/offline status accordingly to preserve the integrity of the overall batch system. Testnodes reports via log, email and Nagios, allowing a quick overview of node status to be reviewed and specific node issues to be identified and resolved quickly. This presentation will cover testnodes design and implementation, together with the results of its use in production at Liverpool, and future development plans.

  13. Radiotherapy Can Decrease Locoregional Recurrence and Increase Survival in Mastectomy Patients With T1 to T2 Breast Cancer and One to Three Positive Nodes With Negative Estrogen Receptor and Positive Lymphovascular Invasion Status

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, P.S.; Chen, C.M.; Liu, M.C.; Jian, J.M.; Horng, C.F.; Liu, M.J.; Yu, B.L.; Lee, M.Y.; Chi, C.W.

    2010-06-01

    Purpose: To define a subgroup of patients at high risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR) who might be benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in invasive breast cancer and tumor size <5 cm with one to three involved axillary lymph nodes (T1-2 N1). Methods and Materials: Between April 1991 and December 2005, 544 patients with T1-2 N1 invasive breast cancer were treated with modified radical mastectomy. Of the 544 patients, 383 patients (70.4%) had no radiotherapy, and 161 patients (29.6%) received radiotherapy. We retrospectively compared these two patient groups. Results: With a median follow-up of 40.3 months, LRR occurred in 40 (7.4%) of 544 patients. On univariate analysis, high nuclear grade (p = 0.04), negative estrogen receptor (ER) status (p = 0.001), presence of lymphovascular invasion (LVI) (p = 0.003), and no radiotherapy (p = 0.0015) were associated with a significantly higher rate of LRR. Negative ER status (hazard ratio = 5.1) and presence of LVI (hazard ratio = 2.5) were the risk factors for LRR with statistical significance in the multivariate analysis. Radiotherapy reduced the LRR in patients with the following characteristics: age <40 years, T2 stage, high nuclear grade, negative ER status, and presence of LVI. For 41 patients with negative ER and positive LVI status, radiotherapy can reduce LRR from 10 of 25 (40%) to 2 of 16 (12.5%) and increase the 5-year overall survival from 43.7% to 87.1%. Conclusion: Radiotherapy can reduce LRR and increase survival in T1-2 N1 breast cancer patients with negative ER status and presence of LVI.

  14. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Woodward, R.O.; Igl, L.D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of NorthAmerica. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox occupation

  15. Historical range, current distribution, and conservation status of the Swift Fox, Vulpes velox, in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Woodward, Robert O.; Igl, Lawrence D.

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) was once common in the shortgrass and mixed-grass prairies of the Great Plains of North America. The species' abundance declined and its distribution retracted following European settlement of the plains. By the late 1800s, the species had been largely extirpated from the northern portion of its historical range, and its populations were acutely depleted elsewhere. Swift Fox populations have naturally recovered somewhat since the 1950s, but overall abundance and distribution remain below historical levels. In a 1995 assessment of the species' status under the US Endangered Species Act, the US Fish and Wildlife Service concluded that a designation of threatened or endangered was warranted, but the species was "precluded from listing by higher listing priorities." A major revelation of the 1995 assessment was the recognition that information useful for determining population status was limited. Fundamental information was missing, including an accurate estimate of the species' distribution before European settlement and an estimate of the species' current distribution and trends. The objectives of this paper are to fill those gaps in knowledge. Historical records were compiled and, in combination with knowledge of the habitat requirements of the species, the historical range of the Swift Fox is estimated to be approximately 1.5 million km2. Using data collected between 2001 and 2006, the species' current distribution is estimated to be about 44% of its historical range in the United States and 3% in Canada. Under current land use, approximately 39% of the species' historical range contains grassland habitats with very good potential for Swift Fox occupation and another 10% supports grasslands with characteristics that are less preferred (e.g., a sparse shrub component or taller stature) but still suitable. Additionally, land use on at least 25% of the historical range supports dryland farming, which can be suitable for Swift Fox

  16. Triple-Negative or HER2-Positive Status Predicts Higher Rates of Locoregional Recurrence in Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients After Mastectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shulian; Li Yexiong; Song Yongwen; Wang Weihu; Jin Jing; Liu Yueping; Liu Xinfan; Yu Zihao

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of determining estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) expression in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy. Methods and Materials: The records of 835 node-positive breast cancer patients who had undergone mastectomy between January 2000 and December 2004 were analyzed retrospectively. Of these, 764 patients (91.5%) received chemotherapy; 68 of 398 patients (20.9%) with T1-2N1 disease and 352 of 437 patients (80.5%) with T3-4 or N2-3 disease received postoperative radiotherapy. Patients were classified into four subgroups according to hormone receptor (Rec+ or Rec-) and HER2 expression profiles: Rec-/HER2- (triple negative; n = 141), Rec-/HER2+ (n = 99), Rec+/HER2+ (n = 157), and Rec+/HER2- (n = 438). The endpoints were the duration of locoregional recurrence-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival. Results: Patients with triple-negative, Rec-/HER2+, and Rec+/HER2+ expression profiles had a significantly lower 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival than those with Rec+/HER2- profiles (86.5% vs. 93.6%, p = 0.002). Compared with those with Rec+/HER2+ and Rec+/HER2- profiles, patients with Rec-/HER2- and Rec-/HER2+ profiles had significantly lower 5-year distant metastasis-free survival (69.1% vs. 78.5%, p = 0.000), lower disease-free survival (66.6% vs. 75.6%, p = 0.000), and lower overall survival (71.4% vs. 84.2%, p = 0.000). Triple-negative or Rec-/HER2+ breast cancers had an increased likelihood of relapse and death within the first 3 years after treatment. Conclusions: Triple-negative and HER2-positive profiles are useful markers of prognosis for locoregional recurrence and survival in node-positive breast cancer patients treated with mastectomy.

  17. Status and distribution of the West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montoya-Ospina, R. A.; Caicedo-Herrera, D.; Millan-Sanchez, S. L.; Mignucci-Giannoni, A. A.; Lefebvre, L.W.

    2001-01-01

    Historical and recent information on the status and distribution of West Indian manatee, Trichechus manatus manatus, in Colombia was reviewed. Opportunistic and systematic interviews were also conducted. Historical information suggested that the distribution of manatees had been reduced in the Caribbean basin. Manatees can be found in the Atrato, Sinu??, San Jorge, Cauca, Cesar and Magdalena rivers and the Cie??naga Grande de Santa Marta marsh in the Caribbean basin, and in the Meta River in the Orinoco basin. The Magdalena riparian system provides the largest area of suitable habitat, which also has the highest frequency of captures. Most animals (81.20%) were killed for sale or to share meat in a subsistence base. Hunting is apparently increasing but capture with nets still represents the species' major direct threat. Habitat destruction occurs in all areas. International and national laws protect the species, however, funding is inadequate for effective enforcement of present laws. ?? 2001 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodhouse, Thomas J.; Ormsbee, Patricia C.; Irvine, Kathryn M.; Vierling, Lee A.; Szewczak, Joseph M.; Vierling, Kerri T.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its common status, M. lucifugus was only detected during ∼50% of the surveys in occupied sample units. The overall naïve estimate for the proportion of the study region occupied by the species was 0.69, but after accounting for imperfect detection, this increased to ∼0.90. Our models provide evidence of an association between NPP and forest cover and M. lucifugus distribution, with implications for the projected effects of accelerated climate change in the region, which include net aridification as snowpack and stream flows decline. Annual turnover, the probability that an occupied sample unit was a newly occupied one, was estimated to be low (∼0.04–0.14), resulting in flat trend estimated with relatively high precision (SD = 0.04). We mapped the variation in predicted occurrence probabilities and corresponding prediction uncertainty along the productivity gradient. Our results provide a much needed baseline against which future anticipated declines in M. lucifugus occurrence can be measured. The dynamic distribution modeling approach has broad applicability to regional bat monitoring efforts now underway in several countries and we suggest ways to improve and expand our grid-based monitoring program to gain robust insights into bat population status and trend across large portions of North America.

  19. Status of POPs accumulation in the Yellow River Delta: From distribution to risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Chen, Chunli; Li, Fadong

    2016-06-15

    The Yellow River Delta (YRD) is a large region of China with complex pollution sources and a long history of environmental deterioration. Despite this, relatively little data exists on the status of important contaminants of concern in this region. Here, we review the literature on the status of key persistent organic pollutants (POPs) of concern including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the YRD. Sources, source identification methods, and spatial distribution patterns are presented. Additionally, POPs contamination levels reported in the literature were evaluated against popular regulatory limits worldwide to form a basis for overall environmental health. Our review determined that OCPs in the YRD originated mainly from current pesticide use and past agricultural pesticide application. Sources of PAHs included petrochemical inputs, coal fired plants, and wood combustion. PCB levels were impacted by the petrochemical industry as well as waste disposal of PCB containing equipment. OCPs exhibited a spatial distribution pattern that increased along the urban-rural gradient, while the opposite was seen for PAHs and PCBs. Comparisons of POPs contamination levels in the YRD with popular regulatory limits suggest that the extent of PCB contamination all mediums (sediment, soil, water, and biota) exceeded that of PAHs and OCPs. Overall pollution levels in the YRD seem to be in control; however, levels from heavily polluted point sources raise numerous concerns about the ecological health of the region and require more attention from regulatory authorities. PMID:27085594

  20. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  1. Classification between Failed Nodes and Left Nodes in Mobile Asset Tracking Systems †

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Jin, Jae-Yeon; Jin, Seong-il

    2016-01-01

    Medical asset tracking systems track a medical device with a mobile node and determine its status as either in or out, because it can leave a monitoring area. Due to a failed node, this system may decide that a mobile asset is outside the area, even though it is within the area. In this paper, an efficient classification method is proposed to separate mobile nodes disconnected from a wireless sensor network between nodes with faults and a node that actually has left the monitoring region. The proposed scheme uses two trends extracted from the neighboring nodes of a disconnected mobile node. First is the trend in a series of the neighbor counts; the second is that of the ratios of the boundary nodes included in the neighbors. Based on such trends, the proposed method separates failed nodes from mobile nodes that are disconnected from a wireless sensor network without failures. The proposed method is evaluated using both real data generated from a medical asset tracking system and also using simulations with the network simulator (ns-2). The experimental results show that the proposed method correctly differentiates between failed nodes and nodes that are no longer in the monitoring region, including the cases that the conventional methods fail to detect. PMID:26901200

  2. Evaluation of lymph node status after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: comparison of diagnostic performance of ultrasound, MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    You, S; Kang, D K; Jung, Y S; An, Y-S; Jeon, G S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of ultrasound, MRI and fluorine-18 fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)/CT for the diagnosis of metastatic axillary lymph node (ALN) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to find out histopathological factors affecting the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities. Methods: From January 2012 to November 2014, 191 consecutive patients with breast cancer who underwent NAC before surgery were retrospectively reviewed. We included 139 patients with ALN metastasis that was confirmed on fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy at initial diagnosis. Results: After NAC, 39 (28%) patients showed negative conversion of ALN on surgical specimens of sentinel lymph node (LN) or ALN. The sensitivity of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT was 50% (48/96), 72% (70/97) and 22% (16/73), respectively. The specificity of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT was 77% (30/39), 54% (21/39) and 85% (22/26), respectively. The Az value of combination of ultrasound and PET/CT was the highest (0.634) followed by ultrasound (0.626) and combination of ultrasound, MRI and PET/CT (0.617). The size of tumour deposit in LN and oestrogen receptor was significantly associated with the diagnostic performance of ultrasound (p < 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively) and MRI (p = 0.045 and p = 0.036, respectively). The percentage diameter decrease, size of tumour deposit in LN, progesterone receptor, HER2 and histological grade were significantly associated with the diagnostic performance of PET/CT (p = 0.023, p = 0.002, p = 0.036, p = 0.044 and p = 0.008, respectively). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, size of tumour deposit within LN was identified as being independently associated with diagnostic performance of ultrasound [odds ratio, 13.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.95–57.96] and PET/CT (odds ratio, 6.47; 95% CI, 1.407–29.737). Conclusion: Combination of three imaging modalities

  3. Assessing the status and trend of bat populations across broad geographic regions with dynamic distribution models.

    PubMed

    Rodhouse, Thomas J; Ormsbee, Patricia C; Irvine, Kathryn M; Vierling, Lee A; Szewczak, Joseph M; Vierling, Kerri T

    2012-06-01

    Bats face unprecedented threats from habitat loss, climate change, disease, and wind power development, and populations of many species are in decline. A better ability to quantify bat population status and trend is urgently needed in order to develop effective conservation strategies. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to develop dynamic distribution models for Myotis lucifugus, the little brown bat, across a large portion of northwestern USA, using a four-year detection history matrix obtained from a regional monitoring program. This widespread and abundant species has experienced precipitous local population declines in northeastern USA resulting from the novel disease white-nose syndrome, and is facing likely range-wide declines. Our models were temporally dynamic and accounted for imperfect detection. Drawing on species-energy theory, we included measures of net primary productivity (NPP) and forest cover in models, predicting that M. lucifugus occurrence probabilities would covary positively along those gradients. Despite its common status, M. lucifugus was only detected during -50% of the surveys in occupied sample units. The overall naive estimate for the proportion of the study region occupied by the species was 0.69, but after accounting for imperfect detection, this increased to -0.90. Our models provide evidence of an association between NPP and forest cover and M. lucifugus distribution, with implications for the projected effects of accelerated climate change in the region, which include net aridification as snowpack and stream flows decline. Annual turnover, the probability that an occupied sample unit was a newly occupied one, was estimated to be low (-0.04-0.14), resulting in flat trend estimated with relatively high precision (SD = 0.04). We mapped the variation in predicted occurrence probabilities and corresponding prediction uncertainty along the productivity gradient. Our results provide a much needed baseline against which future

  4. Reptiles of Chubut province, Argentina: richness, diversity, conservation status and geographic distribution maps

    PubMed Central

    Minoli, Ignacio; Morando, Mariana; Avila, Luciano Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An accurate estimation of species and population geographic ranges is essential for species-focused studies and conservation and management plans. Knowledge of the geographic distributions of reptiles from Patagonian Argentina is in general limited and dispersed over manuscripts from a wide variety of topics. We completed an extensive review of reptile species of central Patagonia (Argentina) based on information from a wide variety of sources. We compiled and checked geographic distribution records from published literature and museum records, including extensive new data from the LJAMM-CNP (CENPAT-CONICET) herpetological collection. Our results show that there are 52 taxa recorded for this region and the highest species richness was seen in the families Liolaemidae and Dipsadidae with 31 and 10 species, respectively. The Patagónica was the phytogeographic province most diverse in species and Phymaturus was the genus of conservation concern most strongly associated with it. We present a detailed species list with geographical information, richness species, diversity analyses with comparisons across phytogeographical provinces, conservation status, taxonomic comments and distribution maps for all of these taxa. PMID:25931966

  5. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes' status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors' detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability. PMID:26193280

  6. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Melvin L., Jr.; Burr, Brooks M.; Walsh, Stephen J.; Bart, Henry L., Jr.; Cashner, Robert C.; Etnier, David A.; Freeman, Byron J.; Kuhajda, Bernard R.; Mayden, Richard L.; Robison, Henry W.; Ross, Stephen T.; Starnes, Wayne C.

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the southern United States. The southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a high proportion of its fishes in need of conservation action. The review included 662 native freshwater and diadromous fishes and 24 marine fishes that are significant components of freshwater ecosystems. Of this total, 560 described, freshwater fish species are documented, and 49 undescribed species are included provisionally pending formal description. Described subspecies (86) are recognized within 43 species, 6 fishes have undescribed subspecies, and 9 others are recognized as complexes of undescribed taxa. Extinct, endangered, threatened, or vulnerable status is recognized for 28% (187 taxa) of southern freshwater and diadromous fishes. To date, 3 southern fishes are known to be extinct throughout their ranges, 2 are extirpated from the study region, and 2 others may be extinct. Of the extant southern fishes, 41 (6%) are regarded as endangered, 46 (7%) are regarded as threatened, and 101 (15%) are regarded as vulnerable. Five marine fishes that frequent fresh water are regarded as vulnerable. Our assessment represents a 75% increase in jeopardized southern fishes since 1989 and a 125% increase in 20 years. The trend for fishes in the southern United States is clear; jeopardized fishes are successively being moved from the vulnerable category to that of imminent threat of extinction.

  7. Distribution and conservation status of prairie dogs Cynomys mexicanus and Cynomys ludovicianus in Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ceballos, Gerardo; Mellink, Eric; Hanebury, Louis R.

    1993-01-01

    The two living species of black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys mexicanus and C. ludovicianus are found in Mexico. Cynomys mexicanus, a Mexican endemic, is restricted to a 600-km2 region in northwestern Mexico. It is found in six large arid grassland valleys associated with gypsum soils and surrounded by arid scrub. Due to the small geographic range and destruction of its habitat this species is considered endangered. Cynomys ludovicianus is found in northwestern Mexico. Its present distribution comprises a very large complex covering approximately 55 000 ha, eight major dogtowns, and more than one million prairie dogs. Indeed, this population represents the largest continuous prairie dog complex left in North America. However, its present conservation status is considered as threatened, mainly because of the rapid deterioration of its habitat.

  8. Multiple node remote messaging

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Ohmacht, Martin; Salapura, Valentina; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard; Vranas, Pavlos

    2010-08-31

    A method for passing remote messages in a parallel computer system formed as a network of interconnected compute nodes includes that a first compute node (A) sends a single remote message to a remote second compute node (B) in order to control the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message. The method includes various steps including controlling a DMA engine at first compute node (A) to prepare the single remote message to include a first message descriptor and at least one remote message descriptor for controlling the remote second compute node (B) to send at least one remote message, including putting the first message descriptor into an injection FIFO at the first compute node (A) and sending the single remote message and the at least one remote message descriptor to the second compute node (B).

  9. Sentinel node biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sentinel node biopsy is a technique which helps determine if a cancer has spread (metastasized), or is contained locally. When a ... is closest to the cancer site. Sentinel node biopsy is used to stage many kinds of cancer, ...

  10. Distribution of cardiovascular disease risk factors by socioeconomic status among Canadian adults

    PubMed Central

    Choinière, R; Lafontaine, P; Edwards, A C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study was designed to describe the distribution of risk factors for cardiovascular disease by socioeconomic status in adult men and women across Canada using the Canadian Heart Health Surveys Database. METHODS: The data were derived from provincial cross-sectional surveys done between 1986 and 1992. Data were obtained through a home interview and a clinic visit using a probability sample of 29,855 men and women aged 18-74 years of whom 23,129 (77%) agreed to participate. The following risk factors for cardiovascular disease were considered: elevated total plasma cholesterol (greater than 5.2 mmol/L), regular current cigarette smoking (one or more daily), elevated diastolic or systolic blood pressure (140/90 mm Hg), overweight (body mass index and lack of leisure-time physical activity [less than once a week in the last month]). Education and income adequacy were used as measures of socioeconomic status and mother tongue as a measure of cultural affiliation. RESULTS: For most of the risk factors examined, the prevalence of the risk factors was inversely related to socioeconomic status, but the relationship was stronger and more consistent for education than for income. The inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and the prevalence of the risk factors was particularly strong for smoking and overweight, where a gradient was observed: 46% (standard error [SE] 1.4) of men and 42% (SE 4.3) of women who had not completed secondary school were regular smokers, but only 12% (SE 1.0) of men and 13% (SE 0.9) of women with a university degree were regular smokers. Thirty-nine percent (SE 1.4) of men and 19% (SE 3.8) of women who had not completed secondary school were overweight, compared with 26% (SE 2.6) of male and 19% of female university graduates. The prevalence of leisure-time physical inactivity and elevated cholesterol was highest in both men and women in the lowest socioeconomic category, particularly by level of education. INTERPRETATION

  11. [Distribution Characteristics and Pollution Status Evaluation of Sediments Nutrients in a Drinking Water Reservoir].

    PubMed

    Huang, Ting-lin; Liu, Fei; Shi, Jian-chao

    2016-01-15

    The main purpose of this paper is to illustrate the influence of nutrients distribution in sediments on the eutrophication of drinking water reservoir. The sediments of three representative locations were field-sampled and analyzed in laboratory in March 2015. The distribution characteristics of TOC, TN and TP were measured, and the pollution status of sediments was evaluated by the comprehensive pollution index and the manual for sediment quality assessment. The content of TOC in sediments decreased with depth, and there was an increasing trend of the nitrogen content. The TP was enriched in surface sediment, implying the nutrients load in Zhoucun Reservoir was aggravating as the result of human activities. Regression analysis indicated that the content of TOC in sediments was positively correlated with contents of TN and TP in sediments. The TOC/TN values reflected that the vascular land plants, which contain cellulose, were the main source of organic matter in sediments. The comprehensive pollution index analysis result showed that the surface sediments in all three sampling sites were heavily polluted. The contents of TN and TP of surface sediments in three sampling sites were 3273-4870 mg x kg(-1) and 653-2969 mg x kg(-1), and the content of TOC was 45.65-83.00 mg x g(-1). According to the manual for sediment quality assessment, the TN, TP and TOC contents in sediments exceed the standard values for the lowest level of ecotoxicity, so there is a risk of eutrophication in Zhoucun Reservoir. PMID:27078954

  12. Scalable Node Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Drotar, Alexander P.; Quinn, Erin E.; Sutherland, Landon D.

    2012-07-30

    Project description is: (1) Build a high performance computer; and (2) Create a tool to monitor node applications in Component Based Tool Framework (CBTF) using code from Lightweight Data Metric Service (LDMS). The importance of this project is that: (1) there is a need a scalable, parallel tool to monitor nodes on clusters; and (2) New LDMS plugins need to be able to be easily added to tool. CBTF stands for Component Based Tool Framework. It's scalable and adjusts to different topologies automatically. It uses MRNet (Multicast/Reduction Network) mechanism for information transport. CBTF is flexible and general enough to be used for any tool that needs to do a task on many nodes. Its components are reusable and 'EASILY' added to a new tool. There are three levels of CBTF: (1) frontend node - interacts with users; (2) filter nodes - filters or concatenates information from backend nodes; and (3) backend nodes - where the actual work of the tool is done. LDMS stands for lightweight data metric servies. It's a tool used for monitoring nodes. Ltool is the name of the tool we derived from LDMS. It's dynamically linked and includes the following components: Vmstat, Meminfo, Procinterrupts and more. It works by: Ltool command is run on the frontend node; Ltool collects information from the backend nodes; backend nodes send information to the filter nodes; and filter nodes concatenate information and send to a database on the front end node. Ltool is a useful tool when it comes to monitoring nodes on a cluster because the overhead involved with running the tool is not particularly high and it will automatically scale to any size cluster.

  13. Distribution of the muscarinic K+ channel proteins Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 in the ventricle, atrium, and sinoatrial node of heart.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynski, H; Marples, D D; Musa, H; Yamanushi, T T; Henderson, Z; Takagishi, Y; Honjo, H; Kodama, I; Boyett, M R

    2001-10-01

    The functionally important effects on the heart of ACh released from vagal nerves are principally mediated by the muscarinic K+ channel. The aim of this study was to determine the abundance and cellular location of the muscarinic K+ channel subunits Kir3.1 and Kir3.4 in different regions of heart. Western blotting showed a very low abundance of Kir3.1 in rat ventricle, although Kir3.1 was undetectable in guinea pig and ferret ventricle. Although immunofluorescence on tissue sections showed no labeling of Kir3.1 in rat, guinea pig, and ferret ventricle and Kir3.4 in rat ventricle, immunofluorescence on single ventricular cells from rat showed labeling in t-tubules of both Kir3.1 and Kir3.4. Kir3.1 was abundant in the atrium of the three species, as shown by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, and Kir3.4 was abundant in the atrium of rat, as shown by immunofluorescence. Immunofluorescence showed Kir3.1 expression in SA node from the three species and Kir3.4 expression in the SA node from rat. The muscarinic K+ channel is activated by ACh via the m2 muscarinic receptor and, in atrium and SA node from ferret, Kir3.1 labeling was co-localized with m2 muscarinic receptor labeling throughout the outer cell membrane. PMID:11561006

  14. Role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy in carcinoma penis with or without palpable nodes

    PubMed Central

    Kathiresan, N.; Raja, Anand; Ramachandran, Krishna Kumar; Sundersingh, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the role of dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSLNB) in patients diagnosed with carcinoma penis and clinically N0 disease using superficial inguinal dissection as the standard staging modality. Materials and Methods: Twenty consecutive men (40 groins) with carcinoma penis having clinically N0 status were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent DSLNB if fine needle aspiration cytology from the groin nodes was negative, followed by injection of radiocolloid and blue dye. The sentinel lymph node(s) were harvested. The inguinal incision was then extended and a modified superficial inguinal dissection was performed and all nodes were labeled separately and sent for frozen section. A completion deep inguinal with pelvic dissection was performed if any of the nodes were reported positive for malignancy. Results: The median age of the patients was 52.5 years. Ten patients were smokers. Phimosis was present in five patients. Lesions were present over the glans penis and shaft in 18 and two patients, respectively. Wide local excision, partial penectomy and total penectomy were performed in one, 15 and four patients, respectively. Clinically palpable nodes were found in 19 groins. Median follow-up was 26 months. Nodes were positive in 10 groins. DSLNB missed the sentinel node in one groin. The accuracy and false-negative rate of DSLNB was 97.5% and 10%, respectively. Conclusion: DSLNB is a useful and reliable technique to identify the involved node(s) in patients diagnosed as having carcinoma penis with clinical N0 status (with or without palpable nodes). It helps to avoid the morbidity associated with a staging inguinal dissection in these patients. PMID:26941496

  15. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, C.; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, L.L.; Zhu, Z.; Singh, A.; Loveland, T.; Masek, J.; Duke, N.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive.Methods We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth-sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map 'true mangroves'.Results The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5?? N and 5?? S latitude.Main conclusions We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies. ?? 2010 Blackwell

  16. Status and distribution of mangrove forests of the world using earth observation satellite data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Ochieng, E.; Tieszen, Larry L.; Zhu, Zhi-Liang; Singh, Ashbindu; Loveland, Thomas R.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Duke, Norm

    2011-01-01

    Aim  Our scientific understanding of the extent and distribution of mangrove forests of the world is inadequate. The available global mangrove databases, compiled using disparate geospatial data sources and national statistics, need to be improved. Here, we mapped the status and distributions of global mangroves using recently available Global Land Survey (GLS) data and the Landsat archive. Methods  We interpreted approximately 1000 Landsat scenes using hybrid supervised and unsupervised digital image classification techniques. Each image was normalized for variation in solar angle and earth–sun distance by converting the digital number values to the top-of-the-atmosphere reflectance. Ground truth data and existing maps and databases were used to select training samples and also for iterative labelling. Results were validated using existing GIS data and the published literature to map ‘true mangroves’. Results  The total area of mangroves in the year 2000 was 137,760 km2 in 118 countries and territories in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 75% of world's mangroves are found in just 15 countries, and only 6.9% are protected under the existing protected areas network (IUCN I-IV). Our study confirms earlier findings that the biogeographic distribution of mangroves is generally confined to the tropical and subtropical regions and the largest percentage of mangroves is found between 5° N and 5° S latitude. Main conclusions  We report that the remaining area of mangrove forest in the world is less than previously thought. Our estimate is 12.3% smaller than the most recent estimate by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. We present the most comprehensive, globally consistent and highest resolution (30 m) global mangrove database ever created. We developed and used better mapping techniques and data sources and mapped mangroves with better spatial and thematic details than previous studies.

  17. The Planetary Data System Geosciences Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinness, Edward A.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Slavney, Susan

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of the Planetary Data System Geosciences Node is to archive and distribute planetary geosciences datasets relevant to the surfaces and interiors of the terrestrial planets and moons. This objective is accomplished through the following efforts. The Node works with planetary missions to help ensure that data of relevance to the geosciences discipline are properly documented and archived. The Node restores and publishes selected geoscience datasets from past missions on CD-ROM for distribution to the planetary science community. Data archived at the Node are distributed on CD-ROM, magnetic tape, CD-WO, or by electronic transfer over the Internet. The Geo-sciences Node provides information and expert assistance on its data holdings. Derived image, geophysics, microwave, spaceborne thermal, and radio science data are archived at the lead node or at one of the subnodes. Currently, the amount of data archived at the Node is on the order of 500 Gbytes stored on a combination of nearly 800 CD-ROMs and CD-WOs. Current archives within the Node include data from the Magellan and Viking missions, the Geological Remote Sensing Field Experiment, and a collection of radar, altimetry, and gravity datasets for Venus, Mercury, Mars, Earth, and the Moon, together with software to analyze the data. The Node maintains on-line catalogs that enable the science community to search through the Geosciences Node archives and to order selected datasets. Access to the Node's catalogs and on-line datasets is available via the Internet using a remote login or via the World Wide Web (WWW).

  18. Occurrence and distribution of special status plant species on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.C.; Cypher, B.L.; Holmstead, G.L.; Hammer, K.L.; Frost, N.

    1994-10-01

    Several special status plant species occur or potentially occur at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). Special status species are defined as those species that are either federally listed as endangered or threatened, or candidate taxa. Candidate species are classified as Category 1 or Category 2. Category 1 taxa are those species for which there is sufficient evidence to support listing, while Category 2 taxa are those species for which listing may possibly be appropriate, but for which sufficient data are lacking to warrant immediate listing. Determining the presence and distribution of these species on NPRC is necessary so that appropriate conservation or protection measures can be implemented. In the spring of 1988, a survey of Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) was conducted to determine the occurrence of Hoover`s wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri), Kern Mallow (Eremalche kemensis), San Joaquin wooly-threads (Lembertia congdonii), and California jewelflower (Caulanthus califonicus), all listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) as Category 2 species at that time. Of the four species, only Hoover`s wooly-star was found. It was concluded that Kern mallow and San Joaquin wooly-threads could potentially be found on NPR-1, but habitat for California jewelflower did not occur on NPR-1 and its occurrence was unlikely. As part of an ongoing effort to document the presence or absence of sensitive plant species on NPRC, surveys for species other than Hoover`s wooly-star were conducted in the spring of 1993. Abundant spring rains in 1993 created favorable growing conditions for annual forbs. Surveys in 1993 focused on potential habitat of several endangered and candidate species. The results of those surveys are presented in this report.

  19. 78 FR 20887 - Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval of Subzone Status; Pepsi Cola Puerto Rico Distributing, LLC, Toa Baja, Puerto Rico On December 7, 2012, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board docketed an application submitted by the Puerto Rico Industrial Development Company, grantee of FTZ...

  20. Distribution of macrophages and granulocytes expressing L1 protein (calprotectin) in human Peyer's patches compared with normal ileal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Bjerke, K; Halstensen, T S; Jahnsen, F; Pulford, K; Brandtzaeg, P

    1993-01-01

    Antibodies to the cytosolic leucocyte L1 protein (or calprotectin) were examined for reactivity with macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils identified by paired immunofluorescence staining in sections of normal human ileal mucosa, including Peyer's patches. Macrophages were recognised by expression of the myelomonocytic antigen CD68 (monoclonal antibody KP1). Neutrophilic granulocytes were identified by their content of neutrophil elastase, and eosinophilic granulocytes by monoclonal antibody EG2. Virtually all CD68+ macrophages in normal lamina propria and Peyer's patches were L1- and the same was true for most extravasated macrophages in normal peripheral lymph nodes. Some mesenteric lymph nodes, however, and all peripheral lymph nodes with overt pathological processes (malignant lymphoma) contained many CD68+L1+ macrophages. Numerous L1+ cells were also localised to the crypt region and to some extent beneath the villous epithelium in normal lamina propria, but they were mainly identified as EG2+ eosinophils. Such cells were remarkably scarce or absent beneath the follicle associated epithelium in the dome region of Peyer's patches, where CD68+L1- macrophages were abundant. Also subepithelial and interfollicular CD68- interdigitating dendritic cells in Peyer's patches (recognised by antibody to S-100 protein) were usually unreactive with L1 antibody. The L1 protein shows a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities in vitro, and its putative antiproliferative properties are interesting in relation to the immunosuppression postulated to take place in lamina propria. The virtual absence of L1 producing cells beneath the follicle associated epithelium in Peyer's patches may support the immunostimulatory function of these macrophage rich structures, which are held to be crucial for induction of specific mucosal immunity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8244101

  1. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  2. Protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs an antibody recognition message termination process performed by all remote nodes and a remote node polling process performed by other nodes which are master units controlling remote nodes in respective zones of the network assigned to respective master nodes. Each remote node repeats only those messages originated in the local zone, to provide isolation among the master nodes.

  3. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Andrew P; Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris, Joseph R; Schoonover, Rebecca F; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M; Farhadinia, Mohammad S; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard's (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard's status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25-37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard's extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km(2) of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983

  4. Distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.; Correa-Viana, Martín; Ludlow, Mark E.; Robinson, John G.

    1988-01-01

    Aerial and interview surveys were conducted in 1986 to determine the current distribution, status, and traditional significance of the West Indian manatee Trichechus manatus in Venezuela. Aerial surveys provided just eight tentative sightings in 73 hours of searching. These discouraging results may have been due to poor visibility, small populations, and perhaps reduced dry season manatee activity. Results of interview surveys, however, permitted a number of important generalizations. A remnant manatee population exists in Lake Maracaibo, but none occur along the more than 1500 km of Caribbean coastline. Abundance is greatest in eastern Venezuela bordering the Golfo de Paria, in the Orinoco Delta, and in the middle Orinoco and tributaries. Local market hunting in the middle of this century probably greatly reduced manatee populations in these areas. Recent protection laws, education efforts, and manatee scarcity have resulted in a declining interest in manatee hunting. Much excellent manatee habitat persists in these regions, and a continued decline in hunting could result in an optimistic outlook for future manatee populations if the incidental take in net fisheries is controlled. Traditional beliefs and legends concerning manatees in Venezuela, including hunting taboos, show that these animals remain a colorful part of the folk culture. However, manatee protection does not pose economic hardships or infringe upon traditional spiritual beliefs.

  5. Leopard (Panthera pardus) status, distribution, and the research efforts across its range

    PubMed Central

    Gerngross, Peter; Lemeris Jr., Joseph R.; Schoonover, Rebecca F.; Anco, Corey; Breitenmoser-Würsten, Christine; Durant, Sarah M.; Farhadinia, Mohammad S.; Henschel, Philipp; Kamler, Jan F.; Laguardia, Alice; Rostro-García, Susana; Stein, Andrew B.; Dollar, Luke

    2016-01-01

    The leopard’s (Panthera pardus) broad geographic range, remarkable adaptability, and secretive nature have contributed to a misconception that this species might not be severely threatened across its range. We find that not only are several subspecies and regional populations critically endangered but also the overall range loss is greater than the average for terrestrial large carnivores. To assess the leopard’s status, we compile 6,000 records at 2,500 locations from over 1,300 sources on its historic (post 1750) and current distribution. We map the species across Africa and Asia, delineating areas where the species is confirmed present, is possibly present, is possibly extinct or is almost certainly extinct. The leopard now occupies 25–37% of its historic range, but this obscures important differences between subspecies. Of the nine recognized subspecies, three (P. p. pardus, fusca, and saxicolor) account for 97% of the leopard’s extant range while another three (P. p. orientalis, nimr, and japonensis) have each lost as much as 98% of their historic range. Isolation, small patch sizes, and few remaining patches further threaten the six subspecies that each have less than 100,000 km2 of extant range. Approximately 17% of extant leopard range is protected, although some endangered subspecies have far less. We found that while leopard research was increasing, research effort was primarily on the subspecies with the most remaining range whereas subspecies that are most in need of urgent attention were neglected. PMID:27168983

  6. Early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis: Importance of intranodal pressures.

    PubMed

    Miura, Yoshinobu; Mikada, Mamoru; Ouchi, Tomoki; Horie, Sachiko; Takeda, Kazu; Yamaki, Teppei; Sakamoto, Maya; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    Regional lymph node status is an important prognostic indicator of tumor aggressiveness. However, early diagnosis of metastasis using intranodal pressure, at a stage when lymph node size has not changed significantly, has not been investigated. Here, we use an MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mouse model of lymph node metastasis to show that intranodal pressure increases in both the subiliac lymph node and proper axillary lymph node, which are connected by lymphatic vessels, when tumor cells are injected into the subiliac lymph node to induce metastasis to the proper axillary lymph node. We found that intranodal pressure in the subiliac lymph node increased at the stage when metastasis was detected by in vivo bioluminescence, but when proper axillary lymph node volume (measured by high-frequency ultrasound imaging) had not increased significantly. Intravenously injected liposomes, encapsulating indocyanine green, were detected in solid tumors by in vivo bioluminescence, but not in the proper axillary lymph node. Basic blood vessel and lymphatic channel structures were maintained in the proper axillary lymph node, although sinus histiocytosis was detected. These results show that intranodal pressure in the proper axillary lymph node increases at early stages when metastatic tumor cells have not fully proliferated. Intranodal pressure may be a useful parameter for facilitating early diagnosis of lymph node metastasis. PMID:26716604

  7. Lymphatic mapping of the breast: locating the sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Uren, R F; Howman-Giles, R; Renwick, S B; Gillett, D

    2001-06-01

    When the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy was described in patients with melanoma, researchers quickly started to use lymphatic mapping techniques in breast cancer patients in an attempt to locate the sentinel node in the axilla. We have been performing mammary lymphoscintigraphy in this role for 6 years and have now studied 159 patients. Like others, we have found that most breast cancers (93%) have lymphatic drainage that includes the axilla, and we have found an average of 1.4 axillary sentinel nodes in these patients. Surgical biopsy of the axillary sentinel nodes accurately staged the node field in 96% of patients. We have also found, however, that the pattern of lymphatic drainage from the cancer site is unpredictable; and in 49% of patients lymphatic drainage occurred across the center line of the breast to axillary or internal mammary sentinel nodes. In more than half of our patients (56%) lymphatic drainage occurred to lymph nodes outside the axilla including the internal mammary (45%), supraclavicular (13%), and interpectoral and intramammary interval nodes (12%). These nodes are also sentinel nodes, and their presence indicates that a sentinel node biopsy procedure that stages only the status of the axillary lymph nodes has the potential to understage about half the patients with breast cancer. High quality lymphoscintigraphy allows accurate mapping of peritumoral lymphatic drainage in most patients with breast cancer. It is possible that in the future accurate nodal staging in each individual will involve biopsy of all sentinel lymph nodes, regardless of their location. PMID:11376417

  8. Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrvic, Vesna; Kostic-Kravljanac, Ljiljana; Cakmak, Dragan; Pivic, Radmila; Saljnikov, Elmira; Nikoloski, Mile; Perovic, Veljko

    2010-05-01

    Soil fertility status and spatial distribution of selected trace elements in south-western Serbia V. Mrvic, Lj. Kostic-Kravljanac, D. Čakmak, R. Pivić, E. Saljnikov, M. Nikoloski, V. Perović Institute of Soil Science, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia (vesnavmrvic@yahoo.com) Main characteristic of surface soil layer (pH in KCl, humus, available P and K), and content of trace elements (Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Hg) were analysed on area of southwestern Serbia, covering total 959 000 ha (one sample represents 1000 ha) . About 30 % of samples have very acid reaction. Main portion of soil samples (86%) is poorly suplied with available phosphorus (<8 mg/100g), and these are located under forests, meadows, pastures and orchards. Supplies of available potasium and humus are well. On the other hand, in small number of soil samples (4%), mostly on fertile alluvial soils, there are high P and K concentration, which are consequence of inadequate usage of mineral fertilizers. Content of trace elements in 70 % of soil samples is bellow maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The most frequente potential pollutants are Cr and Ni, which is assosiated with mafic and ultramafic rocks, which are common in this region (mountains naerby river Ibar - Troglav, Stolovi, Čemerno, Željin, Golija, Kopaonik; near Sjenica- peridotites of mn. Ozren). There are dominace of Eutric Leptosols soil type, with Ni content above 100 mg/kg, and in some samples above 1000 mg/kg. In smaller number of samples arsenic and lead exceed MAC, while other elements exceed MAD very rarelly. There are elevated Pb content in Kopaonik mountain area, and elevated As content besides this region, are in mine zone of Golija and Cemerno. These are mountain soils formed on acid igneous and metamorphic rocks, which are enriched with ores of Pb, Zn and other elements. Eventually negative influences of these elements on plants and other components of ecosystem may be esstimated only after detalied investigation.

  9. AF-DHNN: Fuzzy Clustering and Inference-Based Node Fault Diagnosis Method for Fire Detection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Cui, Wen; Jin, Zhigang; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been utilized for node fault diagnosis in the fire detection field since the 1990s. However, the traditional methods have some problems, including complicated system structures, intensive computation needs, unsteady data detection and local minimum values. In this paper, a new diagnosis mechanism for WSN nodes is proposed, which is based on fuzzy theory and an Adaptive Fuzzy Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (AF-DHNN). First, the original status of each sensor over time is obtained with two features. One is the root mean square of the filtered signal (FRMS), the other is the normalized summation of the positive amplitudes of the difference spectrum between the measured signal and the healthy one (NSDS). Secondly, distributed fuzzy inference is introduced. The evident abnormal nodes’ status is pre-alarmed to save time. Thirdly, according to the dimensions of the diagnostic data, an adaptive diagnostic status system is established with a Fuzzy C-Means Algorithm (FCMA) and Sorting and Classification Algorithm to reducing the complexity of the fault determination. Fourthly, a Discrete Hopfield Neural Network (DHNN) with iterations is improved with the optimization of the sensors’ detected status information and standard diagnostic levels, with which the associative memory is achieved, and the search efficiency is improved. The experimental results show that the AF-DHNN method can diagnose abnormal WSN node faults promptly and effectively, which improves the WSN reliability. PMID:26193280

  10. Parallel node placement method by bubble simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yufeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Qi, Nan; Li, Yiqiang

    2014-03-01

    An efficient Parallel Node Placement method by Bubble Simulation (PNPBS), employing METIS-based domain decomposition (DD) for an arbitrary number of processors is introduced. In accordance with the desired nodal density and Newton’s Second Law of Motion, automatic generation of node sets by bubble simulation has been demonstrated in previous work. Since the interaction force between nodes is short-range, for two distant nodes, their positions and velocities can be updated simultaneously and independently during dynamic simulation, which indicates the inherent property of parallelism, it is quite suitable for parallel computing. In this PNPBS method, the METIS-based DD scheme has been investigated for uniform and non-uniform node sets, and dynamic load balancing is obtained by evenly distributing work among the processors. For the nodes near the common interface of two neighboring subdomains, there is no need for special treatment after dynamic simulation. These nodes have good geometrical properties and a smooth density distribution which is desirable in the numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDEs). The results of numerical examples show that quasi linear speedup in the number of processors and high efficiency are achieved.

  11. Lymph node culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture - lymph node ... or viruses grow. This process is called a culture. Sometimes, special stains are also used to identify specific cells or microorganisms before culture results are available. If needle aspiration does not ...

  12. Initial results of imaging melanoma metastasis in resected human lymph nodes using photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jose, Jithin; Grootendorst, Diederik J.; Vijn, Thomas W.; Wouters, Michel W.; van Boven, Hester; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Ruers, Theo J. M.; Manohar, Srirang

    2011-09-01

    The pathological status of the sentinel lymph node is important for accurate melanoma staging, ascertaining prognosis and planning treatment. The standard procedure involves biopsy of the node and histopathological assessment of its status. Drawbacks of this examination include a finite sampling of the node with the likelihood of missing metastases, and a significant time-lag before histopathological results are available to the surgeon. We studied the applicability of photoacoustic computed tomographic imaging as an intraoperative modality for examining the status of resected human sentinel lymph nodes. We first applied the technique to image ex vivo pig lymph nodes carrying metastases-simulating melanoma cells using multiple wavelengths. The experience gained was applied to image a suspect human lymph node. We validated the photoacoustic imaging results by comparing a reconstructed slice with a histopathological section through the node. Our results suggest that photoacoustics has the potential to develop into an intraoperative imaging method to detect melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

  13. Transport optimization considering the node aggregation ability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Li, Lian; Guo, Jiawei; Li, Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Using the theories of complex networks and gravitational field, we study the dynamic routing process under the framework of node gravitational field, define the equation of gravitation of travel path to data package and introduce two parameters α and γ for adjusting the dependences of transmission data on the unblocked degree of node, the transmission capacity of node and the path length. Based on the path's attraction, a gravitational field routing strategy under node connection ability constraint is proposed with considering the affect of node aggregation ability to transport process, and a parameter is used to adjust the control strength of routing process to node aggregation ability. In order to clarify the efficiency of suggested method, we introduce an order parameter η to measure the throughput of the network by the critical value of phase transition from free state to congestion state, and analyze the distribution of betweenness centrality and traffic jam. Simulation results show that, compared with the traditional shortest path routing strategy, our method greatly improve the throughput of a network, balance the network traffic load and most of the network nodes are used efficiently. Moreover, the network throughput is maximized under μ = -1, and the transmission performance of the algorithm is independent of the values of α and γ, which indicate the routing strategy is stable and reliable.

  14. Aberrant plasma levels of circulating miR-16, miR-107, miR-130a and miR-146a are associated with lymph node metastasis and receptor status of breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Stückrath, Isabel; Rack, Brigitte; Janni, Wolfgang; Jäger, Bernadette; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    Within the multicenter SUCCESS trial, we investigated the association of plasma microRNAs with different subtypes of invasive breast cancer. Six miRs (miR-16, miR-27a, miR-107, miR-130a, miR-132 and miR-146a) were selected from microarray profiling and further validated in plasma of 111 breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy and 46 healthy women by quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma levels of miR-16 (p = 0.0001), miR-27a (p = 0.039) and miR-132 (p = 0.020) were higher in breast cancer patients before chemotherapy than healthy women. With the exception of miR-16, the increased levels of miR-27a (p = 0.035) and miR-132 (p = 0.025) decreased after chemotherapy to those observed in healthy women. Levels of miR-16 (p = 0.019), miR-107 (p = 0.036), miR-130a (p = 0.027) and miR-146a (p = 0.047) were different between lymph node -positive and -negative patients, while the levels of miR-130a (p = 0.001) and miR-146a (p = 0.025) also differed between HER2-positive and -negative status. Estrogen-receptor negative tumors displayed higher concentrations of circulating miR-107 than their counterparts (p = 0.035). However, overexpression of miR-107 in MCF-7 cells did not downregulate estrogen receptor protein. Altered expression levels of miR-107 influenced the migration and invasion behavior of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Our data indicate differential concentrations of plasma miR-16, miR-107, miR-130a and miR-146a in different breast cancer subtypes, suggesting a potential role of these miRs in breast cancer biology and tumor progression. PMID:26033453

  15. Aberrant plasma levels of circulating miR-16, miR-107, miR-130a and miR-146a are associated with lymph node metastasis and receptor status of breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Stückrath, Isabel; Rack, Brigitte; Janni, Wolfgang; Jäger, Bernadette; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2015-05-30

    Within the multicenter SUCCESS trial, we investigated the association of plasma microRNAs with different subtypes of invasive breast cancer.Six miRs (miR-16, miR-27a, miR-107, miR-130a, miR-132 and miR-146a) were selected from microarray profiling and further validated in plasma of 111 breast cancer patients before and after chemotherapy and 46 healthy women by quantitative real-time PCR.Plasma levels of miR-16 (p = 0.0001), miR-27a (p = 0.039) and miR-132 (p = 0.020) were higher in breast cancer patients before chemotherapy than healthy women. With the exception of miR-16, the increased levels of miR-27a (p = 0.035) and miR-132 (p = 0.025) decreased after chemotherapy to those observed in healthy women. Levels of miR-16 (p = 0.019), miR-107 (p = 0.036), miR-130a (p = 0.027) and miR-146a (p = 0.047) were different between lymph node -positive and -negative patients, while the levels of miR-130a (p = 0.001) and miR-146a (p = 0.025) also differed between HER2-positive and -negative status. Estrogen-receptor negative tumors displayed higher concentrations of circulating miR-107 than their counterparts (p = 0.035). However, overexpression of miR-107 in MCF-7 cells did not downregulate estrogen receptor protein. Altered expression levels of miR-107 influenced the migration and invasion behavior of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells.Our data indicate differential concentrations of plasma miR-16, miR-107, miR-130a and miR-146a in different breast cancer subtypes, suggesting a potential role of these miRs in breast cancer biology and tumor progression. PMID:26033453

  16. Fish species of greatest conservation need in wadeable Iowa streams: current status and effectiveness of Aquatic Gap Program distribution models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sindt, Anthony R.; Pierce, Clay; Quist, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Effective conservation of fish species of greatest conservation need (SGCN) requires an understanding of species–habitat relationships and distributional trends. Thus, modeling the distribution of fish species across large spatial scales may be a valuable tool for conservation planning. Our goals were to evaluate the status of 10 fish SGCN in wadeable Iowa streams and to test the effectiveness of Iowa Aquatic Gap Analysis Project (IAGAP) species distribution models. We sampled fish assemblages from 86 wadeable stream segments in the Mississippi River drainage of Iowa during 2009 and 2010 to provide contemporary, independent fish species presence–absence data. The frequencies of occurrence in stream segments where species were historically documented varied from 0.0% for redfin shiner Lythrurus umbratilis to 100.0% for American brook lampreyLampetra appendix, with a mean of 53.0%, suggesting that the status of Iowa fish SGCN is highly variable. Cohen's kappa values and other model performance measures were calculated by comparing field-collected presence–absence data with IAGAP model–predicted presences and absences for 12 fish SGCN. Kappa values varied from 0.00 to 0.50, with a mean of 0.15. The models only predicted the occurrences of banded darterEtheostoma zonale, southern redbelly dace Phoxinus erythrogaster, and longnose daceRhinichthys cataractae more accurately than would be expected by chance. Overall, the accuracy of the twelve models was low, with a mean correct classification rate of 58.3%. Poor model performance probably reflects the difficulties associated with modeling the distribution of rare species and the inability of the large-scale habitat variables used in IAGAP models to explain the variation in fish species occurrences. Our results highlight the importance of quantifying the confidence in species distribution model predictions with an independent data set and the need for long-term monitoring to better understand the

  17. Statistical Bits and Pieces: Status Dropout Rates and Number and Distribution of 16- through 24-Year-Olds Who Were Dropouts, by Background Characteristics: October 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of At-Risk Issues, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents data on dropout rates and number and distribution of adolescents/young adults who were dropouts, noting background characteristics (sex, race/ethnicity, age, recency of immigration, and region) for October 1998. Data are provided on status dropout rate, number status dropouts, total population age 16-24 years, percent of all dropouts, and…

  18. System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development

    SciTech Connect

    Basso, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

  19. Information spreading in Delay Tolerant Networks based on nodes' behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yahui; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin

    2014-07-01

    Information spreading in DTNs (Delay Tolerant Networks) adopts a store-carry-forward method, and nodes receive the message from others directly. However, it is hard to judge whether the information is safe in this communication mode. In this case, a node may observe other nodes' behaviors. At present, there is no theoretical model to describe the varying rule of the nodes' trusting level. In addition, due to the uncertainty of the connectivity in DTN, a node is hard to get the global state of the network. Therefore, a rational model about the node's trusting level should be a function of the node's own observing result. For example, if a node finds k nodes carrying a message, it may trust the information with probability p(k). This paper does not explore the real distribution of p(k), but instead presents a unifying theoretical framework to evaluate the performance of the information spreading in above case. This framework is an extension of the traditional SI (susceptible-infected) model, and is useful when p(k) conforms to any distribution. Simulations based on both synthetic and real motion traces show the accuracy of the framework. Finally, we explore the impact of the nodes' behaviors based on certain special distributions through numerical results.

  20. 75 FR 38077 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Abercrombie & Fitch (Footwear and Apparel Distribution...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... in the Federal Register (74 FR 52454, 10/13/09) and the application has been processed pursuant to... Distribution); New Albany, OH Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of Abercrombie & Fitch, located in...

  1. 75 FR 30777 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; South Florida Materials Corporation (Distribution of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... Register (74 FR 55812-55813, 10/29/2009) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act and... (Distribution of Petroleum Products); Port Everglades, FL Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade... to establish a special- purpose subzone at the petroleum product storage and distribution facility...

  2. Fault Diagnosis in a Fully Distributed Local Computer Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwag, Hye Keun

    Local computer networks are being installed in diverse application areas. Many of the networks employ a distributed control scheme, which has advantages in performance and reliability over a centralized one. However, distribution of control increases the difficulty in locating faulty hardware elements. Consequently, advantages may not be fully realized unless measures are taken to account for the difficulties of fault diagnosis; yet, not much work has been done in this area. A hardcore is defined as a node or a part of a node which is fault-free and which can diagnose other elements in a system. Faults are diagnosed in most existing distributed local computer networks by assuming that every node, or a part of every node, is a fixed hardcore: a fixed node or a part of a fixed node is always a hardcore. Maintaining such high reliability may not be possible or cost-effective for some systems. A distributed network contains dynamically redundant elements, and it is reasonable to assume that fewer nodes are simultaneously faulty than are fault-free at any point in the life cycle of the network. A diagnostic model is proposed herein which determines bindary evaluation results according to the status of the testing and tested nodes, and which leads the network to dynamically locate a fault-free node (a hardcore). This diagnostic model is, in most cases, simpler to implement and more cost-effective than the fixed hardcore. The selected hardcore can diagnose the other elements and can locate permanent faults. In a hop-by-hop test, the destination node and every intermediate node in a path test the transmitted data. This dissertation presents another method to locate an element with frequent transient faults; it checks data only at the destination, thereby, eliminating the need for a hop-by-hop test.

  3. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans.

    PubMed

    Tanegashima, A; Ushiyama, I; Kikui, Y; Yamamoto, H

    2001-04-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  4. Intrathymic lymph nodes in humans

    PubMed Central

    TANEGASHIMA, A.; USHIYAMA, I.; KIKUI, Y.; YAMAMOTO, H.

    2001-01-01

    An unusual lymph node exists in the centre of the human thymus. This lymph node, which we call an intrathymic lymph node (ITLN), possesses some interesting morphological characteristics. In ontogeny, this node seems to appear at the latter half of fetal period. The function of the ITLN is still unknown, but it is assumed that it may play a different role in the immune system than other peripheral lymph nodes by its characteristics. PMID:11327211

  5. Planetary Data System Spaceborne Thermal Data Sub-Node of the Geosciences Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this proposal were: (1) to assemble the existing spacecraft thermal-infrared data and to place these data into a uniform format as specified by the PDS; (2) to develop a standardized software package, user interface, and catalog database to support the access and analysis of existing and planned thermal infrared datasets in order to provide wide community access to these data; (3) to support the distribution of Thermal SubNode data to users as requested; (4) to incorporate future spacecraft thermal observations into the Thermal SubNode; and (5) to sponsor workshops on the applications of Thermal SubNode data.

  6. Status, Vision, and Challenges of an Intelligent Distributed Engine Control Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behbahani, Alireza; Culley, Dennis; Garg, Sanjay; Millar, Richard; Smith, Bert; Wood, Jim; Mahoney, Tim; Quinn, Ronald; Carpenter, Sheldon; Mailander, Bill; Battestin, Gary; Roney, Walter; Bluish, Colin; Rhoden, William; Storey, Bill

    2007-01-01

    A Distributed Engine Control Working Group (DECWG) consisting of the Department of Defense (DoD), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) and industry has been formed to examine the current and future requirements of propulsion engine systems. The scope of this study will include an assessment of the paradigm shift from centralized engine control architecture to an architecture based on distributed control utilizing open system standards. Included will be a description of the work begun in the 1990's, which continues today, followed by the identification of the remaining technical challenges which present barriers to on-engine distributed control.

  7. 78 FR 46621 - Status of the Office of New Reactors' Implementation of Electronic Distribution of Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Reactor Correspondence AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Implementation of electronic distribution of advanced reactor correspondence; issuance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC... the Division of Operating Reactor Licensing (DORL) in October 2008. All four regions are...

  8. 75 FR 56992 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Luigi Bormioli Corporation (Distribution of Glassware...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 8651-8652, 2/25/2010) and the... to establish a special-purpose subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of Luigi...

  9. 76 FR 67671 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; VF Jeanswear, (Apparel Distribution), Mocksville, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Federal Register (76 FR 12022, 3/4/2011) and the application has been processed pursuant to the FTZ Act... subzone at the warehouse and distribution facility of VF Jeanswear, located in Mocksville, North...

  10. XQL and Proximal Nodes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of models that have been developed to structure text documents for information retrieval focuses on XML and its proposed query language XQL. Considers efficiency of the query engine and shows that an already existing model, Proximal Nodes, can be used as an efficient query engine behind an XQL front-end. (Author/LRW)

  11. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Indus River catchment area, Pakistan: Status, soil-air exchange and black carbon mediated distribution.

    PubMed

    Bajwa, Anam; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in passive air and soil samples from the catchment area of the Indus River, Pakistan. ∑15OCPs ranged between 0.68 and 13.47 ng g(-1) in soil and 375.1-1975 pg m-(3) in air. HCHs and DDTs were more prevalent in soil and air compartments. Composition profile indicated that β-HCH and p,p'-DDE were the dominant of all metabolites among HCHs and DDTs respectively. Moreover, fBC and fTOC were assessed and evaluated their potential role in the distribution status of OCPs. The fTOC and fBC ranged between 0.77 and 2.43 and 0.04-0.30% respectively in soil. Regression analysis showed the strong influence of fBC than fTOC on the distribution of OCPs in the Indus River catchment area soil. Equilibrium status was observed for β-HCH, δ-HCH, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDT, TC, HCB and Heptachlor with ff ranged between 0.3 and 0.59 while assessing the soil-air exchange of OCPs. PMID:26978705

  12. The number of tumor-free axillary lymph nodes removed as a prognostic parameter for node-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fei; He, Ni; Wu, Pei-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been controversy about the relationship between the number of lymph nodes removed and survival of patients diagnosed with lymph node-negative breast cancer. To assess this relationship, 603 cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer with a median of 126 months of follow-up data were studied. Patients were stratified into two groups (Group A, 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed; Group B, more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed). The number of tumor-free lymph nodes in ipsilateral axillary resections as well as 5 other disease parameters were analyzed for prognostic value. Our results revealed that the risk of death from breast cancer was significantly associated with patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. The 5- and 10-year survival rates for patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed was 88.0% and 66.4%, respectively, compared with 69.2% and 51.1%, respectively, for patients with more than 10 tumor-free lymph nodes removed. For patients with 10 or fewer tumor-free lymph nodes removed, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for risk of death from breast cancer was 0.579 (95% confidence interval, 0.492-0.687, P < 0.001), independent of patient age, marital status, histologic grade, tumor size, and adjuvant therapy. Our study suggests that the number of tumor-free lymph nodes removed is an independent predictor in cases of lymph node-negative breast cancer. PMID:25322865

  13. The lymph node neutrophil.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Henry R; Chtanova, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs provide a specialized microenvironment tailored to foster communication between cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. These interactions allow immune cells to coordinate multilayered defense against pathogens. Until recently dendritic cells and macrophages were thought to comprise the main innate immune cell subsets responsible for delivering signals that drive the adaptive immune response, while the function of neutrophils was largely confined to the innate immune system. However, the discovery of neutrophils in lymph nodes has raised the question of whether neutrophils might play a more extensive role not only in innate immunity per se, but also in coordinating the interactions between innate and adaptive immune responses. In this review we discuss the mechanisms and consequences of neutrophil recruitment to lymph nodes and how this recruitment influences subsequent immune responses both in situ and at distant sites. PMID:27025975

  14. Review of ultrasonography of malignant neck nodes: greyscale, Doppler, contrast enhancement and elastography.

    PubMed

    Ying, M; Bhatia, K S S; Lee, Y P; Yuen, H Y; Ahuja, A T

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of neck lymph nodes is essential in patients with head and neck cancers for predicting the patient's prognosis and selecting the appropriate treatment. Ultrasonography is a useful imaging tool in the assessment of neck lymph nodes. Greyscale ultrasonography assesses the size, distribution, and internal architecture of lymph nodes. Doppler ultrasonography evaluates the intranodal vascular pattern and resistance of lymph nodes. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides information on lymph node parenchymal perfusion. Elastography allows qualitative and quantitative assessment of lymph node stiffness. This article reviews the value of greyscale, Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography as well as elastography in the assessment of malignant nodes in the neck. PMID:24434158

  15. The Combined Use of Correlative and Mechanistic Species Distribution Models Benefits Low Conservation Status Species.

    PubMed

    Rougier, Thibaud; Lassalle, Géraldine; Drouineau, Hilaire; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Faure, Thierry; Deffuant, Guillaume; Rochard, Eric; Lambert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Species can respond to climate change by tracking appropriate environmental conditions in space, resulting in a range shift. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) can help forecast such range shift responses. For few species, both correlative and mechanistic SDMs were built, but allis shad (Alosa alosa), an endangered anadromous fish species, is one of them. The main purpose of this study was to provide a framework for joint analyses of correlative and mechanistic SDMs projections in order to strengthen conservation measures for species of conservation concern. Guidelines for joint representation and subsequent interpretation of models outputs were defined and applied. The present joint analysis was based on the novel mechanistic model GR3D (Global Repositioning Dynamics of Diadromous fish Distribution) which was parameterized on allis shad and then used to predict its future distribution along the European Atlantic coast under different climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). We then used a correlative SDM for this species to forecast its distribution across the same geographic area and under the same climate change scenarios. First, projections from correlative and mechanistic models provided congruent trends in probability of habitat suitability and population dynamics. This agreement was preferentially interpreted as referring to the species vulnerability to climate change. Climate change could not be accordingly listed as a major threat for allis shad. The congruence in predicted range limits between SDMs projections was the next point of interest. The difference, when noticed, required to deepen our understanding of the niche modelled by each approach. In this respect, the relative position of the northern range limit between the two methods strongly suggested here that a key biological process related to intraspecific variability was potentially lacking in the mechanistic SDM. Based on our knowledge, we hypothesized that local adaptations to cold

  16. The Combined Use of Correlative and Mechanistic Species Distribution Models Benefits Low Conservation Status Species

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Thibaud; Lassalle, Géraldine; Drouineau, Hilaire; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Faure, Thierry; Deffuant, Guillaume; Rochard, Eric; Lambert, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Species can respond to climate change by tracking appropriate environmental conditions in space, resulting in a range shift. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) can help forecast such range shift responses. For few species, both correlative and mechanistic SDMs were built, but allis shad (Alosa alosa), an endangered anadromous fish species, is one of them. The main purpose of this study was to provide a framework for joint analyses of correlative and mechanistic SDMs projections in order to strengthen conservation measures for species of conservation concern. Guidelines for joint representation and subsequent interpretation of models outputs were defined and applied. The present joint analysis was based on the novel mechanistic model GR3D (Global Repositioning Dynamics of Diadromous fish Distribution) which was parameterized on allis shad and then used to predict its future distribution along the European Atlantic coast under different climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5). We then used a correlative SDM for this species to forecast its distribution across the same geographic area and under the same climate change scenarios. First, projections from correlative and mechanistic models provided congruent trends in probability of habitat suitability and population dynamics. This agreement was preferentially interpreted as referring to the species vulnerability to climate change. Climate change could not be accordingly listed as a major threat for allis shad. The congruence in predicted range limits between SDMs projections was the next point of interest. The difference, when noticed, required to deepen our understanding of the niche modelled by each approach. In this respect, the relative position of the northern range limit between the two methods strongly suggested here that a key biological process related to intraspecific variability was potentially lacking in the mechanistic SDM. Based on our knowledge, we hypothesized that local adaptations to cold

  17. Delay, change and bifurcation of the immunofluorescence distribution attractors in health statuses diagnostics and in medical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galich, Nikolay E.; Filatov, Michael V.

    2008-07-01

    Communication contains the description of the immunology experiments and the experimental data treatment. New nonlinear methods of immunofluorescence statistical analysis of peripheral blood neutrophils have been developed. We used technology of respiratory burst reaction of DNA fluorescence in the neutrophils cells nuclei due to oxidative activity. The histograms of photon count statistics the radiant neutrophils populations' in flow cytometry experiments are considered. Distributions of the fluorescence flashes frequency as functions of the fluorescence intensity are analyzed. Statistic peculiarities of histograms set for healthy and unhealthy donors allow dividing all histograms on the three classes. The classification is based on three different types of smoothing and long-range scale averaged immunofluorescence distributions and their bifurcation. Heterogeneity peculiarities of long-range scale immunofluorescence distributions allow dividing all histograms on three groups. First histograms group belongs to healthy donors. Two other groups belong to donors with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Some of the illnesses are not diagnosed by standards biochemical methods. Medical standards and statistical data of the immunofluorescence histograms for identifications of health and illnesses are interconnected. Possibilities and alterations of immunofluorescence statistics in registration, diagnostics and monitoring of different diseases in various medical treatments have been demonstrated. Health or illness criteria are connected with statistics features of immunofluorescence histograms. Neutrophils populations' fluorescence presents the sensitive clear indicator of health status.

  18. Spatial distributions of forest aboveground biomass and landscape dynamics associated with conservation status and ownership in New England, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, D.; Heath, L. S.; Ducey, M. J.

    2009-05-01

    We combined remote sensing derived forest aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation and the Conservation Biology Institute/World Wildlife Fund Protected Area Database using GIS techniques and spatial pattern analysis to illustrate how different conservation status and ownership could affect the landscape dynamics and spatial distributions of AGB in New England states, USA. The AGB means between all pairs of protection status and ownership categories were significantly different (P < 0.05). The highest mean AGB was observed in the protected public lands (156 Mg/ha), 44% higher than the lowest AGB mean (108 Mg/ha) observed in private regulated lands (privately owned but under the regulatory control by a state agency), or 30% higher than that in privately owned lands on average (120 Mg/ha). Seventy-seven percent of the regional forests with AGB > 200 Mg/ha, totaling about 9,300 km2, were located outside protected areas and were concentrated in western MA, southern VT, southwestern NH, and northwestern CT. The fragmentation rate in protected public lands between 1992 and 2001 was the least with greater rates were observed in privately regulated and non-regulated lands. Changing rates for the 4 representative fragmentation indices (patch density (PD), edge density (ED), landscape shape index (LSI), and mean patch size (MPS)) ranged from 1% in MPS to 6% in PD in protected public lands during the 9-year period whereas the mean changing rates ranged from 21% in LSI to 32% in PD in private lands. Thus, ownership and conservation status appears to have a strong impact on the dynamic changes of landscape structures in the region. These results indicate that if maintenance and enhancement of relatively unfragmented, high-AGB forest is a goal, expansion of protected areas appears to be an important management strategy.

  19. Status and distribution of the angonoka tortoise (Geochelone yniphora) of western Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lora L.; Reid, Don; Robert, Bourou; Joby, Mahatoly; Clement, Sibo

    1999-01-01

    From 1993 to 1995, field surveys were conducted in western Madagascar to assess the current status of the angonoka tortoise (Geochelone yniphora) in the wild. Tortoise presence was documented at 10 of 11 localities surveyed. These localities represent at least five populations, all within a 30-km radius of Baly Bay, near the town of Soalala. The populations occur on fragments of habitat ranging from <50 to 4–6000 ha in size. One hundred and forty-five tortoises were marked in the five populations. Hatchling or juvenile tortoises were observed in all populations, indicating that reproduction was occurring. Most of the 145 tortoises (68%) were marked on Cape Sada, where monthly surveys were conducted. The tortoise density on the c. 150 ha peninsula was 0.66 tortoises/ha. The remains of 22 dead juveniles were found on Cape Sada over the 2-year period. This evidence, combined with the low number of juveniles in intermediate size classes in the Cape Sada population suggests that juvenile mortality may be high.

  20. Subnuclear distribution of topoisomerase I is linked to ongoing transcription and p53 status.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yinghui; Mehl, Issac R; Muller, Mark T

    2002-02-01

    The nonconserved, hydrophilic N-terminal domain of eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase I (topo I) is dispensable for catalytic activity in vitro but essential in vivo. There are at least five putative nuclear localization signals and a nucleolin-binding signal within the first 215 residues of the topo I N-terminal domain. We have investigated physiological functions of the topo I N-terminal domain by fusing it to an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The first 170 residues of the N-terminal domain allow efficient import of chimeric proteins into nuclei and nucleoli. The nucleolar localization of this protein does not depend on its interaction with nucleolin, whereas ongoing rDNA transcription clearly is crucial. Immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that the topo I N terminus (topoIN)-EGFP fusion protein associates with the TATA-binding protein in cells. Furthermore, DNA damage results in extensive nuclear redistribution of the topoIN-EGFP chimeric product. The redistribution is also p53-dependent and the N terminus of topo I appears to interact with p53 in vivo. These results show that the topo I localization to the nucleolus is related to the p53 and DNA damage, as well as changes in transcriptional status. Nucleolar release of topo I under conditions of cellular duress may represent an important, antecedent step in tumor cell killing by topoisomerase active agents. PMID:11805286

  1. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  2. Network model with structured nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frisco, Pierluigi

    2011-08-01

    We present a network model in which words over a specific alphabet, called structures, are associated to each node and undirected edges are added depending on some distance measure between different structures. This model shifts the underlying principle of network generation from a purely mathematical one to an information-based one. It is shown how this model differs from the Barábasi-Albert and duplication models and how it can generate networks with topological features similar to biological networks: power law degree distribution, low average path length, clustering coefficient independent from the network size, etc. Two biological networks: S. cerevisiae gene network and E. coli protein-protein interaction network, are replicated using this model.

  3. Clock Agreement Among Parallel Supercomputer Nodes

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jones, Terry R.; Koenig, Gregory A.

    2014-04-30

    This dataset presents measurements that quantify the clock synchronization time-agreement characteristics among several high performance computers including the current world's most powerful machine for open science, the U.S. Department of Energy's Titan machine sited at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These ultra-fast machines derive much of their computational capability from extreme node counts (over 18000 nodes in the case of the Titan machine). Time-agreement is commonly utilized by parallel programming applications and tools, distributed programming application and tools, and system software. Our time-agreement measurements detail the degree of time variance between nodes and how that variance changes over time. The dataset includes empirical measurements and the accompanying spreadsheets.

  4. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea. PMID:26770040

  5. Novel method and applications for labeling and identifying lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiraly, Atilla P.; Naidich, David P.; Guendel, Lutz; Zhang, Li; Novak, Carol L.

    2007-03-01

    The lymphatic system comprises a series of interconnected lymph nodes that are commonly distributed along branching or linearly oriented anatomic structures. Physicians must evaluate lymph nodes when staging cancer and planning optimal paths for nodal biopsy. This process requires accurately determining the lymph node's position with respect to major anatomical landmarks. In an effort to standardize lung cancer staging, The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) has classified lymph nodes within the chest into 4 groups and 14 sub groups. We present a method for automatically labeling lymph nodes according to this classification scheme, in order to improve the speed and accuracy of staging and biopsy planning. Lymph nodes within the chest are clustered around the major blood vessels and the airways. Our fully automatic labeling method determines the nodal group and sub-group in chest CT data by use of computed airway and aorta centerlines to produce features relative to a given node location. A classifier then determines the label based upon these features. We evaluate the efficacy of the method on 10 chest CT datasets containing 86 labeled lymph nodes. The results are promising with 100% of the nodes assigned to the correct group and 76% to the correct sub-group. We anticipate that additional features and training data will further improve the results. In addition to labeling, other applications include automated lymph node localization and visualization. Although we focus on chest CT data, the method can be generalized to other regions of the body as well as to different imaging modalities.

  6. eSTAR: a distributed telescope network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Iain A.; Naylor, Tim; Allan, Alisdair; Etherton, Jason; Mottram, C. J.

    2002-11-01

    The e-STAR (e-Science Telescopes for Astronomical Research) project uses GRID techniques to develop the software infrastructure for a global network of robotic telescopes. The basic architecture is based around Intelligent Agents which request data from Discovery Nodes that may be telescopes or databases. Communication is based on a development of the XML RTML language secured using the Globus I/O library, with status serving provided via LDAP. We describe the system architecture and protocols devised to give a distributed approach to telescope scheduling, as well as giving details of the implementation of prototype Intelligent Agent and Discovery Node systems.

  7. The distribution and conservation status of the Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molina, K.C.; Erwin, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Gull-billed Tern (Gelochelidon nilotica) has until recently received little conservation and management attention within North America despite a relatively low overall population size and significant declines in parts of the breeding range. This lack of attention may stem in part from the wide distribution of the species, encompassing parts of six continents, and from its tendency to nest in relatively small, scattered and often ephemeral colonies. Populations of North American subspecies are alarmingly small. The current population of the eastern subspecies aranea in the U.S. is unlikely to exceed 3,600 pairs, with over 60% of these birds occurring in Texas. The Texas population has remained generally stable, but declines of populations in Maryland (where probably extirpated), Virginia, North Carolina, Florida, and possibly Georgia give cause for concern for this subspecies. For the western subspecies vanrossemi, as few as 250 pairs nest at only two locations in the U.S., both in California. When populations in western Mexico are considered, the entire vanrossemi population numbers only 600-800 pairs. Currently the Gull-billed Tern is listed as ?endangered? or ?threatened? in four states, and is considered to be of management concern in five others. The breeding range of the species has contracted and shifted slightly from its known historic range in the middle Atlantic states, but otherwise occupies its historic range in the United States and has expanded slightly to coastal southern California. Some range contraction in Mexico (e.g., in Sonora) may have occurred. In eastern Mexico, historical information is almost non-existent and knowledge of current distribution and abundance is incomplete. Main threats to populations in North America include loss of natural nesting islands through beach erosion or perturbations to estuarine functions, development or modification of upland habitats near breeding areas that may be important for foraging, and disturbances to

  8. Plan for assessment of the occurrence, status, and distribution of volatile organic compounds in aquifers of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lapham, W.W.; Tadayon, Saeid

    1996-01-01

    The occurrence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in water is of national concern because of their relatively high aqueous solubility, mobility, and persistence, because many are known or suspected carcinogens, because of their widespread use, and because they have been found in drinking-water supplies. Because of this national concern, VOCs were selected for National investigation (hereafter termed "National Synthesis") by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1994. The broad goals of this National Synthesis are to: (1) describe current water- quality conditions with respect to VOCs; (2) define trends, or lack of trends, in VOCs in surface and ground water; and (3) identify, describe, and explain causal relations among the occurrence and distribution of VOCs in surface water and ground water, and natural and human factors. The National Synthesis of VOCs in ground water has three objectives: (1) to describe their occurrence, status, and distribution; (2) to determine relations among VOCs in shallow ground water and natural and human factors; and (3) to determine, compare, and contrast the occurrence, transformation, transport, and fate of selected VOCs in the hydrologic cycle for several regionally or nationally important aquifer systems. The description of VOC occurrence, status, and distribution in ground water focuses on major aquifers of the United States. Occurrence describes the presence or absence of VOCs, their frequency of occurrence, and their ranges of concentrations. Status compares the concentrations of VOCs detected in relation to water-quality regulations or advisories, such as Maximum Contaminant Levels, Proposed Maximum Contaminant Levels, Maximum Contaminant Level Goals, and Health Advisories. Distribution describes the variability of VOCs in ground water, areally and by depth. This report describes the study design for conducting such an assessment. The assessment focuses on aquifers, or parts of

  9. Recent distribution and status of nesting bald eagles in Baja California, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Conant, B.; Anderson, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    We studied Bald Eagles(Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting in Baja California, Mexico, and vicinity from 1983-1993. The range of nesting Bald Eagles in Baja California has been reduced from a scattering of pairs along both the Pacific and Gulf sides to a remnant population in Magdalena Bay where no more than three pairs were found annually. Low numbers and a restricted distribution make this disjunct population especially vulnerable to human disturbance. Additional protection of present nesting localities and a reintroduction program on remote islands in the Gulf of California where eagles historically nested, are proposed. Limited data on nesting success indicate that the Magdalena Bay population is reproducing successfully with young probably dispersing north following fledging. The Bald Eagles found wintering along the Colorado River Delta in January apparently nest farther north in the United States or Canada.

  10. Spatial distribution of selected heavy metals and soil fertility status in south-eastern Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saljnikov, E.; Mrvic, V.; Cakmak, D.; Nikoloski, M.; Perovic, V.; Kostic, L.; Brebanovic, B.

    2009-04-01

    (Sluzbeni glasnik RS, 1994). However, 19 % of samples showed contamination or potential contamination with one or other toxic elements, where As was the most often pollutant. Contaminated sites is the results of both, geochemical composition of the area and anthropogenic pollution. Our study gives a clear picture of the status of soil fertility and the level of soil pollution with selected heavy metals. The rezults of this study build the foundation for further detailed investigations of effects of higher concentrations of pollutants on plants and other components of biosphere, which in turn would help in finding measures for amelioratin and/or prevention of eventual negative consequences.

  11. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0-20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20-30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20-50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20-50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants' ability to access nutrients and water. An optimal

  12. Soil Tillage Management Affects Maize Grain Yield by Regulating Spatial Distribution Coordination of Roots, Soil Moisture and Nitrogen Status

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinbing; Zhou, Baoyuan; Sun, Xuefang; Yue, Yang; Ma, Wei; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The spatial distribution of the root system through the soil profile has an impact on moisture and nutrient uptake by plants, affecting growth and productivity. The spatial distribution of the roots, soil moisture, and fertility are affected by tillage practices. The combination of high soil density and the presence of a soil plow pan typically impede the growth of maize (Zea mays L.).We investigated the spatial distribution coordination of the root system, soil moisture, and N status in response to different soil tillage treatments (NT: no-tillage, RT: rotary-tillage, SS: subsoiling) and the subsequent impact on maize yield, and identify yield-increasing mechanisms and optimal soil tillage management practices. Field experiments were conducted on the Huang-Huai-Hai plain in China during 2011 and 2012. The SS and RT treatments significantly reduced soil bulk density in the top 0–20 cm layer of the soil profile, while SS significantly decreased soil bulk density in the 20–30 cm layer. Soil moisture in the 20–50 cm profile layer was significantly higher for the SS treatment compared to the RT and NT treatment. In the 0-20 cm topsoil layer, the NT treatment had higher soil moisture than the SS and RT treatments. Root length density of the SS treatment was significantly greater than density of the RT and NT treatments, as soil depth increased. Soil moisture was reduced in the soil profile where root concentration was high. SS had greater soil moisture depletion and a more concentration root system than RT and NT in deep soil. Our results suggest that the SS treatment improved the spatial distribution of root density, soil moisture and N states, thereby promoting the absorption of soil moisture and reducing N leaching via the root system in the 20–50 cm layer of the profile. Within the context of the SS treatment, a root architecture densely distributed deep into the soil profile, played a pivotal role in plants’ ability to access nutrients and water. An

  13. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in Kenai Fjords, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, M.; Piatt, J.F.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is a candidate species for listing under the US Endangered Species Act because of its apparent declines within core population areas of coastal Alaska. During the summers of 2006-2008, we conducted surveys in marine waters adjacent to Kenai Fjords National Park, Alaska, to estimate the current population size of Kittlitz's and Marbled murrelets B. marmoratus and examine seasonal variability in distribution within coastal fjords. We also evaluated historical data to estimate trend. Based on an average of point estimates, we find the recent population (95% CI) of Kittlitz's Murrelet to be 716 (353-1080) individuals, that of Marbled Murrelet to be 6690 (5427-7953) individuals, and all Brachyramphus murrelets combined to number 8186 (6978-9393) birds. Within-season density estimates showed Kittlitz's Murrelets generally increased between June and July, but dispersed rapidly by August, while Marbled Murrelets generally increased throughout the summer. Trends in Kittlitz's and Marbled murrelet populations were difficult to assess with confidence. Methods for counting or sampling murrelets varied in early decades of study, while in later years there is uncertainty due to highly variable counts among years, which may be due in part to timing of surveys relative to the spring bloom in coastal waters of the Gulf of Alaska.

  14. Distribution and status of marine birds breeding along the coasts of the Chukchi and Bering seas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartonek, J.C.; Sealy, S.G.

    1979-01-01

    The Alaska coast fronting on the Chukchi and Bering seas, exclusive of the Aleutian Islands, supports seven complexes of marine bird colonies numbering more than 1 million birds each, nine colonies of 100,000 to almost 1 million birds, and many smaller colonies. Colonies are found on most headlands and islands and are dominated numerically by alcids and kittiwakes (Rissa sp.). Estuarine habitats (mainly the lowlands of northern Seward Peninsula, Yukon-Kuskokwim delta, and the north side of the Alaska Peninsula) are extremely important for breeding and migrating marine waterfowl, shorebirds, gulls (Larus sp.), and terns (Sterna sp.). Information on population size and distribution of breeding marine birds within this area is extensive for only a few of the more heavily hunted species of waterfowl. Except for the intensive and systematic censusing of a few colonies in this region, population data on cliff-, burrow-, and crevice-nesting birds are such that all but gross changes in numbers may go unnoticed, and if noticed they could not be measured.

  15. Pest status and distribution of the stem borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas.

    PubMed

    Buschman, Lawrent L; Sloderbeck, Phillip E

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  16. Pest Status and Distribution of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Buschman, Lawrent L.; Sloderbeck, Phillip E.

    2010-01-01

    The Dectes stem borer, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is currently receiving increased attention as a pest of soybeans in the Great Plains of North America. Field surveys were conducted in 1999 and in 2008 to record the distribution of this pest in Kansas. These surveys documented an increase in the abundance of the pest and an expansion in the range of this insect westward and eastward. The percentage of fields with more than 50% of plants infested also increased from 4% in 1999 to 11% in 2008. The far eastern counties still had surprisingly few infested fields even though much of the Kansas soybean acreage is located in these counties. It is not clear if D. texanus simply haven't expanded into eastern Kansas yet or if there is an ecological barrier that keeps them from doing so. Field crop entomologists from across eastern North America were sent an email questionnaire and their responses indicate that this pest is now well established as a pest of soybeans in at least 14 states across eastern North America. PMID:21268702

  17. A local-world heterogeneous model of wireless sensor networks with node and link diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shudong; Li, Lixiang; Yang, Yixian

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we present a novel local-world model of wireless sensor networks (WSN) with two kinds of nodes: sensor nodes and sink nodes, which is different from other models with identical nodes and links. The model balances energy consumption by limiting the connectivity of sink nodes to prolong the life of the network. How the proportion of sink nodes, different energy distribution and the local-world scale would affect the topological structure and network performance are investigated. We find that, using mean-field theory, the degree distribution is obtained as an integral with respect to the proportion of sink nodes and energy distribution. We also show that, the model exhibits a mixed connectivity correlation which is greatly distinct from general networks. Moreover, from the perspective of the efficiency and the average hops for data processing, we find some suitable range of the proportion p of sink nodes would make the network model have optimal performance for data processing.

  18. Status of the Direct Data Distribution (D(exp 3)) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wald, Lawrence

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center's Direct Data Distribution (D3) project will demonstrate an advanced, high-performance communications system that transmits information from an advanced technology payload carried by a NASA spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) to a small receiving terminal on Earth. The space-based communications package will utilize a solid-state, K-band phased-array antenna that electronically steers the radiated energy beam toward a low-cost, tracking ground terminal, thereby providing agile, vibration-free, electronic steering at reduced size and weight with increased reliability. The array-based link will also demonstrate new digital processing technology that will allow the transmission of substantially increased amounts of latency-tolerant data collected from the LEO spacecraft directly to NASA field centers, principal investigators, or into the commercial terrestrial communications network. The technologies demonstrated by D3 will facilitate NASA's transition from using Government-owned communication assets to using commercial communication services. The hardware for D3 will incorporate advanced technology components developed under the High Rate Data Delivery (HRDD) Thrust Area of NASA's Office of Aerospace Technology Space Base Program at Glenn's Communications Technology Division. The flight segment components will include the electrically steerable phased-array antenna, which is being built by the Raytheon System Corporation and utilizes monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) technology operating at 19.05 GHz; and the digital encoder/modulator chipset, which uses four-channel orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). The encoder/modulator will use a chipset developed by SICOM, Inc., which is both bandwidth and power efficient. The ground segment components will include a low-cost, open-loop tracking ground terminal incorporating a cryoreceiver to minimize terminal size without compromising receiver capability. The project is

  19. Aggressive Digital Papillary Adenocarcinoma: Case Report of a Positive Sentinel Lymph Node and Discussion of Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kempton, Steve J; Navarrete, Andrew D; Salyapongse, A Neil

    2015-07-01

    Aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma (ADPA) is an uncommon eccrine sweat gland tumor of the distal extremities that is associated with a high rate of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Current opinion suggests that sentinel lymph node evaluation should be done for high-risk tumors where lymph node spread is a concern. Despite documented spread to regional lymph nodes, information on sentinel lymph node status in ADPA is reported infrequently, with only 1 documented case of positive findings. We report on a case of ADPA of the right long finger where sentinel lymph node biopsy was done and positive for metastases in the axilla, resulting in a subsequent completion lymphadenectomy. To determine the benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy in ADPA, there is a need for more cases of sentinel lymph node evaluation along with data on local recurrence and distant metastasis in those with positive and negative findings. PMID:25954845

  20. Regional lymph node staging in breast cancer: the increasing role of imaging and ultrasound-guided axillary lymph node fine needle aspiration.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B

    2010-09-01

    The status of axillary lymph nodes is a key prognostic indicator in patients with breast cancer and helps guide patient management. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is increasingly being used as a less morbid alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. However, when sentinel lymph node biopsy is positive, axillary dissection is typically performed for complete staging and local control. Axillary ultrasound and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (USFNA) are useful for detecting axillary nodal metastasis preoperatively and can spare patients sentinel node biopsy, because those with positive cytology on USFNA can proceed directly to axillary dissection or neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Internal mammary nodes are not routinely evaluated, but when the appearance of these nodes is abnormal on imaging, further treatment or metastatic evaluation may be necessary. PMID:20868896

  1. Heuristic status polling

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Parker, Jeffrey J.; Ratterman, Joseph D.

    2011-06-07

    Methods, compute nodes, and computer program products are provided for heuristic status polling of a component in a computing system. Embodiments include receiving, by a polling module from a requesting application, a status request requesting status of a component; determining, by the polling module, whether an activity history for the component satisfies heuristic polling criteria; polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component satisfies the heuristic polling criteria; and not polling, by the polling module, the component for status if the activity history for the component does not satisfy the heuristic criteria.

  2. Seasonal Training Load Distribution of Professional Futsal Players: Effects on Physical Fitness, Muscle Damage and Hormonal Status.

    PubMed

    Miloski, Bernardo; de Freitas, Victor H; Nakamura, Fábio Y; de A Nogueira, Francine C; Bara-Filho, Maurício G

    2016-06-01

    Miloski, B, de Freitas, VH, Nakamura, FY, de A Nogueira, FC, and Bara-Filho, MG. Seasonal training load distribution of professional futsal players: effects on physical fitness, muscle damage and hormonal status. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1525-1533, 2016-The aims of the present study were to describe the training load (TL) distribution of a professional futsal team and verify its subsequent effects on physical performance, muscle damage, and hormonal status. Twelve male professional futsal players (24.3 ± 4.7 years old; 75.5 ± 7.7 kg; and 173.4 ± 4.5 cm) participated in this study. A training program of 22 weeks (6 weeks of pre-season and 16 weeks of in-season) was analyzed. The session rating of perceived exertion method was used to monitor TLs. Physical tests (PTs; countermovement jump (CMJ), 5- and 20-m sprint, T-test, and multistage 20-m shuttle-run tests) were performed 4 times throughout the season (PT1-PT4). Blood sample (BS) collection (Creatine kinase [CK], testosterone, and cortisol) was performed in 7 occasions (BS1-BS7). TLs were higher in pre-season compared to in-season (p < 0.001). Countermovement jumps (CMJs) and 5- and 20-m performances were better in PT3 (CMJ: 0/23/77, 5-m: 0/3/97, and 20-m: 0/1/99) and PT4 (CMJ: 0/8/92, 5- and 20-m: 0/0/100) than in PT1; T-test performance and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was better in all moments compared with those of PT1 (0/0/100). Higher CK concentration (p = 0.03) and testosterone to cortisol (T:C) ratio values (p = 0.02) were detected in BS2 vs. BS1. An increase in C (p = 0.007) and a decrease in T:C ratio (p = 0.003) was observed from BS4 to BS5. The training program demonstrated higher TLs during the periods with low incidence of matches, emphasis on endurance and strength training during pre-season, speed and power training throughout in-season. This TL organization provides sufficient stimulus for appropriate physical fitness development in professional futsal players, without causing negative

  3. Right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Shaha, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Zhang1 and colleagues at Peking Union Medical College in Beijing have described their experience of dissecting the right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis and correlated the overall incidence to important prognostic factors of the primary tumor and lateral nodal metastasis. Zhang et al., reviewed their experience of 246 patients who underwent surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma. They noted right paraesophageal lymph node metastasis (RPELN) in 33 patients (13.4%). Their multivariate analysis showed higher incidence of RPELN metastasis in patients with right sided tumor, 3 of more lateral positive lymph nodes and positive right central compartment nodes. The prevalence of RPELN metastasis was significantly higher (26%) in recurrent cases. PMID:26610750

  4. Pelvic Lymph Node Status Assessed by 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Predicts Low-Risk Group for Distant Recurrence in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer: A Prospective Study

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Sokbom; Park, Jung-Yeol; Lim, Myung-Chul; Song, Yong-Joong; Park, Se-Hyun; Kim, Seok-Ki; Chung, Dae-Chul; Seo, Sang-Soo; Kim, Joo-Young; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a prediction model to identify a low-risk group for distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer treated by concurrent chemoradiation. Methods and Materials: Prospectively, 62 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer were recruited as a training cohort. Clinical variables and parameters obtained from positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging were analyzed by logistic regression. For the test set, 54 patients were recruited independently. To identify the low-risk group, negative likelihood ratio (LR) less than 0.2 was set to be a cutoff. Results: Among the training cohort, multivariate logistic analysis revealed that advanced International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage and a high serum squamous cancer cell (SCC) antigen level were significant risk factors (p = 0.015 and 0.025, respectively). Using the two parameters, criteria to determine a low-risk subset for distant recurrence were postulated: (1) FIGO Stage IIB or less and (2) pretreatment SCC < 2.4 (Model A). Positive pelvic node on PET completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and thus was considered as another prediction model (Model B). In the test cohort, although Model A did not showed diagnostic performance, Model B completely predicted all cases with distant recurrence and showed a sensitivity of 100% with negative LR of 0. Across the training and test cohort (n = 116), the false negative rate was 0 (95% confidence interval 0%-7.6%). Conclusions: Positive pelvic node on PET is a useful marker in prediction of distant recurrence in patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who are treated with concurrent chemoradiation.

  5. Design and implementation of a status at a glance user interface for a power distribution expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberman, Eugene M.; Manner, David B.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    Expert systems are widely used in health monitoring and fault detection applications. One of the key features of an expert system is that it possesses a large body of knowledge about the application for which it was designed. When the user consults this knowledge base, it is essential that the expert system's reasoning process and its conclusions be as concise as possible. If, in addition, an expert system is part of a process monitoring system, the expert system's conclusions must be combined with current events of the process. Under these circumstances, it is difficult for a user to absorb and respond to all the available information. For example, a user can become distracted and confused if two or more unrelated devices in different parts of the system require attention. A human interface designed to integrate expert system diagnoses with process data and to focus the user's attention to the important matters provides a solution to the 'information overload' problem. This paper will discuss a user interface to the power distribution expert system for Space Station Freedom. The importance of features which simplify assessing system status and which minimize navigating through layers of information will be discussed. Design rationale and implementation choices will also be presented.

  6. Compression in wearable sensor nodes: impacts of node topology.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Syed Anas; Casson, Alexander J; Rodriguez-Villegas, Esther

    2014-04-01

    Wearable sensor nodes monitoring the human body must operate autonomously for very long periods of time. Online and low-power data compression embedded within the sensor node is therefore essential to minimize data storage/transmission overheads. This paper presents a low-power MSP430 compressive sensing implementation for providing such compression, focusing particularly on the impact of the sensor node architecture on the compression performance. Compression power performance is compared for four different sensor nodes incorporating different strategies for wireless transmission/on-sensor-node local storage of data. The results demonstrate that the compressive sensing used must be designed differently depending on the underlying node topology, and that the compression strategy should not be guided only by signal processing considerations. We also provide a practical overview of state-of-the-art sensor node topologies. Wireless transmission of data is often preferred as it offers increased flexibility during use, but in general at the cost of increased power consumption. We demonstrate that wireless sensor nodes can highly benefit from the use of compressive sensing and now can achieve power consumptions comparable to, or better than, the use of local memory. PMID:24658233

  7. Sentinel Node Biopsy Interpretation: The Milan Experience.

    PubMed

    Galimberti, Viviana; Zurrida, Stefano; Intra, Mattia; Monti, Simonetta; Arnone, Paolo; Pruneri, Giancarlo; De Cicco, Concetta

    2000-10-01

    From March 1996 to December 1999 we performed 1,266 sentinel node biopsies (SNBs) in patients with small breast cancers. The technique is to inject technetium 99m-labeled albumin particles close to the tumor, locate the sentinel node (SN) scintigraphically, and use a handheld gamma-detecting probe to guide its removal via a small incision during breast surgery. Our experience was divided into three phases. In the first phase, complete axillary dissection was performed to assess the accuracy of SNB in predicting axillary status. We also assessed safety, perfected tracer injection technique, determined optimal particle size and radioactivity levels, optimized lymphoscintigraphic scanning, and perfected the surgical technique. The SN was identified and removed in 98.7% of cases. Comparison with complete axillary dissection showed that the SN predicted axillary status in 96.8% of cases. However, use of an intraoperative frozen section method predicted axillary status in only 86.5% of cases. In the second phase we developed a new method for intraoperative histologic analysis. Extensive sampling (up to 60 sections/SN) and an experienced pathologist proved more important than use of antikeratin immunostaining in identifying tumor cells, and the new method has the accuracy of a definitive histologic examination. The third phase, a randomized trial, closed at the end of 1999. Trial objectives were to confirm that the SN predicts axillary status, to determine the number of axillary relapses, and to assess overall and disease-free survival. Patients were randomized in the operating room to complete axillary dissection or SNB. If the SN was positive, complete axillary dissection was performed; if the SN was negative, no further axillary treatment was given. We expect the trial to confirm our clinical experience that SNB is a safe and accurate procedure for staging patients with early breast cancer and a clinically negative axilla. PMID:11348387

  8. [Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas].

    PubMed

    Vasil'ev, N V

    2016-01-01

    Lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas is a rather rare phenomenon; according to different authors, the incidence of lymph node metastasis is 4 to 11%. The detection of lymph node metastases in osteosarcoma is associated with a significant reduction in the 5-year survival of patients and allows its classification as clinical stage IV tumor. The risk factors for lymph node metastases in patients with bone sarcomas are age (≥64 years), gender (female), nosological entity (undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma), tumor depth (muscle, bone), and the size of primary tumor (>5 сm). The mechanism of lymph node metastasis of osteosarcomas seems to be related to mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. PMID:27600784

  9. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-03-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large.

  10. Understanding the influence of all nodes in a network

    PubMed Central

    Lawyer, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Centrality measures such as the degree, k-shell, or eigenvalue centrality can identify a network's most influential nodes, but are rarely usefully accurate in quantifying the spreading power of the vast majority of nodes which are not highly influential. The spreading power of all network nodes is better explained by considering, from a continuous-time epidemiological perspective, the distribution of the force of infection each node generates. The resulting metric, the expected force, accurately quantifies node spreading power under all primary epidemiological models across a wide range of archetypical human contact networks. When node power is low, influence is a function of neighbor degree. As power increases, a node's own degree becomes more important. The strength of this relationship is modulated by network structure, being more pronounced in narrow, dense networks typical of social networking and weakening in broader, looser association networks such as the Internet. The expected force can be computed independently for individual nodes, making it applicable for networks whose adjacency matrix is dynamic, not well specified, or overwhelmingly large. PMID:25727453

  11. Use of transcutaneous ultrasonography to characterize ovarian status, size distribution, and hierarchical status of follicles in Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Sreesujatha, R M; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, A; Balasundaram, Chellam

    2016-09-15

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ovarian status of matured breeding female Japanese quail by means of B Mode portable ultrasound scanning. Active ovaries in various stages of hierarchical development and different morphological structure were observed. The large yellow follicles appeared as a cluster of dark circles with various intensity of hyperechoic concentric ring. Sonographically, these follicles were classified into F1, F2, and F3 measuring 16.20 ± 0.06 mm, 12.48 ± 0.09 mm, and 7.95 ± 0.16 mm, respectively. A comparative study on preslaughter and postslaughter ovarian follicular status revealed accuracy of follicles less than 10 mm, 10-15 mm, 15-18 mm, and greater than 18 mm as 26.31%, 78.9%, 93.75%, and 100%, respectively, with an overall accuracy of 71%. This is the first report on the application of transcutaneous ultrasonographic technique to monitor ovarian status on Japanese quail reporting that the ovarian follicular activity and morphological structure can be monitored nonintrusively throughout quail life which can used as model for reproductive and biomedical research. PMID:27233352

  12. Comparison of Positron Emission Tomography Scanning and Sentinel Node Biopsy in the Detection of Inguinal Node Metastases in Patients With Anal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Mistrangelo, Massimiliano; Pelosi, Ettore; Bello, Marilena; Castellano, Isabella; Cassoni, Paola; Ricardi, Umberto; Munoz, Fernando; Racca, Patrizia; Contu, Viviana; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Morino, Mario; Mussa, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Background: Inguinal lymph node metastases in patients with anal cancer are an independent prognostic factor for local failure and overall mortality. Inguinal lymph node status can be adequately assessed with sentinel node biopsy, and the radiotherapy strategy can subsequently be changed. We compared this technique vs. dedicated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) to determine which was the better tool for staging inguinal lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: In our department, 27 patients (9 men and 18 women) underwent both inguinal sentinel node biopsy and PET-CT. PET-CT was performed before treatment and then at 1 and 3 months after treatment. Results: PET-CT scans detected no inguinal metastases in 20 of 27 patients and metastases in the remaining 7. Histologic analysis of the sentinel lymph node detected metastases in only three patients (four PET-CT false positives). HIV status was not found to influence the results. None of the patients negative at sentinel node biopsy developed metastases during the follow-up period. PET-CT had a sensitivity of 100%, with a negative predictive value of 100%. Owing to the high number of false positives, PET-CT specificity was 83%, and positive predictive value was 43%. Conclusions: In this series of patients with anal cancer, inguinal sentinel node biopsy was superior to PET-CT for staging inguinal lymph nodes.

  13. Final report for the mobile node authentication LDRD project.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, John T.; Lanzone, Andrew J.

    2005-09-01

    In hostile ad hoc wireless communication environments, such as battlefield networks, end-node authentication is critical. In a wired infrastructure, this authentication service is typically facilitated by a centrally-located ''authentication certificate generator'' such as a Certificate Authority (CA) server. This centralized approach is ill-suited to meet the needs of mobile ad hoc networks, such as those required by military systems, because of the unpredictable connectivity and dynamic routing. There is a need for a secure and robust approach to mobile node authentication. Current mechanisms either assign a pre-shared key (shared by all participating parties) or require that each node retain a collection of individual keys that are used to communicate with other individual nodes. Both of these approaches have scalability issues and allow a single compromised node to jeopardize the entire mobile node community. In this report, we propose replacing the centralized CA with a distributed CA whose responsibilities are shared between a set of select network nodes. To that end, we develop a protocol that relies on threshold cryptography to perform the fundamental CA duties in a distributed fashion. The protocol is meticulously defined and is implemented it in a series of detailed models. Using these models, mobile wireless scenarios were created on a communication simulator to test the protocol in an operational environment and to gather statistics on its scalability and performance.

  14. Crocodiles in the Sahara Desert: An Update of Distribution, Habitats and Population Status for Conservation Planning in Mauritania

    PubMed Central

    Brito, José C.; Martínez-Freiría, Fernando; Sierra, Pablo; Sillero, Neftalí; Tarroso, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Background Relict populations of Crocodylus niloticus persist in Chad, Egypt and Mauritania. Although crocodiles were widespread throughout the Sahara until the early 20th century, increased aridity combined with human persecution led to local extinction. Knowledge on distribution, occupied habitats, population size and prey availability is scarce in most populations. This study evaluates the status of Saharan crocodiles and provides new data for Mauritania to assist conservation planning. Methodology/Principal Findings A series of surveys in Mauritania detected crocodile presence in 78 localities dispersed across 10 river basins and most tended to be isolated within river basins. Permanent gueltas and seasonal tâmoûrts were the most common occupied habitats. Crocodile encounters ranged from one to more than 20 individuals, but in most localities less than five crocodiles were observed. Larger numbers were observed after the rainy season and during night sampling. Crocodiles were found dead in between water points along dry river-beds suggesting the occurrence of dispersal. Conclusion/Significance Research priorities in Chad and Egypt should focus on quantifying population size and pressures exerted on habitats. The present study increased in by 35% the number of known crocodile localities in Mauritania. Gueltas are crucial for the persistence of mountain populations. Oscillations in water availability throughout the year and the small dimensions of gueltas affect biological traits, including activity and body size. Studies are needed to understand adaptation traits of desert populations. Molecular analyses are needed to quantify genetic variability, population sub-structuring and effective population size, and detect the occurrence of gene flow. Monitoring is needed to detect demographical and genetical trends in completely isolated populations. Crocodiles are apparently vulnerable during dispersal events. Awareness campaigns focusing on the vulnerability and

  15. Node Self-Deployment Algorithm Based on an Uneven Cluster with Radius Adjusting for Underwater Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yiming; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Existing move-restricted node self-deployment algorithms are based on a fixed node communication radius, evaluate the performance based on network coverage or the connectivity rate and do not consider the number of nodes near the sink node and the energy consumption distribution of the network topology, thereby degrading network reliability and the energy consumption balance. Therefore, we propose a distributed underwater node self-deployment algorithm. First, each node begins the uneven clustering based on the distance on the water surface. Each cluster head node selects its next-hop node to synchronously construct a connected path to the sink node. Second, the cluster head node adjusts its depth while maintaining the layout formed by the uneven clustering and then adjusts the positions of in-cluster nodes. The algorithm originally considers the network reliability and energy consumption balance during node deployment and considers the coverage redundancy rate of all positions that a node may reach during the node position adjustment. Simulation results show, compared to the connected dominating set (CDS) based depth computation algorithm, that the proposed algorithm can increase the number of the nodes near the sink node and improve network reliability while guaranteeing the network connectivity rate. Moreover, it can balance energy consumption during network operation, further improve network coverage rate and reduce energy consumption. PMID:26784193

  16. Node Self-Deployment Algorithm Based on an Uneven Cluster with Radius Adjusting for Underwater Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Peng; Xu, Yiming; Wu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Existing move-restricted node self-deployment algorithms are based on a fixed node communication radius, evaluate the performance based on network coverage or the connectivity rate and do not consider the number of nodes near the sink node and the energy consumption distribution of the network topology, thereby degrading network reliability and the energy consumption balance. Therefore, we propose a distributed underwater node self-deployment algorithm. First, each node begins the uneven clustering based on the distance on the water surface. Each cluster head node selects its next-hop node to synchronously construct a connected path to the sink node. Second, the cluster head node adjusts its depth while maintaining the layout formed by the uneven clustering and then adjusts the positions of in-cluster nodes. The algorithm originally considers the network reliability and energy consumption balance during node deployment and considers the coverage redundancy rate of all positions that a node may reach during the node position adjustment. Simulation results show, compared to the connected dominating set (CDS) based depth computation algorithm, that the proposed algorithm can increase the number of the nodes near the sink node and improve network reliability while guaranteeing the network connectivity rate. Moreover, it can balance energy consumption during network operation, further improve network coverage rate and reduce energy consumption. PMID:26784193

  17. Correlated Spatio-Temporal Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks Based on Low Rank Matrix Approximation and Optimized Node Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Xinglin; Hu, Yongli; Sun, Yanfeng; Yin, Baocai; Gao, Junbin

    2014-01-01

    The emerging low rank matrix approximation (LRMA) method provides an energy efficient scheme for data collection in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) by randomly sampling a subset of sensor nodes for data sensing. However, the existing LRMA based methods generally underutilize the spatial or temporal correlation of the sensing data, resulting in uneven energy consumption and thus shortening the network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a correlated spatio-temporal data collection method for WSNs based on LRMA. In the proposed method, both the temporal consistence and the spatial correlation of the sensing data are simultaneously integrated under a new LRMA model. Moreover, the network energy consumption issue is considered in the node sampling procedure. We use Gini index to measure both the spatial distribution of the selected nodes and the evenness of the network energy status, then formulate and resolve an optimization problem to achieve optimized node sampling. The proposed method is evaluated on both the simulated and real wireless networks and compared with state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show the proposed method efficiently reduces the energy consumption of network and prolongs the network lifetime with high data recovery accuracy and good stability. PMID:25490583

  18. Connecting node and method for constructing a connecting node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Christopher J. (Inventor); Raboin, Jasen L. (Inventor); Spexarth, Gary R. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A connecting node comprises a polyhedral structure comprising a plurality of panels joined together at its side edges to form a spherical approximation, wherein at least one of the plurality of panels comprises a faceted surface being constructed with a passage for integrating with one of a plurality of elements comprising a docking port, a hatch, and a window that is attached to the connecting node. A method for manufacturing a connecting node comprises the steps of providing a plurality of panels, connecting the plurality of panels to form a spherical approximation, wherein each edge of each panel of the plurality is joined to another edge of another panel, and constructing at least one of the plurality of panels to include a passage for integrating at least one of a plurality of elements that may be attached to the connecting node.

  19. The role of sentinel lymph-node biopsy (SLNB) in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Casà, Luigi; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio; Riili, Ignazio; Ficola, Umberto; Russo, Leila

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph-node biopsy is an innovative method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, based on the concept that information about the status of the entire lymphatic drainage from a tumour site could be obtained by identification and sampling of a "sentinel node". The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of sentinel lymph-node biopsy in the management of patients with early invasive breast carcinoma. Three hundred and forty-one patients with primary invasive breast carcinoma measuring less than 2 cm (less than 3 cm from January 2001) and clinically negative axillary nodes were recruited into the study. Sentinel lymph-nodes were positive for metastases in 108/341 cases (31.7%). Micrometastases were found in 22 patients and isolated tumour cells in 1 case. The mean number of sentinel lymph-nodes removed was 1.8 per patient. The sentinel lymph-node was the only positive node in 57 of 108 patients (52.8%). The percentage of axillary recurrence in sentinel lymph-node-negative patients was 0%. The accuracy of sentinel lymph-node biopsy for axillary staging has been confirmed in many studies. Axillary recurrences after sentinel lymph-node biopsy range from 0 to 1.6% in many series, while axillary recurrence after axillary lymph-node dissection is about 0-3%. In our experience we observed no axillary recurrences in 233 patients with sentinel lymph-node biopsy alone, with a median follow-up of 33 months, confirming the accuracy of the procedure, and sentinel lymph-node-negative patients with sentinel lymph-node biopsy alone are no more at risk for axillary recurrences than those undergoing axillary lymph-node dissection. PMID:16845865

  20. Current distribution, habitat, and status of Category 2 candidate plant species on and near the U.S. Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, Kevin W.; Lindemann, Tim A.; Lyon, Glen E.; Steen, Dan C.; Wills, Cathy A.; Flick, Sarah A.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1995-12-31

    Results of surveys conducted between 1991 and 1995 were used to document the distribution and habitat of 11 Category 2 candidate plant species known to occur on or near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Approximately 200 areas encompassing about 13,000 ha were surveyed. Distributions of all species except Frasera-pahutensis and Phaceliaparishii were increased, and the ranges of Camissonia megalantha, Galium hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, Penstemon albomarginatus, and Penstemon pahutensis were expanded. The status of each species was assessed based on current distribution population trends, and potential threats. Recommendations were made to reclassi& the following five species to Category 3C: Arctomecon merriamii, F. pahutensis, P. pahutensis, Phacelia beatleyae, and Phaceliaparishii. Two species, C. megalantha and Cymopterus ripIeyi var. saniculoides, were recommended for reclassification to Category 3B status. No recommendation was made to reclassify Astragalus funereus, G. hilendiae ssp. kingstonense, P. albomarginatus, or Penstemon fruticiformis var. amargosae from their current Category 2 status. Populations of these four species are not threatened on NTS, but the NTS populations represent only a.small portion of each species’ range and the potential threats of mining or grazing activities off NTS on these species was notassessed. Conservation measures recommended included the development of an NTS ecosystem conservation plan, continued conduct of preactivity and plant surveys on NTS, and protection of plant type localities on NTS.

  1. Human Papillomavirus and Cystic Node Metastasis in Oropharyngeal Cancer and Cancer of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Yasui, Toshimichi; Morii, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Yoshii, Tadashi; Takenaka, Yukinori; Nakahara, Susumu; Todo, Takeshi; Inohara, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    The clinical significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in neck node metastasis from cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is not well established. We aimed to address the relationship of HPV status between node metastasis and the primary tumor, and also the relevance of HPV status regarding radiographically detected cystic node metastasis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and CUP. HPV DNA was examined in 68 matched pairs of node metastasis and primary tumor, and in node metastasis from 27 CUPs. In surgically treated CUPs, p16 was examined immunohistochemically. When tonsillectomy proved occult tonsillar cancer in CUP, HPV DNA and p16 were also examined in the occult primary. Cystic node metastasis on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scans was correlated with the primary site and HPV status in another series of 255 HNSCCs and CUPs with known HPV status. Node metastasis was HPV-positive in 19/37 (51%) oropharyngeal SCCs (OPSCCs) and 10/27 (37%) CUPs, but not in non-OPSCCs. Fluid was collected from cystic node metastasis using fine needle aspiration in two OPSCCs and one CUP, and all fluid collections were HPV-positive. HPV status, including the presence of HPV DNA, genotype, and physical status, as well as the expression pattern of p16 were consistent between node metastasis and primary or occult primary tumor. Occult tonsillar cancer was found more frequently in p16-positive CUP than in p16-negative CUP (odds ratio (OR), 39.0; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.4–377.8; P = 0.02). Radiographically, cystic node metastasis was specific to OPSCC and CUP, and was associated with HPV positivity relative to necrotic or solid node metastasis (OR, 6.2; 95% CI, 1.2–45.7; P = 0.03). In conclusion, HPV status remains unchanged after metastasis. The occult primary of HPV-positive CUP is most probably localized in the oropharynx. HPV status determined from fine needle aspirates facilitates the diagnosis of cystic node metastasis. PMID:24752007

  2. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-11-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics.

  3. Predicting Node Degree Centrality with the Node Prominence Profile

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Dong, Yuxiao; Chawla, Nitesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Centrality of a node measures its relative importance within a network. There are a number of applications of centrality, including inferring the influence or success of an individual in a social network, and the resulting social network dynamics. While we can compute the centrality of any node in a given network snapshot, a number of applications are also interested in knowing the potential importance of an individual in the future. However, current centrality is not necessarily an effective predictor of future centrality. While there are different measures of centrality, we focus on degree centrality in this paper. We develop a method that reconciles preferential attachment and triadic closure to capture a node's prominence profile. We show that the proposed node prominence profile method is an effective predictor of degree centrality. Notably, our analysis reveals that individuals in the early stage of evolution display a distinctive and robust signature in degree centrality trend, adequately predicted by their prominence profile. We evaluate our work across four real-world social networks. Our findings have important implications for the applications that require prediction of a node's future degree centrality, as well as the study of social network dynamics. PMID:25429797

  4. Vulnerability of critical infrastructures : identifying critical nodes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Robinson, David Gerald

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this research was the development of tools and techniques for the identification of critical nodes within critical infrastructures. These are nodes that, if disrupted through natural events or terrorist action, would cause the most widespread, immediate damage. This research focuses on one particular element of the national infrastructure: the bulk power system. Through the identification of critical elements and the quantification of the consequences of their failure, site-specific vulnerability analyses can be focused at those locations where additional security measures could be effectively implemented. In particular, with appropriate sizing and placement within the grid, distributed generation in the form of regional power parks may reduce or even prevent the impact of widespread network power outages. Even without additional security measures, increased awareness of sensitive power grid locations can provide a basis for more effective national, state and local emergency planning. A number of methods for identifying critical nodes were investigated: small-world (or network theory), polyhedral dynamics, and an artificial intelligence-based search method - particle swarm optimization. PSO was found to be the only viable approach and was applied to a variety of industry accepted test networks to validate the ability of the approach to identify sets of critical nodes. The approach was coded in a software package called Buzzard and integrated with a traditional power flow code. A number of industry accepted test networks were employed to validate the approach. The techniques (and software) are not unique to power grid network, but could be applied to a variety of complex, interacting infrastructures.

  5. Lymphoscintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma: a total body atlas of sentinel node mapping.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Kim, Sung M; Patel, Jayant I; Lin, Henry C; Kairys, John C

    2002-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy of malignant melanoma has been a reliable method of identifying regional lymph nodes at risk for metastases and is now considered part of the standard of care in patients with melanoma. The status of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is predictive of the metastatic status of the corresponding regional lymph node group. Lymphatic channel mapping allows identification of the SLN, thereby making selective lymph node sampling possible. Consequently, SLN identification with lymphoscintigraphy results in both less extensive surgery and more efficient pathologic examination of the lymph node specimens. Therefore, it is imperative that radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians know which radiopharmaceuticals to use, recognize different lymphatic drainage patterns from various primary tumor sites throughout the body, use proper imaging techniques, and recognize potential pitfalls in image interpretation. PMID:12006683

  6. The Imaging Node for the Planetary Data System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; LaVoie, Susan K.; Soderblom, Laurence A.

    1996-01-01

    The Planetary Data System Imaging Node maintains and distributes the archives of planetary image data acquired from NASA's flight projects with the primary goal of enabling the science community to perform image processing and analysis on the data. The Node provides direct and easy access to the digital image archives through wide distribution of the data on CD-ROM media and on-line remote-access tools by way of Internet services. The Node provides digital image processing tools and the expertise and guidance necessary to understand the image collections. The data collections, now approaching one terabyte in volume, provide a foundation for remote sensing studies for virtually all the planetary systems in our solar system (except for Pluto). The Node is responsible for restoring data sets from past missions in danger of being lost. The Node works with active flight projects to assist in the creation of their archive products and to ensure that their products and data catalogs become an integral part of the Node's data collections.

  7. Node Augmentation Technique in Bayesian Network Evidence Analysis and Marshaling

    SciTech Connect

    Keselman, Dmitry; Tompkins, George H; Leishman, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Given a Bayesian network, sensitivity analysis is an important activity. This paper begins by describing a network augmentation technique which can simplifY the analysis. Next, we present two techniques which allow the user to determination the probability distribution of a hypothesis node under conditions of uncertain evidence; i.e. the state of an evidence node or nodes is described by a user specified probability distribution. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of three criteria for ranking evidence nodes based on their influence on a hypothesis node. All of these techniques have been used in conjunction with a commercial software package. A Bayesian network based on a directed acyclic graph (DAG) G is a graphical representation of a system of random variables that satisfies the following Markov property: any node (random variable) is independent of its non-descendants given the state of all its parents (Neapolitan, 2004). For simplicities sake, we consider only discrete variables with a finite number of states, though most of the conclusions may be generalized.

  8. Coexisting coherent and incoherent domains near saddle-node bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrasekar, V. K.; Suresh, R.; Senthilkumar, D. V.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2015-09-01

    A common external forcing can cause a saddle-node bifurcation in an ensemble of identical Duffing oscillators by breaking the symmetry of the individual bistable (double-well) unit. The strength of the forcing determines the separation between the saddle and the node, which in turn dictates different dynamical transitions depending on the distribution of the initial states of the oscillators. In particular, chimera-like states appear in the vicinity of the saddle-node bifurcation for which theoretical explanation is provided from the stability of the steady state of the slow-scale dynamics of the original system of equations. Further, we have also established similar states by replacing the external forcing with an appropriate coupling between the oscillators in the same parameter space. Additionally, we have also designed an appropriate coupling that can lead to saddle-node bifurcation due to symmetry breaking of the bistable systems in the vicinity of which the synchronized and desynchronized domains coexist.

  9. Efficient server selection system for widely distributed multiserver networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-pyo; Park, Sung-sik; Lee, Kyoon-Ha

    2001-07-01

    In order to providing more improved quality of Internet service, the access speed to a subscriber's network and a server which is the Internet access device was rapidly enhanced by traffic distribution and installation of high-performance server. But the Internet access quality and the content for a speed were remained out of satisfaction. With such a hazard, an extended node at Internet access device has a limitation for coping with growing network traffic, and the root cause is located in the Middle-mile node between a CP (Content Provider) server and a user node. For such a problem, this paper proposes a new method to select a effective server to a client as minimizing the number of node between the server and the client while keeping the load balance among servers which is clustered by the client's location on the physically distributed multi-site environments. The proposed method use a NSP (Network Status Prober) and a contents server manager so as to get a status of each servers and distributed network, a new architecture will be shown for the server selecting algorithm and the implementation for the algorithm. And also, this paper shows the parameters selecting a best service providing server for client and that the grantor will be confirmed by the experiment over the proposed architectures.

  10. Interdependent networks with identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Shere, Nathaniel W.; Cwilich, Gabriel A.

    2011-01-01

    We study a problem of failure of two interdependent networks in the case of identical degrees of mutually dependent nodes. We assume that both networks (A and B) have the same number of nodes N connected by the bidirectional dependency links establishing a one-to-one correspondence between the nodes of the two networks in a such a way that the mutually dependent nodes have the same number of connectivity links; i.e., their degrees coincide. This implies that both networks have the same degree distribution P(k). We call such networks correspondently coupled networks (CCNs). We assume that the nodes in each network are randomly connected. We define the mutually connected clusters and the mutual giant component as in earlier works on randomly coupled interdependent networks and assume that only the nodes that belong to the mutual giant component remain functional. We assume that initially a 1-p fraction of nodes are randomly removed because of an attack or failure and find analytically, for an arbitrary P(k), the fraction of nodes μ(p) that belong to the mutual giant component. We find that the system undergoes a percolation transition at a certain fraction p=pc, which is always smaller than pc for randomly coupled networks with the same P(k). We also find that the system undergoes a first-order transition at pc>0 if P(k) has a finite second moment. For the case of scale-free networks with 2<λ⩽3, the transition becomes a second-order transition. Moreover, if λ<3, we find pc=0, as in percolation of a single network. For λ=3 we find an exact analytical expression for pc>0. Finally, we find that the robustness of CCN increases with the broadness of their degree distribution.

  11. 76 FR 22672 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status, Allegro Mfg. Inc. (Distribution of Cosmetic, Organizer and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (75 FR 4344-4345, 1/27/2010) and the... Cosmetic, Organizer and Electronic Bags and Accessories), Commerce, CA Pursuant to its authority under the..., therefore, the Board hereby grants authority for subzone status for activity related to cosmetic,...

  12. Expression and cell distribution of the intercellular adhesion molecule, vascular cell adhesion molecule, endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule, and endothelial cell adhesion molecule (CD31) in reactive human lymph nodes and in Hodgkin's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ruco, L. P.; Pomponi, D.; Pigott, R.; Gearing, A. J.; Baiocchini, A.; Baroni, C. D.

    1992-01-01

    The immunocytochemical expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1), endothelial leukocyte adhesion molecule (ELAM-1), endothelial cell adhesion molecule (EndoCAM CD31), and HLA-DR antigens was investigated in sections of 24 reactive lymph nodes and in 15 cases of Hodgkin's disease. ICAM-1 was detected in sinus macrophages, follicular dendritic reticulum cells (FDRCs), interdigitating reticulum cells (IDRCs), epithelioid macrophages, Hodgkin's cells (HCs), and vascular endothelium. ICAM-1 expression was often associated with that of HLA-DR antigens. VCAM-1 was detected in FDRCs, in fibroblast reticulum cells (FRCs), in macrophages, and in rare blood vessels. EndoCAM (CD31) was constitutively expressed in all types of endothelial cells, sinus macrophages, and in epithelioid granulomas. ELAM-1 was selectively expressed by activated endothelial cells of high endothelium venules (HEVs). When expression of the inducible adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and ELAM-1 was comparatively evaluated in HEVs, it was found that ICAM-1 + HEVs were present in all reactive and HD nodes, whereas ELAM-1 and/or VCAM-1 were expressed only in those pathologic conditions characterized by high levels of interleukin-1/tumor necrosis factor (IL-1/TNF) production, such as granulomatosis and Hodgkin's disease. In Hodgkin's disease, the expression of ELAM-1/VCAM-1 was more pronounced in cases of nodular sclerosis and was associated with a significantly higher content of perivascular neutrophils. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1605306

  13. New approach to anal cancer: Individualized therapy based on sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    De Nardi, Paola; Carvello, Michele; Staudacher, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Oncological treatment is currently directed toward a tailored therapy concept. Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal could be considered a suitable platform to test new therapeutic strategies to minimize treatment morbidity. Standard of care for patients with anal canal cancer consists of a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This treatment has led to a high rate of local control and a 60% cure rate with preservation of the anal sphincter, thus replacing surgical abdominoperineal resection. Lymph node metastases represent a critical independent prognostic factor for local recurrence and survival. Mesorectal and iliac lymph nodes are usually included in the radiation field, whereas the inclusion of inguinal regions still remains controversial because of the subsequent adverse side effects. Sentinel lymph node biopsies could clearly identify inguinal node-positive patients eligible for therapeutic groin irradiation. A sentinel lymph node navigation procedure is reported here to be a feasible and effective method for establishing the true inguinal node status in patients suffering from anal canal cancer. Based on the results of sentinel node biopsies, a selective approach could be proposed where node-positive patients could be selected for inguinal node irradiation while node-negative patients could take advantage of inguinal sparing irradiation, thus avoiding toxic side effects. PMID:23197880

  14. [The validity of the sentinel node concept in gastrointestinal cancers].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Y; Fujii, H; Mukai, M; Ando, N; Kubota, T; Ikeda, T; Ohgami, M; Watanabe, M; Otani, Y; Ozawa, S; Hasegawa, H; Furukawa, T; Nakahara, T; Kubo, A; Kumai, K; Kitajima, M

    2000-03-01

    Although the sentinel node concept has been validated and clinically applied to breast cancer and malignant melanoma, its clinical significance in other solid tumors has not been thoroughly investigated. With regard to gastrointestinal (GI) cancers in particular, our surgeons have been cautious because of the high frequency of skip metastasis and the complicated lymphatic system in the GI tract. We would like to emphasize that so-called skip metastasis has been defined according to anatomic classification of regional lymph nodes and that the lymphatic drainage route must be patient or lesion specific. To test the validity and feasibility of this concept in GI cancers, we have established a radio-guided intraoperative sentinel node navigation system using preoperative endoscopic submucosal injection of radioactive tracer followed by intra-operative gamma-probing. In 131 patients with GI cancers (esophagus: 22, stomach: 71, colorectum: 38), the detection rate of sentinel nades was 91% and overall diagnostic accuracy of lymph node metastasis by sentinel node status was 97%. Initial results suggest further investigation of this procedure as an accurate staging and a minimally invasive approach to early GI cancers. PMID:10774000

  15. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  16. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach – more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy – clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  17. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy: abandon or persist?

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns due to the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes with the traditional injection technique. Meanwhile, as internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLN) metastases are mostly found concomitantly with axillary lymph nodes (ALN) metastases, previous IM-SLNB clinical trials fail to evaluate the status of IMLN in patients who are really in need (only in clinically ALN negative patients). Our modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasonographic guidance) significantly improved the visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. IM-SLNB could provide individual minimally invasive staging, prognosis, and decision-making for breast cancer patients, especially for patients with clinically positive ALN. Moreover, IMLN radiotherapy should be tailored and balanced between the potential benefit and toxicity, and IM-SLNB-guided IMLN radiotherapy could achieve this goal. In the era of effective adjuvant therapy, within the changing treatment approach - more systemic therapy, less loco-regional therapy - clinicians should deliberate the application of regional IMLN therapy. PMID:27390528

  18. A systematic review of the incidence of schizophrenia: the distribution of rates and the influence of sex, urbanicity, migrant status and methodology

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, John; Saha, Sukanta; Welham, Joy; El Saadi, Ossama; MacCauley, Clare; Chant, David

    2004-01-01

    Background Understanding variations in the incidence of schizophrenia is a crucial step in unravelling the aetiology of this group of disorders. The aims of this review are to systematically identify studies related to the incidence of schizophrenia, to describe the key features of these studies, and to explore the distribution of rates derived from these studies. Methods Studies with original data related to the incidence of schizophrenia (published 1965–2001) were identified via searching electronic databases, reviewing citations and writing to authors. These studies were divided into core studies, migrant studies, cohort studies and studies based on Other Special Groups. Between- and within-study filters were applied in order to identify discrete rates. Cumulative plots of these rates were made and these distributions were compared when the underlying rates were sorted according to sex, urbanicity, migrant status and various methodological features. Results We identified 100 core studies, 24 migrant studies, 23 cohort studies and 14 studies based on Other Special Groups. These studies, which were drawn from 33 countries, generated a total of 1,458 rates. Based on discrete core data for persons (55 studies and 170 rates), the distribution of rates was asymmetric and had a median value (10%–90% quantile) of 15.2 (7.7–43.0) per 100,000. The distribution of rates was significantly higher in males compared to females; the male/female rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile) was 1.40 (0.9–2.4). Those studies conducted in urban versus mixed urban-rural catchment areas generated significantly higher rate distributions. The distribution of rates in migrants was significantly higher compared to native-born; the migrant/native-born rate ratio median (10%–90% quantile) was 4.6 (1.0–12.8). Apart from the finding that older studies reported higher rates, other study features were not associated with significantly different rate distributions (e.g. overall quality

  19. A novel concept to derive iodine status of human populations from frequency distribution properties of a hair iodine concentration.

    PubMed

    Prejac, J; Višnjević, V; Drmić, S; Skalny, A A; Mimica, N; Momčilović, B

    2014-04-01

    Today, human iodine deficiency is next to iron the most common nutritional deficiency in developed European and underdeveloped third world countries, respectively. A current biological indicator of iodine status is urinary iodine that reflects the very recent iodine exposure, whereas some long term indicator of iodine status remains to be identified. We analyzed hair iodine in a prospective, observational, cross-sectional, and exploratory study involving 870 apparently healthy Croatians (270 men and 600 women). Hair iodine was analyzed with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Population (n870) hair iodine (IH) respective median was 0.499μgg(-1) (0.482 and 0.508μgg(-1)) for men and women, respectively, suggesting no sex related difference. We studied the hair iodine uptake by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives to assess iodine deficiency, adequacy and excess. We estimated the overt iodine deficiency to occur when hair iodine concentration is below 0.15μgg(-1). Then there was a saturation range interval of about 0.15-2.0μgg(-1) (r(2)=0.994). Eventually, the sigmoid curve became saturated at about 2.0μgg(-1) and upward, suggesting excessive iodine exposure. Hair appears to be a valuable and robust long term biological indicator tissue for assessing the iodine body status. We propose adequate iodine status to correspond with the hair iodine (IH) uptake saturation of 0.565-0.739μgg(-1) (55-65%). PMID:24629671

  20. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O'Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  1. A novel node-structural map for angiogenesis analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yizhi; Zhao, Tong; Talavera, Dodanim; Honigmann, Rocio S.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce a novel node-structural map method for digital image-based analysis of angiogenesis, and apply it to quantitate the effect of pro-angiogenic (e.g. VEGF) and anti-angiogenic (e.g. anti-VEGF) treatments on blood vessel patterns in the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in vivo model. After vessel segmentation and skeletonization, a node-structural map is derived to represent the structural property of each pixel in the skeletonized image, such as end nodes (root and leaf), branch and furcation/junction nodes. By combining the node-structural map with vascular thickness map, our proposed method provides more detailed morphometric and structural measurement of vascular angiogenesis, such as average diameter, average branch length, branch thickness distribution, density of branch and furcation nodes, etc. Furthermore, the concept of vascular generations will be proposed. Accordingly, more detailed measurements related to the generations of the vascular tree can be easily evaluated. From the quantitative analysis results, it correctly shows the fact that VEGF/anti-VEGF can modify the blood vessel pattern and increase/decrease the vessel density in CAM significantly, compared to the phosphate-buffered saline treated controls.

  2. Elective ilioingunial lymph node irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, R.H.; Parsons, J.T.; Morgan, L.; Million, R.R.

    1984-06-01

    Most radiologists accept that modest doses of irradiation (4500-5000 rad/4 1/2-5 weeks) can control subclinical regional lymph node metastases from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck and adenocarcinomas of the breast. There have been few reports concerning elective irradiation of the ilioinguinal region. Between October 1964 and March 1980, 91 patients whose primary cancers placed the ilioinguinal lymph nodes at risk received elective irradiation at the University of Florida. Included are patients with cancers of the vulva, penis, urethra, anus and lower anal canal, and cervix or vaginal cancers that involved the distal one-third of the vagina. In 81 patients, both inguinal areas were clinically negative; in 10 patients, one inguinal area was positive and the other negative by clinical examination. The single significant complication was a bilateral femoral neck fracture. The inguinal areas of four patients developed mild to moderate fibrosis. One patient with moderate fibrosis had bilateral mild leg edema that was questionably related to irradiation. Complications were dose-related. The advantages and dis-advantages of elective ilioinguinal node irradiation versus elective inguinal lymph node dissection or no elective treatment are discussed.

  3. SensorNet Node Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  4. Reconstruction of Graph Signals Through Percolation from Seeding Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segarra, Santiago; Marques, Antonio G.; Leus, Geert; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-08-01

    New schemes to recover signals defined in the nodes of a graph are proposed. Our focus is on reconstructing bandlimited graph signals, which are signals that admit a sparse representation in a frequency domain related to the structure of the graph. Most existing formulations focus on estimating an unknown graph signal by observing its value on a subset of nodes. By contrast, in this paper, we study the problem of reconstructing a known graph signal using as input a graph signal that is non-zero only for a small subset of nodes (seeding nodes). The sparse signal is then percolated (interpolated) across the graph using a graph filter. Graph filters are a generalization of classical time-invariant systems and represent linear transformations that can be implemented distributedly across the nodes of the graph. Three setups are investigated. In the first one, a single simultaneous injection takes place on several nodes in the graph. In the second one, successive value injections take place on a single node. The third one is a generalization where multiple nodes inject multiple signal values. For noiseless settings, conditions under which perfect reconstruction is feasible are given, and the corresponding schemes to recover the desired signal are specified. Scenarios leading to imperfect reconstruction, either due to insufficient or noisy signal value injections, are also analyzed. Moreover, connections with classical interpolation in the time domain are discussed. The last part of the paper presents numerical experiments that illustrate the results developed through synthetic graph signals and two real-world signal reconstruction problems: influencing opinions in a social network and inducing a desired brain state in humans.

  5. The reliability of sampling three to six nodes for staging breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Cserni, G

    1999-01-01

    AIMS: To test the hypothesis that a correct qualitative assessment of axillary nodal status can be established by examining only a limited number of lymph nodes. METHODS: Slides from 499 pN1 or pN0 axillary dissection specimens relating to symptomatic breast cancer cases operated on at our institution between 1991 and 1996 were reviewed. Nodes were ranked in descending order on the basis of their estimated size and lymphoid or metastatic tissue content. After ranking, all nodes were studied microscopically; 265 axillary clearance specimens were positive. RESULTS: Assessment of the 3-6 largest/firmest nodes can lead to the detection of 93-98% of node positive patients and can give a correct qualitative assessment of axillary node status in 96-99%. CONCLUSIONS: Sampling the 4-6 largest/firmest nodes seems to be a reliable alternative for the staging of symptomatic breast cancer. These results suggest a reconsideration of the generally held view that a minimum of 10 nodes is required for adequate identification of the pN0 category. PMID:10655990

  6. Distribution of normal T lymphocytes in tumor-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Klobusická, M; Koníková, E

    1982-01-01

    Changes in distribution properties of T lymphocytes from lymphoid organs of normal rats 3H-uridine labeled in vitro and i. v. injected to tumor-bearing recipients were studied at different stages of tumor growth and rejection. Comparisons were made with T cell migration from normal donors to syngeneic recipients. A temporary decrease in the ability of normal spleen T lymphocytes to migrate into the spleen of tumor-bearing recipients at early stages of tumor growth was in correlation with their enhancement in trapping by the liver of this recipient. At this stage the migrations into tumor-draining lymph nodes and peripheral blood were rather pronounced. The growing tumor evoked an increased migration rate of donor spleen cells into each of the recipient organs studied except for liver. Tumor rejection potentiated the distribution mainly in the draining lymph node and liver. Normal lymph node T lymphocytes migrated at the beginning of tumor growth into spleen, node and liver of tumor-bearing recipients. A sharp decrease of distribution in spleen at the time of maximum tumor growth was compensated by an enhanced migration into draining nodes, peripheral blood and liver. This enhancement was seen also during tumor rejection. Distribution of normal blood T lymphocytes into spleen and peripheral blood of tumor-bearing recipients was equal to normal values. There was only a transitional reduction in their migration rates into draining nodes caused by tumor growth. Migration rates of thymocytes in tumor-bearing recipients remained unaltered. The results presented indicate that the distribution pattern of i. v. injected labeled T lymphocytes from normal donors into lymphoid organs of tumor-bearing recipients was determined by changes in the immune status of the recipients brought about by tumor development. PMID:6984490

  7. 75 FR 56991 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Michelin North America, Inc. (Tire Distribution and Wheel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 65515, 12/10/2009) and the application has... special- purpose subzone at the warehouse/distribution and wheel assembly facility of Michelin...

  8. An empirical model that uses light attenuation and plant nitrogen status to predict within-canopy nitrogen distribution and upscale photosynthesis from leaf to whole canopy

    PubMed Central

    Louarn, Gaëtan; Frak, Ela; Zaka, Serge; Prieto, Jorge; Lebon, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Modelling the spatial and temporal distribution of leaf nitrogen (N) is central to specify photosynthetic parameters and simulate canopy photosynthesis. Leaf photosynthetic parameters depend on both local light availability and whole-plant N status. The interaction between these two levels of integration has generally been modelled by assuming optimal canopy functioning, which is not supported by experiments. During this study, we examined how a set of empirical relationships with measurable parameters could be used instead to predict photosynthesis at the leaf and whole-canopy levels. The distribution of leaf N per unit area (Na) within the canopy was related to leaf light irradiance and to the nitrogen nutrition index (NNI), a whole-plant variable accounting for plant N status. Na was then used to determine the photosynthetic parameters of a leaf gas exchange model. The model was assessed on alfalfa canopies under contrasting N nutrition and with N2-fixing and non-fixing plants. Three experiments were carried out to parameterize the relationships between Na, leaf irradiance, NNI and photosynthetic parameters. An additional independent data set was used for model evaluation. The N distribution model showed that it was able to predict leaf N on the set of leaves tested. The Na at the top of the canopy appeared to be related linearly to the NNI, whereas the coefficient accounting for N allocation remained constant. Photosynthetic parameters were related linearly to Na irrespective of N nutrition and the N acquisition mode. Daily patterns of gas exchange were simulated accurately at the leaf scale. When integrated at the whole-canopy scale, the model predicted that raising N availability above an NNI of 1 did not result in increased net photosynthesis. Overall, the model proposed offered a solution for a dynamic coupling of leaf photosynthesis and canopy N distribution without requiring any optimal functioning hypothesis. PMID:26433705

  9. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit

    PubMed Central

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate–growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April–October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  10. Tree water status and growth of saplings and mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) at a dry distribution limit.

    PubMed

    Oberhuber, Walter; Hammerle, Albin; Kofler, Werner

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the size effect on stem water status and growth in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) occurring at the edge of its natural range in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m asl, Tyrol, Austria). Intra-annual dynamics of stem water deficit (ΔW), maximum daily shrinkage (MDS), and radial growth (RG) were compared among saplings (stem diameter/height: 2.2 cm/93 cm; n = 7) and mature adult trees (25 cm/12.7 m; n = 6) during 2014. ΔW, MDS, and RG were extracted from stem diameter variations, which were continuously recorded by automatic dendrometers and the influence of environmental drivers was evaluated by applying moving correlation analysis (MCA). Additionally, we used Morlet wavelet analysis to assess the differences in cyclic radial stem variations between saplings and mature trees. Results indicate that saplings and mature trees were experiencing water limitation throughout the growing season. However, saplings exhibited a more strained stem water status and higher sensitivity to environmental conditions than mature trees. Hence, the significantly lower radial increments in saplings (0.16 ± 0.03 mm) compared to mature trees (0.54 ± 0.14 mm) is related to more constrained water status in the former, affecting the rate and duration of RG. The wavelet analysis consistently revealed more distinct diurnal stem variations in saplings compared to mature trees. Intra-annual RG was most closely related to climate variables that influence transpiration, i.e., vapor pressure deficit, relative air humidity, and air temperature. MCA, however, showed pronounced instability of climate-growth relationships, which masked missing temporal or significant correlations when the entire study period (April-October) was considered. We conclude that an increase in evaporative demand will impair regeneration and long-term stability of drought-prone inner Alpine Norway spruce forests. PMID:26442019

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: technique validation at the Setúbal Medical Centre, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, P; Baía, R; António, A; Almeida, J; Simões, J; Amaro, JC; Quintana, C; Branco, L; Rigueira, MV; Gonçalves, M; Pereira, EV; Ferreira, LM

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients at this institution, using combined technetium-99m (99mTc) sulphur colloid and patent blue vital dye. Methods: From March 2007 to July 2008, 50 patients with a tumour of less than 3 cm and with clinically negative axillary lymph nodes underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sub-areolar 99mTc sulphur colloid injection was performed the day before surgery, and patent blue vital dye was also injected sub-areolarly at least 5 minutes before surgery. Sentinel lymph node was identified during the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe and direct vision. All sentinel nodes underwent frozen section analysis. Later haematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis were performed. Finally, SLNB was compared with standard ALND for its ability to accurately reflect the final pathological status of the axillary nodes. Results: The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was identified in 48 of 50 patients (96%). The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from one to four (mean 1.48) and non-sentinel nodes ranged from seven to 27 (mean 14.33). Of the 48 patients with successfully identified SLNs, 29.17% (14/48) were histologically positive. Sensivity of the SLN to predict axilla was 93.75%; accuracy was 97.96%. The SLN was falsely negative in one patient—6.25% (1/16). Conclusions: The SLNB represents a major advance in the surgical treatment of breast cancer as a minimally invasive procedure predicting the axillary lymph node status. This validation study demonstrates the accuracy of the SLNB and its reasonable false negative rate when performed in our institute. It can now be used as the standard method of staging in patients with early breast cancer at this institution. PMID:22275996

  12. The Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma with Occult Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xingqiang; Zeng, Ruichao; Ma, Zhaosheng; Chen, Chengze; Chen, Endong; Zhang, Xiaohua; Cao, Feilin

    2015-01-01

    Background The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is defined as the first draining node from the primary lesion, and it has proven to be a good indicator of the metastatic status of regional lymph nodes in solid tumors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical application of SLN biopsy (SLNB) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with occult lymph nodes. Methods From April 2006 to October 2012, 212 consecutive PTC patients were treated with SLNB using carbon nanoparticle suspension (CNS). Then, the stained nodes defined as SLN were collected, and prophylactic central compartment neck dissection (CCND) followed by total thyroidectomy or subtotal thyroidectomy were performed. All the samples were sent for pathological examination. Results There were 78 (36.8%) SLN metastasis (SLNM)-positive cases and 134 (63.2%) SLNM-negative cases. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and false-positive and false-negative rates of SLNB were 78.8%, 100%, 100%, 84.3%, 0%, and 21.2%, respectively. The PTC patients with SLNM were more likely to be male (48.2% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.039) and exhibited multifocality (52.6% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.025) and extrathyroidal extension (56.7% vs. 33.5%, p = 0.015). A greater incidence of non-SLN metastases in the central compartment was found in patients with SLNM (41/78, 52.6%) than in those without SLNM (21/134, 15.7%; p < 0.05). However, the SLNM-negative PTC patients with non-SLN metastases were more likely to be male (37.9% vs. 9.5%, p < 0.05). Conclusions The application of SLNB using CNS is technically feasible, safe, and useful, especially for male patients with co-existing multifocality and extrathyroidal extension. However, the sensitivity of SLNB must be improved and its false-negative rate reduced before it can be a routine procedure and replace prophylactic CCND. More attention should be paid to PTC patients (especially males) without SLNM for signs of non-SLN metastases. PMID:26046782

  13. Identifying node importance in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ping; Fan, Wenli; Mei, Shengwei

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel node importance evaluation method from the perspective of the existence of mutual dependence among nodes. The node importance comprises its initial importance and the importance contributions from both the adjacent and non-adjacent nodes according to the dependence strength between them. From the simulation analyses on an example network and the ARPA network, we observe that our method can well identify the node importance. Then, the cascading failures on the Netscience and E-mail networks demonstrate that the networks are more vulnerable when continuously removing the important nodes identified by our method, which further proves the accuracy of our method.

  14. Cloned Genomic DNA of Type 2 Porcine Circovirus Is Infectious When Injected Directly into the Liver and Lymph Nodes of Pigs: Characterization of Clinical Disease, Virus Distribution, and Pathologic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Haqshenas, G.; Royer, R.; Thomas, P.; Nawagitgul, P.; Gill, M.; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    Infection of animals with a molecular viral clone is critical to study the genetic determinants of viral replication and virulence in the host. Type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) has been incriminated as the cause of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS), an emerging disease in pigs. We report here for the first time the construction and use of an infectious molecular DNA clone of PCV2 to characterize the disease and pathologic lesions associated with PCV2 infection by direct in vivo transfection of pigs with the molecular clone. The PCV2 molecular clone was generated by ligating two copies of the complete PCV2 genome in tandem into the pBluescript SK (pSK) vector and was shown to be infectious in vitro when transfected into PK-15 cells. Forty specific-pathogen-free pigs at 4 weeks of age were randomly assigned to four groups of 10 each. Group 1 pigs served as uninoculated controls. Pigs in group 2 were each inoculated intranasally with about 1.9 × 105 50% tissue culture infective doses of a homogeneous PCV2 live virus stock derived from the molecular clone. Pigs in group 3 were each injected intrahepatically with 200 μg of the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA, and pigs in group 4 were each injected into the superficial iliac lymph nodes with 200 μg of the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA. Animals injected with the cloned PCV2 plasmid DNA developed infection resembling that induced by intranasal inoculation with PCV2 live virus stock. Seroconversion to PCV2-specific antibody was detected in the majority of pigs from the three inoculated groups at 35 days postinoculation (DPI). Viremia, beginning at 14 DPI and lasting 2 to 4 weeks, was detected in the majority of the pigs from all three inoculated groups. There were no remarkable clinical signs of PMWS in control or any of the inoculated pigs. Gross lesions in pigs of the three inoculated groups were similar and were characterized by systemically enlarged, tan lymph nodes and lungs that failed to collapse

  15. Controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2011-06-21

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for controlling data transfers from an origin compute node to a target compute node that include: receiving, by an application messaging module on the target compute node, an indication of a data transfer from an origin compute node to the target compute node; and administering, by the application messaging module on the target compute node, the data transfer using one or more messaging primitives of a system messaging module in dependence upon the indication.

  16. Dendritic cells and macrophages neurally hard-wired in the lymph node.

    PubMed

    Wülfing, Clemens; Günther, Hauke S

    2015-01-01

    The neural hard-wired pathways in which the lymphoid organs are innervated by the nervous system is of special interest with respect to suggested afferent and sensory systems informing the central nervous system about the status of the immune system. Until today efferent also like afferent innervation seem to be unspecific, targeting many types of cells by affecting many cells at the same time. We for the first time show that antigen presenting cells (APC) are abundantly innervated in the T-cell enriched area, the subsinoidal layer and the cortical extrafollicular zone of lymph nodes in rats by a mesh of filamentous neurofilament positive structures originating from single nerve fibers and covering each single APC similar to a glass fishing float, so that we termed them "wired" APC (wAPC). These wAPC also found in humans seem to be restricted to the cell body, not to follow membranous extensions, they may be dynamic and receptive as MAP2 is expressed and axonal growth cones can be detected and they probably lack vesicular activity through missing synaptophysin expression. The specific innervation targeting single cells which show a distribution divided in several areas in one lymph node suggests a form of topographically organized afferent sensory system. PMID:26581550

  17. Dendritic cells and macrophages neurally hard-wired in the lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Wülfing, Clemens; Günther, Hauke S.

    2015-01-01

    The neural hard-wired pathways in which the lymphoid organs are innervated by the nervous system is of special interest with respect to suggested afferent and sensory systems informing the central nervous system about the status of the immune system. Until today efferent also like afferent innervation seem to be unspecific, targeting many types of cells by affecting many cells at the same time. We for the first time show that antigen presenting cells (APC) are abundantly innervated in the T-cell enriched area, the subsinoidal layer and the cortical extrafollicular zone of lymph nodes in rats by a mesh of filamentous neurofilament positive structures originating from single nerve fibers and covering each single APC similar to a glass fishing float, so that we termed them “wired” APC (wAPC). These wAPC also found in humans seem to be restricted to the cell body, not to follow membranous extensions, they may be dynamic and receptive as MAP2 is expressed and axonal growth cones can be detected and they probably lack vesicular activity through missing synaptophysin expression. The specific innervation targeting single cells which show a distribution divided in several areas in one lymph node suggests a form of topographically organized afferent sensory system. PMID:26581550

  18. Does skip metastasis or other lymph node parameters have additional effects on survival of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Baltaci, Sumer; Aslan, Guven; Can, Cavit; Cal, Cag; Elhan, Atilla; Turkeri, Levent; Mungan, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of lymph node metastasis, skip metastasis, and other factors related to lymph node status on survival in patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) and extended lymph node dissection (eLND). Materials and Methods RC and eLND were performed in 85 patients with a diagnosis of bladder cancer. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were determined by using a Cox proportional hazards model that included the number of excised lymph nodes, the presence of pathological lymph node metastasis, the anatomical level of positive nodes, the number of positive lymph nodes, lymph node density, and the presence of skip metastasis. Results The mean number of lymph nodes removed per patient was 29.4±9.3. Lymph node positivity was detected in 85 patients (34.1%). The mean follow-up duration was 44.9±27.4 months (2-93 months). Five-year estimated OS and DFS for the 85 patients were 62.6% and 57%, respectively. Three of 29 lymph node-positive patients (10.3%) had skip metastasis. Only lymph node positivity had a significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS (p<0.001). No difference in OS and DFS was found between the three patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. Other factors related to lymph node status had no significant effect on 5-year OS and DFS. Conclusions No factors related to lymph node status predict DFS and OS, except for lymph node positivity. OS and DFS were comparable between patients with skip metastasis and other lymph node-positive patients. PMID:25964836

  19. Ocean Color Products Supporting the Assessment of Good Environmental Status: Development of a Spatial Distribution Model for the Seagrass Posidonia Oceanica (L.) Delille, 1813

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Taji, M. A.; Mangin, A.; Pastres, R.

    2015-12-01

    Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, 1813 is a seagrass species endemic to the Mediterranean Sea, which is considered as one of the key habitats of the coastal areas. This species forms large meadows sensitive to several anthropogenic pressures, that can be regarded as indicators of environment quality in coastal environments and its distributional patterns should be take into account when evaluating the Environmental Status following the Ecosystem approach promoted by the Mediterranean Action Plan of UNEP and the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC). The aim of this study was to develop a Species Distribution Model for P. oceanica, to be applied to the whole Mediterranean North African coast, in order to obtain an estimation of the potential distribution of this species in the region to be considered as an indicator for the assessment of good Environmental Status. As the study area is a data-poor zone with regard to seagrass distribution (i.e. only for some areas detailed distribution maps are available), the Species Distribution Model (SDM) was calibrated using high resolution data from 5 Mediterranean sites, located in Italy and Spain and validated using available data from the North African coast. Usually, when developing SDMs species occupancy data is available at coarser resolution than the information of environmental variables, and thus has to be downscaled at the appropriate grain to be coupled to the environmental conditions. Tackling the case of P. oceanica we had to face the opposite problem: the quality (in terms of resolution) of the information on seagrass distribution is generally very high compared to the environmental data available over large scale in marine domains (e.g. global bathymetry data). The high resolution application and the model transfer (from calibration areas to North African coast) was possible taking advantage of Ocean Color products: the probability of presence of the species in a given area was modelled using a

  20. Superconducting quantum node for entanglement and storage of microwave radiation.

    PubMed

    Flurin, E; Roch, N; Pillet, J D; Mallet, F; Huard, B

    2015-03-01

    Superconducting circuits and microwave signals are good candidates to realize quantum networks, which are the backbone of quantum computers. We have realized a quantum node based on a 3D microwave superconducting cavity parametrically coupled to a transmission line by a Josephson ring modulator. We first demonstrate the time-controlled capture, storage, and retrieval of an optimally shaped propagating microwave field, with an efficiency as high as 80%. We then demonstrate a second essential ability, which is the time-controlled generation of an entangled state distributed between the node and a microwave channel. PMID:25793790

  1. Sinus Node and Atrial Arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    John, Roy M; Kumar, Saurabh

    2016-05-10

    Although sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrial arrhythmias frequently coexist and interact, the putative mechanism linking the 2 remain unclear. Although SND is accompanied by atrial myocardial structural changes in the right atrium, atrial fibrillation (AF) is a disease of variable interactions between left atrial triggers and substrate most commonly of left atrial origin. Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic mechanism underlying the development and progression of SND and AF. Although some patients manifest SND as a result of electric remodeling induced by periods of AF, others develop progressive atrial structural remodeling that gives rise to both conditions together. The treatment strategy will thus vary according to the predominant disease phenotype. Although catheter ablation will benefit patients with predominantly AF and secondary SND, cardiac pacing may be the mainstay of therapy for patients with predominant fibrotic atrial cardiomyopathy. This contemporary review summarizes current knowledge on sinus node pathophysiology with the broader goal of yielding insights into the complex relationship between sinus node disease and atrial arrhythmias. PMID:27166347

  2. Underwater Sensor Nodes and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Sensor technology has matured enough to be used in any type of environment. The appearance of new physical sensors has increased the range of environmental parameters for gathering data. Because of the huge amount of unexploited resources in the ocean environment, there is a need of new research in the field of sensors and sensor networks. This special issue is focused on collecting recent advances on underwater sensors and underwater sensor networks in order to measure, monitor, surveillance of and control of underwater environments. On the one hand, from the sensor node perspective, we will see works related with the deployment of physical sensors, development of sensor nodes and transceivers for sensor nodes, sensor measurement analysis and several issues such as layer 1 and 2 protocols for underwater communication and sensor localization and positioning systems. On the other hand, from the sensor network perspective, we will see several architectures and protocols for underwater environments and analysis concerning sensor network measurements. Both sides will provide us a complete view of last scientific advances in this research field. PMID:24013489

  3. Human Performance on Visually Presented Traveling Salesperson Problems with Varying Numbers of Nodes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dry, Matthew; Lee, Michael D.; Vickers, Douglas; Hughes, Peter

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the properties of the distribution of human solution times for Traveling Salesperson Problems (TSPs) with increasing numbers of nodes. New experimental data are presented that measure solution times for carefully chosen representative problems with 10, 20, . . . 120 nodes. We compared the solution times predicted by the convex hull…

  4. Axillary Lymph Nodes and Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... more likely to affect arm function and cause lymphedema. For this reason, sentinel node biopsy is the ... OR supraclavicular (above the clavicle) nodes have cancer Lymphedema Lymphedema [lim-fa-DEE-ma] is a build- ...

  5. Immunocytochemical demonstration of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter rENT1 in rat sinoatrial node.

    PubMed

    Musa, H; Dobrzynski, H; Berry, Z; Abidi, F; Cass, C E; Young, J D; Baldwin, S A; Boyett, M R

    2002-03-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple receptor-mediated effects in the heart, including a negative chronotropic effect on the sinoatrial node. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter rENT1 in rat sinoatrial node and atrial muscle. Immunocytochemistry and/or immunoblotting revealed abundant expression of this protein in plasma membranes of sinoatrial node and in atrial and ventricular cells. Because rENT1-mediated transport is likely to regulate the local concentrations of adenosine in the sinoatrial node and other parts of the heart, it represents a potential pharmacological target that might be exploited to ameliorate ischemic damage during heart surgery. PMID:11850433

  6. T.Node, industrial version of supernode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flieller, Sylvain

    1989-12-01

    The Esprit I P1085 "SuperNode" project developed a modular reconfigurable archtecture, based on transputers. This highly parallel machine is now marketed by Telmat Informatique under the name T.Node. This paper presents the P1085 project, the architecture of SuperNode, its industrial implementation and its software enviroment.

  7. Endosalpingiosis of Axillary Lymph Nodes: A Rare Histopathologic Pitfall with Clinical Relevance for Breast Cancer Staging

    PubMed Central

    Nomani, Laila; Calhoun, Benjamin C.; Biscotti, Charles V.; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Sturgis, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Establishment of accurate axillary lymph node status is of essential importance in determining both prognosis and the potential need for adjuvant therapy in patients with invasive breast cancer. Axillary lymph node heterotopias can in some cases result in overdiagnosis of metastatic disease. Nodal endosalpingiosis is perhaps the least commonly reported type of axially lymph node heterotopia. We herein illustrate a case in which second opinion pathologic interpretation combined with ancillary immunohistochemical studies allowed for a specific diagnosis of axillary nodal müllerian-type inclusions, confirming ypN0 staging and resulting in appropriate disease management and prognostication. PMID:27088025

  8. Lymphoscintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma: an updated total body atlas of sentinel node mapping.

    PubMed

    Intenzo, Charles M; Truluck, Christina A; Kushen, Medina C; Kim, Sung M; Berger, Adam; Kairys, John C

    2009-01-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy has become part of the standard of care for patients with a new or recurrent diagnosis of melanoma, in helping determine the status of regional lymph nodes. Correct identification of sentinel lymph nodes enables the surgeon to further delineate the extent of malignancy by allowing sampling of the appropriate nodal group. Performing the lymphoscintigraphy prior to the planned operation allows limited surgery with less extensive postoperative morbidity. For this reason, a thorough knowledge of the lymph node drainage patterns from the different primary tumor locations, as well as of proper lymphoscintigraphic techniques and radiopharmaceuticals, constitutes an important armamentarium in the hands of surgeons, radiologists, and nuclear medicine physicians. PMID:19605661

  9. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  10. Morphological study of the innervation pattern of the rabbit sinoatrial node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L. A.; Slocum, G. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    The pattern of sinoatrial (SA) node innervations in rabbit was elucidated using a newly developed highly reproducible cholinesterase/silver impregnation staining procedure which made it possible to delineate large nerves, fine processes, and ganglion cells. The SA node and dominant pacemaker sites were identified by microelectrode recording. A generalized pattern of innnervation was recognized, which includes a large ganglionic complex inferior to the SA node; two or more moderately large nerves traversing the SA node parallel to the crista terminalis; nerves entering the intercaval region from the septum, the superior vena cava, and the inferior vena cava to impinge on the SA node; and a fine network of nerve processes, which was particularly dense in the SA node. From the location and distribution of the nerves and ganglionic branches, it can be inferred that the neural network in the intercaval region is capable of performing complex modulatory and integrative functions among the structures within this region.

  11. Ecological Status of a Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) Population at the Southern Edge of its Distribution (River Paiva, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Ronaldo; Amorim, Ângela; Sobral, Carina; Froufe, Elsa; Varandas, Simone; Teixeira, Amílcar; Lopes-Lima, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    An important population of the critically endangered pearl mussel Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758) was surveyed at the edge of its southern distribution (River Paiva, Portugal). Although an earlier study suggested that this population had a very low number of individuals (<500), a narrow distribution, and was mainly comprised by old specimens our data contradict these findings. Our assessment estimated a population with probably more than 5,000 individuals distributed across 80 km of the river length. From the 32 sites surveyed, 19 contained M. margaritifera with higher abundances verified in the middle and upper parts of the river (a maximum of 78 ind. per 100 m of river stretch was recorded). The pearl mussels showed a clear preference for areas near the banks, in shallow water, sandier and gravel sediments, and a high degree of riparian vegetation cover. The population structure was skewed with a very high percentage of large (and old) animals but 3.7 % of the individuals collected were juveniles (<60 mm in length); therefore, this population can be considered functional. Environmental characterization indicated that this river is still in excellent or good condition although some areas showed deterioration due to discharge of domestic effluents. The main conservation requirements of M. margaritifera in the River Paiva include maintaining the water quality (and if possible stopping the discharge of domestic effluents), increasing riparian vegetation cover, removing several weirs to increase connectivity, and increasing trout density.

  12. Integrating field surveys and remote sensing data to study distribution, habitat use and conservation status of the herpetofauna of the Comoro Islands

    PubMed Central

    Hawlitschek, Oliver; Brückmann, Boris; Berger, Johannes; Green, Katie; Glaw, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We studied the non-marine reptile and amphibian species of the volcanic Comoro archipelago in the Western Indian Ocean, a poorly known island herpetofauna comprising numerous microendemic species of potentially high extinction risk and widespread, non-endemic and often invasive taxa. According to our data, the Comoro islands are inhabited by two amphibian species and at least 28 species of reptiles although ongoing genetic studies and unconfirmed historical records suggest an even higher species diversity. 14 of the 28 currently recognized species of terrestrial reptiles (50%) and the two amphibians are endemic to a single island or to the Comoro archipelago. The majority of species are most abundant at low elevation. However, a few endemic species, like the gekkonid lizards Paroedura sanctijohannis and Phelsuma nigristriata, are more common in or even confined to higher altitudes. We created habitat maps from remotely sensed data in combination with detailed species distribution maps produced using comprehensive data from field surveys between 2000 and 2010, literature, and historical locality records based on specimens in zoological collections. Using these data, we assessed the conservation status of the endemic terrestrial reptiles and amphibians according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Our results show that although little area of natural forest remains on the Comoros, many species are abundant in degraded forest or plantations. Competition and predation by invasive species appears to be the most important threat factor for the endemic herpetofauna, together with habitat degradation and destruction, which further favours invasive species. We propose the status Endangered for three species, Vulnerable for one species, Near Threatened for six species, Least Concern for four and Data Deficient for two species. The endemic subspecies Oplurus cuvieri comorensis is proposed for the status Critically Endangered. Based on the results of this study, seven

  13. IEEE 342 Node Low Voltage Networked Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Phanivong, Phillippe K.; Lacroix, Jean-Sebastian

    2014-07-31

    The IEEE Distribution Test Feeders provide a benchmark for new algorithms to the distribution analyses community. The low voltage network test feeder represents a moderate size urban system that is unbalanced and highly networked. This is the first distribution test feeder developed by the IEEE that contains unbalanced networked components. The 342 node Low Voltage Networked Test System includes many elements that may be found in a networked system: multiple 13.2kV primary feeders, network protectors, a 120/208V grid network, and multiple 277/480V spot networks. This paper presents a brief review of the history of low voltage networks and how they evolved into the modern systems. This paper will then present a description of the 342 Node IEEE Low Voltage Network Test System and power flow results.

  14. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  15. Effects of Ethnic Settlements and Land Management Status on Species Distribution Patterns: A Case Study of Endangered Musk Deer (Moschus spp.) in Northwest Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xueyou; Bleisch, William V.; Jiang, Xuelong

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the status and spatial distribution of endangered species in biologically and ethnologically diverse areas is important to address correlates of cultural and biological diversity. We developed models for endangered musk deer (Moschus spp.) abundance indices in and around protected areas inhabited by different ethnic groups in northwest Yunnan China to address different anthropogenic and management-related questions. We found that prediction of relative abundance of musk deer was best accomplished using ethnicity of settlements, conservation status and poaching pressure in an area. Musk deer were around 5 times more abundant in Tibetan regions relative to Lisu regions. We found no significant negative correlates of gathering and transhumance activities on musk deer abundance. Hunting pressure showed no significant differences between protected and non-protected areas, but showed significant differences among ethnic groups. Hunting pressures in areas adjacent to Lisu settlements was 7.1 times more than in areas adjacent to Tibetan settlements. Our findings indicate protected areas in southwest China are not fully effective in deterring human disturbance caused by traditional practices. We suggest that conservation and management strategies should engage traditional culture and practices with a positive conservation impact. Better understanding of indigenous culture may open up new opportunities for species conservation in much wider tracts of unprotected and human-dominated lands. Traditional practices that are not destructive to biodiversity should be allowed as a way of providing a link between the local communities and protected areas thereby creating incentives for conservation. PMID:27159052

  16. Black sentinel lymph node and 'scary stickers'.

    PubMed

    Yang, Arthur S; Creagh, Terrence A

    2013-04-01

    An unusual case is presented of a young adult patient with two black-stained, radio-nucleotide tracer-active sentinel lymph nodes biopsied following her primary cutaneous melanoma treatment. This was subsequently confirmed to be secondary to cutaneous tattoos, averting the need of an elective regional node dissection. History of tattooing and tattoo removal should therefore be obtained as a routine in all melanoma patients considered for sentinel node biopsy (SLN). SLN biopsy and any subsequent completion node dissection should be strictly staged so that proper histologic diagnosis of the sentinel node is available for correct decision making and treatment. PMID:23010587

  17. Untraceable Mobile Node Authentication in WSN

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyusuk; Kim, Kwangjo; Shon, Taeshik

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of sensor node in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) brings security issues such as re-authentication and tracing the node movement. However, current security researches on WSN are insufficient to support such environments since their designs only considered the static environments. In this paper, we propose the efficient node authentication and key exchange protocol that reduces the overhead in node re-authentication and also provides untraceability of mobile nodes. Compared with previous protocols, our protocol has only a third of communication and computational overhead. We expect our protocol to be the efficient solution that increases the lifetime of sensor network. PMID:22399886

  18. Approach to intensely enhancing neck nodes

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Amit; Gummalla, Krishna Mohan; Loke, Siu Cheng; Goh, Julian; Tan, Tiong Yong

    2016-01-01

    Cervical node evaluation is one of the most common problems encountered by a radiologist. Here, we present a pictorial review of intensely enhancing neck nodes. While enhancement in a cervical node is a common radiologic finding on contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, only few conditions cause intense enhancement in cervical nodes. We discuss the common causes of intensely enhancing neck nodes along with pertinent radiologic features and key differentiating points that aid radiologists in reaching a diagnosis. In addition, we discuss certain potential non-nodal mimics, which need to be excluded. PMID:26782154

  19. Increased Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Metastatic Sentinel Lymph Nodes Is Associated With Nonsentinel Lymph Node Involvement and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, Ievgenia; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Vicente-Arregui, Sandra; Prieto-Torres, Lucia; Alvarez-Alegret, Ramiro; Querol, Ignacio; Dirix, Luc Y; Carapeto, Francisco J; Vermeulen, Peter B; Van Laere, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    Lymph node angio- and lymphangio-genesis have been shown to play an important role in the premetastatic niche of sentinel lymph nodes. In the current study we have investigated the association of angio- and lympangio-genesis related parameters in metastatic sentinel lymph nodes of patients with melanoma with the presence of nonsentinel and distant organ metastasis. Peritumoral and intratumoral relative blood and lymphatic vessel areas (evaluated by Chalkley method), blood and lymphatic microvessel densities, and the rates of blood and lymphatic vessel proliferation were assessed in primary tumors and sentinel lymph node metastasis of 44 patients with melanoma using CD34/Ki-67 and D240/Ki-67 immunohistochemical double staining. Primary melanoma exhibited significantly higher rate of lymphatic proliferation compared with its lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), while lymph node metastasis showed significantly higher rate of blood vessel proliferation (P < 0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression model, the rate of peritumoral lymphatic proliferation was inversely associated with positive nonsentinel lymph node status (P < 0.05), whereas the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was associated with distant organ metastasis (P < 0.05). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was also inversely associated with overall survival of patients with melanoma (P < 0.05). PMID:26909582

  20. Node assignment in heterogeneous computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Som, Sukhamoy

    1993-01-01

    A number of node assignment schemes, both static and dynamic, are explored for the Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM). The architecture under consideration consists of heterogeneous processors and implements dataflow models of real-time applications. Terminology is developed for heterogeneous computing. New definitions are added to the ATAMM for token and assignment classifications. It is proved that a periodic execution is possible for dataflow graphs. Assignment algorithms are developed and proved. A design procedure is described for satisfying an objective function in an heterogeneous architecture. Several examples are provided for illustration.

  1. Anal human papillomavirus genotype distribution in HIV-infected men who have sex with men by geographical origin, age, and cytological status in a Spanish cohort.

    PubMed

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia; Ortiz, Marta

    2013-11-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  2. Anal Human Papillomavirus Genotype Distribution in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men by Geographical Origin, Age, and Cytological Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Montserrat; González, Cristina; del Romero, Jorge; Viciana, Pompeyo; Ocampo, Antonio; Rodríguez-Fortúnez, Patricia; Masiá, Mar; Blanco, José Ramón; Portilla, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Carmen; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz; del Amo, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) type distribution in populations at risk for anal cancer is needed. Here, we describe the anal HPV genotype distribution in a large Spanish cohort (Cohort of the Spanish HIV Research Network HPV [CoRIS-HPV]) of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) according to geographical origin, age, and cytological status. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from 1,439 HIV-infected MSM (2007 to 2012) was performed. Anal HPV genotyping was performed using the Linear Array HPV genotyping test. Descriptive analyses of subject characteristics, prevalences, and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. The global prevalences of HPV, high-risk HPV (HR-HPV), and low-risk HPV (LR-HPV) types were 95.8%, 83.0%, and 72.7%, respectively. Among the HR-HPV types, HPV16 was the most common, followed by HPV59, -39, -51, -18, and -52. The prevalence of multiple HR-HPV infections was 58.5%. There were no differences in the crude analyses between Spanish and Latin-American MSM for most HPV types, and a peak in prevalence for most HPV types was seen in patients in their late thirties. Globally and by specific HPV groups, men with abnormal anal cytologies had a higher prevalence of infection than those with normal cytologies. This study has the largest number of HIV-positive MSM with HPV genotype data analyzed according to cytological status as far as we know. The information gained from this study can help with the design of anal cancer prevention strategies in HIV-positive patients. PMID:23966501

  3. Targeted Delivery of Immunomodulators to Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Azzi, Jamil; Yin, Qian; Uehara, Mayuko; Ohori, Shunsuke; Tang, Li; Cai, Kaimin; Ichimura, Takaharu; McGrath, Martina; Maarouf, Omar; Kefaloyianni, Eirini; Loughhead, Scott; Petr, Jarolim; Sun, Qidi; Kwon, Mincheol; Tullius, Stefan; von Andrian, Ulrich H; Cheng, Jianjun; Abdi, Reza

    2016-05-10

    Active-targeted delivery to lymph nodes represents a major advance toward more effective treatment of immune-mediated disease. The MECA79 antibody recognizes peripheral node addressin molecules expressed by high endothelial venules of lymph nodes. By mimicking lymphocyte trafficking to the lymph nodes, we have engineered MECA79-coated microparticles containing an immunosuppressive medication, tacrolimus. Following intravenous administration, MECA79-bearing particles showed marked accumulation in the draining lymph nodes of transplanted animals. Using an allograft heart transplant model, we show that targeted lymph node delivery of microparticles containing tacrolimus can prolong heart allograft survival with negligible changes in tacrolimus serum level. Using MECA79 conjugation, we have demonstrated targeted delivery of tacrolimus to the lymph nodes following systemic administration, with the capacity for immune modulation in vivo. PMID:27134176

  4. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  5. Status of a broadly distributed endangered species: results and implications of the second International Piping Plover Census

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plissner, Jonathan H.; Haig, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Methods for monitoring progress toward recovery goals are highly variable and may be problematic for endangered species that are mobile and widely distributed. Recovery objectives for Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) include attainment of minimum population sizes within specified recovery units, as determined by two U.S. and two Canadian recovery teams. To assess progress toward these goals, complete surveys of the species' winter and breeding ranges in Canada, the United States, Mexico, the Bahamas, and the Greater Antilles are conducted every 5 years. In 1996, 1200 biologists and volunteers participated in the second International Piping Plover Census, tallying 2515 wintering birds and 5913 adults (2668 breeding pairs) during the breeding census. Winter numbers were 27% lower than those of the first international census conducted in 1991, with substantially fewer wintering birds along the Gulf of Mexico and an overall increase in numbers along the Atlantic Coast. Large numbers of wintering plovers remain undetected. In 1996, the total number of breeding adults was 7.7% higher than in 1991. Regionally, breeding numbers were 31% higher along the Atlantic Coast and 20% higher in the small Great Lakes population, but declined by 5% in the U.S. Great Plains and the Canadian Prairie. Target recovery numbers were met only for Saskatchewan but were approached in Alberta and New England. The results suggest that Piping Plover distribution and habitat use in the U.S. Great Plains/Canadian Prairie region may shift dramatically with water conditions.

  6. Sensor-enabled chem/bio contamination detection system dedicated to situational awareness of water distribution security status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginsberg, Mark D.; Smith, Eddy D.; VanBlaricum, Vicki; Hock, Vincent F.; Kroll, Dan; Russell, Kevin J.

    2010-04-01

    Both real events and models have proven that drinking water systems are vulnerable to deliberate and/or accidental contamination. Additionally, homeland security initiatives and modeling efforts have determined that it is relatively easy to orchestrate the contamination of potable water supplies. Such contamination can be accomplished with classic and non-traditional chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and/or toxic industrial materials (TIMs). Subsequent research and testing has developed a proven network for detection and response to these threats. The method uses offthe- shelf, broad-spectrum analytical instruments coupled with advanced interpretive algorithms. The system detects and characterizes any backflow events involving toxic contaminants by employing unique chemical signature (fingerprint) response data. This instrumentation has been certified by the Office of Homeland Security for detecting deliberate and/or accidental contamination of critical water infrastructure. The system involves integration of several mature technologies (sensors, SCADA, dynamic models, and the HACH HST Guardian Blue instrumentation) into a complete, real-time, management system that also can be used to address other water distribution concerns, such as corrosion. This paper summarizes the reasons and results for installing such a distribution-based detection and protection system.

  7. The Influence of Total Nodes Examined, Number of Positive Nodes, and Lymph Node Ratio on Survival After Surgical Resection and Adjuvant Chemoradiation for Pancreatic Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of RTOG 9704

    SciTech Connect

    Showalter, Timothy N.; Winter, Kathryn A.; Berger, Adam C.; Regine, William F.; Abrams, Ross A.; Safran, Howard; Hoffman, John P.; Benson, Al B.; MacDonald, John S.; Willett, Christopher G.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Lymph node status is an important predictor of survival in pancreatic cancer. We performed a secondary analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 9704, an adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiation trial, to determine the influence of lymph node factors-number of positive nodes (NPN), total nodes examined (TNE), and lymph node ratio (LNR ratio of NPN to TNE)-on OS and disease-free survival (DFS). Patient and Methods: Eligible patients from RTOG 9704 form the basis of this secondary analysis of lymph node parameters. Actuarial estimates for OS and DFS were calculated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional hazards models were performed to evaluate associations of NPN, TNE, and LNR with OS and DFS. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were also performed. Results: There were 538 patients enrolled in the RTOG 9704 trial. Of these, 445 patients were eligible with lymph nodes removed. Overall median NPN was 1 (min-max, 0-18). Increased NPN was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.06, p = 0.001) and DFS (HR = 1.05, p = 0.01). In multivariate analyses, both NPN and TNE were associated with OS and DFS. TNE > 12, and >15 were associated with increased OS for all patients, but not for node-negative patients (n = 142). Increased LNR was associated with worse OS (HR = 1.01, p < 0.0001) and DFS (HR = 1.006, p = 0.002). Conclusion: In patients who undergo surgical resection followed by adjuvant chemoradiation, TNE, NPN, and LNR are associated with OS and DFS. This secondary analysis of a prospective, cooperative group trial supports the influence of these lymph node parameters on outcomes after surgery and adjuvant therapy using contemporary techniques.

  8. 9 + 0 and 9 + 2 cilia are randomly dispersed in the mouse node.

    PubMed

    Odate, Toru; Takeda, Sen; Narita, Keishi; Kawahara, Toru

    2016-04-01

    The initial determination of left-right asymmetry is an essential process in embryonic development. In mouse embryo, cilia in the node play an important role generating the nodal flow that subsequently triggers left-right determination in the embryo. Although nodal cilia have historically been thought to have a 9 + 0 axonemal configuration, the existence of 9 + 2 cilia has been reported so far. Because the distribution of those two types of cilia within the node has not yet been reported, we assessed the arrangement of 9 + 0 and 9 + 2 cilia in the node. In this study, we concluded that most of the nodal cilia were 9 + 0 in structure and there were much fewer 9 + 2 cilia than 9 + 0 cilia. Furthermore, the two types of cilia were randomly distributed in the node with no regularity. In addition, we studied the embryonic origin of the crown cells surrounding the node to better understand their identity. PMID:26520785

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. PMID:25595513

  10. Distribution and status of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, Vulpes macrotis mutica, on Fort Hunter Liggett and Camp Roberts, California

    SciTech Connect

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Berry, W.H.; Warrick, G.D.

    1987-10-01

    The distribution and status of the endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) was determined for Fort Hunter Liggett and Camp Roberts, California, using canid scent station transects, spotlight surveys, and live-trapping and radiotelemetry. At Fort Hunter Liggett kit foxes were distributed only in a narrow corridor along the San Antonio River from the Mission to the B-9 Tank Range. Three other areas of potentially suitable habitat were observed but no evidence of kit foxes was obtained in them. The species was widely distributed on Camp Roberts and they appeared to be common to abundant over large areas, including the Main Garrison. Characteristics of dens used by radiocollared foxes were seldom consistent with previously published descriptions because many dens were enlarged burrows of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). California ground squirrels were the most frequently occurring prey remains (48.2%) in scats collected at Camp Roberts; remains of insects were observed in 25.9% of the scats. Frequencies of occurrence of lagomorphs (5.9%) and kangaroo rats (Dipodomys sp.) (l.2%), preferred kit fox prey elsewhere, were unexpectedly low. The proportions of prey items in scats varied between locations. Vehicles killed 22% of the foxes found dead, 11% were killed by predators, 1 fox became trapped in a verticle pipe and died, and a cause could not be determined for 56% of the deaths. Evidence showing that foxes bred successfully was gathered for both posts. Recommendations were made to restrict aerial applications of rodenticides to those areas outside the known distributions of the kit fox and a 1.6-km buffer, and to implement a program to monitor effects on nontarget species. 25 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Dual-Modality Photoacoustic and Ultrasound Imaging System for Noninvasive Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Erpelding, Todd N.; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    The detection of regional lymph node metastases is important in cancer staging as it guides the prognosis of the patient and the strategy for treatment. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection. The sentinel lymph node hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasonic imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. PMID:26510774

  12. Organohalogen contaminants in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Japan: present contamination status, body distribution and temporal trends (1978-2003).

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ochi, Yoko; Ramu, Karri; Yamamoto, Takahito; Tajima, Yuko; Yamada, Tadasu K; Amano, Masao; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-08-01

    Organohalogen contaminants including PCBs, DDTs, CHLs, HCHs, HCB, PBDEs and HBCDs were determined in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded at Gogo-shima (n=6, 2003) and collected from Taiji (n=15, 1978-1992) in Japan. All target compounds were significantly detected in all the specimens, indicating ubiquitous contamination of oceanic cetaceans in northwest Pacific Ocean. Examination of body distribution of organohalogens in the six specimens from Gogo-shima showed no significant difference in concentrations among the analyzed tissues, except for brain, which had lower levels possibly due to the existence of blood-brain barrier. For evaluating temporal trends, archived blubber samples of adult male stripped dolphins collected in 1978, 1979, 1986 and 1992 were analyzed. Concentrations of PCBs, DDTs and HCHs did not change significantly during 1978-2003. In contrast, remarkable increasing trends of PBDEs and HBCDs were observed, suggesting growing consumption in Japan and surrounding countries in recent years. PMID:19084873

  13. Anaemia of rheumatoid arthritis: serum erythropoietin concentrations and red cell distribution width in relation to iron status.

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, O J; Andersen, L S; Ludwigsen, E; Bouchelouche, P; Hansen, T M; Birgens, H; Hansen, N E

    1990-01-01

    Immunoreactive serum erythropoietin concentrations were measured in 35 patients with anaemia associated with active rheumatoid arthritis. Based on an evaluation of stainable iron in the bone marrow (marrow iron grade 0-4) and serum ferritin concentrations (concentrations less than or equal to 60 micrograms/l compatible with iron deficiency) the anaemia was found to be complicated by iron deficiency in 19/35 (54%) of the patients. The mean serum erythropoietin level (57.6 (SD) 27.3) U/l) was sufficiently raised for the degree of anaemia irrespective of the size of the marrow iron stores. Thus the data do not support the contention that suppressed secretion of erythropoietin is involved in the pathogenesis of anaemia of chronic disorders. There was a significant inverse correlation between the haemoglobin concentration and log serum erythropoietin in the patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In the patients with adequate iron stores, but not in the iron depleted patients, there was a tendency for serum erythropoietin concentrations to correlate positively both with C reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Red cell distribution width (mean (SD) 16.3 (1.8)%) was above normal (11.5-14.5%) both in the iron replete and the iron depleted patients, and the mean red cell distribution width values did not differ significantly among the two subpopulations. The plasma lactoferrin concentration (mean (SD) 137.6 (109.9) micrograms/l) was normal and did not differ significantly between the iron deficient patients and those with adequate iron. PMID:2383057

  14. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Libshitz, H I; McKenna, R J

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Specificity was 66% (43/65). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Of these, 21 had mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm; 10 harbored metastases and 11 did not. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. In both of these groups, metastatic nodal disease was found in only 25% of nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. PMID:6332469

  15. Imaging of Lymph Node Micrometastases Using an Oncolytic Herpes Virus and [18F]FEAU PET

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Peter; Kelly, Kaitlyn; Gang, Sheng; Shah, Jatin P.; Wong, Richard J.; Hricak, Hedvig; Blasberg, Ronald G.; Fong, Yuman; Gil, Ziv

    2009-01-01

    Background In patients with melanoma, knowledge of regional lymph node status provides important information on outlook. Since lymph node status can influence treatment, surgery for sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy became a standard staging procedure for these patients. Current imaging modalities have a limited sensitivity for detection of micrometastases in lymph nodes and, therefore, there is a need for a better technique that can accurately identify occult SLN metastases. Methodology/Principal Findings B16-F10 murine melanoma cells were infected with replication-competent herpes simplex virus (HSV) NV1023. The presence of tumor-targeting and reporter-expressing virus was assessed by [18F]-2′-fluoro-2′-deoxy-1-β-D-β-arabinofuranosyl-5-ethyluracil ([18F]FEAU) positron emission tomography (PET) and confirmed by histochemical assays. An animal foot pad model of melanoma lymph node metastasis was established. Mice received intratumoral injections of NV1023, and 48 hours later were imaged after i.v. injection of [18F]FEAU. NV1023 successfully infected and provided high levels of lacZ transgene expression in melanoma cells. Intratumoral injection of NV1023 resulted in viral trafficking to melanoma cells that had metastasized to popliteal and inguinal lymph nodes. Presence of virus-infected tumor cells was successfully imaged with [18F]FEAU-PET, that identified 8 out of 8 tumor-positive nodes. There was no overlap between radioactivity levels (lymph node to surrounding tissue ratio) of tumor-positive and tumor-negative lymph nodes. Conclusion/Significance A new approach for imaging SLN metastases using NV1023 and [18F]FEAU-PET was successful in a murine model. Similar studies could be translated to the clinic and improve the staging and management of patients with melanoma. PMID:19274083

  16. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-07-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.

  17. The diversity, distribution and status of deep-water elasmobranchs in the Rockall Trough, north-east Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Neat, F C; Burns, F; Jones, E; Blasdale, T

    2015-12-01

    Data from a scientific deep-water trawl fisheries survey in the north-east Atlantic were analysed to determine the spatial and bathymetric distribution of elasmobranch species and assess the change in relative abundance over the period 1998-2013. During this period, commercial fisheries for deep-water sharks went from being entirely unregulated, to being briefly managed, to being completely prohibited. A total of 22 species of shark and 10 species of skate were recorded between depths of 300 and 2030 m. All showed strong species-specific depth-related trends in abundance. Out of the 11 more common species, five showed no change in relative abundance over time, two (Centrophorus squamosus and Centroselachus crepidater) declined significantly and four increased in relative abundance (Apristurus aphyodes, Apristurus microps, Galeus melastomus and Deania calcea). Assuming these populations were depleted by fisheries in the past, the current data do not suggest there has been an overall recovery. Positive signs for some species in the most recent years suggest movement or recruitment back into the area; however, it is of concern that two species continued to decline. There is a continued need to have precautionary management of these elasmobranch species, and the current ban on landing these species in European waters remains appropriate. PMID:26709217

  18. Taxonomic status of a population of Gymoncypris waddelli Regan, 1905 (Cypriniformes: Schizothoracinae) distributed in Pengqu River, Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yong-Tao; Feng, Chen-Guang; Wanghe, Kun-Yuan; Li, Guo-Gang; Zhao, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Gymnocypris waddelli, a highland cold-water fish, is distributed among rivers and lakes of the southern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Although previously described as G. waddelli, specimens from the Pengqu River are morphologically distinguishable from those from Lake Yamzhog Yumco, which is the type locality of G. waddelli. We investigated morphological variations of G. waddelli specimens from Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco using not only traditional morphological methods but also newly-developed geometric morphometric analysis; furthermore, mitochondrial Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene analysis was employed to explore the phylogenetic position of the Pengqu River population. Our morphological analyses suggested that G. waddelli from the Pengqu River had an obtuse snout, nearly straight oral fissure, shorter lower jaw than upper jaw, broad mouth and sparse inside gill rakers of the first arch relative to the Lake Yamzhog Yumco population. The strongly supported monophyly of Pengqu population according to mitochondrial datasets was obtained, indicating genetic differences between Pengqu River and Lake Yamzhog Yumco populations. Given their substantial genetic and morphological divergence, specimens from Pengqu River warrant recognition as a distinct species, here described and named Gymnocypris pengquensis. PMID:27395577

  19. Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population

    PubMed Central

    Taira, Wataru; Iwasaki, Mayo; Otaki, Joji M.

    2015-01-01

    The body size of the pale grass blue butterfly, Zizeeria maha, has been used as an environmental indicator of radioactive pollution caused by the Fukushima nuclear accident. However, geographical and temporal size distributions in Japan and temperature effects on size have not been established in this species. Here, we examined the geographical, temporal, and temperature-dependent changes of the forewing size of Z. maha argia in Japan. Butterflies collected in 2012 and 2013 from multiple prefectures throughout Japan demonstrated an inverse relationship of latitude and forewing size, which is the reverse of Bergmann’s cline. The Fukushima population was significantly larger than the Aomori and Miyagi populations and exhibited no difference from most of the other prefectural populations. When monitored at a single geographic locality every other month, forewing sizes were the largest in April and the smallest in August. Rearing larvae at a constant temperature demonstrated that forewing size followed the temperature-size rule. Therefore, the converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species. Our study establishes this species as a useful environmental indicator and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution. PMID:26197998

  20. LEGION: Lightweight Expandable Group of Independently Operating Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    LEGION is a lightweight C-language software library that enables distributed asynchronous data processing with a loosely coupled set of compute nodes. Loosely coupled means that a node can offer itself in service to a larger task at any time and can withdraw itself from service at any time, provided it is not actively engaged in an assignment. The main program, i.e., the one attempting to solve the larger task, does not need to know up front which nodes will be available, how many nodes will be available, or at what times the nodes will be available, which is normally the case in a "volunteer computing" framework. The LEGION software accomplishes its goals by providing message-based, inter-process communication similar to MPI (message passing interface), but without the tight coupling requirements. The software is lightweight and easy to install as it is written in standard C with no exotic library dependencies. LEGION has been demonstrated in a challenging planetary science application in which a machine learning system is used in closed-loop fashion to efficiently explore the input parameter space of a complex numerical simulation. The machine learning system decides which jobs to run through the simulator; then, through LEGION calls, the system farms those jobs out to a collection of compute nodes, retrieves the job results as they become available, and updates a predictive model of how the simulator maps inputs to outputs. The machine learning system decides which new set of jobs would be most informative to run given the results so far; this basic loop is repeated until sufficient insight into the physical system modeled by the simulator is obtained.

  1. Dense LU Factorization on Multicore Supercomputer Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Lifflander, Jonathan; Miller, Phil; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Arya, Anshu; Jones, Terry R; Kale, Laxmikant V

    2012-01-01

    Dense LU factorization is a prominent benchmark used to rank the performance of supercomputers. Many implementations, including the reference code HPL, use block-cyclic distributions of matrix blocks onto a two-dimensional process grid. The process grid dimensions drive a trade-off between communication and computation and are architecture- and implementation-sensitive. We show how the critical panel factorization steps can be made less communication-bound by overlapping asynchronous collectives for pivot identification and exchange with the computation of rank-k updates. By shifting this trade-off, a modified block-cyclic distribution can beneficially exploit more available parallelism on the critical path, and reduce panel factorization's memory hierarchy contention on now-ubiquitous multi-core architectures. The missed parallelism in traditional block-cyclic distributions arises because active panel factorization, triangular solves, and subsequent broadcasts are spread over single process columns or rows (respectively) of the process grid. Increasing one dimension of the process grid decreases the number of distinct processes in the other dimension. To increase parallelism in both dimensions, periodic 'rotation' is applied to the process grid to recover the row-parallelism lost by a tall process grid. During active panel factorization, rank-1 updates stream through memory with minimal reuse. In a column-major process grid, the performance of this access pattern degrades as too many streaming processors contend for access to memory. A block-cyclic mapping in the more popular row-major order does not encounter this problem, but consequently sacrifices node and network locality in the critical pivoting steps. We introduce 'striding' to vary between the two extremes of row- and column-major process grids. As a test-bed for further mapping experiments, we describe a dense LU implementation that allows a block distribution to be defined as a general function of block

  2. Particle clearance from the canine pleural space into thoracic lymph nodes: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, A S; Grande, N R

    1992-09-01

    We instilled tungsten powder (CaWO4) into the pleural space of the dog and studied the kinetics and distribution of particle translocation from the pleural space to the thoracic lymph nodes over 1-7 days. We found that the transport of tungsten particles to regional lymph nodes was present at day 1, and reached its peak at day 3. In situ detection of tungsten by elemental particle analysis of lymph node sections by scanning electron microscopy complemented by light microscopy and X-ray analysis allowed precise mapping of the marker in the thoracic nodes. The first lymph nodes to become tungsten-laden was the parasternal group (day 1-3). From day 3 to 7 tungsten inclusions decreased in these parasternal nodes while moderately increasing in the remaining intrathoracic lymph nodes. Retrocardiac pleural folds containing numerous "milky spots" also accumulated prominent amounts of tungsten early after intrapleural injection of CaWO4. These data indicate that 1) particle translocation from the pleural space to regional lymph nodes is a rapid process and is first directed to the parasternal lymph nodal subgroup; 2) particle dissemination to virtually all other lymph nodes within the thorax follows thereafter; 3) retrocardiac pleural folds contribute to the clearance of particles from the pleural space. PMID:1434787

  3. Feedback between node and network dynamics can produce real-world network properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brot, Hilla; Muchnik, Lev; Goldenberg, Jacob; Louzoun, Yoram

    2012-12-01

    Real-world networks are characterized by common features, including among others a scale-free degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient and a short typical distance between nodes. These properties are usually explained by the dynamics of edge and node addition and deletion. In a different context, the dynamics of node content within a network has been often explained via the interaction between nodes in static networks, ignoring the dynamic aspect of edge addition and deletion. We here propose to combine the dynamics of the node content and of edge addition and deletion, using a threshold automata framework. Within this framework, we show that the typical properties of real-world networks can be reproduced with a Hebbian approach, in which nodes with similar internal dynamics have a high probability of being connected. The proper network properties emerge only if an imbalance exists between excitatory and inhibitory connections, as is indeed observed in real networks. We further check the plausibility of the suggested mechanism by observing an evolving social network and measuring the probability of edge addition as a function of the similarity between the contents of the corresponding nodes. We indeed find that similarity between nodes increases the emergence probability of a new link between them. The current work bridges between multiple important domains in network analysis, including network formation processes, Kaufmann Boolean networks and Hebbian learning. It suggests that the properties of nodes and the network convolve and can be seen as complementary parts of the same process.

  4. Data-based reconstruction of complex geospatial networks, nodal positioning and detection of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ri-Qi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Wang, Xiao; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Given a complex geospatial network with nodes distributed in a two-dimensional region of physical space, can the locations of the nodes be determined and their connection patterns be uncovered based solely on data? We consider the realistic situation where time series/signals can be collected from a single location. A key challenge is that the signals collected are necessarily time delayed, due to the varying physical distances from the nodes to the data collection centre. To meet this challenge, we develop a compressive-sensing-based approach enabling reconstruction of the full topology of the underlying geospatial network and more importantly, accurate estimate of the time delays. A standard triangularization algorithm can then be employed to find the physical locations of the nodes in the network. We further demonstrate successful detection of a hidden node (or a hidden source or threat), from which no signal can be obtained, through accurate detection of all its neighbouring nodes. As a geospatial network has the feature that a node tends to connect with geophysically nearby nodes, the localized region that contains the hidden node can be identified. PMID:26909187

  5. An Image-Based Model of Fluid Flow Through Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Laura J; Heppell, James P; Clough, Geraldine F; Ganapathisubramani, Bharathram; Roose, Tiina

    2016-01-01

    The lymphatic system returns fluid to the bloodstream from the tissues to maintain tissue fluid homeostasis. Lymph nodes distributed throughout the system filter the lymphatic fluid. The afferent and efferent lymph flow conditions of lymph nodes can be measured in experiments; however, it is difficult to measure the flow within the nodes. In this paper, we present an image-based modelling approach to investigating how the internal structure of the node affects the fluid flow pathways within the node. Selective plane illumination microscopy images of murine lymph nodes are used to identify the geometry and structure of the tissue within the node and to determine the permeability of the lymph node interstitium to lymphatic fluid. Experimental data are used to determine boundary conditions and optimise the parameters for the model. The numerical simulations conducted within the model are implemented in COMSOL Multiphysics, a commercial finite element analysis software. The parameter fitting resulted in the estimate that the average permeability for lymph node tissue is of the order of magnitude of [Formula: see text]. Our modelling shows that the flow predominantly takes a direct path between the afferent and efferent lymphatics and that fluid is both filtered and absorbed across the blood vessel boundaries. The amount that is absorbed or extravasated in the model is dependent on the efferent lymphatic lumen fluid pressure. PMID:26690921

  6. A modular architecture for wireless sensor network nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Jesse; Berry, Nina

    2004-09-01

    The system level hardware architecture of individual nodes in a wireless distributed sensor network has not received adequate attention. A large portion of the development work in wireless sensor networks has been devoted to the networking layer or the network communications, but considering the tight integration required between the hardware and software on each node can result in major benefits in power, performance, and usability as well. A novel hardware architecture based on the concept of task specific modular computing provides both the high flexibility and power efficiency required for effective distributed sensing solutions. A comparative power analysis with a traditional, centralized architecture gives a justifying motivation for pursuing the modular architecture. Finally, three decentralized module self-control mechanisms developed to minimize total system power will be presented and explained in detail.

  7. Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Chow, V. I.; Williams, S. L.; Botsford, L. W.; Morgan, S. G.; Nyden, B.; Tustin, J. A.; McAfee, S.; Shideler, D.

    2004-12-01

    The Bodega Ocean Observing Node (BOON) is comprised of radar mapping of surface currents, a moored current profiler, and shoreline oceanographic and meteorological observations. Ongoing shoreline data on temperature and salinity date back to 1955, with continuous records of sealevel, wind, meteorology, and chlorophyll fluorescence starting more recently. Radar observations started in 2001 with deployment of two CODAR antennae. Together with a third CODAR unit deployed in 2002, these provide coverage from Pt Reyes north to the CODE line. Real-time ADCP data from the mooring started in late 2004. Plans include nearshore wave data, CTD/fluorescence data from the mooring, and deployment of a nutrient sensor at the shoreline. This coastal ocean observing node is part of the state-funded COCMP-NC program and the CeNCOOS regional association for central and northern California. Ancillary regional data are available on offshore winds (NDBC buoys), offshore waves (CDIP buoy), river flow, and satellite observations. The value of this suite of measurements is built on (1) detailed understanding of circulation, derived from WEST, CODE, and other prior studies of this region, including mesoscale atmosphere and ocean modeling, (2) active integration of circulation patterns in ongoing studies of planktonic and benthic ecology, and (3) direct interaction with local, state and federal agencies with interest in this region. To-date, the ongoing data series have shown potential for improved understanding and monitoring of fishery populations such as salmon and crab, as well as water quality concerns including oil spills and toxic pollutants. Through an active involvement in local studies and environmental management issues, BOON seeks to develop alternatives to supply-side thinking in the design of coastal ocean observing systems. BOON is based at the Bodega Marine Laboratory and thus provides invaluable support for academic study of more fundamental questions, such as carbon budgets

  8. Nodes packaging option for Space Station application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    So, Kenneth T.; Hall, John B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Space Station nodes packaging analyses are presented relative to moving environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) equipment from the habitability (HAB) module to node 4, in order to provide more living space and privacy for the crew, remove inherently noisy equipment from the crew quarter, retain crew waste collection and processing equipment in one location, and keep objectionable odor away from the living quarters. In addition, options for moving external electronic equipment from the Space Station truss to pressurized node 3 were evaluated in order to reduce the crew extravehicular-activity time required to install and maintain the equipment. Node size considered in this analysis is 3.66 m in diameter and 5.38 m long. The analysis shows that significant external electronic equipment could be relocated from the Space Station truss structure to node 3, and nonlife critical ECLSS HAB module equipment could be moved to node 4.

  9. Distribution, population density, and status of sympatric cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Adele; Matthews, Andreas

    2002-07-01

    A study on species composition, distribution, and population density of cercopithecids in the Campo-Ma'an area, Southwestern Cameroon, was undertaken from December 1997 until August 2000. A total of 665.5 km of line transects was used for the census. Thirteen diurnal primate species including five endangered species (Gorilla g. gorilla, Pan troglodytes, Mandrillus sphinx, Colobus satanas, Cercocebus torquatus) were recorded in the Campo Forest, the greatest part of which is a logging concession. Cercopithecus nictitans (1.43 groups/km2), C. cephus (1.13 groups/km2), C. pogonias (0.81 groups/km2), and C. torquatus (0.51 groups/km2) occurred at medium frequencies compared to figures from other Central African study sites. Mandrill densities estimated (0.27 groups/km2) show that the area is very important for the conservation of this rare species. Guenon densities found inside areas with a high level of human activities did not differ significantly from densities estimated in areas with a lower level of human activities. C. torquatus densities were significantly higher in the areas with a low level of human disturbance and encounter rates with Lophocebus albigena also indicate a preference of less disturbed areas. Mangabeys are thus likely to be adversely affected by human activities in the area. In the Ma'an Forest, which has not been logged yet, ten species were confirmed. The population densities of two guenons (C. nictitans and C. cephus) were estimated to be twice as high in the unlogged forest area as compared to the logged forest of Campo. Other species are rarer in the Ma'an Forest than in the Campo Forest. Although mangabeys are adversely affected by human activities, the results still indicate that selective logging may be compatible with the conservation of cercopithecids, if a reduced damage logging concept and antipoaching measures are implemented. Increased hunting activities following logging operations will definitely have a negative longterm impact on

  10. CANDELS: CORRELATIONS OF SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AND MORPHOLOGIES WITH STAR FORMATION STATUS FOR MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Tao; Gu Qiusheng; Huang Jiasheng; Fang Guanwen; Fazio, G. G.; Faber, S. M.; McGrath, Elizabeth J.; Kocevski, Dale; Yan Haojing; Dekel, Avishai; Guo Yicheng; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Lucas, Ray A.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Weiner, Benjamin; Hathi, Nimish P.; Kong Xu

    2012-06-20

    We present a study on spectral energy distributions, morphologies, and star formation for an IRAC-selected extremely red object sample in the GOODS Chandra Deep Field-South. This work was enabled by new HST/WFC3 near-IR imaging from the CANDELS survey as well as the deepest available X-ray data from Chandra 4 Ms observations. This sample consists of 133 objects with the 3.6 {mu}m limiting magnitude of [3.6] = 21.5 and is approximately complete for galaxies with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5. We classify this sample into two types, quiescent and star-forming galaxies (SFGs), in the observed infrared color-color ([3.6]-[24] versus K - [3.6]) diagram. The further morphological study of this sample shows a consistent result with the observed color classification. The classified quiescent galaxies are bulge dominated and SFGs in the sample have disk or irregular morphologies. Our observed infrared color classification is also consistent with the rest-frame color (U - V versus V - J) classification. We also found that quiescent and SFGs are well separated in the nonparametric morphology parameter (Gini versus M{sub 20}) diagram measuring their concentration and clumpiness: quiescent galaxies have a Gini coefficient higher than 0.58 and SFGs have a Gini coefficient lower than 0.58. We argue that the star formation quenching process must lead to or be accompanied by the increasing galaxy concentration. One prominent morphological feature of this sample is that disks are commonly seen in this massive galaxy sample at 1.5 {<=} z {<=} 2.5: 30% of quiescent galaxies and 70% of SFGs with M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub Sun} have disks in their rest-frame optical morphologies. The prevalence of these extended, relatively undisturbed disks challenges the merging scenario as the main mode of massive galaxy formation.

  11. Lambda network having 2.sup.m-1 nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, Jr., Leonard M.

    1995-01-01

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance.

  12. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Ristevska, Nevena; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Antevski, Borce; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main prognostic factor in early staged breast cancer is the axillary lymph node metastatic affection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a staging modality, significantly decreases surgical morbidity. The status of internal mammary lymph nodes gains an increased predictive role in grading breast carcinomas and modulation of postoperative therapeutic protocols. If positive, almost always are associated with worse disease outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node micrometastases has not been up to date precisely defined. AIM: To present a case of female patient clinically diagnosed as T1, N0, M0 (clinical TNM) ductal breast carcinoma with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. METHODS: Dual method of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node detection using 99mTc-SENTI-SCINT and blue dye injection, intraoperative gamma probe detection, radioguided surgery and intraoperative ex tempore biopsy were used. CASE REPORT: We present a case of clinically T1, N0, M0 ductal breast cancer with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative ex tempore biopsy revealed micrometastases in the internal mammary node and no metastatic involvement of the axillary sentinel lymph node. CONCLUSION: Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal) grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  13. UWB-WBAN sensor node design.

    PubMed

    Keong, Ho Chee; Yuce, M R

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the hardware development of a UWB sensor node for wireless body area networks. A few unique UWB pulse generation techniques have been discussed. The sensor node transmits multiple pulses per bit to increase the average power of the transmitted signal in order to improve the bit-error rate (BER) performance. The multiple-pulse per bit technique is also used as the coding scheme to identify the individual sensor nodes when more than one sensor forms a network. The sensors nodes are able to transmit body signals up to 2 m with a BER lower than 10(-5). PMID:22254770

  14. What's the Best Node for Your Cluster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Rick

    2000-03-01

    A well designed cluster requires a node containing the most appropriate balance of resources for the problems it will be solving. For many scientific problems, memory bandwidth or peripheral bandwidth can be a severe bottleneck, and spending extra money on a faster processor will not increase performance significantly. This talk will cover the options available for cluster nodes including processors, memory speeds and standards, and peripheral busses. There will also be a discussion of when SMP nodes should be used, and how many processors can be accomodated per node.

  15. Seismogenic nodes in the Mediterranean orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorshkov, A.; Panza, G.; Soloviev, A.; Aoudia, A.

    2003-04-01

    The central segment of the Mediterranean orogenic belt (the Apennines, Alps, Carpathians, Balkanides, and Dinarides) has been studied to identify seismogenic nodes, specific structures formed at the intersections of fault zones. The nodes have been delineated with the morphostructural zoning (MSZ) based on the concept that the lithosphere is built-up by different-scale blocks, separated by mobile boundaries. With MSZ we compiled the morphostructural map (scale 1:1,000,000) for the study region using the GIS technology. The map shows the hierarchical block-structure of the region, the boundary zones bounding blocks, and the loci of the nodes. Three-level hierarchy has been established for the blocks and their boundaries. All the recorded M >= 6.0 earthquakes nucleate at the nodes delineated by MSZ, i.e. ignoring the seismic record. The nodes capable of M >= 6.5 earthquakes are identified with the criteria of high seismicity nodes, previously derived from pattern recognition in the Pamirs -Tien Shan region. In the study region, with the employed criteria 29 out of the 33 nodes, hosting the observed M >= 6.5 events, have been classified as prone to M >= 6.5 earthquakes. With the exception of the Carpatho-Balkanides system, where the recognition procedure is inapplicable due to the insufficient number of sample nodes for the learning stage, we recognized the seismogenic nodes (D), prone to M >= 6.0 earthquakes, with the pattern recognition algorithm CORA-3. The recognition is performed using geomorphic, morphostructural, and gravity parameters relevant to seismicity. The majority of D nodes is associated with the first and second rank boundaries, i.e. larger earthquakes originate at the boundaries of larger blocks. Characteristic traits of D nodes selected by CORA-3 suggest an increased fragmentation of the crust and high intensity of tectonic movements in the D nodes vicinities. We identify a number of D nodes, where strong earthquakes are not recorded till present

  16. [Specifics of the blood supply of the sinoatrial node].

    PubMed

    Onciu, M; Tuţă, Liliana-Ana; Baz, R; Leonte, T

    2006-01-01

    The present study aims to identify the heart nodal system blood supply sources and especially those of the sinoatrial node. It included 50 unpreserved and preserved human hearts from subjects of both sexes (40 males and 10 females) aged 12 to 68, of Romanian (42) and non-Romanian origin (8). The used denominations are those recommended by DiDio & Wakefield, based on splitting of the atrial walls into four quadrants (right and left, both anterior and posterior) which are further divided into three parts (medial, middle and lateral). We used special dissection techniques and plastic mass injections followed by corrosion. Our results confirm the opinion shared by most authors, in favour of the predominance of the origin of sinoatrial node artery from the right coronary artery. The sinoatrial node was supplied by a unique source represented by the right coronary artery in 37 cases (74%) and by the circumflex artery in 8 cases (16%), and by a double source represented by two branches of the right coronary artery in 2 cases (4%) and of both coronary arteries in 3 cases (6%). The direct arterial branches to the sinoatrial node were represented mainly by the right anteromedial atrial artery with origin from the right coronary artery level with the medial third of the right anterior quadrant of the atrial wall. From the left coronary system, the left anteromedial artery is the one responsible with the sinoatrial node supply; the source is the circumflex artery and its origin is the medial third of the left anterior quadrant. Contrary to DiDio et al., we found in addition to the mainly unilateral blood supply, the bilateral one. We didn't find any case with a sinoatrial node artery originating from the trunk of the left coronary artery, or with an extracardiac origin. We may state there are no significant differences of the origin and distribution of the sinoatrial node artery related to sex or country of origin. Thus, we cannot fully confirm the theories about the influence

  17. Use of High Frequency Ultrasound to Monitor Cervical Lymph Node Alterations in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Elyse L.; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  18. Use of high frequency ultrasound to monitor cervical lymph node alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah; Coad, James; Weed, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lymph node evaluation by clinical ultrasound is a non-invasive procedure used in diagnosing nodal status, and when combined with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), provides an effective method to assess nodal pathologies. Development of high-frequency ultrasound (HF US) allows real-time monitoring of lymph node alterations in animal models. While HF US is frequently used in animal models of tumor biology, use of HF US for studying cervical lymph nodes alterations associated with murine models of head and neck cancer, or any other model of lymphadenopathy, is lacking. Here we utilize HF US to monitor cervical lymph nodes changes in mice following exposure to the oral cancer-inducing carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) and in mice with systemic autoimmunity. 4-NQO induces tumors within the mouse oral cavity as early as 19 wks that recapitulate HNSCC. Monitoring of cervical (mandibular) lymph nodes by gray scale and power Doppler sonography revealed changes in lymph node size eight weeks after 4-NQO treatment, prior to tumor formation. 4-NQO causes changes in cervical node blood flow resulting from oral tumor progression. Histological evaluation indicated that the early 4-NQO induced changes in lymph node volume were due to specific hyperproliferation of T-cell enriched zones in the paracortex. We also show that HF US can be used to perform image-guided fine needle aspirate (FNA) biopsies on mice with enlarged mandibular lymph nodes due to genetic mutation of Fas ligand (Fasl). Collectively these studies indicate that HF US is an effective technique for the non-invasive study of cervical lymph node alterations in live mouse models of oral cancer and other mouse models containing cervical lymphadenopathy. PMID:24955984

  19. Node retraction during patterning of the urinary collecting duct system.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Nils O; Chang, C-Hong; Valerius, M Todd; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a novel mechanism for remodelling a branched epithelial tree. The mouse renal collecting duct develops by growth and repeated branching of an initially unbranched ureteric bud: this mechanism initially produces an almost fractal form with young branches connected to the centre of the kidney via a sequence of nodes (branch points) distributed widely throughout the developing organ. The collecting ducts of a mature kidney have a different form: from the nephrons in the renal cortex, long, straight lengths of collecting duct run almost parallel to one another through the renal medulla, and open together to the renal pelvis. Here we present time-lapse studies of E11.5 kidneys growing in culture: after about 5 days, the collecting duct trees show evidence of 'node retraction', in which the node of a 'Y'-shaped branch moves downwards, shortening the stalk of the 'Y', lengthening its arms and narrowing their divergence angle so that the 'Y' becomes a 'V'. Computer simulation suggests that node retraction can transform a spread tree, like that of an early kidney, into one with long, almost-parallel medullary rays similar to those seen in a mature real kidney. PMID:25292187

  20. Node retraction during patterning of the urinary collecting duct system

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, Nils O; Chang, C-Hong; Valerius, M Todd; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a novel mechanism for remodelling a branched epithelial tree. The mouse renal collecting duct develops by growth and repeated branching of an initially unbranched ureteric bud: this mechanism initially produces an almost fractal form with young branches connected to the centre of the kidney via a sequence of nodes (branch points) distributed widely throughout the developing organ. The collecting ducts of a mature kidney have a different form: from the nephrons in the renal cortex, long, straight lengths of collecting duct run almost parallel to one another through the renal medulla, and open together to the renal pelvis. Here we present time-lapse studies of E11.5 kidneys growing in culture: after about 5 days, the collecting duct trees show evidence of ‘node retraction’, in which the node of a ‘Y’-shaped branch moves downwards, shortening the stalk of the ‘Y’, lengthening its arms and narrowing their divergence angle so that the ‘Y’ becomes a ‘V’. Computer simulation suggests that node retraction can transform a spread tree, like that of an early kidney, into one with long, almost-parallel medullary rays similar to those seen in a mature real kidney. PMID:25292187

  1. Matching mitochondria to metabolic needs at nodes of Ranvier.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shing Y

    2011-08-01

    Myelinated axons conduct nerve impulses at high speed using a unique mode of excitation, referred to as saltatory conduction, which is enabled structurally by the narrowing of the site of action potentials to a tiny gap in the axon called the node of Ranvier. With this structural specialization comes an interesting metabolic matching problem. How do mitochondria find and supply energy to these tiny nodes of Ranvier distributed sparsely along a myelinated axon? Does the intense Na(+) influx at the node, which is produced by the highest known sodium channel density in all excitable membranes, help guide where mitochondria stop? Evidence suggests that during excitation in the peripheral nervous system, Na(+) influx recruits mitochondria to the node by triggering Ca(2+) elevation and activating Na(+) pumps. Intriguingly, indirect evidence suggests that in the central nervous system, activity recruits mitochondria to the internode (myelin-covered portion of the axon). Metabolic dysfunction thus might produce spatially distinct lesions in PNS and CNS myelinated fibers. Future dissection of regional variation in mitochondrial biology in myelinated axons using live imaging will likely yield surprises about sites of vulnerability in demyelinating diseases and clues for therapeutic intervention strategy. PMID:21518813

  2. Computational lymphatic node models in pediatric and adult hybrid phantoms for radiation dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Choonsik; Lamart, Stephanie; Moroz, Brian E.

    2013-03-01

    We developed models of lymphatic nodes for six pediatric and two adult hybrid computational phantoms to calculate the lymphatic node dose estimates from external and internal radiation exposures. We derived the number of lymphatic nodes from the recommendations in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publications 23 and 89 at 16 cluster locations for the lymphatic nodes: extrathoracic, cervical, thoracic (upper and lower), breast (left and right), mesentery (left and right), axillary (left and right), cubital (left and right), inguinal (left and right) and popliteal (left and right), for different ages (newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-year-old and adult). We modeled each lymphatic node within the voxel format of the hybrid phantoms by assuming that all nodes have identical size derived from published data except narrow cluster sites. The lymph nodes were generated by the following algorithm: (1) selection of the lymph node site among the 16 cluster sites; (2) random sampling of the location of the lymph node within a spherical space centered at the chosen cluster site; (3) creation of the sphere or ovoid of tissue representing the node based on lymphatic node characteristics defined in ICRP Publications 23 and 89. We created lymph nodes until the pre-defined number of lymphatic nodes at the selected cluster site was reached. This algorithm was applied to pediatric (newborn, 1-, 5-and 10-year-old male, and 15-year-old males) and adult male and female ICRP-compliant hybrid phantoms after voxelization. To assess the performance of our models for internal dosimetry, we calculated dose conversion coefficients, called S values, for selected organs and tissues with Iodine-131 distributed in six lymphatic node cluster sites using MCNPX2.6, a well validated Monte Carlo radiation transport code. Our analysis of the calculations indicates that the S values were significantly affected by the location of the lymph node clusters and that the values increased for

  3. Predicting axillary lymph node metastasis from kinetic statistics of DCE-MRI breast images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashraf, Ahmed B.; Lin, Lilie; Gavenonis, Sara C.; Mies, Carolyn; Xanthopoulos, Eric; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    The presence of axillary lymph node metastases is the most important prognostic factor in breast cancer and can influence the selection of adjuvant therapy, both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this work we present a set of kinetic statistics derived from DCE-MRI for predicting axillary node status. Breast DCE-MRI images from 69 women with known nodal status were analyzed retrospectively under HIPAA and IRB approval. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 12 patients while 57 patients had no axillary lymph node involvement. Kinetic curves for each pixel were computed and a pixel-wise map of time-to-peak (TTP) was obtained. Pixels were first partitioned according to the similarity of their kinetic behavior, based on TTP values. For every kinetic curve, the following pixel-wise features were computed: peak enhancement (PE), wash-in-slope (WIS), wash-out-slope (WOS). Partition-wise statistics for every feature map were calculated, resulting in a total of 21 kinetic statistic features. ANOVA analysis was done to select features that differ significantly between node positive and node negative women. Using the computed kinetic statistic features a leave-one-out SVM classifier was learned that performs with AUC=0.77 under the ROC curve, outperforming the conventional kinetic measures, including maximum peak enhancement (MPE) and signal enhancement ratio (SER), (AUCs of 0.61 and 0.57 respectively). These findings suggest that our DCE-MRI kinetic statistic features can be used to improve the prediction of axillary node status in breast cancer patients. Such features could ultimately be used as imaging biomarkers to guide personalized treatment choices for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  4. Morphology, taxonomic status and distribution of the opisthobranch mollusc Coryphella (s.l.) japonica from the central deep water basin of the Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Alexander V.

    2013-02-01

    The opisthobranch fauna (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) of the deep sea basins of the Sea of Japan is reviewed. A detailed description of the most common deep sea nudibranch species Coryphella japonicaVolodchenko, 1941 is given based on materials from various expeditions (including R/V "Vityaz" cruises and SoJaBio project). Distinct morphological features of C. japonica are discussed and its valid taxonomic status is confirmed. The considerable radular variability of C. japonica for the first time is documented using a scanning electron microscope. Unique features of the bathymetric distribution of C. japonica ranging from shelf to the abyssal depths are discussed in connection with the "pseudabyssal area" concept. C. japonica was compared to its assumed synonym C. salmonacea, and to similar C. athadona. Material from all these species, including types of C. japonica, was examined externally, anatomically via dissection, and SEM. C. salmonacea is restricted to North Atlantic and Arctic only, whereas C. japonica inhabits NE Pacific including deep water basins of the Sea of Japan.

  5. Using a distribution and conservation status weighted hotspot approach to identify areas in need of conservation action to benefit Idaho bird species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Aaron M.; Leu, Matthias; Svancara, Leona K.; Wilson, Gina; Scott, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Identification of biodiversity hotspots (hereafter, hotspots) has become a common strategy to delineate important areas for wildlife conservation. However, the use of hotspots has not often incorporated important habitat types, ecosystem services, anthropogenic activity, or consistency in identifying important conservation areas. The purpose of this study was to identify hotspots to improve avian conservation efforts for Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) in the state of Idaho, United States. We evaluated multiple approaches to define hotspots and used a unique approach based on weighting species by their distribution size and conservation status to identify hotspot areas. All hotspot approaches identified bodies of water (Bear Lake, Grays Lake, and American Falls Reservoir) as important hotspots for Idaho avian SGCN, but we found that the weighted approach produced more congruent hotspot areas when compared to other hotspot approaches. To incorporate anthropogenic activity into hotspot analysis, we grouped species based on their sensitivity to specific human threats (i.e., urban development, agriculture, fire suppression, grazing, roads, and logging) and identified ecological sections within Idaho that may require specific conservation actions to address these human threats using the weighted approach. The Snake River Basalts and Overthrust Mountains ecological sections were important areas for potential implementation of conservation actions to conserve biodiversity. Our approach to identifying hotspots may be useful as part of a larger conservation strategy to aid land managers or local governments in applying conservation actions on the ground.

  6. [Abnormal cerebral blood flow distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus in three pediatric patients measured by arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Keiko; Fukuda, Tokiko

    2016-05-01

    The ability to visualize brain perfusion is important for identifying epileptic foci. We present three pediatric cases showing asymmetrical cerebral blood flow (CBF) distributions during the post-ictal phase of febrile status epilepticus measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI. During the acute phase, regional CBF measurements in the areas considered including epileptic foci were higher than in the corresponding area of the contralateral hemisphere, though the exact quantitative value varied between cases. We could not identify the correct epileptogenic foci, because those ASL images were taken after the prolonged and extraordinary activation of neurons in the affected area. During the recovery phase, the differences reduced and the average regional CBF measurement was 54.6 ± 6.1 ml/100 g per minute, which was a little less than the number of previous ASL studies. ASL perfusion MRI imaging provides a method for evaluating regional CBF by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. With this technique, we can repeatedly evaluate both the brain structure and the level of perfusion at the same time. ASL is noninvasive and easily accessible, and therefore it could become a routine tool for assessment of perfusion in daily practice of pediatric neurology. PMID:27349086

  7. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal “avascular” areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue®, Sonazoid® and Definity®. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node. PMID:26675994

  8. Mediastinal lymph node size in lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Libshitz, H.I.; McKenna, R.J. Jr.

    1984-10-01

    Using a size criterion of 1 cm or greater as evidence for abnormality, the size of mediastinal lymph nodes identified by computed tomography (CT) was a poor predictor of mediastinal lymph node metastases in a series of 86 patients who had surgery for bronchogenic carcinoma. The surgery included full nodal sampling in all patients. Of the 86 patients, 36 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm identified by CT. Of the 21 patients with mediastinal metastases proven at surgery, 14 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm (sensitivity = 67%). Of the 65 patients without mediastinal metastases, 22 had nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm. Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse distal to the cancer was present in 39 patients (45%). Obstructive pneumonia and/or pulmonary collapse is a common occurrence in bronchogenic carcinoma, but mediastinal nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm in this circumstance cannot be presumed to represent metastatic disease. Metastatic mediastinal lymph node involvement was related to nodal size also in patients with evidence of prior granulomatous disease and in patients with no putative benign cause for nodes greater than or equal to 1 cm.

  9. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes.

    PubMed

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2014-07-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel's bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  10. Opinion formation driven by PageRank node influence on directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eom, Young-Ho; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2015-10-01

    We study a two states opinion formation model driven by PageRank node influence and report an extensive numerical study on how PageRank affects collective opinion formations in large-scale empirical directed networks. In our model the opinion of a node can be updated by the sum of its neighbor nodes' opinions weighted by the node influence of the neighbor nodes at each step. We consider PageRank probability and its sublinear power as node influence measures and investigate evolution of opinion under various conditions. First, we observe that all networks reach steady state opinion after a certain relaxation time. This time scale is decreasing with the heterogeneity of node influence in the networks. Second, we find that our model shows consensus and non-consensus behavior in steady state depending on types of networks: Web graph, citation network of physics articles, and LiveJournal social network show non-consensus behavior while Wikipedia article network shows consensus behavior. Third, we find that a more heterogeneous influence distribution leads to a more uniform opinion state in the cases of Web graph, Wikipedia, and Livejournal. However, the opposite behavior is observed in the citation network. Finally we identify that a small number of influential nodes can impose their own opinion on significant fraction of other nodes in all considered networks. Our study shows that the effects of heterogeneity of node influence on opinion formation can be significant and suggests further investigations on the interplay between node influence and collective opinion in networks.

  11. DoS detection in IEEE 802.11 with the presence of hidden nodes

    PubMed Central

    Soryal, Joseph; Liu, Xijie; Saadawi, Tarek

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel technique to detect Denial of Service (DoS) attacks applied by misbehaving nodes in wireless networks with the presence of hidden nodes employing the widely used IEEE 802.11 Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) protocols described in the IEEE standard [1]. Attacker nodes alter the IEEE 802.11 DCF firmware to illicitly capture the channel via elevating the probability of the average number of packets transmitted successfully using up the bandwidth share of the innocent nodes that follow the protocol standards. We obtained the theoretical network throughput by solving two-dimensional Markov Chain model as described by Bianchi [2], and Liu and Saadawi [3] to determine the channel capacity. We validated the results obtained via the theoretical computations with the results obtained by OPNET simulator [4] to define the baseline for the average attainable throughput in the channel under standard conditions where all nodes follow the standards. The main goal of the DoS attacker is to prevent the innocent nodes from accessing the channel and by capturing the channel’s bandwidth. In addition, the attacker strives to appear as an innocent node that follows the standards. The protocol resides in every node to enable each node to police other nodes in its immediate wireless coverage area. All innocent nodes are able to detect and identify the DoS attacker in its wireless coverage area. We applied the protocol to two Physical Layer technologies: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS) and the results are presented to validate the algorithm. PMID:25685510

  12. A family of algorithms for computing consensus about node state from network data.

    PubMed

    Brush, Eleanor R; Krakauer, David C; Flack, Jessica C

    2013-01-01

    Biological and social networks are composed of heterogeneous nodes that contribute differentially to network structure and function. A number of algorithms have been developed to measure this variation. These algorithms have proven useful for applications that require assigning scores to individual nodes-from ranking websites to determining critical species in ecosystems-yet the mechanistic basis for why they produce good rankings remains poorly understood. We show that a unifying property of these algorithms is that they quantify consensus in the network about a node's state or capacity to perform a function. The algorithms capture consensus by either taking into account the number of a target node's direct connections, and, when the edges are weighted, the uniformity of its weighted in-degree distribution (breadth), or by measuring net flow into a target node (depth). Using data from communication, social, and biological networks we find that that how an algorithm measures consensus-through breadth or depth- impacts its ability to correctly score nodes. We also observe variation in sensitivity to source biases in interaction/adjacency matrices: errors arising from systematic error at the node level or direct manipulation of network connectivity by nodes. Our results indicate that the breadth algorithms, which are derived from information theory, correctly score nodes (assessed using independent data) and are robust to errors. However, in cases where nodes "form opinions" about other nodes using indirect information, like reputation, depth algorithms, like Eigenvector Centrality, are required. One caveat is that Eigenvector Centrality is not robust to error unless the network is transitive or assortative. In these cases the network structure allows the depth algorithms to effectively capture breadth as well as depth. Finally, we discuss the algorithms' cognitive and computational demands. This is an important consideration in systems in which individuals use the

  13. Exploiting node mobility for energy optimization in wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Moukaddem, Fatme Mohammad

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become increasingly available for data-intensive applications such as micro-climate monitoring, precision agriculture, and audio/video surveillance. A key challenge faced by data-intensive WSNs is to transmit the sheer amount of data generated within an application's lifetime to the base station despite the fact that sensor nodes have limited power supplies such as batteries or small solar panels. The availability of numerous low-cost robotic units (e.g. Robomote and Khepera) has made it possible to construct sensor networks consisting of mobile sensor nodes. It has been shown that the controlled mobility offered by mobile sensors can be exploited to improve the energy efficiency of a network. In this thesis, we propose schemes that use mobile sensor nodes to reduce the energy consumption of data-intensive WSNs. Our approaches differ from previous work in two main aspects. First, our approaches do not require complex motion planning of mobile nodes, and hence can be implemented on a number of low-cost mobile sensor platforms. Second, we integrate the energy consumption due to both mobility and wireless communications into a holistic optimization framework. We consider three problems arising from the limited energy in the sensor nodes. In the first problem, the network consists of mostly static nodes and contains only a few mobile nodes. In the second and third problems, we assume essentially that all nodes in the WSN are mobile. We first study a new problem called max-data mobile relay configuration (MMRC ) that finds the positions of a set of mobile sensors, referred to as relays, that maximize the total amount of data gathered by the network during its lifetime. We show that the MMRC problem is surprisingly complex even for a trivial network topology due to the joint consideration of the energy consumption of both wireless communication and mechanical locomotion. We present optimal MMRC algorithms and practical distributed

  14. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network. PMID:26776455

  15. Expandable and reconfigurable instrument node arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, Lawrence M. (Inventor); Deshpande, Manohar (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An expandable and reconfigurable instrument node includes a feature detection means and a data processing portion in communication with the feature detection means, the data processing portion configured and disposed to process feature information. The instrument node further includes a phase locked loop (PLL) oscillator in communication with the data processing portion, the PLL oscillator configured and disposed to provide PLL information to the processing portion. The instrument node further includes a single tone transceiver and a pulse transceiver in communication with the PLL oscillator, the single tone transceiver configured and disposed to transmit or receive a single tone for phase correction of the PLL oscillator and the pulse transceiver configured and disposed to transmit and receive signals for phase correction of the PLL oscillator. The instrument node further includes a global positioning (GPA) receiver in communication with the processing portion, the GPS receiver configured and disposed to establish a global position of the instrument node.

  16. Node 2 In Space Station Processing Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Node 2 awaits launch in the Space Station Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) since its arrival on June 1, 2003. Node 2, the 'utility hub' and second of three connectors between International Space Station (ISS) modules, was built in the Torino, Italy facility of Alenia Spazio, an International contractor based in Rome. Alenia built Node 2 as part of an agreement between NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Weighing in at approximately 30,000 pounds, the Node is more than 20-feet long and 14.5-feet wide. This centerpiece of the ISS will be the next pressurized module installed on the Station and will result in a roomier Station, allowing it to expand from the equivalent space of a 3-bedroom house to a 5-bedroom house once the Japanese and European laboratories are attached to it. The Marshall Space Center in Huntsville, Alabama manages the Node program for NASA.

  17. Locating influential nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malliaros, Fragkiskos D.; Rossi, Maria-Evgenia G.; Vazirgiannis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Understanding and controlling spreading processes in networks is an important topic with many diverse applications, including information dissemination, disease propagation and viral marketing. It is of crucial importance to identify which entities act as influential spreaders that can propagate information to a large portion of the network, in order to ensure efficient information diffusion, optimize available resources or even control the spreading. In this work, we capitalize on the properties of the K-truss decomposition, a triangle-based extension of the core decomposition of graphs, to locate individual influential nodes. Our analysis on real networks indicates that the nodes belonging to the maximal K-truss subgraph show better spreading behavior compared to previously used importance criteria, including node degree and k-core index, leading to faster and wider epidemic spreading. We further show that nodes belonging to such dense subgraphs, dominate the small set of nodes that achieve the optimal spreading in the network.

  18. High speed polling protocol for multiple node network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkham, Harold (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a multiple interconnected network of intelligent message-repeating remote nodes which employs a remote node polling process performed by a master node by transmitting a polling message generically addressed to all remote nodes associated with the master node. Each remote node responds upon receipt of the generically addressed polling message by transmitting a poll-answering informational message and by relaying the polling message to other adjacent remote nodes.

  19. Implication of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake by affected lymph nodes in cases with differentiated thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of positron emission tomography using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) to detect metastatic lymph nodes in differentiated thyroid cancer. We also investigated whether certain factors, including the size of the metastasis to the lymph nodes, are associated with FDG avidity. A total of 22 consecutive patients with differentiated thyroid cancer who underwent FDG-PET preoperatively were enrolled in this study. Lymph node metastasis was diagnosed in the final pathology in 10 of the 22 patients (45.5%). The mean maximum standardized uptake value of the metastatic lymph nodes was 4.53 (range, 0–23.5). The 22 cases with differentiated thyroid cancer were divided into two groups based on lymph node metastasis. Clinicopathological variables other than FDG uptake of metastatic lymph nodes were not predictors of lymph node metastasis of thyroid cancer. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy and false-negative rates of preoperative FDG-PET in the prediction of lymph node status were 40.0, 100, 72.7 and 60.0%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0%. The mean largest dimension of metastasis was 23.0 mm for FDG-positive cases and 10.9 mm for FDG-negative cases. There was a marked difference in the size of metastases between FDG-positive and -negative cases; however, even in patients with node metastasis >10 mm, the false-negative rate was 50.0%. Therefore, FDG-PET imaging was not found to be sufficient for the evaluation of lymph node status, particularly in cases with small metastases. Our findings indicate that preoperative FDG-PET evaluation of the lymph nodes cannot be considered predictive of the final pathology. PMID:27600496

  20. The Pyruvate-Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Node

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [13C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia. PMID:25164818

  1. The Effect of Adding Ready-to-Use Supplementary Food to a General Food Distribution on Child Nutritional Status and Morbidity: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salpéteur, Cécile; Brown, Rebecca; Roberfroid, Dominique; Ait-Aissa, Myriam; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    from the control group were present at follow-up sessions. Conclusions Providing RUSF as part of a general food distribution resulted in improvements in hemoglobin status and small improvements in linear growth, accompanied by an apparent reduction in morbidity. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01154595 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary. PMID:23028263

  2. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  3. Design of nodes for embedded and ultra low-power wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; You, Bo; Cui, Juan; Ma, Jing; Li, Xin

    2008-10-01

    Sensor network integrates sensor technology, MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical system) technology, embedded computing, wireless communication technology and distributed information management technology. It is of great value to use it where human is quite difficult to reach. Power consumption and size are the most important consideration when nodes are designed for distributed WSN (wireless sensor networks). Consequently, it is of great importance to decrease the size of a node, reduce its power consumption and extend its life in network. WSN nodes have been designed using JN5121-Z01-M01 module produced by jennic company and IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee technology. Its new features include support for CPU sleep modes and a long-term ultra low power sleep mode for the entire node. In low power configuration the node resembles existing small low power nodes. An embedded temperature sensor node has been developed to verify and explore our architecture. The experiment results indicate that the WSN has the characteristic of high reliability, good stability and ultra low power consumption.

  4. Tattoo-pigmented cervical lymph node that masqueraded as the sentinel lymph node in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Amith; Wieshmann, Hulya; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Shaw, Richard

    2015-11-01

    We describe a case of a pigmented cervical lymph node mimicking the sentinel node during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) on a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The patient had extensive tattoos on his neck. This pigmented lymph node was not identified to be the sentinel lymph node using static and dynamic lymphoscintigraphy. Subsequent histological analysis revealed tattoo pigment within this lymph node. It is important during cervical SLNB to be aware that cutaneous tattoos can pigment lymph nodes. PMID:26188933

  5. An evidential reasoning based model for diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Lymph node metastasis (LNM) in gastric cancer is a very important prognostic factor affecting long-term survival. Currently, several common imaging techniques are used to evaluate the lymph node status. However, they are incapable of achieving both high sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. In order to deal with this complex issue, a new evidential reasoning (ER) based model is proposed to support diagnosis of LNM in gastric cancer. Methods There are 175 consecutive patients who went through multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) consecutively before the surgery. Eight indicators, which are serosal invasion, tumor classification, tumor enhancement pattern, tumor thickness, number of lymph nodes, maximum lymph node size, lymph node station and lymph node enhancement are utilized to evaluate the tumor and lymph node through CT images. All of the above indicators reflect the biological behavior of gastric cancer. An ER based model is constructed by taking the above indicators as input index. The output index determines whether LNM occurs for the patients, which is decided by the surgery and histopathology. A technique called k-fold cross-validation is used for training and testing the new model. The diagnostic capability of LNM is evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. A Radiologist classifies LNM by adopting lymph node size for comparison. Results 134 out of 175 cases are cases of LNM, and the remains are not. Eight indicators have statistically significant difference between the positive and negative groups. The sensitivity, specificity and AUC of the ER based model are 88.41%, 77.57% and 0.813, respectively. However, for the radiologist evaluating LNM by maximum lymph node size, the corresponding values are only 63.4%, 75.6% and 0.757. Therefore, the proposed model can obtain better performance than the radiologist. Besides, the proposed model also outperforms other machine learning methods. Conclusions According to the

  6. Axillary lymph node management in breast cancer with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Voutsadakis, Ioannis A; Spadafora, Silvana

    2015-02-10

    The surgical treatment of localized breast cancer has become progressively less aggressive over the years. The management of the axillary lymph nodes has been modified by the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Axillary dissection can be avoided in patients with sentinel lymph node negative biopsies. Based on randomized trials data, it has been proposed that no lymph node dissection should be carried out even in certain patients with sentinel lymph node positive biopsies. This commentary discusses the basis of such recommendations and cautions against a general omission of lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsies. Instead, an individualized approach based on axillary tumor burden and biology of the cancer should be considered. PMID:25667909

  7. Inguinal Lymph Node Anthracosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Soto, Carlos Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Anthracosis is defined as black, dense pigments in tissues, usually carbon deposits. We, as surgeons, have to make decisions during surgery to the best of our knowledge and based on what the literature provides us. We present the case of a 30-year-old female patient who underwent abdominoplasty. During surgery, bilateral inguinal pigmented and enlarged lymph nodes were seen. Biopsy of the nodes was done to rule out any malignancy. The results showed tattoo pigments on all lymph nodes. We present this case as tattoo pigment migration, which has been rarely described. PMID:27536493

  8. Checkpointing for a hybrid computing node

    DOEpatents

    Cher, Chen-Yong

    2016-03-08

    According to an aspect, a method for checkpointing in a hybrid computing node includes executing a task in a processing accelerator of the hybrid computing node. A checkpoint is created in a local memory of the processing accelerator. The checkpoint includes state data to restart execution of the task in the processing accelerator upon a restart operation. Execution of the task is resumed in the processing accelerator after creating the checkpoint. The state data of the checkpoint are transferred from the processing accelerator to a main processor of the hybrid computing node while the processing accelerator is executing the task.

  9. A Family of Algorithms for Computing Consensus about Node State from Network Data

    PubMed Central

    Brush, Eleanor R.; Krakauer, David C.; Flack, Jessica C.

    2013-01-01

    Biological and social networks are composed of heterogeneous nodes that contribute differentially to network structure and function. A number of algorithms have been developed to measure this variation. These algorithms have proven useful for applications that require assigning scores to individual nodes–from ranking websites to determining critical species in ecosystems–yet the mechanistic basis for why they produce good rankings remains poorly understood. We show that a unifying property of these algorithms is that they quantify consensus in the network about a node's state or capacity to perform a function. The algorithms capture consensus by either taking into account the number of a target node's direct connections, and, when the edges are weighted, the uniformity of its weighted in-degree distribution (breadth), or by measuring net flow into a target node (depth). Using data from communication, social, and biological networks we find that that how an algorithm measures consensus–through breadth or depth– impacts its ability to correctly score nodes. We also observe variation in sensitivity to source biases in interaction/adjacency matrices: errors arising from systematic error at the node level or direct manipulation of network connectivity by nodes. Our results indicate that the breadth algorithms, which are derived from information theory, correctly score nodes (assessed using independent data) and are robust to errors. However, in cases where nodes “form opinions” about other nodes using indirect information, like reputation, depth algorithms, like Eigenvector Centrality, are required. One caveat is that Eigenvector Centrality is not robust to error unless the network is transitive or assortative. In these cases the network structure allows the depth algorithms to effectively capture breadth as well as depth. Finally, we discuss the algorithms' cognitive and computational demands. This is an important consideration in systems in which

  10. Earth transportation node requirements and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, W. Ray; Ayers, J. Kirk; Cirillo, William M.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to establish the requirements for an inhabited earth orbiting transportation node and to develop design concepts for such a facility. The use of an earth orbiting transportation node is required to support many of the space flight projects proposed for the beginning of the 21st century. The requirements for such an orbiting facility are derived from the missions which they support. Future missions investigated include automated and human exploration of the solar system, support of a lunar base, and missions to planet earth. Design concepts are presented for transportation nodes based on a variation of the current Space Station Freedom design. Designs accommodate a variety of earth-to-orbit, orbit-to-orbit, and deep-space probe transportation systems. Finally, the technology needed to develop such a transportation node is summarized.

  11. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Painful Schmorl Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Masala, Salvatore Pipitone, Vincenzo; Tomassini, Marco; Massari, Francesco; Romagnoli, Andrea; Simonetti, Giovanni

    2006-02-15

    The Schmorl node represents displacement of intervertebral disc tissue into the vertebral body. Both Schmorl nodes and degenerative disc disease are common in the human spine. We performed a retrospective study, for the period from January 2003 to February 2005, evaluating 23 patients affected by painful Schmorl nodes, who underwent in our department percutaneous transpedicular injection of polymethylmethacrylate (vertebroplasty) in order to solve their back pain not responsive to medical and physical management. Eighteen patients reported improvement of the back pain and no one reported a worsening of symptoms. Improvement was swift and persistent in reducing symptoms. Painful Schmorl nodes, refractory to medical or physical therapy, should be considered as a new indication within those vertebral lesions adequately treatable utilizing Vertebroplasty procedure.

  12. The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (χ2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

  13. Axillary dissection in melanoma. Prognostic variables in node-positive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, R G; Coit, D G; Rogatko, A; Younes, R N; Brennan, M F

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated the importance of 14 clinical and pathologic variables as determinants of prognosis in patients with malignant melanoma and positive regional lymph nodes at axillary dissection. The records of 197 patients operated on between 1974 and 1984 were reviewed. Univariate analysis indicated as prognostically significant the number (p less than 0.001) and percentage (p less than 0.001) of positive nodes, highest nodal status (p less than 0.001), macroscopic or microscopic nodal metastases (p = 0.002), presence or absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.003), clinical stage (III versus less than III, p = 0.015), and site (considered as trunk versus other locations, p = 0.02). However, by multivariate analysis, only three variables were shown to be independent determinants of survival: percentage of positive nodes (p = 0.004), presence or absence of extranodal disease (p = 0.012), and site (trunk versus other locations, p = 0.019). Combining these three variables, subsets of patients with markedly different prognoses could be generated. It is possible to predict a favorable outcome for patients with less than 10% positive nodes, no extranodal disease, and a primary lesion at a site other than the trunk. It is also possible to recognize that the prognosis is very poor for patients with extranodal disease and truncal primary lesions, regardless of the percentage of positive lymph nodes. Finally it was verified that the prognosis is always unfavorable when the percentage of positive lymph nodes is very high. PMID:2375645

  14. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2014-12-30

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  15. Synchronizing compute node time bases in a parallel computer

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Dong; Faraj, Daniel A; Gooding, Thomas M; Heidelberger, Philip

    2015-01-27

    Synchronizing time bases in a parallel computer that includes compute nodes organized for data communications in a tree network, where one compute node is designated as a root, and, for each compute node: calculating data transmission latency from the root to the compute node; configuring a thread as a pulse waiter; initializing a wakeup unit; and performing a local barrier operation; upon each node completing the local barrier operation, entering, by all compute nodes, a global barrier operation; upon all nodes entering the global barrier operation, sending, to all the compute nodes, a pulse signal; and for each compute node upon receiving the pulse signal: waking, by the wakeup unit, the pulse waiter; setting a time base for the compute node equal to the data transmission latency between the root node and the compute node; and exiting the global barrier operation.

  16. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Doepker, Matthew P; Zager, Jonathan S

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer. The status of the regional nodal basin remains the most important prognostic factor. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is recommended for staging in patients diagnosed with intermediate-thickness melanoma (1.01-4.0 mm). SLNB is considered somewhat controversial, especially when used to stage thin (1 mm), thick (>4 mm), or desmoplastic melanoma. This article reviews the current literature regarding SLNB in thin, intermediate, thick, and desmoplastic melanoma. Data supporting the use of newer radiopharmaceuticals in sentinel lymph node mapping along with newer imaging modalities are also reviewed. PMID:25769710

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Pelvic Tumors: Clinical Indications and Protocols Under Investigation.

    PubMed

    Maccauro, Marco; Lorenzoni, Alice; Crippa, Flavio; Manca, Gianpiero; Chondrogiannis, Sotirios; Giammarile, Francesco; Colletti, Patrick M; Cook, Gary J; Rubello, Domenico

    2016-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) sampling is an attractive alternative to complete lymphadenectomy. Based on the identification and sampling of the first LN draining a primary tumor, SLN biopsy is the most accurate and the only reliable method for microscopic nodal staging for solid tumors including breast cancer and melanoma. Lymph node status in pelvic tumors remains the most important prognostic factor for recurrence and survival and a major decision criterion for adjuvant therapy. We review the clinical indications, controversies, and perspective of SLN biopsy in male and female pelvic cancers. PMID:26914577

  18. Sinus node dysfunction complicating viper bite.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Kumar, Tarun; Ravindranath, Khandenahally S; Bhat, Prabhavathi; Manjunath, Cholenahally N; Agarwal, Neena

    2015-02-01

    Viper venom toxicities comprise mainly bleeding disorders and nephrotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity is a rare manifestation of viper bite. We describe the case of a previously healthy 35-year-old man who developed coagulopathy and sinus node dysfunction following a viper bite. Electrocardiography showed sinus arrest and junctional escape rhythm. This is the first account of sinus node dysfunction caused by a viper bite. PMID:24887872

  19. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews what we know about the interior and surface of the moon and the need to establish a robotic set of geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon for the purpose of providing significant scientific value to the exploration of the Moon. The ILN Anchor Nodes will provide the backbone of the network in a way that accomplishes new science and allows other nodes to be flexible contributors to the network.

  20. Cervical lymph node diseases in children

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Stephan; Kansy, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body’s immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) – a critical aspect especially among children – and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child’s slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures. In the interests of time, patient wellbeing and cost, a careful choice of these must be made to permit appropriate treatment. The basis of diagnostic decisions is a detailed anamnesis and clinical examination. Sonography also plays an important role in differential diagnosis of lymph node swelling in children and is useful in answering one of the critical diagnostic questions: is there a suspicion of malignancy? If so, full dissection of the most conspicuous lymph node may be necessary to obtain histological confirmation. Diagnosis and treatment of childhood cervical lymph node disorders present the attending pediatric and ENT physicians with some particular challenges. The spectrum of differential diagnoses and the varying degrees of clinical relevance – from banal infections to malignant diseases – demand a clear and considered approach to the child’s individual clinical presentation. Such an approach is described in the following paper. PMID:25587368

  1. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.

    2011-02-15

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local memory FIFO data transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  2. Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin compute node to a target compute node

    DOEpatents

    Blocksome, Michael A.; Parker, Jeffrey J.

    2011-05-24

    Signaling completion of a message transfer from an origin node to a target node includes: sending, by an origin DMA engine, an RTS message, the RTS message specifying an application message for transfer to the target node from the origin node; receiving, by the origin DMA engine, a remote get message containing a data descriptor for the message and a completion notification descriptor, the completion notification descriptor specifying a local direct put transfer operation for transferring data locally on the origin node; inserting, by the origin DMA engine in an injection FIFO buffer, the data descriptor followed by the completion notification descriptor; transferring, by the origin DMA engine to the target node, the message in dependence upon the data descriptor; and notifying, by the origin DMA engine, the application that transfer of the message is complete in dependence upon the completion notification descriptor.

  3. Uniform Strain Elements for Three-Node Triangular and Four-Node Tetrahedral Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.; Witkowski, W.R.

    1999-03-02

    A family of uniform strain elements is presented for three-node triangular and four-node tetrahedral meshes. The elements use the linear interpolation functions of the original mesh, but each element is associated with a single node. As a result, a favorable constraint ratio for the volumetric response is obtained for problems in solid mechanics. The uniform strain elements do not require the introduction of additional degrees of freedom and their performance is shown to be significantly better than that of three-node triangular or four-node tetrahedral elements. In addition, nodes inside the boundary of the mesh are observed to exhibit superconvergent behavior for a set of example problems.

  4. A new mutually reinforcing network node and link ranking algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenghua; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo; Padgett, Jamie E.

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes a novel Normalized Wide network Ranking algorithm (NWRank) that has the advantage of ranking nodes and links of a network simultaneously. This algorithm combines the mutual reinforcement feature of Hypertext Induced Topic Selection (HITS) and the weight normalization feature of PageRank. Relative weights are assigned to links based on the degree of the adjacent neighbors and the Betweenness Centrality instead of assigning the same weight to every link as assumed in PageRank. Numerical experiment results show that NWRank performs consistently better than HITS, PageRank, eigenvector centrality, and edge betweenness from the perspective of network connectivity and approximate network flow, which is also supported by comparisons with the expensive N-1 benchmark removal criteria based on network efficiency. Furthermore, it can avoid some problems, such as the Tightly Knit Community effect, which exists in HITS. NWRank provides a new inexpensive way to rank nodes and links of a network, which has practical applications, particularly to prioritize resource allocation for upgrade of hierarchical and distributed networks, as well as to support decision making in the design of networks, where node and link importance depend on a balance of local and global integrity. PMID:26492958

  5. Large epidemic thresholds emerge in heterogeneous networks of heterogeneous nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hui; Tang, Ming; Gross, Thilo

    2015-08-01

    One of the famous results of network science states that networks with heterogeneous connectivity are more susceptible to epidemic spreading than their more homogeneous counterparts. In particular, in networks of identical nodes it has been shown that network heterogeneity, i.e. a broad degree distribution, can lower the epidemic threshold at which epidemics can invade the system. Network heterogeneity can thus allow diseases with lower transmission probabilities to persist and spread. However, it has been pointed out that networks in which the properties of nodes are intrinsically heterogeneous can be very resilient to disease spreading. Heterogeneity in structure can enhance or diminish the resilience of networks with heterogeneous nodes, depending on the correlations between the topological and intrinsic properties. Here, we consider a plausible scenario where people have intrinsic differences in susceptibility and adapt their social network structure to the presence of the disease. We show that the resilience of networks with heterogeneous connectivity can surpass those of networks with homogeneous connectivity. For epidemiology, this implies that network heterogeneity should not be studied in isolation, it is instead the heterogeneity of infection risk that determines the likelihood of outbreaks.

  6. Dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, Thomas A.; Knudson, Brant L.; Megerian, Mark G.; Miller, Samuel J.; Stockdell, William M.

    2012-03-20

    Methods, systems, and products for dynamically reassigning a connected node to a block of compute nodes for re-launching a failed job that include: identifying that a job failed to execute on the block of compute nodes because connectivity failed between a compute node assigned as at least one of the connected nodes for the block of compute nodes and its supporting I/O node; and re-launching the job, including selecting an alternative connected node that is actively coupled for data communications with an active I/O node; and assigning the alternative connected node as the connected node for the block of compute nodes running the re-launched job.

  7. Analysis of community properties and node properties to understand the structure of the bus transport network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yeran; Mburu, Lucy; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-05-01

    Akin to most infrastructures, intraurban bus networks are large and highly complex. Understanding the composition of such networks requires an intricate decomposition of the network into modules, taking into account the manner in which network links are distributed among the nodes. There exists for each set of highly interlinked nodes little connectivity with the next set of highly interlinked nodes. This inherent property of nodes makes community detection a popular approach for analyzing the structure of complex networks. In this study, we attempt to understand the structure of the intraurban bus network of Ireland's capital city, Dublin in a two-step approach. We first analyze the modular structure of the network by identifying potential communities. Secondly, we assess the prominence of each network node by examining the module-based topological properties of the nodes. Results of this empirical study reveal a clear pattern of independent communities, indicating thus, an implicit multi-community structure of the intraurban bus network. Examination of the geographic characteristics of the identified communities shows a degree of socio-economic divisions of the Dublin city. Furthermore, a large majority of the important nodes (vital transportation hubs) are located at the city center, implying that most of the bus lines in Dublin city tend to intersect the city's core.

  8. Synchronous wearable wireless body sensor network composed of autonomous textile nodes.

    PubMed

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system. PMID:25302808

  9. Synchronous Wearable Wireless Body Sensor Network Composed of Autonomous Textile Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Vanveerdeghem, Peter; Van Torre, Patrick; Stevens, Christiaan; Knockaert, Jos; Rogier, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    A novel, fully-autonomous, wearable, wireless sensor network is presented, where each flexible textile node performs cooperative synchronous acquisition and distributed event detection. Computationally efficient situational-awareness algorithms are implemented on the low-power microcontroller present on each flexible node. The detected events are wirelessly transmitted to a base station, directly, as well as forwarded by other on-body nodes. For each node, a dual-polarized textile patch antenna serves as a platform for the flexible electronic circuitry. Therefore, the system is particularly suitable for comfortable and unobtrusive integration into garments. In the meantime, polarization diversity can be exploited to improve the reliability and energy-efficiency of the wireless transmission. Extensive experiments in realistic conditions have demonstrated that this new autonomous, body-centric, textile-antenna, wireless sensor network is able to correctly detect different operating conditions of a firefighter during an intervention. By relying on four network nodes integrated into the protective garment, this functionality is implemented locally, on the body, and in real time. In addition, the received sensor data are reliably transferred to a central access point at the command post, for more detailed and more comprehensive real-time visualization. This information provides coordinators and commanders with situational awareness of the entire rescue operation. A statistical analysis of measured on-body node-to-node, as well as off-body person-to-person channels is included, confirming the reliability of the communication system. PMID:25302808

  10. Implementation of Multiple Host Nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System for Landslide Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abas, Faizulsalihin bin; Takayama, Shigeru

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes multiple host nodes in Wireless Sensing Node Network System (WSNNS) for landslide monitoring. As landslide disasters damage monitoring system easily, one major demand in landslide monitoring is the flexibility and robustness of the system to evaluate the current situation in the monitored area. For various reasons WSNNS can provide an important contribution to reach that aim. In this system, acceleration sensors and GPS are deployed in sensing nodes. Location information by GPS, enable the system to estimate network topology and enable the system to perceive the location in emergency by monitoring the node mode. Acceleration sensors deployment, capacitate this system to detect slow mass movement that can lead to landslide occurrence. Once deployed, sensing nodes self-organize into an autonomous wireless ad hoc network. The measurement parameter data from sensing nodes is transmitted to Host System via host node and "Cloud" System. The implementation of multiple host nodes in Local Sensing Node Network System (LSNNS), improve risk- management of the WSNNS for real-time monitoring of landslide disaster.

  11. An interactive Bayesian model for prediction of lymph node ratio and survival in pancreatic cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Brian J; Mezhir, James J

    2014-01-01

    Background Regional lymph node status has long been used as a dichotomous predictor of clinical outcomes in cancer patients. More recently, interest has turned to the prognostic utility of lymph node ratio (LNR), quantified as the proportion of positive nodes examined. However, statistical tools for the joint modeling of LNR and its effect on cancer survival are lacking. Methods Data were obtained from the NCI SEER cancer registry on 6400 patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma from 2004 to 2010 and who underwent radical oncologic resection. A novel Bayesian statistical approach was developed and applied to model simultaneously patients’ true, but unobservable, LNR statuses and overall survival. New web development tools were then employed to create an interactive web application for individualized patient prediction. Results Histologic grade and T and M stages were important predictors of LNR status. Significant predictors of survival included age, gender, marital status, grade, histology, T and M stages, tumor size, and radiation therapy. LNR was found to have a highly significant, non-linear effect on survival. Furthermore, predictive performance of the survival model compared favorably to those from studies with more homogeneous patients and individualized predictors. Conclusions We provide a new approach and tool set for the prediction of LNR and survival that are generally applicable to a host of cancer types, including breast, colon, melanoma, and stomach. Our methods are illustrated with the development of a validated model and web applications for the prediction of survival in a large set of pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:24444460

  12. Lambda network having 2{sup m{minus}1} nodes in each of m stages with each node coupled to four other nodes for bidirectional routing of data packets between nodes

    DOEpatents

    Napolitano, L.M. Jr.

    1995-11-28

    The Lambda network is a single stage, packet-switched interprocessor communication network for a distributed memory, parallel processor computer. Its design arises from the desired network characteristics of minimizing mean and maximum packet transfer time, local routing, expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. The network is based on fixed degree nodes and has mean and maximum packet transfer distances where n is the number of processors. The routing method is detailed, as are methods for expandability, deadlock avoidance, and fault tolerance. 14 figs.

  13. Local node selection for target tracking based on underwater wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, Chaojie; Liu, Meiqin; Zhang, Senlin

    2015-12-01

    Traditional sonar-array-based target tracking algorithms may be unsuitable for on-demand tracking missions, since they assume that the sonar arrays should be towed or mounted by a submarine or a ship. Alternatively, underwater wireless sensor networks can offer a promising solution approach. First, each underwater node is battery-powered, so saving energy expenditure is a critical issue. Instead of keeping all sensor nodes active, this paper provides a local node selection (LNS) scheme which increases energy efficiency by waking up only a small part of nodes at each time. Second, considering node's limited computing ability and the real-time requirement for the tracking algorithm, instead of employing the centralised fusion structure, we utilise the distributed Kalman filtering fusion with feedback in this paper. Finally, instead of assuming one sensor node can uniquely determine target's location, a more practical range-only measurement model is proposed. Then the LNS scheme and distributed fusion with feedback are extended to our range-only measurement model. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of our scheme.

  14. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Poljak, Mario; Seme, Katja; Maver, Polona J; Kocjan, Boštjan J; Cuschieri, Kate S; Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina

    2013-12-31

    We present a review of current cervical cancer screening practices, the implementation status of vaccination against human papillomaviruses (HPV) and available data concerning the burden of HPV infection and HPV type-specific distribution in 16 Central and Eastern European countries: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and the Former Yugoslav Republic (FYR) of Macedonia. Since published data were relatively scarce, two detailed surveys were conducted during August-October 2011 and in January 2013 to obtain relevant and updated information. The mean prevalence of HPV infection in 8610 women with normal cervical cytology from the region was 12.6%, with HPV16 being the most frequent HPV type. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in women with high-grade cervical lesions was 78.1%. HPV DNA was found in 86.6% of cervical cancers; the combined prevalence of HPV16/18 among HPV positive cases was 87.5%. The overall HPV DNA prevalence in genital warts and laryngeal papillomas was 94.8% and 95.2%, respectively, with HPV6 and HPV11 being the most frequent types. Opportunistic and organized cervical screening, mainly based on conventional cytology, is performed in nine and seven countries in the region, respectively, with the proposed age of the start of screening ranging from 20 to 30 years and the estimated coverage ranging from a few percent to over 70%. At least one of the current HPV prophylactic vaccines is registered in all Central and Eastern European countries except Montenegro. Only Bulgaria, Czech Republic, FYR Macedonia, Latvia, Romania and Slovenia have actually integrated HPV vaccination into their national immunization programme and currently provide routine vaccination free of charge to the primary target population. The key reasons for lack of implementation of HPV vaccination into the national immunization programme are high vaccine cost and

  15. Clinical significance of lymph node micrometastasis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Nakajo, Akihiro; Ishigami, Sumiya; Okumura, Hiroshi; Kijima, Yuko; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2013-02-01

    Recently, the existence of lymph node micrometastasis (LNM), including isolated tumor cells, has been focused on during the development of molecular diagnostic tools for lymph node metastasis in various malignant neoplasms. In particular, immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction have been reported to be available for the detection of LNM in gastric cancer. However, at present, the clinical significance of LNM remains unclear in patients with gastric cancer. Therefore, we cannot strategically make light of this issue in clinical management. Currently, minimally invasive treatments, such as endoscopic submucosal dissection and laparoscopic surgery with personalized lymphadenectomy, are widely performed in consideration of postsurgical quality of life (QOL). However, it is important to maintain the balance between QOL and curability when selecting surgical treatments for patients with gastric cancer. If minimally invasive surgery based on LNM status was established for patients with early gastric cancer, it could be performed safely. We reviewed the clinical significance of LNM as an important strategic target in patients with gastric cancer. PMID:22546997

  16. Defining nodes in complex brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Matthew L.; Moussa, Malaak N.; Paolini, Brielle M.; Lyday, Robert G.; Burdette, Jonathan H.; Laurienti, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Network science holds great promise for expanding our understanding of the human brain in health, disease, development, and aging. Network analyses are quickly becoming the method of choice for analyzing functional MRI data. However, many technical issues have yet to be confronted in order to optimize results. One particular issue that remains controversial in functional brain network analyses is the definition of a network node. In functional brain networks a node represents some predefined collection of brain tissue, and an edge measures the functional connectivity between pairs of nodes. The characteristics of a node, chosen by the researcher, vary considerably in the literature. This manuscript reviews the current state of the art based on published manuscripts and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of three main methods for defining nodes. Voxel-wise networks are constructed by assigning a node to each, equally sized brain area (voxel). The fMRI time-series recorded from each voxel is then used to create the functional network. Anatomical methods utilize atlases to define the nodes based on brain structure. The fMRI time-series from all voxels within the anatomical area are averaged and subsequently used to generate the network. Functional activation methods rely on data from traditional fMRI activation studies, often from databases, to identify network nodes. Such methods identify the peaks or centers of mass from activation maps to determine the location of the nodes. Small (~10–20 millimeter diameter) spheres located at the coordinates of the activation foci are then applied to the data being used in the network analysis. The fMRI time-series from all voxels in the sphere are then averaged, and the resultant time series is used to generate the network. We attempt to clarify the discussion and move the study of complex brain networks forward. While the “correct” method to be used remains an open, possibly unsolvable question that deserves

  17. NASA's International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes and Robotic Lunar Lander Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, Brian J.; Reed, Cheryl L. B.; Kirby, Karen W.; Cohen, Barbara A.; Bassler, Julie A.; Harris, Danny W.; Chavers, D. Gregory

    2010-01-01

    In early 2008, NASA established the Lunar Quest Program, a new lunar science research program within NASA s Science Mission Directorate. The program included the establishment of the anchor nodes of the International Lunar Network (ILN), a network of lunar science stations envisioned to be emplaced by multiple nations. This paper describes the current status of the ILN Anchor Nodes mission development and the lander risk-reduction design and test activities implemented jointly by NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center and The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The lunar lander concepts developed by this team are applicable to multiple science missions, and this paper will describe a mission combining the functionality of an ILN node with an investigation of lunar polar volatiles.

  18. Symptomatic Lymphocele Formation After Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Stage Cervical Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Garagozova, Nigar; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Beier, Anna; Köhler, Christhardt; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In early stage cervical cancer, nodal status is the most important prognostic factor, and execution of retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy is currently an integral part of surgical therapy. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been progressively incorporated with surgical therapy and could reduce morbidity. However, the current incidence of complications exclusively related to the procedure is unknown. We report on a 29-year-old woman affected by cervical cancer (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique Stage 1b1), who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in combination with radical vaginal trachelectomy, and who later developed a symptomatic pelvic lymphocele that required surgical therapy. Conservative procedures in the pelvic lymph nodes are not free of complications, especially with regard to the formation of symptomatic lymphoceles. This report brings to light an important discussion about the exact magnitude of the complications associated with the procedure. PMID:26260297

  19. [Excision of colorectal cancers: what can be expected of lymph node excision?].

    PubMed

    Pol, B; Brandone, J M; Le Treut, Y P; Bricot, R

    1989-01-01

    We report a series of 413 patients with colo-rectal adenocarcinoma. 328 had a curative resection and 277 of them had elective lymphadenectomy; 51 had no lymphadenectomy because of either age or poor general status. Operative morbidity and mortality were not increased by lymphadenectomy. Survival was related to the lymph node involvement: 70.6% 5 year survival in patients without lymph node metastases, 49.3% 5 year survival in patients with lymph node metastases (P less than 0.001). However lymphadenectomy did not affect the survival rate of the patients. We conclude that lymphadenectomy had no deleterious effect. However, its real benefit on long term survival must be evaluated in further prospective randomised studies. PMID:2930148

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  1. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  2. Node Survival in Networks under Correlated Attacks.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yan; Armbruster, Dieter; Hütt, Marc-Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We study the interplay between correlations, dynamics, and networks for repeated attacks on a socio-economic network. As a model system we consider an insurance scheme against disasters that randomly hit nodes, where a node in need receives support from its network neighbors. The model is motivated by gift giving among the Maasai called Osotua. Survival of nodes under different disaster scenarios (uncorrelated, spatially, temporally and spatio-temporally correlated) and for different network architectures are studied with agent-based numerical simulations. We find that the survival rate of a node depends dramatically on the type of correlation of the disasters: Spatially and spatio-temporally correlated disasters increase the survival rate; purely temporally correlated disasters decrease it. The type of correlation also leads to strong inequality among the surviving nodes. We introduce the concept of disaster masking to explain some of the results of our simulations. We also analyze the subsets of the networks that were activated to provide support after fifty years of random disasters. They show qualitative differences for the different disaster scenarios measured by path length, degree, clustering coefficient, and number of cycles. PMID:25932635

  3. Weyl Nodes in Trigonal Tellurium and Selenium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Motoaki; Okugawa, Ryo; Ishibashi, Shoji; Murakami, Shuichi; Miyake, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    Singular points in the momentum space (Dirac nodes) have been under intensive investigation recently. Among various Dirac systems, materials having three-dimensional Dirac nodes without spin degeneracy (Weyl nodes) are of particular interest because of their topological nature. We study trigonal Te and Se as systems having both strong spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and broken inversion symmetry, which is necessary for the Weyl node. We calculate the electronic structure by using QMAS based on relativistic density functional theory, and add the self-energy correction in the GW approximation. Te and Se are insulating at ambient pressure. The conduction bands have a spin splitting similar to the Rashba splitting around the H points, but unlike the Rashba splitting the spin directions are radial, forming a hedgehog spin texture. The energy gap decreases with increasing pressure. In the metallic phase, the spin rotates twice around H on the kz = +/- π/c plane, which can be explained by the motion of the Weyl nodes under pressure. We also find that trigonal Te shows the Weyl semimetal phase with time-reversal symmetry under pressure.

  4. A transmission power optimization with a minimum node degree for energy-efficient wireless sensor networks with full-reachability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ting; Horng, Mong-Fong; Lo, Chih-Cheng; Chu, Shu-Chuan; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Liao, Bin-Yih

    2013-01-01

    Transmission power optimization is the most significant factor in prolonging the lifetime and maintaining the connection quality of wireless sensor networks. Un-optimized transmission power of nodes either interferes with or fails to link neighboring nodes. The optimization of transmission power depends on the expected node degree and node distribution. In this study, an optimization approach to an energy-efficient and full reachability wireless sensor network is proposed. In the proposed approach, an adjustment model of the transmission range with a minimum node degree is proposed that focuses on topology control and optimization of the transmission range according to node degree and node density. The model adjusts the tradeoff between energy efficiency and full reachability to obtain an ideal transmission range. In addition, connectivity and reachability are used as performance indices to evaluate the connection quality of a network. The two indices are compared to demonstrate the practicability of framework through simulation results. Furthermore, the relationship between the indices under the conditions of various node degrees is analyzed to generalize the characteristics of node densities. The research results on the reliability and feasibility of the proposed approach will benefit the future real deployments. PMID:23519351

  5. Communication: Fixed-node errors in quantum Monte Carlo: Interplay of electron density and node nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Kevin M.; Hu, Shuming; Mitas, Lubos

    2014-01-28

    We elucidate the origin of large differences (two-fold or more) in the fixed-node errors between the first- vs second-row systems for single-configuration trial wave functions in quantum Monte Carlo calculations. This significant difference in the valence fixed-node biases is studied across a set of atoms, molecules, and also Si, C solid crystals. We show that the key features which affect the fixed-node errors are the differences in electron density and the degree of node nonlinearity. The findings reveal how the accuracy of the quantum Monte Carlo varies across a variety of systems, provide new perspectives on the origins of the fixed-node biases in calculations of molecular and condensed systems, and carry implications for pseudopotential constructions for heavy elements.

  6. New ultrasound techniques for lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Jenssen, Christian; Saftoiu, Adrian; Ignee, Andre; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2013-01-01

    Conventional ultrasound (US) is the recommended imaging method for lymph node (LN) diseases with the advantages of high resolution, real time evaluation and relative low costs. Current indications of transcutaneous ultrasound and endoscopic ultrasound include the detection and characterization of lymph nodes and the guidance for LN biopsy. Recent advances in US technology, such as contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), contrast enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (CE-EUS), and real time elastography show potential to improve the accuracy of US for the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lymph nodes. In addition, CEUS and CE-EUS have been also used for the guidance of fine needle aspiration and assessment of treatment response. Complementary to size criteria, CEUS could also be used to evaluate response of tumor angiogenesis to anti-angiogenic therapies. In this paper we review current literature regarding evaluation of lymphadenopathy by new and innovative US techniques. PMID:23946589

  7. Saddle-node bifurcation of viscous profiles.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, Franz; Szmolyan, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Traveling wave solutions of viscous conservation laws, that are associated to Lax shocks of the inviscid equation, have generically a transversal viscous profile. In the case of a non-transversal viscous profile we show by using Melnikov theory that a parametrized perturbation of the profile equation leads generically to a saddle-node bifurcation of these solutions. An example of this bifurcation in the context of magnetohydrodynamics is given. The spectral stability of the traveling waves generated in the saddle-node bifurcation is studied via an Evans function approach. It is shown that generically one real eigenvalue of the linearization of the viscous conservation law around the parametrized family of traveling waves changes its sign at the bifurcation point. Hence this bifurcation describes the basic mechanism of a stable traveling wave which becomes unstable in a saddle-node bifurcation. PMID:23576830

  8. SpicyNodes Radial Map Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douma, M.; Ligierko, G.; Angelov, I.

    2008-10-01

    The need for information has increased exponentially over the past decades. The current systems for constructing, exploring, classifying, organizing, and searching information face the growing challenge of enabling their users to operate efficiently and intuitively in knowledge-heavy environments. This paper presents SpicyNodes, an advanced user interface for difficult interaction contexts. It is based on an underlying structure known as a radial map, which allows users to manipulate and interact in a natural manner with entities called nodes. This technology overcomes certain limitations of existing solutions and solves the problem of browsing complex sets of linked information. SpicyNodes is also an organic system that projects users into a living space, stimulating exploratory behavior and fostering creative thought. Our interactive radial layout is used for educational purposes and has the potential for numerous other applications.

  9. Predicting missing links via correlation between nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Hao; Zeng, An; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-10-01

    As a fundamental problem in many different fields, link prediction aims to estimate the likelihood of an existing link between two nodes based on the observed information. Since this problem is related to many applications ranging from uncovering missing data to predicting the evolution of networks, link prediction has been intensively investigated recently and many methods have been proposed so far. The essential challenge of link prediction is to estimate the similarity between nodes. Most of the existing methods are based on the common neighbor index and its variants. In this paper, we propose to calculate the similarity between nodes by the Pearson correlation coefficient. This method is found to be very effective when applied to calculate similarity based on high order paths. We finally fuse the correlation-based method with the resource allocation method, and find that the combined method can substantially outperform the existing methods, especially in sparse networks.

  10. Energy Options for Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Chris; Davidson, Joshua; Behrens, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Reduction in size and power consumption of consumer electronics has opened up many opportunities for low power wireless sensor networks. One of the major challenges is in supporting battery operated devices as the number of nodes in a network grows. The two main alternatives are to utilize higher energy density sources of stored energy, or to generate power at the node from local forms of energy. This paper reviews the state-of-the art technology in the field of both energy storage and energy harvesting for sensor nodes. The options discussed for energy storage include batteries, capacitors, fuel cells, heat engines and betavoltaic systems. The field of energy harvesting is discussed with reference to photovoltaics, temperature gradients, fluid flow, pressure variations and vibration harvesting.

  11. Space Station resource node flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kania, Lee; Kumar, Ganesh; Mcconnaughey, Paul

    1991-01-01

    An analysis of the flow field within the Space Station Freedom resource node with operational intermodule ventilation and temperature/humidity control ventilation systems has been conducted. The INS3D code, an incompressible, steady-state Navier-Stokes solver has been used to assess the design of the ventilation system via quantification of the level of fluid mixing and identification of 'dead air' regions and short-circuit ventilation. Numerical results indicate significant short-circuit ventilation in the forward and midsections of the node and insufficient fluid mixing is found to exist in the aft node section. These results as well as results from a solution grid dependence study are presented.

  12. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph

    2016-06-01

    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node. PMID:27142063

  13. Incidence of metastasis in circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Kazuhira; Kato, Hidenori

    2016-01-01

    Objective A causal relationship between removal of circumflex iliac nodes distal to the external iliac nodes (CINDEIN) and lower leg edema has been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to elucidate the incidence of CINDEIN metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods A retrospective chart review was carried out for 531 patients with cervical cancer who underwent lymph node dissection between 1993 and 2014. CINDEIN metastasis was pathologically identified by microscopic investigation. After 2007, sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed selectively in patients with non-bulky cervical cancer. The sentinel node was identified using 99mTc-phytate and by scanning the pelvic cavity with a γ probe. Results Two hundred and ninety-seven patients (55.9%) underwent CINDEIN dissection and 234 (44.1%) did not. The percentage of International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb to IV (42.4% vs. 23.5%, p<0.001) was significantly higher in patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection than those who did not. CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 1.9% overall and in 3.4% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. For patients with stage Ia to IIa disease, CINDEIN metastasis was identified in 0.6% overall and in 1.2% of patients who underwent CINDEIN dissection. Of 115 patients with sentinel node mapping, only one (0.9%) had CINDEIN detected as a sentinel node. In this case, the other three lymph nodes were concurrently detected as sentinel lymph nodes. Conclusion CINDEIN dissection can be eliminated in patients with stage Ia to IIa disease. CINDEIN might not be regional lymph nodes in cervical cancer. PMID:27102250

  14. Significance of the lymph nodes in the 7th station in rational dissection for metastasis of distal gastric cancer with different T categories

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wu; Wang, Shaochuan; He, Weiling; Xu, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the clinicopathological characteristics, and evaluate the appropriate extent of lymph node dissection in distal gastric cancer patients with comparable T category. Methods A retrospective study was conducted on 570 distal gastric cancer patients, who underwent gastric resection with D2 nodal dissection, which was performed by the same surgical team from January 1997 to January 2011. We compared the differences in lymph node metastasis rates and metastatic lymph node ratios between different T categories. Additionally, we investigated the impact of lymph node metastasis in the 7th station on survival rate of distal gastric cancer patients with the same TNM staging. Results Among the 570 patients, the overall lymph node metastasis rate of advanced distal gastric cancer was 78.1%, and the metastatic lymph node ratio was 27%. The lymph node metastasis rate in the 7th station was similar to that of perigastric lymph nodes. There was no statistical significance in patients with the same TNM stage (stage II and III), irrespective of the metastatic status in the 7th station. Conclusions Our results suggest that to a certain extent, it is reasonable to include lymph nodes in the 7th station in the D1 lymph node dissection. PMID:25232215

  15. Intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping guides laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy for distal gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Naiqing; Niu, Zhengchuan; Niu, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zou, Xueqing; Sun, Shuxiang; Shinichi, Obo; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Sun, Qinli; Jun, Niu

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this retrospective study is to explore the effects of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping guided laparoscopic-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) for distal gastric cancer. Methods: Two hundred patients were enrolled in this study. One hundred and one patients undergoing SLN guided LADG were designated as the SLN group. Ninety-nine patients having conventional LADG with D1 or D2 lymph node dissection were designated as the control group. Intraoperative and postoperative indicators such as the number of lymph nodes dissected, intraoperative and postoperative conditions, flow cytometry analysis of T lymphocyte subsets and natural killer (NK) cells, survival rates, recurrence rates and postoperative complications were investigated between these two groups. Results: The number of lymph nodes dissected in the SLN group was significantly lesser than that in the control group. Furthermore, in the SLN group, the patients achieved better immunization status, improved intraoperative and postoperative conditions and decreased postoperative complications. There were no significant differences were found in the positive lymph nodes detected, the distance between proximal and distal cutting edge, postoperative survival or recurrence rates. Conclusions: SLN guided LADG for gastric cancer is a safe and effective method and could achieve an equal clinical effect as traditional laparoscopic D1 or D2 radical operation with less operation trauma and better recovery. PMID:26131162

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: a technical and clinical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Tardelli, Elisa; Rubello, Domenico; Gennaro, Marta; Marzola, Maria Cristona; Cook, Gary J; Volterrani, Duccio

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. Regional lymph node status is one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in primary breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection as the standard surgical procedure for staging clinically tumor-free regional nodes in patients with early-stage breast cancer. SLNB staging considerably reduces surgical morbidity in terms of shoulder dysfunction and lymphedema, without affecting diagnostic accuracy and prognostic information. Clinicians should not recommend axillary lymph node dissection for women with early-stage breast cancer who have tumor-free findings on SLNB because there is no advantage in terms of overall survival and disease-free survival. Starting from the early 1990s, SLNB has increasingly been used in breast cancer management, but its role is still debated under many clinical circumstances. Moreover, there is still a lack of standardization of the basic technical details of the procedure that is likely to be responsible for the variability found in the false-negative rate of the procedure (5.5-16.7%). In this article, we report the aspects of SLNB that are well established, those that are still debated, and the advancements that have taken place over the last 20 years. We have provided an update on the methodology from both a technical and a clinical point of view in the light of the most recent publications. PMID:26886421

  17. Celiac Node Failure Patterns After Definitive Chemoradiation for Esophageal Cancer in the Modern Era

    SciTech Connect

    Amini, Arya; Xiao Lianchun; Allen, Pamela K.; Suzuki, Akihiro; Hayashi, Yuki; Liao, Zhongxing; Hofstetter, Wayne; Crane, Christopher; Komaki, Ritsuko; Bhutani, Manoop S.; Lee, Jeffrey H.; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Welsh, James

    2012-06-01

    Purpose: The celiac lymph node axis acts as a gateway for metastatic systemic spread. The need for prophylactic celiac nodal coverage in chemoradiation therapy for esophageal cancer is controversial. Given the improved ability to evaluate lymph node status before treatment via positron emission tomography (PET) and endoscopic ultrasound, we hypothesized that prophylactic celiac node irradiation may not be needed for patients with localized esophageal carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the radiation treatment volumes for 131 patients who underwent definitive chemoradiation for esophageal cancer. Patients with celiac lymph node involvement at baseline were excluded. Median radiation dose was 50.4 Gy. The location of all celiac node failures was compared with the radiation treatment plan to determine whether the failures occurred within or outside the radiation treatment field. Results: At a median follow-up time of 52.6 months (95% CI 46.1-56.7 months), 6 of 60 patients (10%) without celiac node coverage had celiac nodal failure; in 5 of these patients, the failures represented the first site of recurrence. Of the 71 patients who had celiac coverage, only 5 patients (7%) had celiac region relapse. In multivariate analyses, having a pretreatment-to-post-treatment change in standardized uptake value on PET >52% (odds ratio [OR] 0.198, p = 0.0327) and having failure in the clinical target volume (OR 10.72, p = 0.001) were associated with risk of celiac region relapse. Of those without celiac coverage, the 6 patients that later developed celiac failure had a worse median overall survival time compared with the other 54 patients who did not fail (median overall survival time: 16.5 months vs. 31.5 months, p = 0.041). Acute and late toxicities were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Although celiac lymph node failures occur in approximately 1 of 10 patients, the lack of effective salvage treatments and subsequent low morbidity may justify prophylactic treatment

  18. Technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphatic mapping during laparoscopic colon resection for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, PP; Andreoni, B; Rottoli, M; Celotti, S; Chiappa, A; Montorsi, M

    2007-01-01

    Background: The utility of lymph node mapping to improve staging in colon cancer is still under evaluation. Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer has been validated in multi-centric trials. This study assessed the feasibility and technical aspects of lymph node mapping in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. Methods: A total of 42 patients with histologically proven colon cancer were studied from January 2006 to September 2007. Exclusion criteria were: advanced disease (clinical stage III), rectal cancer, previous colon resection and contraindication to laparoscopy. Lymph-nodal status was assessed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) scan and intra-operatively with the aid of laparoscopic ultrasound. Before resection, 2–3 ml of Patent Blue V dye was injected sub-serosally around the tumour. Coloured lymph nodes were marked as sentinel (SN) with metal clips or suture and laparoscopic colectomy with lymphadenectomy completed as normal. In case of failure of the intra-operative procedure, an ex vivo SN biopsy was performed on the colectomy specimen after resection. Results: A total number of 904 lymph nodes were examined, with a median number of 22 lymph nodes harvested per patient. The SN detection rate was 100%, an ex vivo lymph node mapping was necessary in four patients. Eleven (26.2%) patients had lymph-nodal metastases and in five (45.5%) of these patients, SN was the only positive lymph node. There were two (18.2%) false-negative SN. In three cases (7.1%) with aberrant lymphatic drainage, lymphadenectomy was extended. The accuracy of SN mapping was 95.2% and negative predictive value was 93.9%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic lymphatic mapping and SN removal is feasible in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. The ex vivo technique is useful as a salvage technique in case of failure of the intra-operative procedure. Prospective studies are justified to determine the real accuracy and false-negative rate of the technique. PMID:22275957

  19. Megasonic cleaning: possible solutions for 22nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Hrishi; Singh, Sherjang; Baugh, James; Mann, Raunak; Dietze, Uwe; Dress, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Megasonic energy transfer to the photomask surface is indirectly controlled by process parameters that provide an effective handle to physical force distribution on the photomask surface. A better understanding of the influence of these parameters on the physical force distribution and their effect on pattern damage of fragile mask features can help optimize megasonic energy transfer as well as assist in extending this cleaning technology beyond the 22nm node. In this paper we have specifically studied the effect of higher megasonic frequencies (3 & 4MHz) and media gasification on pattern damage; the effect of cleaning chemistry, media volume flow rate, process time, and nozzle distance to the mask surface during the dispense is also discussed. Megasonic energy characterization is performed by measuring the acoustic energy as well as cavitation created by megasonic energy through sonoluminescence measurements.

  20. Steiner Tree for Fast Data Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hongbing; Chen, Yue-Ang

    2011-11-01

    This paper studies the multicast problem of distributing data from a source node to a group of destination nodes along a peer-to-peer (P2P) overlay network of tree topology. A star-based data distribution protocol is used, which allows a node to send data packet to all its children one after another. After all its children receive the data, the node signals them to send the data to their children. The data distribution time of this protocol is defined to be the time span starting from data dispatching at the source node and ending at data received on all destination nodes. The problem is to find a Steiner tree connecting the source node and destination nodes that minimizes data distribution time. A formulation of data distribution time is given and used as an objective function in finding a Steiner tree. The corresponding optimization problem is NP-hard. A heuristic algorithm is presented, which derives an optimal solution when data transfer delays between all pairs of nodes are the same.

  1. Control range: a controllability-based index for node significance in directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbo; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong

    2012-04-01

    While a large number of methods for module detection have been developed for undirected networks, it is difficult to adapt them to handle directed networks due to the lack of consensus criteria for measuring the node significance in a directed network. In this paper, we propose a novel structural index, the control range, motivated by recent studies on the structural controllability of large-scale directed networks. The control range of a node quantifies the size of the subnetwork that the node can effectively control. A related index, called the control range similarity, is also introduced to measure the structural similarity between two nodes. When applying the index of control range to several real-world and synthetic directed networks, it is observed that the control range of the nodes is mainly influenced by the network's degree distribution and that nodes with a low degree may have a high control range. We use the index of control range similarity to detect and analyze functional modules in glossary networks and the enzyme-centric network of homo sapiens. Our results, as compared with other approaches to module detection such as modularity optimization algorithm, dynamic algorithm and clique percolation method, indicate that the proposed indices are effective and practical in depicting structural and modular characteristics of sparse directed networks.

  2. MUSIC algorithm DoA estimation for cooperative node location in mobile ad hoc networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warty, Chirag; Yu, Richard Wai; ElMahgoub, Khaled; Spinsante, Susanna

    In recent years the technological development has encouraged several applications based on distributed communications network without any fixed infrastructure. The problem of providing a collaborative early warning system for multiple mobile nodes against a fast moving object. The solution is provided subject to system level constraints: motion of nodes, antenna sensitivity and Doppler effect at 2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz. This approach consists of three stages. The first phase consists of detecting the incoming object using a highly directive two element antenna at 5.0 GHz band. The second phase consists of broadcasting the warning message using a low directivity broad antenna beam using 2× 2 antenna array which then in third phase will be detected by receiving nodes by using direction of arrival (DOA) estimation technique. The DOA estimation technique is used to estimate the range and bearing of the incoming nodes. The position of fast arriving object can be estimated using the MUSIC algorithm for warning beam DOA estimation. This paper is mainly intended to demonstrate the feasibility of early detection and warning system using a collaborative node to node communication links. The simulation is performed to show the behavior of detecting and broadcasting antennas as well as performance of the detection algorithm. The idea can be further expanded to implement commercial grade detection and warning system

  3. Objective Function and Learning Algorithm for the General Node Fault Situation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi; Feng, Rui-Bin; Leung, Chi-Sing; Sum, John

    2016-04-01

    Fault tolerance is one interesting property of artificial neural networks. However, the existing fault models are able to describe limited node fault situations only, such as stuck-at-zero and stuck-at-one. There is no general model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations. This paper studies the performance of faulty radial basis function (RBF) networks for the general node fault situation. We first propose a general node fault model that is able to describe a large class of node fault situations, such as stuck-at-zero, stuck-at-one, and the stuck-at level being with arbitrary distribution. Afterward, we derive an expression to describe the performance of faulty RBF networks. An objective function is then identified from the formula. With the objective function, a training algorithm for the general node situation is developed. Finally, a mean prediction error (MPE) formula that is able to estimate the test set error of faulty networks is derived. The application of the MPE formula in the selection of basis width is elucidated. Simulation experiments are then performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:26990391

  4. International Lunar Network (ILN) Anchor Nodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the United States' contribution to the International Lunar Network (ILN) project, the Anchor Nodes project. The ILN is an initiative of 9 national space agencies to establish a set of robotic geophysical monitoring stations on the surface of the Moon. The project is aimed at furthering the understanding of the lunar composition, and interior structure.

  5. Isolation of Murine Lymph Node Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lagarde, Nadège; Rossi, Simona W.

    2014-01-01

    Secondary lymphoid organs including lymph nodes are composed of stromal cells that provide a structural environment for homeostasis, activation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Various stromal cell subsets have been identified by the expression of the adhesion molecule CD31 and glycoprotein podoplanin (gp38), T zone reticular cells or fibroblastic reticular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, blood endothelial cells and FRC-like pericytes within the double negative cell population. For all populations different functions are described including, separation and lining of different compartments, attraction of and interaction with different cell types, filtration of the draining fluidics and contraction of the lymphatic vessels. In the last years, different groups have described an additional role of stromal cells in orchestrating and regulating cytotoxic T cell responses potentially dangerous for the host. Lymph nodes are complex structures with many different cell types and therefore require a appropriate procedure for isolation of the desired cell populations. Currently, protocols for the isolation of lymph node stromal cells rely on enzymatic digestion with varying incubation times; however, stromal cells and their surface molecules are sensitive to these enzymes, which results in loss of surface marker expression and cell death. Here a short enzymatic digestion protocol combined with automated mechanical disruption to obtain viable single cells suspension of lymph node stromal cells maintaining their surface molecule expression is proposed. PMID:25178108

  6. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks

    PubMed Central

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H.; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  7. Node influence identification via resource allocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-Jiao; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Ye, Chun-Ming; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-07-01

    Identifying the node influence in complex networks is an important task to optimally use the network structure and ensure the more efficient spreading in information. In this paper, by taking into account the resource allocation dynamics (RAD) and the k-shell decomposition method, we present an improved method namely RAD to generate the ranking list to evaluate the node influence. First, comparing with the epidemic process results for four real networks, the RAD method could identify the node influence more accurate than the ones generated by the topology-based measures including the degree, k-shell, closeness and the betweenness. Then, a growing scale-free network model with tunable assortative coefficient is introduced to analyze the effect of the assortative coefficient on the accuracy of the RAD method. Finally, the positive correlation is found between the RAD method and the k-shell values which display an exponential form. This work would be helpful for deeply understanding the node influence of a network.

  8. Measure of Node Similarity in Multilayer Networks.

    PubMed

    Mollgaard, Anders; Zettler, Ingo; Dammeyer, Jesper; Jensen, Mogens H; Lehmann, Sune; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The weight of links in a network is often related to the similarity of the nodes. Here, we introduce a simple tunable measure for analysing the similarity of nodes across different link weights. In particular, we use the measure to analyze homophily in a group of 659 freshman students at a large university. Our analysis is based on data obtained using smartphones equipped with custom data collection software, complemented by questionnaire-based data. The network of social contacts is represented as a weighted multilayer network constructed from different channels of telecommunication as well as data on face-to-face contacts. We find that even strongly connected individuals are not more similar with respect to basic personality traits than randomly chosen pairs of individuals. In contrast, several socio-demographics variables have a significant degree of similarity. We further observe that similarity might be present in one layer of the multilayer network and simultaneously be absent in the other layers. For a variable such as gender, our measure reveals a transition from similarity between nodes connected with links of relatively low weight to dis-similarity for the nodes connected by the strongest links. We finally analyze the overlap between layers in the network for different levels of acquaintanceships. PMID:27300084

  9. The lymph node in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dick, F R; Maca, R D

    1978-01-01

    Lymph nodes were examined from 41 cases of typical chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Degree of immaturity was graded as absent to minimal (Grade I), moderate (Grade II) and marked (Grade III). A moderate degree of immaturity was found in the lymph node in 14 of 41 cases even though the cells seen on the initial bone marrow and peripheral blood smears obtained from these patients were essentially all mature. The morphology of these nodes could be confused with poorly differentiated lymphocytic or mixed lymphocytic-histiocytic lymphoma in terms of the degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity present. A marked degree of immaturity was found in 5 cases; the morphology of these cases resembled histiocytic lymphoma. In the remaining 22 cases immaturity was essentially absent. The morphology of these cases was similar to that of diffuse well differentiated lymphocytic lymphoma. Our studies suggest that a moderate degree of immaturity in the lymph node of patients with CLL does not indicate that these patients will have a marked shortening of their survival. PMID:580071

  10. Use of a Hybrid Edge Node-Centroid Node Approach to Thermal Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peabody, Hume L.

    2010-01-01

    A recent proposal submitted for an ESA mission required that models be delivered in ESARAD/ESATAN formats. ThermalDesktop was the preferable analysis code to be used for model development with a conversion done as the final step before delivery. However, due to some differences between the capabilities of the two codes, a unique approach was developed to take advantage of the edge node capability of ThermalDesktop while maintaining the centroid node approach used by ESARAD. In essence, two separate meshes were used: one for conduction and one for radiation. The conduction calculations were eliminated from the radiation surfaces and the capacitance and radiative calculations were eliminated from the conduction surfaces. The resulting conduction surface nodes were coincident with all nodes of the radiation surface and were subsequently merged, while the nodes along the edges remained free. Merging of nodes on the edges of adjacent surfaces provided the conductive links between surfaces. Lastly, all nodes along edges were placed into the subnetwork and the resulting supernetwork included only the nodes associated with radiation surfaces. This approach had both benefits and disadvantages. The use of centroid, surface based radiation reduces the overall size of the radiation network, which is often the most computationally intensive part of the modeling process. Furthermore, using the conduction surfaces and allowing ThermalDesktop to calculate the conduction network can save significant time by not having to manually generate the couplings. Lastly, the resulting GMM/TMM models can be exported to formats which do not support edge nodes. One drawback, however, is the necessity to maintain two sets of surfaces. This requires additional care on the part of the analyst to ensure communication between the conductive and radiative surfaces in the resulting overall network. However, with more frequent use of this technique, the benefits of this approach can far outweigh the

  11. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704

  12. A Nomogram for Predicting the Pathological Response of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xi; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Chen, Sheng; Shao, Zhi-Ming; Di, Gen-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The value of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) patients is still controversial. We aimed to identify predictors and construct a nomogram for predicting the pathologically complete response (pCR) of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) after NCT in node positive breast cancer patients. In total, 426 patients with pathologically proven ALN metastasis before NCT were enrolled, randomized 1:1 and divided into a training set and a validation set. We developed a nomogram based on independent predictors for ALN pCR identified by multivariate logistic regression as well as clinical significant predictors. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that hormone receptor (HR) status, human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index were independent predictors. The nomogram was thereby constructed by those independent predictors as well as tumor size and NCT regimens. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the training set and the validation set were 0.804 and 0.749, respectively. We constructed a nomogram for predicting ALN pCR in patients who received NCT. Our nomogram can improve risk stratification, accurately predict post-NCT ALN status and avoid unnecessary ALN dissection. PMID:27576704

  13. Penile lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node identification.

    PubMed

    Valdés Olmos, R A; Tanis, P J; Hoefnagel, C A; Jansen, L; Nieweg, O E; Meinhardt, W; Horenblas, S

    2001-05-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node (SN) identification has been extensively validated in breast cancer and melanoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the findings of lymphoscintigraphy for SN identification in carcinoma of the penis. Lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 74 consecutive patients (mean age 62.2 years, range 28-87 years) with clinically lymph node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the penis (stage T2 or greater). Following local anaesthesia by xylocaine 10% spray, technetium-99m nanocolloid (mean dose 64.8 MBq, range 40-131 MBq) in a volume of 0.3-0.4 ml was injected intradermally around the tumour. Shortly after injection, a 20-min dynamic study was performed with a dual-head gamma camera; subsequently, static anterior and lateral images were obtained at 30 min and 2 h using simultaneous cobalt-57 flood source transmission scanning. 57Co-assisted skin marking defined SN location for gamma probe/blue dye-guided biopsy, which was performed the next day. The SN visualization rate was 97% (72/74). Lymphatic drainage was bilateral in 81% of the cases (58/72), exclusively to the left groin in 13% (9/72) and only to the right groin in 6%. Bilateral lymph node drainage was synchronous in 38% (22/58) and asynchronous in 62% (in 18 patients the initial route was the left groin, and in the other 18, the right groin). Visualization before 30 min occurred in 66 patients (93%), in 64 of them (88%) already during the dynamic study. A total of 173 SNs were visualized (85 in the right groin, 88 in the left groin). Pitfalls were caused by inguinal skin contamination during injection (four patients) and intracavernous administration (one patient). At surgery, a total of 161 SNs were identified and removed. Sixteen patients (22%) had a tumour-positive SN and underwent standard regional lymph node dissection subsequently. During follow-up (median 28 months, range 3-74 months), two patients with a negative SN developed lymph node metastases in the mapped basin. It

  14. Network Controllability Is Determined by the Density of Low In-Degree and Out-Degree Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menichetti, Giulia; Dall'Asta, Luca; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2014-08-01

    The problem of controllability of the dynamical state of a network is central in network theory and has wide applications ranging from network medicine to financial markets. The driver nodes of the network are the nodes that can bring the network to the desired dynamical state if an external signal is applied to them. Using the framework of structural controllability, here, we show that the density of nodes with in degree and out degree equal to one and two determines the number of driver nodes in the network. Moreover, we show that random networks with minimum in degree and out degree greater than two, are always fully controllable by an infinitesimal fraction of driver nodes, regardless of the other properties of the degree distribution. Finally, based on these results, we propose an algorithm to improve the controllability of networks.

  15. Iterative resource allocation based on propagation feature of node for identifying the influential nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Lin-Feng; Liu, Jian-Guo; Shang, Ming-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    The identification of the influential nodes in networks is one of the most promising domains. In this paper, we present an improved iterative resource allocation (IIRA) method by considering the centrality information of neighbors and the influence of spreading rate for a target node. Comparing with the results of the Susceptible Infected Recovered (SIR) model for four real networks, the IIRA method could identify influential nodes more accurately than the tradition IRA method. Specially, in the Erdös network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 23% when the spreading rate is 0.12. In the Protein network, Kendall's tau could be enhanced 24% when the spreading rate is 0.08.

  16. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  17. Lymphatic transport of exosomes as a rapid route of information dissemination to the lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Swetha; Vannberg, Fredrik O.; Dixon, J. Brandon

    2016-01-01

    It is well documented that cells secrete exosomes, which can transfer biomolecules that impact recipient cells’ functionality in a variety of physiologic and disease processes. The role of lymphatic drainage and transport of exosomes is as yet unknown, although the lymphatics play critical roles in immunity and exosomes are in the ideal size-range for lymphatic transport. Through in vivo near-infrared (NIR) imaging we have shown that exosomes are rapidly transported within minutes from the periphery to the lymph node by lymphatics. Using an in vitro model of lymphatic uptake, we have shown that lymphatic endothelial cells actively enhanced lymphatic uptake and transport of exosomes to the luminal side of the vessel. Furthermore, we have demonstrated a differential distribution of exosomes in the draining lymph nodes that is dependent on the lymphatic flow. Lastly, through endpoint analysis of cellular distribution of exosomes in the node, we identified macrophages and B-cells as key players in exosome uptake. Together these results suggest that exosome transfer by lymphatic flow from the periphery to the lymph node could provide a mechanism for rapid exchange of infection-specific information that precedes the arrival of migrating cells, thus priming the node for a more effective immune response. PMID:27087234

  18. Cranial location of level II lymph nodes in laryngeal cancer: Implications for elective nodal target volume delineation

    SciTech Connect

    Braam, Petra M. . E-mail: P.M.Braam@umcutrecht.nl; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.; Terhaard, Chris

    2007-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the cranial distribution of level II lymph nodes in patients with laryngeal cancer to optimize the elective radiation nodal target volume delineation. Methods and Materials: The most cranially located metastatic lymph node was delineated in 67 diagnostic CT data sets. The minimum distance from the base of the skull (BOS) to the lymph node was determined. Results: A total of 98 lymph nodes were delineated including 62 ipsilateral and 36 contralateral lymph nodes. The mean ipsilateral and contralateral distance from the top of the most cranial metastatic lymph node to the BOS was 36 mm (range, -9-120; standard deviation [SD], 17.9) and 35 mm (range, 14-78; SD 15.0), respectively. Only 5% and 12% of the ipsilateral and 3% and 9% of the contralateral metastatic lymph nodes were located within 15 mm and 20 mm below the BOS, respectively. No significant differences were found between patients with only ipsilateral metastatic lymph nodes and patients with bilateral metastatic lymph nodes. Between tumors that do cross the midline and those that do not, no significant difference was found in the distance of the most cranial lymph node to the BOS and the occurrence ipsilateral or contralateral. Conclusions: Setting the cranial border of the nodal target volume 1.5 cm below the base of the skull covers 95% of the lymph nodes and should be considered in elective nodal irradiation for laryngeal cancer. Bilateral neck irradiation is mandatory, including patients with unilateral laryngeal cancer, when elective irradiation is advised.

  19. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  20. Changes in human lymphocyte subpopulations in tonsils and regional lymph nodes of human head and neck squamous carcinoma compared to control lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Vidal-Rubio, Berta; Sanchez-Carril, Marta; Oliver-Morales, Josefina; González-Femandez, África; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    Background Lymphoid tissues constitute basic structures where specific immune responses take place. This leads to the development of germinal centres (GCs), migration of cells and the generation of memory cells. Here, we have compared human tumour reactive lymph nodes and tonsils with control lymph nodes. Results The study by flow cytometry shows that in control lymph nodes the majority of cells were naive T-lymphocytes (CD45RA+/CD7+). In reactive nodes, although the percentage of CD45RO+ T cells remains constant, there is an increase in the number of B-lymphocytes, and a reduction in naive T cells. The percentage of cells expressing CD69 was similar in reactive nodes and in controls. In both cases, we have found two populations of B cells of either CD69- or CD69dull. Two populations of T cells, which are either negative for CD69 or express it in bright levels (CD69bright), were also found. The analysis of tissue sections by confocal microscopy revealed differences between control, tonsils and tumor reactive lymph nodes. In control lymph nodes, CD19 B cells are surrounded by a unique layer of CD69bright/CD45RO+ T cells. GCs from tonsils and from tumour reactive nodes are mainly constituted by CD19 B cells and have four distinct layers. The central zone is composed of CD69- B cells surrounded by CD69bright/CD45RO+ T cells. The mantle region has basically CD69dull B-lymphocytes and, finally, there is an outer zone with CD69-/CD45RO+ T cells. Conclusions Human secondary lymphoid organs react with an increase in the proportion of B lymphocytes and a decrease in the number of CD45RA+ T cells (naive). In tonsils, this is due to chronic pathogen stimulation, whereas in lymph nodes draining head and neck carcinomas the reaction is prompted by surrounded tumors. During this process, secondary lymphoid organs develop secondary follicles with a special organization of T and B cells in consecutive layers, that are described here by confocal microscopy. This pattern of cellular

  1. Contemporary management of lymph node metastases from an unknown primary to the neck: II. a review of therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Strojan, Primož; Ferlito, Alfio; Langendijk, Johannes A; Corry, June; Woolgar, Julia A; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Silver, Carl E; Paleri, Vinidh; Fagan, Johannes J; Pellitteri, Phillip K; Haigentz, Missak; Suárez, Carlos; Robbins, K Thomas; Rodrigo, Juan P; Olsen, Kerry D; Hinni, Michael L; Werner, Jochen A; Mondin, Vanni; Kowalski, Luiz P; Devaney, Kenneth O; de Bree, Remco; Takes, Robert P; Wolf, Gregory T; Shaha, Ashok R; Genden, Eric M; Barnes, Leon

    2013-02-01

    Although uncommon, cancer of an unknown primary (CUP) metastatic to cervical lymph nodes poses a range of dilemmas relating to optimal treatment. The ideal resolution would be a properly designed prospective randomized trial, but it is unlikely that this will ever be conducted in this group of patients. Accordingly, knowledge gained from retrospective studies and experience from treating patients with known head and neck primary tumors form the basis of therapeutic strategies in CUP. This review provides a critical appraisal of various treatment approaches described in the literature. Emerging treatment options for CUP with metastases to cervical lymph nodes are discussed in view of recent innovations in the field of head and neck oncology and suitable therapeutic strategies for particular clinical scenarios are presented. For pN1 or cN1 disease without extracapsular extension (ECE), selective neck dissection or radiotherapy offer high rates of regional control. For more advanced neck disease, intensive combined treatment is required, either a combination of neck dissection and radiotherapy, or initial (chemo)radiotherapy followed by neck dissection if a complete response is not recorded on imaging. Each of these approaches seems to be equally effective. Use of extensive bilateral neck/mucosal irradiation must be weighed against toxicity, availability of close follow-up with elective neck imaging and guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) when appropriate, the human papillomavirus (HPV) status of the tumor, and particularly against the distribution pattern (oropharynx in the majority of cases) and the emergence rate of hidden primary lesions (<10% after comprehensive workup). The addition of systemic agents is expected to yield similar improvement in outcome as has been observed for known head and neck primary tumors. PMID:22034062

  2. Mexico: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Mexico begins with an overview of language distribution among the population, mono- and multilingualism, changes in patterns of usage between the 1970 and 1980 censuses, and linguistic issues related to assimilation of the Indian population and the role and philosophy of the Instituto Nacional…

  3. Status, Numbers and Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melamed, David; Savage, Scott V.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model of social influence in n-person groups. We argue that disagreement between group members introduces uncertainty into the social situation, and this uncertainty motivates people to use status characteristics to evaluate the merits of a particular opinion. Our model takes the numerical distribution of opinions and the…

  4. Running Geant on T. Node parallel computer

    SciTech Connect

    Jejcic, A.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J. ); Mignot, B. )

    1990-08-01

    AnInmos transputer-based computer has been utilized to overcome the difficulties due to the limitations on the processing abilities of event parallelism and multiprocessor farms (i.e., the so called bus-crisis) and the concern regarding the growing sizes of databases typical in High Energy Physics. This study was done on the T.Node parallel computer manufactured by TELMAT. Detailed figures are reported concerning the event parallelization. (AIP)

  5. Scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the nodes during execution

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Peters, Amanda E; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2012-10-16

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for scheduling applications for execution on a plurality of compute nodes of a parallel computer to manage temperature of the plurality of compute nodes during execution that include: identifying one or more applications for execution on the plurality of compute nodes; creating a plurality of physically discontiguous node partitions in dependence upon temperature characteristics for the compute nodes and a physical topology for the compute nodes, each discontiguous node partition specifying a collection of physically adjacent compute nodes; and assigning, for each application, that application to one or more of the discontiguous node partitions for execution on the compute nodes specified by the assigned discontiguous node partitions.

  6. Improving spanning trees by upgrading nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Krumke, S.O.; Noltemeier, H.; Wirth, H.C.

    1997-01-16

    We study budget constrained optimal network upgrading problems. Such problems aim at finding optimal strategies for improving a network under some cost measure subject to certain budget constraints. A general problem in this setting is the following. We are given an edge weighted graph G = (V, E) where nodes represent processors and edges represent bidirectional communication links. The processor at a node v {element_of} V can be upgraded at a cost of c(v). Such an upgrade reduces the delay of each link emanating from v. The goal is to find a minimum cost set of nodes to be upgraded so that the resulting network has the best performance with respect to some measure. We consider the problem under two measures, namely, the weight of a minimum spanning tree and the bottleneck weight of a minimum bottleneck spanning tree. We present approximation and hardness results for the problem. Our results are tight to within constant factors. We also show that these approximation algorithms can be used to construct good approximation algorithms for the dual versions of the problems where there is a budget constraint on the upgrading cost and the objectives are minimum weight spanning tree and minimum bottleneck weight spanning tree respectively.

  7. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  8. The Charles Perkins Centre's Twins Research Node.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lucas C; Craig, Jeffrey M; Hopper, John L; Carrick, Susan E

    2016-08-01

    Twins can help researchers disentangle the roles of genes from those of the environment on human traits, health, and diseases. To realize this potential, the Australian Twin Registry (ATR), University of Melbourne, and the Charles Perkins Centre (CPC), University of Sydney, established a collaboration to form the Twins Research Node, a highly interconnected research facility dedicated specifically to research involving twins. This collaboration aims to foster the adoption of twin designs as important tools for research in a range of health-related domains. The CPC hosted their Twins Research Node's launch seminar entitled 'Double the power of your research with twin studies', in which experienced twin researchers described how twin studies are supporting scientific discoveries and careers. The launch also featured twin pairs who have actively participated in research through the ATR. Researchers at the CPC were surveyed before the event to gauge their level of understanding and interest in utilizing twin research. This article describes the new Twins Research Node, discusses the survey's main results and reports on the launch seminar. PMID:27302367

  9. Simplified Dynamic Analysis of Grinders Spindle Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demec, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The contribution deals with the simplified dynamic analysis of surface grinding machine spindle node. Dynamic analysis is based on the use of the transfer matrix method, which is essentially a matrix form of method of initial parameters. The advantage of the described method, despite the seemingly complex mathematical apparatus, is primarily, that it does not require for solve the problem of costly commercial software using finite element method. All calculations can be made for example in MS Excel, which is advantageous especially in the initial stages of constructing of spindle node for the rapid assessment of the suitability its design. After detailing the entire structure of spindle node is then also necessary to perform the refined dynamic analysis in the environment of FEM, which it requires the necessary skills and experience and it is therefore economically difficult. This work was developed within grant project KEGA No. 023TUKE-4/2012 Creation of a comprehensive educational - teaching material for the article Production technique using a combination of traditional and modern information technology and e-learning.

  10. Evaluating the importance of nodes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Xiong, Qingyu; Shi, Weiren; Shi, Xin; Wang, Kai

    2016-06-01

    Evaluating the importance of nodes for complex networks is of great significance to the research of survivability and robusticity of networks. This paper proposes an effective ranking method based on degree value and the importance of lines. It can well identify the importance of bridge nodes with lower computational complexity. Firstly, the properties of nodes that are connected to a line are used to compute the importance of the line. Then, the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines is calculated. Finally, degree of nodes and the contribution of nodes to the importance of lines are considered to rank the importance of nodes. Five real networks are used as test data. The experimental results show that our method can effectively evaluate the importance of nodes for complex networks.

  11. Analysis of complex network performance and heuristic node removal strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpour, Ehsan; Chen, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Removing important nodes from complex networks is a great challenge in fighting against criminal organizations and preventing disease outbreaks. Six network performance metrics, including four new metrics, are applied to quantify networks' diffusion speed, diffusion scale, homogeneity, and diameter. In order to efficiently identify nodes whose removal maximally destroys a network, i.e., minimizes network performance, ten structured heuristic node removal strategies are designed using different node centrality metrics including degree, betweenness, reciprocal closeness, complement-derived closeness, and eigenvector centrality. These strategies are applied to remove nodes from the September 11, 2001 hijackers' network, and their performance are compared to that of a random strategy, which removes randomly selected nodes, and the locally optimal solution (LOS), which removes nodes to minimize network performance at each step. The computational complexity of the 11 strategies and LOS is also analyzed. Results show that the node removal strategies using degree and betweenness centralities are more efficient than other strategies.

  12. Symptomatic intravertebral disc herniation (Schmorl's node) in the cervical spine.

    PubMed Central

    Lipson, S J; Fox, D A; Sosman, J L

    1985-01-01

    A case of a Schmorl's node in the cervical vertebra causing neck pain is reported. An inflammatory focus was found on histological examination of Schmorl's node indicating a possible mechanism of pain production. Images PMID:4083942

  13. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  14. A Hybrid Double-Layer Master-Slave Model For Multicore-Node Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Schmider, Hartmut; Edgecombe, Kenneth E.

    2012-10-01

    The Double-Layer Master-Slave Model (DMSM) is a suitable hybrid model for executing a workload that consists of multiple independent tasks of varying length on a cluster consisting of multicore nodes. In this model, groups of individual tasks are first deployed to the cluster nodes through an MPI based Master-Slave model. Then, each group is processed by multiple threads on the node through an OpenMP based All-Slave approach. The lack of thread safety of most MPI libraries has to be addressed by a judicious use of OpenMP critical regions and locks. The HPCVL DMSM Library implements this model in Fortran and C. It requires a minimum of user input to set up the framework for the model and to define the individual tasks. Optionally, it supports the dynamic distribution of task-related data and the collection of results at runtime. This library is freely available as source code. Here, we outline the working principles of the library and on a few examples demonstrate its capability to efficiently distribute a workload on a distributed-memory cluster with shared-memory nodes.

  15. Programmable multi-node quantum network design and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasari, Venkat R.; Sadlier, Ronald J.; Prout, Ryan; Williams, Brian P.; Humble, Travis S.

    2016-05-01

    Software-defined networking offers a device-agnostic programmable framework to encode new network functions. Externally centralized control plane intelligence allows programmers to write network applications and to build functional network designs. OpenFlow is a key protocol widely adopted to build programmable networks because of its programmability, flexibility and ability to interconnect heterogeneous network devices. We simulate the functional topology of a multi-node quantum network that uses programmable network principles to manage quantum metadata for protocols such as teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum key distribution. We first show how the OpenFlow protocol can manage the quantum metadata needed to control the quantum channel. We then use numerical simulation to demonstrate robust programmability of a quantum switch via the OpenFlow network controller while executing an application of superdense coding. We describe the software framework implemented to carry out these simulations and we discuss near-term efforts to realize these applications.

  16. A novel model of node location service based on wireless sensor networks and statistical method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xin; Li, Jun; Li, Xiangdong; Wu, Nan

    2010-04-01

    The real-time multi-hop location system (RMLS) is a kind of service systems with a great potential in the distributed applications. The RMLS provides the precise positioning information of each node relative to one or more beacon node(s); and their absolute positions can be determined from the information. This paper study a new positioning model based on the RMLS and it applies a statistical method to increase the location's precision and enhance the robustness of a time-of-arrive(TOA)-based location system. This model has the advantage to fix the errors caused from the non-line-of-sight (NLOS) and multi-path effect (MPE); and it could be used to provide a reliable and stable location-based service for the applications, such as the scenes of an emergent logistics management and a disaster-relief emergent positioning.

  17. Histological and immunohistochemical studies of the structure of lymph nodes in Kilis goats.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Y A; Kuş, S; Kozlu, T; Başak, F

    2014-08-01

    Ten healthy adult Kilis goat mesenteric lymph nodes were used to examine the general structure of lymph nodes, lymphocytes, plasma cells, reticular cells and reticular fibers using histological methods. We also detected T lymphocytes using anti-CD3 [SP7], anti-CD4 [74-12-4], mouse anti-bovine CD4 [CC30] and mouse anti-bovine CD8 [CC63] monoclonal antibodies (mAb); and B lymphocytes using anti-CD79a [HM57] mAb, macrophages using anti-macrophage [MAC387] mAb and follicular dendritic cells using anti-S100 polyclonal antibody (pAb). The distribution of these cells also was studied. Although the primer antibodies we used for CD3, CD8, CD79a, MAC387 and S100 worked well, the primer antibodies for CD4 were ineffective for paraffin embedded goat lymph nodes. PMID:24588598

  18. The Astrophysics Visualization Archive: Toward a Virtual Observatory Node at AMNH/Hayden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, B. P.; Liu, C. T.; Tyson, N. D.

    2001-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History and the Hayden Planetarium are developing a node for the Virtual Observatory (http://www.haydenplanetarium.org/hp/vo/). Consistent with our institutional mission, part of this node includes a component dedicated to education and public outreach. As a first step, we have developed the Astrophysics Visualization Archive (AVA), a searchable clearinghouse of scientific visualizations, particularly focusing on computational astrophysics. This archive is an educational tool that brings research astronomy down to a level appropriate for use in the classroom. In addition, it will also serve as a point of communication for the computational astrophysics community to present and follow recent research results produced throughout the community. In the future, we will build our virtual observatory node to include features such as data distribution as well as real-time, interactive data visualization. This project is supported by the National Science Foundation via the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.

  19. Identifying node role in social network based on multiple indicators.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  20. Salmonella in lymph nodes of cattle presented for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Salmonella in the subiliac lymph nodes (LN) of cattle. Lymph node samples were obtained from carcasses of cull and feedlot cattle at commercial packing plants. Lymph nodes were trimmed of all fat, surface sterilized by submersion in boiling ...

  1. Diffusion MRI on lymph node staging of gastric adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Akcakaya, Adem; Memmi, Naim; Turkmen, Ihsan; Cipe, Gokhan; Yildiz, Pelin; Arici, Dilek Sema; Muslumanoglu, Mahmut

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative assessment of metastatic lymph nodes of gastric cancer. Methods A total of 23 gastric cancer patients with a mean age of 59.4±10.9 years were analyzed. Lymph nodes were grouped as perigastric lesser curvature (Group Ia), perigastric greater curvature (Group Ib), D1+/D2 lymph nodes (Group II). Identification of histologically metastatic lymph nodes by diffusion weighted MRI was regarded as the main outcome. Results A total of 1,056 lymph nodes including 180 histologically proven metastatic lymph nodes were dissected. Although diffusion weighted MRI could identify the metastatic lymph nodes in 18 out of 23 patients (77.8%), only 69 of total 1,056 nodes (6.53%), either metastatic or non-metastatic, could be detected. There was no correlation between histopathology and diffusion weighted MRI with regard to lymph node groups (P>0.05 for all). Overall accuracy was calculated as 69.56, 65.21 and 52.17 for Groups II, Ib and Ia lymph nodes, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values could not be helpful to differentiate metastatic lymph nodes (P=0.673). Conclusions Diffusion weighted MRI has low accuracy to detect or to differentiate metastatic and non-metastatic lymph nodes based on their ADC values in gastric cancer. PMID:26029642

  2. Sentinel node techniques in cancer of the vulva.

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2003-02-01

    The sentinel lymph node procedure, with the combined technique (preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with (99m)Technetium-labeled Nanocolloid and Patente Blue V ), is a promising staging technique for patients with vulvar cancer. The clinical implementation of the sentinel lymph node procedure and the role of additional histopathologic techniques of the sentinel lymph nodes are under investigation. PMID:12521546

  3. Salmonella prevalence in bovine lymph nodes differs among feedyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lymphatic tissue, specifically lymph nodes, is commonly incorporated into ground beef products as a component of lean trimmings. Salmonella and other pathogenic bacteria have been identified in bovine lymph nodes. Although Salmonella prevalence has been examined among lymph nodes within an animal,...

  4. Identifying Node Role in Social Network Based on Multiple Indicators

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shaobin; Lv, Tianyang; Zhang, Xizhe; Yang, Yange; Zheng, Weimin; Wen, Chao

    2014-01-01

    It is a classic topic of social network analysis to evaluate the importance of nodes and identify the node that takes on the role of core or bridge in a network. Because a single indicator is not sufficient to analyze multiple characteristics of a node, it is a natural solution to apply multiple indicators that should be selected carefully. An intuitive idea is to select some indicators with weak correlations to efficiently assess different characteristics of a node. However, this paper shows that it is much better to select the indicators with strong correlations. Because indicator correlation is based on the statistical analysis of a large number of nodes, the particularity of an important node will be outlined if its indicator relationship doesn't comply with the statistical correlation. Therefore, the paper selects the multiple indicators including degree, ego-betweenness centrality and eigenvector centrality to evaluate the importance and the role of a node. The importance of a node is equal to the normalized sum of its three indicators. A candidate for core or bridge is selected from the great degree nodes or the nodes with great ego-betweenness centrality respectively. Then, the role of a candidate is determined according to the difference between its indicators' relationship with the statistical correlation of the overall network. Based on 18 real networks and 3 kinds of model networks, the experimental results show that the proposed methods perform quite well in evaluating the importance of nodes and in identifying the node role. PMID:25089823

  5. Elevated Serum Leptin Levels are Associated With an Increased Risk of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Oba, Junna; Wei, Wei; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Johnson, Marcella M.; Wyatt, Cynthia M.; Ellerhorst, Julie A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The metabolic hormone leptin has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various malignancies and may contribute to the high rate of cancer in obese individuals. We reported that leptin and its receptor are expressed by melanoma tumors and cell lines, and that leptin stimulates proliferation of cultured melanoma cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin contributes to early melanoma progression by assessing its association with sentinel node positivity in cutaneous melanoma patients. The study enrolled 72 patients who were scheduled to undergo lymphatic mapping and sentinel node biopsy. Fasting blood was obtained before surgery, and serum leptin levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a “raw” (assay value) and an “adjusted” value (raw value divided by body mass index). Leptin levels and other clinicopathologic parameters were compared between sentinel node positive and negative groups. Logistic regression models were used to predict sentinel node status using leptin and other relevant clinical parameters. The raw and adjusted leptin levels were significantly higher in the 15 patients with positive sentinel nodes. These findings could not be attributed to differences in body mass indices. Univariate models revealed raw leptin, adjusted leptin, Breslow thickness, and mitotic rate as significant predictors of sentinel node status. Leptin levels and Breslow thickness remained significant in multivariate models. Survival and follow-up analysis revealed more aggressive disease in diabetic patients. Elevated serum leptin levels predict sentinel node metastasis in melanoma. Validation of this finding in larger cohorts should enable better stratification of early stage melanoma patients. PMID:26986135

  6. Cervical conization and sentinel lymph node mapping in the treatment of stage I cervical cancer: is less enough?

    PubMed Central

    Andikyan, Vaagn; Khoury-Collado, Fady; Denesopolis, John; Park, Kay J.; Hussein, Yaser R.; Brown, Carol L.; Sonoda, Yukio; Chi, Dennis S.; Barakat, Richard R.; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility of cervical conization and sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping as a fertility-sparing strategy to treat stage I cervical cancer and estimate the tumor margin status needed to achieve no residual carcinoma in the cervix. Methods We identified all patients who desired fertility-preservation and underwent SLN mapping with cervical conization for stage I cervical cancer from 9/2005–8/2012. Relevant demographic, clinical, and pathological information was collected. Results Ten patients were identified. Median age was 28 years (range,18–36). None of the patients had a grossly visible tumor. The initial diagnosis of invasive carcinoma was made either on a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or cone biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative radiologic evaluation (MRI and PET-CT). None of the patients had evidence of gross tumor or suspicion of lymph node metastasis on imaging. Stage distribution included: IA1 with lymphovascular invasion, 7(70%); and microscopic IB1, 3(30%). Histology included: squamous cell carcinoma, 8(80%); adenocarcinoma, 1(10%); and clear cell carcinoma, 1(10%). Nine patients underwent repeat cervical conization with SLN mapping, and 1 patient underwent post-conization cervical biopsies and SLN mapping. None of the patients had residual tumor identified on the final specimen. The median distance from the invasive carcinoma to the endocervical margin was 2.25mm, and the distance from the invasive carcinoma to the ectocervical margin was 1.9mm. All collected lymph nodes were negative for metastasis. After a median follow-up of 17 months (range,1–83), none of the patients were diagnosed with recurrent disease and 3 patients (30%) achieved pregnancy. Conclusion Cervical conization and SLN mapping appears to be an acceptable treatment strategy for selected patients with small-volume stage I cervical cancer. Tumor clearance of ≥2mm appears to correlate well with no residual on repeat conization. A

  7. Preoperative Scintigrams to Identify the Sentinel Lymph Node in Breast Cancer: a Waste of Time?

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Pinto, A; Notghi, A; Sintler, M

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remains the gold standard for assessing axillary node status in breast cancer. Preoperative scintigrams have been used to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN); however, their use is controversial. Studies suggest they add little to successful SLN detection in theatre, immediately prior to node excision. They have been associated with high false negatives, time expense, patient dissatisfaction, and unnecessary costs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of scintigrams in comparison to intraoperative SLN identification techniques. This study included all patients undergoing a SLNB for breast cancer from April 2010 to 2011. Scintigram reports, operation notes, and histology results were analyzed. Mann-Whitney U and chi-squared tests were used for statistical analysis of data. Two hundred nineteen female patients with a median age of 59.6 years (24.0-89.9 years) were included in this study. Scintigram was performed in 185 and not in 34 patients due to time constraints. Combined γ-probe and Isosulfan blue dye for SLN detection (intraoperative methods) have an identification rate of 98.2 % (p = 0.005), compared to 92.4 % (p = 0.088) from scintigrams alone. Scintigrams confer no additional advantage to the operating surgeon for successful SLN detection and excision in theatre. Intraoperative SLN identification is more accurate and reliable. Routine scintigram use is unjustified and should be withdrawn from current practice. PMID:27011606

  8. Influence of Lymphatic Invasion on Locoregional Recurrence Following Mastectomy: Indication for Postmastectomy Radiotherapy for Breast Cancer Patients With One to Three Positive Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Matsunuma, Ryoichi; Oguchi, Masahiko; Fujikane, Tomoko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Sakai, Takehiko; Kimura, Kiyomi; Morizono, Hidetomo; Iijima, Kotaro; Izumori, Ayumi; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Makita, Masujiro; Gomi, Naoya; Horii, Rie; Akiyama, Futoshi; Iwase, Takuji

    2012-07-01

    Purpose: The indication for postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with one to three positive lymph nodes has been in discussion. The purpose of this study was to identify patient groups for whom PMRT may be indicated, focusing on varied locoregional recurrence rates depending on lymphatic invasion (ly) status. Methods and Materials: Retrospective analysis of 1,994 node-positive patients who had undergone mastectomy without postoperative radiotherapy between January 1990 and December 2000 at our hospital was performed. Patient groups for whom PMRT should be indicated were assessed using statistical tests based on the relationship between locoregional recurrence rate and ly status. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that the ly status affected the locoregional recurrence rate to as great a degree as the number of positive lymph nodes (p < 0.001). Especially for patients with one to three positive nodes, extensive ly was a more significant factor than stage T3 in the TNM staging system for locoregional recurrence (p < 0.001 vs. p = 0.295). Conclusion: Among postmastectomy patients with one to three positive lymph nodes, patients with extensive ly seem to require local therapy regimens similar to those used for patients with four or more positive nodes and also seem to require consideration of the use of PMRT.

  9. Evaluating reliability of WSN with sleep/wake-up interfering nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distefano, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    A wireless sensor network (WSN) (singular and plural of acronyms are spelled the same) is a distributed system composed of autonomous sensor nodes wireless connected and randomly scattered into a geographical area to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Adequate techniques and strategies are required to manage a WSN so that it works properly, observing specific quantities and metrics to evaluate the WSN operational conditions. Among them, one of the most important is the reliability. Considering a WSN as a system composed of sensor nodes the system reliability approach can be applied, thus expressing the WSN reliability in terms of its nodes' reliability. More specifically, since often standby power management policies are applied at node level and interferences among nodes may arise, a WSN can be considered as a dynamic system. In this article we therefore consider the WSN reliability evaluation problem from the dynamic system reliability perspective. Static-structural interactions are specified by the WSN topology. Sleep/wake-up standby policies and interferences due to wireless communications can be instead considered as dynamic aspects. Thus, in order to represent and to evaluate the WSN reliability, we use dynamic reliability block diagrams and Petri nets. The proposed technique allows to overcome the limits of Markov models when considering non-linear discharge processes, since they cannot adequately represent the aging processes. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique, we investigate some specific WSN network topologies, providing guidelines for their representation and evaluation.

  10. Role of the node in controlling traffic of cadmium, zinc, and manganese in rice

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Noriko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Abe, Tadashi; Baba, Koji; Terada, Yasuko

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals are transported to rice grains via the phloem. In rice nodes, the diffuse vascular bundles (DVBs), which enclose the enlarged elliptical vascular bundles (EVBs), are connected to the panicle and have a morphological feature that facilitates xylem-to-phloem transfer. To find a mechanism for restricting cadmium (Cd) transport into grains, the distribution of Cd, zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and sulphur (S) around the vascular bundles in node I (the node beneath the panicle) of Oryza sativa ‘Koshihikari’ were compared 1 week after heading. Elemental maps of Cd, Zn, Mn, and S in the vascular bundles of node I were obtained by synchrotron micro-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and electron probe microanalysis. In addition, Cd K-edge microfocused X-ray absorption near-edge structure analyses were used to identify the elements co-ordinated with Cd. Both Cd and S were mainly distributed in the xylem of the EVB and in the parenchyma cell bridge (PCB) surrounding the EVB. Zn accumulated in the PCB, and Mn accumulated around the protoxylem of the EVB. Cd was co-ordinated mainly with S in the xylem of the EVB, but with both S and O in the phloem of the EVB and in the PCB. The EVB in the node retarded horizontal transport of Cd toward the DVB. By contrast, Zn was first stored in the PCB and then efficiently transferred toward the DVB. Our results provide evidence that transport of Cd, Zn, and Mn is differentially controlled in rice nodes, where vascular bundles are functionally interconnected. PMID:22291135

  11. Using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data to analyze geographical distribution of socio-economic status; an experience from KEMRI/CDC HDSS.

    PubMed

    Amek, Nyaguara; Vounatsou, Penelope; Obonyo, Benson; Hamel, Mary; Odhiambo, Frank; Slutsker, Laurence; Laserson, Kayla

    2015-04-01

    Continuous monitoring in health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) allows for collection of longitudinal demographic data, health related, and socio-economic indicators of the site population. We sought to use household survey data collected between 2002 and 2006 in the Kenya Medical Research Institute in collaboration with Centers for Disease Control and prevention (KEMRI/CDC) HDSS site in Asembo and Gem Western Kenya to estimate socio-economic status (SES) and assess changes of SES over time and space. Data on household assets and characteristics, mainly source of drinking water, cooking fuel, and occupation of household head was annually collected from 44,313 unique households during the study period. An SES index was calculated as a weighted average of assets using weights generated via Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Polychoric PCA, and Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) methods applied to the pooled data. The index from the best method was used to rank households into SES quintiles and assess their transition over time across SES categories. Kriging was employed to produce SES maps at the start and the end of the study period. First component of PCA, Polychoric PCA, and MCA accounted for 13.7%, 31.8%, and 47.3%, respectively of the total variance of all variables. The gap between the poorest and the least poor increased from 1% at the start to 6% at the end of the study period. Spatial analysis revealed that the increase in least poor households was centered in the lower part of study area (Asembo) over time. No significant changes were observed in Gem. The HDSS sites can provide a platform to assess spatial-temporal changes in the SES status of the population. Evidence on how SES varied over time and space within the same geographical area may provide a useful tool to design interventions in health and other areas that have a close bearing to the SES of the population. PMID:25602533

  12. A modified evidential methodology of identifying influential nodes in weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Cai; Wei, Daijun; Hu, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Deng, Yong

    2013-11-01

    How to identify influential nodes in complex networks is still an open hot issue. In the existing evidential centrality (EVC), node degree distribution in complex networks is not taken into consideration. In addition, the global structure information has also been neglected. In this paper, a new Evidential Semi-local Centrality (ESC) is proposed by modifying EVC in two aspects. Firstly, the Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) of degree generated by EVC is modified according to the actual degree distribution, rather than just following uniform distribution. BPA is the generation of probability in order to model uncertainty. Secondly, semi-local centrality combined with modified EVC is extended to be applied in weighted networks. Numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  13. Genetic Network Programming with Intron-Like Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabu, Shingo; Chen, Yan; Eto, Shinji; Shimada, Kaoru; Hirasawa, Kotaro

    Recently, Genetic Network Programming (GNP) has been proposed, which is an extension of Genetic Algorithm(GA) and Genetic Programming(GP). GNP can make compact programs and can memorize the past history in it implicitly, because it expresses the solution by directed graphs and therefore, it can reuse the nodes. In this research, intron-like nodes are introduced for improving the performance of GNP. The aim of introducing intron-like nodes is to use every node as much as possible. It is found from simulations that the intron-like nodes are useful for improving the training speed and generalization ability.

  14. Mutually connected component of networks of networks with replica nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Dorogovtsev, Sergey N.; Mendes, José F. F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the emergence of the giant mutually connected component in networks of networks in which each node has a single replica node in any layer and can be interdependent only on its replica nodes in the interdependent layers. We prove that if, in these networks, all the nodes of one network (layer) are interdependent on the nodes of the same other interconnected layer, then, remarkably, the mutually connected component does not depend on the topology of the network of networks. This component coincides with the mutual component of the fully connected network of networks constructed from the same set of layers, i.e., a multiplex network.

  15. Adaptive node techniques for Maxwell's equations

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, D W

    2000-04-01

    The computational mesh in numerical simulation provides a framework on which to monitor the spatial dependence of function and their derivatives. Spatial mesh is therefore essential to the ability to integrate systems in time without loss of fidelity. Several philosophies have emerged to provide such fidelity (Eulerian, Lagrangian, Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian ALE, Adaptive Mesh Refinement AMR, and adaptive node generation/deletion). Regardless of the type of mesh, a major difficulty is in setting up the initial mesh. Clearly a high density of grid points is essential in regions of high geometric complexity and/or regions of intense, energetic activity. For some problems, mesh generation is such a crucial part of the problem that it can take as much computational effort as the run itself, and these tasks are now taking weeks of massively parallel CPU time. Mesh generation is no less crucial to electromagnetic calculations. In fact EM problem set up can be even more challenging without the clues given by fluid motion in hydrodynamic systems. When the mesh is advected with the fluid (Lagrangian), mesh points naturally congregate in regions of high activity. Similarly in AMR algorithms, strong gradients in the fluid flow are one of the triggers for mesh refinement. In the hyperbolic Maxwell's equations without advection, mesh point placement/motion is not so intuitive. In fixed geometry systems, it at least feasible to finely mesh high leverage, geometrically challenged areas. For other systems, where the action takes place far from the boundaries and, likely, changes position in time, the options are limited to either using a high resolution (expensive) mesh in all regions that could require such resolution or adaptively generating nodes to resolve the physics as it evolves. The authors have developed a new time of adaptive node technique for Maxwell's equations to deal with this set of issues.

  16. Eigenvector centrality of nodes in multiplex networks.

    PubMed

    Solá, Luis; Romance, Miguel; Criado, Regino; Flores, Julio; García del Amo, Alejandro; Boccaletti, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    We extend the concept of eigenvector centrality to multiplex networks, and introduce several alternative parameters that quantify the importance of nodes in a multi-layered networked system, including the definition of vectorial-type centralities. In addition, we rigorously show that, under reasonable conditions, such centrality measures exist and are unique. Computer experiments and simulations demonstrate that the proposed measures provide substantially different results when applied to the same multiplex structure, and highlight the non-trivial relationships between the different measures of centrality introduced. PMID:24089967

  17. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  18. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  19. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Weed, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  20. High-frequency Ultrasound Imaging of Mouse Cervical Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Walk, Elyse L; McLaughlin, Sarah L; Weed, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    High-frequency ultrasound (HFUS) is widely employed as a non-invasive method for imaging internal anatomic structures in experimental small animal systems. HFUS has the ability to detect structures as small as 30 µm, a property that has been utilized for visualizing superficial lymph nodes in rodents in brightness (B)-mode. Combining power Doppler with B-mode imaging allows for measuring circulatory blood flow within lymph nodes and other organs. While HFUS has been utilized for lymph node imaging in a number of mouse  model systems, a detailed protocol describing HFUS imaging and characterization of the cervical lymph nodes in mice has not been reported. Here, we show that HFUS can be adapted to detect and characterize cervical lymph nodes in mice. Combined B-mode and power Doppler imaging can be used to detect increases in blood flow in immunologically-enlarged cervical nodes. We also describe the use of B-mode imaging to conduct fine needle biopsies of cervical lymph nodes to retrieve lymph tissue for histological  analysis. Finally, software-aided steps are described to calculate changes in lymph node volume and to visualize changes in lymph node morphology following image reconstruction. The ability to visually monitor changes in cervical lymph node biology over time provides a simple and powerful technique for the non-invasive monitoring of cervical lymph node alterations in preclinical mouse models of oral cavity disease. PMID:26274059

  1. Computational strategies for three-dimensional flow simulations on distributed computer systems. Ph.D. Thesis Semiannual Status Report, 15 Aug. 1993 - 15 Feb. 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weed, Richard Allen; Sankar, L. N.

    1994-01-01

    An increasing amount of research activity in computational fluid dynamics has been devoted to the development of efficient algorithms for parallel computing systems. The increasing performance to price ratio of engineering workstations has led to research to development procedures for implementing a parallel computing system composed of distributed workstations. This thesis proposal outlines an ongoing research program to develop efficient strategies for performing three-dimensional flow analysis on distributed computing systems. The PVM parallel programming interface was used to modify an existing three-dimensional flow solver, the TEAM code developed by Lockheed for the Air Force, to function as a parallel flow solver on clusters of workstations. Steady flow solutions were generated for three different wing and body geometries to validate the code and evaluate code performance. The proposed research will extend the parallel code development to determine the most efficient strategies for unsteady flow simulations.

  2. Prognostic Significance of Number of Positive Nodes: A Long-Term Study of One to Two Nodes Versus Three Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, Patricia; Yu, Edward; Joseph, Kurian

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: Previous reports of breast cancer have generally analyzed patients with one to three positive lymph nodes as a single group, often leading to controversy regarding the practical clinical applicability. The present study separately analyzed the survival outcomes of Stage T1-T2 breast cancer patients according to whether one, two, or three axillary nodes were pathologically positive. Methods and Materials: The records of 5,996 patients were available for analysis from the population-based Saskatchewan provincial registry between 1981 and 1995. Because the reliability of the nodal assessment depends on the number of lymph nodes sampled, only those 755 patients with Stage T1-T2 disease and eight or more nodes examined were analyzed further for overall survival and cause-specific survival (CSS). Results: Patients with one and two positive nodes had nearly indistinguishable survival plots, but those with three positive nodes had a distinct trend toward worse survival. The overall survival rate of patients with one, two, and three nodes at 5, 10, and 15 years was 82.7%, 77.0%, and 79.0%, 64.8%, 60.9%, and 52.8%, and 48.8%, 48.0%, and 40.9%, respectively (p = .11). The corresponding CSS rates at 5, 10, and 15 years were 89.4%, 82.0%, and 81.3%, 78.87%, 72.9%, and 62.1%, and 72.7%. 69.0%, and 55.6% (p = .0004). The use of regional radiotherapy did not confer any apparent survival benefit in terms of either overall survival or CSS. Conclusion: Patients with one or two positive nodes had a similar CSS. However, those with three positive nodes fared worse, with a significantly reduced CSS compared with those with one or two involved nodes. Thus, the survival data among patients with one to three nodes positive reveals clearly relevant differences when analyzed separately.

  3. A critical review of variables affecting the accuracy and false-negative rate of sentinel node biopsy procedures in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, Vani; Boerner, Philip S; Jani, Ashesh B; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan

    2005-05-01

    Radionuclide sentinel lymph node localization and biopsy is a staging procedure that is being increasingly used to evaluate patients with invasive breast cancer who have clinically normal axillary nodes. The most important prognostic indicator in patients with invasive breast cancer is the axillary node status, which must also be known for correct staging, and influences the selection of adjuvant therapies. The accuracy of sentinel lymph node localization depends on a number of factors, including the injection method, the operating surgeon's experience and the hospital setting. The efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping can be determined by two measures: the sentinel lymph node identification rate and the false-negative rate. Of these, the false-negative rate is the most important, based on a review of 92 studies. As sentinel lymph node procedures vary widely, nuclear medicine physicians and radiologists must be acquainted with the advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques. In this review, the factors that influence the success of different techniques are examined, and studies which have investigated false-negative rates and/or sentinel lymph node identification rates are summarized. PMID:15838421

  4. Hippocampal distribution of IL-1β and IL-1RI following lithium-pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the developing rat.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Croda, Dulce-Mariely; Santiago-García, Juan; Medel-Matus, Jesús S; Martínez-Quiroz, Joel; Puig-Lagunes, Angel A; Beltrán-Parrazal, Luis; López-Meraz, María-Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) to neuronal injury induced by status epilepticus (SE) in the immature brain remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the hippocampal expression of IL-1β and its type 1 receptor (IL-1RI) following SE induced by the lithium-pilocarpine model in fourteen-days-old rat pups; control animals were given an equal volume of saline instead of the convulsant. IL-1β and IL-1RI mRNA hippocampal levels were assessed by qRT-PCR 6 and 24 h after SE or control conditions. IL-1β and IL-1RI expression was detected in the dorsal hippocampus by immunohistochemical procedures; Fluoro-Jade B staining was carried out in parallel sections in order to detect neuronal cell death. IL-1β mRNA expression was increased 6 h following SE, but not at 24 h; however IL-1RI mRNA expression was unaffected when comparing with the control group. IL-1β and IL-1RI immunoreactivity was not detected in control animals. IL-1β and IL-1RI were expressed in the CA1 pyramidal layer, the dentate gyrus granular layer and the hilus 6 h after SE, whereas injured cells were detected 24 h following seizures. Early expression of IL-1β and IL-1RI in the hippocampus could be associated with SE-induced neuronal cell death mechanisms in the developing rat. PMID:27168372

  5. Social temperament and lymph node innervation

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Erica K.; Capitanio, John P.; Tarara, Ross P.; Cole, Steve W.

    2008-01-01

    Socially inhibited individuals show increased vulnerability to viral infections, and this has been linked to increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). To determine whether structural alterations in SNS innervation of lymphoid tissue might contribute to these effects, we assayed the density of catecholaminergic nerve fibers in 13 lymph nodes from 7 healthy adult rhesus macaques that showed stable individual differences in propensity to socially affiliate (Sociability). Tissues from Low Sociable animals showed a 2.8-fold greater density of catecholaminergic innervation relative to tissues from High Sociable animals, and this was associated with a 2.3-fold greater expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA, suggesting a molecular mechanism for observed differences. Low Sociable animals also showed alterations in lymph node expression of the immunoregulatory cytokine genes IFNG and IL4, and lower secondary IgG responses to tetanus vaccination. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that structural differences in lymphoid tissue innervation might potentially contribute to relationships between social temperament and immunobiology. PMID:18068331

  6. AIMS mask qualification for 32nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Rigo; Thaler, Thomas; Seitz, Holger; Stroessner, Ulrich; Scheruebl, Thomas

    2009-10-01

    Moving forward to 32nm node and below optical lithography using 193nm is faced with complex requirements to be solved. Mask makers are forced to address both Double Patterning Techniques and Computational Lithography approaches such as Source Mask Optimizations and Inverse Lithography. Additionally, lithography at low k1 values increases the challenges for mask repair as well as for repair verification and review by AIMSTM. Higher CD repeatability, more flexibility in the illumination settings as well as significantly improved image performance must be added when developing the next generation mask qualification equipment. This paper reports latest measurement results verifying the appropriateness of the latest member of AIMSTM measurement tools - the AIMSTM 32-193i. We analyze CD repeatability measurements on lines and spaces pattern. The influence of the improved optical performance and newly introduced interferometer stage will be verified. This paper highlights both the new Double Patterning functionality emulating double patterning processes and the influence of its critical parameters such as overlay errors and resist impact. Beneficial advanced illumination schemes emulating scanner illumination document the AIMSTM 32-193i to meet mask maker community's requirements for the 32nm node.

  7. Local immunity in lung-associated lymph nodes in a murine model of pulmonary histoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Fojtasek, M F; Sherman, M R; Garringer, T; Blair, R; Wheat, L J; Schnizlein-Bick, C T

    1993-01-01

    Local immunity against acute pulmonary histoplasmosis was studied in the lung-associated lymph nodes of normal nonimmune mice infected intratracheally with live Histoplasma capsulatum yeasts. The phenotypes and distribution of cells in lung-associated lymph nodes and spleens were determined by flow cytometry. In addition, the immune responsiveness of these cells was evaluated by in vitro blastogenesis. Anti-H. capsulatum antibodies in serum and H. capsulatum antigen in tissue were measured by immunoassays. Cellular immune responses were greater in the lymph nodes than in the spleens. In lymph nodes 7 days after infection, a marked increase in the number of B lymphocytes caused the percentage to rise to 43%, compared with 26% in controls, and it remained elevated throughout the course of infection. A CD3+ cell that did not express CD4 or CD8 increased in number until it constituted 21% of lymph node cells, compared with 5% in controls, by day 14. The numbers of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were modestly increased from days 7 to 35, but their percentages dropped because of the greater numbers of B lymphocytes and CD3+4-8- cells. Macrophages consistently constituted 2 to 3% of lymph node cells during the study. In spleens 7 days after infection, the percentage of macrophages in infected mice rose to 21%, compared with 9% in controls, but the total spleen cell number did not increase until day 14, when all cell subsets were nearly double in number. The in vitro blastogenic response of lymph node cells to H. capsulatum peaked at day 7, but spleen cell response was minimal during the course of infection. Histoplasma-specific serum immunoglobulin G antibodies reached peak levels by day 21 and remained high to the end of the study. In contrast, levels of antigen-specific immunoglobulin M antibodies were very low. These data suggest that antigen-specific immune responses occur in lung-associated lymph nodes and that this draining lymph node response may be an important

  8. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: An Investigation into Node Strength Connectivity Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian-Jun; Wang, Yong-Li; He, Da-Ren

    2009-07-01

    We propose investigating the node strength connectivity correlation by a resource-allocation method and the traditional multiple edge method, respectively. A rough analysis suggests that the resource-allocation node strength connectivity correlation is always negative, which is different from the connectivity correlation of the traditional multiple edge node strength (it can show either positive, negative or no correlation). As examples, empirical investigation results for two real world cooperation-competition networks (the 2004 Athens Olympic Games network and the mixed drink network) are presented. We believe that the resource-allocation node strength connectivity correlation can serve as a description of the relative crackajack distribution, which is a complementarity of the traditional multiple edge one.

  9. Is sentinel lymph node biopsy more accurate than axillary dissection for staging nodal involvement in breast cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; Gebbiab, Vittorio; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Casà, Luigi; Noto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Today evaluation of axillary involvement can be routinely performed with the technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). One of the greatest advantages of SLNB is the nearly total absence of local postoperative complications. It is important to understand whether SLNB is better than axillary lymph-node dissection (ALND) for staging axillary nodal involvement. The aim of the study was to evaluate the axillary staging accuracy comparing three different methods: axillary dissection, sentinel node biopsy with the traditional 4-6 sections and sentinel node biopsy with complete analysis of the lymph node. 527 consecutive patients (525 females and 2 males) with invasive breast cancer < or = 3 cm and clinically negative axillary nodes were divided into 3 different groups: group A treated with axillary dissection, group B treated with sentinel nodal biopsy analysed with 4-6 sections, and group C treated with sentinel node biopsy with analysis of the entire node. All patients underwent a quadrantectomy to treat the tumor. Group differences and statistical significance were assessed by ANOVA. The percentages of N+ in group A and group B were 25.80% and 28% respectively, while in the third group it rose to 45%, or almost half the patients. The differences among the three groups were statistically significant (p = 0.02). From our analysis of the data it emerges that axillary dissection and sentinel node biopsy with analysis of 4-6 sections have the same accuracy in staging the nodal status of the axilla; analysis of the entire sentinel lymph node revealed an increased number of patients with axillary nodal involvement, proving more powerful in predicting nodal stage. SLNB with complete examination of the SLN removed can be considered the best method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients with clinical negative nodes. In our study, the percentage of metastases encountered after complete examination of SLN was 45% compared to the accuracy of axillary dissection that

  10. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites. PMID:26282484

  11. Diagnosis of lateral pelvic lymph node metastasis of T1 lower rectal cancer using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging: A case report with lateral pelvic lymph node dissection of lower rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    OGAWA, SHIMPEI; ITABASHI, MICHIO; HIROSAWA, TOMOICHIRO; HASHIMOTO, TAKUZO; BAMBA, YOSHIKO; OKAMOTO, TAKAHIRO

    2016-01-01

    The present study presented a 35-year-old female patient in whom fecal occult blood was detected in a medical check-up. Colonoscopy revealed a superficial elevated-type tumor with central depression in the lower rectum. The tumor was diagnosed as T1 deep invasive cancer. No swollen lymph nodes or distant metastasis were found on computed tomography or [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography with computed tomography. However, a swollen right lateral pelvic lymph node (LPLN; short axis 4 mm) was revealed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This lymph node exhibited high intensity on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), suggesting metastasis. Low anterior resection, regional lymph node dissection and right LPLN dissection (LPLD) were performed. Histological analysis revealed metastasis in the right LPLN, as suggested by the high DWI intensity. The indication for LPLD in the current Japanese guidelines is based on the tumor location and depth of invasion (≥T3), however, not on the status of LPLN metastasis in pre-operative evaluation. The present case was cT1, which is not included in this indication. DWI is sensitive for the diagnosis of lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer, although inflammation-induced swelling of lymph nodes in advanced rectal cancer may cause a false-positive result, which is uncommon in T1 cases. Therefore, an LPLN with a high intensity DWI signal in T1 cases is likely to be metastasis-positive. Pre-operative DWI-MRI may be useful for identifying LPLN metastasis when planning the treatment strategy in these cases. The present study suggested reinvestigation of the indication for LPLD with inclusion of LPLN status on pre-operative imaging. PMID:27123286

  12. Automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes using multiple MR sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Michelle; Lu, Yue; Lu, Renzhi; Requardt, Martin; Moeller, Thomas; Takahashi, Satoru; Barentsz, Jelle

    2007-03-01

    A system for automatic detection of pelvic lymph nodes is developed by incorporating complementary information extracted from multiple MR sequences. A single MR sequence lacks sufficient diagnostic information for lymph node localization and staging. Correct diagnosis often requires input from multiple complementary sequences which makes manual detection of lymph nodes very labor intensive. Small lymph nodes are often missed even by highly-trained radiologists. The proposed system is aimed at assisting radiologists in finding lymph nodes faster and more accurately. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such system reported in the literature. A 3-dimensional (3D) MR angiography (MRA) image is employed for extracting blood vessels that serve as a guide in searching for pelvic lymph nodes. Segmentation, shape and location analysis of potential lymph nodes are then performed using a high resolution 3D T1-weighted VIBE (T1-vibe) MR sequence acquired by Siemens 3T scanner. An optional contrast-agent enhanced MR image, such as post ferumoxtran-10 T2*-weighted MEDIC sequence, can also be incorporated to further improve detection accuracy of malignant nodes. The system outputs a list of potential lymph node locations that are overlaid onto the corresponding MR sequences and presents them to users with associated confidence levels as well as their sizes and lengths in each axis. Preliminary studies demonstrates the feasibility of automatic lymph node detection and scenarios in which this system may be used to assist radiologists in diagnosis and reporting.

  13. Lymph node ratio may predict the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in node-positive cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Qiong-Hua; Wu, San-Gang; He, Zhen-Yu; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; You, Ke-Li

    2016-05-17

    The standard treatment for node-positive cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy is pelvic radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy. Given the potential toxicity of postoperative radiotherapy, we used the lymph node ratio (LNR) to assess the benefit of postoperative radiotherapy in lymph node-positive cervical cancer patients. Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database (1988-2010) were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis. A total of 2,269 eligible patients were identified (median follow-up, 78.0 months); 1,863 (82.1%) patients received postoperative radiotherapy. In both univariate and multivariate analysis multivariate analysis, a higher LNR was significantly associated with a poorer outcome. A LNR > 0.16 was associated with poorer cervical cancer-related survival (CCSS) (hazard Ratio [HR] 1.376, confidence interval [CI] 1.082-1.750; P < 0.001) and overall survival (OS) (HR 1.287, CI 1.056-1.569; P = 0.012). Postoperative radiotherapy was only associated with survival benefits in patients with a LNR > 0.16 (CCSS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001) and not in patients with a LNR ≤ 0.16 (CCSS, P = 0.620; OS, P = 0.167); these trends were not affected by number of removed lymph nodes. A higher LNR is associated with a poorer survival in lymph node-positive cervical cancer. The survival benefits of postoperative radiotherapy appear to be limited to patients with a LNR > 0.16. PMID:27105541

  14. A Micro-Grid Simulator Tool (SGridSim) using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) Models

    SciTech Connect

    Udhay Ravishankar; Milos manic

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a micro-grid simulator tool useful for implementing and testing multi-agent controllers (SGridSim). As a common engineering practice it is important to have a tool that simplifies the modeling of the salient features of a desired system. In electric micro-grids, these salient features are the voltage and power distributions within the micro-grid. Current simplified electric power grid simulator tools such as PowerWorld, PowerSim, Gridlab, etc, model only the power distribution features of a desired micro-grid. Other power grid simulators such as Simulink, Modelica, etc, use detailed modeling to accommodate the voltage distribution features. This paper presents a SGridSim micro-grid simulator tool that simplifies the modeling of both the voltage and power distribution features in a desired micro-grid. The SGridSim tool accomplishes this simplified modeling by using Effective Node-to-Node Complex Impedance (EN2NCI) models of components that typically make-up a micro-grid. The term EN2NCI models means that the impedance based components of a micro-grid are modeled as single impedances tied between their respective voltage nodes on the micro-grid. Hence the benefit of the presented SGridSim tool are 1) simulation of a micro-grid is performed strictly in the complex-domain; 2) faster simulation of a micro-grid by avoiding the simulation of detailed transients. An example micro-grid model was built using the SGridSim tool and tested to simulate both the voltage and power distribution features with a total absolute relative error of less than 6%.

  15. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  16. Postlumpectomy Focal Brachytherapy for Simultaneous Treatment of Surgical Cavity and Draining Lymph Nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Hrycushko, Brian A.; Li Shihong; Shi Chengyu; Goins, Beth; Liu Yaxi; Phillips, William T.; Otto, Pamela M.; Bao, Ande

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The primary objective was to investigate a novel focal brachytherapy technique using lipid nanoparticle (liposome)-carried {beta}-emitting radionuclides (rhenium-186 [{sup 186}Re]/rhenium-188 [{sup 188}Re]) to simultaneously treat the postlumpectomy surgical cavity and draining lymph nodes. Methods and Materials: Cumulative activity distributions in the lumpectomy cavity and lymph nodes were extrapolated from small animal imaging and human lymphoscintigraphy data. Absorbed dose calculations were performed for lumpectomy cavities with spherical and ellipsoidal shapes and lymph nodes within human subjects by use of the dose point kernel convolution method. Results: Dose calculations showed that therapeutic dose levels within the lumpectomy cavity wall can cover 2- and 5-mm depths for {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re liposomes, respectively. The absorbed doses at 1 cm sharply decreased to only 1.3% to 3.7% of the doses at 2 mm for {sup 186}Re liposomes and 5 mm for {sup 188}Re liposomes. Concurrently, the draining sentinel lymph nodes would receive a high focal therapeutic absorbed dose, whereas the average dose to 1 cm of surrounding tissue received less than 1% of that within the nodes. Conclusions: Focal brachytherapy by use of {sup 186}Re/{sup 188}Re liposomes was theoretically shown to be capable of simultaneously treating the lumpectomy cavity wall and draining sentinel lymph nodes with high absorbed doses while significantly lowering dose to surrounding healthy tissue. In turn, this allows for dose escalation to regions of higher probability of containing residual tumor cells after lumpectomy while reducing normal tissue complications.

  17. Simple Prediction Model of Axillary Lymph Node Positivity After Analyzing Molecular and Clinical Factors in Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Mi Joo; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hwan; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pretreatment molecular and clinical factors and axillary lymph node metastases in early breast cancer. A total of 367 consecutive breast cancer patients with cT1–2NxM0 who underwent breast conserving surgery and axillary lymph node dissection followed by whole breast irradiation were enrolled. We evaluated the pathologic tumor and node status, tumor differentiation, calcification, and lymphovascular invasion, the status of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), epidermal growth factor receptor 1 (EGFR1), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), the expression of E-cadherin, P53, and Ki-67 index. Totally, 108 (29.4%) of the 367 patients had positive axillary lymph nodes. An increased tumor size (P = 0.024), the presence of lymphovascular invasion (P < 0.001), and Ki-67 index of >20% (P = 0.038) were significantly associated with axillary lymph node metastases on the multivariate analysis. In our study, 86.2% of the patients with all the unfavorable factors had an involvement of axillary nodal metastases, and only 12.2% of the patients with all the favorable predictors had positive axillary nodes. The predictive power was significant on the receiver operating curve (P < 0.001). We found that several factors, such as tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, and the Ki-67 index, are independent factors that predict positive ALNM on multivariate analysis for the patients with cT1–2 breast cancer. Clinicians simply could predict the probability of ALNM after verifying the molecular and clinical factors in early breast cancer. PMID:27196477

  18. The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molestain the southern United States and the related distribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacono, Colette C.; Davern, Tracy R.; Center, Ted D.

    2001-01-01

    The recent introduction of Salvinia molesta constitutes a serious threat to aquatic systems in the warm temperate regions of the United States. Salvinia minima, the only other member of Salviniaceae present in North America, is considered native by current floras. Evidence is presented which suggests that Salvinia minima was also introduced to North America, probably during the late 1920s and early 1930s. Likely sites of introduction and subsequent range expansions are identified. The accidentally introduced salvinia weevil, putatively Cyrtobagous salviniae, was found to occur widely on S. minima in Florida but is not established in other states. The disparate distribution of this Salvinia herbivore may account for the reduced aggressiveness of S. minima in Florida as compared to its troublesome growth in Texas and LOUisiana, where the weevil is not yet known.

  19. Different organic carbon status in soil and its influence on the distribution of 14C-labelled xenobiotics in soil fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnitzler, Frauke; Séquaris, Jean-Marie; Berns, Anne E.; Burauel, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Aggregate size fractionation in combination with chemical extraction was used to assess pesticide interactions with soil organic matter under different soil management practices [1]. In this study, surface area measurements (BET-N2) were established as a method to calculate the distribution of organic carbon (OC) and xenobiotics in clay and combined silt+sand fractions. It was shown that concentrations of OC associated with clay can be determined from linear relationships between OC and mineral specific surface area [2]. Two sets of experiments were conducted with undisturbed soil columns under field-like conditions. In the first set, maize straw was incorporated into the topsoil and after three months incubation the 14C-labelled xenobiotics benazolin or benzo[a]pyrene were applied. The second set was treated equally, but without maize addition. The calculated distribution coefficients Kd indicated a stronger sorption of benzo[a]pyrene than benazolin derivates. Furthermore, the binding capacity for the xenobiotics was higher in the clay than in the silt+sand fraction due to the relative high specific surface area in the clay fraction. Incorporation of maize straw led to a significant retention and decrease of mobility of the acidic benazolin. The hydrophobic benzo[a]pyrene was less affected by the addition of organic amendment and remained in the topsoil. [1] Schnitzler, F., Lavorenti, A., Berns, A.E., Drewes, N., Vereecken, H., Burauel, P., 2007. The influence of maize residues on the mobility and binding of benazolin: Investigating physically extracted soil fractions. Environmental Pollution 147, 4-13. [2] Séquaris, J.-M., Guisado, M., Moreno, C., Burauel, P., Narres, H.-D., Vereecken, H., 2010. Organic carbon fractions in an agricultural topsoil assessed by the determination of the soil mineral surface area. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, in press

  20. Distribution and abundance of anadromous Sea Lamprey Spawners in a fragmented stream: Current status and potential range expansion following barrier removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Gardner, Cory; Coghlan Jr., Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Dams fragment watersheds and prevent anadromous fishes from reaching historic spawning habitat. Sedgeunkedunk Stream, a small tributary to the Penobscot River (Maine), has been the focus of efforts to reestablish marine-freshwater connectivity and restore anadromous fishes via the removal of two barriers to fish migration. Currently, Petromyzon marinus (Sea Lamprey) is the only anadromous fish known to spawn successfully in the stream downstream of the lowermost dam. Here, we describe the distribution and abundance of a spawning population of Sea Lamprey in Sedgeunkedunk Stream, prior to and in anticipation of habitat increase after the completion of one barrier removal. In 2008, we estimated the abundance of Sea Lamprey and its nests using daily stream surveys and an open-population mark-recapture model. We captured 47 Sea Lamprey and implanted each with a PIT tag so that we could track movements and nest associations of individual fish. The spawning migration began on 18 June, and the last living individual was observed on 27 June. We located 31 nests, distributed from head-of-tide to the lowermost dam; no spawners or nests were observed in the tidally influenced zone or upstream of this dam. Mean longevity in the stream and the number of nests attended were correlated with arrival date; early migrants were alive longer and attended more nests than later migrants. Males were more likely to be observed away from a nest, or attending three or more nests, than were females, which attended usually one or two nests. We observed a negative association between nest abundance and substrate cover by fine sediment. Based on their observed movements in the system, and the extent of their habitat use, we anticipate that spawning Sea Lamprey will recolonize formerly inaccessible habitat after dam removals.

  1. Amyloid precursor protein at node of Ranvier modulates nodal formation.

    PubMed

    Xu, De-En; Zhang, Wen-Min; Yang, Zara Zhuyun; Zhu, Hong-Mei; Yan, Ke; Li, Shao; Bagnard, Dominique; Dawe, Gavin S; Ma, Quan-Hong; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP), commonly associated with Alzheimer disease, is upregulated and distributes evenly along the injured axons, and therefore, also known as a marker of demyelinating axonal injury and axonal degeneration. However, the physiological distribution and function of APP along myelinated axons was unknown. We report that APP aggregates at nodes of Ranvier (NOR) in the myelinated central nervous system (CNS) axons but not in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). At CNS NORs, APP expression co-localizes with tenascin-R and is flanked by juxtaparanodal potassium channel expression demonstrating that APP localized to NOR. In APP-knockout (KO) mice, nodal length is significantly increased, while sodium channels are still clustered at NORs. Moreover, APP KO and APP-overexpressing transgenic (APP TG) mice exhibited a decreased and an increased thickness of myelin in spinal cords, respectively, although the changes are limited in comparison to their littermate WT mice. The thickness of myelin in APP KO sciatic nerve also increased in comparison to that in WT mice. Our observations indicate that APP acts as a novel component at CNS NORs, modulating nodal formation and has minor effects in promoting myelination. PMID:25482638

  2. Web Operational Status Boards

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2004-04-16

    Web Operational Status Boards (WebOSB)is a web-based application designed to acquire, display, and update highly dynamic status information between multiple users and jurisdictions. WebOSB is able to disseminate real-time status information—support the timely sharing of information—with constant, dynamic updates via personal computers and the Internet between emergency operations centers (EOCs), incident command centers, and to users outside the EOC who need to know the information (hospitals, shelters, schools). The WebOSB application far exceeds outdated information-sharingmore » methods used by emergency workers: whiteboards, Word and Excel documents, or even locality-specific Web sites. WebOSB’s capabilities include the following elements: - Secure access. Multiple users can access information on WebOSB from any personal computer with Internet access and a secure ID. Privileges are use to control access and distribution of status information and to identify users who are authorized to add or edit information. - Simultaneous update. WebOSB provides options for users to add, display, and update dynamic information simultaneously at all locations involved in the emergency management effort, A single status board can be updated from multiple locations enabling shelters and hospitals to post bed availability or list decontamination capability. - On-the-fly modification. Allowing the definition of an existing status board to be modified on-the-fly can be an asset during an emergency, where information requirements can change quickly. The status board designer feature allows an administrator to quickly define, modi,, add to, and implement new status boards in minutes without needing the help of Web designers and computer programmers. - Publisher/subscriber notification. As a subscriber, each user automatically receives notification of any new information relating to specific status boards. The publisher/subscriber feature automatically notified each user of any

  3. Histological pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients.

    PubMed

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul J; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa P; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa P; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian R; Billings, Steven D

    2016-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathological predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: (1) sheet-like (n=38, 59%); (2) non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); (3) sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); (4) perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%); and (5) rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21 (33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2-5 metastases (P=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. Three (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. Four (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes (1 or 2 versus >2, P<0.0001), age (<70 versus ≥70, P=0.01), sentinel lymph node metastasis pattern (patterns 2-5 versus 1, P=0.02), and immune status (immunocompetent versus suppressed, P=0.03) were independent predictors of outcome, and could be used to stratify Stage III patients into three groups with markedly different outcomes. In Merkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other

  4. Prognostic Nomogram for Prediction of Axillary Pathologic Complete Response After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Cytologically Proven Node-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Ye; Park, Hyung Seok; Kim, Sanghwa; Ryu, Jegyu; Park, Seho; Kim, Seung Il

    2015-10-01

    To develop a nomogram predicting probability of axillary pathologic complete response (pCR) in patients with cytologically proven axillary node-positive breast cancer who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).The current management of axillary intervention in node-positive breast cancer patients who received NAC is axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) regardless of axillary pCR.We reviewed the records of 415 patients with cytologically proven node-positive breast cancer that were treated with NAC followed by surgery between 2008 and 2012 at Severance Hospital, Yonsei University Health System. Baseline patient and tumor characteristics, chemotherapy regimen, and tumor and nodal responses were analyzed. A nomogram was developed using a binary logistic regression model with a training cohort and validated in an independent cohort of 110 patients.Axillary pCR was achieved in 38.8% of the patients who underwent ALND after NAC. Axillary pCR was associated with initial clinical nodal status, negative estrogen receptor status, positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status with trastuzumab, and clinical nodal and tumor responses. A nomogram was developed based on the clinical and statistically significant predictors. It had good discrimination performance (AUC 0.82, 95% CI, 0.78-0.86) and calibration fit. The nomogram was independently validated, indicating the good predictive power of the model (AUC 0.80, 95% CI, 0.72-0.88).Our nomogram might help predict axillary pCR after NAC in patients with initially node-positive breast cancer. Patients with a high probability of achieving axillary pCR could be spared ALND, avoiding postoperative morbidity. PMID:26512562

  5. GAS eleven node thermal model (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Dan

    1988-01-01

    The Eleven Node Thermal Model (GEM) of the Get Away Special (GAS) container was originally developed based on the results of thermal tests of the GAS container. The model was then used in the thermal analysis and design of several NASA/GSFC GAS experiments, including the Flight Verification Payload, the Ultraviolet Experiment, and the Capillary Pumped Loop. The model description details the five cu ft container both with and without an insulated end cap. Mass specific heat values are also given so that transient analyses can be performed. A sample problem for each configuration is included as well so that GEM users can verify their computations. The model can be run on most personal computers with a thermal analyzer solution routine.

  6. Accurate mask model for advanced nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Ndiaye, El Hadji Omar; Mishra, Kushlendra; Paninjath, Sankaranarayanan; Bork, Ingo; Buck, Peter; Toublan, Olivier; Schanen, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    Standard OPC models consist of a physical optical model and an empirical resist model. The resist model compensates the optical model imprecision on top of modeling resist development. The optical model imprecision may result from mask topography effects and real mask information including mask ebeam writing and mask process contributions. For advanced technology nodes, significant progress has been made to model mask topography to improve optical model accuracy. However, mask information is difficult to decorrelate from standard OPC model. Our goal is to establish an accurate mask model through a dedicated calibration exercise. In this paper, we present a flow to calibrate an accurate mask enabling its implementation. The study covers the different effects that should be embedded in the mask model as well as the experiment required to model them.

  7. Lymph Node Macrophages Restrict Murine Cytomegalovirus Dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Davis-Poynter, Nick; Bruce, Kimberley; Lawler, Clara; Dolken, Lars; Mach, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) establish chronic infections that spread from a primary entry site to secondary vascular sites, such as the spleen, and then to tertiary shedding sites, such as the salivary glands. Human CMV (HCMV) is difficult to analyze, because its spread precedes clinical presentation. Murine CMV (MCMV) offers a tractable model. It is hypothesized to spread from peripheral sites via vascular endothelial cells and associated monocytes. However, viral luciferase imaging showed footpad-inoculated MCMV first reaching the popliteal lymph nodes (PLN). PLN colonization was rapid and further spread was slow, implying that LN infection can be a significant bottleneck. Most acutely infected PLN cells were CD169+ subcapsular sinus macrophages (SSM). Replication-deficient MCMV also reached them, indicating direct infection. Many SSM expressed viral reporter genes, but few expressed lytic genes. SSM expressed CD11c, and MCMV with a cre-sensitive fluorochrome switch showed switched infected cells in PLN of CD11c-cre mice but yielded little switched virus. SSM depletion with liposomal clodronate or via a CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor transgene shifted infection to ER-TR7+ stromal cells, increased virus production, and accelerated its spread to the spleen. Therefore, MCMV disseminated via LN, and SSM slowed this spread by shielding permissive fibroblasts and poorly supporting viral lytic replication. IMPORTANCE HCMV chronically infects most people, and it can cause congenital disability and harm the immunocompromised. A major goal of vaccination is to prevent systemic infection. How this is established is unclear. Restriction to humans makes HCMV difficult to analyze. We show that peripheral MCMV infection spreads via lymph nodes. Here, MCMV infected filtering macrophages, which supported virus replication poorly. When these macrophages were depleted, MCMV infected susceptible fibroblasts and spread faster. The capacity of filtering macrophages to limit

  8. Esophageal Microperforation due to Calcified Mediastinal Lymph Node Leading to Tracheoesophageal Fistula.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Sankalp; Schrickel, E Brooke; Siddiqui, Fayez; O'Brien, John; Kruer, James

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old male presented with worsening gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and cough. The clinical symptoms during the early course of illness were striking for aspiration pneumonia. He was given a prescription of proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Rapid decline in the clinical condition with worsening respiratory status was noted. Worsening symptoms of fever, cough, and chest pain prompted further diagnostic work-up suggesting esophageal microperforation. Esophagogram was found to be suggestive of tracheoesophageal fistula. The tracheoesophageal fistula was due to subcarinal lymph node of nontuberculous origin. PMID:27366334

  9. Esophageal Microperforation due to Calcified Mediastinal Lymph Node Leading to Tracheoesophageal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Schrickel, E. Brooke; Siddiqui, Fayez; O'Brien, John; Kruer, James

    2016-01-01

    A 42-year-old male presented with worsening gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and cough. The clinical symptoms during the early course of illness were striking for aspiration pneumonia. He was given a prescription of proton pump inhibitors and antibiotics. Rapid decline in the clinical condition with worsening respiratory status was noted. Worsening symptoms of fever, cough, and chest pain prompted further diagnostic work-up suggesting esophageal microperforation. Esophagogram was found to be suggestive of tracheoesophageal fistula. The tracheoesophageal fistula was due to subcarinal lymph node of nontuberculous origin. PMID:27366334

  10. Identification of hybrid node and link communities in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dongxiao; Jin, Di; Chen, Zheng; Zhang, Weixiong

    2015-03-01

    Identifying communities in complex networks is an effective means for analyzing complex systems, with applications in diverse areas such as social science, engineering, biology and medicine. Finding communities of nodes and finding communities of links are two popular schemes for network analysis. These schemes, however, have inherent drawbacks and are inadequate to capture complex organizational structures in real networks. We introduce a new scheme and an effective approach for identifying complex mixture structures of node and link communities, called hybrid node-link communities. A central piece of our approach is a probabilistic model that accommodates node, link and hybrid node-link communities. Our extensive experiments on various real-world networks, including a large protein-protein interaction network and a large network of semantically associated words, illustrated that the scheme for hybrid communities is superior in revealing network characteristics. Moreover, the new approach outperformed the existing methods for finding node or link communities separately.

  11. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  12. Nanoparticle transport from mouse vagina to adjacent lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ballou, Byron; Andreko, Susan K; Osuna-Highley, Elvira; McRaven, Michael; Catalone, Tina; Bruchez, Marcel P; Hope, Thomas J; Labib, Mohamed E

    2012-01-01

    To test the feasibility of localized intravaginal therapy directed to neighboring lymph nodes, the transport of quantum dots across the vaginal wall was investigated. Quantum dots instilled into the mouse vagina were transported across the vaginal mucosa into draining lymph nodes, but not into distant nodes. Most of the particles were transported to the lumbar nodes; far fewer were transported to the inguinal nodes. A low level of transport was evident at 4 hr after intravaginal instillation, and transport peaked at about 36 hr after instillation. Transport was greatly enhanced by prior vaginal instillation of Nonoxynol-9. Hundreds of micrograms of nanoparticles/kg tissue (ppb) were found in the lumbar lymph nodes at 36 hr post-instillation. Our results imply that targeted transport of microbicides or immunogens from the vagina to local lymph organs is feasible. They also offer an in vivo model for assessing the toxicity of compounds intended for intravaginal use. PMID:23284844