Science.gov

Sample records for noise pollution levels

  1. Are urban noise pollution levels decreasing?

    PubMed

    Arana, M

    2010-04-01

    The majority of acoustic impact studies developed over the last 50 years have used a similar acoustic parameter (L(eq), L(dn)) but the noise mapping methodology has been very uneven. The selection of the measurement points, the measurement periods, or the evaluation indices have not followed a unique criterion. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the sound pollution levels between different cities from those studies, at least in a rigorous sense. Even more, different studies carried out in the same city by different researchers during different years and using different methodologies are not conclusive whether the acoustic pollution increases or decreases. The present paper shows results, with statistical significance, about the evolution of the acoustic pollution obtained for two Spanish cities, Pamplona and Madrid. In both cases, it can be concluded that noise pollution decreases over time (P<0.01). PMID:20369990

  2. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... here: EPA Home Air and Radiation Noise Pollution Noise Pollution This page has moved. You should be ... epa.gov/clean-air-act-overview/title-iv-noise-pollution Local Navigation Air & Radiation Home Basic Information ...

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution level based upon community exposure and response data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmiston, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    The results and procedures are reported from an evaluation of noise pollution level as a predictor of annoyance, based on aircraft noise exposure and community response data. The measures of noise exposure presented include composite noise rating, noise exposure forecast, noise and number index. A proposed measure as a universal noise exposure measure for noise pollution level (L sub NP) is discussed.

  4. Shanghai alleviates noise pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Runling

    1983-07-14

    ''Environmental noise is now under control in Shanghai, the level of environmental noise is basically holding steady, and in some areas industrial and traffic noise has decreased.'' These were the conclusions of research by Hong Zonghui (3163 1350 6540) and Wang Shixian (3769 6164 6343) of Tongji University's Acoustics Laboratory, as put forward at a recent public academic lecture at Tongji University. In order to eliminate noise from the environment, Tongji University in the early 1970's began conducting investigations and research on noise pollution and its control together with concerned units in this city. After tests in a network of 2,117 points throughout the city, they determined that the most common form of noise pollution is traffic, which accounts for 50 percent of all noise. Since 1979, this city has adopted successive measures in the area of traffic control in order to eliminate the source of noise. Traffic noise has now dropped about 3 decibels in the city. This research report also pointed out that according to the results of regional environmental noise tests, this city does not meet the noise pollution standards set by the state. Tugboats on the Suzhou He blow their whistles late at night, and the noise at riverside homes can reach 82 decibels; the Fangua Lane residential district is close to a railroad where engine noise can reach 89 decibels and affect the residents' health. In addition, rather serious noise pollution is produced by more than 300 handicraft, light industry, textile, and electrical machinery plants.

  5. Noise pollution resources compendium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Abstracts of reports concerning noise pollution are presented. The abstracts are grouped in the following areas of activity: (1) sources of noise, (2) noise detection and measurement, (3) noise abatement and control, (4) physical effects of noise and (5) social effects of noise.

  6. Noise Pollution, Teachers' Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Lavaroni, Charles W.

    One of three in a series about pollution, this teacher's guide for a unit on noise pollution is designed for use in junior high school grades. It offers suggestions for extending the information and activities contained in the textual material for students. Chapter 1 discusses the problem of noise pollution and involves students in processes of…

  7. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Baloye, David O; Palamuleni, Lobina G

    2015-10-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  8. A Comparative Land Use-Based Analysis of Noise Pollution Levels in Selected Urban Centers of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Baloye, David O.; Palamuleni, Lobina G.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the commercialization, mobility and urbanization of human settlements across the globe has greatly exposed world urban population to potentially harmful noise levels. The situation is more disturbing in developing countries like Nigeria, where there are no sacrosanct noise laws and regulations. This study characterized noise pollution levels in Ibadan and Ile-Ife, two urban areas of Southwestern Nigeria that have experienced significant increases in population and land use activities. Eight hundred noise measurements, taken at 20 different positions in the morning, afternoon, and evening of carefully selected weekdays, in each urban area, were used for this study. Findings put the average noise levels in the urban centers at between 53 dB(A) and 89 dB (A), a far cry from the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible limits in all the land use types, with highest noise pollution levels recorded for transportation, commercial, residential and educational land use types. The result of the one-way ANOVA test carried out on the dependent variable noise and fixed factor land use types reveals a statistically significant mean noise levels across the study area (F(3,34) = 15.13, p = 0.000). The study underscores noise pollution monitoring and the urgent need to control urban noise pollution with appropriate and effective policies. PMID:26426033

  9. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Part one of a three-part series about noise pollution and its effects on humans. This section presents the background information for teachers who are preparing a unit on sound. The next issues will offer learning activities for measuring the effects of sound and some references. (SA)

  10. [Urban noise pollution].

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2001-07-01

    Noise is responsible for cochlear and general damages. Hearing loss and tinnitus greatly depend on sound intensity and duration. Short-duration sound of sufficient intensity (gunshot or explosion) will not be described because they are not currently encountered in our normal urban environment. Sound levels of less than 75 d (A) are unlikely to cause permanent hearing loss, while sound levels of about 85 d (A) with exposures of 8 h per day will produce permanent hearing loss after many years. Popular and largely amplified music is today one of the most dangerous causes of noise induced hearing loss. The intensity of noises (airport, highway) responsible for stress and general consequences (cardiovascular) is generally lower. Individual noise sensibility depends on several factors. Strategies to prevent damage from sound exposure should include the use of individual hearing protection devices, education programs beginning with school-age children, consumer guidance, increased product noise labelling, and hearing conservation programs for occupational settings. PMID:11476007

  11. Charting environmental pollution. [by noise measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpert, E.; Bizo, F.; Karacsonyi, Z.

    1974-01-01

    It is found that areas affected by different noxious agents are within the limits traced for high noise level areas; consequently, it is suggested that high noise pressure levels should be used as the primary indication of environmental pollution. A complex methodology is reported for charting environmental pollution due to physical, chemical and biological noxious agents on the scale of an industrial district.

  12. Noise Pollution in Turkish Elementary Schools: Evaluation of Noise Pollution Awareness and Sensitivity Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates noise pollution levels in two elementary schools. Also, "noise level awareness and sensitivity training" was given for reducing noise pollution, and the effects and results of this training were evaluated. "Sensitivity" training was given to 611 students and 48 teachers in a private and a public school.…

  13. Community noise levels in Patras, Greece

    SciTech Connect

    Stathis, T.C.

    1981-02-01

    In the city of Patras (Greece), noise measurements were made for the purposes of determining the present noise-pollution levels and the reaction of the people to them. Noise pollution is ranked second in order after air pollution, and traffic was the principal noise pollutant. The mean noise levels, in 25 monitorig stations throughout the city, were found to be high and definitely unacceptable. For three representative locations, corresponding to high, medium, and low traffic volume, various statistical noise descriptors were used, together with the other measurements, to estimate the noise environment of the entire city.

  14. Noise pollution: a modem plague.

    PubMed

    Goines, Lisa; Hagler, Louis

    2007-03-01

    Noise is defined as unwanted sound. Environmental noise consists of all the unwanted sounds in our communities except that which originates in the workplace. Environmental noise pollution, a form of air pollution, is a threat to health and well-being. It is more severe and widespread than ever before, and it will continue to increase in magnitude and severity because of population growth, urbanization, and the associated growth in the use of increasingly powerful, varied, and highly mobile sources of noise. It will also continue to grow because of sustained growth in highway, rail, and air traffic, which remain major sources of environmental noise. The potential health effects of noise pollution are numerous, pervasive, persistent, and medically and socially significant. Noise produces direct and cumulative adverse effects that impair health and that degrade residential, social, working, and learning environments with corresponding real (economic) and intangible (well-being) losses. It interferes with sleep, concentration, communication, and recreation. The aim of enlightened governmental controls should be to protect citizens from the adverse effects of airborne pollution, including those produced by noise. People have the right to choose the nature of their acoustical environment; it should not be imposed by others. PMID:17396733

  15. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This article is the last of a three-part series dealing with sound measurement, effects, pollution, and indoor/door learning activities. This section focuses on outdoor activities and equipment that students can make to assist them in data collection. (Author/SA)

  16. Sounds and Noises. A Position Paper on Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Thomas L.

    This position paper focuses on noise pollution and the problems and solutions associated with this form of pollution. The paper is divided into the following five sections: Noise and the Ear, Noise Measurement, III Effects of Noise, Acoustics and Action, and Programs and Activities. The first section identifies noise and sound, the beginnings of…

  17. Noise Pollution in Irbid City — Jordan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odat, Sana'A.

    2015-09-01

    Noise defined as any sound that annoys or disturbs humans or that causes or tends to cause an adverse psychological and physiological effect on humans. Irbid is one of the most populated cities in Jordan. It is environmentally noise polluted due to the rapid and widespread introduction of mechanical methods for production and for their transportation. L10, L50, L90 and LAeq noise levels were measured during the day time and night time to assess and evaluate the noise levels from mosques, schools, celebration halls, streets, building works, industrial areas and commercial areas. The results of the investigation showed that the measured noise levels from all the selected sources were high during the day time and the noise problem is not only limited to day time, but continues in night time in this city. These noise levels were higher than those set by Jordanian limits during day time and night time. A significant correlation between the measured statistical noise levels L10, L50 and L90 and equivalent continuous noise level LAeq were also detected. The mean value of industrial noise source was motors of large vehicles and engines. Whereas the presence of slow moving vehicles, low speed and honking of horns during traffic ingestion periods lead to an increase in noise levels in commercial areas. The noise from building machines and equipment (dredges, concrete mixers, concrete pumps and jackhammers) is quite different from that of traditional equipment. The construction machines have engines that produce a loud, fluctuating noise with varying frequencies that can propagate the sound for a long distance. The noise produced by these engines is particularly disturbing due to the wide variations in frequency and volume.

  18. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  19. Exploring Noise: Sound Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    The second part of a three-part series, this article describes sound measurement, effects, and indoor learning activities. Thirty elementary school activities are described with appropriate grade levels specified. (Author/CS)

  20. Predicted airframe noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raney, J. P.

    1980-09-01

    Calculated values of airframe noise levels corresponding to FAA noise certification conditions for six aircraft are presented. The aircraft are: DC-9-30; Boeing 727-200; A300-B2 Airbus; Lockheed L-1011; DC-10-10; and Boeing 747-200B. The prediction methodology employed is described and discussed.

  1. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks.

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Ferreira, Andressa Maria Coelho; Szeremetta, Bani

    2006-07-01

    The present study provides an evaluation of noise pollution in six Urban Parks located in the city of Curitiba, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (L(eq)) were measured in 303 points (each point measured during 3 min) spread throughout the Parks. Measured values were confronted with local legislation (Law 10625) allowed limits, and the Parks were thus classified as "acoustically polluted or unpolluted". Measured values were also evaluated according to international legislation: Decree no. 12 of the City Council of Rome, DIN 18005 for German cities, the World Health Organization, and the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Urban parks in the downtown area of Curitiba, surrounded by roads of heavy traffic and in the midst of intense commercial activities, do not satisfy any of the standards used. The most noise-polluted parks in Curitiba were the Public Walk Park and the Botanical Garden Park, with measured L(eq) of 64.8 dB(A) and 67 dB(A). PMID:16897555

  2. Noise: combating a ubiquitous and hazardous pollutant.

    PubMed

    Bronzaft, Arline L.

    2000-01-01

    With a growing body of data suggesting a link between noise and adverse mental and physical health and with noise pollution becoming even more pervasive, especially from the rapid increase in air travel and highway traffic, individuals worldwide are forging alliances to combat this hazardous pollutant. Especially active are the anti-aircraft noise groups. In the United States, the federal government has limited its responsibilities with respect to noise control after an initial interest in the 1970s when legislation was passed promising to protect the American people against the harmful effects of noise. These past years anti-noise activists in the United States have been working arduously to urge the federal government to once again take an active role in abating and controlling noise. They have also been enlisting more citizens to their cause as they educate them to the hazards of noise. PMID:12689475

  3. Noise Pollution--What can be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edgar A. G.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the ratio of energy dissipated as sound to the mechanical output of devices. Considers noise levels, ranges vs. peaks, noise indexes, and health hazards. Indicates some problems vs. solutions in the technology of noise control. (GH)

  4. A Literature Survey of Noise Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, H. H.

    Physically, noise is a complex sound that has little or no periodicity. However, the essential characteristic of noise is its undesirability. Thus, noise can be defined as any annoying or unwanted sound. In recent years, the rapid increase of noise level in our environment has become a national public health hazard. Noise affects man's state of…

  5. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  6. Noise pollution mapping approach and accuracy on landscape scales.

    PubMed

    Iglesias Merchan, Carlos; Diaz-Balteiro, Luis

    2013-04-01

    Noise mapping allows the characterization of environmental variables, such as noise pollution or soundscape, depending on the task. Strategic noise mapping (as per Directive 2002/49/EC, 2002) is a tool intended for the assessment of noise pollution at the European level every five years. These maps are based on common methods and procedures intended for human exposure assessment in the European Union that could be also be adapted for assessing environmental noise pollution in natural parks. However, given the size of such areas, there could be an alternative approach to soundscape characterization rather than using human noise exposure procedures. It is possible to optimize the size of the mapping grid used for such work by taking into account the attributes of the area to be studied and the desired outcome. This would then optimize the mapping time and the cost. This type of optimization is important in noise assessment as well as in the study of other environmental variables. This study compares 15 models, using different grid sizes, to assess the accuracy of the noise mapping of the road traffic noise at a landscape scale, with respect to noise and landscape indicators. In a study area located in the Manzanares High River Basin Regional Park in Spain, different accuracy levels (Kappa index values from 0.725 to 0.987) were obtained depending on the terrain and noise source properties. The time taken for the calculations and the noise mapping accuracy results reveal the potential for setting the map resolution in line with decision-makers' criteria and budget considerations. PMID:23416205

  7. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs—Noise maps and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fiedler, Paulo Eduardo Kirrian; Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta

    2015-02-15

    A study was made of some of the main traffic hubs in a Latin American metropolis, in order to determine the presence or absence of noise by means of noise measurements and acoustic mapping. To characterize noise in the evaluated road stretches, 232 measurements were taken at different points. The Predictor software package was used for the noise mapping calculations. Noise sensitive areas, e.g., hospitals, were identified in the evaluated road stretches. Noise maps were calculated for two hospitals, showing the current levels of noise that reach their facades. Hypothetical scenarios were simulated by making changes in the composition of traffic and total number of vehicles, and an assessment was made of the potential influence of these modifications in reducing the noise levels reaching the facades of the buildings in question. The simulations indicated that a 50% reduction in total traffic flow, or a 50% reduction in heavy vehicle traffic flow, would reduce the noise levels by about 3 dB(A). - Highlights: • Evaluation of noise pollution in urban traffic hubs • Street systems • Environmental noise impacts • Noise mapping.

  8. Noise pollution and annoyance: An urban soundscapes study

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health. PMID:25913551

  9. Noise pollution and annoyance: an urban soundscapes study.

    PubMed

    de Paiva Vianna, Karina Mary; Alves Cardoso, Maria Regina; Rodrigues, Rui Manuel Calejo

    2015-01-01

    Since 1972, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared noise as a pollutant. Over the last decades, the quality of the urban environment has attracted the interest of researchers due to the growing urban sprawl, especially in developing countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of noise exposure in six urban soundscapes: Areas with high and low levels of noise in scenarios of leisure, work, and home. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in two steps: Evaluation of noise levels, with the development of noise maps, and health related inquiries. 180 individuals were interviewed, being 60 in each scenario, divided into 30 exposed to high level of noise and 30 to low level. Chi-Square test and Ordered Logistic Regression Model (P < 0,005). 70% of the interviewees reported noticing some source of noise in the selected scenarios and it was observed an association between exposure and perception of some source of noise (P < 0.001). 41.7% of the interviewees reported some degree of annoyance, being that this was associated with exposure (P < 0.001). There was also an association between exposure in different scenarios and reports of poor quality of sleep (P < 0.001). In the scenarios of work and home, the chance of reporting annoyance increased when compared with the scenario of leisure. We conclude that the use of this sort of assessment may clarify the relationship between urban noise exposure and health. PMID:25913551

  10. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  11. Underwater noise pollution in a coastal tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, L; Carvalho, R R; Lailson-Brito, J; Azevedo, A F

    2014-06-15

    Underwater noise pollution has become a major concern in marine habitats. Guanabara Bay, southeastern Brazil, is an impacted area of economic importance with constant vessel traffic. One hundred acoustic recording sessions took place over ten locations. Sound sources operating within 1 km radius of each location were quantified during recordings. The highest mean sound pressure level near the surface was 111.56±9.0 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency band of 187 Hz. Above 15 kHz, the highest mean sound pressure level was 76.21±8.3 dB re 1 μPa at the frequency 15.89 kHz. Noise levels correlated with number of operating vessels and vessel traffic composition influenced noise profiles. Shipping locations had the highest noise levels, while small vessels locations had the lowest noise levels. Guanabara Bay showed noise pollution similar to that of other impacted coastal regions, which is related to shipping and vessel traffic. PMID:24814251

  12. High level white noise generator

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, Casimer J.; Blalock, Theron V.

    1979-01-01

    A wide band, stable, random noise source with a high and well-defined output power spectral density is provided which may be used for accurate calibration of Johnson Noise Power Thermometers (JNPT) and other applications requiring a stable, wide band, well-defined noise power spectral density. The noise source is based on the fact that the open-circuit thermal noise voltage of a feedback resistor, connecting the output to the input of a special inverting amplifier, is available at the amplifier output from an equivalent low output impedance caused by the feedback mechanism. The noise power spectral density level at the noise source output is equivalent to the density of the open-circuit thermal noise or a 100 ohm resistor at a temperature of approximately 64,000 Kelvins. The noise source has an output power spectral density that is flat to within 0.1% (0.0043 db) in the frequency range of from 1 KHz to 100 KHz which brackets typical passbands of the signal-processing channels of JNPT's. Two embodiments, one of higher accuracy that is suitable for use as a standards instrument and another that is particularly adapted for ambient temperature operation, are illustrated in this application.

  13. Evaluation of noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa M.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2003-10-01

    A study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 17.83% out of the measurement sites have presented Leq levels over 65 dB(A), considered by the Preventive Medicine as the maximum level one can be exposed to without being exposed to health impairment risks, and 52.48% out of the meas sites do not satisfy the municipal law 10625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas (AV). The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people users to visit the park every 75% of them seek for the realization of a physical activity during the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of interviewed people point the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 29% of them point the local security.

  14. Noise Pollution--An Overlooked Issue in the Science Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treagust, David F.; Kam, Goh Ah

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for including noise pollution in the science curriculum and describes 10 activities for improving students' awareness and understanding of and concern for noise and its effects. (Author/JN)

  15. Assessment of noise level in Burdwan town, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Datta, J K; Sadhu, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R; Mondal, N K; Mukhopadhyay, B

    2006-07-01

    Cities and towns of the world are now facing enormous rise of noise pollution problem due to very high population rise, transport congestion and associated commercial and industrial activities. Burdwan, a district headquarter (100 km away from Kolkata) is one such town where noise pollution is very frequent. In order to assess noise level, noise data were collected from various places of the town by sound level meter with a duration of 30 minutes/location during specified time like 6.00 am, 10.00 am, 1.00 pm, 4.00 pm and 6.00 pm. Most of the monitoring places either belongs to silence category or commercial category areas. From the tabulated data, it was found that sound level lies within the range of 64-85 dB or above in different time at different places. The locations that belong to the silence zone have the noise level up to 90 dB. Statistically noise level in all these zones differ significantly at their peak hours. Noise pollution adversely affects our environment as well as human beings. Sound causes both pathological and psychological disorders in human beings. Implementation of rules and regulations under section 20, 21J, 41, 68(I), 70, 90, 111A of Environment Protection Act, 1986 and of course various technological methods and public awareness are very essential to check noise pollution in Burdwan town. PMID:17402259

  16. AM noise impact on low level phase noise measurements.

    PubMed

    Cibiel, Gilles; Régis, Myrianne; Tournier, Eric; Llopis, Oliver

    2002-06-01

    The influence of the source AM noise in microwave residual phase noise experiments is investigated. The noise floor degradation problem, caused by the parasitic detection of this type of noise by an unperfectly balanced mixer, is solved thanks to a refinement of the quadrature condition. The parasitic noise contribution attributable to the AM to PM (phase modulation) conversion occurring in the device under test is minimized through the development of a dedicated microwave source featuring an AM noise level as low as -170 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from a 3.5 GHz carrier. PMID:12075970

  17. Spatial variation in environmental noise and air pollution in New York City.

    PubMed

    Kheirbek, Iyad; Ito, Kazuhiko; Neitzel, Richard; Kim, Jung; Johnson, Sarah; Ross, Zev; Eisl, Holger; Matte, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Exposure to environmental noise from traffic is common in urban areas and has been linked to increased risks of adverse health effects including cardiovascular disease. Because traffic sources also produce air pollutants that increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity, associations between traffic exposures and health outcomes may involve confounding and/or synergisms between air pollution and noise. While prior studies have characterized intraurban spatial variation in air pollution in New York City (NYC), limited data exists on the levels and spatial variation in noise levels. We measured 1-week equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) at 56 sites during the fall of 2012 across NYC locations with varying traffic intensity and building density that are routinely monitored for combustion-related air pollutants. We evaluated correlations among several noise metrics used to characterize noise exposures, including Leq during different time periods (night, day, weekday, weekend), Ldn (day-night noise), and measures of intermittent noise defined as the ratio of peak levels to median and background levels. We also examined correlations between sound pressure levels and co-located simultaneous measures of nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and black carbon (BC) as well as estimates of traffic and building density around the monitoring sites. Noise levels varied widely across the 56 monitoring sites; 1-week Leq varied by 21.6 dBA (range 59.1-80.7 dBA) with the highest levels observed during the weekday, daytime hours. Indices of average noise were well correlated with each other (r > 0.83), while indices of intermittent noise were not well correlated with average noise levels (r < 0.41). One-week Leq correlated well with NO, NO2, and EC levels (r = 0.61 to 0.68) and less so with PM2.5 levels (r = 0.45). We observed associations between 1-week noise levels and traffic intensity within 100 m of the monitoring sites (r = 0

  18. Environmental Noise Pollution in the United States: Developing an Effective Public Health Response

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Monica S.; Swinburn, Tracy K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tens of millions of Americans suffer from a range of adverse health outcomes due to noise exposure, including heart disease and hearing loss. Reducing environmental noise pollution is achievable and consistent with national prevention goals, yet there is no national plan to reduce environmental noise pollution. Objectives: We aimed to describe some of the most serious health effects associated with noise, summarize exposures from several highly prevalent noise sources based on published estimates as well as extrapolations made using these estimates, and lay out proven mechanisms and strategies to reduce noise by incorporating scientific insight and technological innovations into existing public health infrastructure. Discussion: We estimated that 104 million individuals had annual LEQ(24) levels > 70 dBA (equivalent to a continuous average exposure level of >70 dBA over 24 hr) in 2013 and were at risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Tens of millions more may be at risk of heart disease, and other noise-related health effects. Direct regulation, altering the informational environment, and altering the built environment are the least costly, most logistically feasible, and most effective noise reduction interventions. Conclusion: Significant public health benefit can be achieved by integrating interventions that reduce environmental noise levels and exposures into the federal public health agenda. Citation: Hammer MS, Swinburn TK, Neitzel RL. 2014. Environmental noise pollution in the United States: developing an effective public health response. Environ Health Perspect 122:115–119; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307272 PMID:24311120

  19. A system for evaluating the impact of noise pollution on the population's health.

    PubMed

    Bressane, Adriano; Mochizuki, Patricia Satie; Caram, Rosana Maria; Roveda, José Arnaldo Frutuoso

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a support system for the evaluation of noise pollution, applied to the central urban area of Rio Claro, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data were obtained from noise measurements and interviews with the population, generating the following indicators: equivalent sound level (Leq ), traffic noise index (LTNI ), and a participatory diagnosis (Dp ), integrated through a fuzzy inference system (FIS). The proposed system allowed classifying the measurement points according to the degree of impact of noise pollution on the population's health (IPS ) in the study area. Impact was considered significant in 31.4% of the measurement points and very significant in 62.9%. The FIS can be adjusted to local conditions, allowing generalization and thus also supporting noise pollution evaluation and respective environmental noise management in other geographic areas. PMID:27192022

  20. Computer program to predict aircraft noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources were programmed to predict aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. The noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. Outputs can include spectra, overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, tone-weighted perceived noise level, and effective perceived noise level at locations specified by the user. Footprint contour coordinates and approximate footprint areas can also be calculated. Inputs and outputs can be in either System International or U.S. customary units. The subroutines for each noise source and propagation correction are described. A complete listing is given.

  1. Mapping noise pollution from road traffic for regional environmental planning

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, D.J.; France, J.

    1982-03-01

    Attempts were made to assess and map noise pollution from traffic for 1 km grid squares throughout South Yorkshire. The method adopted involved estimating traffic noise at source for all major road sections and modeling the attenuation of noise with distance by use of a variety of relationships developed by road traffic engineers. Results of the analysis were plotted by computer. This paper outlines the methods used in the analysis, presents the data and discusses the results. It is concluded that the method provides a realistic picture of noise pollution in South Yorkshire, and might be used more widely as an instrument of regional survey.

  2. Noise pollution alters ecological services: enhanced pollination and disrupted seed dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Clinton D.; Kleist, Nathan J.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community-level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide. PMID:22438504

  3. Annoyance due to noise and air pollution to the residents of heavily frequented streets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wanner, H. U.; Wehrli, B.; Nemecek, J.; Turrian, V.

    1980-01-01

    The residents of different streets with varying traffic density and building density were questioned about annoyance due to traffic noise and air pollution. Results show that annoyance felt is dependent not only on the measured noise levels and/or air pollution concentrations, but that there do exist interactions between the residential quarters and annoyance. These interactions should be considered when fixing the limits and standards.

  4. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-08-17

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  5. Aquatic noise pollution: implications for individuals, populations, and ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P.; McLaughlin, Kirsty Elizabeth; Schmidt, Rouven

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenically driven environmental changes affect our planet at an unprecedented scale and are considered to be a key threat to biodiversity. According to the World Health Organization, anthropogenic noise is one of the most hazardous forms of anthropogenically driven environmental change and is recognized as a major global pollutant. However, crucial advances in the rapidly emerging research on noise pollution focus exclusively on single aspects of noise pollution, e.g. on behaviour, physiology, terrestrial ecosystems, or on certain taxa. Given that more than two-thirds of our planet is covered with water, there is a pressing need to get a holistic understanding of the effects of anthropogenic noise in aquatic ecosystems. We found experimental evidence for negative effects of anthropogenic noise on an individual's development, physiology, and/or behaviour in both invertebrates and vertebrates. We also found that species differ in their response to noise, and highlight the potential underlying mechanisms for these differences. Finally, we point out challenges in the study of aquatic noise pollution and provide directions for future research, which will enhance our understanding of this globally present pollutant. PMID:27534952

  6. Fish Hatchery Noise Levels and Noise Reduction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M E; Hewitt, C R; Parker, T M

    2015-07-01

    This study examined occupational noise within two rearing facilities at a production fish hatchery and evaluated two simple noise reduction techniques. Ambient noise levels in the hatchery tank room ranged from 50 dB in the absence of flowing water to over 73 dB when water was flowing to all 35 tanks under typical hatchery operating procedures. Covering the open standpipes did not significantly reduce noise levels. However, placing partial tank covers over the top of the tanks above the water inlet significantly reduced noise levels, both with and without the use of standpipe covers. Noise levels in the salmon building rose from 43.2 dB without any flowing water to 77.5 dB with water flowing to all six in-ground tanks. Significant noise reductions were observed when the tanks were completely covered or with standpipe covers. Decibel levels showed the greatest reduction when the tanks and standpipes were both covered. These results indicate that occupational noise levels in aquaculture environments may be reduced through the use of simple and relatively inexpensive techniques. PMID:26373216

  7. Evaluation of traffic noise pollution and attitudes of exposed individuals in working place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Vinita; Tripathi, B. D.; Mishra, Virendra kumar

    2008-05-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the noise pollution problem in the Varanasi city and its effect on the exposed people. The study revealed the fact that noise levels have reached an alarming level. The result of the study indicated the fact that 85% of the people were disturbed by traffic noise, about 90% of the people reported that traffic noise is the main cause of headache, high BP problem, dizziness and fatigue. People having higher education and income level are much aware of the health impact due to traffic noise. Marital status was found to be significantly affecting the annoyance level caused by traffic noise. Traffic noise was found to be interfering daily activities such as at resting, reading, communication etc.

  8. Noise levels in PICU: an evaluative study.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Timmons, Stephen

    2005-12-01

    High levels of noise in the hospital environment can have an impact on patients and staff increasing both recovery time and stress respectively. When our seven-bedded paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is full, noise levels seem to increase significantly. This study measured noise levels at various times and places within a PICU using Tenma sound level meter which simulates the subjective response of a human ear. Noise levels were often excessive, exceeding international guidelines. Staff conversation was responsible for most of the noise produced; medical equipment, patient interventions, telephones, doorbell and the air shoot system were also responsible for causing high levels of noise. More can be done to reduce noise and its effects on patients and staff. PMID:16372705

  9. Noise induced hearing impairment and loss. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning environmentally induced acoustic trauma. Occupational, residential, aircraft-related, and automotive noise stress are examined. Articles discuss noise control and reduction, diagnosis and pathology of hearing loss, regulation and legislation regarding noise pollution, personal protection, therapy, and risk assessment. Also included are related factors such as sound levels, sound frequencies, and exposure times. (Contains a minimum of 148 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  10. [Evaluation of noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Zannin, Paulo Henrique Trombetta; Szeremetta, Bani

    2003-01-01

    This study focuses on noise pollution in the Botanical Garden in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil. Equivalent noise levels (Leq) were measured at 21 points throughout the park, and interviews were conducted with park visitors. Some 47.6% of the measurement sites presented Leq levels over 65dB(A), considered by preventive medicine as the maximum tolerable exposure level without risk of health impairment, and 90.5% of the sites failed to comply with Municipal Ordinance 8,583, setting 55dB(A) as the maximum noise emission level for green areas. The results of interviews with visitors showed that 78% visit the park at least twice a week and that 96% come for physical activity. During their activities in the Botanical Garden, 24% of interviewees identified noise pollution as a source of annoyance, as compared to 22% who complained of insufficient park security. PMID:12764486

  11. Nuisance levels of noise effects radiologists' performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Mark F.; Coffey, Amina; Ryan, John; O'Beirne, Aaron; Toomey, Rachel; Evanoff, Micheal; Manning, David; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to measure the sound levels in Irish x-ray departments. The study then established whether these levels of noise have an impact on radiologists performance Noise levels were recorded 10 times within each of 14 environments in 4 hospitals, 11 of which were locations where radiologic images are judged. Thirty chest images were then presented to 26 senior radiologists, who were asked to detect up to three nodular lesions within 30 posteroanterior chest x-ray images in the absence and presence of noise at amplitude demonstrated in the clinical environment. The results demonstrated that noise amplitudes rarely exceeded that encountered with normal conversation with the maximum mean value for an image-viewing environment being 56.1 dB. This level of noise had no impact on the ability of radiologists to identify chest lesions with figure of merits of 0.68, 0.69, and 0.68 with noise and 0.65, 0.68, and 0.67 without noise for chest radiologists, non-chest radiologists, and all radiologists, respectively. the difference in their performance using the DBM MRMC method was significantly better with noise than in the absence of noise at the 90% confidence interval (p=0.077). Further studies are required to establish whether other aspects of diagnosis are impaired such as recall and attention and the effects of more unexpected noise on performance.

  12. Compressor noise control begins with design--Part 2. [Noise pollution control for natural gas pipeline compressor stations

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, L. )

    1993-09-01

    Reduction of noise pollution at gas compressor stations associated with natural gas pipelines and distribution systems, has long been a complex problem. Specified noise levels of individual components tell nothing of the overall system when it is installed and placed in a site-specific setting. Further, testing for compliance performance guarantees is virtually impossible to conduct at a distant location because one cannot distinguish among various contributing noise sources. This paper develops a plan for calculating an estimate of sound generation from a compressor station and the methods for controlling and measuring sounds of individual components. It also classifies the types of noise and gives various methods of dealing with each noise type.

  13. Occupational noise exposure and hearing levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ambasankaran, M.; Brahmachari, D.; Chadda, V.K.; Phadnis, M.G.; Raju, A.; Ramamurthy, A.; Shah, V.R.

    1981-07-01

    A study was made at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center to measure the hearing levels of persons working in a noise environment. Two different workplaces, central air-conditioning plant and glass blowing shops, where a number of persons were exposed to noise levels exceeding 85 dB(A) were chosen. The occupational exposure to noise was determined using a sound level meter, an octave band filter and a personal noise dose meter. The hearing levels of persons exposed to these high levels of noise and a control group not exposed to occupational noise were measured by means of a pure-tone audiometer in a specially-built booth. These persons, aged between 20 to 60 years, were divided into four age groups for the study. The low ambient noise levels in the booth were measured using correlation technique since such low signals cannot be detected by an ordinary sound level meter. The audiometric findings and the results of the noise level survey are discussed in this paper.

  14. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  15. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  16. Factor of safety method, application to air and noise pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Green, A.E.S.; Buckley, T.J.; Rio, D.E.; Makarewicz, R.; MacEachern, A.

    1980-01-01

    Technical report:Air quality indexes were used to calculate air and noise pollution factors of safety for 82 U.S. cities. Pollutants considered in the safety study are: total suspended particulates, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone. Mathematical models that were used to calculate the factors of safety are presented. The utilization of air quality indexes for regional planning and decision-making is discussed. (5 graphs, 3 photos, 25 references, 6 tables)

  17. Evaluation studies of noise and air pollution during festival seasons in India.

    PubMed

    Battalwar, D G; Meshram, S U; Yenkie, M K N; Puri, P J

    2012-07-01

    The present research work is based on assessment of noise levels and ambient air quality at selected locations during festival seasons in Nagpur city. The noise levels were exceeding the permissible limits almost at every location during the festival period. The huge emissions of smoke arising out bursting of firecrackers have significantly resulted into air pollution; particularly in terms of Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Respirable Suspended Particulate Matter (Fine Dust). The immediate effect of increasing noise levels is impairing of hearing that may cause auditory fatigue and finally lead to deafness. PMID:24749201

  18. Noise pollution changes avian communities and species interactions.

    PubMed

    Francis, Clinton D; Ortega, Catherine P; Cruz, Alexander

    2009-08-25

    Humans have drastically changed much of the world's acoustic background with anthropogenic sounds that are markedly different in pitch and amplitude than sounds in most natural habitats. This novel acoustic background may be detrimental for many species, particularly birds. We evaluated conservation concerns that noise limits bird distributions and reduces nesting success via a natural experiment to isolate the effects of noise from confounding stimuli and to control for the effect of noise on observer detection biases. We show that noise alone reduces nesting species richness and leads to different avian communities. Contrary to expectations, noise indirectly facilitates reproductive success of individuals nesting in noisy areas as a result of the disruption of predator-prey interactions. The higher reproductive success for birds within noisy habitats may be a previously unrecognized factor contributing to the success of urban-adapted species and the loss of birds less tolerant of noise. Additionally, our findings suggest that noise can have cascading consequences for communities through altered species interactions. Given that noise pollution is becoming ubiquitous throughout much of the world, knowledge of species-specific responses to noise and the cumulative effects of these novel acoustics may be crucial to understanding and managing human-altered landscapes. PMID:19631542

  19. Noise Levels In Missouri Vocational Agriculture Shops.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Curtis R.; Stewart, Bob R.

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to provide data about noise levels as a potential health hazard for students and instructors involved in vocational agriculture shop operations in Missouri. The grinder and radial arm saw were determined to be potential noise problems if operated continuously for 15 minutes or longer. (LRA)

  20. Influence of traffic-related noise and air pollution on self-reported fatigue.

    PubMed

    Jazani, Reza Khani; Saremi, Mahnaz; Rezapour, Tara; Kavousi, Amir; Shirzad, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to environmental pollutions is related to health problems. It is, however, questionable whether this condition affects working performance in occupational settings. The aim of this study is to determine the predictive value of age as well as traffic related air and noise pollutions for fatigue. 246 traffic officers participated in this study. Air pollution data were obtained from the local Air Quality Control Company. A sound level meter was used for measuring ambient noise. Fatigue was evaluated by the MFI-20 questionnaire. The general and physical scales showed the highest, while the reduced activity scale showed the lowest level of fatigue. Age had an independent direct effect on reduced activity and physical fatigue. The average of daytime equivalent noise level was between 71.63 and 88.51 dB(A). In the case of high noise exposure, older officers feel more fatigue than younger ones. Exposure to PM10 and O3 resulted in general and physical fatigue. Complex Interactions between SO2, CO and NO2 were found. Exposure to noise and some components of air pollution, especially O3 and PM10, increases fatigue. The authorities should adopt and rigorously implement environmental protection policies in order to protect people. PMID:26323778

  1. Noise problem in a primary level classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2005-04-01

    Noise was assesed in a primary school in Mexico City (six to twelve year old kids), known as having significant noise inside classrooms. Several sources were identified, among them, traffic noise and noise from the sports and recreational areas, which were in the center of the school with the classrooms surrounding them. Reverberation was an issue, but not very significant. But in some cases the most annoying sound (noise), was the one made by the students within the classroom, inducing a number of reactions in the lecturers. These reactions ranged from shouting to give the lecture, through trying to control the students, to ignore them and let it go. Lecturer's voice levels were also measured, finding out a wide spread in normal speech voice level, and some of their experiences and comments were analyzed. Results are sumarized in this presentation.

  2. Level of holographic noise in interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.

    2009-04-01

    The level of holographic noise expected to be observed in interferometric gravitational wave detectors such as GEO600 is reexamined. It is demonstrated that earlier estimates are based on assumed linear diffractive behavior of Planck radiation. Since nonlinear effects, such as self-focusing, are expected to appear at much lower energies, the expected level of holographic noise must be reduced by many orders of magnitude.

  3. Noise Pollution Filters Bird Communities Based on Vocal Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Clinton D.; Ortega, Catherine P.; Cruz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Background Human-generated noise pollution now permeates natural habitats worldwide, presenting evolutionarily novel acoustic conditions unprecedented to most landscapes. These acoustics not only harm humans, but threaten wildlife, and especially birds, via changes to species densities, foraging behavior, reproductive success, and predator-prey interactions. Explanations for negative effects of noise on birds include disruption of acoustic communication through energetic masking, potentially forcing species that rely upon acoustic communication to abandon otherwise suitable areas. However, this hypothesis has not been adequately tested because confounding stimuli often co-vary with noise and are difficult to separate from noise exposure. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a natural experiment that controls for confounding stimuli, we evaluate whether species vocal features or urban-tolerance classifications explain their responses to noise measured through habitat use. Two data sets representing nesting and abundance responses reveal that noise filters bird communities nonrandomly. Signal duration and urban tolerance failed to explain species-specific responses, but birds with low-frequency signals that are more susceptible to masking from noise avoided noisy areas and birds with higher frequency vocalizations remained. Signal frequency was also negatively correlated with body mass, suggesting that larger birds may be more sensitive to noise due to the link between body size and vocal frequency. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that acoustic masking by noise may be a strong selective force shaping the ecology of birds worldwide. Larger birds with lower frequency signals may be excluded from noisy areas, whereas smaller species persist via transmission of higher frequency signals. We discuss our findings as they relate to interspecific relationships among body size, vocal amplitude and frequency and suggest that they are immediately relevant to the

  4. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25464696

  5. Evaluation and analysis of noise levels at traffic intersections of Nagpur city, India.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Popat, Rishabh; Pisode, Mayur; Sharma, Asheesh; Manoj, Kumar; Chakrabarti, T; Gupta, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor and assess the noise levels at traffic intersections in Napgur city under heterogenic traffic activities. For this, traffic volume and noise level were measured at intersections on highways, major roads andring road during morning and evening peak hours. Traffic volume was categorized in light, medium and heavy vehicles while noise levels were measured for Lmin, Lmax, Leq , L10 and L90. Equivalent noise was observed in the range of 71.3 to 79.3 dB(A) at the traffic intersections. Due to heterogenic traffic conditions and activities at the intersection like honking, idling, gear noise, bearing noise, breaking noise, tyre-road noise and exhaust noise, no correlation was established between traffic volume and observed noise levels except West High Court road. A strong correlation was found at West High Court road due to controlled traffic flow and less impact of heavy vehicles. Impact of noisy vehicles on general traffic was also assessed at the traffic intersections based on noise pollution levels and traffic noise index. The study suggests that control measures are required at the traffic intersections to minimize noise pollution levels. PMID:25508327

  6. The temporal structure of pollution levels in developed cities.

    PubMed

    Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Ortiz-Caraballo, Carmen; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Currently, the need for mobility can cause significant pollution levels in cities, with important effects on health and quality of life. Any approach to the study of urban pollution and its effects requires an analysis of spatial distribution and temporal variability. It is a crucial dilemma to obtain proven methodologies that allow an increase in the quality of the prediction and the saving of resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. This work proposes a new analytical methodology in the study of temporal structure. As a result, a model for estimating annual levels of urban traffic noise was proposed. The average errors are less than one decibel in all acoustics indicators. A new working methodology of urban noise has begun. Additionally, a general application can be found for the study of the impacts of pollution associated with traffic, with implications for urban design and possibly in economic and sociological aspects. PMID:25710623

  7. Impact of roadside noise barriers on particle size distributions and pollutants concentrations near freeways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhi; Hudda, Neelakshi; Daher, Nancy; Kam, Winnie; Herner, Jorn; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steven; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2010-08-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence has established an association between a host of adverse health effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) and co-pollutants, especially those emitted from motor vehicles. Although PM and their co-pollutants dispersion profiles near the open freeway have been extensively characterized by means of both experimental measurements and numerical simulations in recent years, such investigations near freeways with roadside barriers have not been well documented in the literature. A few previous studies suggested that the presence of roadside structures, such as noise barriers and vegetation, may impact the decay of pollutant concentrations downwind of the freeway by limiting the initial dispersion of traffic emissions and increasing their vertical mixing due to the upward deflection of airflow. Since the noise barriers are now common roadside features of the freeways, particularly those running through populated urban areas, it is pertinent to investigate the impact of their presence on the particles and co-pollutants concentrations in areas adjacent to busy roadways. This study investigated two highly trafficked freeways (I-710 and I-5) in Southern California, with two sampling sites for each freeway, one with and the other without the roadside noise barriers. Particle size distributions and co-pollutants concentrations were measured in the immediate proximity of freeways and at different distances downwind of the freeways. The results showed the formation of a "concentration deficit" zone in the immediate vicinity of the freeway with the presence of roadside noise barrier, followed by a surge of pollutant concentrations further downwind at 80-100 m away from freeway. The particle and co-pollutants concentrations reach background levels at farther distances of 250-400 m compared to 150-200 m at the sites without roadside noise barriers.

  8. Noise Pollution in Intensive Care Units and Emergency Wards

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Gholamreza; Roudi, Masoumeh; Shah Farhat, Ahmad; Shahabian, Masoud

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The improvement of technology has increased noise levels in hospital Wards to higher than international standard levels (35-45 dB). Higher noise levels than the maximum level result in patient’s instability and dissatisfaction. Moreover, it will have serious negative effects on the staff’s health and the quality of their services. The purpose of this survey is to analyze the level of noise in intensive care units and emergency wards of the Imam Reza Teaching Hospital, Mashhad. Procedure: This research was carried out in November 2009 during morning shifts between 7:30 to 12:00. Noise levels were measured 10 times at 30-minute intervals in the nursing stations of 10 wards of the emergency, the intensive care units, and the Nephrology and Kidney Transplant Departments of Imam Reza University Hospital, Mashhad. The noise level in the nursing stations was tested for both the maximum level (Lmax) and the equalizing level (Leq). The research was based on the comparison of equalizing levels (Leq) because maximum levels were unstable. Results: In our survey the average level (Leq) in all wards was much higher than the standard level. The maximum level (Lmax) in most wards was 85-86 dB and just in one measurement in the Internal ICU reached 94 dB. The average level of Leq in all wards was 60.2 dB. In emergency units, it was 62.2 dB, but it was not time related. The highest average level (Leq) was measured at 11:30 AM and the peak was measured in the Nephrology nursing station. Conclusion: The average levels of noise in intensive care units and also emergency wards were more than the standard levels and as it is known these wards have vital roles in treatment procedures, so more attention is needed in this area. PMID:24303374

  9. Ambient noise levels in the Taiwan region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, W.; Liu, C.; Chen, R.; Huang, B.; Wu, F. T.; Wang, C.

    2008-12-01

    To characterize the island-wide background seismic noise in Taiwan, we estimate the power spectral density (PSD) at broadband stations of both the BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) and the TAIGER experiment (Apr. 2006~Apr. 2008) for periods ranging from ~0.2 to 100 seconds. A new approach to calculate the probability density functions of noise power (PDFs, MaNamara and Buland, 2004) is used in this study. The results indicate that the cultural noise at higher frequencies is significant at populated area, which shows diurnal and weekly variation as what we expected. The noise power for microseisms centered at a period of ~5 seconds around the western costal plain show ~20dB higher than what observed at eastern Taiwan. This observation supports the inference that the coastal regions having narrow shelf with irregular coastlines are know to be especially efficient at radiating the predominat microseisms. Results from the linear array across central Taiwan demonstrate that the average noise power is quietest at the eastern Central Range. We have mapped the PDF mode for stations at various periods to see the spatial distribution of ambient noise levels, which could be used as the basic information for future station siting. Temporal variation of noise PSD is also present to provide a quantitative description of the seismic data quality collected by both BATS and TAIGER experiment. Some operational problems like base tilt, sensitivity change can be identified easily as well.

  10. SPEECH LEVELS IN VARIOUS NOISE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine average speech levels used by people when conversing in different levels of background noise. The non-laboratory environments where speech was recorded were: high school classrooms, homes, hospitals, department stores, trains and commercial...

  11. Noise levels associated with urban land use.

    PubMed

    King, Gavin; Roland-Mieszkowski, Marek; Jason, Timothy; Rainham, Daniel G

    2012-12-01

    Recent trends towards the intensification of urban development to increase urban densities and avoid sprawl should be accompanied by research into the potential for related health impacts from environmental exposure. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the built environment and land use on levels of environmental noise. Two different study areas were selected using a combination of small area census geography, land use information, air photography, and ground-truthing. The first study area represented residential land use and consisted of two- to three-story single-family homes. The second study area was characteristic of mixed-use urban planning with apartment buildings as well as commercial and institutional development. Study areas were subdivided into six grids, and a location was randomly selected within each grid for noise monitoring. Each location was sampled four times over a 24-h day, resulting in a total of 24 samples for each of the two areas. Results showed significant variability in noise within study areas and significantly higher levels of environmental noise in the mixed-use area. Both study areas exceeded recommended noise limits when evaluated against World Health Organization guidelines and yielded average noise events values in the moderate to serious annoyance range with the potential to obscure normal conversation and cause sleep disturbance. PMID:22707308

  12. Analysis of noise pollution in an andesite quarry with the use of simulation studies and evaluation indices.

    PubMed

    Kosała, Krzysztof; Stępień, Bartłomiej

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verification of two partial indices proposed for the evaluation of continuous and impulse noise pollution in quarries. These indices, together with the sound power of machines index and the noise hazard index at the workstation, are components of the global index of assessment of noise hazard in the working environment of a quarry. This paper shows the results of acoustic tests carried out in an andesite quarry. Noise generated by machines and from performed blasting works was investigated. On the basis of acoustic measurements carried out in real conditions, the sound power levels of machines and the phenomenon of explosion were determined and, based on the results, three-dimensional models of acoustic noise propagation in the quarry were developed. To assess the degree of noise pollution in the area of the quarry, the continuous and impulse noise indices were used. PMID:26652503

  13. Background noise levels in PC home environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doherty, Rina; Salskov, Eric; Corriveau, Philip J.; Sorenson, Paul; Gabel, Doug; Beltman, Willem M.

    2005-09-01

    A study was designed and conducted to determine the background noise levels in the home environment. This is an important factor in determining the acoustic performance of the computing devices that go into these environments. A specialized methodology was developed and measurements were carried out in homes in the United States, Sweden, Germany, and China. The sound levels in three rooms in 15-18 homes in each country were collected over 24-h periods. The results indicated that the background noise levels ranged between 30 and 40 dBA across the four countries. Variations in the background noise levels between the different rooms in the homes were minimal. No significant variations were found between home types (detached, semi-detached, and apartment) and community types (urban, suburban). However, European homes were quieter than United States and Chinese homes. The variations between countries were statistically significant. In addition to the background noise levels, the acoustical characteristics of the rooms were measured. The results indicated that the reverberation radius was typically below 1 m and was fairly consistent between geographies.

  14. Blood Persistent Organic Pollutants Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the presence of a subset of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the blood of the U.S. population from 1999 to 2002. Some POPs have been linked to adverse health effects such as cancer and nervous system disorders. Three broad classes of POPs are in...

  15. Assessment of noise pollution in and around a sensitive zone in North India and its non-auditory impacts.

    PubMed

    Khaiwal, Ravindra; Singh, Tanbir; Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Mor, Suman; Munjal, Sanjay; Patro, Binod; Panda, Naresh

    2016-10-01

    Noise pollution in hospitals is recognized as a serious health hazard. Considering this, the current study aimed to map the noise pollution levels and to explore the self reported non-auditory effects of noise in a tertiary medical institute. The study was conducted in an 1800-bedded tertiary hospital where 27 sites (outdoor, indoor, road side and residential areas) were monitored for exposure to noise using Sound Level Meter for 24h. A detailed noise survey was also conducted around the sampling sites using a structured questionnaire to understand the opinion of the public regarding the impact of noise on their daily lives. The equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) was found higher than the permissible limits at all the sites both during daytime and night. The maximum equivalent sound pressure level (Lmax) during the day was observed higher (>80dB) at the emergency and around the main entrance of the hospital campus. Almost all the respondents (97%) regarded traffic as the major source of noise. About three-fourths (74%) reported irritation with loud noise whereas 40% of respondents reported headache due to noise. Less than one-third of respondents (29%) reported loss of sleep due to noise and 8% reported hypertension, which could be related to the disturbance caused due to noise. Noise levels in and around the hospital was well above the permissible standards. The recent Global Burden of Disease highlights the increasing risk of non communicable diseases. The non-auditory effects studied in the current work add to the risk factors associated with non communicable diseases. Hence, there is need to address the issue of noise pollution and associated health risks specially for vulnerable population. PMID:27318606

  16. Period analysis at high noise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, G.

    1980-05-01

    Analytical expressions are derived for the variances of three types of periodograms due to normal-distributed noise present in the data: the conventional Fourier spectrum, the method of Warner and Robinson (1972), and Jurkevich's method (1971). The equivalence of the Jurkevich method and that of Warner and Robinson is proved. The optimum phase cell number of the Warner-Robinson method is given; this number depends on the data length, signal form, and noise level. Results are illustrated by the analysis of two typical forms of light curves: an eclipsing type light curve and an RRa curve.

  17. Evaluation of the noise pollution in urban parks of Curitiba, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Andressa C.; Diniz, Fabiano B.; Paz, Elaine C.; Zannin, Paulo T.

    2001-05-01

    This work shows a study about the noise pollution found in six urban parks of Curitiba, Paran, Brazil. The equivalent noise levels (Leq) have been measured in points spread throughout the park, and interviews have been conducted with some park visitors. It has been found out that 52.48% out of the measurement sites did not satisfy the Municipal Law no. 10,625, which states the noise emission level of 55 dB(A) as the limit value for green areas. The results of the questionnaires applied to the local visitors have showed that 39% out of the interviewed people used to visit the park every day and that 75% out of them seek for the realization of a physical activity. During the realization of their activities in the parks, 22% out of the interviewed people pointed to the noise pollution as the source of annoyance and 28% out of them pointed the local security. In this sense, it has been verified that half of the analyzed parks were inserted in acoustically polluted areas, which incurs a real state depreciation in their vicinities.

  18. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  19. Noise pollution and detaining captured persons at sea.

    PubMed

    Nixon, S; Milner, R

    2014-01-01

    During the course of military operations, the UK Armed Forces may have to capture and detain individuals. International law sets down a framework for the minimum basic standards that are applicable in these circumstances, and it is the responsibility of the UK Armed Forces to understand and implement these. This case review looks at a specific example of this issue related to noise pollution and appropriate detention facilities during anti-piracy operations, and how a flexible approach combined with good understanding of the regulations ensured compliance with these basic standards. PMID:25335317

  20. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. PMID:26095869

  1. Annoyance Caused by Noise and Air Pollution during Pregnancy: Associated Factors and Correlation with Outdoor NO2 and Benzene Estimations

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Llop, Sabrina; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Tamayo-Uria, Ibon; Martínez, María Dolores; Foraster, Maria; Ballester, Ferran; Tardón, Adonina

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the degree of annoyance among pregnant women in a Spanish cohort and to examine associations with proximity to traffic, NO2 and benzene exposure. We included 2457 participants from the Spanish Childhood and Environment study. Individual exposures to outdoor NO2 and benzene were estimated, temporally adjusted for pregnancy. Interviews about sociodemographic variables, noise and air pollution were carried out. Levels of annoyance were assessed using a scale from 0 (none) to 10 (strong and unbearable); a level of 8 to 10 was considered high. The reported prevalence of high annoyance levels from air pollution was 11.2% and 15.0% from noise; the two variables were moderately correlated (0.606). Significant correlations between NO2 and annoyance from air pollution (0.154) and that from noise (0.181) were observed. Annoyance owing to noise and air pollution had a low prevalence in our Spanish population compared with other European populations. Both factors were associated with proximity to traffic. In multivariate models, annoyance from air pollution was related to NO2, building age, and country of birth; annoyance from noise was only related to the first two. The health burden of these exposures can be increased by stress caused by the perception of pollution sources. PMID:26095869

  2. Outdoor Noise Pollution Mapping Case Study: A District of Tehran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Karimi, Elham; Nassiri, Parvin; Taghavi, Lobat; Karbalaei, Samaneh

    2014-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the noise levels at different land uses of District 14 in Tehran. For this purpose, a total number of 91 sampling stations were selected. Afterwards, the equivalent sound pressure level in each station was measured at three occasions of morning (7-9 am), noon (12-3 pm), and evening (5-8 pm). Based on the conformability requirement of each land uses, noise levels was divided in three zones wherein the land uses are exposed to different noise levels was estimated. The obtained results indicated that 8.79% of 78 land uses (residential, recreational and medical) in the Zone 1 were exposed to acceptable range of sound pressure level while the rest suffers from unacceptable noise levels. Among 10 land uses of Zone 2 (commercial-residential), 2.19% were within the acceptable range and 8.78% were in unacceptable range. None of the three land uses in Zone 3 were within the acceptable range. Accordingly, the Zone 3 was recognized to be in a critical condition. In other words, about 88.99% of the total and uses in the Zone 3 is exposed to unaccepted able noise level. Comparing with the standard equivalent sound pressure level of 55 dB(A) presented, the residential land use with the equivalent sound pressure level of 19.27 dB(A) accounted for the highest standard deviation. This is due to proximity of most of the residential areas to the crowded highways and streets.

  3. Spatial and temporal associations of road traffic noise and air pollution in London: Implications for epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Hansell, Anna L; Morley, David; Dajnak, David; Vienneau, Danielle; Beevers, Sean; Toledano, Mireille B; Kelly, Frank J; Anderson, H Ross; Gulliver, John

    2016-03-01

    Road traffic gives rise to noise and air pollution exposures, both of which are associated with adverse health effects especially for cardiovascular disease, but mechanisms may differ. Understanding the variability in correlations between these pollutants is essential to understand better their separate and joint effects on human health. We explored associations between modelled noise and air pollutants using different spatial units and area characteristics in London in 2003-2010. We modelled annual average exposures to road traffic noise (LAeq,24h, Lden, LAeq,16h, Lnight) for ~190,000 postcode centroids in London using the UK Calculation of Road Traffic Noise (CRTN) method. We used a dispersion model (KCLurban) to model nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ozone, total and the traffic-only component of particulate matter ≤2.5μm and ≤10μm. We analysed noise and air pollution correlations at the postcode level (~50 people), postcodes stratified by London Boroughs (~240,000 people), neighbourhoods (Lower layer Super Output Areas) (~1600 people), 1km grid squares, air pollution tertiles, 50m, 100m and 200m in distance from major roads and by deprivation tertiles. Across all London postcodes, we observed overall moderate correlations between modelled noise and air pollution that were stable over time (Spearman's rho range: |0.34-0.55|). Correlations, however, varied considerably depending on the spatial unit: largest ranges were seen in neighbourhoods and 1km grid squares (both Spearman's rho range: |0.01-0.87|) and was less for Boroughs (Spearman's rho range: |0.21-0.78|). There was little difference in correlations between exposure tertiles, distance from road or deprivation tertiles. Associations between noise and air pollution at the relevant geographical unit of analysis need to be carefully considered in any epidemiological analysis, in particular in complex urban areas. Low correlations near roads, however, suggest that independent effects of road noise and

  4. Noise Pollution Control System in the Hospital Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa Gallo, LM; Olivera, JM

    2016-04-01

    Problems related to environmental noise are not a new subject, but they became a major issue to solve because of the increasing, in complexity and intensity, of human activities due technological advances. Numerous international studies had dealt with the exposure of critical patients to noisy environment such as the Neonatal Intensive Care Units; their results show that there are difficulties in the organization in the developing brain, it can damage the delicate auditory structures and can cause biorhythm disorders, specially in preterm infants. The objective of this paper is to present the development and implementation of a control system that includes technical-management-training aspects to regulate the levels of specific noise sources in the neonatal hospitalization environment. For this purpose, there were applied different tools like: observations, surveys, procedures, an electronic control device and a training program for a Neonatal Service Unit. As a result, all noise sources were identified -some of them are eliminable-; all the service stable staff categories participated voluntarily; environmental noise measurements yielded values between 62.5 and 64.6 dBA and maximum were between 86.1 and 89.7 dBA; it was designed and installed a noise control device and the staff is being trained in noise reduction best practices.

  5. Industry market research, China: Pollution control-noise pollution. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The market survey covers the noise pollution control equipment and instruments market in China. The analysis contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users; receptivity of Chinese consumers to U.S. products; the competitive situation, and market access (tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes, distribution channels). It also contains key contact information and information on upcoming trade events related to the industry.

  6. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Karen M.K.; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P.M.; Yiu, Edwin M.L.; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers’ vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms. PMID:25599758

  7. Noise levels in an urban Asian school environment.

    PubMed

    Chan, Karen M K; Li, Chi Mei; Ma, Estella P M; Yiu, Edwin M L; McPherson, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    Background noise is known to adversely affect speech perception and speech recognition. High levels of background noise in school classrooms may affect student learning, especially for those pupils who are learning in a second language. The current study aimed to determine the noise level and teacher speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) in Hong Kong classrooms. Noise level was measured in 146 occupied classrooms in 37 schools, including kindergartens, primary schools, secondary schools and special schools, in Hong Kong. The mean noise levels in occupied kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and special school classrooms all exceeded recommended maximum noise levels, and noise reduction measures were seldom used in classrooms. The measured SNRs were not optimal and could have adverse implications for student learning and teachers' vocal health. Schools in urban Asian environments are advised to consider noise reduction measures in classrooms to better comply with recommended maximum noise levels for classrooms. PMID:25599758

  8. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... EMISSION STANDARDS General Provisions § 325.7 Allowable noise levels. Motor vehicle noise emissions,...

  9. Advancing Environmental Noise Pollution Analysis in Urban Areas by Considering the Variation of Population Exposure in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire, S.; Gomes, N.

    2013-05-01

    Ambient noise is a subtle form of pollution in large urban areas, degrading human health and well-being. In Europe, directives require that urban environmental noise be measured and mapped for the main periods of the daily cycle. Subsequent analyses of human exposure to noise in those periods is usually conducted using resident (i.e., nighttime) population from the census and assuming constant densities within the enumeration units. However, population distribution and densities vary considerably from night to day in metropolitan areas, and disregard for that process results in gross misestimation of exposure to ambient noise in the daytime period. This study considers the spatio-temporal variation of population distribution in assessing exposure to ambient noise in a major urban area, the city of Lisbon, Portugal. Detailed and compatible day- and nighttime population distribution maps were used, developed by means of "intelligent dasymetric mapping". After categorizing noise levels in existing maps in each period, classified according to current legislation, human exposure to ambient noise was assessed with temporally matching population surfaces. Population exposure to noise in 2000 and 2009 was compared and further analyzed in regards to main source of noise, i.e. road traffic vs. aircraft.. Results show that human exposure to noise shifts substantially in time and space, with a significant increase in exposed population from the nighttime to daytime period, especially in the higher noise levels. This is due to the combined effects of the daily variation of noise patterns and population distribution.

  10. Calcutta metro: is it safe from noise pollution hazards?

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Bandyopadhyay, P; Kashyap, S K

    1996-01-01

    A modest assessment of noise was made in Calcutta Metro, India's first ever underground tube rail system, to examine if the range of noise levels present could endanger the hearing sensitivity of workers for the Metro. Sound measuring instruments of a sound level meter, an octave band analyzer, and a sound level calibrator were used for measuring the sound pressure levels in platforms of three stations: Esplanade, Kalighat and Tollygunge. The results indicated that the averaged A-weighted SPLs in these stations were in the range of 84-87 dBA. In the coaches of the moving train the Leq values ranged 92-99 dBA and LNP 105-117 dBA, all exceeding the safe limit of day time noise exposure of 55 dBA and 85 dBA of ACGIH. The SPLs at 4,000 Hz in the coaches were also in excess of safe exposure limit of 79 dB. The findings thus posed a potential threat to the workers. PMID:8707621

  11. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  12. The Interdisciplinary Course in the Legal Aspects of Noise Pollution at Columbia University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Cyril M.; Rosenthal, Albert J.

    1981-01-01

    A course in the legal aspects of noise pollution, cross-listed for students in Columbia University's Law and Engineering Schools, is described. Although noise is used as the major source of environmental pollution in this course, the principles and methodology discussed apply to other forms of environmental law. (MLW)

  13. Urban noise pollution. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of noise in the urban environment. Topics include noise pollution from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban noise are discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. The spatial relationship between traffic-generated air pollution and noise in 2 US cities☆

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ryan W.; Davies, Hugh; Cohen, Martin A.; Mallach, Gary; Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.

    2011-01-01

    Traffic-generated air pollution and noise have both been linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Since traffic is a shared source, there is potential for correlated exposures that may lead to confounding in epidemiologic studies. As part of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), 2-week NO and NO2 concentrations were measured at up to 105 locations, selected primarily to characterize gradients near major roads, in each of 9 US communities. We measured 5-min A-weighted equivalent continuous sound pressure levels (Leq) and ultrafine particle (UFP) counts at a subset of these NO/NO2 monitoring locations in Chicago, IL (N = 69 in December 2006; N = 36 in April 2007) and Riverside County, CA (N = 46 in April 2007). Leq and UFP were measured during non-“rush hour” periods (10:00–16:00) to maximize comparability between measurements. We evaluated roadway proximity exposure surrogates in relation to the measured levels, estimated noise–air pollution correlation coefficients, and evaluated the impact of regional-scale pollution gradients, wind direction, and roadway proximity on the correlations. Five-minute Leq measurements in December 2006 and April 2007 were highly correlated (r = 0.84), and measurements made at different times of day were similar (coefficients of variation: 0.5–13%), indicating that 5-min measurements are representative of long-term Leq. Binary and continuous roadway proximity metrics characterized Leq as well or better than NO or NO2. We found strong regional-scale gradients in NO and NO2, particularly in Chicago, but only weak regional-scale gradients in Leq and UFP. Leq was most consistently correlated with NO, but the correlations were moderate (0.20–0.60). After removing the influence of regional-scale gradients the correlations generally increased (Leq–NO: r = 0.49–0.62), and correlations downwind of major roads (Leq–NO: r = 0.53–0.74) were consistently higher than those upwind (0.35–0.65). There

  15. Proximity to Traffic, Ambient Air Pollution, and Community Noise in Relation to Incident Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Koehoorn, Mieke; Tamburic, Lillian; Davies, Hugh W.; Brauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been associated with living near traffic; however, there is evidence suggesting that air pollution may not be responsible for this association. Noise, another traffic-generated exposure, has not been studied as a risk factor for RA. Objectives: We investigated proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community noise in relation to RA in the Vancouver and Victoria regions of British Columbia, Canada. Methods: Cases and controls were identified in a cohort of adults that was assembled using health insurance registration records. Incident RA cases from 1999 through 2002 were identified by diagnostic codes in combination with prescriptions and type of physician (e.g., rheumatologist). Controls were matched to RA cases by age and sex. Environmental exposures were assigned to each member of the study population by their residential postal code(s). We estimated relative risks using conditional logistic regression, with additional adjustment for median income at the postal code. Results: RA incidence was increased with proximity to traffic, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.37 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.68) for residence ≤ 50 m from a highway compared with residence > 150 m away. We found no association with traffic-related exposures such as PM2.5, nitrogen oxides, or noise. Ground-level ozone, which was highest in suburban areas, was associated with an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.18, 1.36 per interquartile range increase). Conclusions: Our study confirms a previously observed association of RA risk with proximity to traffic and suggests that neither noise levels nor traffic-related air pollutants are responsible for this relationship. Additional investigation of neighborhood and individual correlates of residence near roadways may provide new insight into risk factors for RA. Citation: De Roos AJ, Koehoorn M, Tamburic L, Davies HW, Brauer M. 2014. Proximity to traffic, ambient air pollution, and community

  16. Studies on assessment of traffic noise level in Aurangabad city, India.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, B J; Late, Amul; Nalawade, P M; Chavan, S P; Mule, M B

    2010-01-01

    With the rapid rate of urbanization of Aurangabad city due to the expanding industrialization, the problem of noise pollution has become a concern for urban dwellers and government authority too. Noise pollution due to vehicular traffic is one of the growing environmental problems of urban centers. The study deals with the assessment of traffic noise levels in Aurangabad city. With respect to the total number of vehicles passing the road in unit time, which was surveyed by direct count method, six different sites from Aurangabad city, viz., Nagar Naka, Kranti Chowk, CIDCO bus stand, Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump were selected to study the vehicular noise level. Noise measurements were carried out at these six locations on both working day and holiday during the peak traffic hours, i.e. 8:00 a.m. - 11:a.m., 1:00 p.m. - 4:00 p.m. and 5:00 p.m. - 8:00 p.m., in the morning, afternoon and evening sessions, respectively, after 5 minutes time interval. The noise level was monitored using noise level meter. The results obtained from this investigation showed that the Nagar Naka, Kranti chowk and CIDCO bus stand area have dense traffic zones when compared with the Railway station area, Dhoot Hospital and Baba petrol pump. The minimum and the maximum noise levels are 74 and 86 dB, respectively, on working day and 70 and 81 dB, respectively, on holiday. The measured noise level values exceed the prescribed noise level. PMID:20603577

  17. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  18. Analysis of Sampling Methodologies for Noise Pollution Assessment and the Impact on the Population

    PubMed Central

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Today, noise pollution is an increasing environmental stressor. Noise maps are recognised as the main tool for assessing and managing environmental noise, but their accuracy largely depends on the sampling method used. The sampling methods most commonly used by different researchers (grid, legislative road types and categorisation methods) were analysed and compared using the city of Talca (Chile) as a test case. The results show that the stratification of sound values in road categories has a significantly lower prediction error and a higher capacity for discrimination and prediction than in the legislative road types used by the Ministry of Transport and Telecommunications in Chile. Also, the use of one or another method implies significant differences in the assessment of population exposure to noise pollution. Thus, the selection of a suitable method for performing noise maps through measurements is essential to achieve an accurate assessment of the impact of noise pollution on the population. PMID:27187429

  19. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-07-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  20. Ambient noise levels and detection threshold in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demuth, Andrea; Ottemöller, Lars; Keers, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Ambient seismic noise is caused by a number of sources in specific frequency bands. The quantification of ambient noise makes it possible to evaluate station and network performance. We evaluate noise levels in Norway from the 2013 data set of the Norwegian National Seismic Network as well as two temporary deployments. Apart from the station performance, we studied the geographical and temporal variations, and developed a local noise model for Norway. The microseism peaks related to the ocean are significant in Norway. We, therefore, investigated the relationship between oceanic weather conditions and noise levels. We find a correlation of low-frequency noise (0.125-0.25 Hz) with wave heights up to 900 km offshore. High (2-10 Hz) and intermediate (0.5-5 Hz) frequency noise correlates only up to 450 km offshore with wave heights. From a geographic perspective, stations in southern Norway show lower noise levels for low frequencies due to a larger distance to the dominant noise sources in the North Atlantic. Finally, we studied the influence of high-frequency noise levels on earthquake detectability and found that a noise level increase of 10 dB decreases the detectability by 0.5 magnitude units. This method provides a practical way to consider noise variations in detection maps.

  1. Noise level and MPEG-2 encoder statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jungwoo

    1997-01-01

    Most software in the movie and broadcasting industries are still in analog film or tape format, which typically contains random noise that originated from film, CCD camera, and tape recording. The performance of the MPEG-2 encoder may be significantly degraded by the noise. It is also affected by the scene type that includes spatial and temporal activity. The statistical property of noise originating from camera and tape player is analyzed and the models for the two types of noise are developed. The relationship between the noise, the scene type, and encoder statistics of a number of MPEG-2 parameters such as motion vector magnitude, prediction error, and quant scale are discussed. This analysis is intended to be a tool for designing robust MPEG encoding algorithms such as preprocessing and rate control.

  2. A vision of the environmental and occupational noise pollution in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Foo Keng

    2014-01-01

    Environmental noise remains a complex and fragmented interplay between industrialization, population growth, technological developments, and the living environment. Next to the circulatory diseases and cancer, noise pollution has been cited as the third epidemic cause of psychological and physiological disorders internationally. A reliable and firm relationship between the cumulative health implications with the traffic annoyance and occupational noise has been established. This agenda has called for an integrated, coordinated, and participatory approach to the reliable protection of noise interference. Despite several fragmented policies, legislation and global efforts have been addressed; the noise pollution complaints have been traditionally neglected in developing countries, especially in Malaysia. This paper was undertaken to postulate an initial platform to address the dynamic pressures, gigantic challenges, and tremendous impacts of noise pollution scenario in Malaysia. The emphasis is speculated on the traffic interference and assessment of industrial and occupational noise. The fundamental importance of noise monitoring and modeling is proposed. Additionally, the confronting conservation program and control measure for noise pollution control are laconically elucidated. PMID:25387540

  3. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution. PMID:27493778

  4. Anthropogenic noise, but not artificial light levels predicts song behaviour in an equatorial bird.

    PubMed

    Dorado-Correa, Adriana M; Rodríguez-Rocha, Manuel; Brumm, Henrik

    2016-07-01

    Birds in cities start singing earlier in the morning than in rural areas; commonly this shift is attributed to light pollution. Some studies have suggested that traffic noise has a stronger influence on singing activity than artificial light does. Changes in the timing of singing behaviour in relation to noise and light pollution have only been investigated in the temperate zones. Tropical birds, however, experience little seasonal variation in day length and may be less dependent on light intensity as a modifier for reproductive behaviours such as song. To test whether noise or light pollution has a stronger impact on the dawn chorus of a tropical bird, we investigated the singing behaviour of rufous-collared sparrows (Zonotrichia capensis) in Bogota, Colombia at two times during the year. We found that birds in places with high noise levels started to sing earlier. Light pollution did not have a significant effect. Birds may begin to sing earlier in noisy areas to avoid acoustic masking by traffic later in the morning. Our results also suggest that some tropical birds may be less sensitive to variations in day length and thus less sensitive to light pollution. PMID:27493778

  5. Study of noise pollution for three consecutive years during Deepawali festival in Meerut City, Uttar Pradesh (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Digvijay; Joshi, B D

    2012-07-01

    The present paper deals with monitoring of noise pollution at different places of Meerut City (India) on the night of Deepawali festival. During the present study the noise levels were measured with the help of sound meter. The noise pollution is decreasing considerably for the last three years and it is recorded minimum in 2009 as compared to 2008 and 2007. The main reason of this decrement is the growing environmental awareness in the people of Meerut City. Needless to say, students of most of the school in Meerut City now prefer to celebrate Deepawali, festival of lights without sound and smoke. The campaign for eco-friendly Deepawali is expected to catch on with people in Meerut City which has already demonstrated its commitment towards environment conservation. Mainly fire crackers are used during Deepawali. The present paper is an attempt to create awareness among the people of Meerut City about the bitter truth of fire crackers. PMID:24749202

  6. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2015-10-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  7. Noise Effects on Health in the Context of Air Pollution Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    For public health policy and planning it is important to understand the relative contribution of environmental noise on health compared to other environmental stressors. Air pollution is the primary environmental stressor in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This paper reports a narrative review of studies in which the associations of both environmental noise and air pollution with health have been examined. Studies of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, mortality and cognitive outcomes were included. Results suggest independent effects of environmental noise from road traffic, aircraft and, with fewer studies, railway noise on cardiovascular outcomes after adjustment for air pollution. Comparative burden of disease studies demonstrate that air pollution is the primary environmental cause of disability adjusted life years lost (DALYs). Environmental noise is ranked second in terms of DALYs in Europe and the DALYs attributed to noise were more than those attributed to lead, ozone and dioxins. In conclusion, in planning and health impact assessment environmental noise should be considered an independent contributor to health risk which has a separate and substantial role in ill-health separate to that of air pollution. PMID:26473905

  8. Plumbing noise: Pressure levels and perception in a luxury condominium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watry, Derek

    2005-09-01

    A consulting project has recently been completed that addressed a number of noise concerns in a 9-unit, 20-year-old luxury condominium building in the San Francisco Bay Area. Among other tasks, the noise levels of four bathroom plumbing functions (flushing, showering, bath filling, bath draining) were measured in adjoining units and an inventory of noise concerns was collected. This paper reports the measured noise levels (nearly a 20-dBA range for every function!) and looks at the corresponding resident assessments not always clearly correlated with sound-pressure level.

  9. Noise exposure level while operating electronic arcade games as a leisure time activity.

    PubMed

    Mirbod, S M; Inaba, R; Yoshida, H; Nagata, C; Komura, Y; Iwata, H

    1992-01-01

    In order to study noise levels associated with electronic arcade games, noise measurements were made in 3 selected game centers and 192 samples were taken in each location. The background noise was recorded at a level of 61 dB(A) and 64 dB(C). When the electronic games were performed these levels of noise reached to 88 approximately 90 dB(A). The 1/3 octave bands analyzing sound pressure levels showed that more intense noise levels arose in a frequency range between 0.5 and 2.0 kHz. The computed values for noise pollution levels (LNP) and L90 (fast response A-weighted sound level exceeded 90% of the measurement time) ranged from 93.3 to 96.6 and from 85.1 to 87.3 dB(A), respectively. Concerning our results and according to Melnic (1979), it was estimated that these levels of noise might cause 4-8 dB temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4.0 kHz in an individual with less than one hour of exposure to such a level of noise. As for the employees of the 3 game centers, the 8-hr equivalent continuous sound levels (Leq,8) were in the range of 80.3 approximately 87.5 dB(A), although their exposure time could not be exactly determined. It was suggested that: 1) The maximum levels should be limited to a reasonable level, either by the manufacturers or by the game center owners; 2) Education programs in industry should inform the employees about other factors outside the work that may affect their hearing; and 3) For policy-making on hearing conservation, recreational warning and standards should be established. PMID:1490870

  10. Pilot Survey of Subway and Bus Stop Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, Richard; Barrera, Marissa A.; Akram, Muhammad

    2006-01-01

    Excessive noise exposure is a serious global urban health problem, adversely affecting millions of people. One often cited source of urban noise is mass transit, particularly subway systems. As a first step in determining risk within this context, we recently conducted an environmental survey of noise levels of the New York City transit system. Over 90 noise measurements were made using a sound level meter. Average and maximum noise levels were measured on subway platforms, and maximum levels were measured inside subway cars and at several bus stops for comparison purposes. The average noise level measured on the subway platforms was 86 ± 4 dBA (decibel-A weighting). Maximum levels of 106, 112, and 89 dBA were measured on subway platforms, inside subway cars, and at bus stops, respectively. These results indicate that noise levels in subway and bus stop environments have the potential to exceed recommended exposure guidelines from the World Health Organization (WHO) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), given sufficient exposure duration. Risk reduction strategies following the standard hierarchy of control measures should be applied, where feasible, to reduce subway noise exposure. PMID:16802179

  11. Effects of low levels of road traffic noise during the night: a laboratory study on number of events, maximum noise levels and noise sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öhrström, E.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the laboratory study presented here was to elucidate the importance of the number of noise events of a relatively low maximum noise level for sleep disturbance effects (body movements, subjective sleep quality, mood and performance). Twelve test persons slept eight nights under home-like laboratory settings. During four of these nights, each test person was exposed to 16, 32, 64 and 128 noise events respectively from recorded road traffic noise at a maximum noise level of 45 dB(A). All test persons (aged 20-42 years) considered themselves rather or very sensitive towards noise. The results show a significant decrease in subjective sleep quality at 32 noise events per night. At 64 noise events, 50% of the test persons experienced difficulties in falling asleep and, as compared with quiet nights, the time required to fall asleep was on average 12 minutes longer. The occurrence of body movements was significantly related to the reported number of awakenings, and the number of body movements was three times higher during the noisy periods of the night as compared with the quiet periods, indicating acute noise effects. The results of a vigilance test indicate that noise during the night might prolong the time needed to solve the test. Finally, and regardless of number of noise events, a significant increase in tiredness during the day was found after nights with noise exposure. In the paper comparisons are also made with earlier experiments using maximum noise levels of 50 and 60 dB(A).

  12. Standards against noise pollution: the case of Shinkansen trains in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, S.; Von Winterfeldt, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper analyzes the noise pollution problem of high-speed trains (Shinkansens) in Japan. A decision analytic approach is used to structure the problem and to identify sources of conflict among the actors involved in railway noise standard setting. The Shinkansen noise pollution problem is characterized by the inherent inequity of the risk-benefit distribution resulting from the train operations. While the benefits of high-speed transportation are shared by many travellers, the burden of the noise impact is carried by relatively few residents. This conflict is institutionally expressed in the opposing values of the Japanese National Railway and the Nagoya Association against Shinkansen Pollution. In attempting to resolve the conflict, the Environment Agency of Japan set noise pollution standards of 70-75 dB(A). The Japanese National Railway argued for less stringent standards because of economic, speed, and service objectives. Resident organizations, in contrast, requested more stringent standards because of psychological and health impacts. However, both arguments appear to have influenced the final standard only indirectly. Instead, standards were set mainly on the basis of noise-complaint relationships and on the basis of consistency with existing noise standards.

  13. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  14. Associations between Traffic Noise, Particulate Air Pollution, Hypertension, and Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Adults: The KORA Study

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kathrin; Petz, Markus; Heinrich, Joachim; Cyrys, Josef; Peters, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between traffic noise and cardiovascular diseases have rarely considered air pollution as a covariate in the analyses. Isolated systolic hypertension has not yet been in the focus of epidemiological noise research. Methods: The association between traffic noise (road and rail) and the prevalence of hypertension was assessed in two study populations with a total of 4,166 participants 25–74 years of age. Traffic noise (weighted day–night average noise level; LDN) at the facade of the dwellings was derived from noise maps. Annual average PM2.5 mass concentrations at residential addresses were estimated by land-use regression. Hypertension was assessed by blood pressure readings, self-reported doctor-diagnosed hypertension, and antihypertensive drug intake. Results: In the Greater Augsburg, Germany, study population, traffic noise and air pollution were not associated with hypertension. In the City of Augsburg population (n = 1,893), where the exposure assessment was more detailed, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for a 10-dB(A) increase in noise was 1.16 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.35), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.30) after additional adjustment for PM2.5. The adjusted OR for a 1-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.30), and 1.11 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.27) after additional adjustment for noise. For isolated systolic hypertension, the fully adjusted OR for noise was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.86) and for PM2.5 was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.87, 1.34). Conclusions: Traffic noise and PM2.5 were both associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension. Mutually adjusted associations with hypertension were positive but no longer statistically significant. Citation: Babisch W, Wolf K, Petz M, Heinrich J, Cyrys J, Peters A. 2014. Associations between traffic noise, particulate air pollution, hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension in adults: the KORA Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:492–498; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306981 PMID:24602804

  15. Assessment of traffic noise pollution from 1989 to 2003 in Lanzhou City.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoxia; Tian, Yujun; Ju, Tianzhen; Ren, Zhengwu

    2006-12-01

    On the basis of the continuous traffic noise data observed at 142 sites distributed in 52 roads from 1989 to 2003, the characteristics of traffic noise and effect factors were analyzed through traffic noise indices, such as Lep, L10, L50, L90, TNI, and Pn. Our findings allow us to reach a number of conclusions as follows: Firstly, traffic noise pollution was serious, and its fluctuant characteristic was obvious, resulting in a great intrusion to public in Lanzhou City during last 15 years. Secondly, traffic noise made a distinction between trunk lines and secondary lines, west-east direction roads and north-south direction roads. Thirdly, spatial character and time rule of traffic noise were obvious. In addition, traffic volume, traffic composition, road condition, and traffic management were identified as the key factors influencing traffic noise in this city. PMID:17036256

  16. Relationship between Aircraft Noise Contour Area and Noise Levels at Certification Points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.

    2003-01-01

    The use of sound exposure level contour area reduction has been proposed as an alternative or supplemental metric of progress and success for the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program, which currently uses the average of predicted noise reductions at three community locations. As the program has expanded to include reductions in airframe noise as well as reduction due to optimization of operating procedures for lower noise, there is concern that the three-point methodology may not represent a fair measure of benefit to airport communities. This paper addresses several topics related to this proposal: (1) an analytical basis for a relationship between certification noise levels and noise contour areas for departure operations is developed, (2) the relationship between predicted noise contour area and the noise levels measured or predicted at the certification measurement points is examined for a wide range of commercial and business aircraft, and (3) reductions in contour area for low-noise approach scenarios are predicted and equivalent reductions in source noise are determined.

  17. Energy and Environment 1990: Transportation-induced noise and air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Contents: public reaction to low levels of aircraft noise; airport noise insulation of homes surrounding stapleton international airport; sound insulation and thermal performance modifications: case study for three dwellings near bwi airport; single-number ratings for outdoor-indoor sound insulation; control of wheel squeal noise in rail transit cars; knowledge-based preprocessor for traffic noise prediction; barrier overlap analysis procedure; atmospheric effects on traffic noise propagation; predicting stop-and-go traffic noise with stamina 2.0; feasibility of transparent noise barriers; field testing of the effectiveness of open-graded asphalt pavement in reducing tire noise from highway vehicles; cost of noise barrier construction in the united states; comparisons of emissions of transit buses using methanol and diesel fuel; high-speed rail system noise assessment; energy-related, environmental, and economic benefits of florida's high-speed rail and maglev systems proposals.

  18. Reduction of classroom noise levels using group contingencies.

    PubMed

    Ring, Brandon M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Eubanks, Sean L; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated noise standards. Participants received real-time graphed feedback of noise levels and had the opportunity to earn monetary group reinforcement for maintaining a low number of noise violations. Results suggested that feedback and monetary reinforcement reduced the number of noise violations. PMID:25175843

  19. Effects of propeller rotation direction on airplane interior noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.; Daniels, E. F.

    1985-01-01

    Interior noise measurements for upsweeping and downsweeping movement of the propeller blade tips past the fuselage were made on a twin-engine airplane and on two simplified fuselage models. Changes in interior noise levels of as much as 8 dB reversal of propeller rotation direction were measured for some configurations and test conditions.

  20. Noise Levels Associated With New York City's Mass Transit Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Robyn R. M.; Zeltser, Marina; Canton, Allison; Akram, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We measured noise levels associated with various forms of mass transit and compared them to exposure guidelines designed to protect against noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. We used noise dosimetry to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of New York City mass transit systems (subways, buses, ferries, tramway, and commuter railways) aboard transit vehicles and at vehicle boarding platforms or terminals during June and July 2007. Results. Of the transit types evaluated, subway cars and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous average (Leq) and maximum noise levels. All transit types had Leq levels appreciably above 70 A-weighted decibels, the threshold at which noise-induced hearing loss is considered possible. Conclusions. Mass transit noise exposure has the potential to exceed limits recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency and thus cause noise-induced hearing loss among riders of all forms of mass transit given sufficient exposure durations. Environmental noise–control efforts in mass transit and, in cases in which controls are infeasible, the use of personal hearing protection would benefit the ridership's hearing health. PMID:19542046

  1. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Allowable noise levels. 325.7 Section 325.7... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GENERAL REGULATIONS COMPLIANCE WITH INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER...

  2. Noise levels near streets, effectiveness and cost abatement measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, J.

    1980-01-01

    During the years 1975-1978, research was carried concerning the current noise levels near streets, the annoyance felt by the population, possible noise abatement measures for these streets, and the economic impact of such measures. The results of the research are summarized.

  3. On the Noise Level of the Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation Function and Its Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y. N.; Gung, Y.; Chiao, L. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Retrieving the Empirical Green's function (EGF) between two receivers by cross-correlating continuous records is now a well-recognized technique and the derived EGFs have been applied to various fields in seismology. However, little attention has been given to a more quantitative description on the noise behavior of the noise-derived cross-correlation functions (CCF), for its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be improved easily by increasing the total correlation time. In our early work, using data recorded from Taiwan and Korea, we have designed a procedure to quantify the noises within the noise-derived CCFs and their spatial/directional properties. Because the effective amplitudes and the noise levels of CCFs are closely related to the distribution of the ambient sources and the population of the uncorrelated noises, respectively, here we move forward to further investigate the source mechanisms of the ambient noises by using their distinctive sensitivities to the surrounding sources. It is known that the short period (3~5 seconds) secondary microseisms (SPSM) are much more active in Taiwan Straight and such asymmetric energy excitations are well demonstrated in the amplitude asymmetry of CCFs. Interestingly, we find that, there is nearly no directional dependence of the noise levels of CCFs, namely, the effects of uncorrelated sources in the CCFs are essentially isotropic. With the same data set, we also investigate the excitation mechanisms of (1) the intermediate period (7-9 seconds) microseisms, which are one of the spectral peaks in the ambient noises, and (2) the coda train in the noise-derived CCFs. Based upon our analysis, we argue that (1) the 7~9 period ambient noises are contributed mainly by the near-coast primary microseisms rather than the far-field long period secondary microseisms, and (2) instead of the distant ocean waves, local scatter effects are the major sources of the CCF coda train.

  4. The effect of exhaust gas recirculation on the combustion noise level of an indirect injection diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, C.E.; Reader, G.T.; Potter, I.J.

    1997-12-31

    A pollutant that has not yet received as much public or regulatory attention as gaseous or solid particulate emissions is engine generated noise. Excessive levels of noise can, however, be as harmful to human health and the environment as noxious gases. In a well-designed engine, mechanical noise can be kept to a minimum but the combustion process itself still generates noise, combustion noise. Thus, if the combustion process is modified for exhaust emission control it can be expected that the level of noise generated by combustion will also be affected, albeit not necessarily adversely. As exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is becoming an essential technology for NOx emission control in diesel engines, and, as this technique modifies the combustion process, it is important that the effects of using EGR on noise generation be identified.

  5. Noise pollution in metalwork and woodwork industries in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Noweir, Madbuli H; Bafail, Abdullah O; Jomoah, Ibrahim M

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in metalwork and woodwork industries in Jeddah Industrial Estate. The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of industrial noise exposure and to propose remedial actions. Noise was measured at different times of a day in 28 randomly selected factories and workshops. Results indicated that noise levels varied according to the type and size of a factory, and the type and number of machines used. Mean noise levels in metalwork factories were higher than those in woodwork factories. The highest noise levels were observed while manufacturing cans and forming steel reinforcement for concrete, where noise levels exceed 90 dB(A). All mean noise levels in all studied metalwork factories and in 50% of studied woodwork industries were higher than the standard level of 85 dB(A). PMID:25513801

  6. Behavioural and biochemical stress responses of Palinurus elephas after exposure to boat noise pollution in tank.

    PubMed

    Filiciotto, Francesco; Vazzana, Mirella; Celi, Monica; Maccarrone, Vincenzo; Ceraulo, Maria; Buffa, Gaspare; Di Stefano, Vincenzo; Mazzola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa

    2014-07-15

    This study examined the effects of boat noise on the behavioural and biochemical parameters of the Mediterranean spiny lobster (Palinurus elephas). The experiment was conducted in a tank equipped with a video and audio recording system. 18 experimental trials, assigned to boat noise and control conditions, were performed using lobsters in single and group of 4 specimens. After a 1h habituation period, we audio- and video-recorded the lobsters for 1h. During the experimental phase, the animals assigned to the boat groups were exposed to boat noise pollution (a random sequence of boat noises). Exposure to the noise produced significant variations in locomotor behaviours and haemolymphatic parameters. Our results indicate that the lobsters exposed to boat noises increased significantly their locomotor activities and haemolymphatic bioindicator of stressful conditions such as glucose, total proteins, Hsp70 expression and THC when tested both singly and in groups. PMID:24910186

  7. Level Changes of Traffic Noise in Kerman City, Southeast Iran

    PubMed Central

    Malakootian, M; Ahmadian, M; Yaghmaeian, K; Dowlatshahi, Sh; Ravandi, MR Ghotbi

    2012-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to determine the traffic noise level and changes in the Kerman City, southeast Iran in recent years. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 to investigate the existing noise situation in Kerman. Sound levels (LMax, LMin, Leq, L99, L90, L50 and L10) were determined throughout 13 stations using sound level measurement system (model, CEL-440). Number of passing vehicles was also assessed at the sampled stations. Results: Sound level in all sampled stations was higher than Iran and World Health Organization guidelines. Comparison of Leq in different hours using statistical tests showed significant difference between different hours with 95 % confidence coefficient (P=0.01). Comparison of Leq throughout the week also showed that there was a significant difference (P=0.001) between Friday and workday. The comparison of Leq with the number of passing vehicles using Pearson correlation statistical test showed significant difference between the number of heavy vehicles passed and the level of Leq (P=0.001). It also showed that number of heavy vehicles caused the most noise levels. Conclusion: The results of this study compared to a similar study conducted in 1999 showed an increasingly high noise level. Noise level increased from 1999 to 2008 by 3.89 % which is indicative of an increase in noise emission sources. PMID:23113129

  8. Noise levels from a model turbofan engine with simulated noise control measures applied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, David G.; Woodward, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A study of estimated full-scale noise levels based on measured levels from the Advanced Ducted Propeller (ADP) sub-scale model is presented. Testing of this model was performed in the NASA Lewis Low Speed Anechoic Wind Tunnel at a simulated takeoff condition of Mach 0.2. Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) estimates for the baseline configuration are documented, and also used as the control case in a study of the potential benefits of two categories of noise control. The effect of active noise control is evaluated by artificially removing various rotor-stator interaction tones. Passive noise control is simulated by applying a notch filter to the wind tunnel data. Cases with both techniques are included to evaluate hybrid active-passive noise control. The results for EPNL values are approximate because the original source data was limited in bandwidth and in sideline angular coverage. The main emphasis is on comparisons between the baseline and configurations with simulated noise control measures.

  9. A study of interior noise levels, noise sources and transmission paths in light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    The interior noise levels and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal noise levels and identify principal noise sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source levels and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for noise control design are analyzed.

  10. A study of interior noise levels, noise sources and transmission paths in light aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, R. E.; Murray, B. S.; Theobald, M. A.

    1983-07-01

    The interior noise levels and spectral characteristics of 18 single-and twin-engine propeller-driven light aircraft, and source-path diagnosis of a single-engine aircraft which was considered representative of a large part of the fleet were studied. The purpose of the flight surveys was to measure internal noise levels and identify principal noise sources and paths under a carefully controlled and standardized set of flight procedures. The diagnostic tests consisted of flights and ground tests in which various parts of the aircraft, such as engine mounts, the engine compartment, exhaust pipe, individual panels, and the wing strut were instrumented to determine source levels and transmission path strengths using the transfer function technique. Predominant source and path combinations are identified. Experimental techniques are described. Data, transfer function calculations to derive source-path contributions to the cabin acoustic environment, and implications of the findings for noise control design are analyzed.

  11. Interior noise levels of two propeller-driven light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Mayes, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between aircraft operating conditions and interior noise and the degree to which ground testing can be used in lieu of flight testing for performing interior noise research were studied. The results show that the noise inside light aircraft is strongly influenced by the rotational speed of the engine and propeller. Both the overall noise and low frequency spectra levels were observed to decrease with increasing high speed rpm operations during flight. This phenomenon and its significance is not presently understood. Comparison of spectra obtained in flight with spectra obtained on the ground suggests that identification of frequency components and relative amplitude of propeller and engine noise sources may be evaluated on stationary aircraft.

  12. Aircraft noise in the region of the Bucharest-Otopeni Airport. [noise pollution in airport environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costescu, M.; Gherghel, C.; Curtoglu, A.

    1974-01-01

    Aircraft noise, especially in the region adjoining airports, constitutes a problem that will be aggravated in the near future because of increasing aircraft traffic and the appearance of new types of large tonnage aircraft with continuously increasing powers and speeds. Criteria for the evaluation of aircraft noise are reported and some results of studies carried out in the region of Bucharest-Otopeni Airport are detailed.

  13. Does traffic-related air pollution explain associations of aircraft and road traffic noise exposure on children's health and cognition? A secondary analysis of the United Kingdom sample from the RANCH project.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A

    2012-08-15

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001-2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9-10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  14. Does Traffic-related Air Pollution Explain Associations of Aircraft and Road Traffic Noise Exposure on Children's Health and Cognition? A Secondary Analysis of the United Kingdom Sample From the RANCH Project

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Charlotte; Crombie, Rosanna; Head, Jenny; van Kamp, Irene; van Kempen, Elise; Stansfeld, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether air pollution at school (nitrogen dioxide) is associated with poorer child cognition and health and whether adjustment for air pollution explains or moderates previously observed associations between aircraft and road traffic noise at school and children's cognition in the 2001–2003 Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) project. This secondary analysis of a subsample of the United Kingdom RANCH sample examined 719 children who were 9–10 years of age from 22 schools around London's Heathrow airport for whom air pollution data were available. Data were analyzed using multilevel modeling. Air pollution exposure levels at school were moderate, were not associated with a range of cognitive and health outcomes, and did not account for or moderate associations between noise exposure and cognition. Aircraft noise exposure at school was significantly associated with poorer recognition memory and conceptual recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Aircraft noise exposure was also associated with poorer reading comprehension and information recall memory after adjustment for nitrogen dioxide levels. Road traffic noise was not associated with cognition or health before or after adjustment for air pollution. Moderate levels of air pollution do not appear to confound associations of noise on cognition and health, but further studies of higher air pollution levels are needed. PMID:22842719

  15. Particle pollution: current levels and recent improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Schmidt

    2006-04-15

    US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality data for 2002-2004 indicate that a number of areas in the United States that meet the current fine particle (PM2.5) standards would exceed the proposed 24-hr level (35 {mu}g/m{sub 3} if that standard was in place today. However, PM2.5 concentrations have been steadily declining, and new national and regional control programs designed to reduce the concentrations even further are being implemented. Coarse particle concentrations also appear to have declined in recent years. Based on 2002-2004 estimates of PM10-2.5 concentrations, it appears that most areas of the country currently would meet the proposed PM10-2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAWS). This article presents a summary report on air quality status and trends for fine - PM2.5 and 'thoracic coarse' PM10-2.5 particle pollution. It focuses on comparisons with the current NAAQS and revisions to those standards proposed by PEA in December 2005. 2 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John

    2012-10-01

    Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575

  17. Noise exposure levels in stock car auto racing.

    PubMed

    Rose, Austin S; Ebert, Charles S; Prazma, Jiri; Pillsbury, Harold C

    2008-12-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss associated with the workplace has been well described. Far less is known, however, about the risks to hearing from recreational sources of noise. We investigated the popular sport of stock car racing as a potentially significant source of noise exposure, and we conducted a sound-level survey at a National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) event. Noise levels measured during the race ranged from 96.5 to 104 dB(A) at 46 meters ( approximately 150 feet) from the track and 99 to 109 dB(A) at 6 meters ( approximately 20 feet) from the track. The peak sound pressure level at 6 meters was 109 dB(A). Although significantly less than that associated with an immediate permanent threshold shift, such an exposure could cause a temporary threshold shift. Alhough hearing protection is recommended, particularly for track employees with longer periods of exposure, racing fans with only occasional exposure to such noise levels are unlikely to develop a permanent noise-induced hearing loss. PMID:19105144

  18. Pilot task-based assessment of noise levels among firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Neitzel, RL; Hong, O; Quinlan, P; Hulea, R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Over one million American firefighters are routinely exposed to various occupational hazards agents. While efforts have been made to identify and reduce some causes of injuries and illnesses among firefighters, relatively little has been done to evaluate and understand occupational noise exposures in this group. The purpose of this pilot study was to apply a task-based noise exposure assessment methodology to firefighting operations to evaluate potential noise exposure sources, and to use collected task-based noise levels to create noise exposure estimates for evaluation of risk of noise-induced hearing loss by comparison to the 8-hr and 24-hr recommended exposure limits (RELs) for noise of 85 and 80.3 dBA, respectively. METHODS Task-based noise exposures (n=100 measurements) were measured in three different fire departments (a rural department in Southeast Michigan and suburban and urban departments in Northern California). These levels were then combined with time-at-task information collected from firefighters to estimate 8-hr noise exposures for the rural and suburban fire departments (n=6 estimates for each department). Data from 24-hr dosimetry measurements and crude self-reported activity categories from the urban fire department (n=4 measurements) were used to create 24-hr exposure estimates to evaluate the bias associated with the task-based estimates. RESULTS Task-based noise levels were found to range from 82–109 dBA, with the highest levels resulting from use of saws and pneumatic chisels. Some short (e.g., 30 min) sequences of common tasks were found to result in nearly an entire allowable daily exposure. The majority of estimated 8-hr and 24-hr exposures exceeded the relevant recommended exposure limit. Predicted 24-hr exposures showed substantial imprecision in some cases, suggesting the need for increased task specificity. CONCLUSIONS The results indicate potential for overexposure to noise from a variety of firefighting tasks and

  19. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  20. Willingness to pay to avoid health risks from road-traffic-related air pollution and noise across five countries.

    PubMed

    Istamto, Tifanny; Houthuijs, Danny; Lebret, Erik

    2014-11-01

    We conducted a multi-country study to estimate the perceived economic values of traffic-related air pollution and noise health risks within the framework of a large European project. We used contingent valuation as a method to assess the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for both types of pollutants simultaneously. We asked respondents how much they would be willing to pay annually to avoid certain health risks from specific pollutants. Three sets of vignettes with different levels of information were provided prior to the WTP questions. These vignettes described qualitative general health risks, a quantitative single health risk related to a pollutant, and a quantitative scenario of combined health risks related to a pollutant. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic air pollution effects for the three vignettes were: €130 per person per year (pp/y) for general health risks, €80 pp/y for a half year shorter in life expectancy, and €330 pp/y to a 50% decrease in road-traffic air pollution. Their medians were €40 pp/y, €10 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. The mean WTP estimates to avoid road-traffic noise effects for the three vignettes were: €90 pp/y for general health risks, €100 pp/y for a 13% increase in severe annoyance, and €320 pp/y for a combined-risk scenario related to an increase of a noise level from 50 dB to 65 dB. Their medians were €20 pp/y, €20 pp/y and €50 pp/y, respectively. Risk perceptions and attitudes as well as environmental and pollutant concerns significantly affected WTP estimates. The observed differences in crude WTP estimates between countries changed considerably when perception-related variables were included in the WTP regression models. For this reason, great care should be taken when performing benefit transfer from studies in one country to another. PMID:25146911

  1. Noise Pollution and How it Can Indirectly Affect the Amounts of Particulate Matter in the Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, S.; Power, J.; Pham, D.; Preston, K. B.; Iqbal, A.

    2007-12-01

    Human and animal activity that occurs on gravel and dirt roads tends to contribute to high levels of particulate matter in the atmosphere. Birds molt their feathers, automobiles emit unused residues, and humans and animals stir up debris on the ground. Not only do these activities generate particulate matter, but they also generate noise. The aim of our study was to determine if a direct correlation exists between the amount of particulate matter and the noise levels in select areas within the Lake Merritt Park region of downtown Oakland, California. In addition, our research was aimed at determining if the level of noise at various locations conforms to City of Oakland regulations. Over a four-week period we measured noise levels and particulate matter concentrations at 27 different sites within the Park region. Preliminary results indicate that at a construction site and a residential area near the lake a direct correlation between our two variables existed; high noise level accompanied high particulate matter while low noise level accompanied low particulate matter, respectively. However, at the majority of the areas around the lake either indirect or no correlation was observed. Based on our results thus far, we conclude that noise levels are not indicative of particulate matter levels and that noise levels around Lake Merritt do conform to the city's regulations.

  2. Do outdoor environmental noise and atmospheric NO2 levels spatially overlap in urban areas?

    PubMed

    Tenailleau, Quentin M; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Parmentier, Anne-Laure; Boilleaut, Mathieu; Houot, Hélène; Joly, Daniel; Mauny, Frédéric

    2016-07-01

    The urban environment holds numerous emission sources for air and noise pollution, creating optimum conditions for environmental multi-exposure situations. Evaluation of the joint-exposure levels is the main obstacle for multi-exposure studies and one of the biggest challenges of the next decade. The present study aims to describe the noise/NO2 multi-exposure situations in the urban environment by exploring the possible discordant and concordant situations of both exposures. Fine-scale diffusion models were developed in the European medium-sized city of Besançon (France), and a classification method was used to evaluate the multi-exposure situations in the façade perimeter of 10,825 buildings. Although correlated (Pearson's r = 0.64, p < 0.01), urban spatial distributions of the noise and NO2 around buildings do not overlap, and 30% of the buildings were considered to be discordant in terms of the noise and NO2 exposure levels. This discrepancy is spatially structured and associated with variables describing the building's environment. Our results support the presence of several co-existing, multi-exposure situations across the city impacted by both the urban morphology and the emission and diffusion/propagation phases of each pollutant. Identifying the mechanisms of discrepancy and convergence of multi-exposure situations could help improve the health risk assessment and public health. PMID:27155094

  3. Judgments of aircraft noise in a traffic noise background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, C. A.; Rice, C. G.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine subjective response to aircraft noise in different road traffic backgrounds. In addition, two laboratory techniques for presenting the aircraft noise with the background noise were evaluated. For one technique, the background noise was continuous over an entire test session; for the other, the background noise level was changed with each aircraft noise during a session. Subjective response to aircraft noise was found to decrease with increasing background noise level, for a range of typical indoor noise levels. Subjective response was found to be highly correlated with the Noise Pollution Level (NPL) measurement scale.

  4. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  5. The Covariance between Air Pollution Annoyance and Noise Annoyance, and Its Relationship with Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Daniel; Dirks, Kim; Welch, David; McBride, David; Landon, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution originating from road traffic is a known risk factor of respiratory and cardiovascular disease (both in terms of chronic and acute effects). While adverse effects on cardiovascular health have also been linked with noise (after controlling for air pollution), noise exposure has been commonly linked to sleep impairment and negative emotional reactions. Health is multi-faceted, both conceptually and operationally; Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) is one of many measures capable of probing health. In this study, we examine pre-collected data from postal surveys probing HRQOL obtained from a variety of urban, suburban, and rural contexts across the North Island of New Zealand. Analyses focus on the covariance between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances, and their independent and combined effects on HRQOL. Results indicate that the highest ratings of air pollution annoyance and noise annoyances were for residents living close to the motorway, while the lowest were for rural residents. Most of the city samples indicated no significant difference between air pollution- and noise-annoyance ratings, and of all of the correlations between air pollution- and noise-annoyance, the highest were found in the city samples. These findings suggest that annoyance is driven by exposure to environmental factors and not personality characteristics. Analysis of HRQOL indicated that air pollution annoyance predicts greater variability in the physical HRQOL domain while noise annoyance predicts greater variability in the psychological, social and environmental domains. The lack of an interaction effect between air pollution annoyance and noise annoyance suggests that air pollution and noise impact on health independently. These results echo those obtained from objective measures of health and suggest that mitigation of traffic effects should address both air and noise pollution. PMID:27509512

  6. Urban noise pollution. November 1981-December 1989 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for November 1981-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning aspects of noise in the urban environment. Topics include noise pollution from airports, rail systems, and vehicular traffic. Abatement techniques and community response to urban noise are discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 122 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. En route noise levels from propfan test assessment airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Donald P.; Willshire, William L., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The en route noise test was designed to characterize propagation of propfan noise from cruise altitudes to the ground. In-flight measurements of propfan source levels and directional patterns were made by a chase plane flying in formation with the propfan test assessment (PTA) airplane. Ground noise measurements were taken during repeated flights over a distributed microphone array. The microphone array on the ground was used to provide ensemble-averaged estimates of mean flyover noise levels, establish confidence limits for those means, and measure propagation-induced noise variability. Even for identical nominal cruise conditions, peak sound levels for individual overflights varied substantially about the average, particularly when overflights were performed on different days. Large day-to-day variations in peak level measurements appeared to be caused by large day-to-day differences in propagation conditions and tended to obscure small variations arising from operating conditions. A parametric evaluation of the sensitivity of this prediction method to weather measurement and source level uncertainties was also performed. In general, predictions showed good agreement with measurements. However, the method was unable to predict short-term variability of ensemble-averaged data within individual overflights. Although variations in absorption appear to be the dominant factor in variations of peak sound levels recorded on the ground, accurate predictions of those levels require that a complete description of operational conditions be taken into account. The comprehensive and integrated methods presented in this paper have adequately predicted ground-measured sound levels. On average, peak sound levels were predicted within 3 dB for each of the three different cruise conditions.

  8. Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot Noise Level.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, M; Hilliard, A J; Kristensen, M A; Pedersen, P L; Klempt, C; Arlt, J J; Sherson, J F

    2016-08-12

    We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^{6} is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot noise level, i.e., ΔNnoise level. PMID:27563964

  9. Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot Noise Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, M.; Hilliard, A. J.; Kristensen, M. A.; Pedersen, P. L.; Klempt, C.; Arlt, J. J.; Sherson, J. F.

    2016-08-01

    We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N ˜1 06 is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty Δ N below the shot noise level, i.e., Δ N <√{N }. Based on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot noise level.

  10. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  11. Low stimulus environments: reducing noise levels in continuing care.

    PubMed

    Brown, Juliette; Fawzi, Waleed; Shah, Amar; Joyce, Margaret; Holt, Genevieve; McCarthy, Cathy; Stevenson, Carmel; Marange, Rosca; Shakes, Joy; Solomon-Ayeh, Kwesi

    2016-01-01

    In the low stimulus environment project, we aimed to reduce the levels of intrusive background noise on an older adult mental health ward, combining a very straightforward measure on decibel levels with a downstream measure of reduced distress and agitation as expressed in incidents of violence. This project on reducing background noise levels on older adult wards stemmed from work the team had done on reducing levels of violence and aggression. We approached the problem using quality improvement methods. Reducing harm to patients and staff is a strategic aim of our Trust and in our efforts we were supported by the Trust's extensive programme of quality improvement, including training and support provided by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the trust's own Quality Improvement team. Prior to the project we were running a weekly multi-disciplinary quality improvement group on the ward. We established from this a sub-group to address the specific problem of noise levels and invited carers of people with dementia on our ward to the group. The project was led by nursing staff. We used a noise meter app readily downloadable from the internet to monitor background noise levels on the ward and establish a baseline measure. As a group we used a driver diagram to identify an overall aim and a clear understanding of the major factors that would drive improvements. We also used a staff and carer survey to identify further areas to work on. Change ideas that came from staff and carers included the use of the noise meter to track and report back on noise levels, the use of posters to remind staff about noise levels, the introduction of a visual indication of current noise levels (the Yacker Tracker), the addition of relaxing background music, and adaptations to furniture and environment. We tested many of these over the course of nine months in 2015, using the iterative learning gained from multiple PDSA cycles. The specific aim was a decrease from above 60dB to

  12. Communicating the Issue of Underwater Noise Pollution: The Deaf as a Fish Project.

    PubMed

    Sebastianutto, Linda; Stocker, Michael; Picciulin, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Aquatic noise pollution is largely ignored by the lay public. How experts communicate this issue is critical to move public opinion. In 2010, the Cassa di Risparmio di Gorizia (CaRiGO) bank sponsored the Deaf as a Fish project that included local underwater noise monitoring, a boat census, a pamphlet for nonexperts, and some seminars and public meetings. This project allowed us to raise interest in this issue. Using accurate and understandable language in a light-humored setting goes far toward cultivating trust from a public audience that can be intimidated or suspicious of complicated scientific messaging. PMID:26611060

  13. HOW TO KEEP SCHOOL NOISE AT THE RIGHT LEVEL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCKAY, RONALD L.

    DISCUSSES FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED DURING SCHOOL PLANNING STAGES REGARDING NOISE LEVELS AND ACOUSTIC DESIGN IMPLICATIONS. FACTORS ARE--(1) A STAGE HOUSE IS DETRIMENTAL TO ORCHESTRAS, BANDS, CHORUSES, LECTURES, ASSEMBLIES, RECITALS, AND CERTAIN DRAMAS AND SPEECH-MUSIC PERFORMANCES. SUGGESTED IS AN AUDITORIUM WITH AUDIENCE AND PERFORMING PLATFORM…

  14. Effect of external classroom noise on schoolchildren's reading and mathematics performance: correlation of noise levels and gender.

    PubMed

    Papanikolaou, M; Skenteris, N; Piperakis, S M

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effect of low, medium, and high traffic road noise as well as irrelevant background speech noise on primary school children's reading and mathematical performance. A total of 676 participants (324 boys, 47.9% and 352 girls, 52.1%) of the 4th and 5th elementary classes participated in the project. The participants were enrolled in public primary schools from urban areas and had ages ranging from 9 to 10 years and from. Schools were selected on the basis of increasing levels of exposure to road traffic noise and then classified into three categories (Low noise: 55-66 dB, Medium noise: 67-77 dB, and High noise: 72-80 dB). We measured reading comprehension and mathematical skills in accordance with the national guidelines for elementary education, using a test designed specifically for the purpose of this study. On the one hand, children in low-level noise schools showed statistically significant differences from children in medium- and high-level noise schools in reading performance (p<0.001). On the other hand, children in low-level noise schools differed significantly from children in high-level noise schools but only in mathematics performance (p=0.001). Girls in general did better in reading score than boys, especially in schools with medium- and high-level noise. Finally the levels of noise and gender were found to be two independent factors. PMID:24810556

  15. Current noise of the interacting resonant level model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T. J.; Kennes, D. M.; Meden, V.

    2016-02-01

    We study the zero-frequency current noise of the interacting resonant level model for arbitrary bias voltages using a functional renormalization group approach. For this we extend the existing nonequilibrium scheme by deriving and solving flow equations for the current-vertex functions. On-resonance artificial divergences of the latter found in lowest-order perturbation theory in the two-particle interaction are consistently removed. Away from resonance they are shifted to higher orders. This allows us to gain a comprehensive picture of the current noise in the scaling limit. At high bias voltages, the current noise exhibits a universal power-law decay, whose exponent is, to leading order in the interaction, identical to that of the current. The effective charge on resonance is analyzed in detail, employing properties of the vertex correction. We find that it is only modified to second or higher order in the two-particle interaction.

  16. Validation of Aircraft Noise Models at Lower Levels of Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, Juliet A.; Plotkin, Kenneth J.; Carey, Jeffrey N.; Bradley, Kevin A.

    1996-01-01

    Noise levels around airports and airbases in the United States arc computed via the FAA's Integrated Noise Model (INM) or the Air Force's NOISEMAP (NMAP) program. These models were originally developed for use in the vicinity of airports, at distances which encompass a day night average sound level in decibels (Ldn) of 65 dB or higher. There is increasing interest in aircraft noise at larger distances from the airport. including en-route noise. To evaluate the applicability of INM and NMAP at larger distances, a measurement program was conducted at a major air carrier airport with monitoring sites located in areas exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB and higher. Automated Radar Terminal System (ARTS) radar tracking data were obtained to provide actual flight parameters and positive identification of aircraft. Flight operations were grouped according to aircraft type. stage length, straight versus curved flight tracks, and arrival versus departure. Sound exposure levels (SEL) were computed at monitoring locations, using the INM, and compared with measured values. While individual overflight SEL data was characterized by a high variance, analysis performed on an energy-averaging basis indicates that INM and similar models can be applied to regions exposed to an Ldn of 55 dB with no loss of reliability.

  17. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals. PMID:22087938

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Noise at School, and Behavioral Problems in Barcelona Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Forns, Joan; Dadvand, Payam; Foraster, Maria; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Rivas, Ioar; López-Vicente, Mònica; Suades-Gonzalez, Elisabet; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Esnaola, Mikel; Cirach, Marta; Grellier, James; Basagaña, Xavier; Querol, Xavier; Guxens, Mònica; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The available evidence of the effects of air pollution and noise on behavioral development is limited, and it overlooks exposure at schools, where children spend a considerable amount of time. Objective: We aimed to investigate the associations of exposure to traffic-related air pollutants (TRAPs) and noise at school on behavioral development of schoolchildren. Methods: We evaluated children 7–11 years of age in Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain) during 2012–2013 within the BREATHE project. Indoor and outdoor concentrations of elemental carbon (EC), black carbon (BC), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were measured at schools in two separate 1-week campaigns. In one campaign we also measured noise levels inside classrooms. Parents filled out the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) to assess child behavioral development, while teachers completed the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder criteria of the DSM-IV (ADHD-DSM-IV) list to assess specific ADHD symptomatology. Negative binomial mixed-effects models were used to estimate associations between the exposures and behavioral development scores. Results: Interquartile range (IQR) increases in indoor and outdoor EC, BC, and NO2 concentrations were positively associated with SDQ total difficulties scores (suggesting more frequent behavioral problems) in adjusted multivariate models, whereas noise was significantly associated with ADHD-DSM-IV scores. Conclusion: In our study population of 7- to 11-year-old children residing in Barcelona, exposure to TRAPs at school was associated with increased behavioral problems in schoolchildren. Noise exposure at school was associated with more ADHD symptoms. Citation: Forns J, Dadvand P, Foraster M, Alvarez-Pedrerol M, Rivas I, López-Vicente M, Suades-Gonzalez E, Garcia-Esteban R, Esnaola M, Cirach M, Grellier J, Basagaña X, Querol X, Guxens M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Sunyer J. 2016. Traffic-related air pollution, noise at school, and behavioral problems in Barcelona

  19. Health effects associated with Madrid air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Doadrio, A; Monzón, A; Moragues, A; Presas, M J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the pollution levels recorded in Madrid and the number of hospital admissions made on the grounds of respiratory disorders. PMID:10535135

  20. Urban noise functional stratification for estimating average annual sound level.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Prieto Gajardo, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    Road traffic noise causes many health problems and the deterioration of the quality of urban life; thus, adequate spatial noise and temporal assessment methods are required. Different methods have been proposed for the spatial evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method. Until now, this method has only been applied for the study of spatial variability with measurements taken over a week. In this work, continuous measurements of 1 year carried out in 21 different locations in Madrid (Spain), which has more than three million inhabitants, were analyzed. The annual average sound levels and the temporal variability were studied in the proposed categories. The results show that the three proposed categories highlight the spatial noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night) and in the overall indicators (L(And), L(Aden), and L(A24)). Also, significant differences between the diurnal and nocturnal sound levels show functional stratification in these categories. Therefore, this functional stratification offers advantages from both spatial and temporal perspectives by reducing the sampling points and the measurement time. PMID:26093410

  1. Air pollution levels and regulations in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Monarch, M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is one of a series of three prepared for the Office of Fossil Energy of the US Department of Energy. Each report deals with one county in which acid deposition, commonly referred to as acid rain, has been a prominent issue of public discussion. The three countries covered in this series of reports are Canada, the Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom. For each country, air pollution control regulations are trends in air quality and emissions are broadly outlined, then are compared with corresponding regulations and trends in the United States. Since acid rain is the intended field of application, the reports generally deal only with sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and total suspended particulates.

  2. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  3. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94... noise levels in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior noise level requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous noise sources such as motor vehicles...

  4. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  5. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  6. 14 CFR 91.859 - Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... noise levels. 91.859 Section 91.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Noise Limits § 91.859 Modification to meet Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels. For an airplane subject to... Stage 3 or Stage 4 noise levels....

  7. 49 CFR 393.94 - Interior noise levels in power units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interior noise levels in power units. 393.94... noise levels in power units. (a) Applicability of this section. The interior noise level requirements..., if the reading has not been influenced by extraneous noise sources such as motor vehicles...

  8. Noise Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  9. Comparing the relationships between noise level and annoyance in different surveys - A railway noise vs. aircraft and road traffic comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.; Walker, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    Annoyance expressed in a railway noise survey is compared with that from two road traffic and three aircraft surveys in order to determine whether responses to various types of environmental noise are source-specific. Railway noise is found to be less annoying than other noises at any given high noise level. Railway noise annoyance rises less rapidly with increasing noise level. At high levels, this gap in reactions averages about 10 dB; it ranges from 4 dB to more than 20 dB. The methods used for comparing the surveys are examined. It is found that methodological uncertainties lead to imprecise comparisons and that different annoyance scales yield different estimates of intersurvey differences.

  10. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...—Maximum Permissible Sound Level Readings (Decibel (A)) 1,2 Highway operation test Soft site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Hard Site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Stationary tests Soft site Hard site If the... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21....

  11. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ...—Maximum Permissible Sound Level Readings (Decibel (A)) 1 2 Highway operation test Soft site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Hard Site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Stationary tests Soft site Hard site If...

  12. 49 CFR 325.7 - Allowable noise levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... is based on motor carrier noise emission requirements specified in 40 CFR 202.20 and 40 CFR 202.21. ...—Maximum Permissible Sound Level Readings (Decibel (A)) 1,2 Highway operation test Soft site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Hard Site 35 mi/h or less Above 35 mi/h Stationary tests Soft site Hard site If...

  13. Noise. Ag Ed Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulloch, Rodney W.

    Noise is the subject of the student resource unit to be used with high school vocational agriculture students. The nature of noise as a phenomenon and as a problem is clarified. Sources of noise pollution and the decibel levels they produce are described. Among the effects of noise pollution discussed are hearing loss, annoyance, and accidental…

  14. Effect of long-term outdoor air pollution and noise on cognitive and psychological functions in adults.

    PubMed

    Tzivian, Lilian; Winkler, Angela; Dlugaj, Martha; Schikowski, Tamara; Vossoughi, Mohammad; Fuks, Kateryna; Weinmayr, Gudrun; Hoffmann, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that air pollution and ambient noise might impact neurocognitive function. Early studies mostly investigated the associations of air pollution and ambient noise exposure with cognitive development in children. More recently, several studies investigating associations with neurocognitive function, mood disorders, and neurodegenerative disease in adult populations were published, yielding inconsistent results. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current evidence on air pollution and noise effects on mental health in adults. We included studies in adult populations (≥18 years old) published in English language in peer-reviewed journals. Fifteen articles related to long-term effects of air pollution and eight articles on long-term effects of ambient noise were extracted. Both exposures were separately shown to be associated with one or several measures of global cognitive function, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, activities of daily living, depressive symptoms, elevated anxiety, and nuisance. No study considered both exposures simultaneously and few studies investigated progression of neurocognitive decline or psychological factors. The existing evidence generally supports associations of environmental factors with mental health, but does not suffice for an overall conclusion about the independent effect of air pollution and noise. There is a need for studies investigating simultaneously air pollution and noise exposures in association mental health, for longitudinal studies to corroborate findings from cross-sectional analyses, and for parallel toxicological and epidemiological studies to elucidate mechanisms and pathways of action. PMID:25242804

  15. High Blood Pressure and Long-Term Exposure to Indoor Noise and Air Pollution from Road Traffic

    PubMed Central

    Künzli, Nino; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Rivera, Marcela; Agis, David; Vila, Joan; Bouso, Laura; Deltell, Alexandre; Marrugat, Jaume; Ramos, Rafel; Sunyer, Jordi; Elosua, Roberto; Basagaña, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background: Traffic noise has been associated with prevalence of hypertension, but reports are inconsistent for blood pressure (BP). To ascertain noise effects and to disentangle them from those suspected to be from traffic-related air pollution, it may be essential to estimate people’s noise exposure indoors in bedrooms. Objectives: We analyzed associations between long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise in bedrooms and prevalent hypertension and systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP, considering long-term exposure to outdoor nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Methods: We evaluated 1,926 cohort participants at baseline (years 2003–2006; Girona, Spain). Outdoor annual average levels of nighttime traffic noise (Lnight) and NO2 were estimated at postal addresses with a detailed traffic noise model and a land-use regression model, respectively. Individual indoor traffic Lnight levels were derived from outdoor Lnight with application of insulations provided by reported noise-reducing factors. We assessed associations for hypertension and BP with multi-exposure logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Results: Median levels were 27.1 dB(A) (indoor Lnight), 56.7 dB(A) (outdoor Lnight), and 26.8 μg/m3 (NO2). Spearman correlations between outdoor and indoor Lnight with NO2 were 0.75 and 0.23, respectively. Indoor Lnight was associated both with hypertension (OR = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.13) and SBP (β = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.29, 1.15) per 5 dB(A); and NO2 was associated with hypertension (OR = 1.16; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.36), SBP (β = 1.23; 95% CI: 0.21, 2.25), and DBP (β⊇= 0.56; 95% CI: –0.03, 1.14) per 10 μg/m3. In the outdoor noise model, Lnight was associated only with hypertension and NO2 with BP only. The indoor noise–SBP association was stronger and statistically significant with a threshold at 30 dB(A). Conclusion: Long-term exposure to indoor traffic noise was associated with prevalent hypertension and SBP, independently of NO2. Associations were less

  16. Background noise levels and correlation with ship traffic in the Gulf of Catania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Salvatore; Buscaino, Giuseppa; Caruso, Francesco; Chierici, Francesco; Embriaco, Davide; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Grammauta, Roasario; Larosa, Giuseppina; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Sciacca, Virginia; Simeone, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Marinaro, Giuditta

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades the growing interest in the evaluation of the underwater acoustic noise for studies in the fields of geology, biology and high-energy physics is driving the scientific community to collaborate towards a multidisciplinary approach to the topic. In June 2012 in the framework of the European project EMSO, a multidisciplinary underwater observatory, named NEMO-SN1, was installed 25 km off-shore the port of Catania, at a depth of 2100 m and operated until May 2013 by INFN (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare) and INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia). NEMO-SN1 hosted aboard geophysical, oceanographic and acoustic sensors: among these a seismic hydrophone model SMID DT-405D(V). In this work, conducted within the activity of the SMO project, the results on the evaluation of the underwater acoustic pollution in the Gulf of Catania through SMID DT-405D(V) recordings are presented. The seismic hydrophone provided a data set of about 11 months of continuous (24/7) recordings. Underwater sounds have been continuously digitized at a sampling frequency of 2 kHz and the acquired data have been stored in 10min long files for off-line analysis. To describe one-year background noise levels, the mean integrated acoustic noise was measured every second (sampling frequency 2000, NFFT 2048) in the 1/3 octave bands with centre frequency 63 Hz and for each 10 minutes-long file the 5th, the 50th and the 98th percentiles were calculated. Measured noise was correlated with the shipping traffic in the area, thanks to the data provided by an AIS receiver installed at the INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud. An acoustic noise increment was measured in coincidence with the passing of crafts in the area and it was possible to identify the characteristic spectrum of each ship. A simple model for the estimation of the acoustic noise induced by the ships passing through the area was developed. The model was applied by using AIS data acquired during the operation

  17. Measurement of Acceptable Noise Level with Background Music

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyun-Jung; Bahng, Junghwa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acceptable noise level (ANL) is a measure of the maximum background noise level (BNL) that a person is willing to tolerate while following a target story. Although researchers have used various sources of target sound in ANL measures, a limited type of background noise has been used. Extending the previous study of Gordon-Hickey & Moore (2007), the current study determined the effect of music genre and tempo on ANLs as possible factors affecting ANLs. We also investigated the relationships between individual ANLs and the familiarity of music samples and between music ANLs and subjective preference. Subjects and Methods Forty-one participants were seperated into two groups according to their ANLs, 29 low-ANL listeners and 12 high-ANL listeners. Using Korean ANL material, the individual ANLs were measured based on the listeners' most comfortable listening level and BNL. The ANLs were measured in six conditions, with different music tempo (fast, slow) and genre (K-pop, pop, classical) in a counterbalanced order. Results Overall, ANLs did not differ by the tempo of background music, but music genre significantly affected individual ANLs. We observed relatively higher ANLs with K-pop music and relatively lower ANLs with classical music. This tendency was similar in both low-ANL and high-ANL groups. However, the subjective ratings of music familiarity and preference affected ANLs differently for low-ANL and high-ANL groups. In contrast to the low-ANL listeners, the ANLs of the high-ANL listeners were significantly affected by music familiarity and preference. Conclusions The genre of background music affected ANLs obtained using background music. The degree of music familiarity and preference appears to be associated with individual susceptibility to background music only for listeners who are greatly annoyed by background noise (high-ANL listeners). PMID:26413573

  18. How to measure community tolerance levels for noise.

    PubMed

    Taraldsen, Gunnar; Gelderblom, Femke B; Gjestland, Truls T

    2016-07-01

    Relationships between noise exposure and transportation noise induced annoyance have been studied extensively for several decades. The annoyance due to aircraft noise exposure is in the present paper assumed to be influenced by the day-night yearly average sound level (DNL). It has long been recognized that the annoyance also depends on non-DNL factors, but this is complicated-resulting in a variety of different modeling strategies. Motivated by this, the community tolerance level (CTL) was introduced in 2011 for a loudness-based psychometric function. It is a single parameter that accounts for the aggregate influence of other factors. This paper suggests and investigates different methods for the measurement of the CTL. The methods are illustrated on data found in the literature, on recent surveys around two Norwegian airports, and on simulated data. The results from the presented methods differ significantly. An elementary method is shown to give a measurement of the CTL with smaller uncertainty, and is recommended as a replacement for the originally suggested least-squares method. Methods for evaluating the measurement uncertainty are also presented. PMID:27475190

  19. Estimation of Mosquito Noise Level from Decoded Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Kenji; Sagara, Naoya; Kashimura, Yohei

    With DCT coding, block artifact and mosquito noise degradations appear in decoded pictures. The control of post filtering is important to reduce degradations without causing side effects. Decoding information is useful, if the filter is inside or close to the encoder; however, it is difficult to control with independent post filtering, such as in a display. In this case, control requires the estimation of the artifact from only the decoded picture. In this work, we describe an estimation method that determines the mosquito noise block and level. In this method, the ratio of spatial activity is taken between the mosquito block and the neighboring flat block. We test the proposed method using the reconstructed pictures which are coded with different quantization scales. We recognize that the results are mostly reasonable with the different quantizations.

  20. Airport-Noise Levels and Annoyance Model (ALAMO) user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.; Donaldson, J. L.; Johnson, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    A guide for the use of the Airport-Noise Level and Annoyance MOdel (ALAMO) at the Langley Research Center computer complex is provided. This document is divided into 5 primary sections, the introduction, the purpose of the model, and an in-depth description of the following subsystems: baseline, noise reduction simulation and track analysis. For each subsystem, the user is provided with a description of architecture, an explanation of subsystem use, sample results, and a case runner's check list. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operations at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) computer complex, the Network Operating System (NOS 1.4) and CYBER Control Language. Incorporated within the ALAMO model is a census database system called SITE II.

  1. Higher fuel prices are associated with lower air pollution levels.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Adrian G; Knibbs, Luke D

    2014-05-01

    Air pollution is a persistent problem in urban areas, and traffic emissions are a major cause of poor air quality. Policies to curb pollution levels often involve raising the price of using private vehicles, for example, congestion charges. We were interested in whether higher fuel prices were associated with decreased air pollution levels. We examined an association between diesel and petrol prices and four traffic-related pollutants in Brisbane from 2010 to 2013. We used a regression model and examined pollution levels up to 16 days after the price change. Higher diesel prices were associated with statistically significant short-term reductions in carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Changes in petrol prices had no impact on air pollution. Raising diesel taxes in Australia could be justified as a public health measure. As raising taxes is politically unpopular, an alternative political approach would be to remove schemes that put a downward pressure on fuel prices, such as industry subsidies and shopping vouchers that give fuel discounts. PMID:24552771

  2. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual’s inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test–retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable

  3. Type of Speech Material Affects Acceptable Noise Level Test Outcome.

    PubMed

    Koch, Xaver; Dingemanse, Gertjan; Goedegebure, André; Janse, Esther

    2016-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability). The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS), which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was comparable across

  4. Critical noise levels for low-density parity check decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourik, J. Van; Saad, D.; Kabashima, Y.

    2002-08-01

    We determine the critical noise level for decoding low-density parity check error-correcting codes based on the magnetization enumerator (M), rather than on the weight enumerator (W) employed in the information theory literature. The interpretation of our method is appealingly simple, and the relation between the different decoding schemes such as typical pairs decoding, MAP, and finite temperature decoding (MPM) becomes clear. In addition, our analysis provides an explanation for the difference in performance between MN and Gallager codes. Our results are more optimistic than those derived using the methods of information theory and are in excellent agreement with recent results from another statistical physics approach.

  5. Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, R.Y.; Li, C.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Quarterly analysis (1983-1987) of childhood asthma in Hong Kong from 13,620 hospitalization episodes in relation to levels of pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, NO, O{sub 3}, TSP, and RSP) revealed a seasonal pattern of attack rates that correlates inversely with exposure to sulfur dioxide (r = -.52, P less than .05). The same cannot be found with other pollutants. Many factors may contribute to the seasonal variation of asthma attacks. We speculate that prolonged exposure (in terms of months) to low level SO{sub 2} is one factor that might induce airway inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity and predispose to episodes of asthma.

  6. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  7. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  8. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  9. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  10. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  11. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  12. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  13. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  14. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1139 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1139 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  16. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  17. 42 CFR 84.140 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.140 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  18. 42 CFR 84.202 - Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets... PROTECTIVE DEVICES Chemical Cartridge Respirators § 84.202 Air velocity and noise levels; hoods and helmets; minimum requirements. Noise levels generated by the respirator will be measured inside the hood or...

  19. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 L(eq,1-)h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime L(eq,1-h) values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  20. Are the noise levels acceptable in a built environment like Hong Kong?

    PubMed Central

    To, Wai Ming; Mak, Cheuk Ming; Chung, Wai Leung

    2015-01-01

    Governments all over the world have enacted environmental noise directives and noise control ordinances/acts to protect tranquility in residential areas. However, there is a lack of literature on the evaluation of whether the Acceptable Noise Levels (ANLs) stipulated in the directive/ordinance/act are actually achievable. The study aimed at measuring outdoor environmental noise levels in Hong Kong and identifying whether the measured noise levels are lower than the stipulated ANLs at 20 categories of residential areas. Data were gathered from a territory-wide noise survey. Outdoor noise measurements were conducted at 203 residential premises in urban areas, low-density residential areas, rural areas, and other areas. In total, 366 daytime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, 362 nighttime hourly Leq outdoor noise levels, and 20 sets of daily, that is, 24 Leq,1-h outdoor noise levels were recorded. The mean daytime Leq,1-h values ranged 54.4-70.8 dBA, while the mean nighttime Leq,1-h values ranged 52.6-67.9 dBA. When the measured noise levels were compared with the stipulated ANLs, only three out of the 20 categories of areas had outdoor noise levels below ANLs during daytime. All other areas (and all areas during nighttime) were found to have outdoor noise levels at or above ANLs. PMID:26572703

  1. A decision-support tool for the control of urban noise pollution.

    PubMed

    Suriano, Marcia Thais; de Souza, Léa Cristina Lucas; da Silva, Antonio Nelson Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Improving the quality of life is increasingly seen as an important urban planning goal. In order to reach it, various tools are being developed to mitigate the negative impacts of human activities on society. This paper develops a methodology for quantifying the population's exposure to noise, by proposing a classification of urban blocks. Taking into account the vehicular flow and traffic composition of the surroundings of urban blocks, we generated a noise map by applying a computational simulation. The urban blocks were classified according to their noise range and then the population was estimated for each urban block, by a process which was based on the census tract and the constructed area of the blocks. The acoustical classes of urban blocks and the number of inhabitants per block were compared, so that the population exposed to noise levels above 65 dB(A) could be estimated, which is the highest limit established by legislation. As a result, we developed a map of the study area, so that urban blocks that should be priority targets for noise mitigation actions can be quickly identified. PMID:26132260

  2. Long-term transportation noise annoyance is associated with subsequent lower levels of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Foraster, Maria; Eze, Ikenna C; Vienneau, Danielle; Brink, Mark; Cajochen, Christian; Caviezel, Seraina; Héritier, Harris; Schaffner, Emmanuel; Schindler, Christian; Wanner, Miriam; Wunderli, Jean-Marc; Röösli, Martin; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2016-05-01

    Noise annoyance (NA) might lead to behavioral patterns not captured by noise levels, which could reduce physical activity (PA) either directly or through impaired sleep and constitute a noise pathway towards cardiometabolic diseases. We investigated the association of long-term transportation NA and its main sources (aircraft, road, and railway) at home with PA levels. We assessed 3842 participants (aged 37-81) that attended the three examinations (SAP 1, 2, and 3 in years 1991, 2001 and 2011, respectively) of the population-based Swiss cohort on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA). Participants reported general 24-h transportation NA (in all examinations) and source-specific NA at night (only SAP 3) on an ICBEN-type 11-point scale. We assessed moderate, vigorous, and total PA from a short-questionnaire (SAP 3). The main outcome was moderate PA (active/inactive: cut-off≥150min/week). We used logistic regression including random effects by area and adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and lifestyles (main model) and evaluated potential effect modifiers. We analyzed associations with PA at SAP 3 a) cross-sectionally: for source-specific and transportation NA in the last year (SAP 3), and b) longitudinally: for 10-y transportation NA (mean of SAP 1+2), adjusting for prior PA (SAP 2) and changes in NA (SAP 3-2). Reported NA (score≥5) was 16.4%, 7.5%, 3%, and 1.1% for 1-year transportation, road, aircraft, and railway at SAP 3, respectively. NA was greater in the past, reaching 28.5% for 10-y transportation NA (SAP 1+2). The 10-y transportation NA was associated with a 3.2% (95% CI: 6%-0.2%) decrease in moderate PA per 1-NA rating point and was related to road and aircraft NA at night in cross-sectional analyses. The longitudinal association was stronger for women, reported daytime sleepiness or chronic diseases and it was not explained by objectively modeled levels of road traffic noise at SAP 3. In conclusion, long-term NA

  3. Urban green spaces' effectiveness as a psychological buffer for the negative health impact of noise pollution: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dzhambov, Angel Mario; Dimitrova, Donka Dimitrova

    2014-01-01

    Noise pollution is one of the four major pollutions in the world. Little evidence exists about the actual preventive benefits of psychological noise attenuation by urban green spaces, especially from the perspective of environmental medicine and, to the best of our knowledge, there is not a systematic analysis on this topic. The aim of this review was to systematically evaluate whether there is conclusive scientific evidence for the effectiveness of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer for the negative impact of noise pollution on human health and to promote an evidence-based approach toward this still growing environmental hazard. MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for experimental and epidemiological studies published before June 04, 2013 in English and Spanish. Data was independently extracted in two step process by the authors. Due to the heterogeneity of the included studies qualitative assessment was performed. We found moderate evidence that the presence of vegetation can generally reduce the negative perception of noise (supported with an electroencephalogram test in one of the experimental studies; consistent with the data from two epidemiological studies; one experiment found no effect and one was inconclusive about the positive effect). This review fills a gap in the literature and could help researchers further clarify the proper implementation of urban green spaces as a psychological buffer in areas with population exposed to chronic noise pollution. PMID:24953881

  4. 14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, noise levels and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures, noise levels and other... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Documentation, Operating Limitations and Information § 36.1501 Procedures, noise levels and other information. (a) All...

  5. 14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, noise levels and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures, noise levels and other... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Documentation, Operating Limitations and Information § 36.1501 Procedures, noise levels and other information. (a) All...

  6. 14 CFR 36.1501 - Procedures, noise levels and other information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures, noise levels and other... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT NOISE STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT TYPE AND AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATION Documentation, Operating Limitations and Information § 36.1501 Procedures, noise levels and other information. (a) All...

  7. Anomalously high noise levels in a fibre Bragg grating semiconductor laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kurnosov, V D; Kurnosov, K V

    2015-01-31

    Taking into account gain nonlinearity allows one to obtain anomalously high noise levels in a fibre Bragg grating laser diode. This paper examines the effect of the gain nonlinearity due to spectral hole burning on noise characteristics. (lasers)

  8. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn on noise induced changes in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Sembulingam, K; Sembulingam, P; Namasivayam, A

    1997-04-01

    Ethanol extract of leaves of ocimum sanctum was screened for its antistressor actions against acute and chronic noise stress in albino rats by investigating the plasma corticosterone level in these animals. There was a significant elevation of the corticosterone level in plasma of rats subjected to 30 min noise (100 dB) stress. Chromic exposure (4 hr daily for 30 days) to noise with same intensity reduced the hormonal level significantly. Treatment of animals with ethanol extract of Ocimum sanctum prevented the changes in plasma level of corticosterone induced by exposure to both acute and chronic noise stress, indicating the antistressor property of the plant against noise. PMID:9142558

  9. Community response to noise in Vietnam: exposure-response relationships based on the community tolerance level.

    PubMed

    Gjestland, Truls; Nguyen, Thu Lan; Yano, Takashi

    2015-05-01

    Social surveys on noise annoyance have been conducted in five different cities in Vietnam. The surveys included both aircraft noise (three airports) and road traffic noise (five cities). The main objective for these studies was to establish dose-response functions that were representative for Vietnam. The results have been compared with results from similar surveys from other regions. Dose-response functions for aircraft noise in Vietnam showing the percentage of highly annoyed people versus the noise level are nearly identical to those presented in the European Noise Directive [European Commission (2002). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive.htm]. For road traffic noise, however, the results indicate that people in Vietnam are more tolerant. The noise levels can be increased by 5-10 dB in order to have a response similar to the curve recommended by the European Commission. PMID:25994692

  10. Potential of neuro-fuzzy methodology to estimate noise level of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vlastimir; Petković, Dalibor; Por, Lip Yee; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Zamani, Mazdak; Ćojbašić, Žarko; Motamedi, Shervin

    2016-01-01

    Wind turbines noise effect became large problem because of increasing of wind farms numbers since renewable energy becomes the most influential energy sources. However, wind turbine noise generation and propagation is not understandable in all aspects. Mechanical noise of wind turbines can be ignored since aerodynamic noise of wind turbine blades is the main source of the noise generation. Numerical simulations of the noise effects of the wind turbine can be very challenging task. Therefore in this article soft computing method is used to evaluate noise level of wind turbines. The main goal of the study is to estimate wind turbine noise in regard of wind speed at different heights and for different sound frequency. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is used to estimate the wind turbine noise levels.

  11. Overweight, air and noise pollution: Universal risk factors for pediatric pre-hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kelishadi, Roya; Poursafa, Parinaz; Keramatian, Kasra

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric pre-hypertension (pre-HTN) has a complex multifactorial etiology. Although most cases are secondary to other disorders, a substantial number of children and adolescents have primary or essential HTN and pre-HTN. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions should be considered in this context. The strong relationship of pre-HTN with environmental factors such as air pollution, noise pollution and passive smoking and obesity suggest that its prevalence will be escalating. Exposure to ambient particulate matters may increase blood pressure (BP) within hours to days. The underlying biologic pathways include autonomic nervous system imbalance and arterial vascular dysfunction or vasoconstriction because of systemic oxidative stress and inflammation. Likewise, tobacco smoke exposure of pregnant mothers increases systolic BP of their offspring in early infancy. Parental smoking also independently affects systolic BP among healthy preschool children. Noise exposure, notably in night, is associated with catecholamine secretion, increased BP and a pre-HTN state even in pre-school age children. Excess weight is associated with dysfunction of the adipose tissue, consisting of enlarged hypertrophied adipocytes, increased infiltration by macrophages and variations in secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids. These changes would result in chronic vascular inflammation, oxidative stress, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and sympathetic response, and ultimately to pre-HTN from childhood. Prevention and control of the modifiable risk factors of pre-HTN from prenatal period can have long-term health impact on primordial and primary prevention of chronic non-communicable diseases. This review presents a general view on the diagnosis, prevalence and etiology of pre-HTN along with practical measures for its prevention and control. PMID:22973395

  12. [Are intensive care units (ICU) loud? Discrepancies between the perception of professionals and patients and the measurement of real noise with sound level meter].

    PubMed

    Escuté, Mercé Revuelta; Martínez, Javier Rodríguez

    2012-06-01

    In the hospital the WHO advises placing the noise levels between 30 and 45 dB, either rooms or halls, which would be equivalent to the sound level allowed in a library. The noise levels in units both have harmful effects on health and the evolution of the patient, and also on the workers, making it an occupational hazard. The combination of these factors affects both in the patient safety, and in the quality of our care. The aim of this project is to detect the sources of noise in an ICU, in order to establish a plan of prevention and reduction of noise and trying to get the Guideline Value recommended by WHO. Noise pollution is a major health problem. PMID:22908745

  13. Noise

    MedlinePlus

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  14. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    PubMed

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  15. Heavy metal pollution in sediments and mussels: assessment by using pollution indices and metallothionein levels.

    PubMed

    Okay, Oya S; Ozmen, Murat; Güngördü, Abbas; Yılmaz, Atilla; Yakan, Sevil D; Karacık, Burak; Tutak, Bilge; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2016-06-01

    In the present work, the concentration of eight metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) was determined in the sediments and transplanted and native mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis). The study was conducted in Turkish marinas, shipyards, and shipbreaking yards. The effect of metal pollution was evaluated by determining the levels of metallothionein (MT) in the mussels. The extent of contamination for each single metal was assessed by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo) and enrichment factor (EF). Whereas, to evaluate the overall metal pollution and effect, the pollution load index (PLI), modified contamination degree (mC d), potential toxicity response index (RI), mean effects range median (ERM) quotient (m-ERM-Q), and mean PEL quotient (m-PEL-Q) were calculated. The influence of different background values on the calculations was discussed. The results indicated a significant metal pollution caused by Cu, Pb, and Zn especially in shipyard and shipbreaking sites. Higher concentrations of MT were observed in the ship/breaking yard samples after the transplantation. PMID:27188302

  16. Noise levels of dental equipment used in dental college of Damascus University

    PubMed Central

    Qsaibati, Mhd. Loutify; Ibrahim, Ousama

    2014-01-01

    Background: In dental practical classes, the acoustic environment is characterized by high noise levels in relation to other teaching areas. The aims of this study were to measure noise levels produced during the different dental learning clinics, by equipments used in dental learning areas under different working conditions and by used and brand new handpieces under different working conditions. Materials and Methods: The noise levels were measured by using a noise level meter with a microphone, which was placed at a distance of 15 cm from a main noise source in pre-clinical and clinical areas. In laboratories, the microphone was placed at a distance of 15 cm and another reading was taken 2 m away. Noise levels of dental learning clinics were measured by placing noise level meter at clinic center. The data were collected, tabulated and statistically analyzed using t-tests. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: In dental clinics, the highest noise was produced by micro motor handpiece while cutting on acrylic (92.2 dB) and lowest noise (51.7 dB) was created by ultrasonic scaler without suction pump. The highest noise in laboratories was caused by sandblaster (96 dB at a distance of 15 cm) and lowest noise by stone trimmer when only turned on (61.8 dB at a distance of 2 m). There was significant differences in noise levels of the equipment's used in dental laboratories and dental learning clinics (P = 0.007). The highest noise level recorded in clinics was at pedodontic clinic (67.37 dB). Conclusions: Noise levels detected in this study were considered to be close to the limit of risk of hearing loss 85 dB. PMID:25540655

  17. [Equivalent continuous noise level in neonatal intensive care unit associated to burnout syndrome].

    PubMed

    Garrido Galindo, A P; Camargo Caicedo, Y; Vélez-Pereira, A M

    2015-01-01

    Noise levels in neonatal intensive care units allow the appearance of symptoms associated with burnout such as stress, irritability, fatigue and emotional instability on health care personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate the equivalent continuous noise levels in the neonatal intensive care unit and compare the results with noise levels associated with the occurrence of burnout syndrome on the care team. Continuous sampling was conducted for 20 days using a type I sound level meter on the unit. The maximum, the ninetieth percentile and the equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) values were recorded. Noise level is reported in the range of 51.4-77.6 decibels A (dBA) with an average of 64 dBA, 100.6 dBA maximum, and average background noise from 57.9 dBA. Noise levels exceed the standards suggested for neonatal intensive care units, are close to maximum values referred for noise exposure in the occupational standards and to noise levels associated with the onset of burnout; thus allowing to infer the probability of occurrence of high levels of noise present in the unit on the development of burnout in caregivers. PMID:26187519

  18. Noise levels in a dental teaching institute - A matter of concern!

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Simarpreet; Singh, Gurminder; Sharma, Sumit; Kaur, Amarinder

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure and assess the noise levels produced by various dental equipments in different areas of a dental institution and to recommend improvements if noise levels are not within permissible limits. Material and Methods: Sound levels were measured at three different areas of a dental institution where learning and teaching activities are organized. The sound level was measured using a sound level meter known as ‘decibulolmeter’. In each area the noise level was assessed at two positions-one, at 6 inches from the operators ear and second, at the chairside instrument trolley. Noise levels were also assessed from a central location of the clinic area when multiple equipments were in operation simultaneously. Results: Dental laboratory machine, dental hand-piece, ultrasonic scalers, amalgamators, high speed evacuation, and other items produce noise at different sound levels which is appreciable. The noise levels generated varied between 72.6 dB in pre-clinics and 87.2 dB in prosthesis laboratory. The results are comparable to the results of other studies which are conducted elsewhere. Although the risk to the dentists is lesser, but damage to the hearing is possible over prolonged periods. Conclusion: Higher noise levels are potentially hazardous to the persons working in such environments especially in the laboratory areas where noise levels are exceeding the permissible limits. Key words:Noise level, equipment, hearing loss, risk, working areas. PMID:24558544

  19. An Evaluation of Noise Levels in College Welding Laboratories and Its Effect on Student Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pontynen, Burton Ahlstrom

    The purpose of this study was to determine what noise levels existed at selected work stations in college welding laboratories while students were working and whether this noise exposure had any effect on the hearing acuity of students. Audiometric tests were administered to an experimental group of welding students in the noise of a welding…

  20. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  1. Estimating the level of dynamical noise in time series by using fractal dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sase, Takumi; Ramírez, Jonatán Peña; Kitajo, Keiichi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Hirata, Yoshito

    2016-03-01

    We present a method for estimating the dynamical noise level of a 'short' time series even if the dynamical system is unknown. The proposed method estimates the level of dynamical noise by calculating the fractal dimensions of the time series. Additionally, the method is applied to EEG data to demonstrate its possible effectiveness as an indicator of temporal changes in the level of dynamical noise.

  2. Industrial noise level study in a wheat processing factory in ilorin, nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, I.; Ajao, K. R.; Aremu, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    An industrial process such as wheat processing generates significant noise which can cause adverse effects on workers and the general public. This study assessed the noise level at a wheat processing mill in Ilorin, Nigeria. A portable digital sound level meter HD600 manufactured by Extech Inc., USA was used to determine the noise level around various machines, sections and offices in the factory at pre-determined distances. Subjective assessment was also mode using a World Health Organization (WHO) standard questionnaire to obtain information regarding noise ratings, effect of noise on personnel and noise preventive measures. The result of the study shows that the highest noise of 99.4 dBA was recorded at a pressure blower when compared to other machines. WHO Class-4 hearing protector is recommended for workers on the shop floor and room acoustics should be upgraded to absorb some sounds transmitted to offices.

  3. The Development And Implementation Of A Concept To Permanent Reduction Of Noise Pollution In Production Taking Into Account The Legal And Economic Framework Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaušková, Lucia; Czán, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Piešová, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    Article deals with the issue of reducing noise impact in real conditions of industrial production. The solution includes measurements and calculations of noise level the person is exposed to and developing proposals for effective reduction of noise levels at the specific workplace. When assessing noise levels and design to reduce it to an acceptable level we will consider the legal, safety and economic conditions.

  4. Network for Light Pollution education at secondary level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Beatriz; Ros, Rosa Maria

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution (LP) is one form of environmental pollution less known than most others. It affects the visibility of the night sky, but also alters the balance of the ecosystem and affects human health, since it breaches the biological clocks that are coordinated with periods of light and darkness. To be alert on this subject, learn to recognize the problem, warn others of the consequences, and find solutions, are objectives of the present work.The LP as subject of study can be also a good point to teach and learn about the uses of light in general, including the problem to rich the starry night from the schoolyard.The Network for Astronomy School Education (NASE), proposes a set of simple, non expensive and funny activities, especially designed no only to understand the three types of light pollution: glow, intrusion and glare, but also to explain the problems associated to the over- consumption, to show why the public light produces strong and bad effects on the astronomical observation, including the radio region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and affects the human health. NASE workshop on this subject is devoted to the Natural Sciences teachers and professors and for this reason the activity cross over all the secondary school level spaces.More details in: http://www.naseprogram.org

  5. Subjective effects of traffic noise exposure, II: Comparisons of noise indices, response scales, and the effects of changes in noise levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langdon, F. J.; Griffiths, I. D.

    1982-07-01

    Traffic noise and social surveys were carried out at eight London suburban sites. Dwellings at the selected sites were exposed to noise from freely flowing traffic at levels which ranged from 57 to 82 dB(A), measured as 18 hour L10. The study was designed to obtain noise measurements and subjective responses from residents on four repeated occasions throughout the year. A total of 1363 interviews was conducted, 222 respondents each completing four interviews. Traffic noise was measured as L10, L50 and Leq in both linear and A-weighted form. The eight noise indices were found to be very highly intercorrelated. The correlations between each of these and the subjective responses were all equally high. It was therefore not possible to select a "best" index of noise in terms of nuisance experienced by residents, even when the most highly reliable data, derived from averaging responses for the four repeated interviews, were employed. Subjective responses were measured by means of a 7-point scale of "dissatisfaction" and a 4-point verbal scale of "bother" and the former was found to be a significantly better correlate of noise exposure. The data from these eight sites, which underwent no change in noise levels during the survey, were compared with data obtained in "before and after" studies conducted over a roughly similar period. "Dissatisfaction" and "bother" scores for the "after" condition were found to differ from those which would have been predicted from stable and unchanging conditions. A number of possible reasons for this finding are discussed and it is suggested that prediction of the effects resulting from noise reduction procedures requires further study.

  6. Ambient noise levels in the continental United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Buland, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    The results of our noise analysis are useful for characterizing the performance of existing broadband stations and for detecting operational problems and should be relevant to the future siting of ANSS backbone stations. The noise maps at body-wave frequencies should be useful for estimating the magnitude threshold for the ANSS backbone and regional networks or conversely for optimizing the distribution of regional network stations.

  7. Smartphone-based noise mapping: Integrating sound level meter app data into the strategic noise mapping process.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Enda; King, Eoin A

    2016-08-15

    The strategic noise mapping process of the EU has now been ongoing for more than ten years. However, despite the fact that a significant volume of research has been conducted on the process and related issues there has been little change or innovation in how relevant authorities and policymakers are conducting the process since its inception. This paper reports on research undertaken to assess the possibility for smartphone-based noise mapping data to be integrated into the traditional strategic noise mapping process. We compare maps generated using the traditional approach with those generated using smartphone-based measurement data. The advantage of the latter approach is that it has the potential to remove the need for exhaustive input data into the source calculation model for noise prediction. In addition, the study also tests the accuracy of smartphone-based measurements against simultaneous measurements taken using traditional sound level meters in the field. PMID:27115622

  8. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  9. An empirical method for predicting the mixing noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    An empirical method for predicting the static free field source noise levels of subsonic circular and coaxial jet flow streams is presented. The method was developed from an extensive data base of 817 jet tests obtained from five different government and industry sources in three nations. The prediction method defines the jet noise in terms of four components which are overall power level, power spectrum level, directivity index, and relative spectrum level. The values of these noise level components are defined on a grid consisting of seven frequency parameter values (Strouhal numbers) and seven directivity angles. The value of the noise level at each of these grid points is called a noise level coordinate and was defined as a function of five jet exhaust flow state parameters which are equivalent jet velocity, equivalent jet total temperature, the velocity ratio (outer stream to inner stream), temperature ratio, and area ratio. The functions were obtained by curve fitting in a least squares sense the noise level coordinates from the data base in a five dimensional flow state space using a third order Taylor series. The noise level coordinates define the component noise levels for all frequencies and directivities through a bicubic spline function.

  10. Personal, indoor and outdoor air pollution levels among pregnant women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Anna; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; de Nazelle, Audrey; Dadvand, Payam; Vrijheid, Martine; Cirach, Marta; Martinez, David; Figueras, Francesc; Querol, Xavier; Basagaña, Xavier; Eeftens, Marloes; Meliefste, Kees; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    AimThe aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between pregnant women's personal exposures to NOx, NO2, PM2.5 concentration and absorbance as a marker for black carbon and their indoor and outdoor concentration levels at their residence, and also to identify predictors of personal exposure and indoor levels using questionnaire and time activity data. MethodWe recruited 54 pregnant women in Barcelona who carried a personal PM2.5 sampler for two days and NOx/NO2 passive badges for one week, while indoor and outdoor PM2.5 and NOx/NO2 levels at their residence were simultaneously measured. Time activity and house characteristics were recorded. Gravimetry determinations for PM2.5 concentration and absorbance measurements were carried out on the PM2.5 filter samples. ResultsLevels of personal exposure to NOx, PM2.5 and absorbance were slightly higher than indoor and outdoor levels (geometric mean of personal NOx = 61.9 vs indoor NOx = 60.6 μg m-3), while for NO2 the indoor levels were slightly higher than the personal ones. Generally, there was a high statistically significant correlation between personal exposure and indoor levels (Spearman's r between 0.78 and 0.84). Women spent more than 60% of their time indoors at home. Ventilation of the house by opening the windows, the time spent cooking and indicators for traffic intensity were re-occurring statistically significant determinants of the personal and indoor pollutants levels with models for NOx explaining the 55% and 60% of the variability respectively, and models for NO2 explaining the 39% and 16% of the variability respectively. Models for PM2.5 and absorbance explained the least of the variability. ConclusionOur findings improve the current understanding of the characterization and inter-associations between personal, indoor and outdoor pollution levels among pregnant women. Variability in personal and indoor NOx and to a lesser extent NO2 levels could be explained well, but not the variability

  11. Guidelines for noise and vibration levels for the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-06-01

    Human habitability noise and vibration guidelines for the Space Station are presented. These were developed by a working group of experts established by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education. Noise exposure limits are suggested that will permit adequate speech communication, sleep, and hearing safety. Vibration exposure limits are suggested which will provide adequate comfort and permit adequate task performance. These are provided for guidance only for setting criteria. The exact criteria will depend on Space Station design and duty cycles.

  12. Guidelines for noise and vibration levels for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Human habitability noise and vibration guidelines for the Space Station are presented. These were developed by a working group of experts established by the Committee on Hearing, Bioacoustics, and Biomechanics (CHABA) of the National Research Council's Commission on Behavioral and Social Science and Education. Noise exposure limits are suggested that will permit adequate speech communication, sleep, and hearing safety. Vibration exposure limits are suggested which will provide adequate comfort and permit adequate task performance. These are provided for guidance only for setting criteria. The exact criteria will depend on Space Station design and duty cycles.

  13. Noise levels in primary schools of medium sized city in Greece.

    PubMed

    Sarantopoulos, George; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-06-01

    This study presents and evaluates noise levels recorded at 15 school complexes in order to describe the indoor as well as the outdoor acoustic environment of schools and gain insight on controlling factors. Noise levels at the roadside in front of the school, the schoolyard, and 41 classrooms, both occupied and unoccupied, were simultaneously and continuously recorded through the course of a daily timetable (08:20-13:10). The average speech noise level of teachers was separately measured for 1min periods. Indoor noise levels, in all cases, were much higher than internationally recommended values: LAeq,5min averaged 69.0dB in occupied classrooms, and 47.1dB in unoccupied ones. Average speech-to-noise ratio (SNR) was estimated to be 12.0dB(A) during teaching, whereas both indoor and outdoor noise levels were significantly elevated during break time and outdoor physical-educational activities. Corresponding measurements of indoor and outdoor noise suggest that noise from the outside (road and schoolyard) affects the background noise level in the classrooms, however in varying degrees, depending on the specific layout and road traffic characteristics. Using double glazing diminishes this effect. PMID:24080075

  14. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet - current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-10-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2, and O3, were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High mixing ratios of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO, and SO2 mixing ratios in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biomass. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 mixing ratios displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 mixing ratios, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 mixing ratios in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 mixing ratios would be expected in the

  15. Surface gas pollutants in Lhasa, a highland city of Tibet: current levels and pollution implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Lin, W. L.; Deji, Y. Z.; La, B.; Tsering, P. M.; Xu, X. B.; Wang, W.

    2014-05-01

    Through several years of development, the city of Lhasa has become one of the most populated and urbanized areas on the highest plateau in the world. In the process of urbanization, current and potential air quality issues have been gradually concerned. To investigate the current status of air pollution in Lhasa, various gas pollutants including NOx, CO, SO2 and O3 were continuously measured from June 2012 to May 2013 at an urban site (29.40° N, 91.08° E, 3650 m a.s.l.). The seasonal variations of primary gas pollutants exhibited a peak from November to January with a large variability. High concentrations of primary trace gases almost exclusively occurred under low wind speed and showed no distinct dependence on wind direction, implying local urban emissions to be predominant. A comparison of NO2, CO and SO2 concentrations in summer between 1998 and 2012 indicated a significant increase in emissions of these gas pollutants and a change in their intercorrelations, as a result of a substantial growth in the demand of energy consumption using fossil fuels instead of previously widely used biofuels. The pronounced diurnal double peaks of primary trace gases in all seasons suggested automobile exhaust to be a major emission source in Lhasa. The secondary gas pollutant O3 displayed an average diurnal cycle of a shallow flat peak for about 4-5 h in the afternoon and a minimum in the early morning. Nighttime O3 was sometimes completely consumed by the high level of NOx. Seasonally, the variations of O3 concentrations displayed a low valley in winter and a peak in spring. In autumn and winter, transport largely contributed to the observed O3 concentrations, given its dependence on wind speed and wind direction, while in spring and summer photochemistry played an important role. A more efficient buildup of O3 concentrations in the morning and a higher peak in the afternoon was found in summer 2012 than in 1998. An enhancement in O3 concentrations would be expected in the

  16. Noise Levels during Aerobics and the Potential Effects on Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torre, Peter, III; Howell, Jennifer C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure noise levels during aerobics classes and to examine how outer hair cell (OHC) function, using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), may be affected by this exposure. Fifty individuals (48 women and 2 men, ages 19-41 years) participated in 50-min aerobics classes. Noise levels were measured…

  17. 33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a noise level survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... filter or equivalent device. (c) If the noise level throughout a space is determined to exceed 85 db(A... the space. (d) If the noise level exceeds 85 db(A) only in a portion of a space, then the...

  18. 33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a noise level survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... filter or equivalent device. (c) If the noise level throughout a space is determined to exceed 85 db(A... the space. (d) If the noise level exceeds 85 db(A) only in a portion of a space, then the...

  19. 33 CFR 149.697 - What are the requirements for a noise level survey?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... filter or equivalent device. (c) If the noise level throughout a space is determined to exceed 85 db(A... the space. (d) If the noise level exceeds 85 db(A) only in a portion of a space, then the...

  20. Nocturnal awakenings due to aircraft noise. Do wake-up reactions begin at sound level 60 dB(A)?

    PubMed

    Maschke, C; Hecht, K; Wolf, U

    2004-01-01

    Night-time wake-up thresholds at noise levels of 60 dB(A) are frequently employed in Germany to establish "noise polluted areas". The criterion is, however, based on an incorrect processing of statistical data gathered from an evaluation of literature performed by Griefahn et al. (1976). This finding has emerged from an extensive revision of the study. Using appropriate statistical methods, maximum levels of under 48 dB(A) are assessed as waking-up thresholds at ear level in sleeping persons, in contrast to maximum levels of 60 dB(A) calculated by Griefahn et al. in 1976. The linear dose-response relationship, which in the course of the revision could be derived from the early publications, agrees with the results of more recent literature evaluations. The present contribution is not intended to give rise to the question whether in the interest of medical prevention it is reasonable to develop night-time protective policies merely founded on noise levels marking the "statistical" onset of nocturnal wake-up reactions. In this context, emphasis is laid on the deformation of the biological rhythm of sleep. PMID:15703138

  1. Reduction of Classroom Noise Levels Using Group Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Brandon M.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Eubanks, Sean L.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated noise standards. Participants…

  2. Sensor noise in low-level flux-gate magnetometers.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scouten, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The noise mechanism in a well-designed magnetometer is shown to be due to small-scale magnetic moments which are probably small volumes of the core material that are not oriented by the drive field. Design developments include the sense coil radius and the development of a drive waveform which yields considerably improved performance over the commonly used sine wave drive.

  3. Noise Levels and Annoyance in Open Plan Educational Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, David P.

    1975-01-01

    This paper investigates the special considerations in defining an acoustical environment acceptable for educational purposes. Reviews various approaches for anticipating the degree of dissatisfaction or annoyance in school spaces, including statistical distributions of class noise, and deals with some design recommendations. (Author/MLF)

  4. Pure-tone audiometric threshold assessment with in-ear monitoring of noise levels

    PubMed Central

    Buckey, Jay C.; Fellows, Abigail M.; Jastrzembski, Benjamin G.; Maro, Isaac I.; Moshi, Ndeserua; Turk, Marvee; Clavier, Odile H.; Kline-Schoder, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to obtain reliable threshold measurements without a sound booth by using a passive noise-attenuating hearing protector combined with in-ear 1/3-octave band noise measurements to verify the ear canal was suitably quiet. Design We deployed laptop-based hearing testing systems to Tanzania as part of a study of HIV infection and hearing. An in-ear probe containing a microphone was used under the hearing protector for both the in-ear noise measurements and threshold audiometry. The 1/3-octave band noise spectrum from the microphone was displayed on the operator’s screen with acceptable levels in grey and unacceptable levels in red. Operators attempted to make all bars grey, but focused on achieving grey bars at 2000 Hz and above. Study Sample 624 adults and 260 children provided 3381 in-ear octave band measurements. Repeated measurements from 144 individuals who returned for testing on 3 separate occasions were also analyzed. Results In-ear noise levels exceeded the minimal permissible ambient noise levels (MPANL) for ears not covered, but not the dB SPL levels corresponding to 0 dB HL between 2–4 kHz. In-ear noise measurements were repeatable over time. Conclusions Reliable audiometry can be performed using a passive noise-attenuating hearing protector and in-ear noise measurements. PMID:23992487

  5. Assessment of noise levels in 200 Mosques in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Shimemeri, S. A.; Patel, Chirag B.; Abdulrahman, Al Fayez

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a recognized concern within the context of occupational and general health. However, noise levels are seldom studied at nonworkplace and nonabode sites that are visited regularly, e.g., places of worship. The purpose of this study was to assess the noise levels inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms and to compare the levels with established noise tolerance limits. Materials and Methods: A portable digital sound level meter was used to determine the noise level (measured in dB) inside and outside of mosque prayer rooms. The highest (peak) and lowest noise levels from each recording were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using a two-tailed Student's t-test (alpha = 0.05). Results: Noise levels were measured at 200 mosque prayer rooms from all 15 municipal districts of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Of these, 151 prayer rooms (75.5%) had both inside and outside noise measurements and the remaining 49 prayer rooms (24.5%) had only inside noise measurements. There was significantly greater noise outside compared to inside the prayer rooms, for both the highest noise level (outside: 87.8 ± 4.8 dB compared to inside: 85.8 ± 5.4 dB, P < 0.0001) and lowest noise level (outside: 58.4 ± 3.8 dB compared to inside: 56.6 ± 3.6 dB, P < 0.00001). In all, 112 of the inside highest level measurements (56%) and 113 of the outside highest level measurements (74.8%) were greater than 85 dB, the sound level at which NIHL has been shown to occur in occupational settings. Conclusion: A large proportion (56%) of mosque prayer rooms with inside peak noise measurements were above acceptable levels (85 dB), however, prayers certainly do not last for 8 continuous hours. Therefore, the level of noise at mosques is acceptable and in compliance with international norms of hearing safety; moreover, it does not present any risk to hearing in the long run. PMID:23210007

  6. Effects of broadband noise on cortical evoked auditory responses at different loudness levels in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mridula; Purdy, Suzanne C; Munro, Kevin J; Sawaya, Kathleen; Peter, Varghese

    2014-03-26

    Young adults with no history of hearing concerns were tested to investigate their /da/-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (P1-N1-P2) recorded from 32 scalp electrodes in the presence and absence of noise at three different loudness levels (soft, comfortable, and loud), at a fixed signal-to-noise ratio (+3 dB). P1 peak latency significantly increased at soft and loud levels, and N1 and P2 latencies increased at all three levels in the presence of noise, compared with the quiet condition. P1 amplitude was significantly larger in quiet than in noise conditions at the loudest level. N1 amplitude was larger in quiet than in noise for the soft level only. P2 amplitude was reduced in the presence of noise to a similar degree at all loudness levels. The differential effects of noise on P1, N1, and P2 suggest differences in auditory processes underlying these peaks. The combination of level and signal-to-noise ratio should be considered when using cortical auditory evoked potentials as an electrophysiological indicator of degraded speech processing. PMID:24323122

  7. Effects of pedagogical ideology on the perceived loudness and noise levels in preschools.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Valdis; Rantala, Leena M; Oskarsson, Gudmundur Kr; Sala, Eeva

    2015-01-01

    High activity noise levels that result in detrimental effects on speech communication have been measured in preschools. To find out if different pedagogical ideologies affect the perceived loudness and levels of noise, a questionnaire study inquiring about the experience of loudness and voice symptoms was carried out in Iceland in eight private preschools, called "Hjalli model", and in six public preschools. Noise levels were also measured in the preschools. Background variables (stress level, age, length of working career, education, smoking, and number of children per teacher) were also analyzed in order to determine how much they contributed toward voice symptoms and the experience of noisiness. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting noise and its consequences. Teachers in the preschool with tighter pedagogical control of discipline (the "Hjalli model") experienced lower activity noise loudness than teachers in the preschool with a more relaxed control of behavior (public preschool). Lower noise levels were also measured in the "Hjalli model" preschool and fewer "Hjalli model" teachers reported voice symptoms. Public preschool teachers experienced more stress than "Hjalli model" teachers and the stress level was, indeed, the background variable that best explained the voice symptoms and the teacher's perception of a noisy environment. Discipline, structure, and organization in the type of activity predicted the activity noise level better than the number of children in the group. Results indicate that pedagogical ideology is a significant factor for predicting self-reported noise and its consequences. PMID:26356370

  8. Noise levels and data correction analysis for seven general aviation propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. W.; Rickley, E. J.

    1980-09-01

    This document reports noise levels of a general aviation propeller aircraft noise test at the FAA National Aviation Facility Experimental Center located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The test was performed to acquire noise data on general aviation type aircraft and examine how these noise levels are influenced by variables such as distance, aircraft speed, power settings, and propeller speeds. Aircraft were tested during takeoff, approach, and flyover modes and data are given in EPNL and in "A"-weighted decibels. All measurements were performed in accordance with FAR 36 Appendix C and Appendix F procedures.

  9. Assessing the Underwater Ship Noise Levels in the North Tyrrhenian Sea.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Eduardo; Licitra, Gaetano; Iacoponi, Andrea; Taburni, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the anthropic underwater noise caused by ships within the Cetacean Sanctuary, a wide area in the North Tyrrhenian Sea. Noise from low-frequency continuous sounds has been investigated within the 1/3-octave bands centered at 63 and 125 Hz. All the information about noise sources and sound attenuation have been organized in a database; a tool automatically extracts useful information from it and feeds a ray-tracing model to estimate noise levels. The results show average levels generally over the 100 dB re 1 μPa value. PMID:26611053

  10. Adaptive non-local means filtering based on local noise level for CT denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.; Manduca, Armando

    2012-03-01

    Radiation dose from CT scans is an increasing health concern in the practice of radiology. Higher dose scans can produce clearer images with high diagnostic quality, but may increase the potential risk of radiation-induced cancer or other side effects. Lowering radiation dose alone generally produces a noisier image and may degrade diagnostic performance. Recently, CT dose reduction based on non-local means (NLM) filtering for noise reduction has yielded promising results. However, traditional NLM denoising operates under the assumption that image noise is spatially uniform noise, while in CT images the noise level varies significantly within and across slices. Therefore, applying NLM filtering to CT data using a global filtering strength cannot achieve optimal denoising performance. In this work, we have developed a technique for efficiently estimating the local noise level for CT images, and have modified the NLM algorithm to adapt to local variations in noise level. The local noise level estimation technique matches the true noise distribution determined from multiple repetitive scans of a phantom object very well. The modified NLM algorithm provides more effective denoising of CT data throughout a volume, and may allow significant lowering of radiation dose. Both the noise map calculation and the adaptive NLM filtering can be performed in times that allow integration with the clinical workflow.