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Sample records for nodular trombiculinosis caused

  1. Nodular fasciitis causing unilateral proptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, R H; Ramani, P S; McAllister, V; Kalbag, R M; Kanagasundaram, C R

    1975-01-01

    A case report of an unusual case of nodular fasciitis in the orbit presenting with unilateral proptosis is described, and the radiological features are outlined. The histological features are discussed and the benign nature of the lesion stressed. Nodular fasciitis arising in the orbit and presenting as unilateral proptosis has not previously been reported in the literature. Images PMID:1060468

  2. FLNA genomic rearrangements cause periventricular nodular heterotopia

    PubMed Central

    Clapham, K.R.; Yu, T.W.; Ganesh, V.S.; Barry, B.; Chan, Y.; Mei, D.; Parrini, E.; Funalot, B.; Dupuis, L.; Nezarati, M.M.; du Souich, C.; van Karnebeek, C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify copy number variant (CNV) causes of periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) in patients for whom FLNA sequencing is negative. Methods: Screening of 35 patients from 33 pedigrees on an Affymetrix 6.0 microarray led to the identification of one individual bearing a CNV that disrupted FLNA. FLNA-disrupting CNVs were also isolated in 2 other individuals by multiplex ligation probe amplification. These 3 cases were further characterized by high-resolution oligo array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), and the precise junctional breakpoints of the rearrangements were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing. Results: We report 3 cases of PNH caused by nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements that disrupt one copy of FLNA. The first individual carried a 113-kb deletion that removes all but the first exon of FLNA. A second patient harbored a complex rearrangement including a deletion of the 3′ end of FLNA accompanied by a partial duplication event. A third patient bore a 39-kb deletion encompassing all of FLNA and the neighboring gene EMD. High-resolution oligo array CGH of the FLNA locus suggests distinct molecular mechanisms for each of these rearrangements, and implicates nearby low copy repeats in their pathogenesis. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that FLNA is prone to pathogenic rearrangements, and highlight the importance of screening for CNVs in individuals with PNH lacking FLNA point mutations. Neurology® 2012;78:269–278 PMID:22238415

  3. Rare cause of pleural nodularity: Splenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gezer, Suat; Gülhan, S. S. Erkmen; Altinok, Tamer; Agaçkiran, Yetkin; Tastepe, A. Irfan

    2006-01-01

    Splenosis is a rare condition described as ectopic splenic tissue implantation generally after a splenic rupture. A 35-year-old male patient who had a history of splenectomy operation due to gunshot wound seven years ago was referred to our hospital with complaints, including exhaustion, sweating and shortness of breath. Thoracic computed tomography of the patient showed nodular pleural thickenings at the level of the left lower lobe, which proved to be unrelated with the presenting symptoms. The patient underwent a minithoracotomy for diagnosis and treatment. During the intraoperative observation, dark-colored, soft, multiple nodular lesions with a biggest size of 2 cm inside the visceral pleura over an area of 5 x 10 cm in dimension were observed. Also, a few tiny nodules in the lung parenchyma approximately 1-cm deep to the pleural nodules were palpated. The lesions were excised. The histopathological examination of the specimen showed splenic tissue in the lung parenchyma and pleura, so the lesions were accepted as splenosis. Pleuropulmonary splenosis, which develops generally after simultaneous rupture of the diaphragma and spleen, is a very rare condition. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and the lesions are detected accidentally. If the diagnosis can be made preoperatively, surgical excision is not needed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16916134

  4. Benign nodular hepatocellular lesions caused by abnormal hepatic circulation: etiological analysis and introduction of a new concept.

    PubMed

    Kondo, F

    2001-12-01

    Problems in definitive diagnosis and etiology of various benign nodular hepatocellular lesions were evaluated. Of these lesions, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH), nodular lesions associated with idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH), non-cirrhotic large regenerative nodules (LRN), hepatocellular adenoma (HA)-like hyperplastic nodules, and partial nodular transformation (PNT) have been suggested to be related to abnormal hepatic circulation. However, the following points are considered to need further clarification: (i) is the abnormal circulation caused by thrombosis, vasculitis, or congenital anomaly?; (ii) is thrombosis a cause or a result of congestion?; (iii) are impaired blood vessels primarily the portal veins or arteries?; (iv) how are these disorders related to various syndromes, immunological abnormalities and abnormal blood flow of other organs, which are reported to coexist with these lesions often?; and (v) how should non-typical cases, which differ from typical cases, be interpreted? In addition, a concept that may lead to solving these problems (anomalous portal tract syndrome; a hypothesis that congenital vascular anomaly is the origin of these benign nodular hepatocellular lesions) was introduced. PMID:11851827

  5. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia: Evolving concepts on underdiagnosed cause of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hartleb, Marek; Gutkowski, Krzysztof; Milkiewicz, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is a rare liver condition characterized by a widespread benign transformation of the hepatic parenchyma into small regenerative nodules. NRH may lead to the development of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. There are no published systematic population studies on NRH and our current knowledge is limited to case reports and case series. NRH may develop via autoimmune, hematological, infectious, neoplastic, or drug-related causes. The disease is usually asymptomatic, slowly or non-progressive unless complications of portal hypertension develop. Accurate diagnosis is made by histopathology, which demonstrates diffuse micronodular transformation without fibrous septa. Lack of perinuclear collagen tissue distinguishes NRH from typical regenerative nodules in the cirrhotic liver. While the initial treatment is to address the underlying disease, ultimately the therapy is directed to the management of portal hypertension. The prognosis of NRH depends on both the severity of the underlying illness and the prevention of secondary complications of portal hypertension. In this review we detail the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of NRH. PMID:21472097

  6. A glial origin for periventricular nodular heterotopia caused by impaired expression of Filamin-A.

    PubMed

    Carabalona, Aurelie; Beguin, Shirley; Pallesi-Pocachard, Emilie; Buhler, Emmanuelle; Pellegrino, Christophe; Arnaud, Karen; Hubert, Philippe; Oualha, Mehdi; Siffroi, Jean Pierre; Khantane, Sabrina; Coupry, Isabelle; Goizet, Cyril; Gelot, Antoinette Bernabe; Represa, Alfonso; Cardoso, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PH) is a human brain malformation caused by defective neuronal migration that results in ectopic neuronal nodules lining the lateral ventricles beneath a normal appearing cortex. Most affected patients have seizures and their cognitive level varies from normal to severely impaired. Mutations in the Filamin-A (or FLNA) gene are the main cause of PH, but the underlying pathological mechanism remains unknown. Although two FlnA knockout mouse strains have been generated, none of them showed the presence of ectopic nodules. To recapitulate the loss of FlnA function in the developing rat brain, we used an in utero RNA interference-mediated knockdown approach and successfully reproduced a PH phenotype in rats comparable with that observed in human patients. In FlnA-knockdown rats, we report that PH results from a disruption of the polarized radial glial scaffold in the ventricular zone altering progression of neural progenitors through the cell cycle and impairing migration of neurons into the cortical plate. Similar alterations of radial glia are observed in human PH brains of a 35-week fetus and a 3-month-old child, harboring distinct FLNA mutations not previously reported. Finally, juvenile FlnA-knockdown rats are highly susceptible to seizures, confirming the reliability of this novel animal model of PH. Our findings suggest that the disorganization of radial glia is the leading cause of PH pathogenesis associated with FLNA mutations. Rattus norvegicus FlnA mRNA (GenBank accession number FJ416060). PMID:22076441

  7. A de novo frameshift in HNRNPK causing a Kabuki-like syndrome with nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Lange, L; Pagnamenta, A T; Lise, S; Clasper, S; Stewart, H; Akha, E S; Quaghebeur, G; Knight, S J L; Keays, D A; Taylor, J C; Kini, U

    2016-09-01

    Kabuki syndrome is a heterogeneous condition characterized by distinctive facial features, intellectual disability, growth retardation, skeletal abnormalities and a range of organ malformations. Although at least two major causative genes have been identified, these do not explain all cases. Here we describe a patient with a complex Kabuki-like syndrome that included nodular heterotopia, in whom testing for several single-gene disorders had proved negative. Exome sequencing uncovered a de novo c.931_932insTT variant in HNRNPK (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K). Although this variant was identified in March 2012, its clinical relevance could only be confirmed following the August 2015 publication of two cases with HNRNPK mutations and an overlapping phenotype that included intellectual disability, distinctive facial dysmorphism and skeletal/connective tissue abnormalities. Whilst we had attempted (unsuccessfully) to identify additional cases through existing collaborators, the two published cases were 'matched' using GeneMatcher, a web-based tool for connecting researchers and clinicians working on identical genes. Our report therefore exemplifies the importance of such online tools in clinical genetics research and the benefits of periodically reviewing cases with variants of unproven significance. Our study also suggests that loss of function variants in HNRNPK should be considered as a molecular basis for patients with Kabuki-like syndrome. PMID:26954065

  8. Cystic and nodular lung disease.

    PubMed

    Richards, J Caleb; Lynch, David A; Chung, Jonathan H

    2015-06-01

    Diffuse cystic and nodular lung diseases have characteristic imaging findings. The most common causes of cystic lung disease are lymphangioleiomyomatosis and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Other less common cystic lung diseases include Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis, and light chain deposition disease. Computed tomography is used to differentiate cystic lung disease from emphysema, honeycombing, cavities, and bronchiectasis, which mimic cystic lung disease. Diffuse nodular lung disease are categorized as centrilobular, perilymphatic, and random types. In diffuse nodular lung disease, a specific diagnosis is achieved through a combination of history, physical examination, and imaging findings. PMID:26024606

  9. Epibulbar Nodular Fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Massop, David John; Frederick, Paul Adam; Li, He J.; Lin, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To report a case of epibulbar nodular fasciitis in a 32-year-old female and provide context by reviewing the current literature. Results Using excisional biopsy, the patient was successfully diagnosed and treated for epibulbar nodular fasciitis. Upon follow-up, there has been no recurrence, consistent with the typical course for nodular fasciitis. Conclusions Epibulbar nodular fasciitis is a rare process that can be successfully treated by surgical resection. While two cases of trauma-associated epibulbar nodular fasciitis have been present in the literature, our case did not have such a history. The etiology of nodular fasciitis remains unclear. PMID:27462253

  10. Salzmann's Nodular Degeneration.

    PubMed

    Maharana, Prafulla K; Sharma, Namrata; Das, Sujata; Agarwal, Tushar; Sen, Seema; Prakash, Gaurav; Vajpayee, Rasik B

    2016-01-01

    Salzmann's nodular degeneration (SND) is a rare, noninflammatory, slowly progressive degenerative disease of the cornea that is characterized by the appearance of nodular bluish gray opacities that vary in number and size. It is usually bilateral; most commonly occurring in people aged 50-60 years old, with a female preponderance; and often associated with a history of prior corneal inflammation. The clinical features usually depend on the location of the nodules. Generally, the nodules of SND are bluish white to gray in color, 1-2 mm in size, and round, conical or prismatic in shape. The overlying Bowman's layer is usually absent from the nodular areas and is partially replaced by granular Periodic Acid Schiff-positive eosinophilic material resembling the basement membrane. Diagnostic investigations include ultrasonic pachymetry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, ultrasound biomicroscopy, and confocal microscopy. The majority of patients respond well to conservative management with topical lubricants; severe cases may require surgical intervention. The various surgical modalities described include superficial keratectomy, which may be combined with phototherapeutic keratectomy and keratoplasty. Various modifications of these procedures include the use of alcohol-assisted epithelial delamination, intraoperative mitomycin-C or amniotic membrane transplantation to make the procedure easy, reduce the risk of recurrence and improve postoperative comfort. Recurrences are rarely reported; overall, the visual prognosis following treatment is optimal. PMID:26462409

  11. A case of nodular scleroderma.

    PubMed

    Melani, Lucilla; Caproni, Marzia; Cardinali, Carla; Antiga, Emiliano; Bernacchi, Elisabetta; Schincaglia, Emiliano; Fabbri, Paolo

    2005-12-01

    Nodular scleroderma is a rare complication of systemic sclerosis; the pathogenetic implications are still unknown, although many factors are supposed to play a role in lesion development. We report the case of a young woman suffering from systemic sclerosis, who developed nodular lesions during therapeutic management with D-penicillamine and plasmapheresis. In order to better understand the essence of this disease, we examined all the possible pathogenetic mechanisms that could be implicated in nodular lesion development. PMID:16471471

  12. Nodular purpura in infancy

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, N. A.; Al-Dubooni, H. M.; Al-Shirkat, S. A. R.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen infants with nodular purpura are reported. All these infants suffered from a coagulation abnormality due to vitamin K deficiency. Contributing factors were breast-feeding, the use of milk substitutes, diarrhoea and antimicrobial therapy. The patients responded rapidly and completely to parenteral vitamin K. In the management of infantile diarrhoea use of antibiotics should be restricted to specific bacteriologically proven cases. Vitamin K administration is suggested in infants with prolonged gastroenteritis and limited milk intake and particularly those receiving antibiotics. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:7111112

  13. Nodular panniculitis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Baker, B B; Stannard, A A

    1975-10-15

    Nodular panniculitis, a granulomatous inflammatory disease of the subcutaneous fat, was diagnosed in 11 dogs. Clinically, the disease was characterized by development of subcutaneous nodules and intermittent fever and anorexia. Short-term corticosteroid therapy was effective in 10 of the 11 dogs. PMID:1237484

  14. Single Nodular Pulmonary Amyloidosis: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Young Chun; Jeong, Jong Pil; Park, Chan Woo; Seo, Seok Ho; Kim, Jong Taek; Park, Dae Won; Bak, Cheol Min; Moon, Seung Ki; Jo, Shin Hyoung; Kim, Se Mi; Jung, Ah Lon

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis is defined as the presence of extra-cellular deposits of an insoluble fibrillar protein, amyloid. The pulmonary involvement of amyloidosis is usually classified as tracheobronchial, parenchymal nodular, or diffuse alveolar septal. A single nodular lesion can mimic various conditions, including malignancy, pulmonary tuberculosis, and fungal infection. To date, only one case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis has been reported in Korea, a case involving multiple nodular lesions. Here, we report and discuss the case of a patient having single nodular amyloidosis. PMID:26508930

  15. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Mullick, F G; Ishak, K G

    1991-05-01

    Sixteen cases of nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver in children are presented. The patients, 10 girls and 6 boys, were between the ages of 7 months and 13 years, with a median of 6 years. Clinically, nine children presented with hepatomegaly or splenomegaly, with and without signs of portal hypertension. A history of anticonvulsant drug therapy was obtained in four patients. Associated conditions in the remaining three cases were Donohue's syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and angiomyolipoma of the kidney. In five patients a clinical diagnosis of primary intra-abdominal tumor was made. Follow-up showed that six patients died of causes unrelated to the nodular hyperplasia. Two patients were asymptomatic when last seen 5 and 18 years after the initial diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia. Both patients underwent shunt surgery. No follow-up was available for eight patients. The importance of recognizing this entity in the pediatric age group, as well as its histopathologic differential diagnosis, is stressed. PMID:2035739

  16. [Nodular regenerative hyperplasia following liver tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Boursier, Jérôme; Foulet, Armelle; Pilette, Christophe

    2005-10-01

    We reported a case of nodular regenerative hyperplasia revealed by hemorrhage from portal hypertention and ascites in a 81 years old patient. This patient presented two years ago hepatic tuberculosis well documented by liver biopsy. If this patient do not have exhaustive etiologic research of nodular regenerative hyperplasia, the relationship between the tuberculosis infection and the developpement of this nodular regenerative hyperplasia appears highly probable and must be researched. PMID:16435515

  17. Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: a benign etiology on the differential diagnosis of malignant gastric outlet obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Coben, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a relatively rare, benign and proliferative lesion that is not typically found in the retroperitoneal (RP) space and has not been previously reported as a cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). GOOs are frequently associated with malignancies, however, benign etiologies should be considered as well. We report the first case of GOO secondary to nodular fasciitis in the form of a spontaneously regressing RP mass that was initially concerning for malignancy. PMID:25830048

  18. Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: a benign etiology on the differential diagnosis of malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kistler, C Andrew; Jiang, Wei; Coben, Robert M

    2015-04-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a relatively rare, benign and proliferative lesion that is not typically found in the retroperitoneal (RP) space and has not been previously reported as a cause of gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). GOOs are frequently associated with malignancies, however, benign etiologies should be considered as well. We report the first case of GOO secondary to nodular fasciitis in the form of a spontaneously regressing RP mass that was initially concerning for malignancy. PMID:25830048

  19. Nodular renal blastoma in kidney with multicystic dysplasia. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Corsi, A; Boldrini, R; Caione, P; Bosman, C

    1995-04-01

    The clinico-pathologic association of nodular renal blastema, multicystic kidney and obstructive uropathy has been recently identified. We report on a female patient diagnosed as having unilater multicystic dysplasia by prenatal ultrasonography. The patient was nephrectomized at the age of 6 1/2 months. Examination of the resected kidney revealed multiple unilocular cysts in the cortex and hypoplasia of the homolateral ureter; histological study confirmed the presence of multiple cysts limited to the renal cortex, and revealed, among them, multiple cortical metanephric blastema cells islands. Our case supports a relationship between nodular renal blastema, cortical cysts and obstructive uropathy; ureter hypoplasia could cause intraluminal back pressure, with consequent abnormal development of the ampullae, normally endowed in nephronic anlagens induction, cystic tubular ectasia and persistence of nodular renal blastema. The peripheral location of renal nodular blastema and cysts supports a late error in nephrogenesis, at the time of formation of the last generation of nephrons. PMID:8532415

  20. Epidemiology of nodular goitre. Influence of iodine intake.

    PubMed

    Carlé, Allan; Krejbjerg, Anne; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-08-01

    More than one tenth of the world population is to some degree affected by goitre and most of these harbour nodules. The large differences in thyroid disease prevalence between populations may be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Among the latter, iodine deficiency seems by far to be the most important risk factor. Thus, nodular goitre is a condition predominantly seen in iodine deficient areas of the world. In the present review, we evaluated in detail autopsy and ultrasound studies of the thyroid gland. In autopsy studies, large thyroid volumes and high frequencies of goitres have been reported in countries affected by iodine deficiency. Many cross-sectional studies using thyroid ultrasound investigations have been performed world-wide and reported high thyroid volumes and goitre prevalences, and to some extent also high prevalences of thyroid nodules in iodine-deficient countries. Most of these goitres were classified as nodular goitres. On the other hand, few studies have shown that abundant iodine intake may lead to development of diffuse goitres, but world-wide this has been a minor problem compared with development of nodular goitres. In the past century we have observed a trend towards smaller thyroid glands, and hopefully less than 10% of the world population will experience goitre within a few decades. PMID:25047199

  1. Nodular fasciitis with degeneration and regression.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Akihiro; Okada, Hideki

    2008-07-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign reactive proliferation that is frequently misdiagnosed as a sarcoma. This article describes a case of nodular fasciitis of 6-month duration located in the cheek, which degenerated and spontaneously regressed after biopsy. The nodule was fixed to the zygoma but was free from the overlying skin. The mass was 3.0 cm in diameter and demonstrated high signal intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. A small part of the lesion was biopsied. Pathological and immunohistochemical examinations identified the nodule as nodular fasciitis with myxoid histology. One month after the biopsy, the mass showed decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted images and measured 2.2 cm in size. The signal on T2-weighted images showed time-dependent decreases, and the mass continued to reduce in size throughout the follow-up period. The lesion presented as hypointense to the surrounding muscles on T2-weighted images and was 0.4 cm in size at 2 years of follow-up. This case demonstrates that nodular fasciitis with myxoid histology can change to that with fibrous appearance gradually with time, thus bringing about spontaneous regression. Degeneration may be involved in the spontaneous regression of nodular fasciitis with myxoid appearance. The mechanism of regression, unclarified at present, should be further studied. PMID:18650753

  2. [Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: analysis of a case].

    PubMed

    Fabbro, M A; Costa, L; Cimaglia, M L; Donadio, P; Spata, E; Dante, S

    1995-01-01

    A case of nodular fasciitis occurring in a 14-year-old girl is described and the clinical-pathological profile and the diagnostic problems are analyzed. The Authors believe this report useful to be reported for the relative rarity of the disease, especially in children, the very great dimension and the unusual retroperitoneal localization. PMID:8685002

  3. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient*

    PubMed Central

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; de Brito, Arival Cardoso; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  4. Nodular tertiary syphilis in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Maraya de Jesus Semblano; Brito, Arival Cardoso de; Nascimento, Bianca Angelina Macêdodo; Carvalho, Alessandra Haber; Drago, Marion Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Acquired syphilis can be divided into primary, secondary, latent, and tertiary stages. About 25% of patients with untreated primary syphilis will develop late signs that generally occur after three to five years, with involvement of several organs. The authors present an immunocompetent female who developed a tertiary stage syphilis presenting with long-standing nodular plaques. PMID:27579755

  5. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kerry J; Mottok, Anja; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation. Given disease rarity, the optimal management is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to or differ from those for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). This review provides an overview of the existing literature describing pathological subtypes, outcome and treatment approaches for NLPHL. PMID:27496311

  6. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis associated with asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Hiroshima, K; Ohwada, H; Ishibashi, M; Yamamoto, N; Tamiya, N; Yamaguchi, Y

    1996-01-01

    A 71 year old man was admitted for the purpose of diagnosis of a right solitary pulmonary nodule. The size of the nodule was 18 x 18 mm in diameter 2 years ago, but it has become large, 25 x 25 mm in diameter. The nodule was resected by thoracotomy. Microscopically, eosinophilic amorphous, acellular substances were surrounded by inflammatory infiltrates. It stained with Congo red stain and showed green birefringence with polarizing microscopy. Amyloid fibrils were observed electron microscopically. Asbestos bodies were observed in the lung parenchyma around the nodule. This case shows that a nodule in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis can grow gradually and suggests the possibility of asbestos fibers as one of the etiologic factors in nodular pulmonary amyloidosis. PMID:10846552

  7. Nodular secondary syphilis in a woman.

    PubMed

    Glatz, M; Achermann, Y; Kerl, K; Bosshard, P P; Cozzio, A

    2013-01-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman with symmetrically distributed, ulcerated nodules and plaques on the face, neck and arms. Initial differential diagnoses included pyoderma or sarcoidosis based on the clinical presentation and histopathology with non-caseating granulomas. After inefficient treatment with topical and systemic fusidic acid and steroids, we diagnosed nodular secondary syphilis owing to positive serology and immunohistochemical staining of Treponema pallidum in lesional skin. After treatment with benzathine penicillin, skin lesions improved and antibody titres declined significantly within 3 months. Nodular skin lesions in secondary syphilis are rare with 15 reported cases within the last 20 years. Furthermore, the granulomatous histology is often misleading. Our patient's case suggests that the physicians should be aware of syphilis as a possible differential diagnosis also in patients outside a high-risk population for sexually transmitted diseases and with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:23661656

  8. Directional Solidification of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Hendrix, J. C.

    1987-01-01

    Cerium enhances formation of graphite nodules. Preliminary experiments in directional solidification of cast iron shows quantitative correlation of graphite microstructure with growth rate and thermal gradient, with sufficient spheroidizing element to form spheroidal graphite under proper thermal conditions. Experimental approach enables use of directional solidification to study solidification of spheriodal-graphite cast iron in low gravity. Possible to form new structural materials from nodular cast iron.

  9. Unusual late nodular presentation of secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Lanjouw, E; van der Meijden, W I; den Hollander, J C; Neumann, H A M

    2009-04-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with a five-week history of an eruption of papules and nodules disseminated over his body and face. We propose that this patient has a late form of secondary syphilis with a nodular, granulomatous inflammation in urgent need of treatment. Otherwise late irreversible sequelae could develop and unwanted possible further sexual transmission could take place. PMID:19304976

  10. Nodular amyloidosis at the sites of insulin injections.

    PubMed

    Bernárdez, Claudia; Schärer, Leo; Molina-Ruiz, Ana María; Requena, Luis

    2015-07-01

    Amyloid is characterized by its fibrillary ultrastructure, and more than 20 proteins have been described to date as possible precursors. Among them, insulin and enfuvirtide represent the only medications described as amyloidogenic substances. We describe two diabetic patients, who were undergoing long-standing subcutaneous insulin treatment, who developed subcutaneous nodules at the sites of insulin injections. Histopathologic examination showed the presence of eosinophilic and amorphous masses in deep dermis, which stained positive with Congo red, amyloid P substance and anti-human insulin antibody. Whether the type of injected insulin played a role or not in the pathogenesis of the process is still uncertain, because all described patients used both fast-acting and slow-acting insulins at the same injection sites. Our second case showed nodular insulin-derived amyloid tumors only at the sites where exclusively fast-acting insulin was injected, which supports the notion that fast-acting insulin may also be the cause of this disorder. Insulin-derived nodular amyloidosis is probably underdiagnosed because of the small body of literature in comparison with the prevalence of insulin dependent diabetic patients. This underdiagnosis probably is because of its clinical similarity with the lesions of lipohypertrophy at the sites of insulin injections, which is rarely biopsied. PMID:25953111

  11. Therapeutic considerations for severe nodular acne.

    PubMed

    Newman, Marissa D; Bowe, Whitney P; Heughebaert, Carol; Shalita, Alan R

    2011-02-01

    Severe nodular acne, defined as grade 4 or 5 acne on the Investigator's Static Global Assessment scale, is a skin condition characterized by intense erythema, inflammation, nodules, cysts, and scarring. Both the well known risk of physical scarring and the more recent recognition that acne can be a chronic, psychologically distressing disease with significant adverse effects on a patient's quality of life, have prompted earlier, more aggressive treatment with more effective medications, in the hope of preventing progression to more severe, nodular forms of the disease. Oral antibacterials, primarily tetracyclines, have long been the first-line therapy for severe nodular acne, which frequently remained refractory to therapy. However, concerns of antibacterial adverse effects, patient adherence, and antimicrobial resistance prompted the search for alternate therapies and combinations thereof in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease. Isotretinoin, an oral retinoid introduced in 1982, has since become the gold standard therapy in severe acne and has revolutionized its treatment. Several adjunctive agents exist. Oral antibacterials are indicated as an alternative for patients with severe acne who cannot tolerate oral retinoids, or for whom a contraindication exists. In order to prevent bacterial resistance, antibacterials should always be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide, a nonantibiotic antimicrobial agent with anti-inflammatory activity. Topical retinoids are often added to this regimen. In women, hormonal agents, which include oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and oral corticosteroids, and, in Europe, cyproterone acetate, may be used as monotherapy or concomitantly with isotretinoin. For rapid treatment of inflammatory nodules, intralesional corticosteroids are effective. These treatment modalities have been studied, refined, and combined in novel ways in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease, and in this

  12. Nodular amyloidosis derived from keratinocytes: an unusual type of primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Kristine M; Lagana, Frances J; Deng, April

    2015-11-01

    Primary, localized cutaneous amyloidosis includes macular, lichen, and nodular (tumefactive) types in which the amyloid deposits are limited to the dermis without systemic involvement. The material in lichen and macular amyloidosis is derived from epidermal keratinocytes [keratinocyte-derived amyloid (AK)], whereas that in nodular amyloidosis is derived from immunoglobulin light-chains amyloid (AL). Primary, localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (PLCNA) is a form of primary, localized cutaneous amyloidosis that has been associated with a risk of progression to systemic amyloidosis. We report an unusual case of nodular AK-type amyloid deposited in the dermis of the feet. The patient is a 60-year-old woman with asymptomatic verrucoid-like lesions present around the medial and lateral aspects of the bilateral heels for 1-2 years. A biopsy showed massive deposition of eosinophilic amorphous material in the papillary and reticular dermis. The material stained positive for Congo red with apple-green birefringence on polarized light. It was also positive for pan-cytokeratin and negative for kappa and lambda light-chain immunostains. An extensive workup was negative for systemic involvement. Lipid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry confirmed that the deposition was AK-type amyloid. We believe that this is the first case of PLCNA with AK deposition. This entity should be included in the differential diagnosis of PLCNA so that an extensive systemic workup may be avoided. PMID:26485243

  13. Nodular fasciitis on temple area resulting in surgical trauma.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hwan Jun; Jung, Kyu Hwa; Lee, Hyun Ju

    2014-11-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a pseudosarcomatous reactive proliferative lesion that commonly occurs as a solitary, well-circumscribed, painful, rapidly growing soft tissue mass. It appears at any age, but incidence peaks in the third decade, with a slight predilection for women. It is most commonly located on the extremities, followed by the chest and trunk. Although a common site in the pediatric population, NF is found on the head and neck only in 7% to 20% in the adult population and includes the cheek, parotid region, zygoma, periorbital area, eyelid, forehead, and intraoral sites. The cause of NF is unknown, but an association with trauma may be present. A case of NF over the temple area in a 28-year-old man who has no trauma history but has surgical incisional biopsy history and tenderness on palpation is reported. PMID:25364967

  14. Massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast arising simultaneously in the axilla and vulva.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Adrienne C; Jaffer, Shabnam; Mercer, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    The authors describe a 52-year-old woman with a history of bilateral mastectomies for macromastia caused by massive nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), who presented with 2 large growths in her left axilla and groin. These masses had been increasing in size for nearly a year. When excised, the axillary mass had dimensions of 14.0 × 14.0 × 5.5 cm(3) and weighed 664 g. The groin mass was slightly smaller at 14.5 × 11.0 × 5.0 cm(3) and 518 g. Microscopic examination of both masses revealed breast tissue expanded by a hyalinized stroma with prominent slit-like pseudovascular spaces, consistent with PASH. Small incidental foci of PASH are common findings in breast excisions; however, large nodular foci are rare. Furthermore, nodular foci in accessory breast tissue are exceedingly rarer and can raise clinical concerns for malignancy. Histopathologically, PASH can be mistaken for low-grade angiosarcoma. To the authors' knowledge, the present case appears to be the first description of multiple simultaneous foci of massive nodular PASH arising in accessory breast tissue. PMID:21285079

  15. Nodular Scleritis Associated with Herpes Zoster Virus: An Infectious and Immune-Mediated Process.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Mónica; Rothwell, Renata; Fonseca, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a case of anterior nodular scleritis, preceded by an anterior hypertensive uveitis, which was primarily caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Case Report. A 54-year-old woman presented with anterior uveitis of the right eye presumably caused by herpetic viral disease and was successfully treated. Two months later, she developed a nodular scleritis and started oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory without effect. A complete laboratory workup revealed positivity for HLA-B27; the infectious workup was negative. Therapy was changed to oral prednisolone and an incomplete improvement occurred. Therefore, a diagnostic anterior paracentesis was performed and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed VZV. She was treated with valacyclovir and the oral prednisolone began to decrease; however, a marked worsening of the scleritis occurred with the reduction of the daily dose; subsequently, methotrexate was introduced allowing the suspension of the prednisolone and led to clinical resolution of the scleritis. Conclusion. This report of anterior nodular scleritis caused by VZV argues in favor of an underlying immune-mediated component, requiring immunosuppressive therapy for clinical resolution. The PCR analysis of the aqueous humor was revealed to be a valuable technique and should be considered in cases of scleritis with poor response to treatment. PMID:27298747

  16. Nodular Scleritis Associated with Herpes Zoster Virus: An Infectious and Immune-Mediated Process

    PubMed Central

    Loureiro, Mónica; Rothwell, Renata; Fonseca, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To describe a case of anterior nodular scleritis, preceded by an anterior hypertensive uveitis, which was primarily caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Case Report. A 54-year-old woman presented with anterior uveitis of the right eye presumably caused by herpetic viral disease and was successfully treated. Two months later, she developed a nodular scleritis and started oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory without effect. A complete laboratory workup revealed positivity for HLA-B27; the infectious workup was negative. Therapy was changed to oral prednisolone and an incomplete improvement occurred. Therefore, a diagnostic anterior paracentesis was performed and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis revealed VZV. She was treated with valacyclovir and the oral prednisolone began to decrease; however, a marked worsening of the scleritis occurred with the reduction of the daily dose; subsequently, methotrexate was introduced allowing the suspension of the prednisolone and led to clinical resolution of the scleritis. Conclusion. This report of anterior nodular scleritis caused by VZV argues in favor of an underlying immune-mediated component, requiring immunosuppressive therapy for clinical resolution. The PCR analysis of the aqueous humor was revealed to be a valuable technique and should be considered in cases of scleritis with poor response to treatment. PMID:27298747

  17. Nodular Fasciitis of the Chest in a Young Woman

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hong Joo; Ryu, Sang Wan; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Dong Hun; Kim, Hyung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign reactive proliferation that usually involves the deep fascia. Although it is relatively common in the adult population, it is often misdiagnosed as sarcoma due to its rapid growth and pathological features. It rarely presents as a chest wall tumor in young patients. Here, we report a case of nodular fasciitis involving the chest wall of an 18-year-old woman and its surgical management. This case underscores the need to consider nodular fasciitis in the differential diagnosis of chest wall tumors in young patients. PMID:26889452

  18. Retroperitoneal nodular fasciitis: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pathological features.

    PubMed

    Meduri; Zuiani; Del Frate C; Bazzocchi

    1998-07-01

    A case of pelvic nodular fasciitis, with particular reference to its peculiar radiological and pathological features is described. Only a few cases of pelvic nodular fasciitis are reported in the English literature and at the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of retroperitoneal origin. This report discusses the role of MRI in the characterization of soft tissue masses. No specific MRI findings of nodular fasciitis were identified and MRI doesn't add any contribution to the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant lesions. As a consequence, the histopathological examination is necessary for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:10358366

  19. Nodular fasciitis of the oro-facial region.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Balakrishna, Ramdas; Mahendra, P; Gilhotra, K

    2012-04-01

    Nodular fasciitis is a benign proliferative spindle-cell lesion that presents as a rapidly growing mass frequently being mistaken for a sarcoma. A rare presentation and treatment of nodular fasciitis in the cheek of an 8-year-old boy is described here. He came with a chief complaint of swelling in the left cheek since 1 month which rapidly increased to the size of a marble, over a period of 1 month. Surgical excision of the lesion was planned under general anesthesia following which the surgical site was closed with resorbable sutures. Based on the history, clinical picture, and histopathological examination, the lesion was diagnosed as nodular fasciitis. Although infrequent in both children and the oral mucosa, nodular fasciitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of facial tumors in infants and young children. PMID:22629057

  20. Progressive Nodular Histiocytosis Associated with Eale's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Abhilasha; Thomas, Abraham G; Kwatra, Kanwardeep Singh; Jain, Kunal

    2015-01-01

    Progressive nodular histiocytosis (PNH) is a rare normolipemic macrophage disorder and belongs to a subgroup of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCHs) which is characterized by a progressive course with no sign of spontaneous resolution but without systemic involvement. We report a 30-year-old gentleman who presented with skin lesions all over the body associated with gradual bilateral painless loss of vision. On examination, approximately 30 to 40, skin-colored, firm, non-tender papules and nodules were noted over the body especially on the face and trunk. A skin biopsy revealed a cellular tumor in the dermis composed of oval to spindle-shaped cells, positive for CD68 but negative for S-100, CD34, CD21, CD35 and HMB45, supporting a diagnosis of spindle cell histiocytic tumor. Ophthalmic examination revealed a generalized arteriolar attenuation in both eyes. He received Tab Imatinib 400 mg OD for 5 months followed by Tab Pazopanib 800 mg OD for 4 months and both the drugs were stopped due to lack of any response in the skin lesions. We report this case due to its rarity, characteristic clinical presentation, and its association with Eale's disease. Primary treatment remains surgical excision of bothersome lesions and optimal systemic treatment is still unknown. PMID:26288410

  1. RSK1 Activation Promotes Invasion in Nodular Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Salhi, Amel; Farhadian, Joshua A.; Giles, Keith M.; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Silva, Ines P.; Bourque, Caitlin; Yeh, Karen; Chhangawala, Sagar; Wang, Jinhua; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y.; Hernando-Monge, Eva; Houvras, Yariv; Osman, Iman

    2016-01-01

    The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1; official name RPS6KA1) was significantly hyperactivated in human melanoma lines and metastatic tissues derived from nodular compared with superficial spreading melanoma. RSK1 was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-380 in nodular but not superficial spreading melanoma and did not directly correlate with BRAF or MEK activation. Nodular melanoma cells were more sensitive to RSK1 inhibition using siRNA and the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 compared with superficial spreading cells. Gene expression microarray analyses revealed that RSK1 orchestrated a program of gene expression that promoted cell motility and invasion. Differential overexpression of the prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in metastatic nodular compared with metastatic superficial spreading melanoma was observed. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model, constitutive RSK1 activation increased melanoma invasion. Together, these data reveal a novel role for activated RSK1 in the progression of nodular melanoma and suggest that melanoma originating from different histologic subtypes may be biologically distinct and that these differences are maintained as the tumors invade and metastasize. PMID:25579842

  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Lowell, Jeffrey A; Hassan, Anjum; Howard, Todd K

    2002-01-01

    Background Focal nodular hyperplasia is an uncommon liver tumour that typically requires no therapeutic intervention. Case outline A 43-year-old woman with a 20-year history of oral contraceptive use presented with symptomatic bilateral liver masses. Biopsy revealed hepatocellular carcinoma in the right hemiliver and focal nodular hyperplasia in the left hemiliver.At operation,the patient was noted to have multiple liver nodules bilaterally, and all intraoperative biopsies were consistent with focal nodular hyperplasia including a biopsy taken from the region that demonstrated carcinoma preoperatively. Because of the earlier biopsy results and the patient's preoperative symptoms, a right hemihepatectomy was performed. Final pathology revealed hepatocellular carcinoma directly adjacent to an area of focal nodular hyperplasia, as well as multiple other areas of hyperplastic liver tumour. Discussion Although focal nodular hyperplasia is believed to be benign, few studies have followed patients with this tumour beyond three years. Longer-term follow-up studies are needed to determine the natural history of focal nodular hyperplasia, potentially focussing on a subset of patients with either diffuse tumours or prolonged oral contraceptive use. PMID:18332941

  3. RSK1 activation promotes invasion in nodular melanoma.

    PubMed

    Salhi, Amel; Farhadian, Joshua A; Giles, Keith M; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Silva, Ines P; Bourque, Caitlin; Yeh, Karen; Chhangawala, Sagar; Wang, Jinhua; Ye, Fei; Zhang, David Y; Hernando-Monge, Eva; Houvras, Yariv; Osman, Iman

    2015-03-01

    The two major melanoma histologic subtypes, superficial spreading and nodular melanomas, differ in their speed of dermal invasion but converge biologically once they invade and metastasize. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that distinct molecular alterations arising in primary melanoma cells might persist as these tumors progress to invasion and metastasis. Ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90 kDa, polypeptide 1 (RSK1; official name RPS6KA1) was significantly hyperactivated in human melanoma lines and metastatic tissues derived from nodular compared with superficial spreading melanoma. RSK1 was constitutively phosphorylated at Ser-380 in nodular but not superficial spreading melanoma and did not directly correlate with BRAF or MEK activation. Nodular melanoma cells were more sensitive to RSK1 inhibition using siRNA and the pharmacological inhibitor BI-D1870 compared with superficial spreading cells. Gene expression microarray analyses revealed that RSK1 orchestrated a program of gene expression that promoted cell motility and invasion. Differential overexpression of the prometastatic matrix metalloproteinase 8 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in metastatic nodular compared with metastatic superficial spreading melanoma was observed. Finally, using an in vivo zebrafish model, constitutive RSK1 activation increased melanoma invasion. Together, these data reveal a novel role for activated RSK1 in the progression of nodular melanoma and suggest that melanoma originating from different histologic subtypes may be biologically distinct and that these differences are maintained as the tumors invade and metastasize. PMID:25579842

  4. Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia with congenital portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yuki; Shimono, Taro; Morikawa, Hiroyasu; Shintaku, Haruo; Tokuhara, Daisuke

    2014-12-01

    Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a rare benign tumor in children. Vascular anomalies have been identified as pathological features of FNH, but the etiology remains unclear. We describe a rare case including the time course of formation of hepatic FNH in response to congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS). A 4-month-old girl was identified on newborn mass screening to have hypergalactosemia, but no inherited deficiencies in galactose-metabolizing enzymes were found. Ultrasonography and per-rectal portal scintigraphy showed intrahepatic PSS of the right lobe as a cause of the hypergalactosemia. At age 12 months, the patient had elevated hepatic enzymes and small hypoechoic hepatic lesions around the shunt. On abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography spoke-wheel sign and central stellate scar were seen, which are typical features of hepatic FNH without biopsy. Congenital intrahepatic PSS should be evaluated on abdominal contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and observed over time because of its potential to develop into hepatic FNH. PMID:25521987

  5. Microstructural Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to quantify the graphite particle phase in nodular ductile iron (NDI). This study provides the basis for initializing microstructure in direct numerical simulations, as part of developing microstructure-fracture response models. The work presented here is a subset of a PhD dissertation on spall fracture in NDI. NDI is an ideal material for studying the influence of microstructure on ductile fracture because it contains a readily identifiable second-phase particle population, embedded in a ductile metallic matrix, which serves as primary void nucleation sites. Nucleated voids grow and coalesce under continued tensile loading, as part of the micromechanisms of ductile fracture, and lead to macroscopic failure. For this study, we used 2D optical microscopy and quantitative metallography relationships to characterize the volume fraction, size distribution, nearest-neighbor distance, and other higher-order metrics of the graphite particle phase. We found that the volume fraction was {Phi} = 0.115, the average particle diameter was d{sub avg} = 25.9 {mu}m, the Weibull shape and scaling parameters were {beta} = 1.8 and {eta} = 29.1 {mu}m, respectively, the (first) nearest neighbor distance was L{sub nn} = 32.4 {mu}m, the exponential coefficients for volume fraction fluctuations was A{sub {Phi}} = 1.89 and B{sub {Phi}} = -0.59, respectively. Based on reaching a coefficient-of-variation (COV) of 0.01, the representative volume element (RVE) size was determined to be 8.9L{sub nn} (288 {mu}m).

  6. Mechanical Characterization of Nodular Ductile Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, H K

    2012-01-03

    The objective of this study is to characterize the strength and fracture response of nodular ductile iron (NDI) and its underlying ferritic matrix phase. Quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) compression tests were performed on NDI and a model material for the NDI matrix phase (Fe-Si alloy). Smooth and notch round bar (NRB) samples were loaded in tension until fracture to determine strain-at-failure with varying stress triaxiality. Multiple tests were performed on each small and large smooth bar samples to obtain fracture statistics with sample size. Fracture statistics are important for initializing simulations of fragmentation events. Johnson-Cook strength models were developed for the NDI and the Fe-Si alloy. NDI strength model parameters are: A = 525 MPa, B = 650 MPa, n = 0.6, and C = 0.0205. The average SHPB experimental strain-rate of 2312/s was used for the reference strain-rate in this model. Fe-Si alloy strength model parameters are: A=560 MPa, B = 625 MPa, n = 0.5, and C = 0.02. The average SHPB experimental strain-rate of 2850/s was used for the reference strain-rate in this model. A Johnson-Cook failure model was developed for NDI with model parameters: D{sub 1} = 0.029, D{sub 2} = 0.44, D{sub 3} = -1.5, and D{sub 4} = D{sub 5} = 0. An exponential relationship was developed for the elongation-at-failure statistics as a function of length-scale with model parameters: S{sub f1} = 0.108, S{sub f2} = -0.00169, and L{sub m} = 32.4 {mu}m. NDI strength and failure models, including failure statistics, will be used in continuum-scale simulations of explosively-driven ring fragmentation. The Fe-Si alloy strength model will be used in mesoscale simulations of spall fracture in NDI, where the NDI matrix phase is captured explicitly.

  7. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia related portal hypertension in a patient with hypogammaglobulinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Lal, Barun Kumar; Stanley, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of liver is a relatively rare liver disorder, but a frequent cause of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. We present a lady with common variable immune deficiency who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and deranged liver function tests but preserved synthetic function. Upper gastrointestinal endoscope showed bleeding gastric varices and non-bleeding oesophageal varices. Although her oesophageal varices were eradicated by repeated endoscopic band ligation, the gastric varices failed to resolve after repeated endoscopic histocryl injection and she eventually needed transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Liver biopsy showed NRH. We review the association of hypogammaglobinaemia and NRH and discuss the appropriate management of portal hypertension in NRH. PMID:23801845

  8. Nodular regenerative hyperplasia related portal hypertension in a patient with hypogammaglobulinaemia.

    PubMed

    Lal, Barun Kumar; Stanley, Adrian

    2013-06-14

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of liver is a relatively rare liver disorder, but a frequent cause of noncirrhotic portal hypertension. We present a lady with common variable immune deficiency who presented with upper gastrointestinal bleeding and deranged liver function tests but preserved synthetic function. Upper gastrointestinal endoscope showed bleeding gastric varices and non-bleeding oesophageal varices. Although her oesophageal varices were eradicated by repeated endoscopic band ligation, the gastric varices failed to resolve after repeated endoscopic histocryl injection and she eventually needed transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement. Liver biopsy showed NRH. We review the association of hypogammaglobinaemia and NRH and discuss the appropriate management of portal hypertension in NRH. PMID:23801845

  9. Expectant management of focal nodular hyperplasia during pregnancy. A case report.

    PubMed

    Kivnick, S; Greenspoon, J S; Kanter, M H; Gee, C; Fullman, H J

    1992-04-01

    A patient with unresectable focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver completed an uncomplicated pregnancy. Although there is a risk of hepatic rupture during pregnancy, expectant management may be an option for some cases of focal nodular hyperplasia. PMID:1593563

  10. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: a link with sickle cell disease?

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, N D; Pain, J; Cowan, N C; Salisbury, J; Howard, E R

    1991-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia is a benign liver tumour that is rare in children. We report the second case of a child with sickle cell disease presenting with symptomatic focal nodular hyperplasia. The possible pathogenesis of focal nodular hyperplasia and the association with sickle cell disease are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1929517

  11. Microstructural aspects of zircaloy nodular corrosion in steam

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.F.

    1999-07-01

    Zircaloy-2 becomes susceptible to nodular corrosion in high-temperature, high-pressure steam when the total solute concentration of the {beta}-stabilizing alloying elements Fe, Ni and Cr in the {alpha}-zirconium matrix falls below a critical value C{sub c} that is characteristic of the test conditions. C{sub c} for typical commercial Zircaloy-2 in a 24hr/510 C/10.4MPa steam-test is the precipitate-free a-matrix concentration in equilibrium with solute-saturated {beta} phase at about 840 C, the corresponding critical temperature T{sub c}.Thus, immunity to nodular corrosion is a metastable condition for {alpha}-Zircaloy that requires fast cooling from above T{sub c} to achieve adequate solute concentration throughout the matrix. Annealing Zircaloy at any temperature below T{sub c} for a sufficiently long time makes it susceptible to nodular corrosion. In the ({alpha}+{chi}) phase field, where {chi} collectively designates the Fe-, Cr-, and Ni-containing precipitate phases, lowering the solute concentration to less than C{sub c} by Ostwald ripening can require many hundreds of hours. Above about 825 C, the temperature of the ({alpha}+{chi})/({alpha}+{beta}+{chi}) transus, solute-saturated {beta} phase surrounds each precipitate and a strong inverse activity gradient promotes equilibration with the much lower solute concentration in the {alpha} matrix. Sensitization to nodular corrosion occurs most rapidly at about 835 C between the ({alpha}+{chi})/({alpha}+{beta}+{chi}) transus and T{sub c}. Annealing Zircaloy at temperatures above T{sub c} for a sufficiently long time will raise the solute concentration above C{sub c} and, with rapid cooling, heal any degree of susceptibility. Annealing within the protective coarsening window between T{sub c} and about 850 C, the temperature of the ({alpha}+{beta}+{chi})/({alpha}+{beta}) transus, achieves rapid precipitate growth in a matrix immune to nodular corrosion.

  12. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.Y.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Wei, L.X.; Beebe, G.W.; Zha, Y.R.; Kaplan, M.M.; Tao, Z.F.; Maxon, H.R. III; Zhang, S.Z.; Schneider, A.B. )

    1990-03-21

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage.

  13. Thyroid nodularity and chromosome aberrations among women in areas of high background radiation in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Boice, J D; Wei, L X; Beebe, G W; Zha, Y R; Kaplan, M M; Tao, Z F; Maxon, H R; Zhang, S Z; Schneider, A B

    1990-03-21

    Thyroid nodularity following continuous low-dose radiation exposure in China was determined in 1,001 women aged 50-65 years who resided in areas of high background radiation (330 mR/yr) their entire lives, and in 1,005 comparison subjects exposed to normal levels of radiation (114 mR/yr). Cumulative doses to the thyroid were estimated to be of the order of 14 cGy and 5 cGy, respectively. Personal interviews and physical examinations were conducted, and measurements were made of serum thyroid hormone levels, urinary iodine concentrations, and chromosome aberrations in circulating lymphocytes. For all nodular disease, the prevalences in the high background and control areas were 9.5% and 9.3%, respectively. For single nodules, the prevalences were 7.4% in the high background area and 6.6% in the control area (prevalence ratio = 1.13; 95% confidence interval = 0.82-1.55). There were no differences found in serum levels of thyroid hormones. Women in the high background region, however, had significantly lower concentrations of urinary iodine and significantly higher frequencies of stable and unstable chromosome aberrations. Increased intake of allium vegetables such as garlic and onions was associated with a decreased risk of nodular disease, which seems consistent with experimental studies suggesting that allium compounds can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation. The prevalence of mild diffuse goiter was higher in the high background radiation region, perhaps related to a low dietary intake of iodine. These data suggest that continuous exposure to low-level radiation throughout life is unlikely to appreciably increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, such exposure may cause chromosomal damage. PMID:2313719

  14. Tuberculoid nodular thelitis in a dairy goat flock.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Christophe; Albaric, Olivier; Cesbron, Nora; Despres, Jérôme; Hoogveld, Charlotte; Michelet, Lorraine; Boschiroli, Maria-Laura

    2016-03-01

    An unusual outbreak of teat/udder skin lesions occurred in a dairy goat flock in France. Lesions first appeared as circular, indurated, erythematous areas of skin and progressed to form dark raised haemorrhagic crusts and ulcerative plaques. Histopathological examination revealed marked granulomatous dermatitis with multifocal ulceration. The granulomatous inflammation, with frequent Langhans type multinucleated cells and central caseous necrosis, was indicative of mycobacterial infection. The presence of non-cultivable mycobacteria was confirmed by sequencing PCR products from DNA extracted directly from the lesions and sequences matched a novel mycobacterial pathogen closely related to M. leprae and M. lepromatosis and previously identified in cattle thelitis. The association of nodular gross lesions and tuberculoid granulomas on the teat and lower udder, and the presence of mycobacteria DNA support a diagnosis of tuberculoid nodular thelitis in goats due to mycobacterial infection. PMID:26831157

  15. A case of giant nodular posterior scleritis mimicking choroidal malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Andrea T; Luk, Fiona O; Chan, Carmen K

    2015-01-01

    To report a case of giant nodular posterior scleritis mimicking a choroidal tumor. A 42-year-old lady with systemic hypertension presented with a 1-week history of unilateral visual loss, pain and redness in her left eye. Examination showed sectoral anterior episcleritis in her left eye as well as a dome-shaped choroidal mass at the inferior-temporal periphery, associated with retinal hemorrhages and subretinal fluid. Systemic evaluation and imaging of the choroidal mass were performed and could not rule out amelanotic choroidal melanoma. At the same time, she was prescribed a 2-week course of oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for her sectoral anterior episcleritis. The choroidal mass was found to have resolved completely right before her scheduled fine needle biospy. Diagnosis of nodular posterior scleritis and a trial of oral NSAID can be considered in patients presenting with a choroidal mass before any invasive procedure. PMID:26862098

  16. Pictures of focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Sempoux, Christine; Balabaud, Charles; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2014-01-01

    This practical atlas aims to help liver and non liver pathologists to recognize benign hepatocellular nodules on resected specimen. Macroscopic and microscopic views together with immunohistochemical stains illustrate typical and atypical aspects of focal nodular hyperplasia and of hepatocellular adenoma, including hepatocellular adenomas subtypes with references to clinical and imaging data. Each step is important to make a correct diagnosis. The specimen including the nodule and the non-tumoral liver should be sliced, photographed and all different looking areas adequately sampled for paraffin inclusion. Routine histology includes HE, trichrome and cytokeratin 7. Immunohistochemistry includes glutamine synthase and according to the above results additional markers such as liver fatty acid binding protein, C reactive protein and beta catenin may be realized to differentiate focal nodular hyperplasia from hepatocellular adenoma subtypes. Clues for differential diagnosis and pitfalls are explained and illustrated. PMID:25232451

  17. Focal nodular hyperplasia with major sinusoidal dilatation: a misleading entity

    PubMed Central

    Laumonier, Hervé; Frulio, Nora; Laurent, Christophe; Balabaud, Charles; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2010-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a benign liver lesion thought to be a non-specific response to locally increased blood flow. Although the diagnosis of FNH and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) has made great progress over the last few years using modern imaging techniques, there are still in daily practice some difficulties concerning some atypical nodules. Here, the authors report the case of a 47-year-old woman with a single liver lesion thought to be, by imaging, an inflammatory HCA with major sinusoidal congestion. This nodule was revealed to be, at the microscopical level and after specific immunostaining and molecular analysis, an FNH with sinusoidal dilatation (so-called telangiectatic focal nodular hyperplasia). PMID:22798311

  18. The feasibility of low-G grey solidification of nodular iron in the F-104 experimental furnace package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, P. A.; Smith, G. A.; Workman, G.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for low-g experiments with cast iron and the need for solidification in the grey form during these experiments are reviewed. The factors which determine whether an iron melt will solidify grey or white are discussed. Cooling rate versus microstructure was studied for a nodular iron candidate material for F-104 low-g solidification. The study determined that low-g grey solidification, using the present F-104 furnace system, of the nodular iron composition studied is not feasible. Specimen microstructure strongly suggested that the F-104 furnace's gas cooling system was causing excessive localized chill resulting in the nucleation of the unwanted iron carbide phase. A change is suggested, in the quench system design, that could possibly overcome this problem.

  19. Nodular scabies: a classical case report in an adolescent boy.

    PubMed

    Ramachandra Reddy, Damodara; Ramachandra Reddy, Prathap

    2015-09-01

    This case report presents a classical case of nodular scabies in a 12 year boy who complained of itching for 20-21 days before presentation to the hospital. Application of Betnovate ointment (Betamethasone valerate 0.1 %) before presentation to the hospital had provided only 2-3 days of relief from itching. Dermatological examination revealed skin colored to erythematous papule of 3-4 mm on the body with predilection for web space of fingers and flexural areas and nodules on the scrotum and groin. Based on this, clinical diagnosis of scabies with nodular scabies was made on the child. The scraping obtained from the web-space of the child showed mite under the light microscope, which confirms the diagnosis. Treatment with topical permethrin 5 % lotion resulted in 50-70 % subsidence of itching within a day, and improvement in impetigo lesions of his father in 5 days. However, the scrotal and groin nodular lesion of the child persisted with severe itching. Treatment with topical steroid and tacrolimus 0.1 % ointment did not show much improvement. Intralesional injection of triamcinolone (5 mg/ml) on the nodule resulted in 30-40 % subsidence in itching and 50-60 % reduction in the size of the lesion over 2-3 weeks. PMID:26345076

  20. Solitary Nodular Lesion of Tongue- A Rare Entity

    PubMed Central

    Sarada, P.; Reddy, C.H. Sampath; A.K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-01-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  1. Solitary nodular lesion of tongue- a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sarada, P; Reddy, C H Sampath; A K, Patil; Kurra, Saritha

    2014-02-01

    The solitary, nodular lesions of the oral mucosa present a diagnostic dilemma to the dentist with their analogous presentation. The lesions that appear on the tongue, a soft muscular organ are distinct and even rarer with varied manifestations. Oral mucosa presents lesions of the tongue in all age groups that may range from a small nodular swelling and ulcer formation in an infant of a few days old to an ulcer or a lesion in a 70-year-old. The reason for the appearance of an ulcer may be trauma to the soft tissues in an infant may be due to the presence of natal teeth to the presence of a sharp tooth in the older individuals. These lesions have to be clinically and histologically correlated for the final outcome of the diagnosis, so that there is no chance of any recurrence. We present a unique case of a solitary nodular lesion on the ventral surface of tongue On a 6 year female, where there was a recurrence after surgical excision and after an unusual therapy of non surgical resolution, no recurrence was observed. PMID:24701550

  2. Alpha-interferon in the treatment of nodular lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Urba, W J; Longo, D L

    1986-12-01

    Patients with nodular lymphoma initially respond to a number of therapies but relapse is common and inexorable with time, and despite further therapy, most patients will ultimately die of their lymphoma. The recent demonstration of their sensitivity to alpha-interferon is promising. The importance of this human antitumor effect is that it is presumably based on mechanisms different from conventional agents. Phase I trials of various doses and schedules of recombinant alpha-interferon have shown that effective serum levels can be obtained by intramuscular (IM), intravenous (IV), or subcutaneous (SC) routes. Virtually all patients experienced some degree of acute toxicity manifested by fever, chills, myalgia, and headache. Tolerance usually developed to acute adverse effects within the first few weeks of therapy, regardless of dose or schedule. Fatigue and anorexia were the most important adverse reactions, occurring during the first two weeks of treatment and generally persisting for the duration of therapy. Occasional adverse effects relating to the central nervous and cardiovascular systems have been reported. Primary laboratory abnormalities observed during treatment include decreases in hematologic parameters and elevations of liver function tests. The clinical efficacy of alpha-interferon, both natural and recombinant, has been demonstrated in both untreated and heavily pretreated patients with nodular lymphoma. The response rate has approached 50% in recent studies; however, less than half were complete responders. Future directions include combination of interferon with cytotoxic agents or other biological response modifiers and use as adjuvant therapy. PMID:3541218

  3. [Typing of infiltration cells in primary, localized, nodular, cutaneous amyloidosis].

    PubMed

    Sepp, N; Grünewald, K; Soyer, H P; Kerl, H; Breathnach, S M; Fritsch, P; Hintner, H

    1992-04-01

    Amyloid tumours in two patients with primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis contained very dense infiltrates consisting mainly of plasma cells and lymphocytes. In one case IgM was detected on many cells of the infiltrate, while in the other IgA was found in morphologically apparently normal plasma cells. Immunohistochemical investigations did not reveal any immunoglobulin light chain restriction in either of the tumours. Numerous cells expressed B cell markers, such as CD20 or CD38. Rearrangement studies on material from the amyloid tumour of one of the patients confirmed the monoclonality of plasma cells. This observation indicates that the nodules of primary localized nodular cutaneous amyloidosis indeed represent an extramedullary plasmocytoma, which consists of amyloid-producing plasma cells. Of special interest was the unexpectedly high proportion of cells expressing T cell markers (CD3, CD5, CD4 greater than CD8) in the amyloid nodules of both patients. After excluding co-expression of B and T cell markers on identical cells by immunohistochemical studies on serial sections and also after molecular biological studies, we assume that this is a separate T cell population that may have a regulatory effect on the production of amyloid. PMID:1597370

  4. Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in continuity with nodular basal cell carcinoma: A rare presentation

    PubMed Central

    Dongre, Atul M.; Khopkar, Uday S.; Kalyanpad, Yogesh N.; Gole, Prachi V.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are different morphological variants of BCC. It is very rare to see both the variants together in a single lesion. Here we report a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a nodule on the trunk, which on biopsy showed features of both nodular BCC and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. PMID:27559504

  5. Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus in continuity with nodular basal cell carcinoma: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Dongre, Atul M; Khopkar, Uday S; Kalyanpad, Yogesh N; Gole, Prachi V

    2016-01-01

    Fibroepithelioma of Pinkus and nodular basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are different morphological variants of BCC. It is very rare to see both the variants together in a single lesion. Here we report a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with a nodule on the trunk, which on biopsy showed features of both nodular BCC and fibroepithelioma of Pinkus. PMID:27559504

  6. [Localized nodular pulmonary amyloidosis; report of a case].

    PubMed

    Shimada, Kazuyoshi; Tsubochi, H; Isogami, K; Kobayashi, S

    2006-12-01

    A 66-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of chest abnormal shadow. Chest X-ray and chest computed tomography (CT) on admission showed a nodule in the right middle lobe. The nodule was not diagnosed preoperatively by a bronchoscopy. She underwent partial lung resection including the nodule with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery. The pathological diagnosis was amyloidosis, and we diagnosed her illness as localized nodular pulmonary amyloidosis, since the amyloid substance was type AL. In addition, electron microscopy showed amyloid as straightly fibrous materials in alveolus. It is difficult to differentiate amyloidosis from lung cancer by radiology, and the lung biopsy with video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery is useful and a safety way to establish diagnosis. PMID:17163218

  7. Regression of nodular liver lesions in Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Kozic, D; Svetel, M; Petrovic, I; Sener, R N; Kostic, V S

    2006-09-01

    Long-term follow-up abdominal imaging studies have not been reported previously in patients with the hepatic form of Wilson's disease (WD). This paper reports the case of a 35-year-old woman with symptoms dating back several months and with multiple, nodular liver lesions. The lesions were hyperdense on non-enhanced computed tomography and hypointense on T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images. A diagnosis of WD was established several weeks after her admission to hospital, and chelating treatment was commenced promptly. No abnormalities were found on follow-up MR examinations of the abdomen and brain 4.5 years later. These imaging features suggest that so long as WD is diagnosed in the initial stages, liver nodules can regress with time and complete healing can be achieved with continuous decoppering treatment. PMID:16950693

  8. Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma: biology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anupama; Fan, Wen; Patel, Amit A; Devabhaktuni, Madhuri; Grossbard, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon variant of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized histologically by presence of lymphohistiocytic cells which have B-cell phenotype, are positive for CD19, CD20, CD45, CD79a, BOB.1, Oct.2, and negative for CD15 and CD30. Patients often present with early stage of disease and do not have classical B symptoms. The clinical behavior appears to mimic that of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma more than that of classical Hodgkin disease. The purpose of the present report is to define the biology of NLPHL, review its clinical presentation, and summarize the available clinical data regarding treatment. PMID:24650975

  9. Nodular mucinosis misdiagnosed as non-responsive secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Patrício, Catarina; Campos, Sara; João, Alexandre; Serrão, Vasco

    2015-01-01

    A previously healthy 24-year-old man presented with an erythematous, non-pruritic and painless papulonodular skin rash affecting the trunk, upper arms (excluding palms), neck, face, forehead and scalp. He had a penile ulcer for the past 2 weeks, almost healed at the time of observation. The patient tested positive for syphilis and HIV-1; he claimed being negative for HIV 6 months earlier. As the palms were not affected, we performed a skin biopsy for the differential diagnosis between secondary lues and acute HIV seroconversion reaction. Benzathine penicillin (2,400,000 units) was administrated and antiretroviral therapy started. Although the skin biopsy was compatible with secondary syphilis, there was no change in the skin rash 3 weeks after the first penicillin administration. Another 2 doses of penicillin were given but 4 weeks later the rash persisted. A second biopsy revealed a mucinous skin infiltration, compatible with nodular mucinosis. PMID:26311009

  10. Nodular Scleroderma Revisited: Systemic Sclerosis Presenting as Annular Keloidal Sclerotic Plaques

    PubMed Central

    Lortscher, David N.; Cohen, Philip R.; Bangert, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nodular scleroderma, also known as keloidal scleroderma, is a rare variant of systemic sclerosis. Purpose: The clinical features, pathologic findings and postulated pathogenesis of nodular scleroderma are discussed. Methods: A woman with previously undiagnosed systemic sclerosis who presented with nodular scleroderma is described. Using the PubMed database, a literature search was performed on keloidal scleroderma, nodular scleroderma, and systemic sclerosis. Results: Nodular scleroderma is characterized by firm plaques or nodules, which can mimic a keloid, that are typically located on the anterior orposterior upper trunk and the arms; they show pathologic changes of scleroderma, keloid, or hypertrophic scar. Akeloidal response of inflamed skin that is involved in an active fibrotic process inherent to systemic sclerosis, in individuals who are genetically predisposed to keloid formation, is the hypothesized pathogenesis. Conclusion: Nodular scleroderma is rare. The authors’ patient presented with diarrhea, dysphagia, fatigue, Raynaud’s phenomenon, shortness of breath, and annular keloidal plaques of morphea whose biopsy showed features of hypertrophic scar; additional studies confirmed the diagnosis of the nodular scleroderma variant of systemic sclerosis. The possibility of systemic sclerosis should be entertained in patients who present with nodularor keloidal plaques that morphologically resemble morphea and have histologic findings of a scar or a keloid—especially if there are associated symptoms suggestive for systemic sclerosis. PMID:27386053

  11. Nodular Vasculitis That Developed during Etanercept (Enbrel) Treatment in a Patient with Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seung-Bae; Chang, In-Kyu; Im, Myung; Lee, Young; Kim, Chang-Deok; Seo, Young-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Nodular vasculitis was introduced by Montgomery for cases of erythema induratum-like lesions that were not associated with tuberculosis. Nodular vasculitis has been associated with both nontuberculous infections and noninfectious conditions. However, there has been no report on the development of nodular vasculitis during tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor treatment. A 28-year-old man visited our clinic for the treatment of severe psoriasis with a 20-year history. Subcutaneous injection of etanercept (25 mg, twice weekly) was started. One year later, erythematous nodules developed on his lower leg. A skin biopsy showed lobular panniculitis with extensive necrosis and vasculitis. To exclude latent tuberculosis, an assay specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens was performed, with a negative result. After stopping etanercept under the diagnosis of nodular vasculitis associated with etanercept, the lesions gradually disappeared, leaving depressed scars in 3 months. There has been no recurrence after 6 months of follow-up. PMID:26512176

  12. Thermo-Metallurgical Modeling of Nodular Cast Iron Cooling Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carazo, Fernando D.; Dardati, Patricia M.; Celentano, Diego J.; Godoy, Luis A.

    2012-12-01

    A new numerical model to describe the microstructural evolution of a eutectic nodular cast iron during its cooling is presented. In particular, equiaxial solidification assuming an independent nucleation of austenite and graphite nodules is considered. In this context, the austenite has dendritic growth whereas the graphite grows with a spherical shape. After solidification occurs, the model assumes that the graphite nodules present in the cast iron continue growing since the carbon content in austenite decreases. Once the stable eutectoid temperature is reached, the alloy undergoes the austenite-ferrite transformation. The nucleation of the ferrite takes place at the contour of the spherical graphite nodules where austenite has low carbon concentration. A ferrite shell surrounding the graphite nodules is formed afterward by means of a process governed by carbon diffusion. Then, a ferrite-pearlite competitive transformation occurs when the temperature is below the metastable temperature. This thermo-metallurgical model is discretized and solved by means of the finite element method. The model allows the computation of cooling curves, fraction evolution for each component, and size and distribution of graphite nodules. The present numerical results are compared with experiments using standardized Quick-cup-type cups, and satisfactory numerical predictions of the final microstructure and cooling curves are achieved.

  13. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma.

    PubMed

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case. PMID:27293255

  14. A Weeping Tumor in a Young Girl: An Unusual Presentation of Nodular Hidradenoma

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anupam; Gayen, Tirthankar; Podder, Indrashis; Shome, Kaushik; Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

    2016-01-01

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a swelling on her left thigh that was associated with dripping of serous fluid from the lesion. Based on histological features of the excised tumor, a diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made. Atypical features including large size of the tumor, location on the lower limb, a weeping presentation, and histological finding of a nodular hidradenoma with an unusually large cystic cavity discharging fluid prompted us to report the case. PMID:27293255

  15. Paternal inheritance of classic X-linked bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Burkhard S; Kurzbuch, Katrin; Chang, Bernard S; Pauli, Elisabeth; Hamer, Hajo M; Winkler, Jürgen; Hehr, Ute

    2013-06-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) is a developmental disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by heterotopic nodules of gray matter resulting from disturbed neuronal migration. The most common form of bilateral PNH is X-linked dominant inherited, caused by mutations in the Filamin A gene (FLNA) and associated with a wide variety of other clinical findings including congenital heart disease. The typical patient with FLNA-associated PNH is female and presents with difficult to treat seizures. In contrast, hemizygous FLNA loss of function mutations in males are reported to be perinatally lethal. In X-linked dominant traits like FLNA-associated PNH the causal mutation is commonly inherited from the mother. Here, we present an exceptional family with paternal transmission of classic bilateral FLNA-associated PNH from a mildly affected father with somatic and germline mosaicism for a c.5686G>A FLNA splice mutation to both daughters with strikingly variable clinical manifestation and PNH extent in cerebral MR imaging. Our observations emphasize the importance to consider in genetic counseling and risk assessment the rare genetic constellation of paternal transmission for families with X-linked dominant inherited FLNA-associated PNH. PMID:23636902

  16. [Current status of diagnostic imaging of focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver].

    PubMed

    Uggowitzer, M M; Kugler, C; Ruppert-Kohlmayr, A; Groell, R; Raith, J; Schreyer, H

    2000-09-01

    Ranging behind hemangiomas, focal nodular hyperplasias (FNH) are the second most common benign solid liver lesions. Women between the age of 20 and 50 years are predominantly affected. In rare cases FNH may occur in children. Etiologically, an arteriovenous vascular malformation of the liver is discussed, which causes pseudotumorous growth of the surrounding liver parenchyma. Morphological features such as the presence of a radial vascular architecture and feeding arteries within a central scar are characteristic for the presence of FNH. Imaging techniques which enable the depiction of the arterial blood supply with a characteristic centrifugal filling pattern, the contrast enhancement in the early arterial phase, the absence of calcifications and of a tumour capsule and the typical enhancement of the central scar, are of particular importance. Knowledge of these features is important in order to differentiate FNH from other hypervascular focal liver lesions with tendency of scar formation, such as hepatic adenomas, giant hemangiomas, hepatocellular and fibrolamellar carcinomas, and metastases. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FNH will be enabled by a combined modality approach consisting of (Doppler) sonography and triphasic CT. To confirm the diagnosis of FNH, dynamic MRI is advisable. Because of the invasiveness of angiography as well as the limited sensitivity and spatial resolution of the various scintigraphic methods, these modalities no longer play a role in the diagnostic work-up of FNH. Lesions lacking typical features diagnostic for FNH remain subjects for biopsy and histological examination. PMID:11079084

  17. Subcutaneous Panniculitis-Like T Cell Lymphoma Mimicking Early-Onset Nodular Panniculitis

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guifen; Dong, Lingli; Zhang, Shengtao

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 24 Final Diagnosis: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma Symptoms: Fever • skin nodules Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Skin biopsy • PET-CT Specialty: Hematology Objective: Rare disease Background: Subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma is a very uncommon subtype of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. The manifestations of this rare disease are atypical at onset, and may mimic some rheumatic or dermatologic diseases, which causes the delay of diagnosis and treatment. Case Report: We report a 24-year-old man suffering from intermittent fever and skin nodules on the left anterior chest wall, who was initially misdiagnosed with nodular panniculitis and finally diagnosed with subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma through repeat examination of biopsy of the skin nodule. Positron emission tomography revealed extracutaneous adipose tissue involvement. Subsequently, hemophagocytic syndrome occurred while under a conventional dose of glucocorticoid, but remission was induced by treatment with cyclosporine A and high doses of dexamethasone. Conclusions: In order to avoid the delay diagnosis and inappropriate treatment of subcutaneous panniculitis-like T cell lymphoma, in addition to a thorough physical examination, PET-CT and disease-specific pathologic, immunophenotypic, and T cell receptor tests of the skin biopsy should be performed. Extracutaneous involvement, especially hemophagocytic syndrome, indicated worse prognosis. Even so, cyclosporine A plus high-dose corticosteroid could be an option of treatment. PMID:27342380

  18. Thyroid nodularity and cancer among Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia

    SciTech Connect

    Inskip, P.D.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Tekkel, M.

    1997-02-01

    Thyroid examinations, including palpation, ultrasound and, selectively, fine-needle aspiration biopsy, were conducted on nearly 2,000 Chernobyl cleanup workers from Estonia to evaluate the occurrence of thyroid cancer and nodular thyroid disease among men with protracted exposure to ionizing radiation. The examinations were conducted in four cities in Estonia during March-April 1995, 9 years after the reactor accident. The study population was selected from a predefined cohort of 4,833 cleanup workers from Estonia under surveillance for cancer incidence. These men had been sent to Chernobyl between 1986 and 1991 to entomb the damaged reactor, remove radioactive debris and perform related cleanup activities. A total of 2,997 men were invited for thyroid screening and 1,984 (66%) were examined. Estimates of radiation dose from external sources were obtained from military or other institutional records, and details about service dates and types of work performed while at Chernobyl were obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Blood samples were collected for assay of chromosomal translocations in circulating lymphocytes and loss of expression of the glycophorin A (GPA) gene in erythrocytes. The primary outcome measure was the presence or absence of thyroid nodules as determined by the ultrasound examination. Of the screened workers, 1,247 (63%) were sent to Chernobyl in 1986, including 603 (30%) sent in April or May, soon after the accident. Workers served at Chernobyl for an average of 3 months. The average age was 32 years at the time of arrival at Chernobyl and 40 years at the time of thyroid examination. The mean documented radiation dose from external sources was 10.8 cGy. Biological indicators of exposure showed low correlations with documented dose, but did not indicate that the mean dose for the population was higher than the average documented dose. 47 refs., 1 fig., 9 tabs.

  19. Hepatic adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia: differential diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Herman, P; Pugliese, V; Machado, M A; Montagnini, A L; Salem, M Z; Bacchella, T; D'Albuquerque, L A; Saad, W A; Machado, M C; Pinotti, H W

    2000-03-01

    The diagnosis of benign hepatic tumors as hepatic adenoma (HA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. The importance of differentiating between these lesions is based on the fact that HA must be surgically resected and FNH can be only observed. A series of 23 female patients with benign liver tumors (13 FNH, 10 HA) were evaluated, and a radiologic diagnostic algorithm was employed with the aim of establishing preoperative criteria for the differential diagnosis. All patients were submitted to surgical biopsy or hepatic resection to confirm the diagnosis. Based only on clinical and laboratory data, distinction was not possible. According to the investigative algorithm, the diagnosis was correct in 82.6% of the cases; but even with the development of imaging methods, which were used in combination, the differentiation was not possible in four patients. For FNH cases scintigraphy presented a sensitivity of 38.4% and specificity of 100%, whereas for HA the sensitivity reached 60% and specificity 85.7%. Magnetic resonance imaging, employed when scintigraphic findings were not typical, presented sensitivities of 71.4% and 80% and specificities of 100% and 100% for FNH and HA, respectively. Preoperative diagnosis of FNH was possible in 10 of 13 (76.9%) patients and was confirmed by histology in all of them. In one case, FNH was misdiagnosed as HA. The diagnosis of HA was possible in 9 of 10 (90%) adenoma cases. Surgical biopsy remains the best method for the differential diagnosis between HA and FNH and must be performed in all doubtful cases. Surgical resection is the treatment of choice for all patients with adenoma and can be performed safely. With the evolution of imaging methods it seems that the preoperative diagnosis of FNH may be considered reliable, thereby avoiding unnecessary surgical resection. PMID:10658075

  20. Treatment of Nodular Fasciitis Occurring on the Face

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Byung Ho; Kim, Jihee; Zheng, Zhenlong; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical excision is generally recommended for the treatment of nodular fasciitis (NF) to rule out sarcoma. However, in cases of NF occurring on the face, the reported recurrence rate is higher and the surgical approach may result in considerable aesthetic concern. Objective To describe our experience with NF occurring on the face and evaluate the outcomes of surgical and nonsurgical methods of treatment. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 16 patients with NF on the face. The patients were treated with surgical excision or nonsurgical methods such as triamcinolone intralesional injection (TA ILI) and pinhole method with a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser. Results Among the 16 patients, surgical treatment was performed in 9 and recurrence occurred in 7 of these 9 patients (77.8%). The recurred lesions showed regression after repeated TA ILI. On the other hand, five patients underwent nonsurgical treatment after the histologic exclusion of malignancy. Their lesions showed regression after repeated pinhole treatment and TA ILI. In one case, NF spontaneously regressed. On a visual analogue scale, the nonsurgical approach showed superior results. However, the values were not statistically significant (6.90±1.56 vs. 5.61±1.36; p=0.163). The satisfaction level was lower in patients who experienced recurrence after surgical excision. Conclusion Surgical treatment for NF on the face showed a noticeable recurrence rate and resulted in scarring. Therefore, considering the possibility of spontaneous regression, the nonsurgical method can be considered as an alternative treatment option for NF on the face. PMID:26719638

  1. The role of periventricular nodular heterotopia in epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aghakhani, Yahya; Kinay, Demet; Gotman, Jean; Soualmi, Lahbib; Andermann, Frederick; Olivier, André; Dubeau, François

    2005-03-01

    A temporal resection in patients with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) and intractable focal seizures yields poor results. To define the role of heterotopic grey matter tissue in epileptogenesis and to improve outcome, we performed stereoencephalography (SEEG) recordings in eight patients with uni- or bilateral PNH and intractable focal epilepsy. The SEEG studies aimed to evaluate the most epileptogenic areas and included the allo- and neocortex and at least one nodule of grey matter. Interictal spiking activity was found in ectopic grey matter in three patients, in the cortex overlying the nodules in five and in the mesial temporal structures in all. At least one heterotopion was involved at seizure onset in six patients, synchronous with the overlying neocortex or ipsilateral hippocampus. Two patients had their seizures originating in the mesial temporal structures only. Six patients had surgery and the resected areas included the seizure onset, with follow-up from 1 to 8 years. An amygdalo-hippocampectomy was performed in two (Engel class Id and III), an amygdalo-hippocampectomy plus removal of an adjacent heterotopion in two (class Ia), and a resection of two contiguous nodules plus a small rim of overlying occipital cortex in one patient (class Id). One patient with bilateral PNH had three adjacent nodules resected and an ipsilateral amygdalo-hippocampectomy resulting in a reduction of the number of seizures by 25-50%. The best predictor of surgical outcome is the presence of a focal epileptic generator; this generator may or may not include the PNH. Invasive recording is required in patients with PNH; it improves localization and is the key to better outcome. PMID:15659421

  2. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in Nodular Goiter Is Associated with Iodine Deficiency in the Follicular Lumen

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lijun; Liang, Bo; Cai, Huiyao; Cai, Qingyan; Shi, Yaxiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. It has been testified that iodine regulates thyroid function by controlling thyroid-restricted genes expression and is closely related to diffuse goiter and thyroid dysfunction. However, the effects of follicular lumen iodine, the main form of iodine reserve in the body, on thyroid-restricted genes in nodular goiter are poorly understood. In this study, correlations between follicular lumen iodine and the expressions of thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), its transcription factors TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were investigated. Patients. In this study, 30 resection specimens clinically histopathologically confirmed to have nodular goiter and 30 normal thyroid specimens from adjacent tissues of nodular goiter are used. Measurement. Western blot immunohistochemistry was performed to assay TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in thyrocytes of nodular goiter as well as in extranodular normal thyroid tissues. Meanwhile, follicular lumen iodine of both nodular goiter and extranodular normal thyroid tissues was detected as well. Results. The TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 in nodular goiter were significantly higher than those in the controls. The iodine content in nodular goiter was significantly lower than those in control tissues. Conclusion. Upregulation of TSHR, TTF-1, and PAX8 is associated with low follicular lumen iodine content in nodular goiter. PMID:27525008

  3. Relapsing nodular lesions in the course of adult pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tazi, A; Montcelly, L; Bergeron, A; Valeyre, D; Battesti, J P; Hance, A J

    1998-06-01

    In most patients with pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH), clinical and radiological abnormalities initially either stabilize or regress, often without treatment. Little information is available, however, concerning the subsequent evolution of disease in patients who initially follow a benign course. We describe four patients with biopsy-confirmed pulmonary LCH whose initial course was characterized by regression of parenchymal nodular lesions, but who subsequently developed one or more episodes of active disease 7 mo to 7.5 yr after their initial presentation. In each case, the subsequent episodes of active disease were characterized by the reappearance or marked increase in nodular radiographic abnormalities, whose presence was confirmed by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Thus, initial regression of nodular lesions in pulmonary LCH does not preclude the reappearance of one or more episodes of active disease, and may have important consequences on the long-term prognosis of these patients. PMID:9620939

  4. Nodular Fasciitis of the Hand Over the Metacarpophalangeal Joint: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sailon, Alexander M; Cappuccino, Guy; Hameed, Meera; Fleegler, Earl J

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study describes a case of nodular fasciitis involving the hand and reviews the neoplasm's pertinent clinical, histologic, and pathologic features. Methods: The patient's chart, operative record, histologic specimens, and relevant literature were reviewed. Results: We report a case of nodular fasciitis involving the hand of a 55-year-old woman that was treated with marginal excision. Conclusions: Nodular fasciitis is a self-limited, benign soft tissue tumor composed of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts that typically afflicts younger patients and rarely presents in the hand. Because of its presentation, it can be easily mistaken for a malignant neoplasm. However, most cases represent a reactive and therefore a polyclonal process. Marginal excision generally provides definitive treatment. PMID:18725954

  5. Coexistence of Solid (Nodular) and Differentiated (Adenoid) Basal Cell Carcinoma at the Same Anatomical Site

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Angoori Gnaneshwar

    2015-01-01

    Coexistence of two different histopathological types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) in the same anatomical site is rare and interesting. Herein, we report a case of coexistence of nodular and adenoid BCC in a 78-year-old peasant who presented with a plaque and a globular swelling on left paranasal region of few years duration. Histopathology of skin biopsy with immunohistochemistry study using antibodies to S100, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and cytokeratin 7 (CK 7) from the margin of the ulcer and globular swelling confirmed the diagnosis that revealed features of nodular and adenoid basal cell carcinoma, respectively. Investigative work up did not reveal evidence of metastasis. PMID:26538745

  6. Drug-induced Hypersensitivity Syndrome Accompanied by Pulmonary Lesions Exhibiting Centrilobular Nodular Shadows.

    PubMed

    Sawata, Tetsuro; Bando, Masashi; Kogawara, Haruna; Nakayama, Masayuki; Mato, Naoko; Yamasawa, Hideaki; Takemura, Tamiko; Sugiyama, Yukihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 51-year-old woman diagnosed with Crohn's disease developed drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DIHS) 12 and six weeks after starting the oral intake of mesalazine and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, respectively. Chest CT showed centrilobular nodular shadows and a transbronchial lung biopsy (TBLB) revealed infiltration of inflammatory cells predominantly in the small pulmonary artery walls and bronchiolar walls. Regarding pulmonary lesions of DIHS, infiltrative shadows have sometimes been reported, whereas nodular shadows have rarely been documented. This is a valuable case report for considering the mechanism underlying the development of pulmonary lesions in case of DIHS. PMID:27150872

  7. Intraneural nodular fasciitis of the radial nerve with rapidly progressive motor symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sundar, Swetha J.; Healy, Andrew T.; Shook, Steven J.; Kamian, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nodular fasciitis is a benign mesenchymal tumor arising from fascia that typically presents as a rapidly growing, subcutaneous mass. Intraneural cases are very rare and can present with neurological symptoms, requiring surgical resection. Case Description: A 31-year-old woman presented to us with painful paresthesias in her elbow and progressive motor deficits, for which she underwent surgery. Conclusion: The authors report the first case of intraneural nodular fasciitis occurring in the radial nerve and highlight the possibility of rapidly progressive motor deficit in patients presenting with this rare clinical entity. PMID:27114852

  8. [Antibodies to phospholipids and the vascular endothelium in nodular polyarteritis].

    PubMed

    Kirdianov, S Iu; Baranov, A A; Nasonov, E L; Salozhin, K V; Gur'eva, M S; Abaĭtova, N E; Bazhina, O V

    2001-01-01

    Clinical significance of antibodies to phospholipids (aPL) and vascular endothelium (aVE) was evaluated in 20 patients (9 women and 11 men aged 36 +/- 10.8 years) with nodular polyarteritis (NP) corresponding to classification criteria of the USA Rheumatology College. Antibodies to cardiolipin (aCL) (IgG and IgM) and to beta 2-glycoprotein (beta 2-GP1) (IgG) were titered by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay. Total serum level of aVE (IgG + IgM + IgA) was measured by solid-phase enzyme immunoassay using Eahy. 926 endothelial hybrydoma cell culture. Anticardiolipin antibodies were detected in 11 (55%) of 20 patients, 3 of these had IgG aCL, 4 IgM aCL, and 4 both antibody isotypes. Serum titers of all aCL were moderate in all cases. No antibodies to beta 2-GP1 were detected in any of the patients. Total serum endothelial activity varied from 0 to 89.7% in patients with NP. Mean aVE level was 24.45 +/- 21.2%, which was significantly higher than in donors (p < 0.001). In 4 (26.7%) of 15 patients with NP total level of aVE surpassed the upper threshold normal value. The presence of aCL directly correlated with the presence of reticular livedo (r = 0.54, p < 0.05), but not with any other clinical laboratory manifestations of the disease, including thrombotic complications (deep thrombosis of lower limb veins, stroke, myocardial infarction), renal involvement, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased concentrations of von Willebrand factor antigen and C-reactive protein, or angiitis activity. Vascular endothelial antibodies directly correlated with renal involvement (r = 1.00, p < 0.01), distal gangrene of the limb (r = 0.83, p < 0.01), and angiitis activity (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), with high level of von Willebrand factor antigen and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (r = 0.66 and r = 0.64, respectively; p < 0.01), but not with aCL (r = 0.43, p > 0.05) of any isotype (aCL IgG r = -0.01; r = 0.34; p < 0.05). All patients with aVE had aCL in the serum (aCL Ig

  9. Characteristics of autoclave and in-reactor nodular corrosion of Zircaloys

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Y.H.; Rheem, K.S. ); Chung, H.M. )

    1990-11-01

    Nodular corrosion characteristics of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 were investigated in static autoclave tests at 500{degree}C and 10.3 MPa. The roles of annealing temperature, cooling rate after beta-treating at 1050{degree}C, cold work, and surface treatment in corrosion tests were correlated with the results of microstructural characterization by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. A good correlation was obtained between average size of intermetallic precipitates and weight gain, in contrast to nodule coverage and nodule number density. These results could be best explained by the hypothesis that nodules nucleate in local regions that are depleted of Fe and Cr alloying elements. Some observations were inconsistent with the premise that nodules nucleate on or near intermetallic precipitates. Nodular corrosion characteristics and microstructures of commercial Zircaloy-2 cladding of fuel and gadolinia rods, obtained from several BWRs after burnup of 11--30 MWd/kgU, were also examined. Partial amorphization of intermetallic precipitates in BWR Zircaloy-2, and virtual dissolution and in an extreme case spinodal- like fluctuations of dissolved alloying elements in PWR Zircaloy-4 cladding were observed. Occurrence of nodular oxidation of Zircaloy-2 in BWRs could best be correlated to average size of intermetallic precipitates before irradiation and to fuel cladding operating temperature. For an intermetallic size range of 250--700 nm, nodular oxides were observed at 288{degree}C, but only thick uniform oxide was observed at 307{degree}C. 53 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

  10. A case of idiopathic portal hypertension associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia-like nodule of the liver and mixed connective tissue disease.

    PubMed

    Hayano, Shunsuke; Naganuma, Atsushi; Okano, Yudai; Suzuki, Yuhei; Shiina, Keisuke; Yoshida, Haruka; Hayashi, Eri; Uehara, Sanae; Hoshino, Takashi; Miyamae, Naomi; Kudo, Tomohiro; Ishihara, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Ken; Kakizaki, Satoru

    2016-05-01

    A 51-year-old woman was diagnosed with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) in 2011. She underwent treatment with prednisolone. Her hepatobiliary enzyme level increased, and multiple nodules were found in both liver lobes in abdominal imaging studies. Ultrasonography revealed large and small hyperechoic lesions with indistinct or well-defined borders. No findings of classic hepatocellular carcinoma or liver cirrhosis were observed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography, but some nodules showed an enhanced effect of the central lesion that was characteristic of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in an arterial phase. On gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, slightly high-intensity nodules, 10-40mm in size, were observed on T1- and T2-weighted images. The nodules showed highest intensities in the hepatocyte phase and were enhanced with the uptake of Gd-EOB-DTPA as compared with the background liver. FNH was suspected based on the imaging findings, but we performed a liver tumor biopsy for differential diagnosis of the malignant lesion. Based on the immunohistopathological examination results, the final diagnosis was idiopathic portal hypertension associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH)-like nodule of the liver. Benign nodular hepatocellular lesions are caused by abnormal hepatic circulation and were previously known as anomalous portal tract syndrome. Our case of atypical NRH with large nodules may be included in this disease entity. Here, we report a rare case of MCTD with NRH-like nodules and idiopathic portal hypertension with a review of literature. PMID:27151480

  11. A 65-year-old man with persistent cough and large nodular opacity.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Brandon S; Albores, Jeffrey; Barjaktarevic, Igor

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old Asian man with a history of chronic hepatitis B infection presented to our pulmonary clinic for second opinion of his chronic, persistent, nonproductive cough. He was evaluated 10 months earlier with chest CT scan, which revealed a large lingular nodular opacity that was diagnosed as nodular cryptogenic organizing pneumonia by CT scan-guided percutaneous lung biopsy. Systemic corticosteroids were initiated and continued over the next 10 months. The dry cough persisted, and he developed intermittent left-sided pleuritic chest pain. He denied fevers, night sweats, hemoptysis, weight loss, or dyspnea. He was a lifelong nonsmoker and moved to the United States from China during childhood. PMID:25560867

  12. Low-Dose Involved-Field Radiotherapy as Alternative Treatment of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominance Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Rick L.M. Girinsky, Theo; Aleman, Berthe; Henry-Amar, Michel; Boer, Jan-Paul de; Jong, Daphne de

    2009-07-15

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma is a very rare disease, characterized by an indolent clinical course, with sometimes very late relapses occurring in a minority of all patients. Considerable discussion is ongoing on the treatment of primary and relapsed disease. Patients and Methods: A group of 9 patients were irradiated to a dose of 4 Gy on involved areas only. Results: After a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 6-66), the overall response rate was 89%. Six patients had complete remission (67%), two had partial remission (22%), and one had stable disease (11%). Of 8 patients, 5 developed local relapse 9-57 months after radiotherapy. No toxicity was noted. Conclusion: In nodular lymphocyte predominance Hodgkin's lymphoma, low-dose radiotherapy provided excellent response rates and lasting remissions without significant toxicity.

  13. Nodular and diffuse fibrous proliferation of the penis and tunica vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Musulen, Eva; Carvia-Ponsaille, Rafael Esteban; Fernandez-Figueras, Maria Teresa; Barranco-Garcia, Juan de Dios; Ariza, Aurelio

    2008-04-01

    Fibrous benign proliferations of the testis and paratesticular tissues are an uncommon and heterogeneous group of lesions that can mimic true neoplasms. Among them, those considered to be reactive proliferations have been included in the category of fibrous pseudotumors and are often associated with trauma, hydrocele, or infection. We report 2 cases of nodular and diffuse fibrous proliferation. This condition is part of the spectrum of reactive benign fibrous lesions and has previously been described in the testicular tunics and paratesticular region only. One of our 2 cases had the peculiarity of being located in the penile shaft, whereas the other involved the tunica vaginalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a diffuse and nodular fibrous tumor involving the penis. PMID:18360130

  14. Pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma coexisting with pulmonary nodular amyloidosis: case discussion and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Lingling; Cheng, Dan; Shi, Huimin; Zhang, Kan; Liao, Yongde; Ao, Qilin; Zhen, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old female was found to have multiple bilateral lung nodules in a routine chest X-ray examination. Thoracoscopy was performed with biopsy of three nodules from the right lower lobe and Congo red staining showed typical amyloid pattern. Initial diagnosis of pulmonary nodular amyloidosis was made. However, one nodule in the right upper lobe enlarged as detected by follow-up CT scan. The patient underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET)/CT and a significant high FDG uptake in the largest nodule in right upper lobe was observed while the uptake was normal or mildly increased in the other nodules. Meanwhile, right hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes adenopathy was noted. Right upper lobe was resected by thoracotomy. Surprisingly, histopathological findings showed pulmonary epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (PEH) with metastasis of hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes. To our knowledge, this is the first described case of PEH coexisting with pulmonary nodular amyloidosis. PMID:25126197

  15. Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy in treatment of recurrent nodular goiter and thyroid cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, Oleg V.; Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Demidov, A. K.; Faizrakhmanov, Alexey B.; Yarovoy, Nicolay N.

    2001-10-01

    Laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy was performed in 29 patients with recurrent nodular and multinodular goiter, and in 3 patients with recurrent inoperable thyroid cancer. There were used transcutaneous puncture under ultrasonic control, diode lasers with wavelength 805, 980, and 1060 nm, quartz monofibers, special computerized thermometer with microthermocouples. Disappearance or significant reduction of nodes in the most goiter cases, and regress of tumor in the cancer cases were marked during observation period (0.5 - 2.5 years).

  16. A comparison of nodular defect seed geometeries from different deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C.J.; Tench, R.J.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Fornier, A.

    1995-12-29

    A focused ion-beam milling instrument commonly utilized in the semiconductor industry for failure analysis and IC repair, is capable of cross-sectioning nodular defects. Utilizing the instrument`s scanning on beam, high-resolution imaging of the seeds that initiate nodular defect growth is possible. In an attempt to understand the origins of these seeds, HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} coatings were prepared by a variety of coating vendors and different deposition processes including e-beam, magnetron sputtering, and ion beam sputtering. By studying the shape, depth, and composition of the seed, inferences of its origin can be drawn. The boundaries between the nodule and thin film provide insight into the mechanical stability of the nodule. Significant differences in the seed composition, geometry of nodular growth and mechanical stability of the defects for sputtered versus e-beam coatings are reported. Differences in seed shape were also observed from different coating vendors using e-beam deposition of HfO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} coatings.

  17. Benign hepatocellular nodules of healthy liver: focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Roncalli, Massimo; Sciarra, Amedeo; Tommaso, Luca Di

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the progress of imaging techniques, benign hepatocellular nodules are increasingly discovered in the clinical practice. This group of lesions mostly arises in the context of a putatively normal healthy liver and includes either pseudotumoral and tumoral nodules. Focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma are prototypical examples of these two categories of nodules. In this review we aim to report the main pathological criteria of differential diagnosis between focal nodular hyperplasia and hepatocellular adenoma, which mainly rests upon morphological and phenotypical features. We also emphasize that for a correct diagnosis the clinical context such as sex, age, assumption of oral contraceptives, associated metabolic or vascular disturbances is of paramount importance. While focal nodular hyperplasia is a single entity epidemiologically more frequent than adenoma, the latter is representative of a more heterogeneous group which has been recently and extensively characterized from a clinical, morphological, phenotypical and molecular profile. The use of the liver biopsy in addition to imaging and the clinical context are important diagnostic tools of these lesions. In this review we will survey their systematic pathobiology and propose a diagnostic algorithm helpful to increase the diagnostic accuracy of not dedicated liver pathologists. The differential diagnosis between so-called typical and atypical adenoma and well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma will also be discussed. PMID:27189732

  18. Treatment of recurrent nodular goiters with percutaneous ethanol injection: a clinical study of twelve patients.

    PubMed

    Solymosi, Tamas; Gál, Istvan

    2003-03-01

    Twelve patients who had previously undergone thyroid surgery received percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) treatment because of recurrent nodular goiter (3 with a toxic [TN], 2 with a nontoxic cystic [NCN], and 7 with a nontoxic solid nodule [NSN]). Two of the 12 had recurrent nerve palsy contralateral to the nodule. Each patient received a mean total dose of 0.88 mL of ethanol per milliliter of nodular volume. Ethanol was injected in a mean of 3.5 sessions for solid and 3 sessions for NCN. In most cases, a slight to moderate burning pain was experienced during and for 12-48 hours after PEI treatment, and one patient experienced temporary hoarseness. One patient with TN and 2 patients with NSN became hypothyroid, 7 patients with nontoxic nodules remained euthyroid, 1 with TN became euthyroid, and a previously hyperthyroid patient with TN became subclinically hyperthyroid 1-year posttherapy. The nodule shrank by more than 50% of the pretreatment volume in all patients (8.6 +/- 2.6 vs. 2.9 +/- 1.2 mL in TN, and 12.3 +/- 4.9 vs. 4.16 +/- 2.54 mL in nontoxic nodules, pretreatment vs. 1 year posttreatment volume, respectively). With regard to the increased risk of reoperation, PEI treatment can be proposed for patients with recurrent nodular goiter requiring surgery. PMID:12729476

  19. Nestin expression is associated with aggressive cutaneous melanoma of the nodular type.

    PubMed

    Ladstein, Rita G; Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Straume, Oddbjørn; Akslen, Lars A

    2014-03-01

    The intermediate filament nestin, a neural stem-cell marker, is reported to be expressed more strongly in melanomas compared with benign melanocytic lesions, and increasingly expressed in advanced melanoma stages. However, the prognostic impact of nestin on melanoma has not been well elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic influence of nestin expression in cutaneous melanoma in comparison with standard clinico-pathologic variables. In a large series of nodular cutaneous melanoma (n=348), nestin expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarray (TMA) sections. For comparison, nestin staining in corresponding metastases as well as in superficial spreading melanomas and benign nevi was also examined. Nestin was expressed to varying degrees in a majority of nodular melanomas (92%), and was significantly associated with increased tumor thickness, high mitotic count, and the presence of ulceration and tumor necrosis. Also, expression was stronger in the nodular type than in superficial spreading melanomas and benign nevi, but without significant difference when compared with matched metastases from the former. Importantly, strong expression of nestin was significantly associated with reduced survival in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, increased nestin expression was associated with aggressive melanoma features, with independent prognostic impact on multivariate survival analysis when compared with clinico-pathologic factors. PMID:24030749

  20. Transcutaneous laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy of nodular goiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Seliverstov, Oleg V.; Revel-Muroz, Jean A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Giniatulin, Ravil U.

    2000-05-01

    In the experiment on 41 dogs the possibilities of Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and diode lasers (805 nm) usage for thermotherapy of thyroid gland was grounded. We founded the regimes of laser irradiation causing local destruction of thyroid glands without damage of surrounding organs and tissues. An intratissue dynamic thermometry control in the thyroid and surrounding tissues and their histological analysis were used for determination of the operating mode. The thermometry was performed with the help of an original setup, specimens for the analysis were taken in the period from 1 - 3 to 130 days after the laser irradiation. The results of the experiments gave occasion to the use of intrathyroid local laser hyperthermia in the treatment of 15 patients with recurrent nodal and multinodal euthyroid goiter and 2 patients with inoperable (incurable) medullary thyroid cancer. The laser thermotherapy was fulfilled transcutaneously with ultrasonic control. No complications were registered during the irradiation and the nearest postoperative period. The dynamic ultrasonic examination of the patients carried out for 3 - 18 months showed a positive effect in all cases.

  1. Giant focal nodular hyperplasia determining Budd-Chiari syndrome: an operative challenge requiring 210 min of liver ischemia.

    PubMed

    Giuliante, Felice; Ardito, Francesco; Ranucci, Giuseppina; Giovannini, Ivo; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2011-12-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a relatively common benign liver tumor with rare indications to surgery. Early after pregnancy, a 35-year-old woman developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain with fever. A large abdominal mass was palpable. Abdominal CT scan showed a 18-cm FNH substituting all liver segments but S6 and S7, compressing middle and left hepatic vein near their origin, displacing and compressing right hepatic vein, with ascites. Surgery consisted of a left hepatectomy extended to S5-S8 and S1. Main technical challenge was the preservation of the right hepatic vein. Intermittent pedicle clamping was performed, associated with hepatic vascular exclusion with preservation of caval flow; total duration of ischemia was 210 min. The postoperative course was uneventful, except for a transient fall in prothrombin time, and the formation of a sub-diaphragmatic serous collection, which was percutaneously drained. The patient is well 25 months after the operation. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case requiring surgery for a FNH causing a Budd-Chiari syndrome. In these peculiar cases a cumbersome operation may be required, maximizing all precautions to perform a risk-free procedure. PMID:21922317

  2. Efficacy and safety of electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Llanas, Olga; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Celada-Alvarez, Francisco Javier; de Unamuno-Bustos, Blanca; Llavador-Ros, Margarita; Ballesta-Cuñat, Antonio; Barker, Christopher A.; Tormo-Mico, Alejandro; Botella-Estrada, Rafael; Perez-Calatayud, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surface electronic brachytherapy (EBT) is an alternative radiotherapy solution to external beam electron radiotherapy and high-dose-rate radionuclide-based brachytherapy. In fact, it is also an alternative solution to surgery for a subgroup of patients. The objective of this work is to confirm the clinical efficacy, toxicity and cosmesis of a new EBT system, namely Esteya® in the treatment of nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Material and methods This is a prospective single-center, non-randomized pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of EBT in nodular and superficial BCC using the Esteya® system. The study was conducted from June 2014 to February 2015. The follow up time was 6 months for all cases. Results Twenty patients with 23 lesions were included. A complete response was documented in all lesions (100%). A low level of toxicity was observed after the 4th fraction in all cases. Erythema was the most frequent adverse event. Cosmesis was excellent, with more than 60% of cases without skin alteration and with subtle changes in the rest. Conclusions Electronic brachytherapy with Esteya® appears to be an effective, simple, safe, and comfortable treatment for nodular and superficial BCC associated with excellent cosmesis. It could be a good choice for elderly patients, patients with contraindications for surgery (due to comorbidities or anticoagulant drugs) or patients where surgery would result in a more disfiguring outcome. A longer follow-up and more studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results. PMID:26207112

  3. Mammotome biopsy under ultrasound control in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions - own experience.

    PubMed

    Kibil, Wojciech; Hodorowicz-Zaniewska, Diana; Kulig, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Mammotome biopsy is an effective, minimally invasive, novel technique used in the verification of breast lesions.The aim of the study was to assess the value of ultrasound-guided vacuum-assisted core needle biopsy (mammotome biopsy) in the diagnostics and treatment of nodular breast lesions, considering own data.Material and methods. Analysis comprised 1183 mammotome biopsies under ultrasound control performed in 1177 female patients during the period between 2000 and 2010, at the Regional Clinic for Early Diagnostics and Treatment of Breast Lesions, I Chair and Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University, Collegium Medicum.Results. The average patient age amounted to 41.7 years. The size of the investigated lesions ranged between 4 and 65 mm (mean - 12 mm). The histopathological examination result was as follows: fibrocystic lesions (n=285), adenofibroma (n=477), adenosis sclerosans (n=188), hyperplasia without atypy (n=58), phyllode tumor (n=2), papilloma (n=14), hamartoma (n=1), atypical hyperplasia (n=25), in situ ductal carcinoma (n=4), in situ lobular carcinoma (n=5), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n=114), infiltrating lobular carcinoma (n=4), non-diagnostic result (n=6). The histopathological diagnosis was obtained in 99.5% of cases. Patients diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or cancer were qualified for surgery, according to accepted standards. The presence of a hematoma was the most common complication after the biopsy, observed in 16.5% of patients.Conclusions. The obtained results confirmed the high value of ultrasound-guided biopsies in the diagnostics of nodular breast lesions. The method is safe, minimally invasive, with few complications, providing a good cosmetic effect. In case of benign lesions with a diameter of less than 15 mm the mammotome biopsy enables to completely excise the lesions, being an alternative to open surgical biopsies. The mammotome biopsy should become the method of choice considering the diagnostics of nodular

  4. Management of Thyroid Nodular Disease: Current Cytopathology Classifications and Genetic Testing.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Lindsay E; Kelz, Rachel R

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative diagnosis and operative planning for patients with thyroid nodules has improved over the last decade. The Bethesda criteria for cytopathologic classification of thyroid nodule aspirate has enhanced communication between pathologists and clinicians. Multiple genetic tests, including molecular markers and the Afirma gene expression classifier, have been developed and validated. The tests, along with clinical and radiologic information, are most useful in the setting of indeterminate cytology. The development of an updated diagnostic and treatment algorithm incorporating all available tests will help standardize the management of patients with nodular thyroid disease and reduce variation and inefficiencies in care. PMID:26610771

  5. Reactive Nodular Fibrous Pseudotumor: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Salihi, Rawand; Moerman, Philippe; Timmerman, Dirk; Van Schoubroeck, Dominique; Op de beeck, Katya; Vergote, Ignace

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a case of a patient diagnosed with a rare identity of a benign lesion, “reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor” (RNFP). It is a tumor which preoperatively can present as a malignant tumor and is only reported in 19 cases. According to the very limited amount of information on this tumor in the literature it is mostly seen after trauma or intraperitoneal inflammation. Our case is the second one of RNFP associated with endometriosis, which is a frequently seen intraperitoneal inflammation process in women. Knowledge that these large pseudotumoral lesions can occur is important to direct the management of these patients. PMID:24800089

  6. Nodular fasciitis in finger simulating soft tissue malignancy☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Soraya Silveira; Ribeiro, Diva Helena; Rodrigues, Tatiane Cantarelli; Junior, Gerson Ferreira Gontijo; Arruda, Kylza; Fernandes, Eloy De Avila

    2014-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rare fibroblastic proliferative lesion, characterized clinically as a solitary mass of hardened and slightly painful on palpation, fast growing and no gender preference. The objective of this study is to report the case of a patient with NF in third finger of left hand, describe the findings of plain radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging and correlate with the literature. Since the diagnosis of NF is a challenge, being necessary to conciliate the clinical, radiological and pathological. PMID:26229780

  7. Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Vibhore; Sharma, Sansar C.; Anil, Juyal; Sachan, P. K.; Harsh, Meena; Singhal, Surina; Raghuvanshi, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    A clear cell hidradenoma is a rare dermal tumor, which is believed to originate from the apical portion of the sweat glands. The usual size reported is 5–30 mm. It is generally found in the head, face, and upper extremity regions. This lesion has not been reported to be large enough to impinge a joint range of motion. Hence, its description in the orthopedic literature is extremely rare. We present a giant benign nodular hidradenoma presenting as painful restriction of the right shoulder joint in a 35-year-old male. PMID:21655004

  8. Risk of Thyroid Nodular Disease and Thyroid Cancer in Patients with Acromegaly – Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wolinski, Kosma; Czarnywojtek, Agata; Ruchala, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acromegaly is a quite rare chronic disease caused by the increased secretion of growth hormone (GH) and subsequently insulin - like growth factor 1. Although cardiovascular diseases remains the most common cause of mortality among acromegalic patients, increased prevalence of malignant and benign neoplasms remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study is to evaluate the risk of thyroid nodular disease (TND) and thyroid cancer in patients with acromegaly. Materials and Methods PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Cinahl, Academic Search Complete, Web of Knowledge, PubMed Central, PubMed Central Canada and Clinical Key databases were searched to identify studies containing. Random–effects model was used to calculate pooled odds ratios and risk ratios of TND in acromegaly. Studies which not included control groups were systematically reviewed. Results TND was more frequent in acromegaly than in control groups (OR = 6.9, RR = 2.1). The pooled prevalence of TND was 59.2%. Also thyroid cancer (TC) proved to be more common in acromegalic patients (OR = 7.5, RR = 7.2), prevalence was 4.3%. The pooled rate of malignancy (calculated per patient) was equal to 8.7%. Conclusions This study confirms that both TND and TC occur significantly more often in acromegalic patients than in general population. These results indicate that periodic thyroid ultrasound examination and careful evaluation of eventual lesions should be an important part of follow-up of patients with acromegaly. PMID:24551163

  9. Electric-Field Enhancement by Nodular Defects in Multilayer Coatings Irradiated at Normal and 45 (degree) Incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Genin, F Y; Pistor,T V

    2003-09-18

    The standing-wave electric-field profile within multilayer coatings is significantly perturbated by a nodular defect. The intensity, which is proportional to the electric field squared, is increased in the high index material by {>=}3x at normal incidence and {>=}12x at 45 degrees incidence angle. Therefore it is not surprising that nodular defects are initiation sites of laser-induced damage. In this study, the impact of reflectance-band centering and incident angle are explored for a 1 {micro}m diameter nodular defect seed overcoated with a 24 layer high-reflector constructed of quarter-wave thick alternating layers of hafnia and silica. The modeling was performed using a three-dimensional finite-element analysis code.

  10. Biology, clinical course and management of nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nogová, Lucia; Rudiger, Thomas; Engert, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) differs in histological and clinical presentation from classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). The typical morphologic signs of NLPHL are atypical "lymphocytic and histiocytic" (L&H) cells, which are surrounded by a non-neoplastic nodular background of small lymphocytes of B-cell origin. The NLPHL cells are positive for CD45, CD19, CD20, CD22 and CD79a, but lack expression of CD15 and CD30, the typical markers for cHL. NLPHL patients are predominantly of male gender with a median age of 37 years. Patients often present in early stages (63%) and rarely have B-symptoms (9%). Treatment of NLPHL patients using standard Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) protocols leads to complete remission (CR) in more than 95% of patients. Survival and freedom from treatment failure (FFTF) are worse in advanced-stage patients than in early-stage patients. Thus, patients in advanced and in early stages with unfavorable risk factors are treated similarly to cHL patients. In contrast, patients with early-stage NLPHL without risk factors can be sufficiently treated with reduced intensity programs having less severe adverse effects. As a result, treatment of early NLPHL is less clearly defined, including radiotherapy in extended field (EF) or involved field (IF) technique, combined modality treatment, and, more recently, monoclonal antibody rituximab. Watch and wait strategy plays an important role in pediatric oncology to avoid adverse effects associated with therapy. PMID:17124071

  11. Potentiation of fibroblast growth by nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Newcom, S R; O'Rourke, L

    1982-07-01

    Cell cultures were established from 8 lymph nodes replaced by nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. Serum-containing and serum-free conditioned media from these cultures potentiated fibroblast growth and were found to be consistently more potent than fibroblast growth factor, 100 ng/ml, every other day. Both a proliferative response and transformation-like growth were observed using BALB/c 3T3 cells, human diploid fibroblasts, and human embryonic fibroblasts as target cells. The Hodgkin's disease growth factor(s) was not produced by fibroblasts or lymphocytes in the Hodgkin's cultures and was most potent when the Hodgkin's cultures had been enriched with Hodgkin's giant cells. Removal of normal macrophages decreased the proliferative activity but did not eliminate it or nonadherent growth of 3T3 cells in agar. Control cultures of 6 nonmalignant lymph nodes, a Lennert's lymphoma, a mixed cellularity Hodgkin's disease lymph node, and a malignant histiocytosis cell line suggested that among lymph node disorders, this feature may be relatively specific for nodular sclerosing Hodgkin's disease. PMID:6211204

  12. Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis of the feet: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Simon A; Beachkofsky, Thomas; Schreml, Stephan; Gaspari, Anthony; Hivnor, Chad M

    2014-02-01

    Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis (PLCNA) is a rare disorder that manifests as the cutaneous formation of nodules composed of light-chain amyloid. Although the type of amyloid deposit is similar to primary systemic amyloidosis, there seems to be little, if any, crossover between the 2 diseases. Because reports of PLCNA are sparse, there is no established protocol for treating this disease. This case report presents a 42-year-old man with a visually striking presentation of PLCNA on both feet with some of the lesions possibly being secondary to trauma, a rare phenomenon. The lesions had been present for more than 4 years, and there were no signs or symptoms of systemic amyloidosis. The lesions responded well to a combination of complete curettage followed by CO2; laser ablation. Primary localized cutaneous nodular amyloidosis is rare and difficult to treat, with high rates of recurrence and a concern for progression to systemic amyloidosis. The diagnosis, workup, treatment, and monitoring of PLCNA also are discussed. PMID:24605345

  13. Nodular thyroid disease in children and adolescents: a high incidence of carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    McHenry, C.; Smith, M.; Lawrence, A.M.; Jarosz, H.; Paloyan, E.

    1988-07-01

    Over a period of 32 years from 1954 to 1986, 65 patients under the age of 21 years, 52 girls and 13 boys, were operated for nodular thyroids: the overall incidence of carcinoma was 37 per cent. It was 46 per cent in those patients presenting with a solitary nodule. Among the 24 patients with a malignancy, the carcinoma was of the papillary variety in 63 per cent, follicular in 25 per cent and medullary in 12 per cent. Two thirds of the patients had metastatic disease at the time of presentation. All patients with thyroid carcinoma were treated with total thyroidectomy. Other measures included neck dissection and radioactive iodine. When the eight patients with a history of head and neck irradiation and the three patients with medullary carcinoma were excluded, the incidence of carcinoma was 28 per cent. In summary, in spite of the decline in radiation associated cases, the incidence of carcinoma in nodular thyroid disease in the population under 21 years, remains at the relatively high figure of 28 per cent.

  14. Physical insight toward electric field enhancement at nodular defects in optical coatings.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinbin; Tuniyazi, Abudusalamu; Wei, Zeyong; Zhang, Jinlong; Ding, Tao; Jiao, Hongfei; Ma, Bin; Li, Hongqiang; Li, Tongbao; Wang, Zhanshan

    2015-04-01

    Although the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique has been prevailingly used to calculate the electric field intensity (EFI) enhancement at nodular defects in high-reflection (HR) coatings, the physical insight as to how the nodular features contribute to the intensified EFI is not explicitly revealed yet, which in turn limits the solutions that improve the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of nodules by decreasing the EFI enhancement. Here, a simplified model is proposed to describe the intensified EFI in nodules: 1) the nodule works as a microlens and its focal length can be predicted using a simple formula, 2) the portion of incident light that penetrates through the HR coating can be estimated by knowing the angular dependent transmittance (ADT) of the nodule, 3) strong EFI enhancement is created when the focal point is within the nodule and simultaneously a certain portion of light penetrates to the focal position. In the light of the proposed model, a broadband HR coating was used to reduce the EFI enhancement at the seed by a factor about 10, which leads to a 20 times increment of the LIDT. This work therefore not only deepens the physical understanding of EFI enhancement at nodules but also provides a new way to increase the LIDT of multilayer reflective optics. PMID:25968699

  15. Bilateral Periventricular Nodular Heterotopia and Lissencephaly in an Infant with Unbalanced t(12;17)(q24.31; p13.3) Translocation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosso, Salvatore; Fichera, Marco; Galesi, Ornella; Luciano, Daniela; Pucci, Lucia; Giardini, Francesca; Berardi, Rosario; Balestri, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia and Miller-Dieker syndrome are two different disorders of brain development. Miller-Dieker syndrome exhibits classical lissencephaly and is related to defects in the lissencephaly gene ("LIS1"). Periventricular nodular heterotopia is characterized by aggregates of grey matter adjacent to the lateral ventricle…

  16. The Immunophenotype of Nodular Variant of Medullary Carcinoma of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Carolina; Nadji, Mehrdad

    2015-10-01

    The histologic and immunohistochemical profile of typical medullary carcinomas (TMC) of the breast are well established. Among the strict histologic criteria for the diagnosis of TMC is complete circumscription of tumor with pushing borders. Those tumors that do not fulfill all morphologic requirements of TMC are designated as atypical medullary carcinomas (AMC). We herewith describe the histology and immunophenotype of a heretofore undescribed variant of TMC composed of multiple distinctly separate nodules that otherwise meet all other histologic and immunohistochemical phenotypes of TMC. Among 2952 cases of infiltrating mammary carcinomas, 111 (3.8%) met the strict criteria for TMC, including positivity for HLA-DR. Nine of these tumors were composed of multiple separate noncoalescing nodules. Immunohistochemical stains for ER, PR, HER2, and HLA-DR, as well as for p53 and Ki-67 were repeated on these nodular forms. Staining for p63 was used to identify possible intraductal components of these tumors. The age of patients ranged from 34 to 53 years. All 9 patients had negative sentinel lymph nodes. Tumors ranged in the overall size from 2.2 to 3.9 cm and were composed of 3 to 6 distinct nodules ranging in size from 0.2 to 1.1 cm surrounding a larger main tumor nodule. The nodules were composed of syncytial groups of large cells with atypical nuclei and prominent nucleoli. A lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate was present within and around each satellite nodule. Serial sections did not show coalescing of the nodules into a single tumor mass. Similarly, staining for p63 failed to support the possibility of nodules representing intraductal components of main tumor. All tumors were negative for ER, PR, and HER2, but positive for HLA-DR. Eight of 9 tumors were diffusely positive for p53 and all 9 showed a high proliferation index in >70% of tumor cells with Ki-67. We conclude that the nodular variants of medullary carcinomas (nTMC) of the breast are uncommon forms of TMC. They

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Helicobacter suis Strain SNTW101, Isolated from a Japanese Patient with Nodular Gastritis.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Hidenori; Takahashi, Tetsufumi; Murayama, Somay Y; Uchiyama, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Suzuki, Masato; Rimbara, Emiko; Shibayama, Keigo; Øverby, Anders; Nakamura, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    We present here the draft whole-genome shotgun sequence of an uncultivated strain SNTW101 of Helicobacter suis, which has been maintained in the stomachs of mice. This strain was originally isolated from gastric biopsy specimens of a urea breath test-negative Japanese patient suffering from nodular gastritis. PMID:27609915

  18. Apogeotropic central positional nystagmus as a sole sign of nodular infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Yi, Hyon-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2012-10-01

    Positional vertigo and nystagmus without associated neurological symptoms and signs are characteristic features of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Although positional nystagmus may occur with caudal cerebellar infarction including the nodulus, positional nystagmus is usually associated with other neurological signs such as spontaneous or gaze-evoked nystagmus, perverted head-shaking nystagmus, cerebellar dysmetria, or severe gait ataxia with falling. We present a patient with nodular infarction who had positional vertigo with nystagmus as a sole manifestation. Video-oculography showed apogeotropic positional horizontal nystagmus during head turning while supine, which was consistent with apogeotropic BPPV involving the horizontal canal. MRI disclosed acute infarct in the nodulus. Nodulus infarction should be considered in a patient with positional nystagmus, especially when the presenting symptoms and signs are consistent with BPPV involving the horizontal canal. PMID:22187336

  19. Reduction of Nodular Growth Pattern of Metastatic Uveal Melanoma after Radioembolization of Hepatic Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Halenda, Kevin M.; Kudchadkar, Ragini R.; Lawson, David H.; Kies, Darren D.; Zhelnin, Kristen E.; Krasinskas, Alyssa M.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to report a case of metastatic uveal melanoma in which radioembolized nodular liver metastases decreased in size while infiltrative sinusoidal metastases progressed, leading to jaundice without obstruction of the biliary ducts. Methods The relevant clinical features, imaging, and histopathologic findings of this case are reviewed. Results A 61-year-old Caucasian male with a history of uveal melanoma of the left eye status post plaque brachytherapy developed numerous liver metastases. After progression on systemic therapies, he underwent palliative radioembolization. Despite some radiographic improvement in the liver metastases, he developed hyperbilirubinemia without biliary tract obstruction or signs of liver failure. A biopsy of radiographically normal liver demonstrated extensive sinusoidal infiltration with melanoma. Conclusions Distinct angiographic and histopathologic growth patterns of metastatic uveal melanoma differ in their amenability to radioembolization. Sinusoidal infiltration may lead to hyperbilirubinemia in the absence of overt obstruction or liver failure. PMID:27239458

  20. Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Yürekli, Yakup; Cengiz, Arzu; Güney, Engin

    2015-10-01

    Graves' disease (GD) may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT) for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA) and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG). We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient's serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels gradually increased. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) were also positive. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse intense uptake after four months of RAIT. Radiation-induced GD should be considered in patients with aggravated hyperthyroidism 3-4 months after therapy. PMID:27529890

  1. PPP6R3-USP6 amplification: Novel oncogenic mechanism in malignant nodular fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruifeng; Wang, Xiaoke; Chou, Margaret M; Asmann, Yan; Wenger, Doris E; Al-Ibraheemi, Alyaa; Molavi, Diana W; Aboulafia, Albert; Jin, Long; Fritchie, Karen; Oliveira, Jennifer L; Jenkins, Robert B; Westendorf, Jennifer J; Dong, Jie; Oliveira, Andre M

    2016-08-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a clonal self-limited neoplastic proliferation characterized by rearrangements of the USP6 locus in most examples. To our knowledge well-documented malignant behavior has never been previously observed in NF. In this report we present an unusual case of NF with classical histologic features that showed a protracted clinical course characterized by multiple recurrences and eventual metastatic behavior over a period of 10 years. Molecular analyses revealed the presence and amplification of the novel PPPR6-USP6 gene fusion, which resulted in USP6 mRNA transcriptional upregulation. These findings further support the oncogenic role of the USP6 protease in mesenchymal neoplasia and expand the biologic potential of NF. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27113271

  2. Von Meyenburg complexes mimicking metastatic disease at laparotomy for focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bieze, Matthanja; Verheij, Joanne; Phoa, Saffire S; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented with symptoms of fatigue and increasing abdominal discomfort. MRI with the hepatobiliary contrast Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist) was performed showing a 6 cm lesion in segment 2/3 of the liver typical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Because of severe complaints attributed to the lesion, the patient was scheduled for resection. At laparotomy multiple small white lesions were found throughout the liver with enlarged locoregional lymph nodes. Macroscopically, the findings could be consistent with widespread metastases and the surgeon felt compelled to determine the nature of these lesions before continuing resection. Final diagnosis revealed multiple bile duct hamartomas and an FNH lesion as was expected. PMID:23814126

  3. Von Meyenburg complexes mimicking metastatic disease at laparotomy for focal nodular hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bieze, Matthanja; Verheij, Joanne; Phoa, Saffire S; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman presented with symptoms of fatigue and increasing abdominal discomfort. MRI with the hepatobiliary contrast Gd-EOB-DTPA (Primovist) was performed showing a 6 cm lesion in segment 2/3 of the liver typical for focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Because of severe complaints attributed to the lesion, the patient was scheduled for resection. At laparotomy multiple small white lesions were found throughout the liver with enlarged locoregional lymph nodes. Macroscopically, the findings could be consistent with widespread metastases and the surgeon felt compelled to determine the nature of these lesions before continuing resection. Final diagnosis revealed multiple bile duct hamartomas and an FNH lesion as was expected. PMID:23814126

  4. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen during pregnancy: Diagnostic challenges and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Corrado, Giacomo; Tabanelli, Valentina; Biffi, Roberto; Petralia, Giuseppe; Tinelli, Andrea; Peccatori, Fedro A

    2016-08-01

    We report the first case of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen diagnosed during pregnancy, discussing differential diagnosis, immunohistochemical profile and treatment. A G2P1 37-year-old woman presented during the 19th week of gestation because of pruritus at lower limbs. To exclude cholestasis, an abdominal ultrasound and whole body magnetic resonance were performed and a single solid lesion with intrinsic vascularization was identified. Therefore, at 22 weeks gestation, after normal fetal assessment, the patient was referred for a splenectomy. No further treatment was suggested and the patient gave birth at 42 weeks gestation with a spontaneous delivery. Distinguishing SANT from other vascular neoplasms of the spleen during pregnancy is a difficult task. Surgical excision should be performed to exclude malignancy and to resolve symptoms, if present. PMID:27080826

  5. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog.

    PubMed

    Besancon, M Faulkner; Stacy, Brian A; Kyles, Andrew E; Moore, Peter F; Vernau, William; Smarick, Sean D; Rasor, Liberty A

    2004-04-15

    A 7-year-old castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was examined because of labored breathing and episodes of respiratory distress that progressed to collapse. On cervical radiographs, a focal soft tissue mass in the caudal cervical portion of the trachea was observed, and during tracheoscopy, a 1 x 1 cm, pedunculated, multinodular, pink, intraluminal mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane and obstructing approximately 80% of the tracheal lumen was seen. Tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed to remove the mass, and the dog recovered without complications. On histologic examination, the mass consisted of a large accumulation of homogeneous, faintly fibrillar eosinophilic material admixed with a predominantly plasma cell infiltrate; examination of sections stained with thioflavin T and Congo red stain confirmed that the eosinophilic material was amyloid. A diagnosis of nodular, immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis was made. Seventeen months after surgery, the dog had a relapse of respiratory distress because of an extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the trachea. PMID:15112779

  6. Ultrasonic cavitation erosion of nodular cast iron with ferrite-pearlite microstructure.

    PubMed

    Mitelea, Ion; Bordeaşu, Ilare; Pelle, Marius; Crăciunescu, Corneliu

    2015-03-01

    The cavitation erosion of ductile cast iron with ferrite-pearlite microstructure was analyzed based on ultrasonic experiments performed according to ASTM G32-2010 and the resistance was compared to the C45 steel with similar hardness. The microstructural observation of the surface for different exposure times to the ultrasonic cavitation reveals the fact that the process initiates at the nodular graphite-ferrite interface and is controlled by micro-galvanic activities and mechanical factors. The cavitation erosion resistance was evaluated based on the evolution of the mean depth erosion and the mean depth erosion rate as a function of the cavitation time. The cavitation erosion rate of the cast iron is up to 1.32 times higher than the one of the C 45 steel with similar hardness. This is explained by the occurrence of stress concentrators due to the expulsion of the graphite from the metallic matrix. PMID:25465881

  7. Graves Disease Induced by Radioiodine Therapy for Toxic Nodular Goiter: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yürekli, Yakup; Cengiz, Arzu; Güney, Engin

    2015-01-01

    Graves’ disease (GD) may be observed as an infrequent adverse effect after radioiodine therapy (RAIT) for toxic thyroid adenoma (TA) and toxic multi nodular goiter (MNG). We present a case of a 55-year-old male with a toxic nodule who was treated with RAI. After therapy, the patient’s serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) levels gradually increased. Antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb), antithyroglobulin (TgAb) and TSH-receptor antibodies (TRAb) were also positive. Thyroid scintigraphy revealed diffuse intense uptake after four months of RAIT. Radiation-induced GD should be considered in patients with aggravated hyperthyroidism 3-4 months after therapy.

  8. Oesophageal variceal bleeding in Felty's syndrome associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia.

    PubMed Central

    Blendis, L M; Lovell, D; Barnes, C G; Ritland, S; Cattan, D; Vesin, P

    1978-01-01

    Four patients with Felty's syndrome developed massive upper gastrointestinal bleeding due to oesophageal varices. The underlying hepatic pathology in all 4 was nodular regenerative hyperplasia. This appears to be a difficult histological diagnosis to make, having been initially reported as normal on percutaneous biopsy or as fibrosis or cirrhosis on wedge biopsy. This series brings the total number of cases reported in the English literature of this association to 12, suggesting a definite symptom complex. The portal hypertension seems to be due to a combination of increased splenic blood flow and postsinusoidal resistance. The clinical importance of this syndrome is that the appropriate therapy for bleeding oesophageal varices appears to be shunt procedure such as a splenorenal shunt with splenectomy, which should be well tolerated. Images PMID:306226

  9. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen: A case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tian-Bao; Hu, Bao-Guang; Liu, Da-Wei; Gao, Zhen-Hua; Shi, Han-Ping; Dong, Wen-Guang

    2016-01-01

    Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) is a rare benign splenic vascular lesion. Since it was first defined in 2004, a total of 132 cases of SANT have been reported in ~50 studies in the English literature. However, it remains difficult to form a definitive pre-operative differential diagnosis of SANT compared with other splenic tumors or malignant lesions. The present study reports a pathologically proven case of SANT in a 29-year-old man who initially presented with left upper quadrant and back discomfort. The study also provides a review of the current knowledge on the condition, including the clinical profile, imaging features, cytological features, differential diagnosis and treatment of SANT. The most important distinguishing features of SANT are its typical vascular character and lack of other features that are typical of a granuloma. A splenectomy is required and the diagnosis is based on pathological analysis. PMID:27446372

  10. A gene expression signature that distinguishes desmoid tumours from nodular fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Bacac, M; Migliavacca, E; Stehle, J-C; McKee, T; Delorenzi, M; Coindre, J-M; Guillou, L; Stamenkovic, I

    2006-03-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly growing cellular mass composed of fibroblasts/myofibroblasts, usually localized in subcutaneous tissues, that typically undergoes fibrosis and almost never recurs. Desmoid tumours (DTs) are rare forms of fibroblastic/myofibroblastic growth that arise in deep soft tissues, display a propensity for local infiltration and recurrence, but fail to metastasize. Given that both entities are primarily fibroblastic/myofibroblastic lesions with overlapping histological features, their gene expression profiles were compared to identify differentially expressed genes that may provide not only potential diagnostic markers, but also clues as to the pathogenesis of each disorder. Differentially expressed transcripts (89 clones displaying increased expression in DTs and 246 clones displaying increased expression in NF) included genes encoding several receptor and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (EPHB3, PTPRF, GNAZ, SYK, LYN, EPHA4, BIRC3), transcription factors (TWIST1, PITX2, EYA2, OAS1, MITF, TCF20), and members of the Wnt signalling pathway (AXIN2, WISP1, SFRP). Remarkably, almost one-quarter of the differentially expressed genes encode proteins associated with inflammation and tissue remodelling, including members of the interferon (IFN), tumour necrosis factor (TNF), and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling pathways as well as metalloproteinases (MMP1, 9, 13, 23), urokinase plasminogen activator (PLAU), and cathepsins. The observations provide the first comparative molecular characterization of desmoid tumours and nodular fasciitis and suggest that selected tyrosine kinases, transcription factors, and members of the Wnt, TGF-beta, IFN, and TNF signalling pathways may be implicated in influencing and distinguishing their fate. PMID:16440290

  11. Mesangial cell hillocks. Nodular foci of exaggerated growth of cells and matrix in prolonged culture.

    PubMed Central

    Sterzel, R. B.; Lovett, D. H.; Foellmer, H. G.; Perfetto, M.; Biemesderfer, D.; Kashgarian, M.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the capability of glomerular mesangial cells (MCs) to produce extracellular matrix, the authors studied MCs in culture by light and electron microscopy as well as immunocytochemistry. MCs were obtained from isolated rat glomeruli and maintained up to 12 weeks in medium containing 20% fetal calf serum. MC outgrowth of primary culture and of up to three subcultures showed characteristic organization consisting of bands of elongated or stellate intertwined cells. After confluency at 10-16 days, MCs continued to grow in irregular multilayers. MCs produced extracellular matrix material within 2-4 days after plating, and large amounts of matrix accumulated with time. By 2-3 weeks, foci of exaggerated MC proliferation, matrix secretion, and necrotic cell debris formed nodular protrusions, which gradually produced large hillocks. Immunocytochemical studies of MC outgrowths were performed on culture plates or on sectioned material with the use of specific rabbit polyclonal antibodies to isolated matrix proteins and FITC-conjugated, affinity-purified second antibodies. Within 3 days of culture, MCs elaborated fibronectin and collagen Types I, III, IV, and V. With time, strands of matrix, notably in the central mass of hillocks, stained extensively for these constituents. Staining for laminin was less pronounced. Smooth muscle cell myosin was regularly found on distinct intracellular fibrils and in the extracellular material of hillocks. Electron microscopy revealed the hillocks to be composed of elongated cells on the surface and stellate cells intermingled with matrix and necrotic cell debris in the core. The results show that proliferating MCs can be maintained in homogeneous culture for a prolonged time period. MCs produce large amounts of the extracellular matrix proteins (Type IV and V collagen, fibronectin, laminin), which are found in normal glomeruli. Cultured MCs also produce interstitial collagen Types I and III. MC hillocks show the nodular accumulation

  12. Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small bowel associated with common variable immunodeficiency and giardiasis: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Olmez, Sehmus; Aslan, Mehmet; Yavuz, Alpaslan; Bulut, Gulay; Dulger, Ahmet Cumhur

    2014-05-01

    Diffuse nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (DNLH) of the intestine is an extremely rare lymphoproliferative disorder of uncertain etiology. Typically, numerous polypoid nodules composed of hyperplastic benign lymphoid tissue are present in the small and/or large intestinal mucosa. DNLH has been observed in association with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). A 38-years-old man was admitted to our clinic due to dyspeptic complaints. An upper gastrointestinal system endoscopic examination revealed DNLH in the duodenum. A biopsy specimen showed the presence of nodular lymphoid hyperplasia and a Giardia lamblia infection in the duodenum. CVID was suspected, and the diagnosis was established by demonstrating a significant reduction in the serum gamma-globulin levels. DNLH is a rare benign condition with regards to diagnosis and treatment of unknown etiology. In patients with DNLH, screening for the immune deficiencies is being important in addition to histopathological examinations. PMID:24647448

  13. Identification of a Mycobacterium sp. as the causative agent of orange nodular lesions in the Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Catherine; Huntsberger, Carl; Markey, Kathryn; Inglis, Susan; Smolowitz, Roxanna

    2016-03-30

    The Atlantic sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus is an economically important species in the offshore fisheries on the east coast of the USA. Recently, animals collected from waters ranging from Massachusetts to Maryland have shown variably sized (up to 1 cm in diameter) orange nodular foci, predominantly in the adductor muscle tissue, but also in other organs. Histological evaluation of the nodular lesions showed rod-shaped bacteria that stain acid-fast positive and Gram-positive. PCR methodology was employed to identify the causative organism of the nodules as a Mycobacterium sp. using analysis of the partial 16S gene and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer region. Based upon genotypic findings, the causative bacterium fits well into the genus Mycobacterium. PMID:27025312

  14. Idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis in a never-smoking, normotensive, non-obese, normal-glucose-tolerant middle-aged woman.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Takahiro; Oda, Takashi; Watanabe, Atsushi; Higashi, Keishi; Katsurada, Yuka; Shimazaki, Hideyuki; Tamai, Seiichi; Kumagai, Hiroo

    2012-10-01

    A 53-year-old woman with a history of dyslipidemia presented with medium-grade proteinuria and several years of progressive renal dysfunction. Renal biopsy showed diffuse and global Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodule like nodular mesangial sclerosis, but she had no history of diabetes mellitus, no diabetic retinopathy and normal oral glucose tolerance. Congo red staining was negative, and immunofluorescence staining showed no immunoglobulin deposition including kappa or lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed no electron dense deposits or organized deposits. Thus, we diagnosed idiopathic nodular glomerulosclerosis (ING). ING is a recently established clinicopathologic disease entity linked to longstanding cigarette smoking and hypertension. Obesity is also listed as a contributing factor. However, none of these factors was documented in this case. This is a valuable case of ING that suggests the existence of as-yet unknown causative factors of ING other than smoking, hypertention or obesity. PMID:26019825

  15. [A Case of Early Gastric Cancer with Nodular Tumor-like Scalp Metastasis].

    PubMed

    Song, Young Wook; Kim, Woo Sub; Yun, Gee Young; Park, Sun Wook; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-07-25

    Many neoplasms, including lung cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, and gastrointestinal tract malignancy, possess potential for skin metastasis. Skin metastases can represent the first presentation of such malignancies and may be observed incidentally during routine exam. Skin metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma are uncommon, with a prevalence rate of 0.04-0.8%. Cutaneous metastases from gastric cancer are generally observed as the initial symptom of advanced gastric cancer. Early detection and treatment can increase patient survival. A 42-year-old woman visited our department with nodule about 1 cm in size on the right frontal scalp noticed incidentally after laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy and adjuvant systemic chemo-therapy for early gastric cancer about 16 months prior. The patient was diagnosed with skin metastasis from gastric adenocarcinoma. Complete excision of the skin lesion and additional chemotherapy were performed. Herein, we report a case of nodular tumor-like scalp metastasis from early gastric cancer with a brief review of the literature. PMID:27443622

  16. Differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia using 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT.

    PubMed

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W; Bieze, Matthanja; Beuers, Ulrich H; van Gulik, Thomas M; Bennink, Roelof J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of PET/CT with (18)F-fluorocholine in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Patients with liver lesions larger than 2 cm suspicious for HCA or FNH were prospectively included. All patients underwent PET/CT with (18)F-fluorocholine and histopathological diagnosis was obtained by either liver biopsy or surgery. The ratios between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the lesion and the mean SUV of normal liver parenchyma were calculated and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Ten patients with FNH and 11 with HCA were included. The mean SUV ratio was 1.68±0.29 (±SD) for FNH and 0.88±0.18 for HCA (p<0.001). An SUV ratio cut-off value between 1.12 and 1.22 differentiated patients with FNH from those with HCA with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. This pilot study showed that PET/CT with (18)F-fluorocholine can differentiate HCA from FNH. PMID:20717825

  17. Differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia using 18F-fluorocholine PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    van den Esschert, Jacomina W.; Bieze, Matthanja; Beuers, Ulrich H.; Bennink, Roelof J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the use of PET/CT with 18F-fluorocholine in the differentiation of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) from focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH). Patients with liver lesions larger than 2 cm suspicious for HCA or FNH were prospectively included. All patients underwent PET/CT with 18F-fluorocholine and histopathological diagnosis was obtained by either liver biopsy or surgery. The ratios between the maximum standardized uptake value (SUV) of the lesion and the mean SUV of normal liver parenchyma were calculated and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Ten patients with FNH and 11 with HCA were included. The mean SUV ratio was 1.68±0.29 (±SD) for FNH and 0.88±0.18 for HCA (p<0.001). An SUV ratio cut-off value between 1.12 and 1.22 differentiated patients with FNH from those with HCA with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity. This pilot study showed that PET/CT with 18F-fluorocholine can differentiate HCA from FNH. PMID:20717825

  18. Adenoma or atypical hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: role of preoperative imaging and laparoscopic treatment.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Isidoro; Pulvirenti, Elia; Toro, Adriana; Priolo, Gian Domenico

    2010-06-01

    Differentiation of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and other hypervascular liver lesions, such as hepatocellular adenoma (HCA), is important because of the drastically different therapeutic approach. However, FNH can be well distinguished only if it shows a typical aspect; alternatively, in the case of atypical FNH, imaging findings are not specific enough to provide a secure diagnosis and histologic verification of the lesion is required. In addition, HCA cannot be identified conclusively by any current available imaging technique and it can be at best suspected strongly, and this suspicion may lead to liver resection. Herein we report a case of a patient with an unusual FNH nodule presenting at ultrasonographic scanning as an isoechoic mass arising from hepatic segment 4b; the diagnostic indecision between FNH and HCA was not definitively solved even after computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging and the patient was scheduled for a laparoscopic resection. The pathologic examination diagnosed an atypical FNH nodule. The clinical doubt between FNH and HCA remains a problem affecting the clinicians, and more effort should be made in the direction of a better preoperative differentiation of such different conditions. Surgical resection should not be considered as the failure of the preoperative diagnostic attempt, but as the mainstay for a definitive and sure diagnosis. PMID:20551788

  19. Influence of Heat Treatment on Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Nodular Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruthiventi, S.; Basavakumar, K. G.; Nambala, S.; Subramanyacharyulu, G.

    2014-04-01

    Spheroidal Graphite Iron (SG Iron) is popularly known as ductile iron or nodular cast iron which is a special case of cast iron having carbon content of more than 3 wt% in volume and graphite is in the form of spherical tiny sized particles. Since the last three decades, the demand for SG Iron has been increasing due to its superior mechanical properties such as high strength and toughness, this nature leads to the usage of SG Iron in numerous industrial applications. From the earlier studies, it has been proved that addition of alloying elements to SG Iron leads to change in properties such as increased tensile strength and hardness. Heat-treatment of alloys is one of the valuable methods to achieve better properties. In the present study, the microstructures and mechanical properties of SG Iron were studied after various heat treatments beyond the limits, and tests were done to measure its mechanical properties like tensile strength, hardness, impact strength. Digital microphotographs, scanning electron microphotographs were analysed before and after the heat treatment. Results indicated great change in mechanical properties after the heat-treatment. From the results it can be concluded that the heat treatment of SG Iron results in changed composition of alloys, which also leads to economical growth of SG Iron.

  20. Case report of nodular melanoma within congenital melanocytic nevus- primary closure challenge

    PubMed Central

    Eljuga, Domagoj; Milas, Ivan; Kirac, Iva; Stanec, Mladen; Vrdoljak, Danko Velimir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Congenital melanocytic nevi (CMN) are present in 1–2% of newborn infants. The size of CMN defines the risk of developing melanoma which is estimated from 5–10%, especially in lesions that are located across the spine. Presentation of case Herein we report a case where nodular melanoma was discovered on the periphery of medium sized CMN in a high risk patient. After complete excision, the defect was reconstructed with random pattern, triple rhomboid flap. Discussion Melanoma that arose within medium sized CMN would leave a complex posterior lower trunk defect. We used a triple Limberg flap which was proven to be straightforward and simple method when large defects are to be covered with vital tissue. We have also showed that this type of reconstruction is suitable for high risk patients that could not withstand any complex procedures. Conclusion In our case, the method we choose to reconstruct the defect proved to be simple, safe and easy, especially when surgery is performed in a high risk patient. PMID:26826932

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of nodular fasciitis in the mental region.

    PubMed

    Katada, Tsutomu; Tsuchimochi, Makoto; Oda, Takaaki; Sasaki, Yoshihiko; Toyama, Michio; Katagiri, Masataka

    2004-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a benign reactive lesion of the soft tissues related to the fascia and characterized by fibroblastic proliferation. The most common site is the upper extremities (46%), followed by the head and neck region (20%). In the orofacial region, the lesion typically develops within the subcutaneous structures overlying the angle and inferior border of the mandible and the zygoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of NF in the orofacial region are almost unreported in the literature. In the present case report, we describe MRI findings of mental NF in a 19-year-old woman. MRI revealed a well-defined, round soft-tissue mass lying on the mentum. On T1-weighted MRI, the lesion was isointense to skeletal muscle; it was hyperintense to skeletal muscle on T2-weighted MRI, and was enhanced by Gd-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA). Histologic examination revealed abundant myxoid degeneration dispersed in the lesion. The T2-weighted higher heterogeneous signal intensity was likely due to abundant myxoid degeneration or the cellular component of the lesion. A strong bright signal intensity belt appeared in the periphery of the lesion on Gd-DTPA enhancement. This rim enhancement appeared to represent small arterioles and venules that were visible in the peripheral area on histologic examination. PMID:15490310

  2. Undifferentiated metastatic renal cell carcinoma presenting as a cutaneous nodular lesion.

    PubMed

    Paolino, Giovanni; Lido, Paolo; Bei, Roberto; Polisca, Patrizio

    2015-12-01

    Cutaneous metastases may be the first sign of clinically silent visceral cancer. Approximately 30% of patients with primary renal cell carcinoma present with metastatic disease, and only 8% of them have skin metastases. We present the case of a 59-year-old male patient with a subcutaneous nodular on the upper chest extending to the jugular region. The lesion appeared skin colored and was not painful and 5 cm × 3.5 cm in diameter. The histological examination of the cutaneous biopsy showed an infiltration of undifferentiated epithelial cells positive to cytokeratins AE1/AE3, whereas they were negative to CK-20, CK5/6, cluster of differentiation 10, vimentin, thyroid transcription factor-1, S-100, human melanoma black-45, hepatocyte-specific antigen, carcinoembryonic antigen, and chromogranin A. A total-body computed tomography (CT) showed the presence of a tumoral lesion in the left kidney with multiple metastases in the lung, brain, and bones. According to the cutaneous biopsy and total-body CT, a final diagnosis of an undifferentiated renal carcinoma presenting as a subcutaneous metastasis was made. A chemotherapeutic treatment with gemcitabine and cisplatin resulted in the stabilization of the renal and metastatic lesions with an improvement in the quality of life of the patient. Considering that the prognosis of patients with cutaneous metastases is very poor, it is necessary to obtain an appropriate diagnosis in order to identify patients with treatable disease with the purpose of starting a therapeutic protocol. PMID:26623153

  3. Characterization of Hepatic Adenoma and Focal Nodular Hyperplasia with Gadoxetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Mohajer, Kiyarash; Frydrychowicz, Alex; Robbins, Jessica B.; Loeffler, Agnes G.; Reed, Thomas D; Reeder, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To characterize imaging features of histologically proven hepatic adenoma (HA) as well as histologically and/or radiologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) using delayed hepatobiliary MR imaging with 0.05mmol/kg gadoxetic acid. Materials and Methods Five patients with six HAs with histological correlation were retrospectively identified on liver MRI studies performed with gadoxetic acid, and T1-weighted imaging acquired during the delayed hepatobiliary phase. Additionally, 23 patients with 34 radiologically diagnosed FNH lesions (interpreted without consideration of delayed imaging) were identified, two of which also had histological confirmation. Signal intensity ratios relative to adjacent liver were measured on selected imaging sequences. Results All six hepatic adenomas (100%), which had histological confirmation, demonstrated hypointensity relative to adjacent liver on delayed imaging. Further, all of the FNH (including 34 radiologically proven, 2 of which were also histologically proven) were either hyperintense (23/34, 68%) or isointense (11/34, 32%) relative to the adjacent liver on delayed imaging. None of the FNHs were hypointense relative to liver. Conclusion Distinct imaging characteristics of HA versus FNH on delayed gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI, with adenomas being hypointense and FNH being iso- or hyperintense on delayed imaging may improve specificity for characterization, and aid in the differentiation of these two lesions. PMID:22674623

  4. Ultrasonographic Differentiation Between Nodular Hyperplasia and Neoplastic Follicular-Patterned Lesions of the Thyroid Gland.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong Sub; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Min, Hye Sook; Won, Jae-Kyung; Yun, Tae Jin; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul-Ho

    2016-08-01

    We evaluate the gray-scale ultrasonographic characteristics that differentiate between nodular hyperplasia (NH) and neoplastic follicular-patterned lesions (NFPLs) of the thyroid gland. Ultrasonographic features of 750 patients with 832 thyroid nodules (NH, n = 361; or NFPLs, follicular adenoma, n = 123; follicular carcinoma, n = 159; and follicular variant papillary carcinoma, n = 189) were analyzed. Except for echogenicity, over two-thirds of the cases of NH and NFPLs share the ultrasonographic characteristics of solid internal content, a well-defined smooth margin and round-to-ovoid shape. Independent predictors for NH were non-solid internal content (sensitivity 27.1%, specificity 90.2%), isoechogenicity (sensitivity 69.5%, specificity 63.5%) and an ill-defined margin (sensitivity 18.8%, specificity 94.5%). Independent predictors for NFPLs were hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 60.5%, specificity 70.4%), marked hypoechogenicity (sensitivity 2.8%, specificity 99.4%) and taller-than-wide shape (sensitivity 6.6%, specificity 98.1%). Although NH and NFPLs commonly share ultrasonographic characteristics, non-solid internal content and ill-defined margin are specific to NH and marked hypoechogenicity and taller-than-wide shape are specific to NFPLs. PMID:27166018

  5. Highly recurrent mutations of SGK1, DUSP2 and JUNB in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, S; Schuhmacher, B; Rausch, T; Fuller, L; Döring, C; Weniger, M; Lollies, A; Weiser, C; Thurner, L; Rengstl, B; Brunnberg, U; Vornanen, M; Pfreundschuh, M; Benes, V; Küppers, R; Newrzela, S; Hansmann, M-L

    2016-04-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL)-a subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL)-is characterized by a low content of tumor cells, the lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells. Transformation into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) occurs in about 10% of patients. We performed whole-genome mutation analysis of the DLBCL components from two composite lymphomas consisting of clonally related NLPHL and DLBCL as a means to identify candidate tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in NLPHL. The analysis of LP cells for selected mutations of the DLBCL revealed that most mutations are also present in the LP cells, indicating a close relationship between the two components. The analysis of 62 selected genes in NLPHL by targeted ultra-deep sequencing revealed three novel highly recurrently mutated genes (each mutated in ~50% of cases), that is, DUSP2, SGK1 and JUNB. SGK1 was expressed in the LP cells of primary NLPHL cases and in the NLPHL cell line DEV. Administration of an SGK1 inhibitor induced apoptosis in the NLPHL cell line DEV and the DLBCL cell line Farage, suggesting a pathogenetic role of SGK1 in the LP and DLBCL cells. In summary, the present study identifies SGK1, DUSP2 and JUNB as novel key players in the pathogenesis of NLPHL. PMID:26658840

  6. Midkine: A Novel Biomarker to Predict Malignancy in Patients with Nodular Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kuzu, Fatih; Arpaci, Dilek; Altas, Ayfer; Haytaoglu, Gürkan; Can, Murat; Barut, Figen; Kokturk, Furuzan; Ilikhan, Sevil Uygun; Bayraktaroglu, Taner

    2016-01-01

    Background. Midkine (MK), a new heparin-binding growth factor, plays important roles in a variety of biological phenomena such as carcinogenesis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate serum midkine (SMK) and nodular midkine (NMK) levels in patients with thyroid nodules to predict malignancy and whether there was any association between. Methods. A total of 105 patients (74 women, 31 men) with thyroid nodules were enrolled. The levels of SMK and NMK were measured. Any possible correlation between SMK, NMK, and biochemical, cytopathological, or radiological variables was investigated. Results. Both SMK and NMK were found to be higher in hypoechoic nodules with an irregular border and without a halo (p < 0.05). Serum MK levels were significantly higher in nodules with microcalcifications than nodules with macrocalcification or without calcification (p = 0.001). SMK levels were found to be correlated with NMK levels (SMK 0.63 ng/ml versus 1.04 ng/mL and NMK 0.55 ng/mL versus 0.55 ng/mL, r2 = 0.54, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Both SMK and NMK can predict tumorigenesis of highly malignant/suspicious thyroid cytopathology and also well correlated with sonographic features of thyroid nodules. We suggest that MK levels may serve as an alternative biomarker, in conjunction with the cytopathological results in preoperative assessment of thyroid nodules. PMID:27446208

  7. Focal nodular hyperplasia of the liver: an emerging complication of hematopoietic SCT in children.

    PubMed

    Pillon, M; Carucci, N S; Mainardi, C; Carraro, E; Zuliani, M; Chemello, L; Calore, E; Tumino, M; Varotto, S; Toffolutti, T; Destro, R; Gazzola, M V; Alaggio, R; Basso, G; Messina, C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is a nonmalignant condition rarely affecting children previously treated for cancer, especially those who received hematopoietic SCT (HSCT). Some aspects of its pathogenesis still remain unclear and a strong association with specific risk factors has not yet been identified. We report here a single institution's case series of 17 patients who underwent HSCT and were diagnosed with FNH, analyzing retrospectively their clinical features and the radiological appearance of their hepatic lesions. We aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to explore the role of transient elastography (FibroScan) to evaluate the degree of hepatic fibrosis in FNH patients. Our analysis showed an association of FNH with age at transplant ⩽12 years (hazard ratio (HR) 9.10); chronic GVHD (HR 2.99); hormone-replacement therapy (HR 4.02) and abdominal radiotherapy (HR 4.37). MRI proved to be a more accurate diagnostic tool compared with US. Nine out of 12 patients who underwent FibroScan showed hepatic fibrosis. Our study points out that FNH is an emerging complication of HSCT, which requires a lifelong surveillance to follow its course in cancer patients. PMID:25581411

  8. Children with Cushing's syndrome: Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease should always be suspected.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Renata Marques Gonçalves; Pinto, Emília; Goldman, Suzan M; Andreoni, Cássio; Vieira, Teresa C; Abucham, Julio

    2011-03-01

    Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease (PPNAD) is a rare form of bilateral adrenocortical hyperplasia that is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner and leads to ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome (CS). PPNAD may be isolated or associated with Carney Complex (CNC). For the diagnosis of PPNAD and CNC, in addition to the hormonal and imaging tests, searching for PRKAR1A mutations may be recommended. The aims of the present study are to discuss the clinical and molecular findings of two Brazilian patients with ACTH-independent CS due to PPNAD and to show the diagnostic challenge CS represents in childhood. Description of two patients with CS and the many sequential steps for the diagnosis of PPNAD is provided. Sequencing analysis of all coding exons of PRKAR1A in the blood, frozen adrenal nodules (patients 1 and 2) and testicular tumor (patient 1) is performed. After several clinical and laboratory drawbacks that misled the diagnostic investigation in both patients, the diagnosis of PPNAD was finally established and confirmed through pathology and molecular studies. In patient 1, sequencing of PRKAR1A gene revealed a novel heterozygous 10-bp deletion in exon 3, present in his blood, adrenal gland and testicular tumor. The etiologic diagnosis of endogenous CS in children is a challenge that requires expertise and a multidisciplinary collaboration for its prompt and correct management. Although rare, PPNAD should always be considered among the possible etiologies of CS, due to the high prevalence of this disease in this age group. PMID:20924687

  9. Multifocal Nodular Fatty Infiltration of the Liver: A Case Report of a Challenging Diagnostic Problem

    PubMed Central

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico; Jwad, Anees; Khan, Abdul Quyyum; Long, Ervine; Sissons, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Female, 59 Final Diagnosis: Multifocal nodular fatty infiltration of the liver Symptoms: None Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Rare disease Background: Fatty infiltration of the liver usually has a diffuse pattern, but in very rare cases it presents as multiple focal lesions of the liver, mimicking metastases. A correct diagnosis is crucial to address prognosis and eventual treatment. Case Report: We present the case of a completely fit and asymptomatic patient referred for multiple bilateral liver metastases of unknown origin. She had no previous history of malignancy. She was extensively investigated with all locally available methods, including ultrasound scan, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, upper and lower gastrointestinal endoscopy, and diagnostic laparoscopy. Imaging-guided biopsy and laparoscopic biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of multifocal fatty infiltration of the liver. Conclusions: The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging and an accurate initial clinical history must be part of a thorough clinical examination. Multimodal imaging is mandatory, but diagnostic laparoscopy with direct macrobiopsy may be necessary to clear all doubts. PMID:27017525

  10. Cellular localization of CIP2A determines its prognostic impact in superficial spreading and nodular melanoma.

    PubMed

    Flørenes, Vivi Ann; Emilsen, Elisabeth; Dong, Hiep Phuc; Førsund, Mette; Holm, Ruth; Slipicevic, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A) is an important oncogene contributing to cancer progression partially by regulating cMYC and AKT. We examined CIP2A expression in cutaneous melanomas, its association with clinicopathological parameters and mapped molecular mechanisms regulated by CIP2A in vitro. CIP2A expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 17 nevi, 132 primary melanomas and 49 metastases. Effects of siRNA-mediated down-regulation on proliferation, apoptosis and signaling pathways were assessed in melanoma cell lines. In superficial spreading melanomas (SSM), high nuclear CIP2A expression was associated with poor overall survival (OS) (P = 0.0018). Surprisingly, high cytoplasmic expression was related to improved relapse-free (P = 0.031) and OS (P = 0.014) in nodular melanomas (NM). In vitro experiments revealed that CIP2A can regulate proliferation and/or apoptosis partially through the PI3K/AKT pathway but also independently. In summary, CIP2A could represent a potential therapeutic target in SSM. However, in NM cytoplasmic CIP2A is associated with improved prognosis indicating that CIP2A has distinct, complex functions dependent on the molecular context and histological subtype. As seen in other cancer types, CIP2A can influence cMYC and AKT, but our data also suggest that in melanoma it has additional targets which need to be identified. PMID:25663244

  11. Xq26.1-26.2 gain identified on array comparative genomic hybridization in bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia with overlying polymicrogyria.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yu; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Kobayashi, Satoru; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Tanaka, Soichiro; Inui, Takehiko; Kunishima, Shinji; Kure, Shigeo; Haginoya, Kazuhiro

    2014-12-01

    Periventricular nodular heterotopia (PNH) with overlying polymicrogyria (PMG) is a recently described, developmental brain malformation; however, the causative genes of this malformation have not yet been identified. We report on a 5-year-old Japanese male with bilateral PNH with overlying PMG. He had mild intellectual disability, distinctive facial features, short stature, and microcephaly, with cardiac disorders. No mutation was identified in Sanger sequences for FLNA and ARFGEF2; however, array comparative genomic hybridization revealed an approximately 0.8Mb gain at Xq26.1-26.2, which included three genes: IGSF1, OR13H1, and FIRRE. We identified the same 3-copy gain in his mother; despite identifying the same abnormality in the mother, it must still be considered as a possible cause for the abnormalities, as X-inactivation in the mother could have led to her not expressing the same phenotype. This case may provide important clues for identifying the genes responsible and help in the understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:25052774

  12. B-cell transcription factors Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1, Bcl-6, and MUM1 are useful markers for the diagnosis of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herbeck, Rosemarie; Teodorescu Brînzeu, D; Giubelan, Marioara; Lazăr, Elena; Dema, Alis; Ioniţă, Hortensia

    2011-01-01

    In some instances, the overlap in morphologic features and antigen expression between nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) can cause confusion in the diagnosis. In these cases, the transcription factors (TFs) B-cell specific activator protein (BSAP)/Pax-5, octamer binding protein-2 (Oct-2), B-lymphocyte-specific co-activator BOB.1/OBF.1, Bcl-6 protein and multiple myeloma-1/interferon regulatory factor-4 (MUM1/IRF-4) may aid in clarifying the diagnosis. Twenty-two cases of NLPHL were studied for the immunohistochemical expression of Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1, Bcl-6 protein and MUM1/IRF-4. Our results sustain the usefulness of the selected set of TFs to diagnose and distinguish NLPHL from cHL since Pax-5, Oct-2, BOB.1 and Bcl-6 are consistently expressed by lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells and reported by others to be often unexpressed in Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg cells. By contrast, MUM1/IRF-4 protein scored negative in the majority of LP cells, but is reported to be expressed in almost all cases of cHL. Thus, although the expression of transcription factors is very heterogeneous, their simultaneous implementation for positive and differential diagnosis may be useful. PMID:21424034

  13. Clonality and allelotype analyses of focal nodular hyperplasia compared with hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Yi-Ran; Gong, Li; Teng, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Hong-Tu; Wang, Cheng-Feng; Wei, Guo-Lian; Guo, Lei; Ding, Fang; Liu, Zhi-Hua; Pan, Qin-Jing; Su, Qin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify clonality and genetic alterations in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and the nodules derived from it. METHODS: Twelve FNH lesions were examined. Twelve hepatocellular adenomas (HCAs) and 22 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) were used as references. Nodules of different types were identified and isolated from FNH by microdissection. An X-chromosome inactivation assay was employed to describe their clonality status. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) was detected, using 57 markers, for genetic alterations. RESULTS: Nodules of altered hepatocytes (NAH), the putative precursors of HCA and HCC, were found in all the FNH lesions. Polyclonality was revealed in 10 FNH lesions from female patients, and LOH was not detected in any of the six FNH lesions examined, the results apparently showing their polyclonal nature. In contrast, monoclonality was demonstrated in all the eight HCAs and in four of the HCCs from females, and allelic imbalances were found in the HCAs (9/9) and HCCs (15/18), with chromosomal arms 11p, 13q and 17p affected in the former, and 6q, 8p, 11p, 16q and 17p affected in the latter lesions in high frequencies (≥ 30%). Monoclonality was revealed in 21 (40%) of the 52 microdissected NAH, but was not found in any of the five ordinary nodules. LOH was found in all of the 13 NAH tested, being highly frequent at six loci on 8p, 11p, 13q and 17p. CONCLUSION: FNH, as a whole, is polyclonal, but some of the NAH lesions derived from it are already neoplastic and harbor similar allelic imbalances as HCAs. PMID:19787833

  14. Outcomes of liver resection in hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Bieze, Matthanja; Busch, Olivier R C; Tanis, Pieter J; Verheij, Joanne; Phoa, Saffire S K S; Gouma, Dirk J; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The clinical management of hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) is still subject to controversy, especially with respect to patient selection for surgery. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to assess the outcomes of surgical intervention. Methods: Between January 2008 and September 2012, patients diagnosed with FNH or HCA based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography were enrolled in this prospective study. Resection was undertaken in patients with HCA of >5 cm or symptomatic lesions. Lesion characteristics, extent of liver resection (minor: fewer than three segments; major: three or more segments), morbidity (by Dindo–Clavien class), mortality, postoperative length of stay and symptoms [McGill Pain Questionnaire, including a visual analogue scale (VAS)] were evaluated. Results: A total of 110 patients (106 female; median age: 39 years) were included; 51 patients had HCA and 59 had FNH. Of the 110 patients, 49 underwent resection (33 HCA patients; 16 FNH patients). Laparoscopic minor resection was performed in five HCA and five FNH patients; open minor resection was performed in 19 HCA and seven FNH patients, and open major resection was performed in nine HCA and four FNH patients. Severe postoperative complications were observed in four patients (Grade III, n = 3; Grade IV, n = 1). Median baseline scores on the VAS were 6 in FNH patients and 7 in HCA patients; the median VAS score after resection was 0 (P = 0.008). Conclusions: If patients with HCA and FNH require surgery, limited resection can be carried out with low morbidity and without mortality. Patients with preoperative symptoms show a high rate of postoperative symptom relief. PMID:23509949

  15. Focal nodular hyperplasia: characterisation at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    An, H S; Kim, Y J; Jung, S I; Jeon, H J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the enhancement patterns of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR images were evaluated in 23 patients with 30 FNHs (26 histologically proven and 4 radiologically diagnosed). The lesion enhancement patterns of the hepatobiliary phase images were classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous signal intensity (SI), and as dominantly high/iso or low SI compared with those of adjacent liver parenchyma. Heterogeneous (any) SI lesions and homogeneous low SI lesions were categorised into the fibrosis group, whereas homogeneous high/iso SI lesions were categorised into the non-fibrosis group. Additionally, lesion SI on T2 weighted images, DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between the two groups. Results: The lesions showed heterogeneous high/iso SI (n=16), heterogeneous low SI (n=5), homogeneous high/iso SI (n=7) or homogeneous low SI (n=2) at the hepatobiliary phase MR images. The fibrosis group lesions were more likely to show high SI on DW images and T2 weighted images compared with those in the non-fibrosis group (p<0.05). ADC values tended to be lower in the fibrosis group than those in the non-fibrosis group without significance. Conclusion: FNH showed variable enhancement patterns on hepatobiliary phase images during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. SI on DW and T2 weighted images differed according to the fibrosis component contained in the lesion. Advances in knowledge: FNH shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DW MRI. PMID:23873903

  16. Intrasinusoidal cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in nodular regenerative hyperplasia of the liver.

    PubMed

    Ziol, Marianne; Poirel, Helene; Kountchou, Gisele N; Boyer, Olivier; Mohand, Djamila; Mouthon, Luc; Tepper, Maryline; Guillet, Jean-Gerard; Guettier, Catherine; Raphael, Martine; Beaugrand, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Diffuse nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) of the liver is an acquired architectural disturbance that can lead to portal hypertension. Although frequently associated with autoimmune or hematologic malignancies, its exact pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We observed CD8+ cytotoxic T cells in the liver sinusoids of 14 of 44 NRH patients and explored possible relationships between these lymphocytes and vascular damage. The immunophenotype of intrahepatic lymphocytes was determined using immunohistochemical analysis and endothelial injury using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling method for apoptosis combined with endothelial cell labeling. Controls for the quantitative analysis of liver-infiltrating lymphocytes consisted of patients with chronic hepatitis C or normal liver (n = 13 and n = 6, respectively). Liver specimens from the 14 patients dislayed intrasinusoidal infiltrate composed of CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes, located near atrophic liver cell plates. Significantly more granzyme B+ and CD57+ lymphocytes were observed in NRH than chronic hepatitis C samples with quantitatively similar CD8+ infiltrates. Double-labeling revealed apoptotic endothelial sinusoidal cells in CD8+ T-cell-infiltrated areas in all NRH samples but never in chronic hepatitis C or normal livers. T-cell receptor rearrangement or immunoscope analysis suggested liver-specific polyclonal or oligoclonal T-cell expansions. Clinical and biological characteristics of the 14 patients were similar to those observed in the 30 patients with NRH devoid of lymphocytic infiltration. We report here that CD8+ cytotoxic T cells infiltrated the liver sinusoids of a high percentage (32%) of NRH patients and suggest that some NRH cases might result from chronic, cytotoxic CD8+ T-lymphocyte targeting of sinusoidal endothelial cells. PMID:15492992

  17. Morphometric changes in subcortical structures of the central auditory pathway in mice with bilateral nodular heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Truong, Dongnhu T; Rendall, Amanda R; Rosen, Glenn D; Fitch, R Holly

    2015-04-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCD) have been observed in human reading and language impaired populations. Injury-induced MCD in rodent models of reading disability show morphological changes in the auditory thalamic nucleus (medial geniculate nucleus; MGN) and auditory processing impairments, thus suggesting a link between MCD, MGN, and auditory processing behavior. Previous neuroanatomical examination of a BXD29 recombinant inbred strain (BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J) revealed MCD consisting of bilateral subcortical nodular heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis. Subsequent behavioral characterization showed a severe impairment in auditory processing-a deficient behavioral phenotype seen across both male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice. In the present study we expanded upon the neuroanatomical findings in the BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mouse by investigating whether subcortical changes in cellular morphology are present in neural structures critical to central auditory processing (MGN, and the ventral and dorsal subdivisions of the cochlear nucleus; VCN and DCN, respectively). Stereological assessment of brain tissue of male and female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mice previously tested on an auditory processing battery revealed overall smaller neurons in the MGN of BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J mutant mice in comparison to BXD29/Ty coisogenic controls, regardless of sex. Interestingly, examination of the VCN and DCN revealed sexually dimorphic changes in neuronal size, with a distribution shift toward larger neurons in female BXD29-Tlr4(lps-2J)/J brains. These effects were not seen in males. Together, the combined data set supports and further expands the observed co-occurrence of MCD, auditory processing impairments, and changes in subcortical anatomy of the central auditory pathway. The current stereological findings also highlight sex differences in neuroanatomical presentation in the presence of a common auditory behavioral phenotype. PMID:25549859

  18. Nodular amyloidoma and primary pulmonary lymphoma with amyloid production: a differential diagnostic problem.

    PubMed

    Dacic, S; Colby, T V; Yousem, S A

    2000-09-01

    Nodular amyloidomas (NA) of the lung are non-neoplastic inflammatory nodules containing eosinophilic amyloid deposits and a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate. In some instances, the extensive amyloid deposits may obscure an underlying lymphoproliferative disorder. The histologic and immunohistologic features that discriminate these two differential diagnostic possibilities were studied in this series of six cases of NA and five cases of primary low-grade malignant lymphomas of lung with secondary amyloid deposits (ML). Two of lymphoma cases showed histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (B-cell CLL/SLL), and three cases were low-grade B-cell lymphoma derived from mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). Key discriminating morphologic features between NA and ML included lymphatic tracking of the cellular infiltrate (3/5 ML; 1/6 NA), pleural infiltration (3/5 ML; 0/6 NA), sheet-like masses of plasma cells (5/5 ML; 0/6 NA) and reactive follicles (4/5 ML; 1/6 NA). Lesional circumscription, vascular and bronchial destruction, lymphoepithelial lesions, and granulomas were not helpful discriminators. Immunohistochemical features indicating a dominant CD20+, CD79a+ B-cell population (5/5 ML; 0/6 NA), light chain restriction (4/5 ML; 0/6 NA), and aberrant antigen expression of CD20/CD43 (2/5 ML; 0/6 NA) were helpful. Amyloid tumors with a reactive lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate can be separated from low-grade malignant lymphomas utilizing both histologic and immunohistochemical features. PMID:11007032

  19. Compositions of sedimentary strata, nodular features and veins at the base of Mount Sharp, Gale crater, Mars: an APXS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, L. M.; Gellert, R.; Spray, J. G.; Berger, J. A.; Boyd, N.; Campbell, J. L.; de Souza, E.; Pavri, B.; Perrett, G. M.; VanBommel, S.; Yen, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    Since the MSL Curiosity rover arrived at the lower most slopes of Mount Sharp, the APXS instrument has encountered four distinct bedrock compositions, two of which have not previously been encountered on the mission, indicating different source regions and/or post -depositional alteration/diagenetic histories. Raised, resistant nodular features are interpreted as diagenetic and exhibit elevated,and positively correlated Mg, S and Ni. Late vein networks and associated resistant fins reveal a complex texture and chemistry, recording multiple fluid flow events.

  20. Development of nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) with portal hypertension following the administration of oxaliplatin for the recurrence of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Takaya, Hiroaki; Kawaratani, Hideto; Nakanishi, Keisuke; Takeyama, Shinya; Morioka, Chie; Sawai, Masayoshi; Toyohara, Masahisa; Fujimoto, Masao; Yoshiji, Hitoshi; Yamao, Junichi; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH) is associated with autoimmune and hematologic diseases and may lead to portal hypertension. We herein report a case of NRH diagnosed based on a liver biopsy. A 63-year-old woman developed esophageal varices and splenomegaly. She had undergone surgery for transverse colon cancer 24 years earlier and received systemic chemotherapy (FOLFOX4 including oxaliplatin) to treat lymph node metastasis 21 years after the operation. The present liver biopsy confirmed NRH, and, after two years, she received endoscopic injection sclerotherapy. Oxaliplatin was suspected to be the causative agent of NRH in this case. Therefore, physicians must consider the possibility of NRH in patients who receive chemotherapy. PMID:25748953

  1. Description of a Rare Case of Nodular Fasciitis of the Apical Aspect of the Upper Buccal Sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ana Amélia; Cariri Neto, Eldon Guttenberg; de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti; Passador-Santos, Fabricio; Alves, Maria Teresa de Seixas; Soares, Andresa Borges

    2016-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of nodular fasciitis (NF) of the oral cavity, discussing the clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical characteristics. Histopathologic diagnosis of this type of lesion can be challenging due to its differential diagnosis, which principally includes sarcoma. The patient presented with a painless, well-defined nodule, reported as increasing in size, located at the apical aspect of the upper left buccal sulcus. Histologically, the lesion revealed spindle cell proliferation arranged in fascicles, while immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for smooth muscle actin. Eight months after complete surgical excision, no signs of local recurrence have been observed. PMID:27066277

  2. Management of Nodular Lymphocyte Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Modern Era

    SciTech Connect

    King, Martin T.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Link, Michael P.; Natkunam, Yasodha; Advani, Ranjana H.; Hoppe, Richard T.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To analyze treatment outcomes for nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) at a single institution. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed NLPHL between 1996 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients treated before 1996 were excluded because the majority received extended field radiation therapy (RT) alone. Results: Fifty-five patients (22 ≤ 21 years old) were identified. The median follow-up time was 6.8 years. Among 37 patients with limited-stage (I-II) disease, treatments included involved field RT at a median dose of 36 Gy (n=9), rituximab monotherapy (n=9), observation (n=3), and response-adaptive therapy (n=16), in which the RT dose was reduced from 25.5 Gy to 15 Gy or was eliminated based on interim imaging after chemotherapy. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 76.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 63.1-92.4). Nine patients experienced progression, including 5 receiving rituximab, 2 undergoing observation, and 2 receiving response-adaptive therapy. Rituximab was associated with an inferior PFS compared with RT alone (P=.02). The difference in PFS between response-adaptive therapy and RT alone was not statistically significant (P=.39). Among 18 patients with advanced-stage (III-IV) disease, treatments included chemotherapy alone (n=3), combined modality therapy (CMT) (n=2), response-adaptive therapy (n=2), rituximab (n=7), and observation (n=4). The 5-year PFS was 29.9% (CI, 13.3-67.4). Twelve patients experienced progression, including 1 receiving chemotherapy, 1 receiving CMT, 6 receiving rituximab, and 4 undergoing observation. There was no significant PFS difference between rituximab and non-rituximab therapies (P=.19) within the caveat of small sample sizes. In the entire cohort, 9 patients (3 with limited disease, 6 with advanced disease) experienced large cell transformation (LCT). Seven patients died; of those, 5 died with LCT. Conclusions: For limited disease, response-adaptive therapy

  3. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  4. Multiple Cavitary Pulmonary Nodules Caused by Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Seo Ree; Choi, Joon Young; Choi, Jae Woo; Ko, Yu Mi; Jang, Sun Hee; Park, Jun Kyu; Sung, Ye Gyu; Park, Yun Jung; Oh, Su Yun; Bahk, Se Young; Lee, Ju Hyun; Kim, Myung Sook

    2016-07-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been increasingly recognized as an important cause of chronic pulmonary infections. The Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which is composed of two species, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracelluare, is the most commonly encountered pathogen associated with NTM lung disease. MAC pulmonary infection typically presents in a fibrocavitary form or a nodular bronchiectatic form. However, there have been atypical presentations of MAC pulmonary infections, including solitary pulmonary nodules (SPN). There have been several previous reports of SPN due to MAC infection in the United States, Japan, and Korea. In 2009, Sekine and colleagues reported a case of MAC pulmonary infection presenting with multiple nodules. To date, however, there have been no cases of NTM lung infection with multiple cavitary pulmonary nodules, and neither a fibrotic change nor nodular bronchiectasis. The present case showed a multiple cavitating nodular lung infection due to MAC, which is very rare and different from the typical presentation of MAC pulmonary infections. We also showed that percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration can be a useful diagnostic tool to evaluate a case of multiple cavitary nodules. PMID:27468344

  5. Active Mg Estimation Using Thermal Analysis: A Rapid Method to Control Nodularity in Ductile Cast Iron Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez, Ramon; Sertucha, Jon; Larrañaga, Pello; Lacaze, Jacques

    2016-07-01

    Appropriate nodularity in ductile iron castings is strongly associated with the presence of high enough not combined Mg dissolved in the melt to cast. However, the residual Mg which is commonly measured for production control accounts for both dissolved Mg and Mg combined as oxides and sulfides. To account for the uncertainties associated with such a control, it is quite usual to over treat the melt with the risk of porosity appearance. A new methodology based on thermal analysis has been developed in the present work so as to estimate the amount of free Mg dissolved in the melt ready for pouring. A combination of Te mixture and a new "reactive mixture" composed of sulfur plus a commercial inoculant has been prepared for this purpose. This reactive mixture is able to transform the magnesium remaining dissolved in the melt to combined forms of this element. Experiments performed both during start of production (when Mg overtreatment is usual) and during normal mass production indicate that important variations of free Mg occur without relevant changes in residual Mg content as determined by spectrometry. The method developed in the present work has shown to be highly effective to detect those melt batches where active Mg content is not high enough for guaranteeing a correct nodularity of castings. Selection of proper active Mg thresholds and a correct inoculation process are critical to avoid "false"-negative results when using this new method.

  6. Clinical, pathological, and molecular data on desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma: case studies and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, Aurore; Bertozzi, Anne Isabelle; Bourdeaut, Franck; Sevely, Annick; Loukh, Najat; Grison, Camille; Miquel, Catherine; Lafon, Delphine; Sevenet, Nicolas; Pietsch, Torsten; Dufour, Christelle; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to better define the clinical and biopathological features of patients with desmoplastic/nodular medulloblastoma (DNMB) and to further characterize this subgroup. 17 children aged < 5 years, with initial DNMB treated according to the HIT-SKK protocol, were evaluated. A retrospective central radiological review, a pathological and immunohistochemical study, and array-CGH and sequencing of germline SUFU and PTCH1 genes were performed. 15 histologically reviewed cases were confirmed as DNMB including three cases of medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity. Median age at diagnosis was 26 months. Radiology showed five cases with a vermis location and one with T2 hyperintensity. All cases showed a SHH immunoprofile. A 9q deletion was found in 6 cases, a MYCN-MYCL amplification in 1 case, and a SUFU germline mutation in 1 case (/9). The presence of SUFU and PTCH1 germline mutations agreed with previous reports. At 3 years, progression-free survival and overallsurvival rates were 72 ± 15% and 85 ± 10%, respectively. The rate of recurrence was relatively high (4 patients). This may have been because chemotherapy was delayed in two cases. Age > 3 years, and residual tumor may also have been an explanation for recurrence. PMID:26857864

  7. Podocyte-Specific VEGF-A Gain of Function Induces Nodular Glomerulosclerosis in eNOS Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Veron, Delma; Aggarwal, Pardeep K.; Velazquez, Heino; Kashgarian, Michael; Moeckel, Gilbert

    2014-01-01

    VEGF-A and nitric oxide are essential for glomerular filtration barrier homeostasis and are dysregulated in diabetic nephropathy. Here, we examined the effect of excess podocyte VEGF-A on the renal phenotype of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knockout mice. Podocyte-specific VEGF164 gain of function in eNOS−/− mice resulted in nodular glomerulosclerosis, mesangiolysis, microaneurysms, and arteriolar hyalinosis associated with massive proteinuria and renal failure in the absence of diabetic milieu or hypertension. In contrast, podocyte-specific VEGF164 gain of function in wild-type mice resulted in less pronounced albuminuria and increased creatinine clearance. Transmission electron microscopy revealed glomerular basement membrane thickening and podocyte effacement in eNOS−/− mice with podocyte-specific VEGF164 gain of function. Furthermore, glomerular nodules overexpressed collagen IV and laminin extensively. Biotin-switch and proximity ligation assays demonstrated that podocyte-specific VEGF164 gain of function decreased glomerular S-nitrosylation of laminin in eNOS−/− mice. In addition, treatment with VEGF-A decreased S-nitrosylated laminin in cultured podocytes. Collectively, these data indicate that excess glomerular VEGF-A and eNOS deficiency is necessary and sufficient to induce Kimmelstiel-Wilson–like nodular glomerulosclerosis in mice through a process that involves deposition of laminin and collagen IV and de-nitrosylation of laminin. PMID:24578128

  8. A comparison of the risk factors of intrahepatic recurrence, early recurrencen, and multiple recurrences after resection for single nodular hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    An, Hyun Joon; Shin, Woo Young; Ahn, Seung-Ik

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Intrahepatic recurrence is one of the most important causes of compromised prognosis after surgical resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This retrospective study was designed to identify and compare the risks of recurrence, early recurrence and multiple recurrences in a single patient population. Methods A series of 92 consecutive patients, who received resection for single nodular HCC at our institute from January 2007 to December 2013, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into recurrent and non-recurrent groups; the recurrent group was further divided into subgroups by applying two criteria: early and late recurrence (with a cutoff of 18 months), and single and multiple (≥2) recurrence. The potential risk factors were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. The subgroup analysis was performed to determine the effects of different cut-off values on the analysis. Results 41 recurrences (44.6%) occurred during a mean follow-up of 42.4 months. The Child-Pugh score, and the portal vein invasion were found to be independent risk factors of recurrence, but differentiation was the only independent risk factor of early recurrence. The serum alpha-fetoprotein, tumor size, tumor necrosis, and hemorrhage were found to be the risk factors of multiple recurrences according to the univariate analysis, but lacked significance according to the multivariate analysis. When the cutoffs for early and multiple recurrences were changed to ≤10 months and >3 nodules, respectively, different risk factors were identified. Conclusions Our results implicated that different factors can predict the recurrence, timing, and multiplicity of an HCC recurrence. Further studies should be conducted to prove the complex relationships between tumor burden, invasiveness, and underlying liver cirrhosis for initial tumors, and the timing and multiplicity of recurrent HCC. PMID:26379729

  9. Testate amoeba Rhogostoma minus Belar, 1921, associated with nodular gill disease of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Dyková, I; Tyml, T

    2016-05-01

    The case study targeted to determine the aetiology of nodular gill disease (NGD) of farmed rainbow trout. The methods included microscopical examination of gill material in fresh, culturing of isolated organisms, histology, transmission electron microscopy and molecular biology identification. The results revealed an intravital colonization of fish gills by the testate amoeba Rhogostoma minus Belar, 1921. Rhogostoma infection was found in all fish examined microscopically (15/15); in contrast, naked amoebae related to fully developed NGD lesions were found in minority of these fish (5/15). They belonged to four genera, Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Vannella. Results presented in this study contribute to the mosaic of findings that contrary to amoebic gill disease of marine fish turn attention to the possibility of the heterogeneous, multi-amoeba-species and multifactorial aetiology of NGD. PMID:25952929

  10. Aleukemic Leukemia Cutis Manifesting with Disseminated Nodular Eruptions and a Plaque Preceding Acute Monocytic Leukemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yonal, Ipek; Hindilerden, Fehmi; Coskun, Raif; Dogan, Oner Ibrahim; Nalcaci, Meliha

    2011-01-01

    Aleukemic leukemia cutis (ALC), a discrete tumor of leukemic cells involving the skin, may be the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia, preceding the onset in marrow and blood by months and years. ALC is often difficult to diagnose and is associated with a dismal prognosis. A 63-year-old male presented with nodular swellings on the face, a plaque extending over the right shoulder and multiple enlarged cervical lymph nodes. The skin biopsy of the plaque lesion showed a diffuse neoplastic infiltration extending from the dermis to subcutaneous tissue with diffuse positivity for myeloperoxidase and focal positivity for CD34 on immunohistochemical staining. The diagnosis was leukemia cutis. One month later, acute monocytic leukemia (FAB AML-M5b) was diagnosed. The patient died on the seventh month of diagnosis. PMID:22187541

  11. Perineal nodular indurations ("accessory testicles") in cyclists. Fine needle aspiration cytologic and pathologic findings in two cases.

    PubMed

    Vuong, P N; Camuzard, P; Schoonaert, M F

    1988-01-01

    The cytologic and histologic findings from two cases of perineal nodular indurations observed in two cyclists are reported. These lesions, also referred to as "accessory testicles" or "third testicle" or "ischial hygromas" of cyclists, consist of a localized aseptic area of necrosis with pseudocyst formation involving connective tissue in the superficial fascia of the perineum. These histologic findings, which were seen in the subsequent surgical specimens in these two cases, were reflected in the fine needle aspiration findings. The aspirates contained few cellular elements, mainly a few vacuolated histiocytes, against a background of fibrinous material. These indurations, which develop as a result of repeated, chronic microtrauma to the perineum impressed by the vibration of the saddle of the bicycle, constitute an authentic handicap for the professional cyclist and are a contraindication to cycling for amateur cyclists. PMID:3336958

  12. Rare case of an abdominal mass: Reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor of the stomach encroaching on multiple abdominal organs

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Xiao-Jiang; Chen, Chuang-Qi; Li, Yin; Ma, Jin-Ping; Li, Zhi-Xun; Cai, Shi-Rong; He, Yu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Reactive nodular fibrous pseudotumor (RNFP), which presents abdominal clinical manifestations and malignant radiographic results, usually requires radical resection as the treatment. However, RNFP has been recently described as an extremely rare benign post-inflammatory lesion of a reactive nature, which typically arises from the sub-serosal layer of the digestive tract or within the surrounding mesentery in association with local injury or inflammation. In addition, a postoperative diagnosis is necessary to differentiate it from the other reactive processes of the abdomen. Furthermore, RNFP shows a good prognosis without signs of recurrence or metastasis. A 16-year-old girl presented with a 3-mo history of epigastric discomfort, and auxiliary examinations suggested a malignant tumor originating from the stomach; postoperative pathology confirmed RNFP, and after a 2-year follow-up period, the patient did not display any signs of recurrence. This case highlights the importance of preoperative pathology for surgeons who may encounter similar cases. PMID:24749124

  13. Combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach for numerical simulation of nodular cast iron solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subasic, E.; Huang, C.; Jakumeit, J.; Hediger, F.

    2015-06-01

    The ongoing increase in the size and capacity of state-of-the-art wind power plants is highlighting the need to reduce the weight of critical components, such as hubs, main shaft bearing housings, gear box housings and support bases. These components are manufactured as nodular iron castings (spheroid graphite iron, or SGI). A weight reduction of up to 20% is achievable by optimizing the geometry to minimize volume, thus enabling significant downsizing of wind power plants. One method for enhancing quality control in the production of thick-walled SGI castings, and thus reducing tolerances and, consequently, enabling castings of smaller volume is via a casting simulation of mould filling and solidification based on a combination of microscopic model and VoF-multiphase approach. Coupled fluid flow with heat transport and phase transformation kinetics during solidification is described by partial differential equations and solved using the finite volume method. The flow of multiple phases is described using a volume of fluid approach. Mass conservation equations are solved separately for both liquid and solid phases. At the micro-level, the diffusion-controlled growth model for grey iron eutectic grains by Wetterfall et al. is combined with a growth model for white iron eutectic grains. The micro-solidification model is coupled with macro-transport equations via source terms in the energy and continuity equations. As a first step the methodology was applied to a simple geometry to investigate the impact of mould-filling on the grey-to-white transition prediction in nodular cast iron.

  14. Electronic brachytherapy for superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma: a report of two prospective pilot trials using different doses

    PubMed Central

    Pons-Llanas, Olga; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Celada-Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Barker, Christopher A.; Tormo-Micó, Alejandro; Pérez-Calatayud, Jose; Botella-Estrada, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a very common cancer in the Caucasian population. Treatment aims to eradicate the tumor with the lowest possible functional and aesthetic impact. Electronic brachytherapy (EBT) is a treatment technique currently emerging. This study aims to show the outcomes of two consecutive prospective pilot clinical trials using different radiation doses of EBT with Esteya® EB system for the treatment of superficial and nodular basal cell carcinoma. Material and methods Two prospective, single-center, non-randomized, pilot studies were conducted. Twenty patients were treated in each study with different doses. The first group (1) was treated with 36.6 Gy in 6 fractions of 6.1 Gy, and the second group (2) with 42 Gy in 6 fractions of 7 Gy. Cure rate, acute toxicity, and late toxicity related to cosmesis were analyzed in the two treatment groups. Results In group 1, a complete response in 90% of cases was observed at the first year of follow-up, whereas in group 2, the complete response was 95%. The differences with reference to acute toxicity and the cosmetic results between the two treatment groups were not statistically significant. Conclusions Our initial experience with Esteya® EB system to treat superficial and nodular BCC shows that a dose of 36.6 Gy and 42 Gy delivered in 6 fraction of 7 Gy achieves a 90% and 95% clinical cure rate at 1 year, respectively. Both groups had a tolerable toxicity and a very good cosmesis. The role of EBT in the treatment of BCC is still to be defined. It will probably become an established option for selected patients in the near future. PMID:26985197

  15. Tumor necrosis is associated with increased alphavbeta3 integrin expression and poor prognosis in nodular cutaneous melanomas

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Ingeborg M; Ladstein, Rita G; Straume, Oddbjørn; Naumov, George N; Akslen, Lars A

    2008-01-01

    Background Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are considered important in cancer progression, but these features have not been much studied in melanomas. Our hypothesis was that rapid growth in cutaneous melanomas of the vertical growth phase might lead to tissue hypoxia, alterations in apoptotic activity and tumor necrosis. We proposed that these tumor characteristics might be associated with changes in expression of cell adhesion proteins leading to increased invasive capacity and reduced patient survival. Methods A well characterized series of nodular melanoma (originally 202 cases) and other benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (109 cases) were examined for the presence of necrosis, apoptotic activity (TUNEL assay), immunohistochemical expression of hypoxia markers (HIF-1 α, CAIX, TNF-α, Apaf-1) and cell adhesion proteins (αvβ3 integrin, CD44/HCAM and osteopontin). We hypothesized that tumor hypoxia and necrosis might be associated with increased invasiveness in melanoma through alterations of tumor cell adhesion proteins. Results Necrosis was present in 29% of nodular melanomas and was associated with increased tumor thickness, tumor ulceration, vascular invasion, higher tumor proliferation and apoptotic index, increased expression of αvβ3 integrin and poor patient outcome by multivariate analysis. Tumor cell apoptosis did also correlate with reduced patient survival. Expression of TNF-α and Apaf-1 was significantly associated with tumor thickness, and osteopontin expression correlated with increased tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67). Conclusion Tumor necrosis and apoptotic activity are important features of melanoma progression and prognosis, at least partly through alterations in cell adhesion molecules such as increased αvβ3 integrin expression, revealing potentially important targets for new therapeutic approaches to be further explored. PMID:19061491

  16. 99mTc-MIBI radio-guided minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: experience with patients with normal thyroids and nodular goiters.

    PubMed

    Casara, Dario; Rubello, Domenico; Cauzzo, Cristina; Pelizzo, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The surgical approach to primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is changing. In patients with a high probability to be affected by a solitary parathyroid adenoma (PA), a unilateral neck exploration (UNE) or a minimally invasive radio-guided surgery (MIRS) using the intraoperative gamma probe (IGP) technique have recently been proposed. We investigated the role of IGP in a group of 84 patients with primary HPT who were homogeneously evaluated before surgery by a single-day imaging protocol including 99mTcO4/MIBI subtraction scan and neck ultrasound (US) and then operated on by the same surgical team. Quick parathyroid hormone (QPTH) was intraoperatively measured in all cases to confirm successful parathyroidectomy. In 70 patients with scan/US evidence of a single enlarged parathyroid gland (EPG) and with a normal thyroid gland, MIRS was planned. In the other 14 patients, the IGP technique was utilized during a standard bilateral neck exploration (BNE) because of the presence of concomitant nodular goiter (11 cases) or multiglandular disease (MGD) (3 cases). The IGP technique consisted of the following: (1) in the operating room, a low 99mTc-MIBI dose (37 MBq) was injected intravenously during anesthesia induction; (2) subsequently, the patient's neck was scanned with the probe by the surgeon to localize the cutaneous projection of the EPG; (3) in patients who underwent MIRS, the EPG was detected intraoperatively with the probe and removed through a small, 2 to 2.5 cm skin incision; (4) radioactivity was measured on the EPG both in vivo and ex vivo, the thyroid, the background and the parathyroid bed after EPG removal. In patients with concomitant nodular goiter, the radioactivity was also measured on the thyroid nodules. Surgical and pathologic findings were consistent with a single PA in 78 patients, parathyroid carcinoma in 2, and MGD in 4. MIRS was successfully performed in 67 of the 70 patients (97.7%) in whom this approach was planned. It must be pointed out that

  17. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(2)±2.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do. PMID:27065461

  18. Lung Postmortem Autopsy Revealing Extramedullary Involvement in Multiple Myeloma Causing Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Aurélie; Perbet, Sébastien; Guièze, Romain; Guérin, Renaud; Gayraud, Guillaume; Aliane, Jugurtha; Tremblay, Aymeric; Pascal, Julien; Ledoux, Albane; Chaleteix, Carine; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bay, Jacques-Olivier; Bazin, Jean-Etienne; Constantin, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary involvement with multiple myeloma is rare. We report the case of a 61-year-old man with past medical history of chronic respiratory failure with emphysema, and a known multiple myeloma (Durie and Salmon stage III B and t(4;14) translocation). Six months after diagnosis and first line of treatment, he presented acute dyspnea with interstitial lung disease. Computed tomography showed severe bullous emphysema and diffuse, patchy, multifocal infiltrations bilaterally with nodular character, small bilateral pleural effusions, mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and a known lytic lesion of the 12th vertebra. He was treated with piperacillin-tazobactam, amikacin, oseltamivir, and methylprednisolone. Finally, outcome was unfavourable. Postmortem analysis revealed diffuse and nodular infracentimetric infiltration of the lung parenchyma by neoplastic plasma cells. Physicians should be aware that acute respiratory distress syndrome not responding to treatment of common causes could be a manifestation of the disease, even with negative BAL or biopsy and could be promptly treated with salvage therapy. PMID:25165587

  19. Advanced-stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma compared with classical Hodgkin lymphoma: a matched pair outcome analysis.

    PubMed

    Xing, Katharine H; Connors, Joseph M; Lai, Anky; Al-Mansour, Mubarak; Sehn, Laurie H; Villa, Diego; Klasa, Richard; Shenkier, Tamara; Gascoyne, Randy D; Skinnider, Brian; Savage, Kerry J

    2014-06-01

    Due to disease rarity, there is limited information regarding the optimal therapy and outcome for patients with advanced-stage nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL). Forty-two patients with NLPHL by the Revised European-American Lymphoma/World Health Organization classification with advanced-stage disease were identified and paired 1:2 with a matched control with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) matched by age, gender, stage, decade of diagnosis, and treatment received. The median follow-up was 11.3 years (range, 1.9 to 35.5 years) for NLPHL patients and 10.7 years (range, 1.6 to 26.3 years) for CHL patients. The majority received doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD)-like chemotherapy. Although the 10-year overall survival (OS) (P = .579) and HL freedom from treatment failure (HL-FFTF) were similar between NLPHL and CHL patients (75% vs 73%; P = .610), the time to progression (TTP), which also includes the development of secondary aggressive lymphoma, was inferior in NLPHL (10-year, 63% vs 73%; P = .040). Splenic involvement was associated with an inferior 10-year TTP in patients treated with ABVD (48% vs 71%; P = .049) and an increased cumulative incidence of secondary aggressive lymphoma (P = .014) providing a rationale for further evaluation of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) with rituximab in NLPHL. PMID:24713929

  20. Molecular detection of avian pox virus from nodular skin and mucosal fibrinonecrotic lesions of Iranian backyard poultry.

    PubMed

    Gholami-Ahangaran, Majid; Zia-Jahromi, Noosha; Namjoo, Abdolrasul

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, some outbreaks of skin lesions suspected to be avian pox were observed in the backyard poultry in different parts of western areas in Iran. Consequently, 328 backyard poultries with suspected signs of avian pox virus infection were sampled. All birds showed nodular lesions on unfeathered head skin and/or fibronecrotic lesions on mucus membrane of the oral cavity and upper respiratory tract. For histopathological analysis, the sections of tissue samples from cutaneous lesions of examined birds were stained with H&E method. For PCR, after DNA extraction a 578-bp fragment of avian pox virus from 4b core protein gene was amplified. Results showed 217 and 265 out of 328 (66.1 and 80.7%, respectively) samples were positive for avian pox virus on histopathological and PCR examination, respectively. In this study, the samples that had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies on pathologic examination were PCR positive. This study revealed that PCR is a valuable tool for identification of an avian pox virus and that the frequency of pox infection in backyard poultry in western areas of Iran is high. PMID:24202734

  1. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: a case report with FDG-PET findings and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Yumi; Hatta, Kazuha; Seshimo, Akiyoshi; Sawada, Tatsuo; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-01-01

    We report the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a splenic mass incidentally found on abdominal ultrasound. FDG-PET/CT showed weak FDG accumulation (maximum standardized uptake value = 3.65). An unenhanced CT scan showed a low density and well-circumscribed splenic tumor that demonstrated weak enhancement from the arterial to delayed phase. Although hemangioma or hamartoma of the spleen was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed SANT. Therefore, when a splenic tumor with weak contrast medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is observed, SANT should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of SANT have been reported, there are few reports on FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the radiological features of SANT, including FDG-PET/CT, and review the literature on SANT. PMID:27570634

  2. Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen: a case report with FDG-PET findings and literature review.

    PubMed

    Imamura, Yumi; Nakajima, Reiko; Hatta, Kazuha; Seshimo, Akiyoshi; Sawada, Tatsuo; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji

    2016-08-01

    We report the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) findings of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) of the spleen. The patient was a 37-year-old woman with a splenic mass incidentally found on abdominal ultrasound. FDG-PET/CT showed weak FDG accumulation (maximum standardized uptake value = 3.65). An unenhanced CT scan showed a low density and well-circumscribed splenic tumor that demonstrated weak enhancement from the arterial to delayed phase. Although hemangioma or hamartoma of the spleen was preoperatively diagnosed, histopathological examination revealed SANT. Therefore, when a splenic tumor with weak contrast medium enhancement and low FDG accumulation is observed, SANT should be considered as a differential diagnosis. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging features of SANT have been reported, there are few reports on FDG-PET/CT findings. We report the radiological features of SANT, including FDG-PET/CT, and review the literature on SANT. PMID:27570634

  3. Investigation of fracture mechanical behavior of nodular cast iron and welded joints with parent-material-like weld metal

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, W.; Pusch, G.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the investigations was the determination of fracture mechanical characteristics and crack resistance curves of the J-Integral and CTOD concept by application of the partial unloading compliance technique and D.C. potential drop technique (four point bend) under static load. The results show a close correlation between crack initiation values as well as crack resistance curves and graphite morphology parameters determined by means of quantitative microstructural analysis where the influence of the matrix (distance of graphite particles) dominates the crack resistance and fracture performance of ferritic nodular cast iron under consideration of the notch effect of graphite particles. SEM in-situ tensile tests showed that due to a beneficial shielding effect of the strength overmatching parent-material-like weld metal (mis-match ratio M = 1.21), cracks positioned directly in the plane of the fusion line did not deviate into the weld metal in spite of its lower toughness compared to that of the parent material. They also showed an unsymmetrical formation of damage in front of the crack tip.

  4. Helicobacter suis-Infected Nodular Gastritis and a Review of Diagnostic Sensitivity for Helicobacter heilmannii-Like Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Goji, Shigeki; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Makoto; Nakamura, Masahiko; Matsui, Hidenori; Murayama, Somay Yamagata; Ebi, Masahide; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Funaki, Yasushi; Kasugai, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter heilmannii-like organisms (HHLOs) are associated with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and peptic ulcer. However, the sensitivity of diagnostic tests for HHLOs, such as rapid urease test (RUT), urea breath test (UBT) and blood antibody, is not high. Tightly coiled spiral microorganisms were found in the gastric mucosal biopsy specimen of a 48-year-old asymptomatic woman. Her findings were positive for RUT and UBT, but negative for blood antibody and stool antigen against H. pylori. A 7-day course of esomeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin was administered, resulting in the successful eradication of the HHLOs. Analysis of the 16S rRNA and urease genes suggested a diagnosis of the HHLO H. suis. The sensitivity results of RUT, UBT, culture, blood antibody, immunohistochemistry and stool antigen were 40.0, 14.8, 0, 23.1, 40.0 and 0%, respectively. We report asymptomatic nodular gastritis due to an HHLO. Histological techniques, most likely with smears, are expected to be the most effective method for diagnosing infections by HHLOs, and genetic diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction can be very useful to identify the species of HHLOs. PMID:26120299

  5. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia and Hepatocellular Adenoma around the World Viewed through the Scope of the Immunopathological Classification

    PubMed Central

    Al-Rabih, Wesal R.; Chen, Pei-Jer; Evason, Kimberley; Ferrell, Linda; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Huang, Shiu-Feng; Longerich, Thomas; Park, Young Nyun; Quaglia, Alberto; Schirmacher, Peter; Sempoux, Christine; Thung, Swan N.; Torbenson, Michael; Wee, Aileen; Yeh, Matthew M.; Yeh, Shiou-Hwei; Le Bail, Brigitte; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette

    2013-01-01

    Focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) and hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) are benign hepatocellular tumors. The risk of bleeding and malignant transformation of HCA are strong arguments to differentiate HCA from FNH. Despite great progress that has been made in the differential radiological diagnosis of the 2 types of nodules, liver biopsy is sometimes necessary to separate the 2 entities. Identification of HCA subtypes using immunohistochemical techniques, namely, HNF1A-inactivated HCA (35–40%), inflammatory HCA (IHCA), and beta-catenin-mutated inflammatory HCA (b-IHCA) (50–55%), beta-catenin-activated HCA (5–10%), and unclassified HCA (10%) has greatly improved the diagnostic accuracy of benign hepatocellular nodules. If HCA malignant transformation occurs in all HCA subgroups, the risk is by far the highest in the β-catenin-mutated subgroups (b-HCA, b-IHCA). In the coming decade the management of HCA will be more dependent on the identification of HCA subtypes, particularly for smaller nodules (<5 cm) in terms of imaging, follow-up, and resection. PMID:23691331

  6. Correlation between Focal Nodular Low Signal Changes in Hoffa's Fat Pad Adjacent to Anterior Femoral Cartilage and Focal Cartilage Defect Underlying This Region and Its Possible Implication

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. This study investigates the association between focal nodular mass with low signal in Hoffa's fat pad adjacent to anterior femoral cartilage of the knee (FNMHF) and focal cartilage abnormality in this region. Method. The magnetic resonance fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition sequence (MR FIESTA) sagittal and axial images of the B1 and C1 region (described later) of 148 patients were independently evaluated by two reviewers and categorized into four categories: normal, FNMHF with underlying focal cartilage abnormality, FNMHF with normal cartilage, and cartilage abnormality with no FNMHF. Results. There was a significant association (p = 0.00) between FNMHF and immediate adjacent focal cartilage abnormality with high interobserver agreement. The absence of focal nodular lesions next to the anterior femoral cartilage has a very high negative predictive value for chondral injury (97.8%). Synovial biopsy of focal nodular lesion done during arthroscopy revealed some fibrocollagenous tissue and no inflammatory cells. Conclusion. We postulate that the FNMHF adjacent to the cartilage defects is a form of normal healing response to the cartilage damage. One patient with FHMHF and underlying cartilage abnormality was rescanned six months later. In this patient, the FNMHF disappeared and normal cartilage was observed in the adjacent region which may support this theory. PMID:27213085

  7. Microstructural Characteristic and Mechanical Behavior of Nodular Silicon Hypereutectic Al-Si Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruyao; Lu, Weihua

    2012-02-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys containing 12 wt.% to 30 wt.% Si are discussed. The eutectic and primary silicon particles are nodulized by a designed modification practice followed by a solution heat treatment of 6 h to 8 h at 510°C to 520°C. Metallographic analysis was used to measure structural characteristics of the Si-rich structures. Spheroidization of silicon phase leads to an increase in tensile strength and ductility of alloys at room temperature and 300°C compared with commercial Al-Si alloy. Increasing Si concentration causes the ultimate tensile strength and elongation at room temperature to fall due to the appearance of coarse silicon particles, but the ultimate tensile strength at 300°C remains unchanged.

  8. Molecular identification of fungal pathogens in nodular skin lesions of cats.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Anne; von Bomhard, Wolf; Antweiler, Elisabeth; Tintelnot, Kathrin

    2015-02-01

    In a retrospective study, we investigated 52 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples from cats with histologically confirmed cutaneous and subcutaneous mycoses to determine if the pathogens could be identified by molecular methods. Aim of the study was to obtain a deep understanding of the spectrum of infectious agents, which, as we hypothesized, was not available by histopathology alone. Detection of feline and fungal DNA was achieved in 92.3% and 94.2% of the samples, respectively. Most of the subcutaneous infections in cats were caused by Alternaria spp. (63.5%), followed by Cryptococcus neoformans (7.7%), Histoplasma capsulatum (5.8%), Sporothrix spp. (3.8%), Aspergillus vitricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Exophiala attenuata, Fusarium oxysporum, Lecythophora cateniformis, Microsporum canis, and Phialophora sp. (1.9% each). The results from molecular identification indicate that correct identifications of the fungal pathogens by histology alone were rarely possible. The spectrum of fungal pathogens identified after DNA extraction from FFPE samples was much broader than that expected by classical histopathology. This was especially noted in alternariosis in that the micromorphological pattern in tissue was misleading and could be confused with that of cryptococcosis. Due to different susceptibilities to antifungal agents, it is important to arrive at a definitive diagnosis, which might be possible by examination of the fungus recovered in culture and/or molecular methods, in addition to the histopathologic techniques. PMID:25550386

  9. Jaundice causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver is unable to properly move into the digestive tract. Conditions that can cause jaundice include: Infections of the liver from a virus ( hepatitis A , hepatitis B , hepatitis C , hepatitis D , ...

  10. Parotid Gland Nodular Fasciitis: A Clinicopathologic Series of 12 Cases with a Review of 18 Cases from the Literature.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Tyler C; Bishop, Justin A; Thompson, Lester D R

    2015-09-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF), very uncommon in the parotid gland, is a benign myofibroblastic proliferation that may be mistaken for other neoplastic proliferations. The mass-like clinical presentation and histologic features result in frequent misclassification, resulting in inappropriate clinical management. There are only a few reported cases in the English literature. Cases within the files of the authors' institutions (retrospective) confined to the parotid gland were compared to cases reported in the English literature (Medline 1966-2014). The patients included five females and seven males, aged 11-70 years (mean 45.2 years). All patients presented with a mass lesion, present on average 1.9 months, without a documented history of trauma. The lesions were 0.7-5.2 cm (mean 2.2 cm). Seven patients had fine needle aspiration. The majority of the lesions were circumscribed (n = 9), composed of spindle-shaped to stellate myofibroblasts (MF) arranged in a storiform growth pattern, juxtaposed to hypocellular myxoid tissue-culture-like areas with extravasation of erythrocytes. Dense, keloid-like collagen (n = 7) and occasional giant cells were seen (n = 6). Mitotic figures (without atypical forms) were readily identifiable (mean 4/10 HPFs). By immunohistochemical staining, the MF were reactive with vimentin, actins, and calponin, while the histiocytes were reactive with CD68. All patients had surgical excision. One patient developed local recurrence (12 months later). All were alive and disease free at last follow-up, with a mean 133 months of follow-up. The principle differential diagnoses include fibrosarcoma, fibromatosis, pleomorphic adenoma, myoepithelioma, neurofibroma, schwannoma, solitary fibrous tumor, leiomyoma, fibrous histiocytoma and myxoma. NF of the parotid gland occurs in middle-aged patients who present with a mass (mean 2.2 cm) in the parotid gland of short duration (1.9 months). FNA misinterpretation frequently leads to excision. Separation from

  11. High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, S; Elhassan, T A M; Edesa, W; Rauf, M S; Zahir, M N; Maghfoor, I

    2016-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a distinct subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma. We report our results of relapsed/refractory NLPHL patients who received high-dose chemotherapy and autogenic stem cell transplantation (HDC auto-SCT). Seventeen NLPHL patients received HDC auto-SCT (1996–2014): male 14 and female 3, with median age at diagnosis of 22 years, at HDC auto-SCT 28 years (15–58 years). At the time of relapse/progression, 13 (76 %) had NLPHL and 4 (24 %) had transformed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The reason for HDC auto-SCT was refractory NLPHL in 12 patients and relapsed in 5 patients. Salvage chemotherapy was etoposide, methylprednisolone, cisplatinum, and Ara-C (ESHAP); eight patients also received rituximab with ESHAP. HDC was carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM). Post-auto-SCT, complete remission was achieved in 14 (82 %), partial remission in 1 (6 %), and progressive disease in 2 (12 %) patients. The median follow-up is 63 months from auto-SCT (6–124 months). Of the nine patients who received only ESHAP, four had post-auto-SCT events versus no event in all eight patients who received rituximab+ESHAP. Kaplan–Meier estimates of 5-year event-free survival for the whole group is 76 %: rituximab+salvage (100 %) versus salvage alone (56 %), P=0.041. Overall survival is 94 %: 100 versus 89 %, respectively, P=not significant (NS). Even in refractory NLPHL patients, long-term disease-free survival is possible after HDC auto-SCT. Post-auto-SCT relapse or progression can still be managed with chemo/chemo+immunotherapy/ radiation. These encouraging results of rituximab in salvage setting should be explored further in a clinical trial setting for this patient population. PMID:26467917

  12. Expression of PCA3 and PSA genes as a biomarker for differential diagnosis of nodular hyperplasia and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Coelho, F Fonseca; Guimarães, F Loli; Cabral, W L Ribeiro; Salles, P G Oliveira; Mateo, E Cueva; Nogueira e Nogueira, L Mendes; Fonseca, C E Corradi; Gomes, K Braga

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the expression of the PCA3 gene in urine from patients with nodular hyperplasia/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PNH) or adenocarcinoma type prostate cancer (PCa).The study included 59 men: 22 with PCa, 26 with PNH, and 11 with no alterations (controls). Patients' urine was collected following prostatic massage and quantified by quantitative real-time PCR for prostate cancer antigen 3 gene (PCA3) and prostate-specific antigen gene (PSA) expression with the ACTB gene for normalization. PCA3 gene expression was detected in 16 patients with PCa and 4 with PNH; in the control group, there was no expression of the gene. No significant difference was observed in the mean levels of PCA3 and PSA expression, the PCA3/PSA ratio, and the total PSA levels when the groups of patients with PCa and PNH were compared. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.625, 0.596, 0.559, and 0.503 for PCA3 and PSA expression, the PCA3/PSA ratio, and total PSA levels, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCA3 test were 73 and 85%, respectively. Considering the estimated cutoff values (0.2219 and 0.5007 for PCA3 and PCA3/PSA, respectively), we observed a significant difference between the frequency of individuals with values above in the PCa group compared with the PNH group (P < 0.001). We conclude that the qualitative PCA3 test could be applied to initial screening for differentiation between individuals with PCa or PNH and those without prostate changes. PMID:26535666

  13. Clonality as Expression of Distinctive Cell Kinetics Patterns in Nodular Hyperplasias and Adenomas of the Adrenal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Cano, Salvador J.; de Miguel, Manuel; Blanes, Alfredo; Tashjian, Robert; Galera, Hugo; Wolfe, Hubert J.

    2000-01-01

    Although histopathologic criteria for adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasias (ACNHs) and adenomas (ACAs) have been developed, their kinetics and clonality are virtually unknown. We studied 20 ACNHs and 25 ACAs (based on World Health Organization criteria) from 45 females. Representative samples were histologically evaluated, and the methylation pattern of the androgen receptor alleles was analyzed on microdissected samples. Consecutive sections were selected for slide cytometry, flow cytometry, and in situ end labeling (ISEL). Apoptosis was studied by flow cytometry (nuclear area/DNA content plotter analysis) and by ISEL. Appropriate tissue controls were run in every case. Polyclonal gel patterns were revealed in 14/18 informative ACNHs and in 3/22 informative ACAs, whereas monoclonal gel patterns were observed in 4/18 ACNHs and 19/22 ACAs. Overlapping proliferation rates (PRs) were observed in both clonal groups, and apoptosis was detected only in G0/G1 cells, especially in monoclonal ACNHs (3/4; 75%) and in polyclonal ACAs (2/3; 67%). Significantly higher PRs were observed in ACNHs with polyclonal patterns and G0/G1 apoptosis and in ACAs regardless of clonality pattern and presence of G0/G1 apoptosis. All except one ACNH (19/20; 95%) and 15/25 ACAs (60%) showed diploid DNA content, whereas the remaining cases were hyperdiploid. A direct correlation between PR and ISEL was observed in polyclonal lesions (PR = 29.32 ISEL − 1.93), whereas the correlation was inverse for monoclonal lesions (PR = −9.13 ISEL + 21.57). We concluded that only simultaneous down-regulated apoptosis and high proliferation result in selective kinetic advantage, dominant clone expansion, and unbalanced methylation patterns of androgen receptor alleles in ACNHs and ACAs. PMID:10623680

  14. Clonality as expression of distinctive cell kinetics patterns in nodular hyperplasias and adenomas of the adrenal cortex.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Cano, S J; de Miguel, M; Blanes, A; Tashjian, R; Galera, H; Wolfe, H J

    2000-01-01

    Although histopathologic criteria for adrenal cortical nodular hyperplasias (ACNHs) and adenomas (ACAs) have been developed, their kinetics and clonality are virtually unknown. We studied 20 ACNHs and 25 ACAs (based on World Health Organization criteria) from 45 females. Representative samples were histologically evaluated, and the methylation pattern of the androgen receptor alleles was analyzed on microdissected samples. Consecutive sections were selected for slide cytometry, flow cytometry, and in situ end labeling (ISEL). Apoptosis was studied by flow cytometry (nuclear area/DNA content plotter analysis) and by ISEL. Appropriate tissue controls were run in every case. Polyclonal gel patterns were revealed in 14/18 informative ACNHs and in 3/22 informative ACAs, whereas monoclonal gel patterns were observed in 4/18 ACNHs and 19/22 ACAs. Overlapping proliferation rates (PRs) were observed in both clonal groups, and apoptosis was detected only in G(0)/G(1) cells, especially in monoclonal ACNHs (3/4; 75%) and in polyclonal ACAs (2/3; 67%). Significantly higher PRs were observed in ACNHs with polyclonal patterns and G(0)/G(1) apoptosis and in ACAs regardless of clonality pattern and presence of G(0)/G(1) apoptosis. All except one ACNH (19/20; 95%) and 15/25 ACAs (60%) showed diploid DNA content, whereas the remaining cases were hyperdiploid. A direct correlation between PR and ISEL was observed in polyclonal lesions (PR = 29.32 ISEL - 1.93), whereas the correlation was inverse for monoclonal lesions (PR = -9.13 ISEL + 21.57). We concluded that only simultaneous down-regulated apoptosis and high proliferation result in selective kinetic advantage, dominant clone expansion, and unbalanced methylation patterns of androgen receptor alleles in ACNHs and ACAs. PMID:10623680

  15. Compositional evolution and substitutions in disseminated and nodular tourmaline from leucocratic granites: Examples from the Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buriánek, David; Novák, Milan

    2007-04-01

    Two distinct textural types of tourmaline have been distinguished in leucocratic granites of the Bohemian Massif (Moldanubicum, Saxothuringicum): (i) commonly euhedral disseminated tourmaline (DT) crystallized during relatively early stage of the granite consolidation, and (ii) typically interstitial nodular tourmaline (NT) formed during the stage transitional from late solidus to early subsolidus crystallization. The following substitutions (exchange vectors) participated in tourmaline from the studied granites: (1) X□ YAl XNa - 1 YR 2+- 1 in the DT granites from the Moldanubicum; (2) X□ YAl 3WO 2XNa - 1 YR 2+- 3 W(OH) - 2 and (6) XNa YR 2+WF X□ - 1 YAl - 1 WOH - 1 in the DT and NT granites from the Saxothuringicum. Tourmaline in the NT granites from the Moldanubicum yielded a complicated pattern indicating participation of several substitutions such as (1), (2) and (3) X□ YAl 2WO XNa - 1 YR 2+- 2 W(OH) - 1 . Very similar chemical compositions and similar fractionation trends in both DT and NT tourmaline types indicate crystallization in a quasi-closed system from early solidus to early subsolidus stage of granite consolidation. Substitutions in tourmaline from NT granites in the Moldanubicum are more similar to substitutions in tourmaline from Li-poor granitic pegmatites in the same region relative to tourmaline from DT granites. Plotting up EMP analyses of tourmaline indicates that a combination of two ternary diagrams Al-Fe-Mg and Na-Ca- X-site vacancy, coupled with simple plots involving single cations (elements) such as Na/Al, F/Na, Fe/Mg, characterizes both their chemical composition as well as the probable substitution mechanisms. Complex diagrams such as R1 + R2 versus R3 do not enable a proper investigation of the compositional evolution in the X-site and W-site and oversimplify the real substitutions. As a consequence the use of specific diagrams for specific tourmaline compositions (e.g., Ca-rich, Li-rich) is recommended.

  16. Does Establishing a Safety Margin Reduce Local Recurrence in Subsegmental Transarterial Chemoembolization for Small Nodular Hepatocellular Carcinomas?

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Young Il; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Hur, Saebeom

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a safety margin may affect local tumor recurrence (LTR) in subsegmental chemoembolization. Materials and Methods In 101 patients with 128 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) nodules (1-3 cm in size and ≤ 3 in number), cone-beam CT-assisted subsegmental lipiodol chemoembolization was performed. Immediately thereafter, a non-contrast thin-section CT image was obtained to evaluate the presence or absence of intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin. The effect of lipiodol uptake defect and safety margin on LTR was evaluated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to indentify determinant factors of LTR. Results Of the 128 HCC nodules in 101 patients, 49 (38.3%) nodules in 40 patients showed LTR during follow-up period (median, 34.1 months). Cumulative 1- and 2-year LTR rates of nodules with lipiodol uptake defect (n = 27) and those without defect (n = 101) were 58.1% vs. 10.1% and 72.1% vs. 19.5%, respectively (p < 0.001). Among the 101 nodules without a defect, the 1- and 2-year cumulative LTR rates for nodules with complete safety margin (n = 52) and those with incomplete safety margin (n = 49) were 9.8% vs. 12.8% and 18.9% vs. 19.0% (p = 0.912). In multivariate analyses, ascites (p = 0.035), indistinct tumor margin on cone-beam CT (p = 0.039), heterogeneous lipiodol uptake (p = 0.023), and intra-tumoral lipiodol uptake defect (p < 0.001) were determinant factors of higher LTR. Conclusion In lipiodol chemoembolization, the safety margin in completely lipiodolized nodule without defect will not affect LTR in small nodular HCCs. PMID:26357501

  17. An unusual presentation of Carney complex with diffuse primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on one adrenal gland and a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma and focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease on the other.

    PubMed

    Tung, Shih-Chen; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Yang, Joseph W; Chen, Wei-Jen; Lee, Chien-Te

    2012-01-01

    A 24-year-old female patient with cushingoid appearance was admitted in May 2000. The endocrine studies showed ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome. A 2-day high-dose dexamethasone suppression test (HDDST) revealed paradoxical increase of 24 h urinary free cortisol (UFC). Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated a left adrenal nodule (3 x 2 cm in diameter). An adrenal scintigram with ¹³¹I-6β-iodomethyl-19-norcholesterol showed uptake of the isotope in the left adrenal gland and non-visualization in the right adrenal gland throughout the examination course. A retroperitoneoscopic left total adrenalectomy was performed in July 2000. The cut surface of the left adrenal was yellow-tan grossly. Microscopically, the left adrenal nodule contained a nonpigmented adrenocortical adenoma (NP) and another focal primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD, FP) mixed lesion. The immunohistochemical studies of CYP17 demonstrate positive in NP and FP of the left adrenal gland. Very low baseline morning plasma cortisol (0.97 μg/dL) and subnormal ACTH (8.16 pg/mL) levels were measured 1.5 months after left adrenalectomy. Right adrenal gland recovered its function 6 months after left adrenalectomy. Plasma cortisol could be suppressed to 3.47 μg/dL by overnight low-dose dexamethasone suppression test 65 months after left adrenalectomy. Cushingoid features still did not appear 122 months after left adrenalectomy. In May 2011, this patient was readmitted due to cushingoid characteristics. Paradoxical rise of 24-h UFC to 2-day HDDST was demonstrated. Ultrasonography of thyroid showed bilateral thyroid cysts. Subtotal right adrenalectomy about 80% of right adrenal was performed. Diffuse PPNAD of the right adrenal was proved pathologically. Immunohischemical stain for CYP17 is positive in the right adrenal gland but weaker positive than that in the left adrenal gland. The genetic study of the peripheral blood, left adrenocortical nodule, and right PPNAD all showed p.R16X

  18. Diffuse Glomerular Nodular Lesions in Diabetic Pigs Carrying a Dominant-Negative Mutant Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-Alpha, an Inheritant Diabetic Gene in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Satoshi; Umeyama, Kazuhiro; Yokoo, Takashi; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Nagata, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Glomerular nodular lesions, known as Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules, are a pathological hallmark of progressive human diabetic nephropathy. We have induced severe diabetes in pigs carrying a dominant-negative mutant hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha (HNF1α) P291fsinsC, a maturity-onset diabetes of the young type-3 (MODY3) gene in humans. In this model, glomerular pathology revealed that formation of diffuse glomerular nodules commenced as young as 1 month of age and increased in size and incidence until the age of 10 months, the end of the study period. Immunohistochemistry showed that the nodules consisted of various collagen types (I, III, IV, V and VI) with advanced glycation end-product (AGE) and Nε-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) deposition, similar to those in human diabetic nodules, except for collagen type I. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) was also expressed exclusively in the nodules. The ultrastructure of the nodules comprised predominant interstitial-type collagen deposition arising from the mesangial matrices. Curiously, these nodules were found predominantly in the deep cortex. However, diabetic pigs failed to show any of the features characteristic of human diabetic nephropathy; e.g., proteinuria, glomerular basement membrane thickening, exudative lesions, mesangiolysis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, and vascular hyalinosis. The pigs showed only Armanni-Ebstein lesions, a characteristic tubular manifestation in human diabetes. RT-PCR analysis showed that glomeruli in wild-type pigs did not express endogenous HNF1α and HNF1β, indicating that mutant HNF1α did not directly contribute to glomerular nodular formation in diabetic pigs. In conclusion, pigs harboring the dominant-negative mutant human MODY3 gene showed reproducible and distinct glomerular nodules, possibly due to AGE- and CML-based collagen accumulation. Although the pathology differed in several respects from that of human glomerular nodular lesions, the somewhat acute and

  19. Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary MALT lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation: Report of a rare case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hua; Wu, Zuqun; Wang, Zhaoming; Yao, Hongtian

    2015-01-01

    Localized (primary) pulmonary amyloidosis associated with pulmonary low-grade B cell lymphoma is rarely occurred. Here we report an unusual case of nodular pulmonary amyloidosis and obvious ossification due to primary pulmonary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with extensive plasmacytic differentiation in a 59-year-old man; moreover, two bronchial lymph nodes were involved histologically. The patient underwent a left lower lobectomy along with mediastinal lymphadenectomy. He received no adjuvant therapy and the postoperative course was uneventful within the 14 months follow-up period after his initial diagnosis. PMID:26261657

  20. Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

    2011-12-22

    The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting

  1. Toxic nodular goiter

    MedlinePlus

    ... after they take in a large amount of iodine through a vein (intravenously) or by mouth. The iodine may be used as contrast for a CT scan or heart catheterization . Taking medicines that contain iodine, such as amiodarone, may also lead to the ...

  2. Toxic nodular goiter

    MedlinePlus

    ... same as those of an overactive thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). However, the bulging eyeballs seen in Graves disease ... propranolol) can control some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism until thyroid hormone levels in the body are ...

  3. Pulmonary disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Curtis H; Glassroth, Jeffrey

    2012-12-01

    The propensity of various nontuberculous mycobacteria to cause lung disease varies widely and is conditioned by host factors; infection is believed to occur from environmental sources. Nontuberculous mycobacteria pulmonary disease (PNTM) is increasing worldwide and Mycobacterium avium complex is the most common cause. PNTM usually occurs in one of three prototypical forms: hypersensitivity pneumonitis, cavitary tuberculosis-like disease or nodular bronchiectasis. PNTM has been linked in some patients to genetic variants of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene and a distinct patient phenotype. Interactions between PNTM and other comorbidities are also increasingly appreciated. Guidelines for diagnosis, emphasizing chest imaging and microbiology, have been published; speciation using molecular techniques is critical for accuracy and for treatment decisions. Clinical trials are lacking to inform treatment for many species and experience with M. avium complex and several others species serves as a guide instead. Use of multiple drugs for a period of at least 12 months following sputum conversion is the norm for most species. In vitro drug susceptibility results for many drugs may not correlate with clinical outcomes and such testing should be done on a selective basis. PMID:23234447

  4. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease: the original 4 cases revisited after 30 years for follow-up, new investigations, and molecular genetic findings.

    PubMed

    Carney, J Aidan; Libé, Rossella; Bertherat, Jérôme; Young, William F

    2014-09-01

    The original 4 patients with Cushing syndrome who underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease were followed up for an average of 31 years to determine whether they or any of their primary relatives had developed Carney complex or its components. None had. Three of the patients were alive and well; the fourth had died of an unrelated condition. All the adrenal glands contained multiple small, black or brown cortical nodules, up to 4 mm in diameter. The extracapsular extension of the micronodules was limited to the immediate pericapsular adipose tissue and was not considered evidence of low-grade malignancy. Immunocytochemically, the nodules were positive for synaptophysin, inhibin-A, and melan A and negative for vimentin and CD56. Ki-67 antibody stained the cytoplasm of cells in the micronodules but not that of the atrophic cortical cells. The 4 patients had the PRKAR1A deletion that has been associated with the isolated form of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. PMID:24805858

  5. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant hodgkin lymphoma with atypical T cells: a morphologic variant mimicking peripheral T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sohani, Aliyah R; Jaffe, Elaine S; Harris, Nancy Lee; Ferry, Judith A; Pittaluga, Stefania; Hasserjian, Robert P

    2011-11-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a distinct Hodgkin lymphoma subtype composed of few neoplastic lymphocyte-predominant (LP) cells in a background of reactive small B and T cells. We have seen occasional NLPHL cases that contain background T cells with prominent cytologic atypia, raising the differential diagnosis of peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) or a composite lymphoma. We sought to characterize the clinicopathologic features of such cases. Eleven NLPHL cases with atypical T cells diagnosed from 1977 to 2010 were identified at 2 institutions and compared with 24 control NLPHL cases lacking atypical T cells. All 9 male patients and 2 female patients presented with localized peripheral lymphadenopathy. In comparison with control patients, they were younger (median age, 13.8 vs. 36.1 y; P=0.015), with more frequent cervical lymph node involvement (54.5% vs. 8.3%, P=0.015). In all 11 cases, areas of NLPHL with typical B-cell-rich nodules containing LP cells were present. Nine cases contained sheets of atypical T cells surrounding primary and secondary follicles in a pattern mimicking the T-zone pattern of PTCL-NOS; the remaining 2 cases contained atypical T cells presented as large clusters at the periphery of B-cell-rich nodules. In all cases, the atypical T-cell-rich areas contained rare scattered LP cells, which were IgD in 5 of 7 cases (71.4%). The atypical T cells showed no pan-T-cell antigen loss or aberrant T-cell antigen expression in any case, and polymerase chain reaction or Southern blot analysis showed no evidence of T-cell clonality in 6 cases tested. The atypical T cells exhibited a variable immunophenotype with respect to germinal center, follicular T-helper, T-regulatory, and cytotoxic T-cell markers. Among 8 patients with clinical follow-up (median follow-up: 6.4 y), 5 patients had recurrent NLPHL at 6 months to 12 years after diagnosis and 6 patients are alive without disease at 9 months to 18

  6. Imaging findings of pulmonary infection caused by Scedosporium prolificans in a deep immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Pellón Dabén, Raúl; Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Martín Cuesta, Laura; Piedra Velasco, Tatiana; Arnaiz García, Javier; Landeras, Rosa; López Duarte, Monica; Bermúdez, Arancha

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium prolificans is an emerging fungus that causes rapid progressive and disseminated infections in immunodepressed patients. We present a case of a 34-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia who received a bone marrow transplantation and suffered a sudden respiratory failure in +67 day. Chest radiographies showed growing bilateral patchy condensations. Computed Tomography depicted bilateral nodular condensation of alveolar space. S. prolificans was detected from sputum, but the patient died 72 h later. Imaging findings of lung scedosporiosis are nonspecific, but CT may provide a prompter diagnosis and allow to add newer antifungal treatments. This report presents the first imaging report of lung scedosporiosis. PMID:17624561

  7. Pneumonia caused by Pittsburgh pneumonia agent: radiologic manifestations

    SciTech Connect

    Muder, R.R.; Reddy, S.C.; Yu, V.L.; Kroboth, F.J.

    1984-03-01

    Using an objective scoring system, chest radiographs were reviewed in 23 cases of pneumonia due to the Pittsburgh pneumonia agent (PPA, Tatlockia micdadei, Legionella micdadei), including six cases of pneumonia with simultaneous isolation of PPA and L pneumophila (Legionnaires' disease). Infiltrates were typically segmental to lobar; nodular infiltrates were noted in three cases. Spread to additional lobes after presentation occurred in four of 17 PPA infections. Pneumonia caused by both PPA and L pneumophila was unusually severe, with involvement of all lobes occurring in four of six cases, compared with one of 17 cases of PPA infection (p>0.02). Radiographic severity did not correlate with underlying disease, immune status, or outcome. The majority of patients receiving erythromycin demonstrated objective radiologic improvement. In a patients, population that included nonimmunosuppressed patient, nodule formation and rapid radiologic progression were not found to be characteristic of PPA pneumonia.

  8. A Novel Mutation in the type Iα Regulatory Subunit of Protein Kinase A (PRKAR1A) in a Cushing's Syndrome Patient with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ryohei; Tamba, Sachiko; Yamada, Yuya; Okita, Tomonori; Kawachi, Yusuke; Mori, Reiko; Kyo, Mitsuaki; Saisho, Kenji; Kuroda, Yohei; Yamamoto, Koji; Furuya, Akiko; Mukai, Tokuo; Maekawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Sasano, Hironobu; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with multiple nodules. Computed tomography scan results were atypical demonstrating an enlargement of the bilateral adrenal glands harboring multiple small nodules, but the lesion was clinically diagnosed to be primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) based on both endocrinological test results and his family history. We performed bilateral adrenalectomy and confirmed the diagnosis histologically. An analysis of the patient and his mother's genomic DNA identified a novel mutation in the type Iα regulatory subunit of protein kinase A (PRKAR1A) gene; p.E17X (c.49G>T). This confirmed the diagnosis of PPNAD which is associated with Carney Complex. PMID:27580546

  9. Subcellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and magnesium in benign nodular hyperplasia of the human prostate: X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections

    SciTech Connect

    Tvedt, K.E.; Kopstad, G.; Haugen, O.A.; Halgunset, J.

    1987-01-01

    Biopsies from human prostates were obtained from normal and hyperplastic glands. The intracellular concentrations of calcium, zinc, and magnesium were analyzed using X-ray microanalysis of freeze-dried cryosections. Two prostate biopsies were obtained from kidney donors, ages 19 and 50 years, without any sign of benign nodular hyperplasia. The normal tissues were frozen within 15 min after circulatory arrest. The central part of biopsies from eight elderly men suffering from benign nodular hyperplasia were frozen within 30 s after excision. Adjacent tissue was processed for light microscopy and histopathological diagnosis. All samples were fresh-frozen using liquid nitrogen cooled pliers, without the use of any freeze-protection, fixation, or staining. In both the normal and the hyperplastic prostates high concentrations (up to above 100 mmol/kg dry weight) of zinc were present in electron dense bodies in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. Together with zinc, about equal concentrations of magnesium were found. Calcium was detected in 4 to 8 times the concentration of zinc. Significant, positive correlation between calcium and zinc as well as between calcium and magnesium in the cytoplasm was a typical finding in both normal and hyperplastic glands. In six of eight patients, older than 60 years of age, high levels of calcium (17.0-38.8 mmol/kg dry weight) were observed in the nuclei of the epithelial cells, while very low values were found in the remaining two. In the two younger cases (19 and 50 years of age), the nuclear calcium level in prostatic epithelium was relatively low (about 10 mmol/kg dry weight). These observations suggest that an increase of intranuclear calcium with advancing age may be of pathogenetic significance to growth disturbances in the prostate.

  10. Evaluation of the characteristics of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia: correlation between dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography and pathological findings

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Gao, Xin-Yi; Xu, Qin-Sha; Chen, Yu-Tang; Song, Yu-Piao; Yao, Zhen-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the characteristics of enhancement of focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) of the liver by analyzing the dynamic contrast-enhanced multislice computed tomography (MSCT) features and correlating them with pathological findings. Patients and methods Nine males and 16 females with pathologically confirmed FNH and complete preoperative contrast-enhanced MSCT data were recruited for this study. The imaging features of FNH on the pre- and postcontrast MSCT were analyzed by two experienced radiologists by consensus. Results Pathology showed central scars and abnormal blood vessels in 17 and 21 of 25 lesions, respectively, while MSCT with multiphase enhancement showed central scars in eight of the 17 lesions (47.1%) and abnormal arteries or draining veins in 13 of the 21 lesions (61.9%). Furthermore, abnormal draining veins in five lesions were found to be diagnostic, which is another important finding. Conclusion Multiphase scanning can provide the panorama of FNH lesions and reveal their enhancement patterns and pathological characteristics. Abnormal blood vessels within or around the lesion are demonstrated more often than central scar, and both should be observed for FNH diagnosis. PMID:27578988

  11. A huge nodular fasciitis in parapharygneal space in a 7-year-old girl: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shumin; Liu, Wei; Xiang, Yuyan; Dai, Yinghuan; Ren, Jihao

    2014-01-01

    Nodular fasciitis (NF) is a benign and reactive fibroblastic growth extending from the superficial fascia into the subcutaneous tissue or muscle, with a morbidity of less than 20% in children. We report a case of a 7-year-old girl presented with a 3-month history of snore and mouth breathing. Image findings demonstrated a large soft-tissue mass in the right parapharyngeal space. The lesion was successfully eradicated by surgical removal. Pathological analysis established NF as the final diagnosis. Histopathological findings were notable for a reactive spindle-cell process composed of proliferative fibroblasts with extravasated red blood cells and interstitial edema. Immunohistochemical stains showed that the lesional cells were positive for smooth muscle actin (SMA), muscle-specific actin (HHF35), and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), and negative for S100 protein. No clinical evidence of recurrence was noticed after 2 months of follow-up. Being the first report of NF in the parapharyngeal space of a child, this rare pediatric case points out the importance for otolaryngologists to keep NF in mind for differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary wide resection. PMID:25674281

  12. Relapsed or poorly responsive nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma in children and adolescents - a report from the United Kingdom's Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Study Group.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Ananth G; Kirkwood, Amy A; Depani, Sarita; Bianchi, Eleonora; Hayward, Janis; Ramsay, Alan D; Hall, Georgina W

    2016-05-01

    There is a paucity of data on the treatment outcome in children with relapsed or poorly responsive nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL). This retrospective report evaluates the treatment outcome in a national cohort of children with relapsed or poorly responsive nLPHL. A total of 37 patients, 22 with relapsed and 15 with poorly responding disease, are the subjects of this report. Of the 22 patients with relapsed nLPHL, 11 had relapsed after primary excision biopsy, 10 after chemotherapy and 1 after chemotherapy and involved field radiotherapy. The majority had localized disease at relapse. The median time to relapse was 8 months after chemotherapy and 11 months after excision biopsy. Seven of the 15 patients with poorly responding nLPHL had variant histology. Three patients with initial poor response did not receive any further treatment and have had no disease progression. Transformation to diffuse large B cell lymphoma, in addition to evolution from typical to variant nLPHL occurred in one patient each. Thirty-four patients have been successfully re-treated with second chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Multiple relapses were uncommon but treatable. Relapse or poorly responsive nLPHL is fully salvageable with either additional chemotherapy and or radiotherapy. PMID:26996288

  13. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 protein expression in the distinction between nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a proto-oncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch de-repression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  14. Utility of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 Protein Expression in the Distinction of Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma and Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Olga; Maeda, Takahiro; Filatov, Alexander; Lunardi, Andrea; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) are considered separate entities with different prognosis and treatment. However, morphologic features can be similar and immunohistochemical studies are essential in the distinction; thus, determination of additional biomarkers is of utmost importance. LRF/Pokemon is a protooncogene, an interacting partner co-expressed with BCL6 in germinal centers and highly expressed in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and follicular lymphoma. Conversely, loss of the LRF gene in mouse hematopoietic stem cells results in complete block of early B cell development with concomitant Notch derepression, indicating its critical role in B versus T cell fate decision at the hematopoietic stem cell stage. For the first time, we show that LRF/Pokemon is predominantly expressed in NLPHL cases as is BCL6 with low to absent NOTCH1 protein expression; while Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in CHL show low to absent BCL6 and LRF/Pokemon expression with higher NOTCH1 expression. We illustrate a potential functional interaction between LRF and BCL6 in NLPHL pathogenesis, and differential expression of LRF/Pokemon and NOTCH1 proteins in CHL thus showing differential expression, making for an additional diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. PMID:24326827

  15. Incidence, management, and outcome of high-grade transformation of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: long-term outcomes from a 30-year experience.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Toby A; Gatter, Kevin; Collins, Graham P; Hall, Georgina W; Watson, Caroline; Hatton, Chris S R

    2015-06-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that typically presents as early stage, indolent disease in young adult males. The relationship between NLPHL and DLBCL is incompletely understood, and there remains a paucity of data with regard the incidence and management of high-grade transformation. We report the largest study to date describing the incidence, management and long-term outcome of 26 cases of high-grade transformation of NLPHL over a 30-year period. We report a transformation incidence of 17.0%. Bone marrow, splenic, and liver infiltration with DLBCL was frequent. Patients with an aa-IPI 2-3 have poorer OS and PFS (P = 0.034 and P = 0.009, respectively). Although the approach to treatment was somewhat variable, typically young, otherwise fit patients received anthracycline-based induction, platinum-based consolidation with stem cell harvesting, followed by autologous SCT with BEAM conditioning. Long-term (5 year) PFS was over 60% with this approach, and comparable to our de novo DLBCL historical age and time period-matched cohort largely treated with CHOP-like chemotherapy alone. The transformation rate of 17.0% highlights the importance of accurate initial diagnosis, long-term follow-up, and re-biopsy at relapse. PMID:25715900

  16. Impact of nodular size on the predictive values of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for assessment of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu-rong; Wu, Yu-lian; Luo, Zhi-yan; Wu, Ning-bo; Liu, Xue-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To define the roles of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for the assessment of thyroid nodule to determine whether nodule size affects the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant. Methods: A total of 243 consecutive subjects (214 women, 29 men) with 329 thyroid nodules were examined by gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography in this prospective study. All patients underwent surgery and the final diagnosis was obtained from histopathological examination. Results: Three hundred and twenty-nine nodules (208 benign, 121 malignant) were divided into small (SNs, 5–10 mm, n=137) and large (LNs, >10 mm, n=192) nodules. Microcalcifications were more frequent in malignant LNs than in malignant SNs, but showed no significant difference between benign LNs and SNs. Poorly-circumscribed margins were not significantly different between malignant SNs and LNs, but were less frequent in benign LNs than in benign SNs. Among all nodules, marked intranodular vascularity was more frequent in LNs than in SNs. By comparison, shape ratio of anteroposterior to transverse dimensions (A/T) ≥1 was less frequent in LNs than in SNs. Otherwise, among all nodules, marked hypoechogenicity and elasticity score of 4–6 showed no significant difference between LNs and SNs. Conclusions: The predictive values of microcalcifications, nodular margins, A/T ratio, and marked intranodular vascularity depend on nodule size, but the predictive values of echogenicity and elastography do not. PMID:22949361

  17. An Unusual Cause of a Solitary Lung Cavity.

    PubMed

    Yap, Vanessa; Salerno, Edward; Datta, Debapriya

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology. Pulmonary involvement is common, but lung nodules in sarcoidosis are uncommon, and solitary nodules that cavitate are extremely rare. Nodular sarcoidosis is usually found in young, healthy, predominantly female individuals. These lesions need to be differentiated from multiple other conditions, including neoplasms and granulomatous infections. A thorough workup for other etiologies of cavitary lung lesions is required for diagnosis. Despite an ominous presentation, nodular cavitary sarcoidosis portends a favorable outcome. We report a patient who presented with a solitary cavitary nodular lung lesion that was diagnosed as sarcoidosis after extensive workup. PMID:26882788

  18. [Urticaria and angioedema caused by mastocytosis].

    PubMed

    Mestre-Deharo, C; Sayag, J

    1993-10-01

    Mastocytosis in children are very polymorphic, most often remaining isolated, without an associated visceral lesion. Beside the phenomenon of "urtication" characteristic, papulo-nodular lesions of urticaria and angio-oedema during the mastocytosis are rarely met. In contrast, congestive signs with pruritus, dermographism, congestive erythema and general signs are frequent. PMID:8267847

  19. DICER1 mutations in Familial Multi-Nodular Goiter with and without Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Frio, Thomas Rio; Bahubeshi, Amin; Kanellopoulou, Chryssa; Hamel, Nancy; Niedziela, Marek; Sabbaghian, Nelly; Pouchet, Carly; Gilbert, Lucy; O’Brien, Paul K.; Serfas, Kim; Broderick, Peter; Houlston, Richard S.; Lesueur, Fabienne; Bonora, Elena; Muljo, Stefan; Schimke, R. Neil; Soglio, Dorothée Bouron-Dal; Arseneau, Jocelyne; Schultz, Kris Ann; Priest, John R.; Nguyen, Van-Hung; Harach, H. Ruben; Livingston, David M.; Foulkes, William D.; Tischkowitz, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Context Non-toxic multinodular goiter (MNG) is frequently observed in the general population, but little is known about the underlying genetic susceptibility to this disease. Familial cases of MNG have been reported and there are five such published families which also contain individuals with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of the ovary (SLCT). Germline mutations in DICER1, a gene that codes for an RNase III endoribonuclease, have recently been identified in families affected pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB), some of whom include cases of MNG and gonadal tumors such as SLCT. Objective To determine whether familial MNG with or without SLCT in the absence of PPB was caused by mutations in DICER1. Design, Setting and Patients From September 2009 to September 2010, we studied two MNG families and three MNG/SLCT families. We screened affected probands for mutations in the DICER1 gene. We investigated blood lymphocytes, MNG and SLCT tissue from family members for loss of the wild-type allele (loss of heterozygosity), DICER1 expression and microRNA dysregulation. Main Outcome Measure(s) Detection of germline DICER1 gene mutations in familial MNG with and without SLCT. Results We identified and characterized germline DICER1 mutations in all five families. Molecular analysis of the three SLCTs showed no loss of heterozygosity at DICER1, and IHC analysis in two available samples showed strong expression of DICER1 in Sertoli cells, but weak staining of Leydig cells. MicroRNA profiling of RNA derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines from both affected and unaffected members of the familial MNG cases revealed miRNA perturbations in DICER1 mutation carriers. Conclusions DICER1 mutations predispose to both familial MNG and MNG with SLCT, independent of PPB and germline DICER1 mutations lead to dysregulation of miRNA. This could be investigated further as a possible novel mechanism of tumorigenesis. PMID:21205968

  20. Cutaneous Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Exophiala attenuata in a Domestic Cat.

    PubMed

    Overy, David P; Martin, Chelsea; Muckle, Anne; Lund, Lorraine; Wood, Jill; Hanna, Paul

    2015-10-01

    A 7-year-old female-spayed, domestic short-haired cat was presented to her veterinarian with a mass on the hind paw. Histopathologic examination of a tissue biopsy revealed nodular pyogranulomatous panniculitis with intralesional pigmented fungal hyphae. A dematiaceous fungal isolate was isolated with a micromorphological phenotype consistent with the anamorphic genus Exophiala: budding cells, torulose mycelium and annellidic conidiogenesis from simple conidiophores consisting of terminal and lateral cells that tapered to a short beak at the apex. Sequence homology of the internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA gene confirmed the identification of the isolate as Exophiala attenuata. Reported here is the first confirmed case of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by E. attenuata in North America. Similar to historical cases of feline phaeohyphomycosis caused by Exophiala spp., there was no history or postmortem evidence to suggest the patient was in an immunocompromised state (e.g., suffering from FeLV or FIV). Although aggressive surgical excision of local lesions is recommended prior to drug treatment when dealing with subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis, surgery followed by itraconazole treatment did not resolve the E. attenuata infection in this cat. PMID:26088340

  1. Insulin-like growth factor I is expressed in classical and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma tumour and microenvironmental cells.

    PubMed

    Eppler, Elisabeth; Janas, Eva; Link, Karl; Weidmann, Lukas; Bischofberger, Helena; Wenger, Michael; Tinguely, Marianne; Schraml, Peter; Moch, Holger; Fellbaum, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is among the most frequent nodal lymphomas in the Western world and is classified into two disease entities: nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin's lymphoma (NLPHL) and classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL, 95% of all HL). HL lesions are characterised by a minority of clonal neoplastic cells, namely Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and their variants in cHL and lymphocyte-predominant (LP) cells in NLPHL, both occurring within a microenvironment of, for example, reactive T and B cells, macrophages and granulocytes that are assumed to support the proliferation and maintenance of neoplastic cells through cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor involved in proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and cell survival of numerous (including immune) tissues and probably has a role in tumour pathogenesis and maintenance. Although HL is characterised by disturbed cell differentiation and apoptosis mechanisms, with the involvement of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R), the distinct location of IGF-I in HL has not yet been defined. We localise IGF-I by double-immunofluorescence in frequent neoplastic cells of all cHL and NLPHL cases investigated. Additionally, IGF-I immunoreactivity is detected in high endothelial venules and various immune cells within the surrounding tissue of cHL including neutrophils and macrophages. IGF-1R immunoreactivity of variable intensity is found in HRS cells and high endothelial venules within the microenvironment in cHL. We assume that autocrine and paracrine IGF-I plays an anti-apoptotic role in tumour pathogenesis and in shaping the tumour microenvironment. PMID:25487403

  2. Long-Term Results of Fixed High-Dose I-131 Treatment for Toxic Nodular Goiter: Higher Euthyroidism Rates in Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Aktaş, Gül Ege; Turoğlu, Halil Turgut; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf; İnanır, Sabahat; Dede, Fuat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Geriatric patient population has special importance due to particular challenges. In addition to the increase in incidence of toxic nodular goiter (TNG) with age, it has a high incidence in the regions of low-medium iodine intake such as in our country. The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall outcome of high fixed dose radioiodine (RAI) therapy, and investigate the particular differences in the geriatric patient population. Methods: One hundred and three TNG patients treated with high dose I-131 (370-740 MBq) were retrospectively reviewed. The baseline characteristics; age, gender, scintigraphic patterns and thyroid function tests before and after treatment, as well as follow-up, duration of antithyroid drug (ATD) medication and achievement of euthyroid or hypothyroid state were evaluated. The patient population was divided into two groups as those=>65 years and those who were younger, in order to assess the effect of age. Results: Treatment success was 90% with single dose RAI therapy. Hyperthyroidism was treated in 7±7, 2 months after RAI administration. At the end of the first year, overall hypothyroidism rate was 30% and euthyroid state was achieved in 70% of patients. Age was found to be the only statistically significant variable effecting outcome. A higher ratio of euthyroidism was achieved in the geriatric patient population. Conclusion: High fixed dose I-131 treatment should be preferred in geriatric TNG patients in order to treat persistent hyperthyroidism rapidly. The result of this study suggests that high fixed dose RAI therapy is a successful modality in treating TNG, and high rates of euthyroidism can be achieved in geriatric patients.

  3. A 20-year population-based study on the epidemiology, clinical features, treatment, and outcome of nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Strobbe, L; Valke, L L F G; Diets, I J; van den Brand, M; Aben, K; Raemaekers, J M M; Hebeda, K M; van Krieken, J H J M

    2016-02-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma characterized by a unique clinical and histological presentation. Because of the rare nature of this disease, few large-scale studies are available. We conducted a cohort study in which patients were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry in the Southeast of the Netherlands between 1990 and 2010. Of these patients, we collected all clinical characteristics and re-reviewed pathologic material to confirm NLPHL diagnosis. Seventy-three histologically confirmed cases of NLPHL were analyzed with a median follow-up of 65 months (range 4-257 months). Median age at diagnosis was 43 years (range 1-87); 84.9 % of the patients were male; B symptoms were present in 5.5 %; and stage I/II disease was most common (75.4 %). Patients were primarily treated with radiotherapy (50.7 %), chemotherapy (26 %), combined modality (radiotherapy and chemotherapy) (11 %), or surgical excision with careful watch-and-wait (12.3 %). Relapses occurred in seven patients (9.6 %) after a median of 26 months (21-74 months). Six patients (8.2 %) developed histologic transformation to large cell lymphoma. Five patients (6.8 %) died during follow-up due to progression of NLPHL (n = 1), histologic transformation (n = 2) and intercurrent deaths (n = 2). The estimated 10-year overall survival was 94.0 % and the 10-year progression-free survival 75.8 %. Our study confirms the distinct characteristics of NLPHL with a relatively good long-term prognosis. It may be possible to reduce treatment intensity in early stage NLPHL without affecting long-term outcome. PMID:26732883

  4. mTOR pathway is activated by PKA in adrenocortical cells and participates in vivo to apoptosis resistance in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).

    PubMed

    de Joussineau, Cyrille; Sahut-Barnola, Isabelle; Tissier, Frédérique; Dumontet, Typhanie; Drelon, Coralie; Batisse-Lignier, Marie; Tauveron, Igor; Pointud, Jean-Christophe; Lefrançois-Martinez, Anne-Marie; Stratakis, Constantine A; Bertherat, Jérôme; Val, Pierre; Martinez, Antoine

    2014-10-15

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is associated with inactivating mutations of the PRKAR1A tumor suppressor gene that encodes the regulatory subunit R1α of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA). In human and mouse adrenocortical cells, these mutations lead to increased PKA activity, which results in increased resistance to apoptosis that contributes to the tumorigenic process. We used in vitro and in vivo models to investigate the possibility of a crosstalk between PKA and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in adrenocortical cells and its possible involvement in apoptosis resistance. Impact of PKA signaling on activation of the mTOR pathway and apoptosis was measured in a mouse model of PPNAD (AdKO mice), in human and mouse adrenocortical cell lines in response to pharmacological inhibitors and in PPNAD tissues by immunohistochemistry. AdKO mice showed increased mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway activity. Inhibition of mTORC1 by rapamycin restored sensitivity of adrenocortical cells to apoptosis in AdKO but not in wild-type mice. In both cell lines and mouse adrenals, rapid phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets including BAD proapoptotic protein was observed in response to PKA activation. Accordingly, BAD hyperphosphorylation, which inhibits its proapoptotic activity, was increased in both AdKO mouse adrenals and human PPNAD tissues. In conclusion, mTORC1 pathway is activated by PKA signaling in human and mouse adrenocortical cells, leading to increased cell survival, which is correlated with BAD hyperphosphorylation. These alterations could be causative of tumor formation. PMID:24865460

  5. Intranodular clusters of activated cells with T follicular helper phenotype in nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a pilot study of 32 cases from Finland.

    PubMed

    Nathwani, Bharat N; Vornanen, Martine; Winkelmann, Ria; Kansal, Rina; Doering, Claudia; Hartmann, Sylvia; Hansmann, Martin L

    2013-09-01

    In nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), little is known about the presence of intranodular clusters of cytologically activated lymphoid cells producing a moth-eaten pattern histologically. This pilot study of 32 NLPHL cases from Finland ascertained (1) the frequency of the intranodular clusters of activated lymphoid cells, (2) the immunophenotype of the activated cells, (3) the size and immunophenotype of the rosetting cells, and (4) the clinical significance of the activated cells. Histologically, intranodular clusters of activated cells produced a moth-eaten pattern in 100% (32 cases; subtle in 62.5%, overt in 37.5%). In immunostains, activated cells in subtle clusters (20 cases) were very difficult to identify. Twelve cases had overt clusters of activated cells, which were positive with CD3, CD4, PD1, CXCL13 (T follicular helper [T(FH)] phenotype), but rarely with Ki-67 and BCL2. Most activated rosetting cells had the same immunophenotype as the nonrosetting cells, except for CXCL13. Clinical presentation for all 32 Finnish patients was distinctive: 97% men, 97% with peripheral lymphadenopathy and 35.5% with stage III/IV disease. Only 22% relapsed; 97% were in remission. There was no significant clinical difference between cases with overt and subtle clusters. Intranodular activated TFH cells in NLPHL appeared to be nonproliferating and not long-living, and they were not associated with any adverse clinical outcome. Although most activated cells were TFH cells, it seemed that they were unable to increase the number of malignant cells. The pathogenetic role of the intranodular activated TFH and the small T cells in NLPHL needs further investigation. PMID:23684509

  6. What Causes Cardiomyopathy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can damage the organs, including the heart. Sarcoidosis : A disease that causes inflammation and can affect ... believe that an abnormal immune response may cause sarcoidosis. This abnormal response causes tiny lumps of cells ...

  7. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  8. What Causes Pericarditis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pericarditis? In many cases, the cause of pericarditis (both acute and chronic) is unknown. Viral infections are likely a common cause of pericarditis, although the virus may never be ...

  9. Bilateral Gigantomastia, Multiple Synchronous Nodular Pseudoangiomatous Stromal Hyperplasia Involving Breast and Bilateral Axillary Accessory Breast Tissue, and Perianal Mammary-Type Hamartoma of Anogenital Mammary-Like Glands: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Malcolm M; Konstantinova, Anastasia M; Kacerovska, Denisa; Michal, Michal; Kreuzberg, Boris; Suvova, Bozena; Kazakov, Dmitry V

    2016-05-01

    Mammary-type fibroepithelial lesions involving ectopic breast and anogenital region are rare and usually coexist with normal orthotopic breast. We present what we believe to be a unique case of synchronous bilateral gestational gigantomastia resembling fibrous mastopathy, synchronous rapidly growing pregnancy-associated nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia involving right breast and bilateral axillary ectopic breast tissue, and metachronous perianal mammary-type hamartoma involving anogenital mammary-like glands occurring in a 34-year-old patient with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy. Also, we review the literature concerning these lesions. PMID:26863057

  10. Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients With Nodular Lymphocyte-Predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma Versus Those With Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, Naamit K.; Atoria, Coral L.; Elkin, Elena B.; Yahalom, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is rare, comprising approximately 5% of all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) cases. Patients with NLPHL tend to have better prognoses than those with classical HL (CHL). Our goal was to assess differences in survival between NLPHL and CHL patients, controlling for differences in patient and disease characteristics. Methods and Materials: Using data from the population-based Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) cancer registry program, we identified patients diagnosed with pathologically confirmed HL between 1988 and 2010. Results: We identified 1,162 patients with NLPHL and 29,083 patients with CHL. With a median follow-up of 7 years, 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 91% and 83% for NLPHL, respectively, and 81% and 74% for CHL, respectively. After adjusting for all available characteristics, NLPHL (vs CHL) was associated with higher OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.62, P<.01) and disease-specific survival (DSS; HR: 0.48, P<.01). The male predominance of NLPHL, compared to CHL, as well as the more favorable prognostic features in NLPHL patients are most pronounced in NLPHL patients <20 years old. Among all NLPHL patients, younger patients were less likely to receive radiation, and radiation use has declined by 40% for all patients from 1988 to 2010. Receipt of radiation was associated with better OS (HR: 0.64, P=.03) and DSS (HR: 0.45, P=.01) in NLPHL patients after controlling for available baseline characteristics. Other factors associated with OS and DSS in NLPHL patients are younger age and early stage. Conclusions: Our results in a large population dataset demonstrated that NLPHL patients have improved prognosis compared to CHL patients, even after accounting for stage and baseline characteristics. Use of radiation is declining among NLPHL patients despite an association in this series between radiation and better DSS and OS. Unique treatment strategies for NLPHL are warranted in both

  11. Nodular Worm Infections in Wild Non-human Primates and Humans Living in the Sebitoli Area (Kibale National Park, Uganda): Do High Spatial Proximity Favor Zoonotic Transmission?

    PubMed Central

    Cibot, Marie; Guillot, Jacques; Lafosse, Sophie; Bon, Céline; Seguya, Andrew; Krief, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Nodular Oesophagostomum genus nematodes are a major public health concern in some African regions because they can be lethal to humans. Their relatively high prevalence in people has been described in Uganda recently. While non-human primates also harbor Oesophagostomum spp., the epidemiology of this oesophagostomosis and the role of these animals as reservoirs of the infection in Eastern Africa are not yet well documented. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study aimed to investigate Oesophagostomum infection in terms of parasite species diversity, prevalence and load in three non-human primates (Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis, Colobus guereza) and humans living in close proximity in a forested area of Sebitoli, Kibale National Park (KNP), Uganda. The molecular phylogenetic analyses provided the first evidence that humans living in the Sebitoli area harbored O. stephanostomum, a common species in free-ranging chimpanzees. Chimpanzees were also infected by O. bifurcum, a common species described in human populations throughout Africa. The recently described Oesophagostomum sp. found in colobine monkeys and humans and which was absent from baboons in the neighboring site of Kanyawara in KNP (10 km from Sebitoli), was only found in baboons. Microscopic analyses revealed that the infection prevalence and parasite load in chimpanzees were significantly lower in Kanyawara than in Sebitoli, an area more impacted by human activities at its borders. Conclusions/Significance Three different Oesophagostomum species circulate in humans and non-human primates in the Sebitoli area and our results confirm the presence of a new genotype of Oesophagostomum recently described in Uganda. The high spatiotemporal overlap between humans and chimpanzees in the studied area coupled with the high infection prevalence among chimpanzees represent factors that could increase the risk of transmission for O. stephanostomum between the two primate species. Finally, the

  12. Toughness Properties of Nodular Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Walter L.

    1985-01-01

    The German government recently certified ductile iron for construction of nuclear waste transport containers. This approved use of ductile iron for such a critical application represents the culmination of ten years worth of research bringing to light the surprising toughness of ductile iron. This article explains how modern fracture mechanics and microstructure/property relationships have altered the stereotype of ductile iron as a low toughness material.

  13. What Causes Anemia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Anemia? The three main causes of anemia are: Blood ... the blood and can lead to anemia. Aplastic Anemia Some infants are born without the ability to ...

  14. What Causes Sarcoidosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sarcoidosis? The cause of sarcoidosis isn't known. More ... Content: NEXT >> Featured Video Living With and Managing Sarcoidosis 05/18/2011 This video—presented by the ...

  15. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  16. What Causes Atherosclerosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Atherosclerosis? The exact cause of atherosclerosis isn't known. ... Rate This Content: NEXT >> Featured Video What is atherosclerosis? 05/22/2014 Describes how the build-up ...

  17. What Causes Cystic Fibrosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Causes Cystic Fibrosis? A defect in the CFTR gene causes cystic fibrosis (CF). This gene makes ... and very salty sweat. Research suggests that the CFTR protein also affects the body in other ways. ...

  18. What Causes Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » What Causes Cancer? Cancer is a complex group of diseases with ... cancer. Learn About Cancer Topics Cancer Basics What Causes Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate ...

  19. What Causes Polycythemia Vera?

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Polycythemia Vera? Primary Polycythemia Polycythemia vera (PV) also ... in the body's JAK2 gene is the main cause of PV. The JAK2 gene makes a protein ...

  20. What Causes Menstrual Irregularities?

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual flow Smoking Depression Never having given birth Endometriosis Chronic uterine infection Additional causes of menstrual irregularity include 1 : Endometriosis Endocrine gland-related causes Poorly controlled diabetes Polycystic ...

  1. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Cardiogenic Shock? Immediate Causes Cardiogenic shock occurs if the heart suddenly can't pump ... to the body. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is damage to the heart muscle from a ...

  2. Do Allergies Cause Asthma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Do Allergies Cause Asthma? KidsHealth > For Teens > Do Allergies Cause Asthma? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Las alergias provocan asma? Do allergies cause asthma? The answer to that question is: yes and ...

  3. Causes and effects.

    PubMed

    Cone, Carol L; Feldman, Mark A; DaSilva, Alison T

    2003-07-01

    Most companies make charitable donations, but few approach their contributions with an eye toward enhancing their brands. Those that do take such an approach commit talent and know-how, not just dollars, to a pressing but carefully chosen social need and then tell the world about the cause and their service to it. Through the association, both the business and the cause benefit in ways they could not otherwise. Organizations such as Avon, ConAgra Foods, and Chevrolet have recognized that a sustained cause-branding program can improve their reputations, boost their employees' morale, strengthen relations with business partners, and drive sales. And the targeted causes receive far more money than they could have from direct corporate gifts alone. The authors examine these best practices and offer four principles for building successful cause-branding programs. First, they say, a company should select a cause that advances its corporate goals. That is, unless the competitive logic for supporting the cause is clear, a company shouldn't even consider putting its finite resources behind it. Second, a business should commit to a cause before picking its charitable partners. Otherwise, a cause-branding program may become too dependent on its partners. Third, a company should put all its assets to work, especially its employees. It should leverage the professional skills of its workers as well as its other assets such as distribution networks. And fourth, a company should promote its philanthropic initiatives through every possible channel. In addition to using the media, it should communicate its efforts through the Web, annual reports, direct mail, and so on. Cause branding is a way to turn the obligations of corporate citizenship into a valuable asset. When the cause is well chosen, the commitment genuine, and the program well executed, the cause helps the company, and the company helps the cause. PMID:12858714

  4. What Causes Angina?

    MedlinePlus

    ... blocks the arteries, reducing blood flow to the heart muscle. Some plaque is hard and stable and causes the arteries ... This can greatly reduce blood flow to the heart and cause angina. Other plaque is soft and more likely to rupture (break ...

  5. What Causes Bad Breath?

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth > For Teens > What Causes Bad Breath? Print A A A Text Size en ... Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  6. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  7. Dyslexia: Causes, Symptoms, Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    The article reviews proposed causes and observable symptoms that characterize dyslexia, concluding that individualized analysis and specialized treatments are required and that, until an operational definition can be agreed upon, use of the label "dyslexia" is counterproductive. (DB)

  8. How HIV Causes AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this: Main Content Area How HIV Causes AIDS HIV destroys CD4 positive (CD4+) T cells, which ... and disease, ultimately resulting in the development of AIDS. Most people who are infected with HIV can ...

  9. What Causes Bronchitis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exposed to tobacco smoke, dust, fumes, vapors, or air pollution raises your risk for the condition. These lung ... the major cause of the condition. Breathing in air pollution and dust or fumes from the environment or ...

  10. What Causes Hemochromatosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... each parent), you're at risk for iron overload and signs and symptoms of hemochromatosis. If you ... of another disease or condition that causes iron overload. Examples of such diseases and conditions include: Certain ...

  11. Frontotemporal Disorders: Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Alzheimer's Disease Education and Referral Center Home About Alzheimer’s Alzheimer's Basics Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Caregiving Other Dementias Publications FAQs Images and Video ...

  12. What Causes Varicose Veins?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Varicose Veins? Weak or damaged valves in the veins can ... space. These are varicose veins. Normal Vein and Varicose Vein Figure A shows a normal vein with a ...

  13. Cause of Flu (Influenza)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Flu (Influenza) Cause About the Flu Virus Influenza, or flu, is a respiratory infection ... the virus. Influenza A virus. Credit: CDC Where Influenza Comes From In nature, the flu virus is ...

  14. Causes of Ataxia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate to the National Ataxia Foundation Causes of Ataxia The hereditary ataxias are genetic, which means they ... the disease is inherited as a recessive gene. Ataxia Gene Identified in 1993 The first ataxia gene ...

  15. Causes of Paralysis

    MedlinePlus

    ... impact critical functions like thought, comprehension, and speech. > Cerebral palsy CP is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain. > Friedreich’s ataxia An inherited disease that leads to ...

  16. What causes bone loss?

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions can cause osteoporosis. Some of these are: Hormone-blocking treatments for prostate cancer or breast cancer Some medicines that are used to treat seizures or epilepsy Steroid medicines, if they are taken by mouth every ...

  17. What Causes Cough?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause a cough. Other irritants include air pollution, paint fumes, or scented products like perfumes or air fresheners. An allergen is something you're allergic to, such as dust, animal dander, mold, or pollens from trees, grasses, and ...

  18. Leading Causes of Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... of the lenses in your eyes. They affect vision and are very common in older people. More ...

  19. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... easily move oxygen into your blood and remove carbon dioxide from your blood (gas exchange). This can cause a low oxygen level or high carbon dioxide level, or both, in your blood. Respiratory failure ...

  20. [Does vaccination cause disease?].

    PubMed

    Zingg, W

    2005-10-01

    Not many inventions in medical history have influenced our society as much as vaccination. The concept is old and simple. When Edward Jenner published his work on cowpox, "variolation" was quite common. In this procedure, pus of patients with mild smallpox was transferred to healthy individuals. Meanwhile smallpox has been eradicated worldwide. Diseases such as poliomyelitis, diphtheria or tetanus almost disappeared in industrialized countries. The same happened with epiglottitis and meningitis due to Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) after vaccination against Hib was introduced in Switzerland in 1990. This success was possible because of routine vaccination. Immunization is a save procedure and adverse events are much lower than complications in the natural course of the prevented diseases. However vaccinations were accused to cause diseases themselves such as asthma, multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus, chronic arthritis or autism. Hitherto no large cohort study or case-control-study was able to proof responsibility of vaccines in any of these diseases. Public media are eager to publish early data from surveillance reports or case reports which are descriptive and never a principle of cause and effect. In large controlled trials there was no proof that vaccination causes asthma, hepatitis-B-vaccination causes multiple sclerosis or macrophagic myofasciitis, Hib-vaccination causes diabetes mellitus, rubella-vaccination causes chronic arthritis, measles-mumps-rubella-vaccination causes gait disturbance or thiomersal causes autism. These results are rarely published in newspapers or television. Thus, many caring parents are left with negative ideas about immunization. Looking for the best for their children they withhold vaccination and give way to resurgence of preventable diseases in our communities. This must be prevented. There is more evidence than expected that vaccination is safe and this can and must be told to parents. PMID:16277033

  1. Secondary causes of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Vodnala, Deepthi; Rubenfire, Melvyn; Brook, Robert D

    2012-09-15

    The causes of the lipid disorders in patients referred to specialty clinics for difficult-to-treat dyslipidemias are likely multifactorial. However, the importance of evaluating for secondary causes is unclear. The investigators performed a chart review of new patients referred to the University of Michigan Lipid Clinic from January 2004 to June 2011 (n = 824) to evaluate for the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. In addition to lipoproteins, new patients were assessed for secondary dyslipidemias by a standardized protocol consisting of laboratory testing, a nutritional evaluation, and medical history. These data were evaluated to determine the prevalence of several secondary causes of dyslipidemia. A total of 363 separate factors were identified in the 824 patients that were thought to be potential secondary causes of dyslipidemia. Because some patients (n = 83 [10%]) had multiple conditions, there were 230 (28% of the cohort) with ≥1 potential secondary dyslipidemias. The most common conditions were excessive alcohol intake (n = 82 [10%]), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (n = 68 [8%]), and overt albuminuria. Although other causes occurred less frequently (each individually found in <5% of patients), altogether they were present in a substantial portion of patients (n = 102 [12%]). In conclusion, nearly 1/3 of patients referred to a specialty clinic had identifiable secondary conditions plausibly contributing to their dyslipidemia. Numerous disorders were identified, with diabetes mellitus and excessive alcohol being the most common. PMID:22658245

  2. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  3. Champions of a cause

    SciTech Connect

    McChesney, S.

    1995-03-01

    As customer choice becomes more and more of an issue, utilities are looking at ways to differentiate their company and service. This article describes one tactic - cause-related marketing - for building customer loyalty to the utility brand. As utilities focus on marketing and are less able to justify short-term philanthropy, cause-related marketing may help them at once meet a social need and create competitive advantage. It may even help break down the organizational boundaries that inhibit the communication, flexibility, and creativity needed to succeed in a competitive market. Successful utilities likely will have service packages that are customized for different groups of customers. One or several of those groups, for example, may respond particularly to the utility`s attitude to the community or a particular cause.

  4. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  5. What Causes Thyroid Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not yet known. Certain changes in a person’s DNA can cause thyroid cells to become cancerous. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... parents because they are the source of our DNA. But DNA affects more than just how we ...

  6. What Causes Rett Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused by mutations in X-linked MECP2 . Nature Genetics , Oct;23(2), 185–188. [top] Schollen, ... 1581. Retrieved June 23, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v17/n12/full/ejhg200995a.html [ ...

  7. [Myopathy caused by hypothyroidism].

    PubMed

    Paiva, C; Mouro, A M; Luís, M L; Fonseca, F; Quina, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors report a case of primary hypothyroidism where the main symptoms were caused by muscular lesions and disappeared after treatment with L-thyroxine. Based on this case study the authors then review both the clinical aspects and the diagnostical methods of hypothyroidism myopathy, noting its frequency, be it in terms of isolated laboratory changes or in terms of functional changes. PMID:1807095

  8. Landslides - Cause and effect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  9. Teacher Dismissal for Cause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Brad; Schumacher, Gary; Hammonds, Craig

    2013-01-01

    This case presents a discussion of events that led to the dismissal of a teacher for cause. A first year high school principal is confronted with teacher behavior that creates a dangerous situation for students. The decision process to determine the appropriate organizational response involves a number of individuals and systems. The…

  10. Anaphylaxis caused by banana.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Kanerva, L

    1993-04-01

    An anaphylactic reaction following ingestion of banana occurred in a 32-year-old female cook. The sensitization to banana occurred simultaneously with the development of occupational asthma caused by grain flour. The patient was sensitized to a wide range of airborne and ingestible proteins but not to rubber latex. PMID:8506993

  11. What Causes Rainbows?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, John

    2004-01-01

    If one looks at a rain cloud with the Sun behind one's back, the sunlight and water drops may interact just right, revealing the familiar arc of red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. Many of people have been pleasantly surprised to see a rainbow in the sky, but probably have not considered why they occur. Rainbows are caused by…

  12. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  13. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  14. Atypical causes of cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Ken D; Sundaram, Vinay; Ayoub, Walid S

    2014-01-01

    Cholestatic liver disease consists of a variety of disorders. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis are the most commonly recognized cholestatic liver disease in the adult population, while biliary atresia and Alagille syndrome are commonly recognized in the pediatric population. In infants, the causes are usually congenital or inherited. Even though jaundice is a hallmark of cholestasis, it is not always seen in adult patients with chronic liver disease. Patients can have “silent” progressive cholestatic liver disease for years prior to development of symptoms such as jaundice and pruritus. In this review, we will discuss some of the atypical causes of cholestatic liver disease such as benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis, progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis, Alagille Syndrome, biliary atresia, total parenteral nutrition induced cholestasis and cholestasis secondary to drug induced liver injury. PMID:25071336

  15. Particles causing lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kilburn, K.H.

    1984-04-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. 164 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  16. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G; Hargens, A R; Lehman, S; Rempel, D M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue. PMID:11398857

  17. Particles causing lung disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kilburn, K H

    1984-01-01

    The lung has a limited number of patterns of reaction to inhaled particles. The disease observed depends upon the location: conducting airways, terminal bronchioles and alveoli, and upon the nature of inflammation induced: acute, subacute or chronic. Many different agents cause narrowing of conducting airways (asthma) and some of these cause permanent distortion or obliteration of airways as well. Terminal bronchioles appear to be particularly susceptible to particles which cause goblet cell metaplasia, mucous plugging and ultimately peribronchiolar fibrosis. Cancer is the last outcome at the bronchial level and appears to depend upon continuous exposure to or retention of an agent in the airway and failure of the affected cells to be exfoliated which may be due to squamous metaplasia. Alveoli are populated by endothelial cells, Type I or pavement epithelial cells and metabolically active cuboidal Type II cells that produce the lungs specific surfactant, dipalmytol lecithin. Disturbances of surfactant lead to edema in distal lung while laryngeal edema due to anaphylaxis or fumes may produce asphyxia. Physical retention of indigestible particles or retention by immune memory responses may provoke hyaline membranes, stimulate alveolar lipoproteinosis and finally fibrosis. This later exuberant deposition of connective tissue has been best studied in the occupational pneumoconioses especially silicosis and asbestosis. In contrast emphysema a catabolic response, appears frequently to result from leakage or release of lysosomal proteases into the lung during processing of cigarette smoke particles. The insidious and probably most important human lung disease due to particles is bronchiolar obstruction and obliteration, producing progressive impairment of air flow. The responsible particle is the complex combination of poorly digestive lipids and complex carbohydrates with active chemicals which we call cigarette smoke. More research is needed to perfect, correct and

  18. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  19. Pharmacological causes of hyperprolactinemia

    PubMed Central

    Torre, Daria La; Falorni, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is a common endocrinological disorder that may be caused by several physiological and pathological conditions. Several drugs may determine a significant increase in prolactin serum concentration that is frequently associated with symptoms. The so-called typical antipsychotics are frequently responsible for drug-related hyperprolactinemia. Risperidone is one of the atypical neuroleptics most likely to induce hyperprolactinemia, while other atypical drugs are unfrequenlty and only transiently associated with increase of prolactin levels. Women are more sensitive than men to the hyperprolactinemic effect of antipsychotics. Classical and risperidone-induced hyperprolactinemia may be revert when a gradual antipsychotic drug discontinuation is combined with olanzapine or clozapine initiation. Antidepressant drugs with serotoninergic activity, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAO-I) and some tricyclics, can cause hyperprolactinemia. A long list of other compounds may determine an increase in prolactin levels, including prokinetics, opiates, estrogens, anti-androgens, anti-hypertensive drugs, H2-receptor antagonists, anti-convulsivants and cholinomimetics. Finally, hyperprolactinemia has also been documented during conditioning and after autologous blood stem-cell transplantation and during chemotherapy, even though disturbances of prolactin seem to occur less frequently than impairments of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad/thyroid axis after intensive treatment and blood marrow transplantation. PMID:18473017

  20. Methanol shutdowns cause anxiety

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, N.

    1996-10-23

    European methanol players face an anxious few weeks as unscheduled outages combine with planned turnarounds to make an increasingly tight market. Global markets are also described as tightening, with production problems widely reported in North America. Several European producers were in the middle of shutdown periods when problems at Condea`s 400,000-m.t./year unit at Wesseling, Germany reportedly caused production to run at only 50% of capacity. In addition, the methanol plant at the Leuna refinery is said to be operating at only 60% of capacity, and one producer has had to extend a turnaround period. River levels in Germany are also low, putting pressure on shipments from Rotterdam. {open_quotes}This is a very difficult situation and we`re living hand to mouth,{close_quotes} says one producer. Producer sources report bids from consumers up to DM280/m.t. T2 fob Rotterdam, but they are unable to obtain extra product. Derivatives makers may also face problems: One methyl tert-butyl ether producer predicts prices {open_quotes}may hit the roof{close_quotes} once feedstock sourcing problems hit home.

  1. Burns caused by carburetors.

    PubMed

    Still, Joseph; Law, Edward; Orlet, Hermann; Wilson, Joan

    2003-01-01

    During a 10-year period 4645 patients were admitted to the Joseph M. Still Burn Center with acute burns. Of these, 83 (1.79%) were caused by carburetor-related accidents. There were 79 males and 4 females. Ages ranged from 10 to 72 years. Burn size ranged from 1 to 97.5% (mean, 12.3%). There was one death in the group. Eighteen patients required only topical care; 65 patients required a total of 108 operations for debridement and grafting. Length of stay ranged from 1 to 63 days (mean, 11 days). The mechanism of injury was usually the same; in 81 cases the accident occurred while someone was pouring gasoline into a carburetor. In 63 cases the vehicle was an automobile or pickup truck. Explosions resulted in 12 instances; in 65 instances fires were started. These injuries are serious, expensive, fairly common, and may be life threatening. Proper handling of gasoline is stressed. Newer vehicles have fuel injector systems, which may gradually eliminate the problem over time, because pouring gasoline is not required. PMID:12543992

  2. [Relapse: causes and consequences].

    PubMed

    Thomas, P

    2013-09-01

    Relapse after a first episode of schizophrenia is the recurrence of acute symptoms after a period of partial or complete remission. Due to its variable aspects, there is no operational definition of relapse able to modelise the outcome of schizophrenia and measure how the treatment modifies the disease. Follow-up studies based on proxys such as hospital admission revealed that 7 of 10 patients relapsed after a first episode of schizophrenia. The effectiveness of antipsychotic medications on relapse prevention has been widely demonstrated. Recent studies claim for the advantages of atypical over first generation antipsychotic medication. Non-adherence to antipsychotic represents with addictions the main causes of relapse long before some non-consensual factors such as premorbid functioning, duration of untreated psychosis and associated personality disorders. The consequences of relapse are multiple, psychological, biological and social. Pharmaco-clinical studies have demonstrated that the treatment response decreases with each relapse. Relapse, even the first one, will contribute to worsen the outcome of the disease and reduce the capacity in general functionning. Accepting the idea of continuing treatment is a complex decision in which the psychiatrist plays a central role besides patients and their families. The development of integrated actions on modifiable risk factors such as psychosocial support, addictive comorbidities, access to care and the therapeutic alliance should be promoted. Relapse prevention is a major goal of the treatment of first-episode schizophrenia. It is based on adherence to the maintenance treatment, identification of prodromes, family active information and patient therapeutical education. PMID:24084426

  3. Causes for "ghost" manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borok, S.; Goldfarb, I.; Gol'dshtein, V.

    2009-05-01

    ;71:359-82; Flockerzi D. Tutorial: intrinsic low-dimensional manifolds and slow attractors. Magdeburg: Max-Planck-Institut; 2001-2005. ; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 1999;9:108-23; Flockerzi D, Heineken W. Comment on "Identification of low order manifolds: validating the algorithm of Maas and Pope". Chaos 2006;16:048101]. The present work studies the causes for the "ghost" manifolds appearance for the case of a two-dimensional singularly perturbed system.

  4. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual arousal and sexual performance. What causes impotence in one ...

  5. Drugs that may cause impotence

    MedlinePlus

    Impotence caused by medications; Drug-induced erectile dysfunction; Prescription medicines and impotence ... Many medicines and recreational drugs can affect a man's sexual ... What causes impotence in one man may not affect another man. ...

  6. Causes of chronic bronchitis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is caused most often by exposure to airborne pollutants such as cigarette smoke, excessive dust in the ... becomes inflamed and the constant exposure to such pollutants begins to cause damage in the bronchioles (the ...

  7. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Sickle Cell Disease? Abnormal hemoglobin, called hemoglobin S , causes sickle cell ... that hemoglobin works. ( See Overview. ) How Is Sickle Cell Disease Inherited? When the hemoglobin S gene is inherited ...

  8. What Causes Coronary Microvascular Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Angina Atherosclerosis Coronary Heart Disease Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors ... Microvascular Disease? The same risk factors that cause atherosclerosis may cause coronary microvascular disease. Atherosclerosis is a ...

  9. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... a crowd of people walking. Photo: iStock Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your ...

  10. Endocrine causes of calcium disorders.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2012-11-01

    Endocrine diseases that may cause hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia include hyperparathyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, thyroid disorders, hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, and less commonly pheochromocytoma and multiple endocrine neoplasias. The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia may include malignancy (lymphoma, anal sac carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D intoxication, chronic renal disease, hypoadrenocorticism, granulomatous disorders, osteolysis, or spurious causes. Hypocalcemia may be caused by puerperal tetany, pancreatitis, intestinal malabsorption, ethlyene glycol intoxication, acute renal failure, hypopararthyroidism, hypovitaminosis D, hypomagnesemia, and low albumin. This article focuses on the endocrine causes of calcium imbalance and provides diagnostic and therapeutic guidelines for identifying the cause of hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia in veterinary patients. PMID:23415381

  11. System Safety Common Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-03-10

    The COMCAN fault tree analysis codes are designed to analyze complex systems such as nuclear plants for common causes of failure. A common cause event, or common mode failure, is a secondary cause that could contribute to the failure of more than one component and violates the assumption of independence. Analysis of such events is an integral part of system reliability and safety analysis. A significant common cause event is a secondary cause common tomore » all basic events in one or more minimal cut sets. Minimal cut sets containing events from components sharing a common location or a common link are called common cause candidates. Components share a common location if no barrier insulates any one of them from the secondary cause. A common link is a dependency among components which cannot be removed by a physical barrier (e.g.,a common energy source or common maintenance instructions).« less

  12. Windsurfing hazard caused by needlefish.

    PubMed

    Rouvillain, J L; Donica, A; Gane, C; Zekhnini, C; Garron, E; Uzel, A P

    2013-11-01

    Very amusing and entertaining for the traveler, marine activities in tropical countries can be dangerous. More and more trauma caused by hazardous marine animals have been reported in recent years in the world, after maritime accidents including water sports like windsurfing, kite surfing, swimming, diving, and injuries caused by sting or contact with a marine animal. Rays and stone-fish frequently cause trauma, but there are not many cases of injury by needlefish. This case reports a case of penetrating wound of the left foot caused by a Caribbean needlefish occurred during a session of windsurfing in Martinique. PMID:23412165

  13. Exon skipping causes atypical phenotypes associated with a loss-of-function mutation in FLNA by restoring its protein function.

    PubMed

    Oda, Hirotsugu; Sato, Tatsuhiro; Kunishima, Shinji; Nakagawa, Kenji; Izawa, Kazushi; Hiejima, Eitaro; Kawai, Tomoki; Yasumi, Takahiro; Doi, Hiraku; Katamura, Kenji; Numabe, Hironao; Okamoto, Shinya; Nakase, Hiroshi; Hijikata, Atsushi; Ohara, Osamu; Suzuki, Hidenori; Morisaki, Hiroko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Nunoi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Seisuke; Nishikomori, Ryuta; Heike, Toshio

    2016-03-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in filamin A (FLNA) cause an X-linked dominant disorder with multiple organ involvement. Affected females present with periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH), cardiovascular complications, thrombocytopenia and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. These mutations are typically lethal to males, and rare male survivors suffer from failure to thrive, PVNH, and severe cardiovascular and gastrointestinal complications. Here we report two surviving male siblings with a loss-of-function mutation in FLNA. They presented with multiple complications, including valvulopathy, intestinal malrotation and chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO). However, these siblings had atypical clinical courses, such as a lack of PVNH and a spontaneous improvement of CIPO. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing revealed a 4-bp deletion in exon 40 that was predicted to cause a lethal premature protein truncation. However, molecular investigations revealed that the mutation induced in-frame skipping of the mutated exon, which led to the translation of a mutant FLNA missing an internal region of 41 amino acids. Functional analyses of the mutant protein suggested that its binding affinity to integrin, as well as its capacity to induce focal adhesions, were comparable to those of the wild-type protein. These results suggested that exon skipping of FLNA partially restored its protein function, which could contribute to amelioration of the siblings' clinical courses. This study expands the diversity of the phenotypes associated with loss-of-function mutations in FLNA. PMID:26059841

  14. Covering Causes of Social Upheaval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martindale, Carolyn

    Noting that not much research has addressed critics' observations that the press devotes little attention to the underlying causes of social protest and upheaval, a study was conducted to examine five newspapers' coverage of civil rights protests--and their causes--during the 1960s. Four leading newspapers from different geographical areas--the…

  15. Deaths: Leading Causes for 2014.

    PubMed

    Heron, Melonie

    2016-06-01

    Objectives-This report presents final 2014 data on the 10 leading causes of death in the United States by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Leading causes of infant, neonatal, and postneonatal death are also presented. This report supplements "Deaths: Final Data for 2014," the National Center for Health Statistics' annual report of final mortality statistics. PMID:27376998

  16. Keratomycosis caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola.

    PubMed

    Mangiaterra, M; Giusiano, G; Smilasky, G; Zamar, L; Amado, G; Vincentín, C

    2001-02-01

    We present a case of keratomycosis caused by Cylindrocarpon lichenicola in a 30-year-old immunocompetent male patient living in a rural area of Formosa Province (north-eastern Argentina). No ocular trauma is reported in his case history. There are no previous reports of infections caused by this fungus in Argentina. PMID:11270403

  17. Bacteremia caused by Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis.

    PubMed

    Urata, Teruo; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hino, Taro; Yoda, Yusuke; Tamai, Kiyoko; Kodaira, Yoshiya; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2008-10-01

    Desulfovibrio species are anaerobic gram-negative, pleomorphic bacilli rarely causing infection in humans. In the present report, we describe a case of bacteremia caused by Desulfovibrio fairfieldensis. The patient, for whom biapenem was administered, rapidly improved without any sequelae. As far as we know, this is the first case report of infection by Desulfovibrio species in Japan. PMID:18936890

  18. Nodular Cutaneous Amyloidosis at the Temple.

    PubMed

    Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7-10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090

  19. Nodular Cutaneous Amyloidosis at the Temple

    PubMed Central

    Schucht, Kathrin; Schröder, Josef; Siegmund, Heiko; Grafe, Claudia; Schreml, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with a large partially yellow and erythematous tumor on her right temple. She reported that it had grown over the last 4 years. Regional lymph nodes were impalpable. A punch biopsy showed eosinophilic material in the dermis and subcutis. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for kappa and lambda light chains. Electron microscopy showed the typical amyloid fibrils (7–10 nm in diameter). There was no evidence of systemic amyloidosis, paraproteinemia or underlying plasmacytoma. The tumor was completely removed via curettage. At follow-up, the patient presented in good health with no signs of relapse. PMID:27504090

  20. Skin conditions: benign nodular skin lesions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tam; Zuniga, Ramiro

    2013-04-01

    Benign subcutaneous lesions are a common reason that patients visit family physicians. Lipomas are the most common of these lesions; they most often occur on the trunk and proximal extremities. Recent data show that as many as half of the fat cells in lipomas are atypical. Ultrasound is used increasingly to confirm lipoma diagnosis, but deep lesions should be evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging study or computed tomography scan to exclude involvement of underlying structures and/or liposarcoma. Small lesions can sometimes be managed with serial injections of midpotency steroids. Larger lesions (larger than 5 cm), those compressing other structures, or those suspicious for malignancy should be excised using standard surgical excision or, when possible, the newer minimal-scar segmental extraction technique. Ganglion cysts are another common lesion, the presence of which often is confirmed with ultrasound if the diagnosis is not clinically apparent. Management includes splinting, aspiration, and/or injection of steroids, with or without hyaluronidase. Epidermal inclusion cysts, also called sebaceous cysts, typically are asymptomatic unless they become infected. Ultrasound can aid in diagnosis. The only definitive management is surgical excision with complete removal of the cyst wall or capsule, using minimal-scar segmental extraction or conventional surgical removal. PMID:23600336

  1. Acoustic trauma caused by lightning.

    PubMed

    Mora-Magaña, I; Collado-Corona, M A; Toral-Martiñòn, R; Cano, A

    1996-03-01

    Lesions produced by exposure to noise are frequent in everyday life. Injuries may be found in all systems of the human body, from the digestive to the endocrine, from the cardiovascular to the nervous system. Many organs may be damaged, the ear being one of them. It is known that noise produced by factories, airports, musical instruments and even toys can cause auditory loss. Noises in nature can also cause acoustic trauma. This report is the case history of acoustic trauma caused by lightning. The patient was studied with CAT scan, electroencephalogram, and brain mapping, impedance audiometry with tympanogram and acoustic reflex, audiometry and evoked otoacoustics emissions: distortion products and transients. PMID:8882110

  2. Meningococcal Disease: Causes and Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis Causes & Transmission Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Vaccine Campaign Podcast: Meningitis Immunization for Adolescents Meningitis Sepsis File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  3. Causes of secondary headache (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Temporomandibular joint, or TMJ, dysfunction, can be a cause of secondary headache. Secondary headaches result from underlying disorders which produce pain as a symptom. The TMJ may become painful and dysfunctional as a result ...

  4. What Causes Sudden Cardiac Arrest?

    MedlinePlus

    ... a few minutes. Other problems with the heart's electrical system also can cause SCA. For example, SCA can occur if the rate of the heart's electrical signals becomes very slow and stops. SCA also ...

  5. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Hattori, N; Shirai, A; Sugiura, Y; Li, W; Yokoyama, K; Misawa, Y; Okuzumi, K; Tamaki, K

    2005-09-01

    Fusarium infections in humans are usually opportunistic, but the fungus sometimes infects healthy persons, causing keratomycosis or onychomycosis. Onychomycosis is usually caused by F. solani or F. oxysporum. We report the first two cases of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum, and discuss methods of diagnosis and effective treatment. Nail samples from the two patients were examined by direct microscopy, cultured, and identified morphologically and genetically as F. proliferatum. Both patients were treated successfully with oral itraconazole, even though the minimum inhibitory concentration of itraconazole was relatively high in Patient 1. This is the first report of F. proliferatum as an agent of onychomycosis. Itraconazole may be effective in the treatment of onychomycosis caused by F. proliferatum. PMID:16120158

  6. What Causes Thrombocythemia and Thrombocytosis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Hemolytic Anemia Iron-Deficiency Anemia Stroke Von Willebrand Disease Send a link ...

  7. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  8. Dementia due to metabolic causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... may cause confusion and changes in thinking or reasoning. These changes may be short-term or lasting. ... Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2012: ...

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ross River Fever, a mosquito-borne tropical disease Coxiella burnetti , the agent that causes Q fever Human ... with Epstein-Barr virus, Ross River virus, and Coxiella burnetti will lead to a post-infective condition ...

  10. Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Endometriosis: Does It Cause Infertility? This fact sheet was ... with The Society of Reproductive Surgeons What is endometriosis? When tissue like the tissue that normally lines ...

  11. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura? A lack of activity in the ADAMTS13 enzyme ( ... This leads to hemolytic anemia . Inherited Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura In inherited TTP, the ADAMTS13 gene is faulty. ...

  12. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  13. Symptoms and Causes of Constipation

    MedlinePlus

    ... slow movement of stool through the colon delayed emptying of the colon from pelvic disorders, especially in ... can cause constipation include antacids —used to neutralize stomach acid—that contain aluminum and calcium anticholinergics —used ...

  14. Science 101: What Causes Wind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, William C.

    2010-01-01

    There's a quick and easy answer to this question. The Sun causes wind. Exactly how the Sun causes wind takes a bit to explain. We'll begin with what wind is. You've no doubt heard that wind is the motion of air molecules, which is true. Putting aside the huge leap of faith it takes for us to believe that we are experiencing the motion of millions…

  15. Achromobacter causing a thrombophlebitis and osteomyelitis combination: a rare cause.

    PubMed

    Pamuk, Gizem; Aygun, Deniz; Barut, Kenan; Kasapcopur, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a Gram-negative, aerobic bacillus, present in normal human flora of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Infections due to Achromobacter are infrequent and have mostly been reported in immunocompromised patients. Rarely, however, the microorganism can cause soft tissue infections even in healthy subjects with a history of trauma. We report thrombophlebitis complicated with osteomyelitis secondary to Achromobacter in a 15-year-old girl with a history of purulent discharge from the ankle due to local trauma caused by tight fitting shoes. PMID:26347234

  16. Infections Caused by Scedosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cortez, Karoll J.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Quiroz-Telles, Flavio; Meletiadis, Joseph; Antachopoulos, Charalampos; Knudsen, Tena; Buchanan, Wendy; Milanovich, Jeffrey; Sutton, Deanna A.; Fothergill, Annette; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Shea, Yvonne R.; Zaoutis, Theoklis; Kottilil, Shyam; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Scedosporium spp. are increasingly recognized as causes of resistant life-threatening infections in immunocompromised patients. Scedosporium spp. also cause a wide spectrum of conditions, including mycetoma, saprobic involvement and colonization of the airways, sinopulmonary infections, extrapulmonary localized infections, and disseminated infections. Invasive scedosporium infections are also associated with central nervous infection following near-drowning accidents. The most common sites of infection are the lungs, sinuses, bones, joints, eyes, and brain. Scedosporium apiospermum and Scedosporium prolificans are the two principal medically important species of this genus. Pseudallescheria boydii, the teleomorph of S. apiospermum, is recognized by the presence of cleistothecia. Recent advances in molecular taxonomy have advanced the understanding of the genus Scedosporium and have demonstrated a wider range of species than heretofore recognized. Studies of the pathogenesis of and immune response to Scedosporium spp. underscore the importance of innate host defenses in protection against these organisms. Microbiological diagnosis of Scedosporium spp. currently depends upon culture and morphological characterization. Molecular tools for clinical microbiological detection of Scedosporium spp. are currently investigational. Infections caused by S. apiospermum and P. boydii in patients and animals may respond to antifungal triazoles. By comparison, infections caused by S. prolificans seldom respond to medical therapy alone. Surgery and reversal of immunosuppression may be the only effective therapeutic options for infections caused by S. prolificans. PMID:18202441

  17. Verminous aneurysm caused by filaria.

    PubMed

    Toledo, F V; de Araújo, A P; da Cunha, A M; Sidow, J R; Pavão, S G; de Araújo, E D

    1983-06-01

    Aneurysms caused by atherosclerosis are relatively frequent, as a consequence of the high incidence of this degenerative disease of the arteries. Other types of aneurysm, for example, those of infectious etiology, are more uncommon. Bacterias and fungi are able to cause aneurysms in several parts of the arterial tree. Stengel et al (1943), in a review of world literature described 217 cases of mycotic aneurysms. The Stedman's Medical Dictionary refers to a special type of aneurysm observed in horses, caused by intra-vascular migration of a worm, the Strongylus vulgaris. It has been named verminous aneurysm and generally involves the mesenteric arteries. We haven't found in medical literature any similar observations refering to human cases. The purpose of this paper is to describe a case of aneurysm the etiology of which we have imputed to the filaria (Wuchereria bancrofti). This case was observed in Marcilio Dias Naval Hospital, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:6346961

  18. Sciatica caused by pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Lin; Chen, Jung-Tsung; Liu, Yu-Fang; Cho, Der-Yang

    2009-01-01

    Many etiologies may cause sciatica, and intra-abdominal masses usually affect the lumbosacral plexus by local invasion or distal metastases. Lumbosacral plexopathy caused by compression of intra-abdominal tumors instead of invasion is rarely seen. A 67-year-old woman had a 3-month history of progressive neurogenic claudication, lumbago and left L5 radiculopathy with foot drop. Nocturia and progressive abdominal distension with voiding dysfunction were also noted. Imaging studies showed a huge pelvic mass with severe compression of the left lumbosacral trunk. There was no direct invasion of the lumbosacral plexus by the pelvic mass noted in the preoperative imaging studies or intraoperative findings. Bilateral ovarian borderline mucinous cystic tumor with pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) was diagnosed, and the sciatica was improved dramatically after subsequent abdominal debulking surgery. Although rare, neural compression caused by PMP and intra-abdominal masses needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of sciatica. PMID:19181596

  19. Estimating avoidable causes of cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, D L; Muir, C

    1995-01-01

    Evidence that much cancer is preventable derives from observations of time trends and geographic patterns of cancer, birth cohort changes, high risks in groups with well-defined exposures, and experimental studies. In an effort to identify additional opportunities for reducing the impact of cancer on society, this conference assessed avoidable causes of cancer. The magnitude and extent of preventable causes of cancer are subjects of intense debate, with discrepancies often related to the use of different time frames and different weights for epidemiologic and toxicologic evidence. There is much agreement, however, about the exposures that increase risk, notably tobacco, alcohol, diet, radiation, medications, occupational exposures, general environmental exposures, and infectious agents. Interactions between carcinogenic exposures and genetic susceptibility are also important. Concerted efforts are needed to identify avoidable causes of cancer and to apply knowledge already obtained to reduce the cancer burden. PMID:8741803

  20. Pediatric genetic diseases causing glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ichhpujani, Parul; Singh, Rohan B.

    2014-01-01

    Glaucomatous optic neuropathy may be considered as an endpoint of multiple systemic factors. Genetic conditions commonly causing glaucoma in children and adolescents include Axenfeld-Reiger syndrome, aniridia, Marfan syndrome, Weill-Marchessani syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, nevus of Ota, congenital rubella and neurofibromatosis type 1. In the recent years, with the advancements in genetic research our understanding of the fundamental causes of glaucoma associated with inherited disorders has improved. In addition to intraocular pressure reduction, it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the multiple systemic associations with glaucoma, to re-evaluate treatment frequently, and to target the underlying disease process, if present.

  1. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  2. Occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1994-12-01

    Amino alcohols are used in various industries, often as minor constituents of compounds to modify the properties of the compound. Generally, they are considered to be safe, but they have been known to cause local skin irritation at higher concentrations in solutions. We report on three cases of occupational asthma caused by ethanolamines: two metal workers exposed to a cutting fluid containing triethanolamine, and one cleaner exposed to a detergent containing monoethanolamine. The diagnosis was based on work-related symptoms and on a chamber challenge with the suspected agent. Persistence of the symptoms after exposure ended was a common feature of the three cases. PMID:7709998

  3. Association between radiographic pattern and outcome in foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Giguère, Steeve; Roberts, Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    Our objective was to characterize the association between types of radiographic findings and outcome in foals with pneumonia caused by Rhodococcus equi. Admission lateral thoracic radiographs of 62 foals with culture-confirmed R. equi pneumonia were reviewed retrospectively. A scoring system was developed to individually assess the severity of alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, and the number of nodular opacities and cavitary lesions. Individual scores were added to obtain a total radiographic score ranging from 0 (normal) to 22. Forty-three of 62 foals (69%) survived to discharge. The median total radiographic score of nonsurvivors (14; range, 9-16) was significantly (P = 0.007) higher than that of survivors (11; range, 4-15). Foals with a total radiographic score of greater than or equal to 15 were 6.15 times (95% CI: 1.35 to 28.2) less likely to survive than foals with a lower score (P = 0.019). A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify the potential associations between specific types of radiographic lesions and outcome. The model was statistically significant (P = 0.002) and correctly classified 75.8% of foals. Only severity of alveolar pattern and number of cavitary lesions made statistically significant contributions to the model. There was no significant association between concurrent isolation of other bacteria along with R. equi and the types or severity of radiographic lesions. Based on the results of this study, severity of alveolar pattern and number of cavitary lesions are the radiographic findings significantly associated with a poor outcome in foals with R. equi pneumonia. PMID:22742474

  4. [Phaeomycotic cyst caused by Exophiala xenobiotica in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Urano, Shoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Anzawa, Kazushi; Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroishi, Shigeki; Itoh, Naomi; Okada, Takathika; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    In black fungal infections, Exophiala species are frequently encountered as causative agents of human mycosis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. Among them, Exophiala jenselmei was previously reported as the most common etiological agent. Advances in molecular taxonomy proved this taxon to be heterogeneous, and led to newly introduced or redefined species. Exophiala xenobiotica is one of the novel species differentiated from E. jenselmei on the basis of molecular phylogeny.Here, we report a case of pheomycotic cyst caused by E. xenobiotica, which was well controlled via drainage and local thermotherapy. A 70-year-old man developed a cystic nodular lesion on the dorsum of his right thumb over the previous 3 months. He had been treated with prednisolone and methotrexate for 4 years for rheumatoid arthritis. The patient also had lung cancer with vertebral bone metastasis. Direct microscopic examination of the greenish pus aspirated from the cyst revealed mycelial elements. Culture of the pus on blood and Sabouraud dextrose agar yielded numerous black colonies multiple times. Histopathological examination of a biopsy specimen showed subcutaneous abscess formation surrounded by granulomatous tissues. Faintly pigmented pseudohyphae were seen within the abscess. The presence of melanin in the fungal cells was determined by Fontana-Masson staining. Initial microscopic examination of the isolate revealed annellidic conidiogenous cells, suggestive of E. jenselmei. This strain was further identified as E. xenobiotica by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA, showing a 100% sequence homology with the strain type.Pheomycotic cysts should be considered on identifying a slowly developing chronic subcutaneous abscess in immunocompromised patients. Sequencing is recommended for accurate species identification of causative pathogens. PMID:25742995

  5. Bacteremia Caused by Kerstersia gyiorum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cecelia; Manninen, Katja; Touchberry, Joanne; Greene, Shermalyn R.; Holland, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Kerstersia spp. are an unusual cause of human infections. We report the first known case of bacteremia and sepsis due to Kerstersia gyiorum, in a patient with chronic lower-extremity ulcers, and we review the literature on this uncommon pathogen. PMID:25809974

  6. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  7. Cyberbullying: Causes, Effects, and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, Dianne L.; Mitchell, Sidney N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research exploring the pervasiveness and causes of cyberbullying, the psychological impact on students, and the responses to cyberbullying from students and administrators. The goal is to give school leaders a greater understanding of this phenomenon and suggest steps to deal with this challenging…

  8. Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babich, Harvey; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

  9. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  10. Disease Outbreaks Caused by Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craun, Gunther F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the disease outbreaks caused by drinking polluted water, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the waterborn outbreaks included are: (1) cholera; (2) gastroenteritis; (3) giardiasis; and (4) typhoid fever and salmonellosis. A list of 66 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  12. Science 101: What Causes Friction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Defining friction and asking what causes it might seem like a trivial question. Friction seems simple enough to understand. Friction is a force between surfaces that pushes against things that are moving or tending to move, and the rougher the surfaces, the greater the friction. Bill Robertson answers this by saying, "Well, not exactly".…

  13. Organizational Conflict: Causes and Manifestations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sacks, Eugene

    1979-01-01

    No group (within an organization) can be entirely harmonious, but conflict is not an altogether disruptive factor. A delicate balance is required to obtain the advantages and restrict the disadvantages of organizational conflict. The causes and forms of organizational conflict are examined. (JMD)

  14. Pyorrhoea as cause of pyrexia.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, E; Silver, J

    1976-01-01

    Three patients with fever and malaise, one of whom also had joint pains, were extensively investigated before their condition was attributed to dental sepsis. Each patient recovered fully after appropriate dental treatment. Dental sepsis should be added to the list of possible causes of pyrexia of undetermined origin, and a routine dental examination should be carried out in each case. PMID:1000197

  15. Endocarditis Caused by Rhodotorula Infection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Matthew S.; Somersan, Selin; Singh, Harjot K.; Hartman, Barry; Wickes, Brian L.; Jenkins, Stephen G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodotorula is an emerging opportunistic fungal pathogen that is rarely reported to cause endocarditis. We describe a case involving a patient who developed endocarditis due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis, proven by culture and histopathology. The case illustrates the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges relevant to Rhodotorula spp. PMID:24197888

  16. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  17. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  18. Can Infections Cause Alzheimer's Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Mawanda, Francis; Wallace, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia among older adults, yet more than a century of research has not determined why this disease develops. One prevailing hypothesis is that late-onset AD is caused by infectious pathogens, an idea widely studied in both humans and experimental animal models. This review examines the infectious AD etiology hypothesis and summarizes existing evidence associating infectious agents with AD in humans. The various mechanisms through which different clinical and subclinical infections could cause or promote the progression of AD are considered, as is the concordance between putative infectious agents and the epidemiology of AD. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and EBSCO databases for research articles pertaining to infections and AD and systematically reviewed the evidence linking specific infectious pathogens to AD. The evidence compiled from the literature linking AD to an infectious cause is inconclusive, but the amount of evidence suggestive of an association is too substantial to ignore. Epidemiologic, clinical, and basic science studies that could improve on current understanding of the associations between AD and infections and possibly uncover ways to control this highly prevalent and debilitating disease are suggested. PMID:23349428

  19. Causes of chronic orthostatic hypotension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, D.; Robertson, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of various causes of orthostatic hypotension. DESIGN: Survey. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: One hundred patients with moderate to severe orthostatic hypotension. RESULTS: Twenty-seven percent of the patients had primary autonomic failure, 35% had secondary autonomic failure, and 38% had hypotension without evidence of generalized autonomic degeneration. CONCLUSIONS: In a tertiary referral center, only a minority of patients with severe orthostatic hypotension will have Shy-Drager syndrome or Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome as their primary disease. Occasional patients who initially appear to have Bradbury-Eggleston syndrome ultimately prove to have Shy-Drager syndrome or paraneoplastic autonomic failure. Antidepressant drugs, even in low doses, remain a major overlooked cause of orthostatic hypotension.

  20. ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS PROGRAM MANUAL

    SciTech Connect

    Gravois, Melanie C.

    2007-05-02

    Root Cause Analysis (RCA) identifies the cause of an adverse condition that, if corrected, will preclude recurrence or greatly reduce the probability of recurrence of the same or similar adverse conditions and thereby protect the health and safety of the public, the workers, and the environment. This procedure sets forth the requirements for management determination and the selection of RCA methods and implementation of RCAs that are a result of significant findings from Price-Anderson Amendments Act (PAAA) violations, occurrences/events, Significant Adverse Conditions, and external oversight Corrective Action Requests (CARs) generated by the Office of Enforcement (PAAA headquarters), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other oversight entities against Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Performance of an RCA may result in the identification of issues that should be reported in accordance with the Issues Management Program Manual.

  1. Radiation recall reaction causing cardiotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Masri, Sofia Carolina; Misselt, Andrew James; Dudek, Arkadiusz; Konety, Suma H

    2014-01-01

    Radiation recall phenomenon is a tissue reaction that develops within a previously irradiated area, precipitated by the subsequent administration of certain chemotherapeutic agents. It commonly affects the skin, but can also involve internal organs with functional consequences. To our best knowledge, this phenomenon has never been reported as a complication on the heart and should be consider as a potential cause of cardiotoxicity. PMID:24755097

  2. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes and Forecast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, E.

    2009-04-01

    EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (CAUSES AND FORECAST) ELIAS TSIAPAS RESEARCHER NEA STYRA, EVIA,GREECE TEL.0302224041057 tsiapas@hol.gr The earthquakes are caused by large quantities of liquids (e.g. H2O, H2S, SO2, ect.) moving through lithosphere and pyrosphere (MOHO discontinuity) till they meet projections (mountains negative projections or projections coming from sinking lithosphere). The liquids are moved from West Eastward carried away by the pyrosphere because of differential speed of rotation of the pyrosphere by the lithosphere. With starting point an earthquake which was noticed at an area and from statistical studies, we know when, where and what rate an earthquake may be, which earthquake is caused by the same quantity of liquids, at the next east region. The forecast of an earthquake ceases to be valid if these components meet a crack in the lithosphere (e.g. limits of lithosphere plates) or a volcano crater. In this case the liquids come out into the atmosphere by the form of gasses carrying small quantities of lava with them (volcano explosion).

  3. Occupational causes of constrictive bronchiolitis

    PubMed Central

    Kreiss, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review New literature from 2009 to 2012 regarding occupational constrictive bronchiolitis challenges textbook descriptions of this disease, formerly thought to be limited to fixed airflow limitation arising in the wake of accidental overexposure to noxious chemicals. Indolent evolution of dyspnea without a recognized hazardous exposure is a more common presentation. Recent findings Biopsy-confirmed case series of constrictive bronchiolitis from US soldiers, Iranian survivors of sulfur mustard gassing, hospital-based studies, and flavoring-related cases document that indolent constrictive bronchiolitis cases can have normal spirometry or either restrictive or obstructive abnormalities. High-resolution computerized tomography studies can be normal or reflect air-trapping and mosaic attenuation on expiratory films. Thus, in the absence of noninvasive abnormalities, the diagnosis in dyspneic patients may require thoracoscopic biopsy in settings in which exposure risk has not been recognized. Many workers with occupational constrictive bronchiolitis stabilize with cessation of exposures causing bronchiolar epithelial necrosis. Summary Clinicians need a high index of suspicion for constrictive bronchiolitis in young patients with rapidly progressing exertional dyspnea, regardless of spirometric and radiologic findings. Identification of novel causes and exposure-response relations for known causes are needed to provide guidance for protecting workers at risk for this largely irreversible lung disease. PMID:23407121

  4. Panniculitis caused by Mycobacterium monacense mimicking erythema induratum: a case in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Romero, J.J.; Herrera, P.; Cartelle, M.; Barba, P.; Tello, S.; Zurita, J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of recently characterized species M. monacense associated with chronic nodular vasculitis, infecting a young woman. This case represents the first isolation of M. monacense from Ecuador. The isolate was identified by conventional and molecular techniques. PMID:26933504

  5. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2013-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  6. Earthquakes - Volcanoes (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2015-04-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1) Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2) Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3) The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  7. EARTHQUAKES - VOLCANOES (Causes - Forecast - Counteraction)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiapas, Elias

    2014-05-01

    Earthquakes and volcanoes are caused by: 1)Various liquid elements (e.g. H20, H2S, S02) which emerge from the pyrosphere and are trapped in the space between the solid crust and the pyrosphere (Moho discontinuity). 2)Protrusions of the solid crust at the Moho discontinuity (mountain range roots, sinking of the lithosphere's plates). 3)The differential movement of crust and pyrosphere. The crust misses one full rotation for approximately every 100 pyrosphere rotations, mostly because of the lunar pull. The above mentioned elements can be found in small quantities all over the Moho discontinuity, and they are constantly causing minor earthquakes and small volcanic eruptions. When large quantities of these elements (H20, H2S, SO2, etc) concentrate, they are carried away by the pyrosphere, moving from west to east under the crust. When this movement takes place under flat surfaces of the solid crust, it does not cause earthquakes. But when these elements come along a protrusion (a mountain root) they concentrate on its western side, displacing the pyrosphere until they fill the space created. Due to the differential movement of pyrosphere and solid crust, a vacuum is created on the eastern side of these protrusions and when the aforementioned liquids overfill this space, they explode, escaping to the east. At the point of their escape, these liquids are vaporized and compressed, their flow accelerates, their temperature rises due to fluid friction and they are ionized. On the Earth's surface, a powerful rumbling sound and electrical discharges in the atmosphere, caused by the movement of the gasses, are noticeable. When these elements escape, the space on the west side of the protrusion is violently taken up by the pyrosphere, which collides with the protrusion, causing a major earthquake, attenuation of the protrusions, cracks on the solid crust and damages to structures on the Earth's surface. It is easy to foresee when an earthquake will occur and how big it is

  8. Rock expansion caused by ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedberg, C.; Gray, A.

    2013-12-01

    It has during many years been reported that materials' elastic modulus decrease when exposed to influences like mechanical impacts, ultrasound, magnetic fields, electricity and even humidity. Non-perfect atomic structures like rocks, concrete, or damaged metals exhibit a larger effect. This softening has most often been recorded by wave resonance measurements. The motion towards equilibrium is slow - often taking hours or days, which is why the effect is called Slow Dynamics [1]. The question had been raised, if a material expansion also occurs. 'The most fundamental parameter to consider is the volume expansion predicted to occur when positive hole charge carriers become activated, causing a decrease of the electron density in the O2- sublattice of the rock-forming minerals. This decrease of electron density should affect essentially all physical parameters, including the volume.' [2]. A new type of configuration has measured expansion of a rock subjected to ultrasound. A PZT was used as a pressure sensor while the combined thickness of the rock sample and the PZT sensor was held fixed. The expansion increased the stress in both the rock and the PZT, which gave an out-put voltage from the PZT. Knowing its material properties then made it possible to calculate the rock expansion. The equivalent strain caused by the ultrasound was approximately 3 x 10-5. The temperature was monitored and accounted for during the tests and for the maximum expansion the increase was 0.7 C, which means the expansion is at least to some degree caused by heating of the material by the ultrasound. The fraction of bonds activated by ultrasound was estimated to be around 10-5. References: [1] Guyer, R.A., Johnson, P.A.: Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soils, Concrete. Wiley-VCH 2009 [2] M.M. Freund, F.F. Freund, Manipulating the Toughness of Rocks through Electric Potentials, Final Report CIF 2011 Award NNX11AJ84A, NAS Ames 2012.

  9. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Coggins, Sarah A.; Wynn, James L.; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the body of research on infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis. PMID:25678001

  10. Rash caused by Oryctes nasicornis.

    PubMed

    Veraldi, Stefano; Fanoni, Daniele; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2016-02-01

    We report a case of rash caused by crushing of a male of Oryctes nasicornis (Linnaeus 1758) (Coleoptera, "http:// it. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Scarabaeidae" \\o "Scarabaeidae" Scarabaeidae), popularly known as "European rhinoceros beetle", on the skin of an Italian tourist who developed the reaction during a trip to Turkey. The rash appeared one hour after the crushing of the insect on the skin. The patient was observed one day later, when she returned to Italy. To our knowledge, no similar cases have been reported in the literature. PMID:26858273

  11. A possible cause of arteriosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rank, P

    1985-06-01

    A new etiology of arteriosclerosis is proposed. This theory has emerged from the inability of current theories to account for the spontaneously occurring disease and from numerous factual anomalies uncovered by recent research. It is suggested that arteriosclerosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by an infestation of blue-green algae, and that the natural history, histopathologic changes, and many apparently contradictory facts associated with arteriosclerosis are explained by such an etiologic agent. If correct, a radical shift in our understanding of the disease is required. Certain observations and forecasts are made based upon this infection theory. PMID:3839892

  12. Infectious causes of necrotizing enterocolitis.

    PubMed

    Coggins, Sarah A; Wynn, James L; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal emergency among premature infants. Although a large body of research has focused on understanding its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism has not been elucidated. Of particular interest is the potential causative role of infectious culprits in the development of NEC. A variety of reports describe bacterial, viral, and fungal infections occurring in association with NEC; however, no single organism has emerged as being definitively involved in NEC pathogenesis. In this review, the authors summarize the literature on infectious causes of NEC. PMID:25678001

  13. Acute pancreatitis caused by bortezomib.

    PubMed

    Solakoglu, Tevfik; Akyol, Pinar; Guney, Tekin; Dilek, Imdat; Atalay, Roni; Koseoglu, Huseyin; Akin, Ebru; Demirezer Bolat, Aylin; Buyukasik, Naciye Semnur; Ersoy, Osman

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced pancreatitis has been reported rarely. Bortezomib is a selective and reversible proteasome inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Recently, one case report about acute pancreatitis (AP) caused by bortezomib was published in the international literature. Herein we report a case of AP in a 67-year-old male on bortezomib therapy. On the fourth day after the first administration of bortezomib, the patient admitted to the hospital with symptoms of AP. The common etiological factors for AP were all excluded. Than the patient was diagnosed as bortezomib-induced pancreatitis. PMID:23561979

  14. [Meningoencephalitis caused by Pseudomonas cepacia].

    PubMed

    Pérez Monrás, Miriam Fina; Batlle Almodóvar, María del Carmen; González, Cernero; Tamargo Martínez, Isis; Meneses, Félix Dickinson

    2006-01-01

    A case of meningoencephalitis of bacterial etiology caused by Pseudomonas cepacia was described. The strain was received at the Reference Laboratory of Bacterial Acute Respiratory Infections of "Pedro Kouri" Institute of Tropical Medicine, where its microbiological identification was confirmed. This isolation was a finding in an adult immunocompetent patient. The evolution was favourable with no sequelae for his future life. Pseudomona cepacia has been associated with respiratory infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. Patients with Pseudomonas cepacia may be asymptomatic or present fatal acute and fulminant infection. PMID:23427437

  15. [Hereditary angioedema causing colocolic intussusception].

    PubMed

    Sanchez, A; Ecochard, A; Maestracci, M; Rodiere, M

    2008-03-01

    Hereditary angioedema is a rare, autosomal dominant disease inherited. The cause is a quantitative or qualitative congenital deficit in C1 inhibitor. Various clinical symptoms, in particular of sub-cutaneous, upper airways and digestive origin, have been described. Life threatening conditions may be observed. Little information is available on digestive tract localization corresponding to intestinal intussusception associated with hereditary angioedema in children. We report a case of hereditary angioedema observed in a 15-years-old girl who presented such features. We propose a review of the literature and discuss the curative treatment of digestive crisis in children with hereditary angioedema. PMID:18329867

  16. Disease Caused by Rotavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Che-Liang; Chen, Shou-Chien; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    Although rotavirus vaccines are available, rotaviruses remain the major cause of childhood diarrheal disease worldwide. The Rotarix (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals Rixensart, Belgium) and RotaTeq (Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, New Jersey, USA) vaccines are effective for reducing the morbidity and mortality of rotavirus infection. This article aims to assess the epidemiology of rotaviral gastroenteritis and the efficacy and effectiveness of licensed rotavirus vaccines. This review concludes by presenting challenges in the field that require further exploration by and perspectives from basic and translational research in the future. PMID:25553142

  17. Women trafficking: causes, concerns, care!

    PubMed

    Khowaja, Shaneela Sadaruddin; Tharani, Ambreen Jawed; Agha, Ajmal; Karamaliani, Rozina Sherali

    2012-08-01

    Pakistan is both a country of origin and destination as far as women trafficking is concerned. Poverty, gender discrimination, lack of education, and ignorance about legal rights are some of the underlying causes. Available data suggest several areas of concern, like, for instance: direct health effects, maladaptive coping leading to the use of illicit drugs, and inaccessibility to healthcare facilities. Therefore, numerous interventions would be required at three levels: the prevention of trafficking, the protection of victims and the prosecution of the traffickers. PMID:23862261

  18. Mutations in XRCC4 cause primordial dwarfism without causing immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shinta; Kurosawa, Aya; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-08-01

    In successive reports from 2014 to 2015, X-ray repair cross-complementing protein 4 (XRCC4) has been identified as a novel causative gene of primordial dwarfism. XRCC4 is indispensable for non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), the major pathway for repairing DNA double-strand breaks. As NHEJ is essential for V(D)J recombination during lymphocyte development, it is generally believed that abnormalities in XRCC4 cause severe combined immunodeficiency. Contrary to expectations, however, no overt immunodeficiency has been observed in patients with primordial dwarfism harboring XRCC4 mutations. Here, we describe the various XRCC4 mutations that lead to disease and discuss their impact on NHEJ and V(D)J recombination. PMID:27169690

  19. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  20. Orthostatic Hypotension: Mechanisms, Causes, Management

    PubMed Central

    Tomalia, Victoria A.

    2015-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms for the regulation of orthostatic BP control fails. Such regulation depends on the baroreflexes, normal blood volume, and defenses against excessive venous pooling. OH is common in the elderly and is associated with an increase in mortality rate. There are many causes of OH. Aging coupled with diseases such as diabetes and Parkinson's disease results in a prevalence of 10-30% in the elderly. These conditions cause baroreflex failure with resulting combination of OH, supine hypertension, and loss of diurnal variation of BP. The treatment of OH is imperfect since it is impossible to normalize standing BP without generating excessive supine hypertension. The practical goal is to improve standing BP so as to minimize symptoms and to improve standing time in order to be able to undertake orthostatic activities of daily living, without excessive supine hypertension. It is possible to achieve these goals with a combination of fludrocortisone, a pressor agent (midodrine or droxidopa), supplemented with procedures to improve orthostatic defenses during periods of increased orthostatic stress. Such procedures include water bolus treatment and physical countermaneuvers. We provide a pragmatic guide on patient education and the patient-orientated approach to the moment to moment management of OH. PMID:26174784

  1. Neurological causes of taste disorders.

    PubMed

    Heckmann, J G; Lang, C J G

    2006-01-01

    In caring for patients with taste disorders, the clinical assessment should include complete examination of the cranial nerves and, in particular, gustatory testing. Neurophysiological methods such as blink reflex and masseter reflex allow the testing of trigeminofacial and trigeminotrigeminal pathways. Modern imaging methods (MRI and computed tomography) enable the delineation of the neuroanatomical structures which are involved in taste and their relation to the bony skull base. From a neurological point of view, gustatory disorders can result from damage at any location of the neural gustatory pathway from the taste buds via the peripheral (facial, glossopharyngeal and vagal nerve) and central nervous system (brainstem, thalamus) to its representation within the cerebral cortex. Etiopathogenetically, a large number of causes has to be considered, e.g. drugs and physical agents, cerebrovascular disorders including dissection of the carotid artery and pontine/thalamic lesions, space-occupying processes - in particular tumors compressing the cerebellopontine angle and the jugular foramen of the skull base - head trauma and skull base fractures, isolated cranial mononeuropathy (e.g. Bell's palsy) or polyneuropathy, epilepsy, dementia, multiple sclerosis and major depression. In addition to this, aging can also lead to diminished taste perception. Due to the broad differential diagnostic considerations, it is essential to look for additional, even mild, neurological signs and symptoms. Treatment must relate to the underlying cause. Zinc may be tried in idiopathic dysgeusia. PMID:16733343

  2. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  3. Hippocampal Sclerosis: Causes and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Walker, Matthew Charles

    2015-06-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis is the commonest cause of drug-resistant epilepsy in adults, and is associated with alterations to structures and networks beyond the hippocampus.In addition to being a cause of epilepsy, the hippocampus is vulnerable to damage from seizure activity. In particular, prolonged seizures (status epilepticus) can result in hippocampal sclerosis. The hippocampus is also vulnerable to other insults including traumatic brain injury, and inflammation. Hippocampal sclerosis can occur in association with other brain lesions; the prevailing view is that it is probably a secondary consequence. In such instances, successful surgical treatment usually involves the resection of both the lesion and the involved hippocampus. Experimental data have pointed to numerous neuroprotective strategies to prevent hippocampal sclerosis. Initial neuroprotective strategies aimed at glutamate receptors may be effective, but later, metabolic pathways, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species, and inflammation are involved, perhaps necessitating the use of interventions aimed at multiple targets. Some of the therapies that we use to treat status epilepticus may neuroprotect. However, prevention of neuronal death does not necessarily prevent the later development of epilepsy or cognitive deficits. Perhaps, the most important intervention is the early, aggressive treatment of seizure activity, and the prevention of prolonged seizures. PMID:26060898

  4. [Gastroparesis - causes, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Sangnes, Dag A; Søfteland, Eirik; Biermann, Martin; Gilja, Odd Helge; Thordarson, Hrafnkell; Dimcevski, Georg

    2016-05-01

    BACKGROUND Gastroparesis is a motility disorder of the stomach. The symptoms are non-specific: nausea and vomiting are most common. Stomach pains, early satiety, postprandial fullness and bloating are also frequent symptoms. Current diagnostic criteria require delayed gastric emptying in the absence of any detectable mechanical obstruction. In this review article we elucidate the causes, assessment and treatment options.MATERIAL AND METHOD Structured article search in Embase and PubMed.RESULTS A number of conditions can lead to gastroparesis. The most frequent somatic cause is diabetes mellitus. Gastroparesis may also be iatrogenically inflicted by means of surgery or drugs. It may be difficult to discriminate between functional dyspepsia and idiopathic gastroparesis. Examination is based on patient history, gastroscopy and measurement of the rate of gastric emptying. Biochemical tests are also relevant for differential diagnosis. The treatment is primarily symptomatic, and consists of dietary measures, fluid therapy, drugs, gastric electrical stimulation, or endoscopic or surgical intervention in the form of insertion of a feeding tube for nutrition and abdominal relief, pyloroplasty or gastrectomy.INTERPRETATION Gastroparesis is a serious motility disorder. The condition may have significant consequences for patients, entailing reduced quality of life, reduced workforce participation and a considerable need for health assistance. PMID:27221182

  5. Epidermoid Causing Ischemic Stroke in the Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Mahore, Amit; Kulkarni, Abhijeet; Rangarajan, Vithal; Patil, Manoj; Kawale, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial tumors may rarely cause stroke. We report an epidermoid cyst causing stroke in a pediatric patient. We have also reviewed the literature and pathogenesis of stroke caused by intracranial tumors. PMID:25580320

  6. Do We Know What Causes Testicular Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testicular cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes testicular cancer? The exact cause of most testicular cancers is ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ...

  7. Do We Know What Causes Anal Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... anal cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes anal cancer? Researchers have found some risk factors that increase ... now being done to learn how HPV might cause anal cancer. There is good evidence that HPV causes many ...

  8. Do We Know What Causes Ovarian Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovarian cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes ovarian cancer? We don’t yet know exactly what causes ... Another theory is that male hormones (androgens) can cause ovarian cancer. Researchers have made great progress in understanding how ...

  9. Can rain cause volcanic eruptions?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastin, Larry G.

    1993-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions are renowned for their violence and destructive power. This power comes ultimately from the heat and pressure of molten rock and its contained gases. Therefore we rarely consider the possibility that meteoric phenomena, like rainfall, could promote or inhibit their occurrence. Yet from time to time observers have suggested that weather may affect volcanic activity. In the late 1800's, for example, one of the first geologists to visit the island of Hawaii, J.D. Dana, speculated that rainfall influenced the occurrence of eruptions there. In the early 1900's, volcanologists suggested that some eruptions from Mount Lassen, Calif., were caused by the infiltration of snowmelt into the volcano's hot summit. Most such associations have not been provable because of lack of information; others have been dismissed after careful evaluation of the evidence.

  10. Nonlinear vibration caused by fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foong, Chee-Hoe; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina; Deans, William F.

    2007-06-01

    The main aim of this work is to study the interactions between vibration and fatigue crack growth. In this paper, a detailed mathematical modelling of a newly designed fatigue-testing rig, description of the rig, experimental set-up and procedures, and sensor calibrations are presented. The test rig consists of two base-excited oscillators, one positioned above and the other below a single-edge-notched beam sample. The inertial forces of the oscillators act on the sample causing its bending and fatigue. Mathematically the fatigue crack sample is modelled as a discrete spring with piecewise nonlinear stiffness which is assumed to be constant when the crack closes and to decrease with crack length when it opens. The results from the modelling correlate well with the experimental tests.

  11. Mutant Cullin causes cardiovascular compromise

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Friedrich C

    2015-01-01

    Mendelian hypertension is rare; however, Mendelian syndromes have taught us an amazing amount about mechanisms of distal sodium and chloride reabsorption, as well as how systemic hypertension might come about. In this issue of EMBO Molecular Medicine, Schumacher et al (2015) present a mouse model of the Cullin-3 (CUL3Δ403–459) mutation, which causes a form of pseudohypoaldosteronism type-2 (PHA-2). CUL3 is involved in ubiquitination. Surprising is the severity of the hypertension, which may be explained in part on the basis of CUL3 actions in vascular cells. The findings underscore the role of “cleanup” in the maintenance of normal physiology. PMID:26294796

  12. Sepsis caused by Flavimonas oryzihabitans.

    PubMed

    Lucas, K G; Kiehn, T E; Sobeck, K A; Armstrong, D; Brown, A E

    1994-07-01

    Previous reports of F. oryzihabitans sepsis involving central venous access devices reveal a relatively high rate of complications, including device removal, despite a course of broad-spectrum anti-microbials with compatible in vitro susceptibility results. In the present report of 22 cases of F. oryzihabitans sepsis treated at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center from February 1986 through September 1993, the majority of CVAD-related infections with F. oryzihabitans were successfully treated with a 14-day course of antimicrobials with antipseudomonal activity, and removal of the device was usually not required. Factors that may complicate successful treatment of CVAD-related sepsis caused by F. oryzihabitans include polymicrobial infections and premature discontinuation of antibiotic therapy. PMID:8041243

  13. Nitrofurantoin: cause of DRESS syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Rodrigo Nazário; Barreto, Paulo; Leão, Ricardo R; Ribeiro, José Vaz

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common pathological entity among elderly patients. The widespread use of antibiotics for uncomplicated UTIs has gained many opponents mainly due to the increasing drug resistance observed. Nitrofurantoin is a commonly used antibacterial drug because it has low side effects and a good antiurinary bacterial profile. However, in this paper, we present a case of a nitrofurantoin-induced DRESS (drug reaction/rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) syndrome in a 77-year-old woman. During UTI treatment, the patient developed an acute skin rash which spread all over the body and a considerable decrease in urine volume. At the emergency department, we found her developing eosinophilic pneumonia, anaemia and renal impairment that we relate to nitrofurantoin administration. To our knowledge, this is the second published case report which evokes nitrofurantoin as a possible cause of DRESS syndrome. PMID:23661654

  14. Inflammatory myoglandular polyp causing hematochezia.

    PubMed

    Hirasaki, Shoji; Okuda, Masato; Kudo, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Seiyuu; Shirakawa, Atsuko

    2008-09-14

    A case of inflammatory myoglandular polyp (IMGP) causing hematochezia is reported. The patient was a 33-year-old man who visited our hospital for further evaluation of hematochezia. Colonoscopy revealed a red, hard, spherical peduncular polyp with erosion and mucous exudation, about 20 mm in diameter, in the descending colon. Excluding the polyp, there was no lesion in the colorectum. Endoscopic polypectomy was performed. Histological examination of the specimen revealed inflammatory granulation tissue in the lamina propria, proliferation of smooth muscle, and hyperplastic glands with variable cystic changes. This polyp was diagnosed as an IMGP. The symptom of hematochezia was resolved after endoscopic resection. Our case shows that treatment is necessary for IMGP if intestinal bleeding occurs and endoscopists should be aware of the endoscopic characteristics of IMGP. PMID:18785292

  15. Classical endocrine diseases causing obesity.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Jolanta U

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several endocrine diseases, including common ones such as hypothyroidism and polycystic ovarian syndrome to rare ones such as Cushing's syndrome, central hypothyroidism and hypothalamic disorders. The mechanisms for the development of obesity vary in according to the endocrine condition. Hypothyroidism is associated with accumulation of hyaluronic acid within various tissues, additional fluid retention due to reduced cardiac output and reduced thermogenesis. The pathophysiology of obesity associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome remains complex as obesity itself may simultaneously be the cause and the effect of the syndrome. Net excess of androgen appears to be pivotal in the development of central obesity. In Cushing's syndrome, an interaction with thyroid and growth hormones plays an important role in addition to an increased adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. This review also describes remaining rare cases: hypothalamic obesity due to central hypothyroidism and combined hormone deficiencies. PMID:18230905

  16. Ethionamide: Unusual Cause of Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Koya, Rohini; Nagari, Shivashankara Kaniyoor; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-Resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is major health hazard to the people living in developing countries. As incidence rate of MDR TB has gone up, its therapy has become crucial. MDR TB therapy is known to cause multiple adverse effects however the data related to them is minimal. Hypothyroidism is one of the important adverse effects which usually manifests with vague symptoms and is frequently missed. We present a case of 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed to have MDR TB and started on ethionamide based regimen for same. After 6 months of therapy the patient had clinical symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, laboratory investigations confirmed it. As ethionamide is an integral component of MDR TB therapy it was continued and thyroxine replacement therapy was given with which she improved. Hypothyroidism completely resolved after 2 months of stoppage of MDR TB therapy suggesting the reversible aetiology of ethionamide. PMID:26435990

  17. Ethionamide: Unusual Cause of Hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Mallela, Ajay Raj; Koya, Rohini; Nagari, Shivashankara Kaniyoor; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug-Resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is major health hazard to the people living in developing countries. As incidence rate of MDR TB has gone up, its therapy has become crucial. MDR TB therapy is known to cause multiple adverse effects however the data related to them is minimal. Hypothyroidism is one of the important adverse effects which usually manifests with vague symptoms and is frequently missed. We present a case of 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed to have MDR TB and started on ethionamide based regimen for same. After 6 months of therapy the patient had clinical symptoms suggestive of hypothyroidism, laboratory investigations confirmed it. As ethionamide is an integral component of MDR TB therapy it was continued and thyroxine replacement therapy was given with which she improved. Hypothyroidism completely resolved after 2 months of stoppage of MDR TB therapy suggesting the reversible aetiology of ethionamide. PMID:26435990

  18. An unusual cause for halitosis.

    PubMed

    Bathgate, Gabriella; Ali, Haythem; Aboul Enein, Mohamed; Poynter, Liam

    2016-01-01

    This report describes an unusual cause for halitosis and an unusual treatment for the underlying problem. Halitosis is a symptom which can result from a diverse range of underlying pathologies, most frequently those affecting the oral cavity or respiratory tract. Uncommonly, it arises due to pathology within the upper gastrointestinal tract. The case of a patient presenting with severe persistent halitosis attributable to mesh erosion occurring 8 years after redo laparoscopic hiatus hernia repair is described. Full external healing of the erosion tract was observed such that no symptomatic oesophageal perforation resulted. Mesh erosion is typically managed with surgical intervention. In this case, the infected mesh was successfully removed endoscopically. PMID:27095805

  19. Rare cause of oesophagus perforation

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Zafer; Benzin, Mehmet Fatih; Dandin, Ozgur; Cakir, Tugrul; Sozen, Isa; Sabuncuoglu, Aylin; Teomete, Uygar

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Oesophagus perforations, which are generally caused by iatrogenic injuries, are a serious clinical event. There are still high rates of mortality and morbidity and there is no gold standard of surgical treatment. PRESENTATION OF CASE The case is here presented of a 54-year old female with complaints of dysphagia after having swallowed a bone in food, who was determined with oesophagus perforation on CT examination. DISCUSSION Oesophagus perforation generally occurs secondary to interventional procedures and rarely develops associated with foreign bodies. Treatment depends on the perforation site and dimension. CONCLUSION While conservative primary surgical repair may be chosen for cervical lesions, more aggressive approaches such as resection and delayed reconstruction are recommended for thoracic lesions. Early determination and appropriate treatment are life-saving. PMID:25541369

  20. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    PubMed

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products. PMID:25207684

  1. Can Violence cause Eating Disorders?

    PubMed

    Juli, Maria Rosaria

    2015-09-01

    The origin and course of eating disorders and nutrition have a multifactorial etiology and should therefore take into consideration: psychological factors, evolutionary, biological and socio-cultural (Juli 2012). Among the psychological factors we will focus on violence (in any form) and in particular on the consequences that they have on women, which vary in severity. Recent studies show that women get sick more than men, both from depression and eating disorders, with a ratio of 2:1; this difference begins in adolescence and continues throughout the course of life (Niolu 2010). The cause of this difference remains unclear. Many studies agree that during adolescence girls have negative feelings more frequently and for a longer duration caused by stressful life events and difficult circumstances, such as abuse or violence. This results in an increased likelihood of developing a symptom that will be connected to eating disorders and/or depression. As far as the role of food is concerned in eating disorders, it has a symbolic significance and offers emotional comfort. Eating means to incorporate and assimilate, and even in an ideal sense, the characteristics of the foods become part of the individual. Feelings that lead to binges with food are normally a result of feelings related to abuse or violence and lead to abnormal behavior which leads to binging and the final result being that the person is left feeling guilty and ashamed. Research confirms that 30% of patients who have been diagnosed with eating disorders, especially bulimia, have a history of sexual abuse during childhood. Ignoring the significance of this factor can result in the unleashing of this disease as the patient uses the disorder as his expressive theater (Mencarelli 2008). Factors that contribute to the possibility of developing an eating disorder are both the age of the patient at the time of the abuse and the duration of the abuse. The psychological effects that follow may include dissociative

  2. Modeling Multiple Causes of Carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, T D

    1999-01-24

    multiple causes of carcinogenesis and shifts the risk-assessment logic to considerations of "what dose does?" in contrast to the current process of the substance-specific question of "what dose is?" Whether reactive oxygen is the proximate or contributing cause of disease or simply a better estimate of biologically effective dose, it has enormous advantages for improved risk- and policy-based decisions. Various estimates of immune system modulation will be given based on radiobiology.

  3. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  4. [Burns caused by paint thinner].

    PubMed

    Benbrahim, A; Jerrah, H; Diouri, M; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2009-12-31

    Flame deriving from paint thinner is not a rare cause of burns in Morocco and we thus considered it useful to conduct an epidemiological survey of paint thinner flame burns (PTFB) in the National Burns Centre (NBC) in the Ibn-Rochd University Hospital Centre in Casablanca, Morocco. The research covered the 10-month period from September 2007 to June 2008.The aim of our work was to present the characteristic features of such burns in order to prevent them by increasing public knowledge regarding the risks involved in using paint thinner, i.e. burns in particular. During the period in question, we colligated 17 cases of PTFB out of a total number of 356 patients admitted to the NBC for acute burns of all aetiologies. The patients' average was 32 yr and they were nearly all male (16 men/1 woman), with past histories of drug addiction and/or delinquency. They were all of low-level socioeconomic class and lived mainly in shanty towns. The burn was often secondary to street violence (92% of the cases).The mean burn surface area was 23% and the burns were often deep and located mainly in the upper limbs and the trunk. PMID:21991179

  5. Ccds: Their Cause and Cure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Djorgovski, S.

    1984-01-01

    Charge coupled devices (CCDs) have opened new horizons in the optical astronomy. Most of the presently existing astronomical CCD systems are oriented and designed primarily for work on faint objects. The use of CCDs for high precision work on bright objects remains to be explored. Issues and problems specific to (CCDs) are covered in detail. The important structural characteristics of CCDs are that they are integrating, self scanned, photon counting (one selection for each detected photon), solid state devices. The typical physical sizes are of the order of 1 - 3 cm, and typical raster formats of 500x500 pixels (TI), 320x512 (RCA), 385x576 (GEC), 800x800 (TI), and 1500x1500 (GEC) should be available soon. Typical (and optimal) operating temperatures are around -100 C, with liquid N2 as the most common coolant. Some CCDs are physically warped. This causes focus variations across the surface, which amount to a spatially variable PSF. Other relevant properties of CCDs as detectors and a comparison with some other astronomical detectors are given.

  6. Corridors cause differential seed predation.

    SciTech Connect

    Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.

    2005-06-01

    Orrock, John, L., and Ellen I. Damschen. 2005. Corridors cause differential seed predation. Ecol. Apps. 15(3):793-798. Abstract. Corridors that connect disjunct populations are heavily debated in conservation, largely because the effects of corridors have rarely been evaluated by replicated, large-scale studies. Using large-scale experimental landscapes, we found that, in addition to documented positive effects, corridors also have negative impacts on bird-dispersed plants by affecting seed predation, and that overall predation is a function of the seeds primary consumer (rodents or arthropods). Both large-seeded Prunus serotina and small-seeded Rubus allegheniensis experienced greater predation in connected patches. However, P. serotina experienced significantly less seed predation compared to R. allegheniensis in unconnected patches, due to decreased impacts of rodent seed predators on this large-seeded species. Viewed in light of previous evidence that corridors have beneficial impacts by increasing pollination and seed dispersal, this work demonstrates that corridors may have both positive and negative effects for the same plant species at different life stages. Moreover, these effects may differentially affect plant species within the same community: seeds primarily consumed by rodents suffer less predation in unconnected patches. By shifting the impact of rodent and arthropod seed predators, corridors constructed for plant conservation could lead to shifts in the seed bank.

  7. Status Epilepticus Caused by Nefopam

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-baeg; Kim, Jeong-min

    2014-01-01

    Nefopam, a centrally acting analgesic, has been used to control postoperative pain. Reported adverse effects are anticholinergic, cardiovascular or neuropsychiatric. Neurologic adverse reactions to nefopam are confusion, hallucinations, delirium and convulsions. There are several reports about fatal convulsive seizures, presumably related to nefopam. A 71-year-old man was admitted for surgery for a lumbar spinal stenosis. He was administered intravenous analgesics : ketorolac, tramadol, orphenadrine citrate and nefopam HCl. His back pain was so severe that he hardly slept for several days; he even needed morphine and pethidine. At 4 days of administration of intravenous analgesics, the patient suddenly started generalized tonic-clonic seizures for 15 seconds, and subsequently, status epilepticus; these were not responsive to phenytoin and midazolam. After 3 days of barbiturate coma therapy the seizures were controlled. Convulsive seizures related to nefopam appear as focal, generalized, myoclonic types, or status epilepticus, and are not dose-related manifestations. In our case, the possibility of convulsions caused by other drugs or the misuse of drugs was considered. However, we first identified the introduced drugs and excluded the possibility of an accidental misuse of other drugs. Physicians should be aware of the possible occurrence of unpredictable and serious convulsions when using nefopam. PMID:25535527

  8. An unusual cause of cardiothyreosis.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Lucien; Chabert, Paul; Chaudesaygues, Elise; Grasse, Mélanie; Bretones, Stephan; Graeppi-Dulac, Julia; Aupetit, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Severe hyperthyroidism can cause cardiac complications, such as severe rhythm disturbances, heart failure and angina. Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is a rare complication of pregnancy, ranging from benign hydatidiform mole to malignant form. Clinical hyperthyroidism may occur in GTD, as human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) secreted by molar tissue is structurally similar to thyroid-stimulating hormone. Cardiothyreosis in this context is exceptional. We report the case of a nulligravida 42-year-old woman without thyroid or cardiac history who presented to the emergency department for dyspnoea. Examinations revealed an acute pulmonary oedema and sinus tachycardia. Serum hCG concentration was abnormally high (762 878 UI/l, N < 5). CT scan showed a voluminous uterine mass and eliminated pulmonary embolism. Cardiac output was increased in echocardiography. Complementary blood tests showed a peripheral hyperthyroidism. GTD was evoked in the context of uterine mass and high hCG concentration, which was responsible for inducing clinical hyperthyroidism and cardiothyreosis. A total hysterectomy was performed and histopathological examinations concluded to a non-invasive complete hydatidiform mole (begnin form). hCG fell to normal within 12 weeks, cardiac and thyroid functions normalized after mole evacuation. PMID:26559442

  9. Onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides.

    PubMed

    Rizzitelli, Gaetano; Guanziroli, Elena; Moschin, Annalisa; Sangalli, Roberta; Veraldi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    A case of onychomycosis caused by Trichosporon mucoides in a man with diabetes is presented. The infection was characterized by a brown-black pigmentation of the nail plates and subungual hyperkeratosis of the first three toes of both feet. Onychogryphosis was also visible on the third left toe. Direct microscopic examinations revealed wide and septate hyphae and spores. Three cultures on Sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol 2 agar and chromID Candida agar produced white, creamy, and smooth colonies that were judged to be morphologically typical of T. mucoides. Microscopic examinations of the colonies showed arthroconidia and blastoconidia. The urease test was positive. A sugar assimilation test on yeast nitrogen base agar showed assimilation of galactitol, sorbitol, and arabinitol. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) confirmed the diagnosis of T. mucoides infection. The patient was treated with topical urea and oral itraconazole. Three months later, a mild improvement was observed. The patient was subsequently lost to follow-up. PMID:26603646

  10. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  11. [Chromoblastomycosis caused by Fonsecaea monophora].

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Yuka; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Tokura, Yoshiki; Yaguchi, Takashi; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2011-01-01

    Fonsecaea species are major etiologic agents of Chromoblastomycosis (CBM). By genetic analysis, the genus Fonsecaea has recently been revised and classified into F. pedorosoi, F. monophora and F. nubica. Here we report a severe chronic case of CBM caused by F. monophora. A 55-year-old Filipino male developed progressive skin lesions on the left lateral ankle in 1973, when he worked at a coconut plantation in the Philippines. In 1999, he received medical treatments for enlarged, multiple lesions on the left lower limb. When he moved to Japan in 2005, the lesions were remarkably improved and he discontinued taking the medicine. On our first examination in October 2008, a large, reddish, cicatricial plaque was observed on the left lower aspect of his leg. Several tumorous lesions surrounded the plaque, indicating that the therapies performed before had been insufficient. In addition, there were many patchy scars scattered on the thigh and the upper part of the lower leg. The diagnosis of CBM was made by the presence of muriform cells. Black, pulverulent colonies were yielded in culture of skin scrapings and tissues. Although the fungus could not be identified by microscopic morphology, r-RNA ITS sequence analysis enabled identification of Fonsecaea monophora. The patient responded well to oral voriconazole combined with local thermotherapy using pocket warmers. The tumoral masses subsided in 6 months, leaving pink scars with negative fungal culture. Voriconazole treatment was continued for 18 months. It seems that drugs are insufficiently delivered in the cicatricial lesions because of the paucity of blood flow, suggesting that a long-term follow-up is necessary for such a case. PMID:21891988

  12. 49 CFR 850.20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... INVESTIGATIONS § 850.20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 850.15, the Board determines cause or probable cause and issues a report...

  13. Hamartoma of the Larynx: An Unusual Cause of Stridor

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Şit; Zorlu, Pelin; Yıldırım, Işıl; Metin, Özge

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hamartoma of the larynx is a very rare lesion, and the number of reported cases is limited. Signs and symptoms include stridor, changes in voice, eating and respiratory complaints. Stridor is a sign of upper airway obstruction. Patients presenting with stridor and severe respiratory distress necessitate urgent otolaryngologic evaluation. Case Report: Herein, we report a case of laryngeal hamartoma presenting with recurrent pneumonia and persistent stridor in a 7-month-old patient. He was admitted to hospital with the initial diagnosis of recurrent pneumonia and persistent stridor. Stridor was not responsive to cool mist, nebulised epinephrine or dexamethasone. Cervical computed tomography (CT) revealed a solid, nodular mass on the posterolateral wall of larynx. The mass was excised surgically. After surgical removal of the hamartoma, the child was relieved of the obstruction. Conclusion: We want to emphasise that patients presenting with persistent stridor and severe distress necessitate urgent otolaryngologic evaluation. PMID:25667791

  14. Extrinsic allergic alveolitis caused by a cold water humidifier.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, A S; Burge, P S; Wieland, G A; Carmalt, M H

    1987-01-01

    Three workers developed classical extrinsic allergic alveolitis while working in a printing works that had a contaminated cold water humidifier. All had nodular shadows on their chest radiographs, reduced gas transfer measurements, and lung biopsy specimens that showed an alveolitis with giant cells and cholesterol clefts. In two subjects bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and the lavage fluid contained more than 70% lymphocytes in each case. Bronchial provocation tests with the humidifier antigen in these two workers reproduced their symptoms. Unlike previously reported cases, where exposure was to humidifiers working at generally higher temperatures, challenge with thermophilic actinomycetes in our two patients produced no reaction. Tests for precipitins to the humidifier antigen gave strongly positive reactions in the three workers but no single organism isolated from the humidifier produced a significantly positive reaction. Images PMID:3616972

  15. A very unusual cause of dysphagia: mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zullo, Angelo; Cerro, Paola; Chios, Anastassios; Andriani, Alessandro; Balsamo, Giuseppina; Francesco, Vincenzo De; Bruzzese, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is an alarm symptom requiring a prompt investigation. Different benign and malignant diseases may present such a symptom. We describe a case of a 79-year-old patient who complained of fluctuating dysphagia episodes following solid food ingestion in the previous 5 months with mild weight loss. No other gastrointestinal symptoms were present. The patient was referred by the General Practitioner for a videofluoroscopic swallow examination which revealed nodularity of mucosa surface in the oropharynx, esophagus, fundus, and gastric body. Upper endoscopy confirmed the feature, also showing a normal mucosa of the antrum and duodenum. The histological examination revealed a mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). A stage III, MCL involving the esophagus and proximal stomach was eventually diagnosed. Esophageal MCL localization is extremely rare, and this is the first report showing a clinical onset with dysphagia. PMID:27366047

  16. An Incompletely Penetrant Novel Mutation in COL7A1 Causes Epidermolysis Bullosa Pruriginosa and Dominant Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa Phenotypes in an Extended Kindred

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Catherine S; Lu, Yin; Farhi, Anita; Nelson-Williams, Carol; Kashgarian, Michael; Glusac, Earl J; Lifton, Richard P; Antaya, Richard J; Choate, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa pruriginosa (EBP) is a rare subtype of dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) characterized by intense pruritus, nodular or lichenoid lesions, and violaceous linear scarring, most prominently on the extensor extremities. Remarkably, identical mutations in COL7A1, which encodes an anchoring fibril protein present at the dermal–epidermal junction, can cause both DEB and EBP with either autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. We present one family with both dystrophic and pruriginosa phenotypes of epidermolysis bullosa. The proband is a 19-year-old Caucasian woman who initially presented in childhood with lichenoid papules affecting her extensor limbs and intense pruritus consistent with EBP. Her maternal grandmother saw a dermatologist for similar skin lesions that developed without any known triggers at age 47 and mostly resolved spontaneously after approximately 10 years. The proband’s younger brother developed a small crop of pruritic papules on his elbows, dorsal hands, knees, and ankles at age 13. Her second cousin once removed, however, reported a mild blistering disease without pruritus consistent with DEB. Genetic sequencing of the kindred revealed a single dominant novel intron 47 splice site donor G>A mutation, c.4668 + 1 G>A, which we predict leads to exon skipping. Incomplete penetrance is confirmed in her clinically unaffected mother, who carries the same dominant mutation. The wide diversity of clinical phenotypes with one underlying genotype demonstrates that COL7A1 mutations are incompletely penetrant and strongly suggests that other genetic and environmental factors influence clinical presentation. PMID:22515571

  17. Advanced Techniques for Root Cause Analysis

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-09-19

    Five items make up this package, or can be used individually. The Chronological Safety Management Template utilizes a linear adaptation of the Integrated Safety Management System laid out in the form of a template that greatly enhances the ability of the analyst to perform the first step of any investigation which is to gather all pertinent facts and identify causal factors. The Problem Analysis Tree is a simple three (3) level problem analysis tree whichmore » is easier for organizations outside of WSRC to use. Another part is the Systemic Root Cause Tree. One of the most basic and unique features of Expanded Root Cause Analysis is the Systemic Root Cause portion of the Expanded Root Cause Pyramid. The Systemic Root Causes are even more basic than the Programmatic Root Causes and represent Root Causes that cut across multiple (if not all) programs in an organization. the Systemic Root Cause portion contains 51 causes embedded at the bottom level of a three level Systemic Root Cause Tree that is divided into logical, organizationally based categorie to assist the analyst. The Computer Aided Root Cause Analysis that allows the analyst at each level of the Pyramid to a) obtain a brief description of the cause that is being considered, b) record a decision that the item is applicable, c) proceed to the next level of the Pyramid to see only those items at the next level of the tree that are relevant to the particular cause that has been chosen, and d) at the end of the process automatically print out a summary report of the incident, the causal factors as they relate to the safety management system, the probable causes, apparent causes, Programmatic Root Causes and Systemic Root Causes for each causal factor and the associated corrective action.« less

  18. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and may become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, ... we are children may strongly affect our eating behaviors as adults. When we repeat these behaviors over ...

  19. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  20. Causes and risks for obesity - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... become obese. No single factor or behavior causes obesity . Obesity is caused by many things, including a person’s ... image. Examples of eating disorders are: Anorexia Bulimia Obesity and eating disorders often occur at the same ...

  1. Do We Know What Causes Vulvar Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... vulvar cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes vulvar cancer? Several risk factors for cancer of the vulva ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Vulvar Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and ...

  2. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell ... you have restless legs syndrome caused by low iron, talk with your physician and do not attempt ...

  3. Hemolytic anemia caused by chemicals and toxins

    MedlinePlus

    Anemia - hemolytic - caused by chemicals or toxins ... Possible substances that can cause hemolytic anemia include: Anti-malaria drugs (quinine compounds) Arsenic Dapsone Intravenous water infusion (not half-normal saline or normal saline) Metals (chromium/chromates, ...

  4. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Christopher D.; Urban, Carl; Turett, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces. PMID:26697243

  5. Congenital duodenal obstruction: causes and imaging approach.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, Michael F; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Maxfield, Charles M

    2016-07-01

    Bilious emesis is a common cause for evaluation in pediatric radiology departments. There are several causes of congenital duodenal obstruction, most of which require elective surgical correction, but the potential of malrotation with midgut volvulus demands prompt imaging evaluation. We review the various causes of congenital duodenal obstruction with an emphasis on the approach to imaging evaluation and diagnosis. PMID:27324508

  6. Primary Sternal Osteomyelitis Caused by Actinomyces israelii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho; Jeon, Seok Chol; Jang, Hyo-Jun; Kim, Hyuck; Kim, Young Hak; Chung, Won-Sang

    2015-01-01

    Primary sternal osteomyelitis is a rare disease. Common infectious organisms causing primary sternal osteomyelitis include Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Actinomyces species are common saprophytes of the oral cavity, but there have been few reports in the literature of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces species. We describe a case of primary sternal osteomyelitis caused by Actinomyces israelii without pulmonary involvement. PMID:25705607

  7. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal…

  8. Actinomyces naeslundii: An Uncommon Cause of Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cortes, Christopher D; Urban, Carl; Turett, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Actinomyces rarely causes endocarditis with 25 well-described cases reported in the literature in the past 75 years. We present a case of prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) caused by Actinomyces naeslundii. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the literature of endocarditis due to this organism and the second report of PVE caused by Actinomyces. PMID:26697243

  9. 46 CFR 4.40-20 - Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cause or probable cause determinations from Board... Board Marine Casualty Investigations § 4.40-20 Cause or probable cause determinations from Board investigation. After an investigation conducted by the Board under § 4.40-15, the Board determines cause...

  10. BUCKLE: A Model of Unobserved Cause Learning

    PubMed Central

    Luhmann, Christian C.; Ahn, Woo-kyoung

    2009-01-01

    Dealing with alternative causes is necessary to avoid making inaccurate causal inferences from covariation data. However, information about alternative causes is frequently unavailable, rendering them unobserved. The current article reviews the way in which current learning models deal, or could deal, with unobserved causes. A new model of causal learning, BUCKLE (bidirectional unobserved cause learning) extends existing models of causal learning by dynamically inferring information about unobserved, alternative causes. During the course of causal learning, BUCKLE continually computes the probability that an unobserved cause is present during a given observation and then uses the results of these inferences to learn the causal strengths of the unobserved as well as observed causes. The current results demonstrate that BUCKLE provides a better explanation of people's causal learning than the existing models. PMID:17638500

  11. Infectious discitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed Central

    Solans, R; Simeon, P; Cuenca, R; Fonollosa, V; Bago, J; Vilardell, M

    1992-01-01

    The case is reported of a patient who developed a vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae. The organism was isolated in cultures of blood and vertebral puncture biopsy samples. The patient was satisfactorily treated with trimethroprim and sulphamethoxazole. Enterobacter cloacae, a Gram negative organism, has been confirmed as the cause of bacteremia in patients with burns, urinary infections, in adults with pneumonia, and in children with joint infections. Spondylodiscitis caused by Enterobacter cloacae has not previously been described. Images PMID:1632668

  12. [Psoas abscess caused by Staphylococcus lugdunensis].

    PubMed

    Tamargo Delpón, María; Demelo-Rodríguez, Pablo; Cano Ballesteros, Juan Carlos; Vela de la Cruz, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a coagulase-negative staphylococcus of growing importance and atypical behavior. The infections caused by this microorganism are becoming more frequent, having a broader spectrum. Psoas abscesses caused by this germ are rare, with few cases reported in the literature. In this work, we present a case of a psoas abscess caused by S. lugdunensis in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus and rheumatoid arthritis, which was treated with intravenous cloxacillin with a good outcome. PMID:27086257

  13. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  14. Treatments for Diseases That Cause Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Males Fertility Treatments for Females Assisted Reproductive Technology ... for Diseases That Cause Infertility Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Specific treatments for ...

  15. Pulmonary Fungal Infection Caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Luke; Lee, Samuel A.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Lindner, Jonathan; Fan, Hongxin

    2015-01-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is a mold known to cause onychomycosis and dermatomycosis; however, it is an extremely rare cause of systemic infection. We report a case of pulmonary infection with Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in an immunocompromised patient and discuss in vitro susceptibility data from this case and previous literature. PMID:25948605

  16. Case to Cause: Back to the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovitz, Mimi; Sherraden, Margaret S.

    2016-01-01

    This article reopens the historic debate about the roles of micro and macro practice in social work and encourages the profession to find ways to achieve a better balance between case and cause in education, practice, and research. To this end, it traces the history of the case versus cause debate including conceptual frameworks for rebalancing…

  17. SUBCHRONIC ENDOTOXIN INHALATION CAUSES PERSISTENT AIRWAY DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The endotoxin component of organic dusts causes acute reversible airflow obstruction and airway inflammation. To test the hypothesis that endotoxin alone causes airway remodeling, we have compared the response of two inbred mouse strains to subchronic endotoxin ...

  18. Vertebral Osteomyelitis Caused by Helicobacter cinaedi

    PubMed Central

    Yoshizaki, Aisa; Takegawa, Hiroshi; Doi, Asako; Mizuno, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter cinaedi causes bacteremia, cellulitis, and gastroenteritis. We report the first case of vertebral osteomyelitis caused by H. cinaedi in an elderly man with low back pain and fever. The pathogen was detected in blood and lumbar disc, and the infection was successfully treated with oral doxycycline for 11 weeks. PMID:26109448

  19. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  20. Pulmonary Fungal Infection Caused by Neoscytalidium dimidiatum.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Brandon; Neff, Luke; Lee, Samuel A; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Lindner, Jonathan; Fan, Hongxin; Jakeman, Bernadette

    2015-07-01

    Neoscytalidium dimidiatum is a mold known to cause onychomycosis and dermatomycosis; however, it is an extremely rare cause of systemic infection. We report a case of pulmonary infection with Neoscytalidium dimidiatum in an immunocompromised patient and discuss in vitro susceptibility data from this case and previous literature. PMID:25948605

  1. Differentiating common causes of radial wrist pain.

    PubMed

    Shuaib, Waqas; Mohiuddin, Zia; Swain, Freddie R; Khosa, Faisal

    2014-09-01

    Radial wrist pain is a common patient complaint with a broad differential. Because treatment and prognosis differ, determining the underlying cause is key. This article reviews a case of intersection syndrome and compares it to other causes of radial wrist pain. PMID:25148441

  2. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  3. Interpreting Causes of Personal Stress with "Cheese"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Karl L.

    2008-01-01

    Attempts to identify the root causes of individual stress have been made for centuries. The result has been the development of a myriad of approaches and explanations as to the cause of stress by psychologists, educators, researchers, and self-help authors. Each approach carries a degree of validity in the context that individuals experience…

  4. Damage Caused by the Rogue Trustee

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Banion, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-nine community college presidents and chancellors in 16 states report on the damage caused by rogue trustees. While the damage to presidents, other trustees, and faculty and staff is alarming, the damage these trustees cause the college suggests that the rogue trustee may be the single most destructive force ever to plague an educational…

  5. Vibrations Caused By Cracked Turbopump Bearing Race

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggin, David G.; Dweck, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Expansion gives rise to eccentricity. Report presents analysis of dynamic effects caused by cracking of inner race of ball bearing in turbopump. Crack manifested itself via increase in vibrations synchronous with rotation and smaller increase at twice frequency of rotation. Analysis conducted to verify these increases were caused solely by crack and to understand implications for future such cracks.

  6. Student Absenteeism: Causes, Effects, and Possible Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mervilde, James

    Student absenteeism is a major concern for elementary and secondary school educators. This paper annotates 59 articles and reports dealing with the causes of, effects of, and solutions to student absenteeism. A brief glossary first defines l4 terms used in the literature. The author then surveys l4 publications on the causes of absenteeism,…

  7. How does climate change cause extinction?

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Abigail E.; Aiello-Lammens, Matthew E.; Fisher-Reid, M. Caitlin; Hua, Xia; Karanewsky, Caitlin J.; Yeong Ryu, Hae; Sbeglia, Gena C.; Spagnolo, Fabrizio; Waldron, John B.; Warsi, Omar; Wiens, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is predicted to be a major cause of species extinctions in the next 100 years. But what will actually cause these extinctions? For example, will it be limited physiological tolerance to high temperatures, changing biotic interactions or other factors? Here, we systematically review the proximate causes of climate-change related extinctions and their empirical support. We find 136 case studies of climatic impacts that are potentially relevant to this topic. However, only seven identified proximate causes of demonstrated local extinctions due to anthropogenic climate change. Among these seven studies, the proximate causes vary widely. Surprisingly, none show a straightforward relationship between local extinction and limited tolerances to high temperature. Instead, many studies implicate species interactions as an important proximate cause, especially decreases in food availability. We find very similar patterns in studies showing decreases in abundance associated with climate change, and in those studies showing impacts of climatic oscillations. Collectively, these results highlight our disturbingly limited knowledge of this crucial issue but also support the idea that changing species interactions are an important cause of documented population declines and extinctions related to climate change. Finally, we briefly outline general research strategies for identifying these proximate causes in future studies. PMID:23075836

  8. Causes of Deafness: Retrospection and Omens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champie, Joan

    1996-01-01

    This study reviewed records of several American schools for the deaf in the 19th century concerning the stated causes of deafness given by parents. The high rate of adventitious deafness is noted. Stated causes are categorized into: fevers, inflammations, medicines/poisons, trauma, heat/cold, ear problems, nervous system problems, head/neck…

  9. Infective Meningitis Caused by Phialemonium curvatum

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yueli; Bu, Hui; He, Yunying; Guo, Li

    2014-01-01

    Infections caused by rarely encountered fungal pathogens have increased in recent decades. Phialemonium species are widely distributed in the environment and are also involved in human infections, affecting both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The present study describes a case of meningitis caused by Phialemonium curvatum. PMID:24850352

  10. Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

  11. Secondary Peritonitis Caused by Streptomyces viridis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa; Jain, Ruby; Chander, Jagdish; van de Sande, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Streptomyces organisms are soil inhabitants rarely causing nonmycetomic infections. We describe a case of secondary peritonitis caused by Streptomyces viridis in a chronic alcoholic patient who presented with fever, abdominal distension, and pain in the abdomen. The most likely source of infection was by inoculation through multiple paracenteses, done for treatment of ascites, before the patient came to our health care center. This is the second case report of Streptomyces peritonitis and the first case caused by Streptomyces viridis, which is usually found in the soil in our geographic region. PMID:22337982

  12. Genetic causes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, Julia; Yu, Lan; Chung, Wendy K.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a moderately prevalent birth defect that, despite advances in neonatal care, is still a significant cause of infant death, and surviving patients have significant morbidity. The goal of ongoing research to elucidate the genetic causes of CDH is to develop better treatment and ultimately prevention. CDH is a complex developmental defect that is etiologically heterogeneous. This review summarizes the recurrent genetic causes of CDH including aneuploidies, chromosome copy number variants, and single gene mutations. It also discusses strategies for genetic evaluation and genetic counseling in an era of rapidly evolving technologies in clinical genetic diagnostics. PMID:25447988

  13. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. PMID:27220606

  14. Internally and externally caused climate change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robock, A.

    1978-01-01

    A numerical climate model is used to simulate climate change forced only by random fluctuations of the atmospheric heat transport. This short-term natural variability of the atmosphere is shown to be a possible 'cause' not only of the variability of the annual world average temperature about its mean, but also long-term excursions from the mean. Various external causes of climate change are also tested with the model and the results compared with observations for the past 100 years. Volcanic dust is shown to have been an important cause of climate change, while the effects of sunspot-related solar constant variation and anthropogenic forcing are not evident.

  15. Hip labral cyst caused by psoas impingement.

    PubMed

    Tey, Marc; Alvarez, Sonia; Ríos, Jose L

    2012-08-01

    Hip labral impingement can cause labral tears and secondary paralabral cyst formation. Femoroacetabular impingement is the main cause of labral impingement, but other conditions such as iliopsoas tendon impingement are described. There is no description of labral cyst resulting from psoas impingement treated arthroscopically in the literature. We present the case of a young sportsman with groin pain caused by psoas impingement with a labral tear and secondary paralabral cyst who was treated arthroscopically by cyst debridement, psoas tenotomy, and labral repair. PMID:22840990

  16. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  17. Occupational respiratory disease caused by acrylates.

    PubMed

    Savonius, B; Keskinen, H; Tuppurainen, M; Kanerva, L

    1993-05-01

    Acrylates are compounds used in a variety of industrial fields and their use is increasing. They have many features which make them superior to formerly used chemicals, regarding both their industrial use and their possible health effects. Contact sensitization is, however, one of their well known adverse health effects but they may also cause respiratory symptoms. We report on 18 cases of respiratory disease, mainly asthma, caused by different acrylates, 10 cases caused by cyanoacrylates, four by methacrylates and two cases by other acrylates. PMID:8334539

  18. Do We Know What Causes Kaposi Sarcoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Kaposi Sarcoma + - Text Size Download Printable Version [PDF] » Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention TOPICS Document Topics ...

  19. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Treatment and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Treatment and Causes Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents How Is Rheumatoid Arthritis Treated? Doctors have many ways to treat this ...

  20. Pyogenic Flexor Tenosynovitis Caused by Shewanella algae.

    PubMed

    Fluke, Erin C; Carayannopoulos, Nikoletta L; Lindsey, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis is an orthopedic emergency most commonly caused by Staphylococcus aureus and streptococci and occasionally, when associated with water exposure, Mycobacterium marinum. Shewanella algae, a gram-negative bacillus found in warm saltwater environments, has infrequently been reported to cause serious soft tissue infections and necrosis. In this case, S. algae caused complicated flexor tenosynovitis requiring open surgical irrigation and debridement. Flexor tenosynovitis caused by S. algae rapidly presented with all 4 Kanavel cardinal signs as well as subcutaneous purulence, ischemia, and necrosis, thus meeting the requirements for Pang et al group III classification of worst prognosis. Because of its rarity and virulence, S. algae should always be considered in cases of flexor tenosynovitis associated with traumatic water exposure to treat and minimize morbidity appropriately. PMID:27206398

  1. Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Bartonella quintana

    PubMed Central

    Klein, John L.; Nair, Sukumaran K.; Harrison, Tim G.; Hunt, Ian; Fry, Norman K.

    2002-01-01

    We describe the first case of Bartonella quintana endocarditis affecting a prosthetic valve in a person with no known risk factors for this infection. Bartonella should be considered as a cause of endocarditis in any clinical setting. PMID:11897074

  2. Do We Know What Causes Stomach Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... into chemicals that cause mutations (changes) in the DNA of the cells in the stomach lining. This ... that can block substances that damage a cell’s DNA. During the past few years, scientists have made ...

  3. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... only partially understood. Cancers develop when a cell’s DNA is damaged. DNA is the chemical in each of our cells ... tumor suppressor genes . Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off ...

  4. [Cervix factors as a cause of infertility].

    PubMed

    Helm, P; Westergaard, L

    1990-04-23

    The uterine cervix plays an important role in the natural fertilization process and, consequently, it is also a significant factor in infertility. In about 6% of infertile couples, the infertility is caused by the cervical factor. The post coital test (PCT) is the most essential diagnostic procedure. A good PCT result excludes the cervical factor as the cause of infertility. A poor or negative PCT result, on the other hand, only indicates that the cervical tract is the cause in the case of women with verified ovulation and in whom other causes have been excluded. Treatment of the cervical factor has always been difficult. Intrauterine insemination is the best documented treatment method with a pregnancy rate of about 30%. In future, gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) may be alternatives in the treatment of infertility owing to the cervical factor. PMID:2184560

  5. Cause of death as a contemporary problem.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, H M

    1999-04-01

    Four characteristics have been identified that affect the contemporary analysis of cause of death: (1) the increasing use of cause-of-death data for public policy; (2) the growing disjuncture between cause of death and cause of poor health; (3) the problem of specifying cause of death for the elderly, who constitute a growing proportion of the population and, accordingly, of mortality; and (4) the impact of technology and medical science on the temporal comparability of mortality statistics. With regard to the first issue, statistical data in general are being used with increasing sophistication throughout society. The public is exposed to all types of data by the media,and is increasingly educated in how to interpret statistics. Government at all levels increasingly uses data to help to help identify priorities, to choose among policy options, and to evaluate outcomes of decision making. Cause-of-death data are but a specific subset of information that are being used to understand social, economic, and health issues and to make more informed private and public choices regarding these issues. Increasing use of any data set is likely to result in better data simply because greater use results in closer scrutiny of data quality with resultant emphasis on evaluation and systematic efforts to improve quality. This is happening to cause-of-death data in the United States. The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) initiated major efforts through two national workshops in 1989 and 1991 to improve the quality of medical certification of death through better training of physicians, medical examiners, and coroners. While there is no clear evidence that the initiatives resulting from these workshops alone resulted in data quality improvement, the indicators used by NCHS to measure quality of medical certification point to continued gradual improvement in completeness and specificity in cause-of-death data. The gap between causes of morbidity and causes of mortality is

  6. Do We Know What Causes Malignant Mesothelioma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Can malignant mesothelioma be prevented? Do we know what causes malignant mesothelioma? Researchers have found ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  7. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  8. Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Topical Pain Relievers May Cause Burns Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... ts If you've ever rubbed a topical pain reliever—a cream, gel or other product applied to ...

  9. Neuroendocrine Causes of Amenorrhea—An Update

    PubMed Central

    Fourman, Lindsay T.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Secondary amenorrhea—the absence of menses for three consecutive cycles—affects approximately 3–4% of reproductive age women, and infertility—the failure to conceive after 12 months of regular intercourse—affects approximately 6–10%. Neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility, including functional hypothalamic amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia, constitute a majority of these cases. Objective: In this review, we discuss the physiologic, pathologic, and iatrogenic causes of amenorrhea and infertility arising from perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, including potential genetic causes. We focus extensively on the hormonal mechanisms involved in disrupting the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Conclusions: A thorough understanding of the neuroendocrine causes of amenorrhea and infertility is critical for properly assessing patients presenting with these complaints. Prompt evaluation and treatment are essential to prevent loss of bone mass due to hypoestrogenemia and/or to achieve the time-sensitive treatment goal of conception. PMID:25581597

  10. Disseminated Trichosporonosis Caused by Trichosporon loubieri

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Francisco M.; Barouch, Dan H.; Coakley, Eoin P.; Baden, Lindsey R.

    2003-01-01

    Trichosporonosis is an emerging invasive fungal infection in immunosuppressed patients; a case of disseminated infection caused by Trichosporon loubieri presented confirms its role as a human pathogen. PMID:14605194

  11. Neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by Bacillus cereus.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Nisha; Knorr, Aimee; Muldrew, Kenneth L

    2008-09-01

    The classic organisms associated with central nervous system infection in the neonate are herpes simplex, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus agalactiae; we describe an unusual case of neonatal meningoencephalitis caused by Bacillus cereus. PMID:18679155

  12. Common Cause Failure Modeling: Aerospace Versus Nuclear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stott, James E.; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert W.; Hark, Frank; Hatfield, G. Spencer

    2010-01-01

    Aggregate nuclear plant failure data is used to produce generic common-cause factors that are specifically for use in the common-cause failure models of NUREG/CR-5485. Furthermore, the models presented in NUREG/CR-5485 are specifically designed to incorporate two significantly distinct assumptions about the methods of surveillance testing from whence this aggregate failure data came. What are the implications of using these NUREG generic factors to model the common-cause failures of aerospace systems? Herein, the implications of using the NUREG generic factors in the modeling of aerospace systems are investigated in detail and strong recommendations for modeling the common-cause failures of aerospace systems are given.

  13. Tourette Syndrome (TS): Risk Factors and Causes

    MedlinePlus

    ... having TS. The causes of TS and other tic disorders are not well understood. Although the risk ... whether certain children are more likely to develop tics following a group A ß-hemolytic streptococcal (“strep”) ...

  14. Ten Leading Causes of Death and Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... and JPEG format Causes of Injury Death: Highlighting Violence 2014 [PDF 90KB] (color) 2013 [PDF 135KB] (color) ... Vehicle Safety Prescription Drug Overdose Traumatic Brain Injury Violence Prevention File Formats Help: How do I view ...

  15. Renal Abscess Caused by Salmonella Typhi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Sarma, Smita; Kumar, Navin; Sengupta, Sharmila

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella typhi is a true pathogen, which is capable of causing both intestinal and extraintestinal infections. Unusual presentations of Salmonella should always be kept in mind as this organism can cause disease in almost any organ of the body. S. typhi has been reported to cause the life-threatening infections such as meningitis, endocarditis, myocarditis, empyema, and hepatic abscess. Renal involvement by S. typhi is a relatively rare presentation. We report a case of renal abscess caused by S. typhi in an afebrile, 10-year-old child who did not have any clinical history of enteric fever. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of isolation of S. typhi from the renal abscess, and interestingly this isolate was found to be resistant to quinolones. PMID:26417164

  16. Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Organic Causes of Weight Gain and Obesity Page Content ... as children, before they became heavy. Still other organic factors partly determine which kids can eat anything ...

  17. Causes and strategies for moisture lesions.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Janice

    Moisture lesions or incontinence-associated dermatitis are painful and distressing consequences of prolonged exposure to urine and faeces. They may adversely affect patients' physical and psychological wellbeing, so minimising damage is a vital part of the nurse's role. This article outlines their causes and strategies to prevent and treat them, as well as the causes of urinary and faecal incontinence and containment options. PMID:22439508

  18. Case of Sepsis Caused by Bifidobacterium longum

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Gyoung Yim; Yang, Chang Heon; Kim, Heesoo; Chong, Yunsop

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of sepsis caused by Bifidobacterium longum in a 19-year-old male who had developed high fever, jaundice, and hepatomegaly after acupuncture therapy with small gold needles. Anaerobic, non-spore-forming, gram-positive bacilli were isolated from his blood and finally identified as B. longum. He recovered completely after treatment with ticarcillin and metronidazole. To our knowledge, this is the first report of incidental sepsis caused by B. longum. PMID:10074561

  19. Symptomatic Elbow Ganglion Causing Pronator Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rockwell, W. Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Descriptions of ganglion cysts date back to 400 BC. Ganglions causing peripheral nerve compression have been described most notably at the wrist. Ganglion compression of the median nerve at the elbow is rare. We report a case of a palmar elbow ganglion causing median nerve compression and the clinical presentation of pronator syndrome. After removal of the ganglion and median nerve decompression, the patient’s symptoms fully resolved. PMID:25289303

  20. Loss of LRPPRC causes ATP synthase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Mourier, Arnaud; Ruzzenente, Benedetta; Brandt, Tobias; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Larsson, Nils-Göran

    2014-05-15

    Defects of the oxidative phosphorylation system, in particular of cytochrome-c oxidase (COX, respiratory chain complex IV), are common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS), which is a rare neurodegenerative disorder with severe progressive neurological symptoms that usually present during infancy or early childhood. The COX-deficient form of LS is commonly caused by mutations in genes encoding COX assembly factors, e.g. SURF1, SCO1, SCO2 or COX10. However, other mutations affecting genes that encode proteins not directly involved in COX assembly can also cause LS. The leucine-rich pentatricopeptide repeat containing protein (LRPPRC) regulates mRNA stability, polyadenylation and coordinates mitochondrial translation. In humans, mutations in Lrpprc cause the French Canadian type of LS. Despite the finding that LRPPRC deficiency affects the stability of most mitochondrial mRNAs, its pathophysiological effect has mainly been attributed to COX deficiency. Surprisingly, we show here that the impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced ATP production observed in Lrpprc conditional knockout mouse hearts is caused by an ATP synthase deficiency. Furthermore, the appearance of inactive subassembled ATP synthase complexes causes hyperpolarization and increases mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. Our findings shed important new light on the bioenergetic consequences of the loss of LRPPRC in cardiac mitochondria. PMID:24399447

  1. Inflammatory granuloma caused by injectable soft tissue filler (Artecoll)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Chang; Kim, Jong-Bae; Chin, Byung-Rho; Kim, Jin-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Artecoll (Artes Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) has recently been developed as a permanent synthetic cosmetic filler. We experienced an inflammatory granuloma resulting from a previous injection of Artecoll at the upper lip, which was regarded as a rare side effect of this filler. A 50-year-old female patient complained of swelling, dull pain, and heat in the right upper nasolabial fold area, which had started one week before her visit to Kyungpook National University Hospital. The patient received topical steroid therapy at a local clinic, which was not effective. At the injection site, a hard nodule was palpated and erythema was observed with mild tenderness. Antibiotic treatment and subsequent incision and drainage did not result in complete cure of the facial swelling, and the facial swelling and pain persisted. Computed tomography showed a lesion approximately 1-cm in size without clear boundaries and relatively increased nodular thickening. Finally, a subdermal lesion was removed via an intraoral vestibular approach. The lesion was diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by a permanent biopsy. The patient had healed at two months after the filler injection. Although the soft tissue filler is widely used for cosmetic purposes, there is potential for complication, such as the inflammatory granuloma should be considered before treatment. PMID:24471042

  2. A Curious Case of Inhalation Fever Caused by Synthetic Cannabinoid

    PubMed Central

    Chinnadurai, Thiru; Shrestha, Srijan; Ayinla, Raji

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Inhalation fever induced by synthetic cannabinoid Symptoms: Agitation • smoked synthetic cannabinoid Medication: Ringer’s lactate solution • Ceftriaxone • Azithromycin• Magnesium sulfate • Potassium Phosphate • Levofloxacin • Risperidone Clinical Procedure: Chest radiograph • CBC • urine toxicology Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: This case report describes inhalation fever as an uncommon pulmonary adverse effect of synthetic cannabinoids. Case Report: A 29-year-old man was brought in for severe agitation after smoking K2, a synthetic cannabinoid. He required multiple doses of lorazepam and haloperidol for sedation. His vital signs were notable for a mild fever and tachycardia. Otherwise, the rest of his exam was unremarkable. The laboratory test was significant for leucocytosis and diffuse reticular-nodular and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph. Urine drug toxicology was negative. Interestingly, his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph resolved spontaneously after 24 hours of observation. Conclusions: This patient developed transient pulmonary infiltrates and fever following the synthetic cannabinoid inhalation, as seen in self-limiting inhalation fever. Inhalation fever as a consequence of synthetic cannabinoid has not been described previously and there is a need for further research in this field. PMID:27262587

  3. Historical review of the causes of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  4. Allovahlkampfia spelaea Causing Keratitis in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Tolba, Mohammed Essa Marghany; Huseein, Enas Abdelhameed Mahmoud; Farrag, Haiam Mohamed Mahmoud; Mohamed, Hanan El Deek; Kobayashi, Seiki; Suzuki, Jun; Ali, Tarek Ahmed Mohamed; Sugano, Sumio

    2016-01-01

    Background Free-living amoebae are present worldwide. They can survive in different environment causing human diseases in some instances. Acanthamoeba sp. is known for causing sight-threatening keratitis in humans. Free-living amoeba keratitis is more common in developing countries. Amoebae of family Vahlkampfiidae are rarely reported to cause such affections. A new genus, Allovahlkampfia spelaea was recently identified from caves with no data about pathogenicity in humans. We tried to identify the causative free-living amoeba in a case of keratitis in an Egyptian patient using morphological and molecular techniques. Methods Pathogenic amoebae were culture using monoxenic culture system. Identification through morphological features and 18S ribosomal RNA subunit DNA amplification and sequencing was done. Pathogenicity to laboratory rabbits and ability to produce keratitis were assessed experimentally. Results Allovahlkampfia spelaea was identified as a cause of human keratitis. Whole sequence of 18S ribosomal subunit DNA was sequenced and assembled. The Egyptian strain was closely related to SK1 strain isolated in Slovenia. The ability to induce keratitis was confirmed using animal model. Conclusions This the first time to report Allovahlkampfia spelaea as a human pathogen. Combining both molecular and morphological identification is critical to correctly diagnose amoebae causing keratitis in humans. Use of different pairs of primers and sequencing amplified DNA is needed to prevent misdiagnosis. PMID:27415799

  5. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  6. Toddlers infer unobserved causes for spontaneous events

    PubMed Central

    Muentener, Paul; Schulz, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children infer the presence of unobserved causes when objects appear to move spontaneously. Are such inferences limited to motion events or do children assume that unexplained physical events have causes more generally? Here we introduce an apparently spontaneous event and ask whether, even in the absence of spatiotemporal and co-variation cues linking the events, toddlers treat a plausible variable as a cause of the event. Toddlers (24 months) saw a toy that appeared to light up either spontaneously or after an experimenter’s action. Toddlers were also introduced to a button but were not shown any predictive relation between the button and the light. Across three different dependent measures of exploration, predictive looking (Study 1), prompted intervention (Study 2), and spontaneous exploration (Study 3), toddlers were more likely to represent the button as a cause of the light when the event appeared to occur spontaneously. In Study 4, we found that even in the absence of a plausible candidate cause, toddlers engaged in selective exploration when the light appeared to activate spontaneously. These results suggest that toddlers’ exploration is guided by the causal explanatory power of events. PMID:25566161

  7. Structures for common-cause failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1981-01-01

    Common-cause failure methodology and terminology have been reviewed and structured to provide a systematical basis for addressing and developing models and methods for quantification. The structure is based on (1) a specific set of definitions, (2) categories based on the way faults are attributable to a common cause, and (3) classes based on the time of entry and the time of elimination of the faults. The failure events are then characterized by their likelihood or frequency and the average residence time. The structure provides a basis for selecting computational models, collecting and evaluating data and assessing the importance of various failure types, and for developing effective defences against common-cause failure. The relationships of this and several other structures are described.

  8. Root Causes of the Housing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    In this chapter we investigate root causes of the recent US housing bubble which has been caused a serious downturn in US economic growth since autumn of 2008. We propose a simple model of housing markets in order to indicate the possible determinants of recent housing prices. Utilizing the model, we verify a number of hypotheses which have been proposed in the recent literature on the housing bubbles. We suggest that the main causes of the housing bubble from 2000 to 2006 are (1) non-elastic housing supply in the metropolitan areas, and (2) declines in the mortgage loan rate and the housing premium by the massive mortgage credit expansion. We also suggest that these factors were strongly influenced by policies that governments and the Federal Reserve Board performed.

  9. Were all extinction events caused by impacts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, P. M.; Coorough, P. J.

    Extraterrestrial impacts are firmly implicated in several of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. A critical issue now is whether extraterrestrial events have been the only mechanism that produced physical changes of sufficient magnitude to cause major extinction events. While we believe the evidence is overwhelming that the KT extinction event was caused by an impact, we also find that an event of similar or larger size near the end of the Ordovician is best explained by terrestrial causes. The Ordovician extinction event (End-O extinction event) occurred near the end of the Ordovician, but the interval of extinction was completed prior to the newly established Ordovician-Silurian boundary. In spite of extensive field studies, a convincing signature of an associated impact has not been found. However, a prominent glaciation does coincide with the End-O extinction event.

  10. Were all extinction events caused by impacts?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehan, P. M.; Coorough, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    Extraterrestrial impacts are firmly implicated in several of the five major Phanerozoic extinction events. A critical issue now is whether extraterrestrial events have been the only mechanism that produced physical changes of sufficient magnitude to cause major extinction events. While we believe the evidence is overwhelming that the KT extinction event was caused by an impact, we also find that an event of similar or larger size near the end of the Ordovician is best explained by terrestrial causes. The Ordovician extinction event (End-O extinction event) occurred near the end of the Ordovician, but the interval of extinction was completed prior to the newly established Ordovician-Silurian boundary. In spite of extensive field studies, a convincing signature of an associated impact has not been found. However, a prominent glaciation does coincide with the End-O extinction event.

  11. Nasal leech infestation causing persistent epistaxis

    PubMed Central

    Sarathi, Kalra

    2011-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are commonly encountered as a cause of epistaxis; however, nasal leech infestation as a cause of unilateral persistent epistaxis is very rare. Examination of nasal cavity revealed fleshy material in the left nostril, which was identified as leech. The leech was removed with the help of an artery forceps following irrigation of the left nostril with normal saline and adopting wait-and-watch policy. In developing countries, leech infestation as a cause of epistaxis should be suspected in patients with lower socioeconomic status or in those living in rural areas who give history of drinking polluted water from, or bathing in, stagnant ponds and puddles. PMID:21887037

  12. Alfred Russel Wallace's world of final causes.

    PubMed

    Smith, Charles H

    2013-12-01

    Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913) is an important figure in the history of science, but there remain many questions about the nature of his world view, and how it developed. Here, Wallace's appreciation of the role of final causes in evolution is linked to some of its probable origins, with an emphasis on the influence of Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859). The question is then asked whether a final causes-based scientific agenda might be possible, and answered by drawing attention to two current efforts in that direction by Adrian Bejan, and by the author. A sketch of the latter approach, adapted from Spinozian thinking, is given, with an empirical example involving drainage basin morphology that suggests structural influences of a final causes sort. PMID:24019011

  13. Intracranial fungal aneurysm caused by Candida endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Takeda, S; Wakabayashi, K; Yamazaki, K; Miyakawa, T; Arai, H

    1998-01-01

    We describe a 67-year-old man who died 4 days after suffering a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Autopsy revealed a fresh subarachnoid hemorrhage and a ruptured fungal aneurysm near the trifurcation of the right middle cerebral artery. In comparison with 21 previously reported cases in which the fungal aneurysms were proved to be intracranial, the present case had several characteristic features: the causative fungus of the aneurysm was Candida (only one such case has been reported previously). The aneurysm was caused by direct Candida invasion of the arterial wall from the Candida embolus (previously reported aneurysms have been caused by direct invasion of the arterial wall during fungal meningitis). The source of the Candida was endocarditis (the main sources of fungus in previously reported cases have been sinusitis, dental extraction wounds, and some forms of surgery). We describe the features of this rare autopsy case of a ruptured fungal aneurysm caused by Candida originating from endocarditis and review the literature. PMID:9707334

  14. Failure Caused by Breaching in Subaqueous Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Flemings, P. B.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    Breaching can generate sustained turbidity flows in submarine canyon heads or delta mouths; it is caused by shear dilation. We conduct flume experiments and analyze pore pressure changes due to shear dilation during breaching. We deposit and consolidate fine-grained sand 9cm deep and 6cm long at one end of a 29cm long water-filled tank placed on flat surface. Breaching is initiated by removal of an artificial support that retains the sand; creating an initial vertical failure surface. Pore pressure near the bottom of the initial surface reduces by 850Pa; we estimate 600Pa is caused by dilation. Pore pressure reduction farther from the initial surface is less. The pore pressure decrease stabilizes the sand. However, the underpressure will try to recover and destabilize the sand. Destabilization occurs first at the failure surface causing sand to fail, which causes pore pressure reduction in the rest of the deposit. The failure surface steps back in this way at ~0.3 cm/s. Sustained turbidity flow forms from the failed material. Part of the flow deposits in front of the failure surface, causing the surface height to decrease from 9cm to 3.5cm. The drop in pore pressure caused by dilation is approximately 20% more mid-way in the sand than near the bottom of the sand. This suggests breaching may not happen in deep water levels or thick deposits, where the confining stress is too large for dilation to occur. When the water tank is placed at an angle of 23o the failed material is able to evacuate to the downstream end, resulting in a steady failure surface height. This study allows slope stability predictions and provides a process-based way to determine sediment supply for associated turbidity currents and sediment transport models.

  15. Ureteral fibroepithelial polyp causing urinary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shive, Melissa L.; Baskin, Laurence S.; Harris, Catherine R.; Bonham, Michael; MacKenzie, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteral polyps are rare causes of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly in children. We report a nine year-old boy with UPJ obstruction initially suggestive of an obstructive urinary stone. CT showed intraureteral calcification at the UPJ and hydronephrosis. A retrograde pyelogram showed narrowing at the UPJ and partial obstruction that was found to be a ureteral polyp. This case illustrates a rare cause of UPJ obstruction that should be considered when the imaging findings and presentation are atypical for more common etiologies of ureteral obstruction. PMID:23365709

  16. CAN A SINGLE INJURY CAUSE CANCER?

    PubMed Central

    Hedge, Arden R.

    1959-01-01

    In the absence of positive evidence that a single injury can cause cancer, the tendency is growing to award compensation to persons (particularly employees) with cancers alleged to have originated in trauma, even cancers which are generally conceded to be congenital in origin. Experimental attempts to induce cancer through trauma have been unsuccessful or doubtful in result. War-wounded persons, boxers and railroad accident victims have no higher incidence of cancer than other groups. Physicians and others in a position to educate the public should strive to dispel the error that cancer following injury is demonstrably or even probably the cause. PMID:13618747

  17. [Working as a sandblaster can cause silicosis].

    PubMed

    Schelde, Jacob; Authried, Georg; Madsen, Helle Dall; Perch, Michael; Sherson, David Lee

    2015-01-26

    Silicosis is a common occupational disease worldwide. It is caused by the inhalation of crystalline silicon dioxide, i.e. silica. Quartz is a common form of silica and occurs in sandstone and granite. Occupational exposure can occur e.g. in mining, quarrying and sandblasting. The inhaled silica triggers an inflammatory response when phagocytosed which eventually causes fibrosis. We present a 45-year-old male Danish sandblaster who developed silicosis, and due to rapid decline in lung function received a lung transplant with an excellent result. PMID:25612962

  18. Postnatal Organic Causes of Mental Retardation

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, G. G.

    1962-01-01

    A study of 1137 retarded children from Western Ontario revealed 129 (11.3%) in whom retardation was first noted after a specific postnatal event. Eighty-three of these were boys. The most common cause of postnatal cerebral injury in this series was a syndrome of unknown etiology characterized by the sudden onset of fever, convulsions and coma which occurred in 45 patients. The nature of this syndrome is discussed and the necessity for early treatment emphasized. Other postnatal causes of retardation are classified according to frequency, as encephalitis, accidents, meningitis and a miscellaneous group consisting of epilepsy and tumours. PMID:13907577

  19. Vertebral osteomyelitis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Daniel C; Sandoval-Sus, Jose; Razzaq, Kanwal; Young, Lary

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium infection caused by non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTBM) organisms is becoming more common. Although NTBM osteomyelitis is unusual, it can occur in otherwise healthy individuals, but it is also associated with immunocompromised states, such as steroidal therapy and AIDS, and may be observed following trauma. Mycobacterium avium is reported to be the most common causative agent, and Mycobacterium abscessus has only been described in two cases. We report the case of a 44-year-old man with history of hepatitis C diagnosed with osteomyelitis of the thoracic spine caused by M abscessus. We present a literature review of NTBM osteomyelitis and a discussion of its diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23925676

  20. Occupational and environmental causes of parkinsonism

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, C.M. )

    1992-07-01

    Occupational causes of parkinsonism have usually been identified by direct temporal association of an exposure with disease symptoms, although recently a latent period between exposure and disease causation is being investigated. This review presents the definition of parkinsonism as contrasted with Parkinson's disease, notes the general concepts important to the consideration of toxic effects on the central nervous system, and addresses each group of agents known to cause parkinsonism, including common sources of exposure, clinical course, and proposed mechanisms of toxicity. Agents discussed include manganese, carbon disulfide, organic solvents, carbon monoxide, and MTPT and similar agents.58 references.

  1. Persistent trigeminal artery causing "double" neurovascular conflict.

    PubMed

    Clerici, Angelo Maurizio; Merlo, Paola; Rognone, Felice; Noce, Monica; Rognone, Elisa; Bono, Giorgio

    2009-03-01

    We report the case of a 73-year-old woman who presented with right VI nerve palsy and homolateral atypical trigeminal neuralgia; standard neuroradiological investigation of orbital/retroorbital regions and intracranial arteries excluded the most commonly demonstrable underlying causes while brain magnetic resonance (T1-weighted fat suppression; T2-weighted thin-section) and magnetic resonance angiography disclosed the evidence of "double" neurovascular conflict because of persistent trigeminal artery with aneurysmal dilation. A role of this almost rare vascular condition in causing painful ophthalmoplegia is discussed. PMID:19267790

  2. Autism: is there a biological cause?

    PubMed

    Stewart, J E

    1994-12-01

    1. Autism is the term used to describe certain characteristics observed in some children, including a preference for aloneness, and sameness. 2. The condition was thought for some time to be caused by a psychological disturbance resulting from a combination of stress and poor parental upbringing. 3. Recently emerging data suggests the symptoms are related to a cognitive deficit associated with a biological cause. 4. As research progresses, it is hoped it will become possible to improve the quality of life for people suffering from or looking after those with, autism. PMID:7862687

  3. Targeting the Root Cause of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Trescott, Laura; Holcomb, Joshua; Spellmon, Nicholas; Mcleod, Cathy; Aljehane, Leala; Sun, Fei; Li, Chunying; Yang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a serious genetic condition caused by CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) mutation. CF patients have shortened lifespan due to airway obstruction, infection, and end-stage lung failure. However, recent development in CF therapy suggests a brighter future for CF patients. Targeting specific CFTR mutations aims to potentiate the channel gating activity of impaired CFTR and restore protein trafficking to the plasma membrane. Gene therapy introduces correct CFTR gene into the affected airway epithelium leading to the functional expression of CFTR in CF patients. This review will sum up the current status in CF-cause targeting therapy. PMID:25316272

  4. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: rare cause of meningitis.

    PubMed

    Correia, Cátia Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sara Tavares; Nunes, Paula

    2014-08-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a Gram-negative bacillus, which is an extremely rare cause of meningitis. To our knowledge, there are only five previous pediatrics cases. Here, we describe the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed meningitis associated with this organism, after several neurosurgical procedures and previous treatment with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. He was treated successfully with a combination of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ceftazidime and levofloxacin. Stenotrophomonas maltophilia should be considered as a potential cause of meningitis, especially among severely debilitated or immunosuppressed patients. Antimicrobial therapy is complicated by the high resistance of the organism to multiple antibiotics. PMID:25252064

  5. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    PubMed

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well. PMID:25095477

  6. Pulmonary Phaeohyphomycosis Caused by Phaeoacremonium in a Kidney Transplant Recipient: Successful Treatment with Posaconazole

    PubMed Central

    Monaganti, Saivaralaxmi; Santos, Carlos A. Q.; Markwardt, Andrea; Pence, Morgan A.; Brennan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    We report a rare case of pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis in a 49-year-old woman 6 years after kidney transplantation. She presented with dyspnea, cough, and fatigue. Her chest CT scan revealed nodular opacities in the right upper lung. A fine needle aspirate biopsy culture yielded Phaeoacremonium and surgical pathology of the biopsy showed chronic inflammation. We successfully treated her with posaconazole and managed drug interactions between posaconazole and tacrolimus. This is the second reported case of biopsy-proven pulmonary infection by Phaeoacremonium in a kidney transplant recipient and successfully treated with posaconazole. PMID:24959182

  7. Levels and Causes of Stress Among Residents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Medical and dental residents at the University of Rochester Medical Center were surveyed with a brief symptom inventory to measure stress and its causes. Significantly elevated stress showed for rotations in the emergency room, greater frequency of being on call, and reduced sleep. (Author/MLW)

  8. An Epidemiologic Perspective. Does Running Cause Osteoarthritis?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eichner, Edward R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of literature on exercise and arthritis considers relevant epidemiologic and experimental studies of animals and humans, focusing on the relationship between running and osteoarthritis. No conclusive evidence exists that running causes osteoarthritis; research trends suggest that running may slow the functional aspects of musculoskeletal…

  9. Some Unique Causes of Black Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaights, Ernest; Simpson, Gloria

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of suicide unique to blacks are: cultural expectations for males, which include repression of feelings and strict obedience to parents and elders; difficulty identifying with their race; gangs and drug abuse; poverty; and racism. These factors can cause depression, a known factor in suicidal behavior. (Author/ABB)

  10. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  11. Causes of Student Absenteeism and School Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Seyma; Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the causes of student absenteeism and school dropouts at primary, secondary and high school level in Düzce Province and to develop suggestions for solving these problems. A "case study" design, which is one of the qualitative research approaches, was used in this study. The study group consisted of…

  12. Cause of Instructional Change in Business Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John H.

    1978-01-01

    Content of business education, middle school philosophy, legislation, technological growth and improvement, and types of learning are discussed as forces challenging instructional practices in business education. These challenges, the author says, have caused the development of a comprehensive business curriculum. (MF)

  13. First Human Systemic Infection Caused by Spiroplasma

    PubMed Central

    Aquilino, Ana; López, Pilar; Galiana, Antonio J.; Tovar, Juan; Andrés, María; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Spiroplasma species are organisms that normally colonize plants and insects. We describe the first case of human systemic infection caused by Spiroplasma bacteria in a patient with hypogammaglobulinemia undergoing treatment with biological disease-modifying antirheumatic agents. Spiroplasma turonicum was identified through molecular methods in several blood cultures. The infection was successfully treated with doxycycline plus levofloxacin. PMID:25428150

  14. Can Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis Cause Aphasia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naude, H.; Pretorius, E.

    2003-01-01

    Aphasia implies the loss or impairment of language caused by brain damage. The key to understanding the nature of aphasic symptoms is the neuro-anatomical site of brain damage, and not the causative agent. However, because "Herpes simplex" virus (HSV) encephalitis infection usually affects the frontal and temporal lobes, subcortical structures and…

  15. Digestive system damage caused by substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, I; Kalezić, N; Ristić, J; Bojović, O; Dimitrijević, N

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction represent a worldwide problem and cause a number of family, social and health problems. Digestive system damage caused by substance intake is an increasing problem amoung drug addicts. Many studies show that substances can cause cancer of all parts of the digestive system. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with colon and rectal cancer. For rectal cancer, the risk was increased in association with drinking of alcoholic beverages, specialy for beer consumption. Sinthetic drugs such as ecstasy may lead also to digestive and hepatic damage, as well as vascular complications of the stomach. Many studies show the existance of supstance associated enterocolitis as well as ishemic colitis. Diagnosis of ishemic colitis is based on the presence of rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, a history of substance use, supportive endoscopic and histopathologic findings, and the absence of other etiologic mechanisms of ischemic colitis. Great damage to the digestive system is also produced by smuggling narcotics packed into small pages that are afterwards been swallowed or implemented on other sorts of ways inside the smugglers natural body spaces as the rectum or vagina. In the paper authors reviewed literature conserning digestive system damage caused by substance abuse and drug smuggling. PMID:19069706

  16. [Adrenomyeloneuropathy as the cause of Addison's disease].

    PubMed

    Benová, L; Ochodnický, M; Misovicová, N; Mokán, M

    2000-12-01

    The authors describe adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy found in one family. This disease is a less frequent cause of Addison's disease, but it is very serious from the prognostic aspect. The authors recommend therefore to examine very long chain fatty acid plasma levels in patients with adrenal insufficiency. PMID:11214371

  17. The Young Drinking Driver: Cause or Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Patricia F.; Waller, Marcus B.

    Drunk driving is a major public health problem and young people suffer disproportionately high rates of morbidity and mortality as a result of drinking and driving. Motor vehicle injuries are the leading cause of death for persons aged 15-24 in this country, and alcohol is implicated in many of these deaths. Countermeasures to drinking and driving…

  18. Schoolchildren's Social Representations on Bullying Causes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate schoolchildren's social representations on the causes of bullying. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 schoolchildren recruited from five elementary schools in Sweden. Mixed methods (grounded theory as well as descriptive statistic methods) were used to analyze data. According to…

  19. Some Symptoms, Causes, and Remediations of Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groff, Charlotte V.

    A literature review was conducted to determine the meaning, symptoms, causes, and treatment of dyslexia. The review revealed that dyslexia simply means "distorted words," and is the inability to read either phonetically or visually. Among the symptoms of dyslexia disclosed by the review are motion sickness, retardation in reading of from 6 months…

  20. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…