Science.gov

Sample records for noise reduction efforts

  1. Objective Measures of Listening Effort: Effects of Background Noise and Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarampalis, Anastasios; Kalluri, Sridhar; Edwards, Brent; Hafter, Ervin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This work is aimed at addressing a seeming contradiction related to the use of noise-reduction (NR) algorithms in hearing aids. The problem is that although some listeners claim a subjective improvement from NR, it has not been shown to improve speech intelligibility, often even making it worse. Method: To address this, the hypothesis…

  2. Listening effort and perceived clarity for normal hearing children with the use of digital noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Samantha; McCreery, Ryan; Hoover, Brenda; Kopun, Judy G; Stelmachowicz, Pat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to evaluate how digital noise reduction (DNR) impacts listening effort and judgment of sound clarity in children with normal hearing. It was hypothesized that, when two DNR algorithms differing in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) output are compared, the algorithm which provides the greatest improvement in overall output SNR will reduce listening effort and receive a better clarity rating from child listeners. A secondary goal was to evaluate the relation between the inversion method measurements and listening effort with DNR processing. Design Twenty-four children with normal hearing (ages 7-12 years) participated in a speech recognition task in which consonant-vowel-consonant nonwords were presented in broadband background noise. Test stimuli were recorded through two hearing aids with DNR-off and DNR-on at 0 dB and +5 dB input SNR. Stimuli were presented to listeners and verbal response time (VRT) and phoneme recognition scores were measured. The underlying assumption was that an increase in VRT reflects an in increase in listening effort. Children rated the sound clarity for each condition. The two commercially available HAs were chosen based on: 1) an inversion technique which was used to quantify the magnitude of change in SNR with the activation of DNR, and 2) a measure of magnitude-squared coherence which was used to ensure that DNR in both devices preserved the spectrum. Results One device provided a greater improvement in overall output SNR than the other. Both DNR algorithms resulted in minimal spectral distortion as measured using coherence. For both devices, VRT decreased for the DNR-on condition suggesting that listening effort decreased with DNR in both devices. Clarity ratings were also better in the DNR-on condition for both devices. The device showing the greatest improvement in output SNR with DNR engaged improved phoneme recognition scores. The magnitude of this improved phoneme recognition was not accurately

  3. Effects of noise reduction on speech intelligibility, perceived listening effort, and personal preference in hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the perceptual effects of single-microphone noise reduction in hearing aids. Twenty subjects with moderate sensorineural hearing loss listened to speech in babble noise processed via noise reduction from three different linearly fitted hearing aids. Subjects performed (a) speech-intelligibility tests, (b) listening-effort ratings, and (c) paired-comparison ratings on noise annoyance, speech naturalness, and overall preference. The perceptual effects of noise reduction differ between hearing aids. The results agree well with those of normal-hearing listeners in a previous study. None of the noise-reduction algorithms improved speech intelligibility, but all reduced the annoyance of noise. The noise reduction that scored best with respect to noise annoyance and preference had the worst intelligibility scores. The trade-off between intelligibility and listening comfort shows that preference measurements might be useful in addition to intelligibility measurements in the selection of noise reduction. Additionally, this trade-off should be taken into consideration to create realistic expectations in hearing-aid users. PMID:25315377

  4. Core Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation is a technical summary of and outlook for NASA-internal and NASA-sponsored external research on core (combustor and turbine) noise funded by the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project. Sections of the presentation cover: the SFW system-level noise metrics for the 2015, 2020, and 2025 timeframes; turbofan design trends and their aeroacoustic implications; the emerging importance of core noise and its relevance to the SFW Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge; and the current research activities in the core noise area. Recent work1 on the turbine-transmission loss of combustor noise is briefly described, two2,3 new NRA efforts in the core-noise area are outlined, and an effort to develop CMC-based acoustic liners for broadband noise reduction suitable for turbofan-core application is delineated. The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program has the principal objective of overcoming today's national challenges in air transportation. The reduction of aircraft noise is critical to enabling the anticipated large increase in future air traffic. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project's Reduce-Perceived-Noise Technical Challenge aims to develop concepts and technologies to dramatically reduce the perceived aircraft noise outside of airport boundaries.

  5. Emerging Community Noise Reduction Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the current NASA research portfolio in the area of aircraft noise reduction is presented. The emphasis of the research described herein is on meeting the aggressive near- and mid-term national goals for reducing aircraft noise emissions, which NASA internal studies have shown to be feasible using noise reduction technologies currently being developed in-house or in partnership with NASA s industry and academic partners. While NASA has an active research effort in airframe noise reduction, this overview focuses on propulsion noise reduction only.

  6. Television noise reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, B. L.; Stamps, J. C. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A noise reduction system that divides the color video signal into its luminance and chrominance components is reported. The luminance component of a given frame is summed with the luminance component of at least one preceding frame which was stored on a disc recorder. The summation is carried out so as to achieve a signal amplitude equivalent to that of the original signal. The averaged luminance signal is then recombined with the chrominance signal to achieve a noise-reduced television signal.

  7. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  8. Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    The Acoustics Branch is responsible for reducing noise levels for jet and fan components on aircraft engines. To do this, data must be measured and calibrated accurately to ensure validity of test results. This noise reduction is accomplished by modifications to hardware such as jet nozzles, and by the use of other experimental hardware such as fluidic chevrons, elliptic cores, and fluidic shields. To insure validity of data calibration, a variety of software is used. This software adjusts the sound amplitude and frequency to be consistent with data taken on another day. Both the software and the hardware help make noise reduction possible. work properly. These software programs were designed to make corrections for atmosphere, shear, attenuation, electronic, and background noise. All data can be converted to a one-foot lossless condition, using the proper software corrections, making a reading independent of weather and distance. Also, data can be transformed from model scale to full scale for noise predictions of a real flight. Other programs included calculations of Over All Sound Pressure Level (OASPL), Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL). OASPL is the integration of sound with respect to frequency, and EPNL is weighted for a human s response to different sound frequencies and integrated with respect to time. With the proper software correction, data taken in the NATR are useful in determining ways to reduce noise. display any difference between two or more data files. Using this program and graphs of the data, the actual and predicted data can be compared. This software was tested on data collected at the Aero Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory (AAPL) using a variety of window types and overlaps. Similarly, short scripts were written to test each individual program in the software suite for verification. Each graph displays both the original points and the adjusted points connected with lines. During this summer, data points were taken during a live experiment

  9. NASA's Subsonic Jet Transport Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Preisser, John S.

    2000-01-01

    Although new jet transport airplanes in today s fleet are considerably quieter than the first jet transports introduced about 40 years ago, airport community noise continues to be an important environmental issue. NASA s Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) Noise Reduction program was begun in 1994 as a seven-year effort to develop technology to reduce jet transport noise 10 dB relative to 1992 technology. This program provides for reductions in engine source noise, improvements in nacelle acoustic treatments, reductions in the noise generated by the airframe, and improvements in the way airplanes are operated in the airport environs. These noise reduction efforts will terminate at the end of 2001 and it appears that the objective will be met. However, because of an anticipated 3-8% growth in passenger and cargo operations well into the 21st Century and the slow introduction of new the noise reduction technology into the fleet, world aircraft noise impact will remain essentially constant until about 2020 to 2030 and thereafter begin to rise. Therefore NASA has begun planning with the Federal Aviation Administration, industry, universities and environmental interest groups in the USA for a new noise reduction initiative to provide technology for significant further reductions.

  10. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  11. Technologies for Turbofan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    An overview presentation of NASA's engine noise research since 1992 is given for subsonic commercial aircraft applications. Highlights are included from the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project with emphasis on engine source noise reduction. Noise reduction goals for 10 EPNdB by 207 and 20 EPNdB by 2022 are reviewed. Fan and jet noise technologies are highlighted from the AST program including higher bypass ratio propulsion, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept/leaned stators, chevron nozzles, noise prediction methods, and active noise control for fans. Source diagnostic tests for fans and jets that have been completed over the past few years are presented showing how new flow measurement methods such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have played a key role in understanding turbulence, the noise generation process, and how to improve noise prediction methods. Tests focused on source decomposition have helped identify which engine components need further noise reduction. The role of Computational AeroAcoustics (CAA) for fan noise prediction is presented. Advanced noise reduction methods such as Hershel-Quincke tubes and trailing edge blowing for fan noise that are currently being pursued n the QAT program are also presented. Highlights are shown form engine validation and flight demonstrations that were done in the late 1990's with Pratt & Whitney on their PW4098 engine and Honeywell on their TFE-731-60 engine. Finally, future propulsion configurations currently being studied that show promise towards meeting NASA's long term goal of 20 dB noise reduction are shown including a Dual Fan Engine concept on a Blended Wing Body aircraft.

  12. Noise Reduction by Signal Accumulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the noise reduction by signal accumulation can be accomplished with a data acquisition system. This topic can be used for student projects. In many cases, the noise reduction is an unavoidable part of experimentation. Several techniques are known for this purpose, and among them the signal accumulation is the…

  13. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  14. The Airframe Noise Reduction Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhard, David P.; Lilley, Geoffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA goal of reducing external aircraft noise by 10 dB in the near-term presents the acoustics community with an enormous challenge. This report identifies technologies with the greatest potential to reduce airframe noise. Acoustic and aerodynamic effects will be discussed, along with the likelihood of industry accepting and implementing the different technologies. We investigate the lower bound, defined as noise generated by an aircraft modified with a virtual retrofit capable of eliminating all noise associated with the high lift system and landing gear. However, the airframe noise of an aircraft in this 'clean' configuration would only be about 8 dB quieter on approach than current civil transports. To achieve the NASA goal of 10 dB noise reduction will require that additional noise sources be addressed. Research shows that energy in the turbulent boundary layer of a wing is scattered as it crosses trailing edge. Noise generated by scattering is the dominant noise mechanism on an aircraft flying in the clean configuration. Eliminating scattering would require changes to much of the aircraft, and practical reduction devices have yet to receive serious attention. Evidence suggests that to meet NASA goals in civil aviation noise reduction, we need to employ emerging technologies and improve landing procedures; modified landing patterns and zoning restrictions could help alleviate aircraft noise in communities close to airports.

  15. Comparison of noise reduction systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, S. D.; Whitaker, R. W.

    1991-06-01

    When using infrasound as a tool for verification, the most important measurement to determine yield has been the peak-to-peak pressure amplitude of the signal. Therefore, there is a need to operate at the most favorable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) possible. Winds near the ground can degrade the SNR, thereby making accurate signal amplitude measurement difficult. Wind noise reduction techniques were developed to help alleviate this problem; however, a noise reducing system should reduce the noise, and should not introduce distortion of coherent signals. An experiment is described to study system response for a variety of noise reducing configurations to a signal generated by an underground test (UGT) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). In addition to the signal, background noise reduction is examined through measurements of variance. Sensors using two particular geometries of noise reducing equipment, the spider and the cross appear to deliver the best SNR. Because the spider configuration is easier to deploy, it is now the most commonly used.

  16. Noise reduction experience at Hughes Helicopter, Inc.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janakiram, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Noise reduction is mostly limited to light helicopters whose noise signature is dominated by their tail rotors. It is primarily hardware oriented. Well known noise reduction techniques such as reduction of rotor speeds with an accompanying increase in solidity to maintain performance, engine noise reduction with the use of exhaust mufflers, and acoustic blanketing of transmission and engine compartment are used. The concept of blade phasing as a means of reducing tail rotor noise is also used. Engine noise (exhaust noise), power train noise and airframe noise becomes important at low rotor tip speeds and means must be found to reduce these noise sources if further noise reductions are desired. The use of a special test rig aids in isolating the various noise sources and arriving at the penalties (performance or payload) involved in quieting them. Significant noise reduction are achieved for the light helicopter with minimum performance or weight penalties because of the dominance of a single noise source (the tail rotor).

  17. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  18. Supersonic jet shock noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Shock-cell noise is identified to be a potentially significant problem for advanced supersonic aircraft at takeoff. Therefore NASA conducted fundamental studies of the phenomena involved and model-scale experiments aimed at developing means of noise reduction. The results of a series of studies conducted to determine means by which supersonic jet shock noise can be reduced to acceptable levels for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft are reviewed. Theoretical studies were conducted on the shock associated noise of supersonic jets from convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles. Laboratory studies were conducted on the influence of narrowband shock screech on broadband noise and on means of screech reduction. The usefulness of C-D nozzle passages was investigated at model scale for single-stream and dual-stream nozzles. The effect of off-design pressure ratio was determined under static and simulated flight conditions for jet temperatures up to 960 K. Annular and coannular flow passages with center plugs and multi-element suppressor nozzles were evaluated, and the effect of plug tip geometry was established. In addition to the far-field acoustic data, mean and turbulent velocity distributions were measured with a laser velocimeter, and shadowgraph images of the flow field were obtained.

  19. Noise Reduction of Aircraft Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V. (Inventor); Brooks, Thomas F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A reduction in noise radiating from a side of a deployed aircraft flap is achieved by locating a slot adjacent the side of the flap, and then forcing air out through the slot with a suitable mechanism. One, two or even three or more slots are possible, where the slot is located at one;or more locations selected from a group of locations comprising a top surface of the flap, a bottom surface of the flap, an intersection of the top and side surface of the flap, an intersection of the bottom and side surfaces of the flap, and a side surface of the flap. In at least one embodiment the slot is substantially rectangular. A device for adjusting a rate of the air forced out through the slot can also be provided.

  20. Active{sup 3} noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-06-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The airport-noise levels and annoyance model (ALAMO) developed at NASA Langley Research Center is comprised of a system of computer programs which is capable of quantifying airport community noise impact in terms of noise level, population distribution, and human subjective response to noise. The ALAMO can be used to compare the noise impact of an airport's current operating scenario with the noise impact which would result from some proposed change in airport operations. The relative effectiveness of number of noise-impact reduction alternatives is assessed for a major midwest airport. Significant reductions in noise impact are predicted for certain noise abatement strategies while others are shown to result in relatively little noise relief.

  2. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  3. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  4. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  5. Noise reduction of a table saw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, John

    2002-05-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is sponsoring a design project to address the noise levels that commonly exist at construction worksites. Through engineering control, the problem of noise emission from a table saw will be addressed. The noise emitting sources will be pinpointed using a sound pressure level meter. With this knowledge, the next step will be to reduce the sound pressure levels at the noise sources. This will be done by using noise reduction techniques such as insulation, and vibration dampening. The goal is to reduce the noise emission to a level between 85 and 90 dB(A).

  6. Television noise-reduction device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamps, J. C.; Gordon, B. L.

    1973-01-01

    System greatly improves signal-to-noise ratio with little or no loss in picture resolution. By storage of luminance component, which is summed with chrominance component, system performs mathematical integration of basically-repetitive television signals. Integration of signals over interval of their repetition causes little change in original signals and eliminates random noise.

  7. UHB engine fan broadband noise reduction study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-06-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  8. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  9. Noise Reduction Technologies for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2007-01-01

    Significant progress continues to be made with noise reduction for turbofan engines. NASA has conducted and sponsored research aimed at reducing noise from commercial aircraft. Since it takes many years for technologies to be developed and implemented, it is important to have aggressive technology goals that lead the target entry into service dates. Engine noise is one of the major contributors to the overall sound levels as aircraft operate near airports. Turbofan engines are commonly used on commercial transports due to their advantage for higher performance and lower noise. The noise reduction comes from combinations of changes to the engine cycle parameters and low noise design features. In this paper, an overview of major accomplishments from recent NASA research programs for engine noise will be given.

  10. Fish Hatchery Noise Levels and Noise Reduction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Barnes, M E; Hewitt, C R; Parker, T M

    2015-07-01

    This study examined occupational noise within two rearing facilities at a production fish hatchery and evaluated two simple noise reduction techniques. Ambient noise levels in the hatchery tank room ranged from 50 dB in the absence of flowing water to over 73 dB when water was flowing to all 35 tanks under typical hatchery operating procedures. Covering the open standpipes did not significantly reduce noise levels. However, placing partial tank covers over the top of the tanks above the water inlet significantly reduced noise levels, both with and without the use of standpipe covers. Noise levels in the salmon building rose from 43.2 dB without any flowing water to 77.5 dB with water flowing to all six in-ground tanks. Significant noise reductions were observed when the tanks were completely covered or with standpipe covers. Decibel levels showed the greatest reduction when the tanks and standpipes were both covered. These results indicate that occupational noise levels in aquaculture environments may be reduced through the use of simple and relatively inexpensive techniques. PMID:26373216

  11. Airfoil noise reductions through leading edge serrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, S.; Chaitanya, P.; Haeri, S.; Joseph, P.; Kim, J. W.; Polacsek, C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an experimental investigation into the use of leading edge (LE) serrations as a means of reducing the broadband noise generated due to the interaction between the aerofoil's LE and impinging turbulence. Experiments are performed on a flat plate in an open jet wind tunnel. Grids are used to generate isotropic homogeneous turbulence. The leading edge serrations are in the form of sinusoidal profiles of wavelengths, λ, and amplitudes, 2h. The frequency and amplitude characteristics are studied in detail in order to understand the effect of LE serrations on noise reduction characteristics and are compared with straight edge baseline flat plates. Noise reductions are found to be insignificant at low frequencies but significant in the mid frequency range (500 Hz-8 kHz) for all the cases studied. The flat plate results are also compared to the noise reductions obtained on a serrated NACA-65 aerofoil with the same serration profile. Noise reductions are found to be significantly higher for the flat plates with a maximum noise reduction of around 9 dB compared with about 7 dB for the aerofoil. In general, it is observed that the sound power reduction level (ΔPWL) is sensitive to the amplitude, 2h of the LE serrations but less sensitive to the serration wavelength, λ. Thus, this paper sufficiently demonstrates that the LE amplitude acts as a key parameter for enhancing the noise reduction levels in flat plates and aerofoils.

  12. A study of helicopter interior noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.

    1975-01-01

    The interior noise levels of existing helicopters are discussed along with an ongoing experimental program directed towards reducing these levels. Results of several noise and vibration measurements on Langley Research Center's Civil Helicopter Research Aircraft are presented, including measurements taken before and after installation of an acoustically-treated cabin. The predominant noise source in this helicopter is the first stage planetary gear-clash in the main gear box, both before and after installation of the acoustically treated cabin. Noise reductions of up to 20 db in some octave bands may be required in order to obtain interior noise levels comparable to commercial jet transports.

  13. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis; Gliebe, Philip

    2003-01-01

    Highlights from NASA-funded research over the past ten years for aircraft engine noise reduction are presented showing overall technical plans, accomplishments, and selected applications to turbofan engines. The work was sponsored by NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. Emphasis is given to only the engine noise reduction research and significant accomplishments that were investigated at Technology Readiness Levels ranging from 4 to 6. The Engine Noise Reduction sub-element was divided into four work areas: source noise prediction, model scale tests, engine validation, and active noise control. Highlights from each area include technologies for higher bypass ratio turbofans, scarf inlets, forward-swept fans, swept and leaned stators, chevron/tabbed nozzles, advanced noise prediction analyses, and active noise control for fans. Finally, an industry perspective is given from General Electric Aircraft Engines showing how these technologies are being applied to commercial products. This publication contains only presentation vu-graphs from an invited lecture given at the 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, January 6-9, 2003.

  14. Airframe noise reduction studies and clean-airframe noise investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, M. R.; Bailey, D. A.

    1980-04-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted of a wing model with modified leading edge slat and trailing edge flap. The modifications were intended to reduce the surface pressure response to convected turbulence and thereby reduce the airframe noise without changing the lift at constant incidence. Tests were conducted at 70.7 and 100 m/sec airspeeds, with Reynolds numbers 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.1 x 10 to the 6th power. Considerable reduction of noise radiation from the side edges of a 40 deflection single slotted flap was achieved by modification to the side edge regions or the leading edge region of the flap panel. Total far field noise was reduced 2 to 3 dB over several octaves of frequency. When these panels were installed as the aft panel of a 40 deg deflection double slotted flap, 2 dB noise reduction was achieved.

  15. Airframe Noise Reduction Studies and Clean-Airframe Noise Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, M. R.; Bailey, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    Acoustic wind tunnel tests were conducted of a wing model with modified leading edge slat and trailing edge flap. The modifications were intended to reduce the surface pressure response to convected turbulence and thereby reduce the airframe noise without changing the lift at constant incidence. Tests were conducted at 70.7 and 100 m/sec airspeeds, with Reynolds numbers 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power and 2.1 x 10 to the 6th power. Considerable reduction of noise radiation from the side edges of a 40 deflection single slotted flap was achieved by modification to the side edge regions or the leading edge region of the flap panel. Total far field noise was reduced 2 to 3 dB over several octaves of frequency. When these panels were installed as the aft panel of a 40 deg deflection double slotted flap, 2 dB noise reduction was achieved.

  16. Noise Reduction Through Circulation Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, Scott E.; Ahuja, K. K.; Englar, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    Circulation control technology uses tangential blowing around a rounded trailing edge or a leading edge to change the force and moment characteristics of an aerodynamic body. This technology has been applied to circular cylinders, wings, helicopter rotors, and even to automobiles for improved aerodynamic performance. Only limited research has been conducted on the acoustic of this technology. Since wing flaps contribute to the environmental noise of an aircraft, an alternate blown high lift system without complex mechanical flaps could prove beneficial in reducing the noise of an approaching aircraft. Thus, in this study, a direct comparison of the acoustic characteristics of high lift systems employing a circulation control wing configuration and a conventional wing flapped configuration has been made. These results indicate that acoustically, a circulation control wing high lift system could be considerably more acceptable than a wing with conventional mechanical flaps.

  17. Flap Edge Noise Reduction Fins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhan, Meelan M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A flap of the type that is movably connected to an aircraft wing to provide control of an aircraft in flight includes opposite ends, wherein at least a first opposite end includes a plurality of substantially rigid, laterally extending protrusions that are spaced apart to form a plurality of fluidly interconnected passageways. The passageways have openings adjacent to upper and lower sides of the flap, and the passageways include a plurality of bends such that high pressure fluid flows from a high pressure region to a low pressure region to provide a boundary condition that inhibits noise resulting from airflow around the end of the flap.

  18. Feedback Control for Noise Reduction Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Langley Research Center's continuing noise reduction program, an active noise control system (ANC) is being developed to suppress noise inside an aircraft cabin. This interior noise reduction system consists of the following major components: 1. Several accelerometers. 2. An input amplifier. 3. A digital signal processor (DSP) system that includes an analog to digital converter (ADC) and a digital to analog converter (DAC). 4. A high voltage power amplifier. 5. PZT actuators. 6. Power supply and distribution. The accelerometers detect interior panel vibrations. The accelerometer signals are fed to the input amplifier where they are conditioned prior to being sent to the ADC. The DSP receives the digitized signals form the ADC, processes these signals, and sends the result to the DAC. The DAC's analog output is used as input to the high voltage power amplifier. The power amplifier drives the PZT actuators to cancel noise form 50 to 1,300 Hz. The specific area of concern for this work was development of a DSP system that could be used for an actual flight demonstration. It was decided to base the system on a commercially available DSP board, the Spectrum Digital eZdsp. This was complicated by the fact that the ADC and DAC capabilities available on the eZdsp board were not sufficient to meet the system specification. Designing and fabricating a special ADC and DAC daughter card for the eZdsp circumvented this problem. The DSP system hardware has been successfully tested and is currently being integrated into the complete noise reduction system. This work has been completed in collaboration with another ASEE Fellow, Dr.William Edmonson from Hampton University and was conducted under the direction of the principle investigator, Dr. Qamar A. Shams of the Instrumentation Systems Development Branch, as part of a continuing noise reduction program.

  19. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  20. Acoustically swept rotor. [helicopter noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Boxwell, D. A.; Vause, R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Impulsive noise reduction is provided in a rotor blade by acoustically sweeping the chord line from root to tip so that the acoustic radiation resulting from the summation of potential singularities used to model the flow about the blade tend to cancel for all times at an observation point in the acoustic far field.

  1. Airport noise impact reduction through operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, R.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of various aeronautical, operational, and land-use noise impact reduction alternatives are assessed for a major midwestern airport. Specifically, the relative effectiveness of adding sound absorbing material to aircraft engines, imposing curfews, and treating houses with acoustic insulation are examined.

  2. Prediction of Landing Gear Noise Reduction and Comparison to Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopes, Leonard V.

    2010-01-01

    Noise continues to be an ongoing problem for existing aircraft in flight and is projected to be a concern for next generation designs. During landing, when the engines are operating at reduced power, the noise from the airframe, of which landing gear noise is an important part, is equal to the engine noise. There are several methods of predicting landing gear noise, but none have been applied to predict the change in noise due to a change in landing gear design. The current effort uses the Landing Gear Model and Acoustic Prediction (LGMAP) code, developed at The Pennsylvania State University to predict the noise from landing gear. These predictions include the influence of noise reduction concepts on the landing gear noise. LGMAP is compared to wind tunnel experiments of a 6.3%-scale Boeing 777 main gear performed in the Quiet Flow Facility (QFF) at NASA Langley. The geometries tested in the QFF include the landing gear with and without a toboggan fairing and the door. It is shown that LGMAP is able to predict the noise directives and spectra from the model-scale test for the baseline configuration as accurately as current gear prediction methods. However, LGMAP is also able to predict the difference in noise caused by the toboggan fairing and by removing the landing gear door. LGMAP is also compared to far-field ground-based flush-mounted microphone measurements from the 2005 Quiet Technology Demonstrator 2 (QTD 2) flight test. These comparisons include a Boeing 777-300ER with and without a toboggan fairing that demonstrate that LGMAP can be applied to full-scale flyover measurements. LGMAP predictions of the noise generated by the nose gear on the main gear measurements are also shown.

  3. Noise reduction of diesel engine for heavy duty vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Y.; Arai, S.

    1989-01-01

    Noise reduction of diesel engines installed in heavy duty vehicles is one of the highest priorities from the viewpoints of meeting the regulations for urban traffic noise abatement and noise reduction in the cabin for lightening fatigue with comfortable long driving. It is necessary that noise reduction measures then be applied to those causes. All noise reduction measures for the diesel engine researched for the purpose of practical use are described in this paper.

  4. On the way to extended noise reductions in propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiers, R. F. C.

    1984-08-01

    Origins of cabin noise in propeller driven aircraft (PDE) and the importance of further reductions are described. Trends in propeller technology and fuselage construction are aimed at the development of extremely fuel-efficient PDE. However, the related increase of cabin noise levels urges the extension of noise reduction in PDE. Fokker noise reduction methodology for meeting the challenge of maintaining and improving noise levels in future PDE is discussed. Additional noise reduction is hard to obtain. Sophisticated techniques were used to acquire the necessary data and take effective noise reduction measures.

  5. Combat aircraft noise reduction by technical measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, M.; Kennepohl, F.; Heinig, K.

    1992-04-01

    The noise of combat aircraft during low level flight is dominated by the jet. Technical noise reduction measures must therefore reduce the specific thrust of the engine. This can be achieved by altering the engine cycle or by using secondary air to increase the mass flow though the nozzle. In the first part the influence of nozzle area, bypass ratio and variable cycle features on the specific thrust of modern fighter engines is shown. The effects on noise, thrust and fuel consumption are discussed. In the second part ejector-mixer nozzles and the aft-fan are considered. Both reduce the jet velocity by entraining air through secondary inlets and expelling it together with the engine's exhaust flow through a common nozzle.

  6. Fluidic Chevrons for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin; Henderson, Brenda; Whitmire, Julia

    2004-01-01

    Chevron mixing devices are used to reduce noise from commercial separate-flow turbofan engines. Mechanical chevron serrations at the nozzle trailing edge generate axial vorticity that enhances jet plume mixing and consequently reduces far-field noise. Fluidic chevrons generated with air injected near the nozzle trailing edge create a vorticity field similar to that of the mechanical chevrons and allow more flexibility in controlling acoustic and thrust performance than a passive mechanical design. In addition, the design of such a system has the future potential for actively controlling jet noise by pulsing or otherwise optimally distributing the injected air. Scale model jet noise experiments have been performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel to investigate the fluidic chevron concept. Acoustic data from different fluidic chevron designs are shown. Varying degrees of noise reduction are achieved depending on the injection pattern and injection flow conditions. CFD results were used to select design concepts that displayed axial vorticity growth similar to that associated with mechanical chevrons and qualitatively describe the air injection flow and the impact on acoustic performance.

  7. Distributed Exhaust Nozzles for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Gaeta, R. J.; Hellman, B.; Schein, D. B.; Solomon, W. D., Jr.; Huff, Dennis (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to validate the jet noise reduction potential of a concept associated with distributed exhaust nozzles. Under this concept the propulsive thrust is generated by a larger number of discrete plumes issuing from an array of small or mini-nozzles. The potential of noise reduction of this concept stems from the fact that a large number of small jets will produce very high frequency noise and also, if spaced suitably, they will coalesce at a smaller velocity to produce low amplitude, low frequency noise. This is accomplished through detailed acoustic and fluid measurements along with a Computational Fluidic Dynamic (CFD) solution of the mean (DE) Distributed Exhaust nozzle flowfield performed by Northrop-Grumman. The acoustic performance is quantified in an anechoic chamber. Farfield acoustic data is acquired for a DE nozzle as well as a round nozzle of the same area. Both these types of nozzles are assessed numerically using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) techniques. The CFD analysis ensures that both nozzles issued the same amount of airflow for a given nozzle pressure ratio. Data at a variety of nozzle pressure ratios are acquired at a range of polar and azimuthal angles. Flow visualization of the DE nozzle is used to assess the fluid dynamics of the small jet interactions. Results show that at high subsonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle shifts its frequency of peak amplitude to a higher frequency relative to a round nozzle of equivalent area (from a S(sub tD) = 0.24 to 1. 3). Furthermore, the DE nozzle shows reduced sound pressure levels (as much as 4 - 8 dB) in the low frequency part of the spectrum (less than S(sub tD) = 0.24 ) compared to the round nozzle. At supersonic jet velocities, the DE nozzle does not exhibit the jet screech and the shock-associated broadband noise is reduced by as much as 12 dB.

  8. Noise reduction studies for the OV-1 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Copeland, W. L.; Dibble, A. C., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A study has been conducted to define possible modifications to the OV-1 aircraft to reduce its aural detection distance. This effort involved documenting the noise characteristics of the airplane, devising modifications to reduce the noise, estimating the reduction in detection distance, and evaluating aircraft performance as a result of these modifications. It was found that the main noise source on this aircraft is the propeller and hence modifications only to the propeller and the propeller drive system are proposed. Modifications involving only the propeller are noted to involve no increase in weight but they result in only a modest decrease in aural detection distance. In order to obtain substantial decreases in aural detection distance, modifications involving changes both to the propeller and the engine-propeller gearing are required.

  9. Force Irregularity Following Maximal Effort: The After-Peak Reduction.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Barbara M; Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa; Spirduso, Waneen

    2016-08-01

    Irregularities in force output are present throughout human movement and can impair task performance. We investigated the presence of a large force discontinuity (after-peak reduction, APR) that appeared immediately following peak in maximal effort ramp contractions performed with the thumb adductor and ankle dorsiflexor muscles in 25 young adult participants (76% males, 24% females; M age 24.4 years, SD = 7.1). The after-peak reduction displayed similar parameters in both muscle groups with comparable drops in force during the after-peak reduction minima (thumb adductor: 27.5 ± 7.5% maximal voluntary contraction; ankle dorsiflexor: 25.8 ± 6.2% maximal voluntary contraction). A trend for the presence of fewer after-peak reductions with successive ramp trials was observed, suggesting a learning effect. Further investigation should explore underlying neural mechanisms contributing to the after-peak reduction. PMID:27502241

  10. Simple noise reduction for diffusion weighted images.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuto; Kanazawa, Yuki; Usuda, Takatoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Junji; Harada, Masafumi

    2016-07-01

    Our purpose in this study was to reduce the noise in order to improve the SNR of Dw images with high b-value by using two correction schemes. This study was performed with use of phantoms made from water and sucrose at different concentrations, which were 10, 30, and 50 weight percent (wt%). In noise reduction for Dw imaging of the phantoms, we compared two correction schemes that are based on the Rician distribution and the Gaussian distribution. The highest error values for each concentration with use of the Rician distribution scheme were 7.3 % for 10 wt%, 2.4 % for 30 wt%, and 0.1 % for 50 wt%. The highest error values for each concentration with use of the Gaussian distribution scheme were 20.3 % for 10 wt%, 11.6 % for 30 wt%, and 3.4 % for 50 wt%. In Dw imaging, the noise reduction makes it possible to apply the correction scheme of Rician distribution. PMID:26984734

  11. Gas turbine exhaust nozzle. [for noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, D. M. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An elongated hollow string is disposed in an exhaust nozzle combustion chamber and communicates with an air source through hollow struts at one end. The other end of the string is bell-mouth shaped and extends over the front portion of a nozzle plug. The bell-mouth may be formed by pivotally mounted flaps or leaves which are used to vary the exhaust throat area and the area between the plug and the leaves. Air from the engine inlet flows into the string and also between the combustion chamber and a housing disposed around the chamber. The air cools the plug and serves as a low velocity inner core of secondary gas to provide noise reduction for the primary exhaust gas while the other air, when it exits from the nozzle, forms an outer low velocity layer to further reduce noise. The structure produces increased thrust in a turbojet or turbofan engine.

  12. Wing Leading Edge Concepts for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shmilovich, Arvin; Yadlin, Yoram; Pitera, David M.

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the development of wing leading edge concepts for noise reduction during high-lift operations, without compromising landing stall speeds, stall characteristics or cruise performance. High-lift geometries, which can be obtained by conventional mechanical systems or morphing structures have been considered. A systematic aerodynamic analysis procedure was used to arrive at several promising configurations. The aerodynamic design of new wing leading edge shapes is obtained from a robust Computational Fluid Dynamics procedure. Acoustic benefits are qualitatively established through the evaluation of the computed flow fields.

  13. Twin jet shielding. [for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Cuffel, R. F.; Massier, P. F.

    1979-01-01

    For an over-the-wing/under-the-wing engine configuration on an airplane, the noise produced by the upper jet flow is partially reflected by the lower jet. An analysis has been performed which can be used to predict the distribution of perceived noise levels along the ground plane at take-off for an airplane which is designed to take advantage of the over/under shielding concept. Typical contours of PNL, the shielding benefit in the shadow zone, and the EPNL values at 3.5 nautical miles from brake release as well as EPNL values at sideline at 0.35 nautical miles have been calculated. This has been done for a range of flow parameters characteristic of engines producing inverted velocity profile jets suitable for use in a supersonic cruise vehicle. Reductions up to 6.0 EPNdB in community noise levels can be realized when the over engines are operated at higher thrust and the lower engines simultaneously operated with reduced thrust keeping the total thrust constant.

  14. The NASA/AHS Rotorcraft Noise Reduction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childress, Otis S., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Research of the NASA/AHS noise reduction program is discussed, stressing work in four areas: noise prediction, testing and data base, noise reduction, and criteria development. A program called ROTONET has been developed, using a code structure divided into four main parts; main- and tail-rotor blade geometry, rotor performance, noise calculations, and noise propagation. Wind tunnel tests on individual rotors, and flight tests on a helicopter built specifically to generate a broadband main rotor noise data base have been conducted. In the field of noise reduction, researchers have performed analytical evaluations of low noise rotor concepts, and small-scale wind tunnel evaluations of noise reduction concepts. Under the supervision of the FAA, the program in conducting tests to develop criteria for helicopters and heliports.

  15. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  16. Evaluation of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program Noise Reduction Benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, Robert A.; Rawls, John W., Jr.; Russell, James W.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a detailed evaluation of the aircraft noise reduction technology concepts developed during the course of the NASA/FAA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program. In 1992, NASA and the FAA initiated a cosponsored, multi-year program with the U.S. aircraft industry focused on achieving significant advances in aircraft noise reduction. The program achieved success through a systematic development and validation of noise reduction technology. Using the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program, the noise reduction benefit of the technologies that reached a NASA technology readiness level of 5 or 6 were applied to each of four classes of aircraft which included a large four engine aircraft, a large twin engine aircraft, a small twin engine aircraft and a business jet. Total aircraft noise reductions resulting from the implementation of the appropriate technologies for each class of aircraft are presented and compared to the AST program goals.

  17. Smoking and harm-reduction efforts among postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Nichter, Mimi; Nichter, Mark; Adrian, Shelly; Goldade, Kate; Tesler, Laura; Muramoto, Myra

    2008-09-01

    The authors present findings from a qualitative study on postpartum smoking among low-income women ( N = 44) who had been smokers at the onset of pregnancy. Interview data collected after delivery at Months 1, 3, and 6 postpartum are discussed to explore contextual factors contributing to smoking abstinence, relapse, and harm-reduction practices. By 6 months postpartum, 10 women (23%) had completely quit, 21 women (48%) had reduced their smoking by 50% of their prepregnancy levels, and 7 women (16%) had reduced their smoking by one third of their prepregnancy levels. Thus, the majority of the women were engaging in significant harm-reduction efforts despite being entrenched in high-risk smoking environments where they were provided with few messages to quit. Many mothers were concerned about their moral identity as a smoker and expressed concerns that their child might initiate smoking at an early age. Future programs targeting this population should acknowledge women's harm-reduction efforts in environments where smoking is normative. PMID:18689532

  18. Noise characteristics of the O-1 airplane and some approaches to noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connor, A. B.; Hilton, D. A.; Copeland, W. L.; Clark, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief study of the O-1A airplane to determine possible means for reducing the aircraft aural detection distance was conducted. This effort involved measuring the noise signature of the basic airplane, devising methods to attenuate the noise, and then estimating the effect of several selected modifications on the aural detection distance of the aircraft. A relatively simple modification utilizing a 6.5 ft diameter, six-blade propeller and including a muffler having a volume of 0.725 cu ft is indicated to reduce the aural detection distance of the O-1 aircraft from about 6 miles at an altitude of 1,000 ft and 2 to 3 miles at an altitude of 300 ft to approximately half these values. The flyover noise data suggest that routing the exhaust stacks up and over the wing would provide immediate noise reduction of about 5 dB with an attendant reduction in detection distance. Furthermore, all these studies confirm the work of other investigators that the 1/3 octave band (center frequency=125 cps) is the most critical in reducing aural detection distance.

  19. Application of Circulation Control Technology to Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Sankar, L. N.; Englar, R. J.; Munro, Scott E.; Li, Yi; Gaeta, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    This report is a summary of the work performed by Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under NASA Langley Grant NAG-1-2146, which was awarded as a part of NASA's Breakthrough Innovative Technologies (BIT) initiative. This was a three-year program, with a one-year no-cost extension. Each year's study has been an integrated effort consisting of computational fluid dynamics, experimental aerodynamics, and detailed noise and flow measurements. Year I effort examined the feasibility of reducing airframe noise by replacing the conventional wing systems with a Circulation Control Wing (CCW), where steady blowing was used through the trailing edge of the wing over a Coanda surface. It was shown that the wing lift increases with CCW blowing and indeed for the same lift, a CCW wing was shown to produce less noise. Year 2 effort dealt with a similar study on the role of pulsed blowing on airframe noise. The main objective of this portion of the study was to assess whether pulse blowing from the trailing edge of a CCW resulted in more, less, or the same amount of radiated noise to the farfield. Results show that a reduction in farfield noise of up to 5 dB is measured when pulse flow is compared with steady flow for an equivalent lift configuration. This reduction is in the spectral region associated with the trailing edge jet noise. This result is due to the unique advantage that pulsed flow has over steady flow. For a range of frequencies, more lift is experienced with the same mass flow as the steady case. Thus, for an equivalent lift and slot height, the pulsed system can operate at lower jet velocities, and hence lower jet noise. The computational analysis showed that for a given time-averaged mass flow rate, pulsed jets give a higher value of C(sub l) and a higher L/D than equivalent steady jets. This benefit is attributable to higher instantaneous jet velocities, and higher instantaneous C(sub mu) values for the pulsed jet. Pulsed jet benefits increase at higher

  20. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  1. Noise Reduction in an Undergraduate Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Charles P.; Puglisi, Dawn D.

    1984-01-01

    Reports on program initiated to reduce noise in undergraduate library through combination of space reallocation, rule changes, and staff monitoring of noise. Objective and subjective measures of noise (sound-level readings, preintervention and postintervention questionnaires) and results of intervention program are discussed. Memo distributed on…

  2. Circular cylinders with soft porous cover for flow noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Thomas F.; Sarradj, Ennes

    2016-03-01

    The use of porous materials is one of several approaches to passively control or minimize the generation of flow noise. In order to investigate the possible reduction of noise from struts and other protruding parts (for example components of the landing gear or pantographs), acoustic measurements were taken in a small aeroacoustic wind tunnel on a set of circular cylinders with a soft porous cover. The aim of this study was to identify those materials that result in the best noise reduction, which refers to both tonal noise and broadband noise. The porous covers were characterized by their air flow resistivity, a parameter describing the permeability of an open-porous material. The results show that materials with low air flow resistivities lead to a noticeable flow noise reduction. Thereby, the main effect of the porous cylinder covers is that the spectral peak of the aeolian tone due to vortex shedding appears much narrower, but is not suppressed completely. Based on the measurement results, a basic model for the estimation of the total peak level of the aeolian tone was derived. In addition to the minimization of the vortex shedding noise, a reduction of broadband noise can be observed, especially at higher Reynolds numbers. The noise reduction increases with decreasing air flow resistivity of the porous covers, which means that materials that are highly permeable to air result in the best noise reduction.

  3. Interior noise reduction in a large civil helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, J. T.; Clevenson, S. A.; Rypf, J. A.; Snyder, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an evaluation of the effectiveness of current noise reduction technology in attaining acceptable levels of interior noise in a large (about 20,000 kg) passenger-carrying helicopter are presented. The helicopter studied is a modified CH-53A with a specially designed, acoustically treated passenger cabin. The acoustic treatment reduced the average A-weighted interior noise levels from 115 db to 87 db. The study suggests selected improvements in the acoustic treatment which could result in additional reduction in cabin noise levels. The resulting levels would be only slightly greater than the interior noise levels of current narrow-body jet transports.

  4. Meeting 2006, outdoor noise directive (OND) noise levels for a diesel engine driven air compressor: A case study in noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, David F.

    2005-09-01

    In January 2006, the noise limits for many products in the European Union will drop by 2-3 dBA, as directed by 2000/14/EC ``Noise Emission in the Environment by Equipment Used Outdoors,'' commonly called the ``Outdoor Noise Directive,'' or ``OND.'' Air compressors are among the products addressed by this directive. At Ingersoll-Rand, significant effort has been directed at meeting the challenge of reducing noise on a variety of diesel engine driven air compressor platforms, ranging from 15 to 350 kW diesel engine power ratings. This paper presents a case study of the noise reduction on a 750 cfm (21 m3/min) air compressor operating at 300 psig (21 bar), to meet the 2006 OND noise limit of 100 LwA.

  5. Source Noise Modeling Efforts for Fan Noise in NASA Research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    There has been considerable progress made in fan noise prediction over the past 15 years. NASA has conducted and sponsored research that has improved both tone and broadband fan noise prediction methods. This presentation highlights progress in these areas with emphasis on rotor/stator interaction noise sources. Tone noise predictions are presented for an advanced prediction code called "LINFLUX". Comparisons with data are" included for individual fan duct modes. There has also been considerable work developing new fan broadband noise prediction codes and validation data from wind tunnel model tests. Results from several code validation exercises are presented that show improvement of predicted sound power levels. A summary is included with recommendations for future work.

  6. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  7. Phase Noise Reduction of Laser Diode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, T. C.; Poizat, J.-Ph.; Grelu, P.; Roch, J.-F.; Grangier, P.; Marin, F.; Bramati, A.; Jost, V.; Levenson, M. D.; Giacobino, E.

    1996-01-01

    Phase noise of single mode laser diodes, either free-running or using line narrowing technique at room temperature, namely injection-locking, has been investigated. It is shown that free-running diodes exhibit very large excess phase noise, typically more than 80 dB above shot-noise at 10 MHz, which can be significantly reduced by the above-mentioned technique.

  8. Noise Reduction in Complex Biological Switches

    PubMed Central

    Cardelli, Luca; Csikász-Nagy, Attila; Dalchau, Neil; Tribastone, Mirco; Tschaikowski, Max

    2016-01-01

    Cells operate in noisy molecular environments via complex regulatory networks. It is possible to understand how molecular counts are related to noise in specific networks, but it is not generally clear how noise relates to network complexity, because different levels of complexity also imply different overall number of molecules. For a fixed function, does increased network complexity reduce noise, beyond the mere increase of overall molecular counts? If so, complexity could provide an advantage counteracting the costs involved in maintaining larger networks. For that purpose, we investigate how noise affects multistable systems, where a small amount of noise could lead to very different outcomes; thus we turn to biochemical switches. Our method for comparing networks of different structure and complexity is to place them in conditions where they produce exactly the same deterministic function. We are then in a good position to compare their noise characteristics relatively to their identical deterministic traces. We show that more complex networks are better at coping with both intrinsic and extrinsic noise. Intrinsic noise tends to decrease with complexity, and extrinsic noise tends to have less impact. Our findings suggest a new role for increased complexity in biological networks, at parity of function. PMID:26853830

  9. Compression station upgrades include advanced noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, V.R.; Sherikar, S.

    1998-10-01

    Since its inception in the mid-`80s, AlintaGas` Dampier to Bunbury natural gas pipeline has been constantly undergoing a series of upgrades to boost capacity and meet other needs. Extending northward about 850 miles from near Perth to the northwest shelf, the 26-inch line was originally served by five compressor stations. In the 1989-91 period, three new compressor stations were added to increase capacity and a ninth station was added in 1997. Instead of using noise-path-treatment mufflers to reduce existing noise, it was decided to use noise-source-treatment technology to prevent noise creation in the first place. In the field, operation of these new noise-source treatment attenuators has been very quiet. If there was any thought earlier of guaranteed noise-level verification, it is not considered a priority now. It`s also anticipated that as AlintaGas proceeds with its pipeline and compressor station upgrade program, similar noise-source treatment equipment will be employed and retrofitted into older stations where the need to reduce noise and potential radiant-heat exposure is indicated.

  10. An assessment of propeller aircraft noise reduction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, F. Bruce

    1995-01-01

    This report is a review of the literature regarding propeller airplane far-field noise reduction. Near-field and cabin noise reduction are not specifically addressed. However, some of the approaches used to reduce far-field noise produce beneficial effects in the near-field and in the cabin. The emphasis is on propeller noise reduction but engine exhaust noise reduction by muffling is also addressed since the engine noise becomes a significant part of the aircraft noise signature when propeller noise is reduced. It is concluded that there is a substantial body of information available that can be used as the basis to reduce propeller airplane noise. The reason that this information is not often used in airplane design is the associated weight, cost, and performance penalties. It is recommended that the highest priority be given to research for reducing the penalties associated with lower operating RPM and propeller diameter while increasing the number of blades. Research to reduce engine noise and explore innovative propeller concepts is also recommended.

  11. Prediction of noise reduction through vehicle path rerouting.

    PubMed

    Makarewicz, Rufin

    2010-01-01

    Traffic noise, produced by moving vehicles, is described in terms of the day-night average sound level L(dn) and the day-evening-night level L(den). Both levels depend on the path of noise sources, such as road vehicles or aircraft. Usually, noise source path is rectilinear. Substituting a circle arc of radius R for the straight path segment yields noise reduction DeltaL=DeltaL(dn)=DeltaL(den). Assuming that noise propagation is governed by geometrical spreading, air absorption, and ground effect, relationship between DeltaL and R is derived. For example, replacement of a straight road at the distance of 100 m with the road of radius R=270 m and the angle Phi=68 degrees yields the noise reduction of 4 dB. In the case of road traffic noise, the presented results seem to be a viable alternative to barrier construction. PMID:20058966

  12. Nordic Standards for measurement of aircraft noise immission in residential areas and noise reduction of dwellings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svane, Christian; Plovsing, Birger

    Quantification by measurement of aircraft noise in residential areas and air traffic noise reduction of dwellings suffer from sensibility to the measurement technique used. Around the Copenhagen Airport (200.000 opr./year) 3.500 families have been granted from 50% to 90% of sound insulation costs by the Danish Government. Based on experience from evaluation measurements carried out by the Danish Acoustical Institute, the authors have proposed standardized measurement methods for the outdoor aircraft noise in residential areas and for the noise reduction of dwellings. In 1989 both noise measurement methods were accepted as Nordic Standards (NORDTEST ACOU 074 and 075) by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden.

  13. Musical noise reduction using an adaptive filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Takeshi; Murakami, Takahiro; Ishida, Yoshihisa; Hoya, Tetsuya

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a method for reducing a particular noise (musical noise). The musical noise is artificially produced by Spectral Subtraction (SS), which is one of the most conventional methods for speech enhancement. The musical noise is the tin-like sound and annoying in human auditory. We know that the duration of the musical noise is considerably short in comparison with that of speech, and that the frequency components of the musical noise are random and isolated. In the ordinary SS-based methods, the musical noise is removed by the post-processing. However, the output of the ordinary post-processing is delayed since the post-processing uses the succeeding frames. In order to improve this problem, we propose a novel method using an adaptive filter. In the proposed system, the observed noisy signal is used as the input signal to the adaptive filter and the output of SS is used as the reference signal. In this paper we exploit the normalized LMS (Least Mean Square) algorithm for the adaptive filter. Simulation results show that the proposed method has improved the intelligibility of the enhanced speech in comparison with the conventional method.

  14. The challenges of lawnmower noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drutowski, Carol J.; Fetzer, Keith

    2005-09-01

    The European Noise Directive (2000/14/EC) became effective in the year 2000, limiting the allowable noise level for lawnmowers sold in the European Union. Noise level limits are based on cutting width. The Directive requires that manufacturers meet these limits and include statistical uncertainties, then declare their noise levels and have these results certified by an independent third party agency. There are two major challenges with this Directive. First by taking statistical uncertainties into account, this creates a limit lower than the published limit. Second is to lower the sound power level while still maintaining acceptable performance. The physical phenomena that generate the unwanted noise of a lawnmower are also used to perform work. For rotary lawnmowers, a dominant noise source is the cutting deck assembly, which is required to lift and cut grass, then dispose of the clippings. To cut grass with a good quality of cut appearance, the blades are required to turn at a very high tip speed to generate the necessary airflow. For lawnmowers, noise levels and unit performance are intrinsically linked. This has frustrated our industry for over 20 years.

  15. Critical Low-Noise Technologies Being Developed for Engine Noise Reduction Systems Subproject

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Civinskas, Kestutis C.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's previous Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program delivered the initial technologies for meeting a 10-year goal of a 10-dB reduction in total aircraft system noise. Technology Readiness Levels achieved for the engine-noise-reduction technologies ranged from 4 (rig scale) to 6 (engine demonstration). The current Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project is building on those AST accomplishments to achieve the additional noise reduction needed to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise's 10-year goal, again validated through a combination of laboratory rig and engine demonstration tests. In order to meet the Aerospace Technology Enterprise goal for future aircraft of a 50- reduction in the perceived noise level, reductions of 4 dB are needed in both fan and jet noise. The primary objectives of the Engine Noise Reduction Systems (ENRS) subproject are, therefore, to develop technologies to reduce both fan and jet noise by 4 dB, to demonstrate these technologies in engine tests, and to develop and experimentally validate Computational Aero Acoustics (CAA) computer codes that will improve our ability to predict engine noise.

  16. Seismic exploration noise reduction in the Marginal Ice Zone.

    PubMed

    Tollefsen, Dag; Sagen, Hanne

    2014-07-01

    A sonobuoy field was deployed in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Fram Strait in June 2011 to study the spatial variability of ambient noise. High noise levels observed at 10-200 Hz are attributed to distant (1400 km range) seismic exploration. The noise levels decreased with range into the ice cover; the reduction is fitted by a spreading loss model with a frequency-dependent attenuation factor less than for under-ice interior Arctic propagation. Numerical modeling predicts transmission loss of the same order as the observed noise level reduction and indicates a significant loss contribution from under-ice interaction. PMID:24993237

  17. Recent Developments in U.S. Engine Noise Reduction Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James; Envia, Edmane; Huff, Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research in the United States has made considerable progress over the past 10 years for both subsonic and supersonic flight applications. The Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program started in 1994 and will be completed in 2001 without major changes to program plans and funding levels. As a result, significant progress has been made toward the goal of reducing engine source noise by 6 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise level in decibels). This paper will summarize some of the significant accomplishments from the subsonic engine noise research performed over the past 10 years. The review is by no means comprehensive and only represents a sample of major accomplishments.

  18. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  19. A differential magnetoelectric heterostructure: Internal noise reduction and external noise cancellation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaojin; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2015-12-01

    A differential heterostructure design which has a capability to reduce the internal noise and reject the external vibration noise for Metglas magnetostrictive foils/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 piezofiber based-magnetoelectric (ME) laminated composite has been studied. The internal noise reduction is equivalent to that offered by sensor array stacks, and the external noise cancellation is based on a differential method (i.e., ME signal is in-phase but vibration noise is anti-phase). The ability of the structure to reduce the internal noise, and cancel the external vibration noise by a 10-fold attenuation factor, allows for practical applications of these sensors in real-world environments where contamination of magnetic signals by external vibrational noise increases the equivalent magnetic noise.

  20. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms. PMID:25786940

  1. Recent developments in aircraft engine noise reduction technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Feiler, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Some of the more important developments and progress in jet and fan noise reduction and flight effects are reviewed. Experiments are reported which show that nonaxisymmetric coannular nozzles have the potential to reduce jet noise for conventional and inverted velocity profiles. It is shown that an improved understanding of suppressive linear behavior, coupled with the new understanding of fan source noise, will soon allow the joint optimization of acoustic liner and fan design for low noise. It is also shown that fan noise source reduction concepts are applicable to advanced turboprops. Advances in inflow control device design are reviewed that appear to offer an adequate approach to the ground simulation of inflight fan noise.

  2. Wind Noise Reduction in a Non-Porous Subsurface Windscreen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Shams, Qamar A.; Knight, H. Keith

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of wind noise reduction were conducted on a box-shaped, subsurface windscreen made of closed cell polyurethane foam. The windscreen was installed in the ground with the lid flush with the ground surface. The wind was generated by means of a fan, situated on the ground, and the wind speed was measured at the center of the windscreen lid with an ultrasonic anemometer. The wind speed was controlled by moving the fan to selected distances from the windscreen. The wind noise was measured on a PCB Piezotronics 3†electret microphone. Wind noise spectra were measured with the microphone exposed directly to the wind (atop the windscreen lid) and with the microphone installed inside the windscreen. The difference between the two spectra comprises the wind noise reduction. At wind speeds of 3, 5, and 7 m/s, the wind noise reduction is typically 15 dB over the frequency range of 0.1-20 Hz.

  3. Minimum cross-entropy noise reduction in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacKinnon, Robert F.

    1989-06-01

    A method of noise reduction is described that reduces random noise in images through cross-entropy representation under simple constraint bounds placed on linear orthogonal transform variables. The bounds depend on the noise statistics, which must be estimated independently, and on prior knowledge. The bounds may be adjusted through use of a so-called tightness parameter. In practice, solutions represent a compromise between the noisy image and the prior knowledge for which the tightness parameter governs the reduction in the noise variance. The role of the prior knowledge is illustrated by using two examples, one simple and one complicated. Results based on Fourier and Walsh transforms are presented. Examples of speckle noise reduction for synthetic aperture radar images of the ocean surface are given as illustrations of a practical application.

  4. Listening effort and speech intelligibility in listening situations affected by noise and reverberation.

    PubMed

    Rennies, Jan; Schepker, Henning; Holube, Inga; Kollmeier, Birger

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the combined effect of noise and reverberation on listening effort and speech intelligibility to predictions of the speech transmission index (STI). Listening effort was measured in normal-hearing subjects using a scaling procedure. Speech intelligibility scores were measured in the same subjects and conditions: (a) Speech-shaped noise as the only interfering factor, (b) + (c) fixed signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 0 or 7 dB and reverberation as detrimental factors, and (d) reverberation as the only detrimental factor. In each condition, SNR and reverberation were combined to produce STI values of 0.17, 0.30, 0.43, 0.57, and 0.70, respectively. Listening effort always decreased with increasing STI, thus enabling a rough prediction, but a significant bias was observed indicating that listening effort was lower in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI for one type of impulse responses. Accordingly, speech intelligibility increased with increasing STI and was significantly better in reverberation only than in noise only at the same STI. Further analyses showed that the broadband reverberation time is not always a good estimate of speech degradation in reverberation and that different speech materials may differ in their robustness toward detrimental effects of reverberation. PMID:25373965

  5. An adaptive noise reduction stethoscope for auscultation in high noise environments.

    PubMed

    Patel, S B; Callahan, T F; Callahan, M G; Jones, J T; Graber, G P; Foster, K S; Glifort, K; Wodicka, G R

    1998-05-01

    Auscultation of lung sounds in patient transport vehicles such as an ambulance or aircraft is unachievable because of high ambient noise levels. Aircraft noise levels of 90-100 dB SPL are common, while lung sounds have been measured in the 22-30 dB SPL range in free space and 65-70 dB SPL within a stethoscope coupler. Also, the bandwidth of lung sounds and vehicle noise typically has significant overlap, limiting the utility of traditional band-pass filtering. In this study, a passively shielded stethoscope coupler that contains one microphone to measure the (noise-corrupted) lung sound and another to measure the ambient noise was constructed. Lung sound measurements were made on a healthy subject in a simulated USAF C-130 aircraft environment within an acoustic chamber at noise levels ranging from 80 to 100 dB SPL. Adaptive filtering schemes using a least-mean-squares (LMS) and a normalized least-mean-squares (NLMS) approach were employed to extract the lung sounds from the noise-corrupted signal. Approximately 15 dB of noise reduction over the 100-600 Hz frequency range was achieved with the LMS algorithm, with the more complex NLMS algorithm providing faster convergence and up to 5 dB of additional noise reduction. These findings indicate that a combination of active and passive noise reduction can be used to measure lung sounds in high noise environments. PMID:9604343

  6. Jet Noise Reduction by Microjets - A Parametric Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of injecting tiny secondary jets (microjets ) on the radiated noise from a subsonic primary jet is studied experimentally. The microjets are injected on to the primary jet near the nozzle exit with variable port geometry, working fluid and driving pressure. A clear noise reduction is observed that improves with increasing jet pressure. It is found that smaller diameter ports with higher driving pressure, but involving less thrust and mass fraction, can produce better noise reduction. A collection of data from the present as well as past experiments is examined in an attempt to correlate the noise reduction with the operating parameters. The results indicate that turbulent mixing noise reduction, as monitored by OASPL at a shallow angle, correlates with the ratio of jet to primary jet driving pressures normalized by the ratio of corresponding diameters (p d /pjD). With gaseous injection, the spectral amplitudes decrease at lower frequencies while an increase is noted at higher frequencies. It is apparent that this amplitude crossover is at least partly due to shock-associated noise from the underexpanded jets themselves. Such crossover is not seen with water injection since the flow in that case is incompressible and there is no shock-associated noise. Centerline velocity data show that larger noise reduction is accompanied by faster jet decay as well as significant reduction in turbulence intensities. While a physical understanding of the dependence of noise reduction on p d /pjD remains unclear, given this correlation, an analysis explains the observed dependence of the effect on various other parameters.

  7. Revolutionary Concepts for Helicopter Noise Reduction: SILENT Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Bryan; Cox, Charles; Booth, Earl R., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of a NASA initiative to reduce helicopter main rotor noise, a Phase 1 study has been performed of candidate noise reduction concepts. Both conventional and novel design technologies have been analyzed that reduce the community impact of helicopter operations. In this study the noise reduction potential and design implications are assessed for conventional means of noise reduction, e.g., tip speed reduction, tip shapes and airfoil tailoring, and for two innovative design concepts: modulated blade spacing and x-force control. Main rotor designs that incorporate modulated blade spacing are shown to have reduced peak noise levels in most flight operations. X-force control alters the helicopter's force balance whereby the miss distance between main rotor blades and shed vortices can be controlled. This control provides a high potential to mitigate BVI noise radiation. Each concept is evaluated using best practice design and analysis methods, achieving the study's aim to significantly reduce noise with minimal performance degradation and no vibration increase. It is concluded that a SILENT main rotor design, incorporating the modulated blade spacing concept, offers significantly reduced noise levels and the potential of a breakthrough in how a helicopter's sound is perceived and judged. The SILENT rotor represents a definite advancement in the state-of-the-art and is selected as the design concept for demonstration in Phase 2. A Phase 2 Implementation Plan is developed for whirl cage and wind tunnel evaluations of a scaled model SILENT rotor.

  8. Smooth local subspace projection for nonlinear noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Chelidze, David

    2014-03-15

    Many nonlinear or chaotic time series exhibit an innate broad spectrum, which makes noise reduction difficult. Local projective noise reduction is one of the most effective tools. It is based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and works for both map-like and continuously sampled time series. However, POD only looks at geometrical or topological properties of data and does not take into account the temporal characteristics of time series. Here, we present a new smooth projective noise reduction method. It uses smooth orthogonal decomposition (SOD) of bundles of reconstructed short-time trajectory strands to identify smooth local subspaces. Restricting trajectories to these subspaces imposes temporal smoothness on the filtered time series. It is shown that SOD-based noise reduction significantly outperforms the POD-based method for continuously sampled noisy time series.

  9. Reduction of Additive Colored Noise Using Coupled Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Lindner, John F.; Ditto, William L.

    We study the effect of additive colored noise on the evolution of maps and demonstrate that the deviations caused by such noise can be reduced using coupled dynamics. We consider both Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as well as 1/fα noise in our numerical simulations. We observe that though the variance of deviations caused by noise depends on the correlations in the noise, under optimal coupling strength, it decreases by a factor equal to the number of coupled elements in the array as compared to the variance of deviations in a single isolated map. This reduction in noise levels occurs in chaotic as well as periodic regime of the maps. Lastly, we examine the effect of colored noise in chaos computing and find that coupling the chaos computing elements enhances the robustness of chaos computing.

  10. Adaptive noise reduction circuit for a sound reproduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engebretson, A. Maynard (Inventor); O'Connell, Michael P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A noise reduction circuit for a hearing aid having an adaptive filter for producing a signal which estimates the noise components present in an input signal. The circuit includes a second filter for receiving the noise-estimating signal and modifying it as a function of a user's preference or as a function of an expected noise environment. The circuit also includes a gain control for adjusting the magnitude of the modified noise-estimating signal, thereby allowing for the adjustment of the magnitude of the circuit response. The circuit also includes a signal combiner for combining the input signal with the adjusted noise-estimating signal to produce a noise reduced output signal.

  11. Supersonic Jet Noise Reductions Predicted With Increased Jet Spreading Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D.; Morris, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, predictions are made of noise radiation from single, supersonic, axisymmetric jets. We examine the effects of changes in operating conditions and the effects of simulated enhanced mixing that would increase the spreading rate of jet shear layer on radiated noise levels. The radiated noise in the downstream direction is dominated by mixing noise and, at higher speeds, it is well described by the instability wave noise radiation model. Further analysis with the model shows a relationship between changes in spreading rate due to enhanced mixing and changes in the far field radiated peak noise levels. The calculations predict that enhanced jet spreading results in a reduction of the radiated peak noise level.

  12. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  13. Experimental Study of Wake / Flap Interaction Noise and the Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Stead, Daniel J.; Plassman, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The effects of the interaction of a wake with a half-span flap on radiated noise are examined. The incident wake is generated by bars of various widths and lengths or by a simplified landing gear model. Single microphone and phased array measurements are used to isolate the effects of the wake interaction on the noise radiating from the flap side edge and flap cove regions. The effects on noise of the wake generator's geometry and relative placement with respect to the flap are assessed. Placement of the wake generators upstream of the flap side edge is shown to lead to the reduction of flap side edge noise by introducing a velocity deficit and likely altering the instabilities in the flap side edge vortex system. Significant reduction in flap side edge noise is achieved with a bar positioned directly upstream of the flap side edge. The noise reduction benefit is seen to improve with increased bar width, length and proximity to the flap edge. Positioning of the landing gear model upstream of the flap side edge also leads to decreased flap side edge noise. In addition, flap cove noise levels are significantly lower than when the landing gear is positioned upstream of the flap mid-span. The impact of the local flow velocity on the noise radiating directly from the landing gear is discussed. The effects of the landing gear side-braces on flap side edge, flap cove and landing gear noise are shown.

  14. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  15. Potential for Landing Gear Noise Reduction on Advanced Aircraft Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Nickol, Craig L.; Burley, Casey L.; Guo, Yueping

    2016-01-01

    The potential of significantly reducing aircraft landing gear noise is explored for aircraft configurations with engines installed above the wings or the fuselage. An innovative concept is studied that does not alter the main gear assembly itself but does shorten the main strut and integrates the gear in pods whose interior surfaces are treated with acoustic liner. The concept is meant to achieve maximum noise reduction so that main landing gears can be eliminated as a major source of airframe noise. By applying this concept to an aircraft configuration with 2025 entry-into-service technology levels, it is shown that compared to noise levels of current technology, the main gear noise can be reduced by 10 EPNL dB, bringing the main gear noise close to a floor established by other components such as the nose gear. The assessment of the noise reduction potential accounts for design features for the advanced aircraft configuration and includes the effects of local flow velocity in and around the pods, gear noise reflection from the airframe, and reflection and attenuation from acoustic liner treatment on pod surfaces and doors. A technical roadmap for maturing this concept is discussed, and the possible drag increase at cruise due to the addition of the pods is identified as a challenge, which needs to be quantified and minimized possibly with the combination of detailed design and application of drag reduction technologies.

  16. Single and Multiple Microphone Noise Reduction Strategies in Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Azimi, Behnam; Hu, Yi; Friedland, David R.

    2012-01-01

    To restore hearing sensation, cochlear implants deliver electrical pulses to the auditory nerve by relying on sophisticated signal processing algorithms that convert acoustic inputs to electrical stimuli. Although individuals fitted with cochlear implants perform well in quiet, in the presence of background noise, the speech intelligibility of cochlear implant listeners is more susceptible to background noise than that of normal hearing listeners. Traditionally, to increase performance in noise, single-microphone noise reduction strategies have been used. More recently, a number of approaches have suggested that speech intelligibility in noise can be improved further by making use of two or more microphones, instead. Processing strategies based on multiple microphones can better exploit the spatial diversity of speech and noise because such strategies rely mostly on spatial information about the relative position of competing sound sources. In this article, we identify and elucidate the most significant theoretical aspects that underpin single- and multi-microphone noise reduction strategies for cochlear implants. More analytically, we focus on strategies of both types that have been shown to be promising for use in current-generation implant devices. We present data from past and more recent studies, and furthermore we outline the direction that future research in the area of noise reduction for cochlear implants could follow. PMID:22923425

  17. Identification of Noise Sources and Design of Noise Reduction Measures for a Pneumatic Nail Gun

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Vignesh; Zechmann, Edward

    2015-01-01

    An experimental-analytical procedure was implemented to reduce the operating noise level of a nail gun, a commonly found power tool in a construction site. The procedure is comprised of preliminary measurements, identification and ranking of major noise sources and application of noise controls. Preliminary measurements show that the impact noise transmitted through the structure and the exhaust related noise were found to be the first and second major contributors. Applying a noise absorbing foam on the outside of the nail gun body was found to be an effective noise reduction technique. One and two-volume small mufflers were designed and applied to the exhaust side of the nail gun which reduced not only the exhaust noise but also the impact noise. It was shown that the overall noise level could be reduced by as much as 3.5 dB, suggesting that significant noise reduction is possible in construction power tools without any significant increase of the cost. PMID:26366038

  18. Compressor lubrication and noise reduction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bayyouk, J.A.; Waser, M.P.

    1988-06-14

    An oil lubrication and noise suppression system is described comprising: an oil sump: a crankshaft rotatable about an axis and defining a centrifugal oil pump: an oil pickup tube extending into the oil sump and secured to the crankshaft coaxial with the axis and rotatable with the crankshaft about the axis as a unit; and an impeller axially asymmetrically mounted on the pickup tube within the oil sump whereby upon rotation of the crankshaft, the oil pickup tube and the impeller as a unit causes the production of froth and the pumping of oil while preventing the formation of a stable vortex.

  19. Noise reduction by dynamic signal preemphasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Kazuyuki; Takegoshi, K.

    2011-02-01

    In this work we propose an approach to reduce the digitization noise for a given dynamic range, i.e., the number of bits, of an analog to digital converter used in an NMR receiver. In this approach, the receiver gain is dynamically increased so that the free induction decay is recorded in such an emphasized way that the decaying signal is digitized using as many number of bits as possible, and at the stage of data processing, the original signal profile is restored by applying the apodization that compensates the effect of the preemphasis. This approach, which we call APodization after Receiver gain InCrement during Ongoing sequence with Time (APRICOT), is performed in a solid-state system containing a pair of 13C spins, one of which is fully isotopically labeled and the other is naturally abundant. It is demonstrated that the exceedingly smaller peak buried in the digitization noise in the conventional approach can be revealed by employing APRICOT.

  20. Reduction of voluntary dehydration during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Gilat, T.; Tennenbaum, J.; Nir, M.

    1982-01-01

    During an experimental marching trip the daily positive fluid balance was preserved by providing a wide choice of beverages during the hours of the day. It was found that the beverage most suitable for drinking in large quantities during periods of effort was a cold drink with sweetened (citrus) fruit taste. Carbonated drinks, including beer, but milk also, were found unsuitable for this purpose.

  1. Reduction of Wake-Stator Interaction Noise Using Passive Porosity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Kelly, Jeffrey J.; Thomas, Russell H.; Bauer, Steven X. S.

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the potential of Passive Porosity Technology as a mechanism to reduce interaction noise in turbomachinery by reducing the fluctuating forces acting on the vane surfaces. To do so, a typical fan stator airfoil was subjected to the effects of a transversely moving wake; time histories of the primitive aerodynamic variables, obtained from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions, were then input into an acoustic prediction code. This procedure was performed on the solid airfoil to obtain a baseline, and on a series of porous configurations in order to isolate those that yield maximum noise reductions without compromising the aerodynamic performance of the stator. It was found that communication between regions of high pressure differential - made possible by the use of passive porosity - is necessary to significantly alter the noise radiation pattern of the stator airfoil. In general, noise reductions were obtained for those configurations incorporating passive porosity in the region between x/c is approximately 0.15 on the suction side of the airfoil and x/c is approximately 0.20 on the pressure side. Reductions in overall radiated noise of approximately 1.0 dB were obtained. The noise benefit increased to about 2.5 dB when the effects of loading noise alone were considered.

  2. Feedback controllers for broadband active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Benoit; Legrain, Isabelle

    1994-09-01

    The aim of the present paper is to demonstrate the efficiency of an LQG-based controller for the active control of the acoustic field radiated by a rectangular panel. This topic has been of interest for numerous researchers in the past 10 or 15 years, but very little attention has been paid to broadband disturbances occurring in a relatively high frequency range. These are unfortunately common features of noise perturbations in realistic structures such as airplanes or helicopters. The few articles that deal with this problem provide very scarce experimental results and are related to frequency bands where the structure dynamics is rather poor. From the outset, the problem at hand involves numerous difficulties, such as the modeling of the active structure itself and the possible large size of the controller. In the following, the experimental setup is described, then the controller design procedure is developed and finally some experimental results are shown that prove the efficiency of the method.

  3. Noise reduction in fossil power plant draft fans

    SciTech Connect

    Koopmann, G.H.; Neise, W.

    1983-10-01

    Using a 20 in. dia fan noise testing facility, which was constructed at the University of Houston for this project, it has been demonstrated that a substantial reduction in the noise level of a centrifugal fan which has a pronounced tone can be achieved by incorporating a quarter-wavelength resonator in the fan casing near the cut-off part of the scroll. The resonator is tuned to the blade passing frequency of the fan by adjusting its length. It acts to reduce the level of the tonal component of the noise by cancelling the sound producing pressure pulses generated by the interaction of the fluid leaving the impeller blades with the solid cut-off of the fan casing. By proper tuning of the resonator and placement of the resonator's perforated mouth near the cut-off region where the pressure fluctuations are most intense, reductions of up to 20 dB in the sound pressure level of the blade passing frequency tone have been observed. Integration of the resonator into the fan casing design provides noise level reductions in both inlet and outlet ducts simultaneously. Reductions are independent of changes in duct impedance due to different end conditions. While the noise reduction method is effective over a wide range of aerodynamic loading conditions, it does not adversely affect the performance of the fan.

  4. Low-frequency noise reduction of lightweight airframe structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getline, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the noise attenuation characteristics of aircraft type fuselage structural panels were presented. Of particular interest was noise attenuation at low frequencies, below the fundamental resonances of the panels. All panels were flightweight structures for transport type aircraft in the 34,050 to 45,400 kg (75,000 to 100,000 pounds) gross weight range. Test data include the results of vibration and acoustic transmission loss tests on seven types of isotropic and orthotropically stiffened, flat and curved panels. The results show that stiffness controlled acoustically integrated structures can provide very high noise reductions at low frequencies without significantly affecting their high frequency noise reduction capabilities.

  5. Future developments in transport aircraft noise reduction technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pendley, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    During the past 13 years, important advances in the technology of aircraft noise control have resulted from industry and government research programs. Quieter commercial transport airplanes have entered the fleet and additional new designs now committed to production will begin service in a few years. This paper indicates the noise reductions that will be achieved by the quieter transports that will replace the older designs and remarks on the outlook for still quieter designs.

  6. Optimization of wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, JohnPaul Russell

    A large porous wind barrier enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01-10 Hz in order to develop a technology that is simple, cost effective, and improves upon the limitations of pipe and porous hose arrays. The effects of varying the fence's porosity, modifying its top condition and bottom gap, doubling the height and diameter, and adding a secondary wind barrier were investigated. A simple mathematical model which estimates the wind noise measured at the center of the enclosure was derived based on the measured turbulence and velocity profiles measure outside the enclosure, inside the enclosure, and incident to its surface. The wind fence enclosure achieves wind noise reduction by minimizing the turbulence and velocity gradients at its center, and by decorrelating and area averaging the pressure fluctuations at its surface. The optimum wind fence has a surface porosity of 40-55%, a porous roof, no bottom gap, is very tall, wide, and is supplemented by a secondary wind barrier. The optimum wind fence can achieve a wind noise reduction of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, at least a 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, and a constant 4-6 dB of noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence. At high wind speeds, 3-6 m/s, the optimized wind fence enclosure reduces wind noise sufficiently to detect microbaroms.

  7. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  8. Amplitude Noise Reduction of Ion Lasers with Optical Feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Gregory C.

    2011-01-01

    A reduction in amplitude noise on the output of a multi-mode continuous-wave Ar-ion laser was previously demonstrated when a fraction of the output power was retroreflected back into the laser cavity. This result was reproduced in the present work and a Fabry-Perot etalon was used to monitor the longitudinal mode structure of the laser. A decrease in the number of operating longitudinal cavity modes was observed simultaneously with the introduction of the optical feedback and the onset of the amplitude noise reduction. The noise reduction is a result of a reduced number of lasing modes, resulting in less mode beating and amplitude fluctuations of the laser output power.

  9. 4-D noise-based seismology at volcanoes: Ongoing efforts and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenguier, Florent; Rivet, Diane; Obermann, Anne; Nakata, Nori; Boué, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas; Campillo, Michel; Shapiro, Nikolai

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring magma pressure buildup at depth and transport to surface is a key point for improving volcanic eruption prediction. Seismic waves, through their velocity dependence to stress perturbations, can provide crucial information on the temporal evolution of the mechanical properties of volcanic edifices. In this article, we review past and ongoing efforts for extracting accurate information of temporal changes of seismic velocities at volcanoes continuously in time using records of ambient seismic noise. We will first introduce the general methodology for retrieving accurate seismic velocity changes from seismic noise records and discuss the origin of seismic velocity temporal changes in rocks. We will then discuss in a second part how noise-based monitoring can improve our knowledge about magmatic activity at a long (years) to a short (days) time scale taking example from Piton de la Fournaise volcano (La Réunion). We will also mention ongoing efforts for operational noise-based seismic monitoring on volcanoes. Further, we will discuss perspectives for improving the spatial localization of detected velocity changes at depth with a special focus on the use of dense seismic arrays. In the last part, we will finally explore the complex response of volcanic regions to seismic shaking with an example from Japan and show how imaging seismic velocity susceptibility allows characterizing the state of pressurized fluids in volcanic regions.

  10. Mass-reduction effort of the electric and hybrid vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R. B.; Jahnle, H. A.

    1980-03-01

    Weight reduction, cost competitiveness, and elimination of the intrusion beam resulted from the redesign and fabrication using composite materials of the door outer panel and intrusion beam from a 1977 Chevrolet Impala. The basis of the redesign involved replacing these two steel parts with a single compression molding using the unique approach of simultaneously curing a sheet molding compound outside panel with a continuous glass-fiber intrusion strap. A weight reduction of nearly 11 pounds per door was achieved. Additional weight savings are possible by taking advantage of the elimination of the intrusion beam to design thinner door structures. The parts-consolidation approach allows the composite structures to be cost-competitive with the original steel design for both the lower-production car models and for the near- to mid-term production contemplated for electric and hybrid vehicles using current state-of-the-art composite production techniques. In addition to the design, prototype fabrication, and costing phases, two appendices containing materials description, properties, and compression-molding production requirements are included.

  11. A Landing Gear Noise Reduction Study Based on Computational Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Lockard, David P.

    2006-01-01

    Landing gear is one of the more prominent airframe noise sources. Techniques that diminish gear noise and suppress its radiation to the ground are highly desirable. Using a hybrid computational approach, this paper investigates the noise reduction potential of devices added to a simplified main landing gear model without small scale geometric details. The Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation is used to predict the noise at far-field observer locations from surface pressure data provided by unsteady CFD calculations. Because of the simplified nature of the model, most of the flow unsteadiness is restricted to low frequencies. The wheels, gear boxes, and oleo appear to be the primary sources of unsteadiness at these frequencies. The addition of fairings around the gear boxes and wheels, and the attachment of a splitter plate on the downstream side of the oleo significantly reduces the noise over a wide range of frequencies, but a dramatic increase in noise is observed at one frequency. The increased flow velocities, a consequence of the more streamlined bodies, appear to generate extra unsteadiness around other parts giving rise to the additional noise. Nonetheless, the calculations demonstrate the capability of the devices to improve overall landing gear noise.

  12. Broadband Noise Reduction of a Low-Speed Fan Noise Using Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through the use of rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a continuous trailing edge slot. Hollow blades with interior guide vanes create flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the blade root to the trailing edge. A previous paper documented the substantial tonal reductions of this Trailing Edge Rotor Blowing (TERB) fan. This report documents the broadband characteristics of TERB. The Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF), located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof-of-concept test bed. Two-component hotwire data behind the rotor, unsteady surface pressures on the stator vane, and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates of 1.1, 1.5, and 1.8 percent of the total fan mass flow. The results indicate a substantial reduction in the rotor wake turbulent velocity and in the stator vane unsteady surface pressures. Based on the physics of the noise generation, these indirect measurements indicate the prospect of broadband noise reduction. However, since the broadband noise generated by the ANCF is rotor-dominated, any change in the rotor-stator interaction broadband noise levels is barely distinguishable in the farfield measurements.

  13. Computational Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts at Full Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Duda, Benjamin; Hazir, Andreas; Fares, Ehab

    2016-01-01

    High-fidelity simulations focused on full-scale evaluation of new technologies for mitigating flap and landing gear noise are presented. These noise reduction concepts were selected because of their superior acoustic performance, as demonstrated during NASA wind tunnel tests of an 18%-scale, semi-span model of a Gulfstream aircraft. The full-scale, full-aircraft, time-accurate simulations were performed with the lattice Boltzmann PowerFLOW(Registered Trademark) solver for free air at a Mach number of 0.2. Three aircraft configurations (flaps deflected at 39? without and with main gear deployed, and 0? flaps with main gear extended) were used to determine the aero-acoustic performance of the concepts on component-level (individually) and system-level (concurrent applica-tion) bases. Farfield noise spectra were obtained using a Ffowcs-Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. Comparison of the predicted spectra without (baseline) and with the noise treatments applied showed that noise reduction benefits between 2-3 dB for the flap and 1.3-1.7 dB for the main landing gear are obtained. It was also found that the full extent of the benefits is being masked by the noise generated from the flap brackets and main gear cavities, which act as prominent secondary sources.

  14. Content-dependent block noise reduction for mobile displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ga-Hee; Lee, Yoon-Gyoo; Kim, Han-Eol; Kim, Choon-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Number of pixels on mobile displays is rapidly increasing. Recently, mobile displays with more than one million pixels have been introduced into markets. However, most of multimedia contents to be displayed on mobile displays have much smaller pixel counts. For example, number of pixels for a T-DMB(terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting) sequence is 320x240. When enlargement is applied to input sequence, perceived image quality would be degraded. Increase in visibility of block noise is one of the major reasons for image quality degradation on mobile displays. This paper presents a simple and computationally efficient method to reduce visibility of block noise on enlarged multimedia sequences. In proposed method, a simple low pass filtering is selectively applied to the pixels of block noises for reduction of block noise visibility as well as faithful reproduction of image details.

  15. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  16. Single-photoelectron noise reduction in scintillation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Marvin, T.P.; The SLAC mQ Collaboration

    1995-10-01

    The 1994--95 search at SLAC for mulicharged particles used four 21 {times} 21 {times} 130-cm{sup 3} Bicron 408 scintillation counters to detect a signal at the single-photoelectron level. The competing noise requiring minimization was due to a combination of PM tube (8-inch Thorne EMI 9353KA) afterpulsing and ambient radiation-induced scintillator luminescence. A very slow decay (> 30 {mu}s) component was observed and received particular attention. Efforts to reduce the SPE noise included photomultiplier tube base modifications, detector shielding and cooling, signal amplification, and veto procedures.

  17. Improvements of wind noise reduction systems in the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, Alfred Christian; Marty, Julien

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this poster is to present the efforts made by the PTS over the last four years to assess and improve the robustness and efficiency of wind noise reduction systems. This work includes the improvement of the design of the pipe arrays by modelling the frequency response of the different types of filtering systems used within the IMS (International Monitoring System) infrasound network. It also includes the investigation and testing of new acoustic filtering system materials / components to improve the robustness of the pipe arrays. Efforts were also put into the improvement of pipe array design in order to enhance their flexibility to adapt to the station environmental conditions. Finally wind noise reduction system design was also enhanced to reduce maintenance activities and costs, as well as to extend their life cycle.

  18. Development of Novel Methods for the Reduction of Noise and Weight in Helicopter Transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimofte, Florin; Keith, Theo G., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Over the 70-year evolution of the helicopter, man's understanding of vibration control has greatly increased. However, in spite of the increased performance, the extent of helicopter vibration problems has not significantly diminished. Crew vibration and noise remains important factors in the design of all current helicopters. With more complex and critical demands being placed on aircrews, it is essential that vibration and noise not impair their performance. A major source of helicopter cabin noise (which has been measured at a sound pressure level of over 100 dB) is the gearbox. Reduction of this noise has been a goal of NASA and the U.S. Army. Gear mesh noise is typically in the frequency range of 1000 to 3000 Hz, a range important for speech. A requirement for U.S. Army/NASA Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project has been a 10-dB reduction compared to current designs. A combined analytical/experimental effort has been underway, since the end of the 80's, to study effects of design parameters on noise production. The noise generated by the gear mesh can be transmitted to the surrounding media through the bearings that support the gear shaft. Therefore, the use of fluid film bearings instead of rolling element bearings could reduce the transmission noise by 10 dB. In addition, the fluid film bearings that support the gear shaft can change the dynamics of the gear assembly by providing damping to the system and by being softer than rolling element bearings. Wave bearings can attenuate, and filter, the noise generated by a machine component due to the dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients. The attenuation ratio could be as large as 35-40 dB. The noise components at higher frequencies than a synchronous frequency can be almost eliminated.

  19. A Background Noise Reduction Technique Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation for Microphone Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Fuller, Christopher R.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Brooks, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Background noise in wind tunnel environments poses a challenge to acoustic measurements due to possible low or negative Signal to Noise Ratios (SNRs) present in the testing environment. This paper overviews the application of time domain Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) to microphone array signals with an intended application of background noise reduction in wind tunnels. An experiment was conducted to simulate background noise from a wind tunnel circuit measured by an out-of-flow microphone array in the tunnel test section. A reference microphone was used to acquire a background noise signal which interfered with the desired primary noise source signal at the array. The technique s efficacy was investigated using frequency spectra from the array microphones, array beamforming of the point source region, and subsequent deconvolution using the Deconvolution Approach for the Mapping of Acoustic Sources (DAMAS) algorithm. Comparisons were made with the conventional techniques for improving SNR of spectral and Cross-Spectral Matrix subtraction. The method was seen to recover the primary signal level in SNRs as low as -29 dB and outperform the conventional methods. A second processing approach using the center array microphone as the noise reference was investigated for more general applicability of the ANC technique. It outperformed the conventional methods at the -29 dB SNR but yielded less accurate results when coherence over the array dropped. This approach could possibly improve conventional testing methodology but must be investigated further under more realistic testing conditions.

  20. Trailing edge noise reduction in a backward-curved impeller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauchle, Gerald C.

    2002-05-01

    Motorized impellers are used in many air-moving applications including room circulation, duct flow, roof and wall exhaust, and cooling of electronic components in cabinets. These fans are backward-curved centrifugal blowers that operate with no volute casing. These fans radiate broadband noise due to turbulence ingestion and trailing edge (TE) noise generating mechanisms. Considered here are trailing edge noise generation and its reduction in a typical motorized impeller. The sound power of the subject fans is measured in an acoustically transparent test plenum according to ANSI Standard S12.11-1987. Two different serrated TE treatments are designed. The designs assume that a turbulent boundary layer exists at the blade TE, but the actual fan Reynolds number based on chord length is transitional. Therefore, to assure that a turbulent boundary layer exists at the TE, two different inlet turbulators are implemented. These trip the blade boundary layer to a turbulent state. Reported are the effects of the TE serrations and turbulators acting individually on the fan noise, along with the synergistic effects of using them in combinations. Up to 6 dBA of noise reduction is observed when the two are used together. [Work supported by Nortel Networks.

  1. Aeroacoustic Evaluation of Flap and Landing Gear Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Lockard, David P.; Ravetta, Patricio A.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroacoustic measurements for a semi-span, 18% scale, high-fidelity Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The model was used as a test bed to conduct detailed studies of flap and main landing gear noise sources and to determine the effectiveness of numerous noise mitigation concepts. Using a traversing microphone array in the flyover direction, an extensive set of acoustic data was obtained in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the information was acquired with the model in a landing configuration with the flap deflected 39 deg and the main landing gear alternately installed and removed. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24 over directivity angles between 56 deg and 116 deg, with 90 deg representing the overhead direction. Measured acoustic spectra showed that several of the tested flap noise reduction concepts decrease the sound pressure levels by 2 - 4 dB over the entire frequency range at all directivity angles. Slightly lower levels of noise reduction from the main landing gear were obtained through the simultaneous application of various gear devices. Measured aerodynamic forces indicated that the tested gear/flap noise abatement technologies have a negligible impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  2. Noise reduction on multi-spindle automatic lathes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietz, P.

    1982-10-01

    The purpose of this project was to define the major noise emitting sources in multi-spindle automatic lathes during machining and indexing operations. Noise levels as specified by the working ordinance (Arbeitsstattenverordnung) are to be obtained or reduce by secondary and predominantly primary actions. The following actions will lead towards considerable noise level reductions to obtain the above targets: (1) by boxing-in actions as additional and supplementary means for existing workshop places. Depending on the actions taken a noise level reduction of between 6 to 11 dB(A) will result; (2) by modifications in the design of head stock and gear boxes according to the principle of assignment division together with boxing-in actions of integrated parts. A comparable late model machine shows an improvement of a minimum of 6 dB(A) even after doubling the operating speed; (3) by design and manufacturing modification of machine parts as gears, clutches, cams and indexing devices. Improvement of the mostly impulse type noise peaks by approximately 1 to 4 dB (impulse sound).

  3. Benefits of Swept and Leaned Stators for Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Richard P.; Elliott, David M.; Hughes, Christopher E.; Berton, Jeffrey J.

    1998-01-01

    An advanced high bypass ratio fan model was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 9 x 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel. The primary focus of this test was to quantify the acoustic benefits and aerodynamic performance of sweep and lean in stator vane design. Three stator sets were used for this test series. A conventional radial stator was tested at two rotor-stator axial spacings. Additional stator sets incorporating sweep + lean, and sweep only were also tested. The hub axial location for the swept + lean, and sweep only stators corresponded to the location of the radial stator at the upstream rotor-stator spacing, while the tip axial location of these modified stators corresponded to the radial stator axial position at the downstream position. The acoustic results show significant reductions in both rotor-stator interaction noise and broadband noise beyond what could be achieved through increased axial spacing of the conventional, radial stator. Theoretical application of these results to acoustically quantify a fictitious 2-engine aircraft and flight path suggested that about 3 Effective Perceived Noise (EPN) dB could be achieved through incorporation of these modified stators. This reduction would represent a significant portion of the 6 EPNdB noise goal of the current NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) initiative relative to that of 1992 technology levels. A secondary result of this fan test was to demonstrate the ability of an acoustic barrier wall to block aft-radiated fan noise in the wind tunnel, thus revealing the acoustic structure of the residual inlet-radiated noise. This technology should prove valuable toward better understanding inlet liner design, or wherever it is desirable to eliminate aft-radiated noise from the fan acoustic signature.

  4. An aeroacoustic study of micro-tab on airframe noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chiawei B.

    Aircraft high-lift devices such as leading-edge slats and trailing-edge flaps generate noise when extended, causing significant contributions to overall aircraft sound pressure levels, in particular in approach to land phase. It is shown by previous research efforts that noise generated by the high-lift devices increases with their deployment angles. Hence it is possible to mitigate such high-lift noise by using reduced settings without sacrificing the aerodynamic performance, particularly lift. In this dissertation research, micro-tab device attached at the pressure side of the flap surface near its trailing-edge is envisioned as the way to compensate the lift loss due to reduced high-lift device settings. Hybrid numerical method, which combines computational fluid dynamics and acoustics analogy, was adopted to predict the farfield noise spectrum. It is the goal of this research project to illustrate that noise level increase due to micro-tab deployment is smaller than that from the prescribed slat and flap setting increases, so that an overall airframe noise reduction can be achieved. Two-dimensional computational simulations and three-dimensional computational simulations were performed progressively. Results indicated that the proposed reduced high-lift settings with micro-tab application achieved noise reduction, particularly in the mid-frequency range where human hearing is most sensitive to. Parametric studies involving geometry and size effects of the micro-tab configurations were conducted using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. Results showed that considerable noise reduction was obtained if slit micro-tab was used. An airworthiness study regarding applying micro-tab device onto existing commercial airliners as retrofit to lower noise emission in approach was also investigated and compliance strategy was provided. In the last part of this research, a different approach from aviation policy was taken as the airport noise compatibility planning

  5. New circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines resulting from a new practice of noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    TOKI, Hiroshi; SATO, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    In modern life, we are surrounded by and filled with electromagnetic noise caused by the dominant use of energy in the form of electricity. This situation is brought about by the fact that the noise is not understood theoretically. A new practice of noise reduction was introduced for the construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). The key concept is a symmetric three-line circuit that arranges power supplies, noise filters and magnets around a third central ground line. A continuous theoretical effort forced us to find a new circuit theory involving a multiconductor transmission-line system starting from Maxwell’s equations without any approximation. We discuss the essence of all of these experimental and theoretical developments with the hope to remove unnecessary electromagnetic noise not only from power supplies, but also from all electric devices. The newly derived circuit theory of multiconductor transmission lines is universal, and establishes the validity of the practice of noise reduction. PMID:24522153

  6. Combustion generated noise in gas turbine combustors. [engine noise/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahle, W. C.; Shivashankara, B. N.

    1974-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the noise power and spectra emitted from a gas turbine combustor can exhausting to the atmosphere. Limited hot wire measurements were made of the cold flow turbulence level and spectra within the can. The fuels used were JP-4, acetone and methyl alcohol burning with air at atmospheric pressure. The experimental results show that for a fixed fuel the noise output is dominated by the airflow rate and not the fuel/air ratio. The spectra are dominated by the spectra of the cold flow turbulence spectra which were invariant with airflow rate in the experiments. The effect of fuel type on the noise power output was primarily through the heat of combustion and not the reactivity. A theory of combustion noise based upon the flame radiating to open surroundings is able to reasonably explain the observed results. A thermoacoustic efficiency for noise radiation as high as .00003 was observed in this program for JP-4 fuel. Scaling rules are presented for installed configurations.

  7. An overview of flow control for fan noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langford, Matthew; Burdisso, R. A.; Ng, W.

    2005-09-01

    The dominant tonal noise source from modern high-bypass-ratio turbofan aircraft engines is due to the impingement of viscous fan rotor wakes onto the downstream stator row. Prior research conducted at NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) rig has demonstrated that significant tonal noise attenuation can be achieved by injecting 1.2% to 1.8% of the fan throughflow along a slot in the trailing edge of the rotor. Efforts presented in this paper have focused on reducing the required blowing mass flow while maintaining equivalent noise attenuation levels. Two primary approaches were investigated: blowing in circumferentially non-uniform patterns (i.e., blowing on every other blade), and optimizing the injection scheme itself. The concept of blowing on alternate rotors was experimentally tested in the ANCF rig using NASA's current slot-blown rotors, and improved attenuation efficiencies were found (although the overall attenuation levels were less). Cascade wind tunnel tests of several different injection schemes were conducted, and the best-performing configuration was incorporated into a new rotor design for experimental validation in the ANCF rig. These rotors achieved similar tonal noise attenuation levels as the slot-blown configuration, but they required injecting less than 0.75% of the fan throughflow.

  8. Speckle and thermal noise reduction techniques for SAR interferogram

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Genderen, J.L. van

    1996-11-01

    Thermal and speckle noise is an obstacle to generating digital elevation model (DAM) from interferograms by 2-D phase unwrapping of Interferometric SAR (INSAR). Multi-look processing as a traditional method to reduce speckle noise is addressed briefly in this paper. Alternatively, we investigate the box filters in depth, as it deals with the single complex images more flexible in the complex image domain than in the frequency domain. Several Box filters are proposed and the comparison between these filters is made to illustrate the noise reduction by implementation of filtering techniques. Window size selection of the box filters is examined in details. Simulation results and raw data testing results are presented to confirm the validity of the filtering algorithms proposed in this paper.

  9. Exploiting cantilever curvature for noise reduction in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Grütter, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Optical beam deflection is a widely used method for detecting the deflection of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers. This paper presents a first order derivation for the angular detection noise density which determines the lower limit for deflection sensing. Surprisingly, the cantilever radius of curvature, commonly not considered, plays a crucial role and can be exploited to decrease angular detection noise. We demonstrate a reduction in angular detection shot noise of more than an order of magnitude on a home-built AFM with a commercial 450 μm long cantilever by exploiting the optical properties of the cantilever curvature caused by the reflective gold coating. Lastly, we demonstrate how cantilever curvature can be responsible for up to 45% of the variability in the measured sensitivity of cantilevers on commercially available AFMs. PMID:21280834

  10. Noise Reduction Of Air Blower Casing Using Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolla*, S.; Kumar, Y. Anil; Rajesh, S.

    Sound subjectively, what is heard by the ear; objectively, is a mecha nical disturbance from equilibrium in an elastic medium. The noise produced by a rotating component has two main components, the broadband noise and the discrete frequency noise. The broadband noise from a rotor is due to random loading forces on the blades, which are induced by the absorption of atmospheric turbulence. The discrete frequency noise is due to periodic interaction of incoming air with the blades of the rotor. At present the centrifugal blowers, in Naval defense application which is made of steel is generating a noise of 86dB, which causes mental imbalance to the people working near the blower on ship. Therefore in Naval defense applications the reduction of sound level from a source is very important and critical task. Hence the objective of this paper is to reduce the noise level produced by the metal air blower. The noise radiated by the casing of a centrifugal blower can be effectively reduced by the use of (1) Composite Materials, (2) Visco-Elastic material treatment and (3) Stiffness addition. In this paper it is proposed to carry out a study to evaluate the effectiveness of composites in reducing noise levels of the casing. Composite materials are those containing more than one bonded material, each with different struc tural properties. The advantage of composite materials is the potential for a high ratio of stiffness to weight. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of composites over metals, modal analysis (Eigen value analysis) and Static analysis was performed on both composite and metal blowers using FEA package (ANSYS). Modal analysis is performed on both metals (Alluminium and Composite) blower casing to find out the first ten natural frequencies and static analysis is performed for a pressure of 1570 Pa. This paper also describes the experimental setup of the centrifugal blower, the values of the sound levels for both metal and FRP blowers are taken at a distance of

  11. An assessment of psychological noise reduction by landscape plants.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Bao, Zhi Yi; Zhu, Zhu Jun

    2011-04-01

    The emphasis in the term 'Green Transportation' is on the word 'green'. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants' actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects' emotional processing, which we term 'psychological noise reduction'. PMID:21695027

  12. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    PubMed Central

    Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-01-01

    Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447

  13. Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John

    2015-02-01

    Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.

  14. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  15. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  16. USB noise reduction by nozzle and flap modifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1976-01-01

    The development of concepts for reducing upper surface blown flap noise at the source through flap modifications and special nozzles is reviewed. In particular, recent results obtained on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of flaps with porous surfaces near the trailing edge and multi-slotted nozzles are reviewed. Considerable reduction (6-10 db) of the characteristic low frequency peak is shown. The aerodynamic performance is compared with conventional systems, and prospects for future improvements are discussed.

  17. Physiological Noise Reduction Using Volumetric Functional Magnetic Resonance Inverse Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan; Nummenmaa, Aapo; Witzel, Thomas; Polimeni, Jonathan R.; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Wang, Fu-Nien; Belliveau, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Physiological noise arising from a variety of sources can significantly degrade the detection of task-related activity in BOLD-contrast fMRI experiments. If whole head spatial coverage is desired, effective suppression of oscillatory physiological noise from cardiac and respiratory fluctuations is quite difficult without external monitoring, since traditional EPI acquisition methods cannot sample the signal rapidly enough to satisfy the Nyquist sampling theorem, leading to temporal aliasing of noise. Using a combination of high speed magnetic resonance inverse imaging (InI) and digital filtering, we demonstrate that it is possible to suppress cardiac and respiratory noise without auxiliary monitoring, while achieving whole head spatial coverage and reasonable spatial resolution. Our systematic study of the effects of different moving average (MA) digital filters demonstrates that a MA filter with a 2 s window can effectively reduce the variance in the hemodynamic baseline signal, thereby achieving 57-58% improvements in peak z-statistic values compared to unfiltered InI or spatially smoothed EPI data (FWHM =8.6 mm). In conclusion, the high temporal sampling rates achievable with InI permit significant reductions in physiological noise using standard temporal filtering techniques that result in significant improvements in hemodynamic response estimation. PMID:21954026

  18. Recruitment-of-loudness effects of attenuative noise reduction algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmal, Nathaniel; Vosoughi, Azadeh

    2002-05-01

    Hearing-impaired listeners have greater difficulty understanding speech in noise than normal-hearing listeners do. As a result, hearing aid users are often challenged by the inability of their hearing aids to improve intelligibility in noise. Several investigators have addressed this problem by using well-known signal processing methods (e.g., spectral subtraction, Wiener filtering) to enhance noise-corrupted speech. Unfortunately, these methods have failed to provide significant improvements in intelligibility. One possible explanation is the level-dependent nature of the attenuation that the algorithms impose on the speech. In the cases described above, this attenuation resembles the piecewise-linear input-output characteristic observed in certain recruitment-of-loudness simulators. The purpose of this study was to compare the intelligibility of processed speech with that expected for recruitment-of-loudness simulation. Trials of the CUNY Nonsense Syllable Test were conducted with 12 normal-hearing listeners, using syllables that were mixed with additive noise at SNRs of 6, 12, and 18 dB. Input-output characteristics for the signals were measured and used to determine the effective threshold shift imposed by the algorithms. Comparisons of measured intelligibility scores with articulation index-based intelligibility predictions indicate that the behavior of such noise reduction algorithms can be successfully modeled as a form of mild sensorineural hearing loss.

  19. Noise reduction in ultrasonic NDT using undecimated wavelet transforms.

    PubMed

    Pardo, E; San Emeterio, J L; Rodriguez, M A; Ramos, A

    2006-12-22

    Translation-invariant wavelet processing is applied to grain noise reduction in ultrasonic non-destructive testing of materials. In particular, the undecimated wavelet transform (UWT), which is essentially a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) that avoids decimation, is used. Two different UWT processors have been specifically developed for that purpose, based on two UWT implementation schemes: the "à trous" algorithm and the cycle-spinning scheme. The performance of these two UWT processors is compared with that of a classical DWT processor, by using synthetic grain noise registers and experimental pulse-echo NDT traces. The synthetic ultrasonic traces have been generated by an own-developed frequency-domain model that includes frequency dependence in both material attenuation and scattering. The experimental ultrasonic traces have been obtained by inspecting a piece of carbon-fiber reinforced plastic composite in which we have mechanized artificial flaws. Decomposition level-dependent thresholds, which are suitable for correlated noise, are specifically determined in all cases. Soft thresholding, Daubechies db6 mother wavelet and the three well-known threshold selection rules, Universal, Minimax and SURE, are applied to the different decomposition levels. The performance of the different de-noising procedures for single echo detection has been comparatively evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio enhancement. PMID:16797651

  20. Single-channel noise reduction using optimal rectangular filtering matrices.

    PubMed

    Long, Tao; Chen, Jingdong; Benesty, Jacob; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2013-02-01

    This paper studies the problem of single-channel noise reduction in the time domain and presents a block-based approach where a vector of the desired speech signal is recovered by filtering a frame of the noisy signal with a rectangular filtering matrix. With this formulation, the noise reduction problem becomes one of estimating an optimal filtering matrix. To achieve such estimation, a method is introduced to decompose a frame of the clean speech signal into two orthogonal components: One correlated and the other uncorrelated with the current desired speech vector to be estimated. Different optimization cost functions are then formulated from which non-causal optimal filtering matrices are derived. The relationships among these optimal filtering matrices are discussed. In comparison with the classical sample-based technique that uses only forward prediction, the block-based method presented in this paper exploits both the forward and backward prediction as well as the temporal interpolation and, therefore, can improve the noise reduction performance by fully taking advantage of the speech property of self correlation. There is also a side advantage of this block-based method as compared to the sample-based technique, i.e., it is computationally more efficient and, as a result, more suitable for practical implementation. PMID:23363124

  1. Study of noise reduction characteristics of double-wall panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.; Quayle, B.; Stevenson, S.; Graham, M.

    1983-01-01

    The noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type, flat, double-wall structures were investigated. The experimental study was carried out on 20-by-20 inch panels with an exposed area of 18 by 18 inches. A frequency range from 20 to 5000 Hz was covered. The experimental results, in general, follow the expected trends. At low frequencies the double-wall structures are no better than the single-wall structures. However, for depths normally used in the general aviation industry, the double-wall panels are very attractive. The graphite-spoxy skin panels have higher noise reduction at very low frequencies ( 100 Hz) than the Kevlar skin panels. But the aluminum panels have higher noise reduction in the high frequency region, due to their greater mass. Use of fiberglass insulation is not effective in the low frequency region, and at times it is even negative. But the insulation is effective in the high-frequency region. The theoretical model for predicting the transmission loss of these multilayered panels is also discussed.

  2. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  3. Voice communications in the cockpit noise environment: The role of active noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, Peter David

    The topic of voice communications in the cockpit noise environment of modern fast-jet aircraft and helicopters is addressed, and in particular, research undertaken in support of the development of a system for reducing the noise level at the operators' ear is described by acoustic cancellation within the ear defender, known as active noise reduction (ANR). The internal noise spectra of today's high performance fast-jet aircraft and military helicopters is described, and the complex interaction of acoustic noise transmission, speech, and microphone noise pick-up, which produces the total acoustic environment at the aircrews' ears, is discussed. Means of mathematically modelling the audio channel, quantifying the components identified above, and identifying areas of shortfall in performance are derived, leading to a procedure for the development of attenuation requirements, described as the communications audit. A model of the electroacoustic characteristics of the ANR ear defender assembly is presented and the sound field distribution within the ear defender/ear cavity, and its effect upon cancellation performance, is discussed. The extensive laboratory and flight testing of the ANR system that was undertaken is reviewed, paying particular attention to the measurement and analysis techniques employed in such testing. Finally, the performance characteristics of ANR are discussed and compared with the requirements previously established. Design limitations placed upon the system by the constraints of its area of application are described, and the scope for future improvements is considered.

  4. Numerical Prediction of Chevron Nozzle Noise Reduction using Wind-MGBK Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, W.A.; Bridges, J.; Khavarant, A.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical predictions for single-stream chevron nozzle flow performance and farfield noise production are presented. Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) solutions, produced via the WIND flow solver, are provided as input to the MGBK code for prediction of farfield noise distributions. This methodology is applied to a set of sensitivity cases involving varying degrees of chevron inward bend angle relative to the core flow, for both cold and hot exhaust conditions. The sensitivity study results illustrate the effect of increased chevron bend angle and exhaust temperature on enhancement of fine-scale mixing, initiation of core breakdown, nozzle performance, and noise reduction. Direct comparisons with experimental data, including stagnation pressure and temperature rake data, PIV turbulent kinetic energy fields, and 90 degree observer farfield microphone data are provided. Although some deficiencies in the numerical predictions are evident, the correct farfield noise spectra trends are captured by the WIND-MGBK method, including the noise reduction benefit of chevrons. Implications of these results to future chevron design efforts are addressed.

  5. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Summerfelt, S.; Popper, A.N.; Mazik, P.; Bebak, J.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in impairment of the auditory system, reduced growth rates, and increased stress. Consequently, reducing sound in fish tanks could result in advantages for cultured species and increased productivity for the aquaculture industry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the noise reduction potential of various retrofits to fiberglass fish culture tanks. The following structural changes were applied to tanks to reduce underwater noise: (1) inlet piping was suspended to avoid contact with the tank, (2) effluent piping was disconnected from a common drain line, (3) effluent piping was insulated beneath tanks, and (4) tanks were elevated on cement blocks and seated on insulated padding. Four combinations of the aforementioned structural changes were evaluated in duplicate and two tanks were left unchanged as controls. Control tanks had sound levels of 120.6 dB re 1 ??Pa. Each retrofit contributed to a reduction of underwater sound. As structural changes were combined, a cumulative reduction in sound level was observed. Tanks designed with a combination of retrofits had sound levels of 108.6 dB re 1 ??Pa, a four-fold reduction in sound pressure level. Sound frequency spectra indicated that the greatest sound reductions occurred between 2 and 100 Hz and demonstrated that nearby pumps and blowers created tonal frequencies that were transmitted into the tanks. The tank modifications used during this study were simple and inexpensive and could be applied to existing systems or considered when designing aquaculture facilities. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An Assessment of Psychological Noise Reduction by Landscape Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Bao, Zhi Yi; Zhu, Zhu Jun

    2011-01-01

    The emphasis in the term ‘Green Transportation’ is on the word ‘green’. Green transportation focuses on the construction of a slow transport system with a visually pleasing, easy and secure trip environment composed of urban parks, green roadside spaces and some other space that is full of landscape plants. This trip environment encourages residents to make trip choices that reduce fuel consumption and pollution and is one of the most important ways of popularizing green transportation. To study the psychological benefits provided by urban parks and other landscape environments, we combined a subjective approach (a questionnaire) with an objective quantitative approach (emotional tests using an electroencephalogram; EEG). Using a questionnaire survey, we found that 90% of the subjects believed that landscape plants contribute to noise reduction and that 55% overrated the plants’ actual ability to attenuate noise. Two videos (showing a traffic scene and a plant scene) were shown to 40 participants on video glasses. We detected and recorded EEG values with a portable electroencephalograph, and a comparison between the results of the two groups revealed that there was a highly significant asymmetry between the EEG activity of the vegetation scene and traffic scene groups. The results suggest that the emotions aroused by noise and visual stimuli are manifested in the synchronization of beta frequency band and the desynchronization of alpha frequency band, indicating that landscape plants can moderate or buffer the effects of noise. These findings indicate that landscape plants provide excess noise attenuating effects through subjects’ emotional processing, which we term ‘psychological noise reduction’. PMID:21695027

  7. Dose reduction in CT with correlated-polarity noise reduction: context-dependent spatial resolution and noise properties demonstrating two-fold dose reduction with minimal artifacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbins, James T.; Wells, Jered R.; Segars, W. Paul

    2014-03-01

    Correlated-polarity noise reduction (CPNR) is a novel noise reduction technique that uses a statistical approach to reducing noise while maintaining excellent spatial resolution and a traditional noise appearance. It was demonstrated in application to CT imaging for the first time at SPIE 2013 and showed qualitatively excellent image quality at half of normal CT dose. In this current work, we measure quantitatively the spatial resolution and noise properties of CPNR in CT imaging. To measure the spatial resolution, we developed a metrology approach that is suitable for nonlinear algorithms such as CPNR. We introduce the formalism of Signal Modification Factor, SMF(u,v), which is the ratio in frequency space of the CPNR-processed image divided by the noise-free image, averaged over an ensemble of ROIs in a given anatomical context. SMF is a nonlinear analog to the MTF. We used XCAT computer-generated anthropomorphic phantom images followed by projection space processing with CPNR. The SMF revealed virtually no effect from CPNR on spatial resolution of the images (<7% degradation at all frequencies). Corresponding contextdependent NPS measurements generated with CPNR at half-dose were about equal to the NPS of full-dose images without CPNR. This result demonstrates for the first time the quantitative determination of a two-fold reduction in dose with CPNR with less than 7% reduction in spatial resolution. We conclude that CPNR shows strong promise as a method for reduction of noise (and hence, dose) in CT. CPNR may also be used in combination with iterative reconstruction techniques for yet further dose reduction, pending further investigation.

  8. Aircraft interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Gottwald, James A.; Gustaveson, Mark B.; Burton, James R., III; Castellino, Craig

    1989-01-01

    Existing interior noise reduction techniques for aircraft fuselages perform reasonably well at higher frequencies, but are inadequate at lower, particularly with respect to the low blade passage harmonics with high forcing levels found in propeller aircraft. A method is being studied which considers aircraft fuselages lines with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency to be attenuated. Adjacent panels would oscillate at equal amplitude, to give equal source strength, but with opposite phase. Provided these adjacent panels are acoustically compact, the resulting cancellation causes the interior acoustic modes to become cut off and therefore be non-propagating and evanescent. This interior noise reduction method, called Alternate Resonance Tuning (ART), is currently being investigated both theoretically and experimentally. This new concept has potential application to reducing interior noise due to the propellers in advanced turboprop aircraft as well as for existing aircraft configurations. This program summarizes the work carried out at Duke University during the third semester of a contract supported by the Structural Acoustics Branch at NASA Langley Research Center.

  9. Aircraft interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottwald, James A.; Bliss, Donald B.

    1990-01-01

    The focus is on a noise control method which considers aircraft fuselages lined with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency that must be attenuated. An interior noise reduction called alternate resonance tuning (ART) is described both theoretically and experimentally. Problems dealing with tuning single paneled wall structures for optimum noise reduction using the ART methodology are presented, and three theoretical problems are analyzed. The first analysis is a three dimensional, full acoustic solution for tuning a panel wall composed of repeating sections with four different panel tunings within that section, where the panels are modeled as idealized spring-mass-damper systems. The second analysis is a two dimensional, full acoustic solution for a panel geometry influenced by the effect of a propagating external pressure field such as that which might be associated with propeller passage by a fuselage. To reduce the analysis complexity, idealized spring-mass-damper panels are again employed. The final theoretical analysis presents the general four panel problem with real panel sections, where the effect of higher structural modes is discussed. Results from an experimental program highlight real applications of the ART concept and show the effectiveness of the tuning on real structures.

  10. Digital Signal Processing System for Active Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmonson, William W.; Tucker, Jerry

    2002-12-01

    different adaptive noise cancellation algorithms and provide an operational prototype to understand the behavior of the system under test. DSP software was required to interface the processor with the data converters using interrupt routines. The goal is to build a complete ANC system that can be placed on a flexible circuit with added memory circuitry that also contains the power supply, sensors and actuators. This work on the digital signal processing system for active noise reduction was completed in collaboration with another ASEE Fellow, Dr. Jerry Tucker from Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA.

  11. Jet-noise reduction through liquid-base foam injection.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manson, L.; Burge, H. L.

    1971-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been made of the sound-absorbing properties of liquid-base foams and of their ability to reduce jet noise. Protein, detergent, and polymer foaming agents were used in water solutions. A method of foam generation was developed to permit systematic variation of the foam density. The investigation included measurements of sound-absorption coefficents for both plane normal incidence waves and diffuse sound fields. The intrinsic acoustic properties of foam, e.g., the characteristic impedance and the propagation constant, were also determined. The sound emitted by a 1-in.-diam cold nitrogen jet was measured for subsonic (300 m/sec) and supersonic (422 m/sec) jets, with and without foam injection. Noise reductions up to 10 PNdB were measured.

  12. Feasibility of noise reduction by a modification in ICU environment.

    PubMed

    Luetz, A; Weiss, B; Penzel, T; Fietze, I; Glos, M; Wernecke, K D; Bluemke, B; Dehn, A M; Willemeit, T; Finke, A; Spies, C

    2016-07-01

    Noise is a proven cause of wakefulness and qualitative sleep disturbance in critically ill patients. A sound pressure level reduction can improve sleep quality, but there are no studies showing the feasibility of such a noise reduction in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting. Considering all available evidence, we redesigned two ICU rooms with the aim of investigating the physiological and clinical impact of a healing environment, including a noise reduction and day-night variations of sound level. Within an experimental design, we recorded 96 h of sound-pressure levels in standard ICU rooms and the modified ICU rooms. In addition, we performed a sound source observation by human observers. Our results show that we reduced A-weighted equivalent sound pressure levels and maximum sound pressure levels with our architectural interventions. During night-time, the modification led to a significant decrease in 50 dB threshold overruns from 65.5% to 39.9% (door side) and from 50% to 10.5% (window side). Sound peaks of more than 60 decibels were significantly reduced from 62.0% to 26.7% (door side) and 59.3% to 30.3% (window side). Time-series analysis of linear trends revealed a significantly more distinct day-night pattern in the modified rooms with lower sound levels during night-times. Observed sound sources during night revealed four times as many talking events in the standard room compared to the modified room. In summary, we show that it is feasible to reduce sound pressure levels using architectural modifications. PMID:27243942

  13. Critical Propulsion and Noise reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines. Area of Interest 14.3: Separate Flow Exhaust System Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Brausch, J. F.; Gliebe, P. R.; Coffin, R. S.; Martens, S.; Delaney, B. R.; Dalton, W. N.; Mengle, V. G.

    2000-01-01

    This presentation discusses: Project Objectives, Approach and Goal; Baseline Nozzles and Test Cycle Definition; Repeatability and Baseline Nozzle Results; Noise Reduction Concepts; Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=5 Internal Plug Nozzle adn Acoustic Results; Noise Reduction Test Configurations of BPR=5 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results; and Noise Reduction Tests Configurations of BPR=8 External Plug Nozzle and Acoustic Results.

  14. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes: Noise reduction through a cavity-backed flexible plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Vandam, C. P. G.

    1978-01-01

    A prediction method is reported for noise reduction through a cavity-backed panel. The analysis takes into account only cavity modes in one direction. The results of this analysis were to find the effect of acoustic stiffness of a backing cavity on the panel behavior. The resulting changes in the noise reduction through the panel are significant.

  15. The cost of applying current helicopter external noise reduction methods while maintaining realistic vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowes, M. A.

    1978-01-01

    Analytical methods were developed and/or adopted for calculating helicopter component noise, and these methods were incorporated into a unified total vehicle noise calculation model. Analytical methods were also developed for calculating the effects of noise reduction methodology on helicopter design, performance, and cost. These methods were used to calculate changes in noise, design, performance, and cost due to the incorporation of engine and main rotor noise reduction methods. All noise reduction techniques were evaluated in the context of an established mission performance criterion which included consideration of hovering ceiling, forward flight range/speed/payload, and rotor stall margin. The results indicate that small, but meaningful, reductions in helicopter noise can be obtained by treating the turbine engine exhaust duct. Furthermore, these reductions do not result in excessive life cycle cost penalties. Currently available main rotor noise reduction methodology, however, is shown to be inadequate and excessively costly.

  16. Noise reduction studies for the U-10 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Hubbard, H. H.; Dingeldein, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken by the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the noise reduction potential of the U-10 airplane in order to reduce its aural detection distance. Static and flyover noise measurements were made to document the basic airplane noise signature. Two modifications to the airplane configuration are suggested as having the best potential for substantially reducing aural detection distance with small penalty to airplane performance or stability and control. These modifications include changing the present 3-blade propeller to a 5-blade propeller, changing the propeller diameter, and changing the propeller gear ratio, along with the use of an engine exhaust muffler. The aural detection distance corresponding to normal cruising flight at an altitude of 1,000 ft over grassy terrain is reduced from 28,000 ft (5.3 miles) to about 50 percent of that value for modification 1, and to about 25 percent for modification 2. For the aircraft operating at an altitude of 300 ft, the analysis indicates that relatively straightforward modifications could reduce the aural detection distance to approximately 0.9 mile. Operation of the aircraft at greatly reduced engine speed (1650 rpm) with a 1.3-cu-ft muffler provides aural detection distances slightly lower than modification 1.

  17. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhard, T.; Erbslöh, S.; Carolus, T.

    2014-06-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length.

  18. Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.

  19. Edge Preserved Speckle Noise Reduction Using Integrated Fuzzy Filters

    PubMed Central

    Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, Manoj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiographic images are inherent with speckle noise which makes visual reading and analysis quite difficult. The multiplicative speckle noise masks finer details, necessary for diagnosis of abnormalities. A novel speckle reduction technique based on integration of geometric, wiener, and fuzzy filters is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The denoising applications of fuzzy filters are studied and analyzed along with 26 denoising techniques. It is observed that geometric filter retains noise and, to address this issue, wiener filter is embedded into the geometric filter during iteration process. The performance of geometric-wiener filter is further enhanced using fuzzy filters and the proposed despeckling techniques are called integrated fuzzy filters. Fuzzy filters based on moving average and median value are employed in the integrated fuzzy filters. The performances of integrated fuzzy filters are tested on echocardiographic images and synthetic images in terms of image quality metrics. It is observed that the performance parameters are highest in case of integrated fuzzy filters in comparison to fuzzy and geometric-fuzzy filters. The clinical validation reveals that the output images obtained using geometric-wiener, integrated fuzzy, nonlocal means, and details preserving anisotropic diffusion filters are acceptable. The necessary finer details are retained in the denoised echocardiographic images.

  20. Low-Speed Fan Noise Reduction With Trailing Edge Blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Tweedt, Daniel L.; Fite, E. Brian; Envia, Edmane

    2002-01-01

    An experimental proof-of-concept test was conducted to demonstrate reduction of rotor-stator interaction noise through rotor-trailing edge blowing. The velocity deficit from the viscous wake of the rotor blades was reduced by injecting air into the wake from a trailing edge slot. Composite hollow rotor blades with internal flow passages were designed based on analytical codes modeling the internal flow. The hollow blade with interior guide vanes creates flow channels through which externally supplied air flows from the root of the blade to the trailing edge. The impact of the rotor wake-stator interaction on the acoustics was also predicted analytically. The Active Noise Control Fan, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center, was used as the proof- of-concept test bed. In-duct mode and farfield directivity acoustic data were acquired at blowing rates (defined as mass supplied to trailing edge blowing system divided by fan mass flow) ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 percent. The first three blade passing frequency harmonics at fan rotational speeds of 1700 to 1900 rpm were analyzed. The acoustic tone power levels (PWL) in the inlet and exhaust were reduced 11.5 and -0.1, 7.2 and 11.4, 11.8 and 19.4 PWL dB, respectively. The farfield tone power levels at the first three harmonics were reduced 5.4, 10.6, and 12.4 dB PWL. At selected conditions, two-component hotwire and stator vane unsteady surface pressures were acquired. These measurements illustrate the physics behind the noise reduction.

  1. Digital Image Processing for Noise Reduction in Medical Ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loupas, Thanasis

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The purpose of this project was to investigate the application of digital image processing techniques as a means of reducing noise in medical ultrasonic imaging. Ultrasonic images suffer primarily from a type of acoustic noise, known as speckle, which is generally regarded as a major source of image quality degradation. The origin of speckle, its statistical properties as well as methods suggested to eliminate this artifact were reviewed. A simple model which can characterize the statistics of speckle on displays was also developed. A large number of digital noise reduction techniques was investigated. These include frame averaging techniques performed by commercially available devices and spatial filters implemented in software. Among the latter, some filters have been proposed in the scientific literature for ultrasonic, laser and microwave speckle or general noise suppression and the rest are original, developed specifically to suppress ultrasonic speckle. Particular emphasis was placed on adaptive techniques which adjust the processing performed at each point according to the local image content. In this way, they manage to suppress speckle with negligible loss of genuine image detail. Apart from preserving the diagnostically significant features of a scan another requirement a technique must satisfy before it is accepted in routine clinical practice is real-time operation. A spatial filter capable of satisfying both these requirements was designed and built in hardware using low-cost and readily available components. The possibility of incorporating all the necessary filter circuitry into a single VLSI chip was also investigated. In order to establish the effectiveness and usefulness of speckle suppression, a representative sample from the techniques examined here was applied to a large number of abdominal scans and their effect on image quality was evaluated. Finally, further

  2. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  3. NASA/AHS rotorcraft noise reduction program - NASA Langley Acoustics Division contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Ruth M.

    1989-06-01

    An account is given of the contributions made by NASA-Langley's rotorcraft noise research programs over the last five years. Attention has been given to the broadband and blade-vortex interaction noise sources; both analytical and empirical noise-prediction codes have been developed and validated for several rotor noise sources, and the 'Rotonet' comprehensive system-noise prediction capability has been instituted. Among the technologies explored for helicopter noise reduction have been higher harmonic control and active vibration-suppression.

  4. Noise reduction technologies implemented in head-worn preprocessors for improving cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields.

    PubMed

    Chung, King; Nelson, Lance; Teske, Melissa

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a multichannel adaptive directional microphone and a modulation-based noise reduction algorithm could enhance cochlear implant performance in reverberant noise fields. A hearing aid was modified to output electrical signals (ePreprocessor) and a cochlear implant speech processor was modified to receive electrical signals (eProcessor). The ePreprocessor was programmed to flat frequency response and linear amplification. Cochlear implant listeners wore the ePreprocessor-eProcessor system in three reverberant noise fields: 1) one noise source with variable locations; 2) three noise sources with variable locations; and 3) eight evenly spaced noise sources from 0° to 360°. Listeners' speech recognition scores were tested when the ePreprocessor was programmed to omnidirectional microphone (OMNI), omnidirectional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (OMNI + NR), and adaptive directional microphone plus noise reduction algorithm (ADM + NR). They were also tested with their own cochlear implant speech processor (CI_OMNI) in the three noise fields. Additionally, listeners rated overall sound quality preferences on recordings made in the noise fields. Results indicated that ADM+NR produced the highest speech recognition scores and the most preferable rating in all noise fields. Factors requiring attention in the hearing aid-cochlear implant integration process are discussed. PMID:22750449

  5. Two-Microphone Noise Reduction Using Spatial Information-Based Spectral Amplitude Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kai; Guo, Yanmeng; Fu, Qiang; Li, Junfeng; Yan, Yonghong

    Traditional two-microphone noise reduction algorithms to deal with highly nonstationary directional noises generally use the direction of arrival or phase difference information. The performance of these algorithms deteriorate when diffuse noises coexist with nonstationary directional noises in realistic adverse environments. In this paper, we present a two-channel noise reduction algorithm using a spatial information-based speech estimator and a spatial-information-controlled soft-decision noise estimator to improve the noise reduction performance in realistic non-stationary noisy environments. A target presence probability estimator based on Bayes rules using both phase difference and magnitude squared coherence is proposed for soft-decision of noise estimation, so that they can share complementary advantages when both directional noises and diffuse noises are present. Performances of the proposed two-microphone noise reduction algorithm are evaluated by noise reduction, log-spectral distance (LSD) and word recognition rate (WRR) of a distant-talking ASR system in a real room's noisy environment. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves better noises suppression without further distorting the desired signal components over the comparative dual-channel noise reduction algorithms.

  6. CMOS image sensor noise reduction method for image signal processor in digital cameras and camera phones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Youngjin; Lee, SeongDeok; Choe, Wonhee; Kim, Chang-Yong

    2007-02-01

    Digital images captured from CMOS image sensors suffer Gaussian noise and impulsive noise. To efficiently reduce the noise in Image Signal Processor (ISP), we analyze noise feature for imaging pipeline of ISP where noise reduction algorithm is performed. The Gaussian noise reduction and impulsive noise reduction method are proposed for proper ISP implementation in Bayer domain. The proposed method takes advantage of the analyzed noise feature to calculate noise reduction filter coefficients. Thus, noise is adaptively reduced according to the scene environment. Since noise is amplified and characteristic of noise varies while the image sensor signal undergoes several image processing steps, it is better to remove noise in earlier stage on imaging pipeline of ISP. Thus, noise reduction is carried out in Bayer domain on imaging pipeline of ISP. The method is tested on imaging pipeline of ISP and images captured from Samsung 2M CMOS image sensor test module. The experimental results show that the proposed method removes noise while effectively preserves edges.

  7. Tip Fence for Reduction of Lift-Generated Airframe Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, James C. (Inventor); Storms, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is directed toward a unique lift-generated noise reduction apparatus. This apparatus includes a plurality of tip fences that are secured to the trailing and leading assemblies of the high-lift system, as close as possible to the discontinuities where the vortices are most likely to form. In one embodiment, these tip fences are secured to some or all of the outboard and inboard tips of the wing slats and flaps. The tip fence includes a generally flat, or an aerodynamically shaped plate or device that could be formed of almost any rigid material, such as metal, wood, plastic, fiber glass, aluminum, etc. In a preferred embodiment, the tip fences extend below and perpendicularly to flaps and the slats to which they are attached, such that these tip fences are aligned with the nominal free stream velocity of the aircraft. In addition to reducing airframe noise, the tip fence tends to decrease drag and to increase lift, thus improving the overall aerodynamic performance of the aircraft. Another advantage presented by the tip fence lies in the simplicity of its design, its elegance, and its ready ability to fit on the wing components, such as the flaps and the slats. Furthermore, it does not require non-standard materials or fabrication techniques, and it can be readily, easily and inexpensively retrofited on most of the existing aircraft, with minimal design changes.

  8. Reducing Centroid Error Through Model-Based Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Shinhak

    2006-01-01

    A method of processing the digitized output of a charge-coupled device (CCD) image detector has been devised to enable reduction of the error in computed centroid of the image of a point source of light. The method involves model-based estimation of, and correction for, the contributions of bias and noise to the image data. The method could be used to advantage in any of a variety of applications in which there are requirements for measuring precise locations of, and/or precisely aiming optical instruments toward, point light sources. In the present method, prior to normal operations of the CCD, one measures the point-spread function (PSF) of the telescope or other optical system used to project images on the CCD. The PSF is used to construct a database of spot models representing the nominal CCD pixel outputs for a point light source projected onto the CCD at various positions incremented by small fractions of a pixel.

  9. Wake Management Strategies for Reduction of Turbomachinery Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of our work was to evaluate and test several wake management schemes for the reduction of turbomachinery fan noise. Throughout the course of this work we relied on several tools. These include 1) Two-dimensional steady boundary-layer and wake analyses using MISES (a thin-shear layer Navier-Stokes code), 2) Two-dimensional unsteady wake-stator interaction simulations using UNSFLO, 3) Three-dimensional, steady Navier-Stokes rotor simulations using NEWT, 4) Internal blade passage design using quasi-one-dimensional passage flow models developed at MIT, 5) Acoustic modeling using LINSUB, 6) Acoustic modeling using VO72, 7) Experiments in a low-speed cascade wind-tunnel, and 8) ADP fan rig tests in the MIT Blowdown Compressor.

  10. Emergent Adaptive Noise Reduction from Communal Cooperation of Sensor Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Jones, Michael G.; Nark, Douglas M.; Lodding, Kenneth N.

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, the realization of small, inexpensive, and powerful devices with sensors, computers, and wireless communication has promised the development of massive sized sensor networks with dense deployments over large areas capable of high fidelity situational assessments. However, most management models have been based on centralized control and research has concentrated on methods for passing data from sensor devices to the central controller. Most implementations have been small but, as it is not scalable, this methodology is insufficient for massive deployments. Here, a specific application of a large sensor network for adaptive noise reduction demonstrates a new paradigm where communities of sensor/computer devices assess local conditions and make local decisions from which emerges a global behaviour. This approach obviates many of the problems of centralized control as it is not prone to single point of failure and is more scalable, efficient, robust, and fault tolerant

  11. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Structural Acousticcontrol Interior Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, Chuh; Bevan, Jeffrey S.

    1999-01-01

    The research results contained in this technical report were performed under the NASA grant entitled "Experimental and Numerical Structural Acoustic Control for Interior Noise Reduction". The report is based essentially on partial progress of the Ph.D. dissertation prepared by Jeffrey S. Bevan under direct guidance of Dr. Chuh Mei. The document presents a finite element formulation and control of sound radiated from cylindrical panels embedded with piezoceramic actuators. The extended MIN6 shallow shell element is fully electrical-structural coupled. A piezoelectric modal actuator participation (PMAP) is defined which indicates the actuator performance to each of the offending modes. Genetic algorithm is also employed to validate the sensor and actuator locations determined by the PMAP criteria. The work was conducted at the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University. Mr. Travis L. Turner, Structural Acoustics Branch, NASA Langley Research Center is the technical monitor.

  12. Reduction of propeller noise by a reflecting rubber layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soederqvist, R.; Soederqvist, S.

    1983-08-01

    The pressure pulses from ship propeller blades were reflected by a soft layer of cellrubber coating applied on the underwater part of the stern. The ship treated was a 5000 ton dwt asphalt tanker. The soft layer works in the near field of the propeller blades, which are assumed to be simple acoustic sources with harmonics. Because of the mechanical nonlinearity of the rubber material, useful reflection is obtained only from the second harmonic and upwards. Measured noise reduction is 15 dB at 100 Hz, 5 dB at 45 Hz, and the damping of motor vibrations is 3.5 dB. The first harmonic, at 20 Hz, increases by 5 dB.

  13. Computational Analyses of Offset Stream Nozzles for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dippold, Vance, III; Foster, Lancert; Wiese,Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Wind computational fluid dynamics code was used to perform a series of simulations on two offset stream nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction. The first concept used an S-duct to direct the secondary stream to the lower side of the nozzle. The second concept used vanes to turn the secondary flow downward. The analyses were completed in preparation of tests conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The offset stream nozzles demonstrated good performance and reduced the amount of turbulence on the lower side of the jet plume. The computer analyses proved instrumental in guiding the development of the final test configurations and giving insight into the flow mechanics of offset stream nozzles. The computational predictions were compared with flowfield results from the jet rig testing and showed excellent agreement.

  14. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Cetacean and Sound Mapping Effort: Continuing Forward with an Integrated Ocean Noise Strategy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jolie; Ferguson, Megan; Gedamke, Jason; Hatch, Leila; Southall, Brandon; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To help manage chronic and cumulative impacts of human activities on marine mammals, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) convened two working groups, the Underwater Sound Field Mapping Working Group (SoundMap) and the Cetacean Density and Distribution Mapping Working Group (CetMap), with overarching effort of both groups referred to as CetSound, which (1) mapped the predicted contribution of human sound sources to ocean noise and (2) provided region/time/species-specific cetacean density and distribution maps. Mapping products were presented at a symposium where future priorities were identified, including institutionalization/integration of the CetSound effort within NOAA-wide goals and programs, creation of forums and mechanisms for external input and funding, and expanded outreach/education. NOAA is subsequently developing an ocean noise strategy to articulate noise conservation goals and further identify science and management actions needed to support them. PMID:26610985

  15. Automatic Assessment and Reduction of Noise using Edge Pattern Analysis in Non-Linear Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-Ur; Woodell, Glenn A.; Hines, Glenn D.

    2004-01-01

    Noise is the primary visibility limit in the process of non-linear image enhancement, and is no longer a statistically stable additive noise in the post-enhancement image. Therefore novel approaches are needed to both assess and reduce spatially variable noise at this stage in overall image processing. Here we will examine the use of edge pattern analysis both for automatic assessment of spatially variable noise and as a foundation for new noise reduction methods.

  16. High-Temperature Smart Structures for Engine Noise Reduction and Performance Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; McKillip, Robert M., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    One of key NASA goals is to develop and integrate noise reduction technology to enable unrestricted air transportation service to all communities. One of the technical priorities of this activity has been to account for and reduce noise via propulsion/airframe interactions, identifying advanced concepts to be integrated with the airframe to mitigate these noise-producing mechanisms. An adaptive geometry chevron using embedded smart structures technology offers the possibility of maximizing engine performance while retaining and possibly enhancing the favorable noise characteristics of current designs. New high-temperature shape memory alloy (HTSMA) materials technology enables the devices to operate in both low-temperature (fan) and high-temperature (core) exhaust flows. Chevron-equipped engines have demonstrated reduced noise in testing and operational use. It is desirable to have the noise benefits of chevrons in takeoff/landing conditions, but have them deployed into a minimum drag position for cruise flight. The central feature of the innovation was building on rapidly maturing HTSMA technology to implement a next-generation aircraft noise mitigation system centered on adaptive chevron flow control surfaces. In general, SMA-actuated devices have the potential to enhance the demonstrated noise reduction effectiveness of chevron systems while eliminating the associated performance penalty. The use of structurally integrated smart devices will minimize the mechanical and subsystem complexity of this implementation. The central innovations of the effort entail the modification of prior chevron designs to include a small cut that relaxes structural stiffness without compromising the desired flow characteristics over the surface; the reorientation of SMA actuation devices to apply forces to deflect the chevron tip, exploiting this relaxed stiffness; and the use of high-temperature SMA (HTSMA) materials to enable operation in the demanding core chevron environment

  17. Experimental study of noise reduction for an unstiffened cylindrical model of an airplane fuselage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, C. M.; Daniels, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    Noise reduction measurements were made for a simplified model of an airplane fuselage consisting of an unstiffened aluminum cylinder 0.5 m in diameter by 1.2 m long with a 1.6-mm-thick wall. Noise reduction was first measured with a reverberant field pink-noise load on the cylinder exterior. Next, noise reduction was measured by using a propeller to provide a more realistic noise load on the cylinder. Structural resonance frequencies and acoustic reverberation times for the cylinder interior volume were also measured. Comparison of data from the relatively simple test using reverberant-field noise with data from the more complex propeller-noise tests indicates some similarity in both the overall noise reduction and the spectral distribution. However, all of the test parameters investigated (propeller speed, blade pitch, and tip clearance) had some effect on the noise-reduction spectra. Thus, the amount of noise reduction achieved appears to be somewhat dependent upon the spectral and spatial characteristics of the flight conditions. Information is also presented on cyclinder resonance frequencies, damping, and characteristics of propeller-noise loads.

  18. Noise Reduction using Frequency Sub-Band Adaptive Spectral Subtraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozel, David

    2000-01-01

    A frequency sub-band based adaptive spectral subtraction algorithm is developed to remove noise from noise-corrupted speech signals. A single microphone is used to obtain both the noise-corrupted speech and the estimate of the statistics of the noise. The statistics of the noise are estimated during time frames that do not contain speech. These statistics are used to determine if future time frames contain speech. During speech time frames, the algorithm determines which frequency sub-bands contain useful speech information and which frequency sub-bands contain only noise. The frequency sub-bands, which contain only noise, are subtracted off at a larger proportion so the noise does not compete with the speech information. Simulation results are presented.

  19. Science Policy Conference Speakers Examine Megadisasters and Call for Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-07-01

    How well is the United States prepared for a megadisaster, such as a solar storm that knocks out the power grid for months, a large asteroid impact, a giant tsunami, or a rainstorm that lasts for weeks and leads to widespread flooding? Moreover, how can risk reduction efforts be made more effective? These were two topics addressed during two of the hazards sessions at the 2013 AGU Science Policy Conference on 25 and 26 June.

  20. Flap Side Edge Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Choudhari, Meelan M. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    One or more acoustic liners comprising internal chambers or passageways that absorb energy from a noise source on the aircraft are disclosed. The acoustic liners may be positioned at the ends of flaps of an aircraft wing to provide broadband noise absorption and/or dampen the noise producing unsteady flow features, and to reduce the amount of noise generated due to unsteady flow at the inboard and/or outboard end edges of a flap.

  1. Background Noise Reduction Using Adaptive Noise Cancellation Determined by the Cross-Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2012-01-01

    Background noise due to flow in wind tunnels contaminates desired data by decreasing the Signal-to-Noise Ratio. The use of Adaptive Noise Cancellation to remove background noise at measurement microphones is compromised when the reference sensor measures both background and desired noise. The technique proposed modifies the classical processing configuration based on the cross-correlation between the reference and primary microphone. Background noise attenuation is achieved using a cross-correlation sample width that encompasses only the background noise and a matched delay for the adaptive processing. A present limitation of the method is that a minimum time delay between the background noise and desired signal must exist in order for the correlated parts of the desired signal to be separated from the background noise in the crosscorrelation. A simulation yields primary signal recovery which can be predicted from the coherence of the background noise between the channels. Results are compared with two existing methods.

  2. Statistical Analysis of speckle noise reduction techniques for echocardiographic Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Kalpana; Dewal, M. L.; Rohit, Manojkumar

    2011-12-01

    Echocardiography is the safe, easy and fast technology for diagnosing the cardiac diseases. As in other ultrasound images these images also contain speckle noise. In some cases this speckle noise is useful such as in motion detection. But in general noise removal is required for better analysis of the image and proper diagnosis. Different Adaptive and anisotropic filters are included for statistical analysis. Statistical parameters such as Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) calculated for performance measurement. One more important aspect that there may be blurring during speckle noise removal. So it is prefered that filter should be able to enhance edges during noise removal.

  3. An overview of salt intake reduction efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries

    PubMed Central

    Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning. PMID:26090327

  4. An overview of salt intake reduction efforts in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries.

    PubMed

    Alhamad, Nawal; Almalt, Elsayed; Alamir, Najeeba; Subhakaran, Monica

    2015-06-01

    Globally, morbidity and mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing steadily and at an alarming rate. High blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and salt reduction is an effective measure to decrease mortality rates. In the Eastern Mediterranean region, current salt intake is high, with an average intake of >12 g per person per day. Reducing the intake of salt has been identified as a priority intervention to reduce NCDs. Countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) are showing a willingness to comply with the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations and an eagerness to reduce the burden of NCDs. However, they face some challenges, including lack of political commitment, lack of experience, and shortage of qualified human resources. Salt intake reduction efforts vary in the GCC region, from achieving 20% salt reduction in bread, to the very early stages of planning. PMID:26090327

  5. Jet Noise Reduction Potential from Emerging Variable Cycle Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts utilized ejectors, inverted velocity profiles, and fluidic shields. One of the ejector concepts was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other ejector concept produced discrete-frequency tones that degraded the acoustic performance of the model. The concept incorporating an inverted velocity profile and fluid shield produced overall-sound-pressure-level reductions of 6 dB relative to a single stream nozzle at the peak jet noise angle for some nozzle pressure ratios. Flow separations in the nozzle degraded the acoustic performance of the inverted velocity profile model at low nozzle pressure ratios.

  6. Jet Noise Reduction Potential From Emerging Variable Cycle Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Acoustic and flow-field experiments were conducted on exhaust concepts for the next generation supersonic, commercial aircraft. The concepts were developed by Lockheed Martin (LM), Rolls-Royce Liberty Works (RRLW), and General Electric Global Research (GEGR) as part of an N+2 (next generation forward) aircraft system study initiated by the Supersonics Project in NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program. The experiments were conducted in the Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The exhaust concepts utilized ejectors, inverted velocity profiles, and fluidic shields. One of the ejector concepts was found to produce stagnant flow within the ejector and the other ejector concept produced discrete-frequency tones that degraded the acoustic performance of the model. The concept incorporating an inverted velocity profile and fluid shield produced overall-sound-pressure-level reductions of 6 dB relative to a single stream nozzle at the peak jet noise angle for some nozzle pressure ratios. Flow separations in the nozzle degraded the acoustic performance of the inverted velocity profile model at low nozzle pressure ratios.

  7. Noise reduction for helical computed tomography using coupled projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yi; Ma, Jianhua; Liu, Yan; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2012-03-01

    Helical computed tomography (HCT) has demonstrated the effectiveness in virtual colonoscopy (VC) or CTcolonography (CTC). One major concern with this clinical application is associated with the risk of high radiation exposure, especially for its use for screening purpose at a large population. In this work, we presented an improved Karhunen-Loeve (KL) domain penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) strategy which considers the data correlations among the projection rays mainly due to partially overlap while system rotates. Two 1-dimensional (1D) projections, which called coupled projections (CPs), are composed according to the geometry. Each element of the 1D projection is carefully selected for a specific point within 2π angle along the system rotates and thus a highly correlation can be observed between any specific projection and the CPs. These highly correlated projections can be treated by an adaptive KL-PWLS strategy for accurate noise reduction. This method has been implemented and tested on computer simulated sinograms which mimic low-dose CT scans. The reconstructed images by the presented strategy demonstrated the potential of ultra low-dose CT application.

  8. Workshop on Jet Exhaust Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft - NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise from supersonic, high performance aircraft is a significant problem for takeoff and landing operations near air bases and aircraft carriers. As newer aircraft with higher thrust and performance are introduced, the noise tends to increase due to higher jet exhaust velocities. Jet noise has been a subject of research for over 55 years. Commercial subsonic aircraft benefit from changes to the engine cycle that reduce the exhaust velocities and result in significant noise reduction. Most of the research programs over the past few decades have concentrated on commercial aircraft. Progress has been made by introducing new engines with design features that reduce the noise. NASA has recently started a new program called "Fundamental Aeronautics" where three projects (subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, and supersonics) address aircraft noise. For the supersonics project, a primary goal is to understand the underlying physics associated with jet noise so that improved noise prediction tools and noise reduction methods can be developed for a wide range of applications. Highlights from the supersonics project are presented including prediction methods for broadband shock noise, flow measurement methods, and noise reduction methods. Realistic expectations are presented based on past history that indicates significant jet noise reduction cannot be achieved without major changes to the engine cycle. NASA s past experience shows a few EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) can be achieved using low noise design features such as chevron nozzles. Minimal thrust loss can be expected with these nozzles (< 0.5%) and they may be retrofitted on existing engines. In the long term, it is desirable to use variable cycle engines that can be optimized for lower jet noise during takeoff operations and higher thrust for operational performance. It is also suggested that noise experts be included early in the design process for engine nozzle systems to participate

  9. Noise reduction tests of large-scale-model externally blown flap using trailing-edge blowing and partial flap slot covering. [jet aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.; Burns, R. J.; Wagner, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Noise data were obtained with a large-scale cold-flow model of a two-flap, under-the-wing, externally blown flap proposed for use on future STOL aircraft. The noise suppression effectiveness of locating a slot conical nozzle at the trailing edge of the second flap and of applying partial covers to the slots between the wing and flaps was evaluated. Overall-sound-pressure-level reductions of 5 db occurred below the wing in the flyover plane. Existing models of several noise sources were applied to the test results. The resulting analytical relation compares favorably with the test data. The noise source mechanisms were analyzed and are discussed.

  10. Advanced noise reduction techniques for ultra-low phase noise optical-to-microwave division with femtosecond fiber combs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Zhenyu; Lours, Michel; Boudot, Rodolphe; Kersalé, Yann; Luiten, Andre N; Le Coq, Yann; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2011-05-01

    We report what we believe to be the lowest phase noise optical-to-microwave frequency division using fiber-based femtosecond optical frequency combs: a residual phase noise of -120 dBc/Hz at 1 Hz offset from an 11.55 GHz carrier frequency. Furthermore, we report a detailed investigation into the fundamental noise sources which affect the division process itself. Two frequency combs with quasi-identical configurations are referenced to a common ultrastable cavity laser source. To identify each of the limiting effects, we implement an ultra-low noise carrier-suppression measurement system, which avoids the detection and amplification noise of more conventional techniques. This technique suppresses these unwanted sources of noise to very low levels. In the Fourier frequency range of ∼200 Hz to 100 kHz, a feed-forward technique based on a voltage-controlled phase shifter delivers a further noise reduction of 10 dB. For lower Fourier frequencies, optical power stabilization is implemented to reduce the relative intensity noise which causes unwanted phase noise through power-to-phase conversion in the detector. We implement and compare two possible control schemes based on an acousto-optical modulator and comb pump current. We also present wideband measurements of the relative intensity noise of the fiber comb. PMID:21622045

  11. Noise correlation in CBCT projection data and its application for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hua; Ouyang, Luo; Wang, Jing E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Ma, Jianhua E-mail: jing.wang@utsouthwestern.edu; Huang, Jing; Chen, Wufan

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, the authors systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam onboard CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are nonzero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second-order neighbors are 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. At the 2.0 mm resolution level in the axial-plane noise resolution tradeoff analysis, the noise level of the PWLS-Cor reconstruction is 6.3% lower than that of the PWLS-Dia reconstruction. Conclusions: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring

  12. Reduction of Helicopter BVI Noise, Vibration, and Power Consumption Through Individual Blade Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Blaas, Achim; Teves, Dietrich; Kube, Roland; Warmbrodt, William (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    A wind tunnel test was conducted with a full-scale BO 105 helicopter rotor to evaluate the potential of open-loop individual blade control (IBC) to improve rotor performance, to reduce blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise, and to alleviate helicopter vibrations. The wind tunnel test was an international collaborative effort between NASA/U.S. Army AFDD, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, Eurocopter Deutschland, and the German Aerospace Laboratory (DLR) and was conducted under the auspices of the U.S./German MOU on Rotorcraft Aeromechanics. In this test the normal blade pitch links of the rotor were replaced by servo-actuators so that the pitch of each blade could be controlled independently of the other blades. The specially designed servoactuators and IBC control system were designed and manufactured by ZF Luftfahrttechnik, GmbH. The wind tunnel test was conducted in the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel at the NASA Ames Research Center. An extensive amount of measurement information was acquired for each IBC data point. These data include rotor performance, static and dynamic hub forces and moments, rotor loads, control loads, inboard and outboard blade pitch motion, and BVI noise data. The data indicated very significant (80 percent) simultaneous reductions in both BVI noise and hub vibrations could be obtained using multi-harmonic input at the critical descent (terminal approach) condition. The data also showed that performance improvements of up to 7 percent could be obtained using 2P input at high-speed forward flight conditions.

  13. Acoustical and Perceptual Comparison of Noise Reduction and Compression in Hearing Aids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brons, Inge; Houben, Rolph; Dreschler, Wouter A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Noise reduction and dynamic-range compression are generally applied together in hearing aids but may have opposite effects on amplification. This study evaluated the acoustical and perceptual effects of separate and combined processing of noise reduction and compression. Design: Recordings of the output of 4 hearing aids for speech in…

  14. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  15. Noise reduction of circular sawing machines, influence of tooth shape and number of teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, H.; Muenz, U. V.

    1982-03-01

    While cutting, circular sawing machines create a noise level of 97 to 106 dB(A). The tooth geometry and the dimensions of a silent saw are investigated as well as noise damping measurements on the machines. After alteration of tools and machines the noise level measurements were performed. By decrease of tooth height and number of teeth and by damping of machine parts, noise level reductions of about 10 dB(A) were achieved.

  16. Older Adults Expend More Listening Effort than Young Adults Recognizing Speech in Noise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Penny Anderson; Gagne, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Listening in noisy situations is a challenging experience for many older adults. The authors hypothesized that older adults exert more listening effort compared with young adults. Listening effort involves the attention and cognitive resources required to understand speech. The purpose was (a) to quantify the amount of listening effort…

  17. Boeing's variable geometry chevron: morphing aerospace structures for jet noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Frederick T.; Mabe, James H.; Butler, George W.

    2006-03-01

    Boeing is applying cutting edge smart material actuators to the next generation morphing technologies for aircraft. This effort has led to the Variable Geometry Chevrons (VGC), which utilize compact, light weight, and robust shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. These actuators morph the shape of chevrons on the trailing edge of a jet engine in order to optimize acoustic and performance objectives at multiple flight conditions. We have demonstrated a technical readiness level of 7 by successfully flight testing the VGCs on a Boeing 777-300ER with GE-115B engines. In this paper we describe the VGC design, development and performance during flight test. Autonomous operation of the VGCs, which did not require a control system or aircraft power, was demonstrated. A parametric study was conducted showing the influence of VGC configurations on shockcell generated cabin noise reduction during cruise. The VGC system provided a robust test vehicle to explore chevron configurations for community and shockcell noise reduction. Most importantly, the VGC concept demonstrated an exciting capability to optimize jet nozzle performance at multiple flight conditions.

  18. Structural parameters that influence the noise reduction characteristics of typical general aviation materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Grosveld, F.

    1980-01-01

    Effect of panel curvature and oblique angle of sound incidence on noise reduction characteristics of an aluminum panel are experimentally investigated. Panel curvature results show significant increase in stiffness with comparable decrease of sound transmission through the panel in the frequency region below the panel/cavity resonance frequency. Noise reduction data have been achieved for aluminum panels with clamped, bonded and riveted edge conditions. These edge conditions are shown to influence noise reduction characteristics of aluminum panels. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial and biaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. Results indicate important improvement in noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity resonance frequency.

  19. CT image noise reduction using rotational-invariant feature in Stockwell transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jian; Li, Zhoubo; Yu, Lifeng; Warner, Joshua; Blezek, Daniel; Erickson, Bradley

    2014-03-01

    Iterative reconstruction and other noise reduction methods have been employed in CT to improve image quality and to reduce radiation dose. The non-local means (NLM) filter emerges as a popular choice for image-based noise reduction in CT. However, the original NLM method cannot incorporate similar structures if they are in a rotational format, resulting in ineffective denoising in some locations of the image and non-uniform noise reduction across the image. We have developed a novel rotational-invariant image texture feature derived from the multiresolutional Stockwell-transform (ST), and applied it to CT image noise reduction so that similar structures can be identified and fully utilized even when they are in different orientations. We performed a computer simulation study in CT to demonstrate better efficiency in terms of utilizing redundant information in the image and more uniform noise reduction achieved by ST than by NLM.

  20. Reduction of classroom noise levels using group contingencies.

    PubMed

    Ring, Brandon M; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Eubanks, Sean L; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated noise standards. Participants received real-time graphed feedback of noise levels and had the opportunity to earn monetary group reinforcement for maintaining a low number of noise violations. Results suggested that feedback and monetary reinforcement reduced the number of noise violations. PMID:25175843

  1. Comparative intelligibility investigation of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms for Chinese, Japanese, and Englisha

    PubMed Central

    Li, Junfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jianping; Yan, Yonghong; Hu, Yi; Akagi, Masato; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms have been proposed based largely on mathematical principles. Most of these algorithms, however, have been evaluated with English speech. Given the different perceptual cues used by native listeners of different languages including tonal languages, it is of interest to examine whether there are any language effects when the same noise-reduction algorithm is used to process noisy speech in different languages. A comparative evaluation and investigation is taken in this study of various single-channel noise-reduction algorithms applied to noisy speech taken from three languages: Chinese, Japanese, and English. Clean speech signals (Chinese words and Japanese words) were first corrupted by three types of noise at two signal-to-noise ratios and then processed by five single-channel noise-reduction algorithms. The processed signals were finally presented to normal-hearing listeners for recognition. Intelligibility evaluation showed that the majority of noise-reduction algorithms did not improve speech intelligibility. Consistent with a previous study with the English language, the Wiener filtering algorithm produced small, but statistically significant, improvements in intelligibility for car and white noise conditions. Significant differences between the performances of noise-reduction algorithms across the three languages were observed. PMID:21568430

  2. Comparative intelligibility investigation of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms for Chinese, Japanese, and English.

    PubMed

    Li, Junfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Jianping; Yan, Yonghong; Hu, Yi; Akagi, Masato; Loizou, Philipos C

    2011-05-01

    A large number of single-channel noise-reduction algorithms have been proposed based largely on mathematical principles. Most of these algorithms, however, have been evaluated with English speech. Given the different perceptual cues used by native listeners of different languages including tonal languages, it is of interest to examine whether there are any language effects when the same noise-reduction algorithm is used to process noisy speech in different languages. A comparative evaluation and investigation is taken in this study of various single-channel noise-reduction algorithms applied to noisy speech taken from three languages: Chinese, Japanese, and English. Clean speech signals (Chinese words and Japanese words) were first corrupted by three types of noise at two signal-to-noise ratios and then processed by five single-channel noise-reduction algorithms. The processed signals were finally presented to normal-hearing listeners for recognition. Intelligibility evaluation showed that the majority of noise-reduction algorithms did not improve speech intelligibility. Consistent with a previous study with the English language, the Wiener filtering algorithm produced small, but statistically significant, improvements in intelligibility for car and white noise conditions. Significant differences between the performances of noise-reduction algorithms across the three languages were observed. PMID:21568430

  3. Brain Regions Recruited for the Effortful Comprehension of Noise-Vocoded Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hervais-Adelman, Alexis G.; Carlyon, Robert P.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Davis, Matthew H.

    2012-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural basis of comprehension and perceptual learning of artificially degraded [noise vocoded (NV)] speech. Fifteen participants were scanned while listening to 6-channel vocoded words, which are difficult for naive listeners to comprehend, but can be readily learned with…

  4. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, David A.; Ray, Laura R.; Collier, Robert D.

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. [``Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection,'' Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields.

  5. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets.

    PubMed

    Cartes, David A; Ray, Laura R; Collier, Robert D

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. ["Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection," Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields. PMID:12002860

  6. The Effects of Noise Reduction on Social Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carbone, Vincent J.; Duncan, Phillip K.

    1986-01-01

    The study found no relationship between improved social behavior in a group of juveniles residing at a county shelter care facility and decreased frequency and duration of disruptions above 85 decibels. Subjects did reduce noise levels when stereo listening was made contingent on reduced noise. (Author/DB)

  7. Quantum issues in optical communication. [noise reduction in signal reception

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Various approaches to the problem of controlling quantum noise, the dominant noise in an optical communications system, are discussed. It is shown that, no matter which way the problem is approached, there always remain uncertainties. These uncertainties exist because, to date, only very few communication problems have been solved in their full quantum form.

  8. Noise and Fuel Burn Reduction Potential of an Innovative Subsonic Transport Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yueping; Nickol, Craig L.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2014-01-01

    A study is presented for the noise and fuel burn reduction potential of an innovative double deck concept aircraft with two three-shaft direct-drive turbofan engines. The engines are mounted from the fuselage so that the engine inlet is over the main wing. It is shown that such an aircraft can achieve a cumulative Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) about 28 dB below the current aircraft noise regulations of Stage 4. The combination of high bypass ratio engines and advanced wing design with laminar flow control technologies provide fuel burn reduction and low noise levels simultaneously. For example, the fuselage mounted engine position provides more than 4 EPNLdB of noise reduction by shielding the inlet radiated noise. To identify the potential effect of noise reduction technologies on this concept, parametric studies are presented to reveal the system level benefits of various emerging noise reduction concepts, for both engine and airframe noise reduction. These concepts are discussed both individually to show their respective incremental noise reduction potential and collectively to assess their aggregate effects on the total noise. Through these concepts approximately about 8 dB of additional noise reduction is possible, bringing the cumulative noise level of this aircraft to 36 EPNLdB below Stage 4, if the entire suite of noise reduction technologies would mature to practical application. In a final step, an estimate is made for this same aircraft concept but with higher bypass ratio, geared, turbofan engines. With this geared turbofan propulsion system, the noise is estimated to reach as low as 40-42 dB below Stage 4 with a fuel burn reduction of 43-47% below the 2005 best-in-class aircraft baseline. While just short of the NASA N+2 goals of 42 dB and 50% fuel burn reduction, for a 2025 in service timeframe, this assessment shows that this innovative concept warrants refined study. Furthermore, this design appears to be a viable potential future passenger

  9. Experimental demonstration of a displacement noise free interferometry scheme for gravitational wave detectors showing displacement noise reduction at low frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Perreca, Antonio; Chelkowski, Simon; Freise, Andreas; Hild, Stefan

    2010-03-15

    This paper reports an experimental demonstration of partial displacement noise free laser interferometry in the gravitational wave detection band. The used detuned Fabry-Perot cavity allows the isolation of the mimicked gravitational wave signal from the displacement noise on the cavities input mirror. By properly combining the reflected and transmitted signals from the cavity a reduction of the displacement noise was achieved. Our results represent the first experimental demonstration of this recently proposed displacement noise free laser interferometry scheme. Overall, we show that the rejection ratio of the displacement noise to the gravitational wave signal was improved in the frequency range of 10 Hz to 10 kHz with a typical factor of {approx}60.

  10. Clinical review: The impact of noise on patients' sleep and the effectiveness of noise reduction strategies in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Hui; Kang, Jian; Mills, Gary H

    2009-01-01

    Excessive noise is becoming a significant problem for intensive care units (ICUs). This paper first reviews the impact of noise on patients' sleep in ICUs. Five previous studies have demonstrated such impacts, whereas six other studies have shown other factors to be more important. Staff conversation and alarms are generally regarded as the most disturbing noises for patients' sleep in ICUs. Most research in this area has focused purely on noise level, but work has been very limited on the relationships between sleep quality and other acoustic parameters, including spectrum and reverberation time. Sound-absorbing treatment is a relatively effective noise reduction strategy, whereas sound masking appears to be the most effective technique for improving sleep. For future research, there should be close collaboration between medical researchers and acousticians. PMID:19344486

  11. Methods for clinical evaluation of noise reduction techniques in abdominopelvic CT.

    PubMed

    Ehman, Eric C; Yu, Lifeng; Manduca, Armando; Hara, Amy K; Shiung, Maria M; Jondal, Dayna; Lake, David S; Paden, Robert G; Blezek, Daniel J; Bruesewitz, Michael R; McCollough, Cynthia H; Hough, David M; Fletcher, Joel G

    2014-01-01

    Most noise reduction methods involve nonlinear processes, and objective evaluation of image quality can be challenging, since image noise cannot be fully characterized on the sole basis of the noise level at computed tomography (CT). Noise spatial correlation (or noise texture) is closely related to the detection and characterization of low-contrast objects and may be quantified by analyzing the noise power spectrum. High-contrast spatial resolution can be measured using the modulation transfer function and section sensitivity profile and is generally unaffected by noise reduction. Detectability of low-contrast lesions can be evaluated subjectively at varying dose levels using phantoms containing low-contrast objects. Clinical applications with inherent high-contrast abnormalities (eg, CT for renal calculi, CT enterography) permit larger dose reductions with denoising techniques. In low-contrast tasks such as detection of metastases in solid organs, dose reduction is substantially more limited by loss of lesion conspicuity due to loss of low-contrast spatial resolution and coarsening of noise texture. Existing noise reduction strategies for dose reduction have a substantial impact on lowering the radiation dose at CT. To preserve the diagnostic benefit of CT examination, thoughtful utilization of these strategies must be based on the inherent lesion-to-background contrast and the anatomy of interest. The authors provide an overview of existing noise reduction strategies for low-dose abdominopelvic CT, including analytic reconstruction, image and projection space denoising, and iterative reconstruction; review qualitative and quantitative tools for evaluating these strategies; and discuss the strengths and limitations of individual noise reduction methods. PMID:25019428

  12. Challenges and Recent Developments in Hearing Aids: Part I. Speech Understanding in Noise, Microphone Technologies and Noise Reduction Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Chung, King

    2004-01-01

    This review discusses the challenges in hearing aid design and fitting and the recent developments in advanced signal processing technologies to meet these challenges. The first part of the review discusses the basic concepts and the building blocks of digital signal processing algorithms, namely, the signal detection and analysis unit, the decision rules, and the time constants involved in the execution of the decision. In addition, mechanisms and the differences in the implementation of various strategies used to reduce the negative effects of noise are discussed. These technologies include the microphone technologies that take advantage of the spatial differences between speech and noise and the noise reduction algorithms that take advantage of the spectral difference and temporal separation between speech and noise. The specific technologies discussed in this paper include first-order directional microphones, adaptive directional microphones, second-order directional microphones, microphone matching algorithms, array microphones, multichannel adaptive noise reduction algorithms, and synchrony detection noise reduction algorithms. Verification data for these technologies, if available, are also summarized. PMID:15678225

  13. Survey of techniques for reduction of wind turbine blade trailing edge noise.

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Matthew Franklin

    2011-08-01

    Aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors leads to constraints in both rotor design and turbine siting. The primary source of aerodynamic noise on wind turbine rotors is the interaction of turbulent boundary layers on the blades with the blade trailing edges. This report surveys concepts that have been proposed for trailing edge noise reduction, with emphasis on concepts that have been tested at either sub-scale or full-scale. These concepts include trailing edge serrations, low-noise airfoil designs, trailing edge brushes, and porous trailing edges. The demonstrated noise reductions of these concepts are cited, along with their impacts on aerodynamic performance. An assessment is made of future research opportunities in trailing edge noise reduction for wind turbine rotors.

  14. Quantitative appraisal for noise reduction in digital holographic phase imaging.

    PubMed

    Montresor, Silvio; Picart, Pascal

    2016-06-27

    This paper discusses on a quantitative comparison of the performances of different advanced algorithms for phase data de-noising. In order to quantify the performances, several criteria are proposed: the gain in the signal-to-noise ratio, the Q index, the standard deviation of the phase error, and the signal to distortion ratio. The proposed methodology to investigate de-noising algorithms is based on the use of a realistic simulation of noise-corrupted phase data. A database including 25 fringe patterns divided into 5 patterns and 5 different signal-to-noise ratios was generated to evaluate the selected de-noising algorithms. A total of 34 algorithms divided into different families were evaluated. Quantitative appraisal leads to ranking within the considered criteria. A fairly good correlation between the signal-to-noise ratio gain and the quality index has been observed. There exists an anti-correlation between the phase error and the quality index which indicates that the phase errors are mainly structural distortions in the fringe pattern. Experimental results are thoroughly discussed in the paper. PMID:27410587

  15. Implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, L.; Hickok, R.; Pain, B.; Staller, C.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the implementation and analysis of a correlated triple sampling circuit using analog subtractor/integrators. The software and test setup for noise measurements are also described. The correlation circuitry is part of the signal chain for a 256-element InSb line array used in the Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer. Using a focal-plane array (FPA) simulator, system noise measurements of 0.7 DN are obtained. A test setup for FPA/SPE (signal processing electronics) characterization along with noise measurements is demonstrated.

  16. Noise reduction studies of several aircraft to reduce their aural detection distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dingeldein, R. C.; Connor, A. B.; Hilton, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the extent to which practicable reductions of the external noise level of various aircraft could be achieved by different methods. The aircraft included in the study are the O-1, O-2, U-10, OV-1, and A-6. The noise signatures obtained from field measurements and the estimated aural detection distance of aircraft operating in low speed cruising flight are presented. The characteristics of each aircraft and the modifications made to reduce the aerodynamic noise are explained. Tables of data are included to show the effectiveness of the noise reduction modifications for each aircraft.

  17. Noise Reduction in High-Throughput Gene Perturbation Screens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motivation: Accurate interpretation of perturbation screens is essential for a successful functional investigation. However, the screened phenotypes are often distorted by noise, and their analysis requires specialized statistical analysis tools. The number and scope of statistical methods available...

  18. The cost of noise reduction in commercial tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.

    1974-01-01

    The relationship between direct operating cost (DOC) and departure noise annoyance was developed for commercial tilt rotor aircraft. This was accomplished by generating a series of tilt rotor aircraft designs to meet various noise goals at minimum DOC. These vehicles were spaced across the spectrum of possible noise levels from completely unconstrained to the quietest vehicle that could be designed within the study ground rules. A group of optimization parameters were varied to find the minimum DOC while other inputs were held constant and some external constraints were met. This basic variation was then extended to different aircraft sizes and technology time frames. It was concluded that reducing noise annoyance by designing for lower rotor tip speeds is a very promising avenue for future research and development. It appears that the cost of halving the annoyance compared to an unconstrained design is insignificant and the cost of halving the annoyance again is small.

  19. Noise reduction of a Libbrecht-Hall style current driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seck, Christopher M.; Martin, Paul J.; Cook, Eryn C.; Odom, Brian C.; Steck, Daniel A.

    2016-06-01

    The Libbrecht-Hall circuit is a well-known, low-noise current driver for narrow-linewidth diode lasers. An important feature of the circuit is a current limit to protect the laser diode. As the current approaches the maximum limit, however, the noise in the laser current increases dramatically. This paper documents this behavior and explores simple circuit modifications to alleviate this issue.

  20. ASSESSING THE ROLE OF EFFORT REDUCTION IN THE REINFORCING EFFICACY OF TIMEOUT FROM AVOIDANCE

    PubMed Central

    Galuska, Chad M.; Mikorski, Jeff; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent schedules of shock-postponement or deletion (avoidance) and timeout from avoidance. In Experiment 1, 3 rats' responses on one lever postponed shocks for 20 s and responses on a second lever produced a 1-min timeout according to a variable-interval 45-s schedule. Across conditions, a warning signal (white noise) was presented 19.5 s, 16 s, 12 s, 8 s, or 4 s before an impending shock. Raising the duration of the warning signal increased both avoidance and timeout response rates. Timeout responding, although positively correlated with avoidance responding, was not correlated with the prevailing shock rate. In Experiment 2, 3 rats' responses on one lever deleted scheduled shocks according to a variable-cycle 30-s schedule and responses on a second lever produced a 2-min timeout as described above. After this baseline condition, the avoidance lever was removed and noncontingent shocks were delivered at intervals yoked to the receipt of shocks in the baseline sessions. Timeout responding decreased when the avoidance lever was removed, even though the shock-frequency reduction afforded by the timeout remained constant. These results suggest that a key factor in the reinforcing efficacy of timeout is suspension of the requirement to work to avoid shock, rather than the reduction in shock frequency associated with timeout. PMID:23144504

  1. Assessing the role of effort reduction in the reinforcing efficacy of timeout from avoidance.

    PubMed

    Galuska, Chad M; Mikorski, Jeff; Perone, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Rats responded on concurrent schedules of shock-postponement or deletion (avoidance) and timeout from avoidance. In Experiment 1, 3 rats' responses on one lever postponed shocks for 20 s and responses on a second lever produced a 1-min timeout according to a variable-interval 45-s schedule. Across conditions, a warning signal (white noise) was presented 19.5 s, 16 s, 12 s, 8 s, or 4 s before an impending shock. Raising the duration of the warning signal increased both avoidance and timeout response rates. Timeout responding, although positively correlated with avoidance responding, was not correlated with the prevailing shock rate. In Experiment 2, 3 rats' responses on one lever deleted scheduled shocks according to a variable-cycle 30-s schedule and responses on a second lever produced a 2-min timeout as described above. After this baseline condition, the avoidance lever was removed and noncontingent shocks were delivered at intervals yoked to the receipt of shocks in the baseline sessions. Timeout responding decreased when the avoidance lever was removed, even though the shock-frequency reduction afforded by the timeout remained constant. These results suggest that a key factor in the reinforcing efficacy of timeout is suspension of the requirement to work to avoid shock, rather than the reduction in shock frequency associated with timeout. PMID:23144504

  2. The Structure and Noise Reduction Capacity of Owl Down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Justin; Clark, Ian; Alexander, Nathan; Devenport, William; Daly, Conor; Peake, Nigel; Glegg, Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Many species of owl rely on specialized plumage to reduce their self-noise levels and enable hunting in acoustic stealth. In contrast to the leading-edge comb and compliant trailing-edge fringe attributes of owls, the aeroacoustic impact of the fluffy down material on the upper wing surface remains largely speculative as a means to eliminate aerodynamic noise across a broad range of frequencies. Photographic analysis of the owl down reveals a unique forest-like structure, whereby the down fibers rise straight up from the wing surface and then bend into the flow direction to form a porous canopy, with an open area fraction of approximately 70%. Experimental measurements demonstrate that the canopy feature reduces dramatically the turbulent pressure levels on the wing surface by up to 30dB, which affects the roughness noise characteristic of the down in a manner consistent with the theory of flows over and through vegetation. Mathematical models developed for the turbulence noise generation by the down fibers and for the mixing-layer instability above the porous canopy furnish a theoretical basis to understand the influence of the down geometric structure on its self-noise signature and noise suppression characteristics.

  3. 4-D Noise-Based Seismology at Volcanoes: Ongoing Efforts and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenguier, F.; Campillo, M.; Shapiro, N.; Rivet, D. N.; Takeda, T.; Aoki, Y.; Lecointre, A.

    2014-12-01

    Probing the long-term processes of volcanic eruption preparation and the short-term initiation and transport of magma to surface remains extremely difficult. One reason is that it is hardly possible to directly monitor at depth the magma storage areas. One way to overcome this limit is to use seismic waves that, through their propagation, directly sample the targets of interest. This presentation will summarize recent advances and perspectives in characterizing volcanic systems using noise-based seismic monitoring. In particular, we will focus on Piton de la Fournaise volcano where a wide variety of processes including long-term magma pressure buildup, flank deformation, environmental perturbations and short-term eruption preparation are imaged. We will also show an example in Japan where mapping the seismic velocity susceptibility to transient stress perturbations allows characterizing the state of pressurized volcanic systems. We will discuss the perspectives of noise-based 4-D tomography that will be made possible in the future thanks to the availability of dense seismic networks including large-N arrays and intensive computational facilities.

  4. Noise reduction for model counterrotation propeller at cruise by reducing aft-propeller diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.; Stang, David B.

    1987-01-01

    The forward propeller of a model counterrotation propeller was tested with its original aft propeller and with a reduced diameter aft propeller. Noise reductions with the reduced diameter aft propeller were measured at simulated cruise conditions. Reductions were as large as 7.5 dB for the aft-propeller passing tone and 15 dB in the harmonics at specific angles. The interaction tones, mostly the first, were reduced probably because the reduced-diameter aft-propeller blades no longer interacted with the forward propeller tip vortex. The total noise (sum of primary and interaction noise) at each harmonic was significantly reduced. The chief noise reduction at each harmonic came from reduced aft-propeller-alone noise, with the interaction tones contributing little to the totals at cruise. Total cruise noise reductions were as much as 3 dB at given angles for the blade passing tone and 10 dB for some of the harmonics. These reductions would measurably improve the fuselage interior noise levels and represent a definite cruise noise benefit from using a reduced diameter aft propeller.

  5. Minimizing noise in fiberglass aquaculture tanks: Noise reduction potential of various retrofits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equipment used in intensive aquaculture systems, such as pumps and blowers can produce underwater sound levels and frequencies within the range of fish hearing. The impacts of underwater noise on fish are not well known, but limited research suggests that subjecting fish to noise could result in imp...

  6. Noise within the social context: annoyance reduction through fair procedures.

    PubMed

    Maris, Eveline; Stallen, Pieter J; Vermunt, Riel; Steensma, Herman

    2007-04-01

    The social context of noise exposure is a codeterminant of noise annoyance. The present study shows that fairness of the exposure procedure (sound management) can be used as an instrument to reduce noise annoyance. In a laboratory experiment (N = 117) participants are exposed to aircraft sound of different sound pressure level (SPL: 50 vs 70 dB A)--which is experienced as noise--while they work on a reading task. The exposure procedure (fair versus neutral) is modeled in line with findings from social justice theory. In the fair condition, participants can voice their preference for a certain sound sample, although they cannot deduce whether their preference is granted. In the neutral condition, participants are not asked to voice their preference. Results show the predicted interaction effect of sound pressure level and procedure on annoyance: Annoyance ratings are significantly lower in the fair condition than in the neutral condition, but this effect is found only in the 70 dB condition. When the SPL is considerably disturbing, fair procedures reduce noise annoyance. Consequences of the reported findings for both theory and practice are discussed. PMID:17471717

  7. Advanced supersonic propulsion study. [with emphasis on noise level reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabatella, J. A. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the promising propulsion systems for advanced supersonic transport application, and to identify the critical propulsion technology requirements. It is shown that noise constraints have a major effect on the selection of the various engine types and cycle parameters. Several promising advanced propulsion systems were identified which show the potential of achieving lower levels of sideline jet noise than the first generation supersonic transport systems. The non-afterburning turbojet engine, utilizing a very high level of jet suppression, shows the potential to achieve FAR 36 noise level. The duct-heating turbofan with a low level of jet suppression is the most attractive engine for noise levels from FAR 36 to FAR 36 minus 5 EPNdb, and some series/parallel variable cycle engines show the potential of achieving noise levels down to FAR 36 minus 10 EPNdb with moderate additional penalty. The study also shows that an advanced supersonic commercial transport would benefit appreciably from advanced propulsion technology. The critical propulsion technology needed for a viable supersonic propulsion system, and the required specific propulsion technology programs are outlined.

  8. Fan noise reduction achieved by removing tip flow irregularities behind the rotor - forward arc test configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, J. H.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The noise source caused by the interaction of the rotor tip flow irregularities (vortices and velocity defects) with the downstream stator vanes was studied. Fan flow was removed behind a 0.508 meter (20 in.) diameter model turbofan through an outer wall slot between the rotor and stator. Noise measurements were made with far-field microphones positioned in an arc about the fan inlet and with a pressure transducer in the duct behind the stator. Little tone noise reduction was observed in the forward arc during flow removal; possibly because the rotor-stator interaction noise did not propagate upstream through the rotor. Noise reductions were maded in the duct behind the stator and the largest decrease occurred with the first increment of flow removal. This result indicates that the rotor tip flow irregularity-stator interaction is as important a noise producing mechanism as the normally considered rotor wake-stator interaction.

  9. Progress Towards Fuselage Drag Reduction via Active Flow Control: A Combined CFD and Experimental Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Lienard, Caroline; LePape, Arnaud

    2010-01-01

    A combined computational and experimental effort has been undertaken to study fuselage drag reduction on a generic, non-proprietary rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active ow control. Fuselage drag reduction is an area of research interest to both the United States and France and this area is being worked collaboratively as a task under the United States/France Memorandum of Agreement on Helicopter Aeromechanics. In the first half of this task, emphasis is placed on the US generic fuselage, the ROBIN-mod7, with the experimental work being conducted on the US side and complementary US and French CFD analysis of the baseline and controlled cases. Fuselage simulations were made using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes ow solvers and with multiple turbulence models. Comparisons were made to experimental data for numerical simulations of the isolated fuselage and for the fuselage as installed in the tunnel, which includes modeling of the tunnel contraction, walls, and support fairing. The numerical simulations show that comparisons to the experimental data are in good agreement when the tunnel and model support are included. The isolated fuselage simulations compare well to each other, however, there is a positive shift in the centerline pressure when compared to the experiment. The computed flow separation locations on the rear ramp region had only slight differences with and without the tunnel walls and model support. For the simulations, the flow control slots were placed at several locations around the flow separation lines as a series of eight slots that formed a nearly continuous U-shape. Results from the numerical simulations resulted in an estimated 35% fuselage drag reduction from a steady blowing flow control configuration and a 26% drag reduction for unsteady zero-net-mass flow control configuration. Simulations with steady blowing show a delayed flow separation at the rear ramp of the fuselage that increases the surface pressure acting on the ramp

  10. Experiments to Determine Neighborhood Reactions to Light Airplanes With and Without External Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elwell, Fred S

    1953-01-01

    The work reported was part of a program of experimentation with external noise reduction on light airplanes. This particular study was in effect a byproduct survey conceived to utilize already available equipment and personnel to further the findings of the original research and to determine reactions in populated neighborhoods to light aircraft with and without noise-reduction equipment. The findings indicate that at the 10 sites within and about metropolitan Boston the degree of noise reduction previously found to be aerodynamically and structurally feasible did eliminate substantially all neighborhood objections to noise per se. The evidence clearly suggests that, when the noise nuisance is minimized to the extent found feasible, the number and severity of other objections also diminish -- evidently because the flight operations are noticed less when heard less.

  11. Noise reduction of a composite cylinder subjected to random acoustic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Beyer, T.

    1989-04-01

    Interior and exterior noise measurements were conducted on a stiffened composite floor-equipped cylinder, with and without an interior trim installed. Noise reduction was obtained for the case of random acoustic excitation in a diffuse field; the frequency range of interest was 100-800-Hz one-third octave bands. The measured data were compared with noise reduction predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) program and from a statistical energy analysis. Structural model parameters were not predicted well by the PAIN program for the given input parameters; this resulted in incorrect noise reduction predictions for the lower one-third octave bands where the power flow into the interior of the cylinder was predicted on a mode-per-mode basis.

  12. Noise reduction of a composite cylinder subjected to random acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Beyer, T.

    1989-01-01

    Interior and exterior noise measurements were conducted on a stiffened composite floor-equipped cylinder, with and without an interior trim installed. Noise reduction was obtained for the case of random acoustic excitation in a diffuse field; the frequency range of interest was 100-800-Hz one-third octave bands. The measured data were compared with noise reduction predictions from the Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise (PAIN) program and from a statistical energy analysis. Structural model parameters were not predicted well by the PAIN program for the given input parameters; this resulted in incorrect noise reduction predictions for the lower one-third octave bands where the power flow into the interior of the cylinder was predicted on a mode-per-mode basis.

  13. SAR imaging technique for reduction of sidelobes and noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Lam

    2009-05-01

    Multiplicative noise poses a big challenge for SAR imaging system, in which energy from the sidelobes of large RCS man-made and natural clutter objects spread throughout the resulting SAR imagery. Detection of small RCS targets is very difficult since their signatures might be obscured or even embedded in this multiplicative noise floor that is proportional to the RCS of surrounding clutter objects. ARL has developed a Recursive Sidelobe Minimization (RSM) technique that is combined with the standard backprojection image formation algorithm to suppress the multiplicative noise floor in the resulting SAR imagery. In this paper, we present the Recursive Sidelobe Minimization (RSM) technique. Although the technique is originally developed and tested using data from the Army Research Lab (ARL) UWB Synchronous Impulse Reconstruction (SIRE) forward-looking radar, it is also applicable for other SAR data sets with different configurations.

  14. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John

    2000-01-01

    Engineering studies for reducing ducted fan engine noise were conducted using the noise prediction code TBIEM3D. To conduct parametric noise reduction calculations, it was necessary to advance certain theoretical and computational aspects of the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) described in and implemented in TBIEM3D. Also, enhancements and upgrades to TBIEM3D were made for facilitating the code's use in this research and by the aeroacoustics engineering community.

  15. Fluorescence microscopy image noise reduction using a stochastically-connected random field model

    PubMed Central

    Haider, S. A.; Cameron, A.; Siva, P.; Lui, D.; Shafiee, M. J.; Boroomand, A.; Haider, N.; Wong, A.

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy is an essential part of a biologist’s toolkit, allowing assaying of many parameters like subcellular localization of proteins, changes in cytoskeletal dynamics, protein-protein interactions, and the concentration of specific cellular ions. A fundamental challenge with using fluorescence microscopy is the presence of noise. This study introduces a novel approach to reducing noise in fluorescence microscopy images. The noise reduction problem is posed as a Maximum A Posteriori estimation problem, and solved using a novel random field model called stochastically-connected random field (SRF), which combines random graph and field theory. Experimental results using synthetic and real fluorescence microscopy data show the proposed approach achieving strong noise reduction performance when compared to several other noise reduction algorithms, using quantitative metrics. The proposed SRF approach was able to achieve strong performance in terms of signal-to-noise ratio in the synthetic results, high signal to noise ratio and contrast to noise ratio in the real fluorescence microscopy data results, and was able to maintain cell structure and subtle details while reducing background and intra-cellular noise. PMID:26884148

  16. Adaptive mean filtering for noise reduction in CT polymer gel dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hilts, Michelle; Jirasek, Andrew

    2008-01-15

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) as a method of extracting 3D dose information from irradiated polymer gel dosimeters is showing potential as a practical means to implement gel dosimetry in a radiation therapy clinic. However, the response of CT contrast to dose is weak and noise reduction is critical in order to achieve adequate dose resolutions with this method. Phantom design and CT imaging technique have both been shown to decrease image noise. In addition, image postprocessing using noise reduction filtering techniques have been proposed. This work evaluates in detail the use of the adaptive mean filter for reducing noise in CT gel dosimetry. Filter performance is systematically tested using both synthetic patterns mimicking a range of clinical dose distribution features as well as actual clinical dose distributions. Both low and high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) situations are examined. For all cases, the effects of filter kernel size and the number of iterations are investigated. Results indicate that adaptive mean filtering is a highly effective tool for noise reduction CT gel dosimetry. The optimum filtering strategy depends on characteristics of the dose distributions and image noise level. For low noise images (SNR {approx}20), the filtered results are excellent and use of adaptive mean filtering is recommended as a standard processing tool. For high noise images (SNR {approx}5) adaptive mean filtering can also produce excellent results, but filtering must be approached with more caution as spatial and dose distortions of the original dose distribution can occur.

  17. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  18. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  19. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... “A”-weighting relative response corrections applied to any sound levels at the indicated octave band....211(b).) Figure 2—Computation of the Noise Reduction Rating Octave band center frequency (Hz) 125...

  20. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... “A”-weighting relative response corrections applied to any sound levels at the indicated octave band....211(b).) Figure 2—Computation of the Noise Reduction Rating Octave band center frequency (Hz) 125...

  1. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... “A”-weighting relative response corrections applied to any sound levels at the indicated octave band....211(b).) Figure 2—Computation of the Noise Reduction Rating Octave band center frequency (Hz) 125...

  2. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... “A”-weighting relative response corrections applied to any sound levels at the indicated octave band....211(b).) Figure 2—Computation of the Noise Reduction Rating Octave band center frequency (Hz) 125...

  3. 40 CFR 211.207 - Computation of the noise -reduction rating (NRR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... “A”-weighting relative response corrections applied to any sound levels at the indicated octave band....211(b).) Figure 2—Computation of the Noise Reduction Rating Octave band center frequency (Hz) 125...

  4. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-08-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  5. Adaptive anisotropic diffusion for noise reduction of phase images in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Shaoyan; Huang, Yong; Peng, Shizhao; Wu, Yanfeng; Tan, Xiaodi

    2016-01-01

    Phase image in Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography offers additional flow information of investigated samples, which provides valuable evidence towards accurate medical diagnosis. High quality phase images are thus desirable. We propose a noise reduction method for phase images by combining a synthetic noise estimation criteria based on local noise estimator (LNE) and distance median value (DMV) with anisotropic diffusion model. By identifying noise and signal pixels accurately and diffusing them with different coefficients respectively and adaptive iteration steps, we demonstrated the effectiveness of our proposed method in both phantom and mouse artery images. Comparison with other methods such as filtering method (mean, median filtering), wavelet method, probabilistic method and partial differential equation based methods in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), equivalent number of looks (ENL) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) showed the advantages of our method in reserving image energy and removing noise. PMID:27570687

  6. Reduction of Classroom Noise Levels Using Group Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Brandon M.; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.; Eubanks, Sean L.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The therapeutic workplace is an employment-based abstinence reinforcement intervention for unemployed drug users where trainees receive on-the-job employment skills training in a classroom setting. The study is an extension of prior therapeutic workplace research, which suggested that trainees frequently violated noise standards. Participants…

  7. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.; May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    . Demonstrations and/or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an advanced booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned advanced booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and Risk Reduction Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumbly, Christopher M.; May, Todd; Dumbacher, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    /or risk reduction efforts were required to be related to a proposed booster concept directly applicable to fielding an Advanced Booster. This paper will discuss, for the first time publicly, the contract awards and how NASA intends to use the data from these efforts to prepare for the planned Advanced Booster DDT&E acquisition as the SLS Program moves forward with competitively procured affordable performance enhancements.

  9. AST Critical Propulsion and Noise Reduction Technologies for Future Commercial Subsonic Engines: Separate-Flow Exhaust System Noise Reduction Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Hoff, G. E.; Barter, J. W.; Martens, S.; Gliebe, P. R.; Mengle, V.; Dalton, W. N.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed by General Electric Aircraft Engines (GEAE) and Allison Engine Company (AEC) on NASA Contract NAS3-27720 AoI 14.3. The objective of this contract was to generate quality jet noise acoustic data for separate-flow nozzle models and to design and verify new jet-noise-reduction concepts over a range of simulated engine cycles and flight conditions. Five baseline axisymmetric separate-flow nozzle models having bypass ratios of five and eight with internal and external plugs and 11 different mixing-enhancer model nozzles (including chevrons, vortex-generator doublets, and a tongue mixer) were designed and tested in model scale. Using available core and fan nozzle hardware in various combinations, 28 GEAE/AEC separate-flow nozzle/mixing-enhancer configurations were acoustically evaluated in the NASA Glenn Research Center Aeroacoustic and Propulsion Laboratory. This report describes model nozzle features, facility and data acquisition/reduction procedures, the test matrix, and measured acoustic data analyses. A number of tested core and fan mixing enhancer devices and combinations of devices gave significant jet noise reduction relative to separate-flow baseline nozzles. Inward-flip and alternating-flip core chevrons combined with a straight-chevron fan nozzle exceeded the NASA stretch goal of 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction at typical sideline certification conditions.

  10. Patient radiation dose reduction using an X-ray imaging noise reduction technology for cardiac angiography and intervention.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funatsu, Atsushi; Okada, Tadahisa; Mauti, Maria; Waizumi, Yuki; Yamada, Shinichi

    2016-05-01

    Coronary angiography and intervention can expose patients to high radiation dose. This retrospective study quantifies the patient dose reduction due to the introduction of a novel X-ray imaging noise reduction technology using advanced real-time image noise reduction algorithms and optimized acquisition chain for fluoroscopy and exposure in interventional cardiology. Patient, procedure and radiation dose data were retrospectively collected in the period August 2012-August 2013 for 883 patients treated with the image noise reduction technology (referred as "new system"). The same data were collected for 1083 patients in the period April 2011-July 2012 with a system using state-of-the-art image processing and reference acquisition chain (referred as "reference system"). Procedures were divided into diagnostic (CAG) and intervention (PCI). Acquisition parameters such as fluoroscopy time, volume of contrast medium, number of exposure images and number of stored fluoroscopy images were collected to classify procedure complexity. The procedural dose reduction was investigated separately for three main cardiologists. The new system provides significant dose reduction compared to the reference system. Median DAP values decreased for all procedures (p < 0.0001) from 172.7 to 59.4 Gy cm(2), for CAG from 155.1 to 52.0 Gy cm(2) and for PCI from 229.0 to 85.8 Gy cm(2) with reduction quantified at 66, 66 and 63 %, respectively. Based on median values, the dose reduction for all procedures was 68, 60 and 67 % for cardiologists 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The X-ray imaging technology combining advanced real-time image noise reduction algorithms and anatomy-specific optimized fluoroscopy and cine acquisition chain provides 66 % patient dose reduction in interventional cardiology. PMID:25840815

  11. Long-term effects of noise reduction measures on noise annoyance and sleep disturbance: the Norwegian facade insulation study.

    PubMed

    Amundsen, Astrid H; Klæboe, Ronny; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2013-06-01

    The Norwegian facade insulation study includes one pre-intervention and two post-intervention surveys. The facade-insulating measures reduced indoor noise levels by 7 dB on average. Before the intervention, 43% of the respondents were highly annoyed by noise. Half a year after the intervention, the proportion of respondents who were highly annoyed by road traffic noise had been significantly reduced to 15%. The second post-intervention study (2 yr after the first post-intervention study) showed that the proportion of highly annoyed respondents had not changed since the first post-intervention study. The reduction in the respondents' self-reported sleep disturbances (due to traffic noise) also remained relatively stable from the first to the second post-intervention study. In the control group, there were no statistically significant differences in annoyance between the pre-intervention and the two post-intervention studies. Previous studies of traffic changes have reported that people "overreact" to noise changes. This study indicated that when considering a receiver measure, such as facade insulation, the effect of reducing indoor noise levels could be predicted from exposure-response curves based on previous studies. Thus no evidence of an "overreaction" was found. PMID:23742346

  12. Reduction of Flap Side Edge Noise - the Blowing Flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutcheson, Florence V.; Brooks, THomas F.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to reduce the noise radiating from a wing-flap side edge is being developed. As an airplane wing with an extended flap is exposed to a subsonic airflow, air is blown outward through thin rectangular chord-wise slots at various locations along the side edges and side surface of the flap to weaken and push away the vortices that originate in that region of the flap and are responsible for important noise emissions. Air is blown through the slots at up to twice the local flow velocity. The blowing is done using one or multiple slots, where a slot is located along the top, bottom or side surface of the flap along the side edge, or also along the intersection of the bottom (or top) and side surfaces.

  13. Blade vortex interaction noise reduction techniques for a rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Bruce D. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Tadghighi, Hormoz (Inventor); JanakiRam, Ram D. (Inventor); Sankar, Lakshmi N. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The flap may be actuated in any conventional way, and is scheduled to be actuated to a deflected position during rotation of the rotor blade through predetermined regions of the rotor azimuth, and is further scheduled to be actuated to a retracted position through the remaining regions of the rotor azimuth. Through the careful azimuth-dependent deployment and retraction of the flap over the rotor disk, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved).

  14. Blade vortex interaction noise reduction techniques for a rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Bruce D. (Inventor); Hassan, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Tadghighi, Hormoz (Inventor); JanakiRam, Ram D. (Inventor); Sankar, Lakshmi N. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active control device for reducing blade-vortex interactions (BVI) noise generated by a rotorcraft, such as a helicopter, comprises a trailing edge flap located near the tip of each of the rotorcraft's rotor blades. The flap may be actuated in any conventional way, and is scheduled to be actuated to a deflected position during rotation of the rotor blade through predetermined regions of the rotor azimuth, and is further scheduled to be actuated to a retracted position through the remaining regions of the rotor azimuth. Through the careful azimuth-dependent deployment and retraction of the flap over the rotor disk, blade tip vortices which are the primary source for BVI noise are (a) made weaker and (b) pushed farther away from the rotor disk (that is, larger blade-vortex separation distances are achieved).

  15. Development of an acoustic actuator for launch vehicle noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Benjamin K; Lane, Steven A; Gussy, Joel; Griffin, Steve; Farinholt, Kevin M

    2002-01-01

    In many active noise control applications, it is necessary that acoustic actuators be mounted in small enclosures due to volume constraints and in order to remain unobtrusive. However, the air spring of the enclosure is detrimental to the low-frequency performance of the actuator. For launch vehicle noise control applications, mass and volume constraints are very limiting, but the low-frequency performance of the actuator is critical. This work presents a novel approach that uses a nonlinear buckling suspension system and partial evacuation of the air within the enclosure to yield a compact, sealed acoustic driver that exhibits a very low natural frequency. Linear models of the device are presented and numerical simulations are given to illustrate the advantages of this design concept. An experimental prototype was built and measurements indicate that this design can significantly improve the low-frequency response of compact acoustic actuators. PMID:11831792

  16. High-frequency jet nozzle actuators for noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christopher L.; Calkins, Frederick T.; Butler, George W.

    2003-08-01

    Rules governing airport noise levels are becoming more restrictive and will soon affect the operation of commercial air traffic. Sound produced by jet engine exhaust, particularly during takeoff, is a major contributor to the community noise problem. The noise spectrum is broadband in character and is produced by turbulent mixing of primary, secondary, and ambient streams of the jet engine exhaust. As a potential approach to controlling the noise levels, piezoelectric bimorph actuators have been tailored to enhance the mixing of a single jet with its quiescent environment. The actuators are located at the edge of the nozzle and protrude into the exhaust stream. Several actuator configurations were considered to target two excitation frequencies, 250 Hz and 900 Hz, closely coupled to the naturally unstable frequencies of the mixing process. The piezoelectric actuators were constructed of 10 mil thick d31 poled wafer PZT-5A material bonded to either 10 or 20 mil thick spring steel substrates. Linear analytical beam models and NASTRAN finite element models were used to predict and assess the dynamic performance of the actuators. Experimental mechanical and electrical performance measurements were used to validate the models. A 3 inch diameter nozzle was fitted with actuators and tested in the Boeing Quiet Air Facility with the jet velocity varied from 50 to 1000 ft/s. Performance was evaluated using near-field and far-field acoustic data, flow visualization, and actuator health data. The overall sound pressure level produced from the 3 inch diameter jet illustrates the effect of both static and active actuators.

  17. Landing Gear Door Liners for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G. (Inventor); Howerton, Brian M. (Inventor); Van De Ven, Thomas (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A landing gear door for retractable landing gear of aircraft includes an acoustic liner. The acoustic liner includes one or more internal cavities or chambers having one or more openings that inhibit the generation of sound at the surface and/or absorb sound generated during operation of the aircraft. The landing gear door may include a plurality of internal chambers having different geometries to thereby absorb broadband noise.

  18. Hearing screening program impact on noise reduction strategies.

    PubMed

    Voaklander, D C; Franklin, R C; Challinor, K; Depczynski, J; Fragar, L J

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the New South Wales Rural Hearing Conservation Program on the implementation of personal hearing protection (PHP) and noise management strategies among farmers who had participated in this program in New South Wales, Australia. A follow-up survey of a random sample of people screened through the New South Wales Rural Hearing Conservation Program was linked to their baseline data. The use of PHP at baseline was compared to use at follow-up in four specific scenarios: use with non-cabbed tractors, with chainsaws, with firearms, and in workshops. For non-cabbed tractors, the net gain in PHP use was 13.3%; the net gain was 20.8% for chainsaws, 6.7% for firearms, and 21.3% for workshops. Older farmers and those with a family history of hearing loss were less likely to maintain or improve PHP use. Those with severe hearing loss, males, and participants reporting hearing problems in situations where background noise was present were more likely to maintain or improve PHP use. Forty-one percent of farmers had initiated other strategies to reduce noise exposure beyond the use of PHP, which included engineering, maintenance, and noise avoidance solutions. The early (hopefully) identification of hearing deficit in farmers and farm workers can help promote behavior change and help reinforce a farm culture that supports hearing conservation. The continuation and expansion of hearing screening programs such as these should be encouraged as basic public health strategy in farming communities. PMID:19496341

  19. Study of noise reduction characteristics of multilayered panels and dual pane windows with Helmholtz resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental noise attenuation characteristics of flat, general aviation type, multilayered panels are discussed. Experimental results of stiffened panels, damping tape, honeycomb materials and sound absorption materials are presented. Single degree of freedom theoretical models were developed for sandwich type panels with both shear resistant and non-shear resistant core material. The concept of Helmholtz resonators used in conjunction with dual panel windows in increasing the noise reduction around a small range of frequency was tested. It is concluded that the stiffening of the panels either by stiffeners or by sandwich construction increases the low frequency noise reduction.

  20. Reduction of CMOS Image Sensor Read Noise to Enable Photon Counting

    PubMed Central

    Guidash, Michael; Ma, Jiaju; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Recent activity in photon counting CMOS image sensors (CIS) has been directed to reduction of read noise. Many approaches and methods have been reported. This work is focused on providing sub 1 e− read noise by design and operation of the binary and small signal readout of photon counting CIS. Compensation of transfer gate feed-through was used to provide substantially reduced CDS time and source follower (SF) bandwidth. SF read noise was reduced by a factor of 3 with this method. This method can be applied broadly to CIS devices to reduce the read noise for small signals to enable use as a photon counting sensor. PMID:27070625

  1. Improved configuration and reduction of phase noise in a narrow linewidth ultrawideband optical RF source.

    PubMed

    Grund, David W; Shi, Shouyuan; Schneider, Garrett J; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W

    2014-08-15

    In this Letter, we report on the improved configuration of a widely tunable optical RF generation system, particularly for the generation of low-frequency RF, as well as the reduction of phase noise in that same system. Using an amplitude modulator, a simplified system design was demonstrated with fewer components and improved phase noise performance, especially at RF frequencies below ∼36 GHz. Excess phase noise due to acoustic vibrations of the optical fibers was also successfully eliminated by mechanical isolation. A minimum phase noise of -124 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset was demonstrated at 4 GHz. PMID:25121844

  2. Reduction of CMOS Image Sensor Read Noise to Enable Photon Counting.

    PubMed

    Guidash, Michael; Ma, Jiaju; Vogelsang, Thomas; Endsley, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Recent activity in photon counting CMOS image sensors (CIS) has been directed to reduction of read noise. Many approaches and methods have been reported. This work is focused on providing sub 1 e(-) read noise by design and operation of the binary and small signal readout of photon counting CIS. Compensation of transfer gate feed-through was used to provide substantially reduced CDS time and source follower (SF) bandwidth. SF read noise was reduced by a factor of 3 with this method. This method can be applied broadly to CIS devices to reduce the read noise for small signals to enable use as a photon counting sensor. PMID:27070625

  3. JT8D-100 turbofan engine, phase 1. [noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The JT8D turbofan engine, widely used in short and medium range transport aircraft, contributes substantially to airport community noise. The jet noise is predominant in the JT8D engine and may be reduced in a modified engine, without loss of thrust, by increasing the airflow to reduce jet velocity. A configuration study evaluated the effects of fan airflow, fan pressure ratio, and bypass ratio on noise, thrust, and fuel comsumption. The cycle selected for the modified engine was based upon an increased diameter, single-stage fan and two additional core engine compressor stages, which replace the existing two-stage fan. Modifications were also made to the low pressure turbine to provide the increased torque required by the larger diameter fan. The resultant JT8D-100 engine models have the following characteristics at take-off thrust, compared to the current JT8D engine: Airflow and bypass ratio are increased, and fan pressure ratio and engine speed are reduced. The resultant engine is also longer, larger in diameter, and heavier than the JT8D base model, but these latter changes are compensated by the increased thrust and decreased fuel comsumption of the modified engine, thus providing the capability for maintaining the performance of the current JT8D-powered aircraft.

  4. Algorithm for image registration and clutter and jitter noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Brower, K.L.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an analytical, computational method whereby two-dimensional images of an optical source represented in terms of a set of detector array signals can be registered with respect to a reference set of detector array signals. The detector image is recovered from the detector array signals and represented over a local region by a fourth order, two-dimensional taylor series. This local detector image can then be registered by a general linear transformation with respect to a reference detector image. The detector signal in the reference frame is reconstructed by integrating this detector image over the respective reference pixel. For cases in which the general linear transformation is uncertain by up to plus-or-minus two pixels, the general linear transformation can be determined by least squares fitting the detector image to the reference detector image. This registration process reduces clutter and jitter noise to a level comparable to the electronic noise level of the detector system. Test results with and without electronic noise using an analytical test function are presented.

  5. Blade-Mounted Flap Control for BVI Noise Reduction Proof-of-Concept Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Seth; Hassan, Ahmed; Straub, Friedrich; Tadghighi, Hormoz

    1995-01-01

    This report describes a wind tunnel test of the McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Systems (MDHS) Active Flap Model Rotor at the NASA Langley 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel. The test demonstrated that BVI noise reductions and vibration reductions were possible with the use of an active flap. Aerodynamic results supported the acoustic data trends, showing a reduction in the strength of the tip vortex with the deflection of the flap. Acoustic results showed that the flap deployment, depending on the peak deflection angle and azimuthal shift in its deployment schedule, can produce BVI noise reductions as much as 6 dB on the advancing and retreating sides. The noise reduction was accompanied by an increase in low frequency harmonic noise and high frequency broadband noise. A brief assessment of the effect of the flap on vibration showed that significant reductions were possible. The greatest vibration reductions (as much as 76%) were found in the four per rev pitching moment at the hub. Performance improvement cam results were inconclusive, as the improvements were predicted to be smaller than the resolution of the rotor balance.

  6. Mechanisms of amplification, deactivation, and noise reduction in invertebrate photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Lisman, J; Erickson, M A; Richard, E A; Cote, R H; Bacigalupo, J; Johnson, E; Kirkwood, A

    1992-01-01

    In this review we have discussed the problem of deactivation at both the rhodopsin and G protein levels. Of particular interest is the novel observation that rhodopsin deactivation can be modulated by light. This modulation is likely to play an important role in light adaptation by reducing the gain of transduction. One interesting possibility is that this modulation involves the phosphorylation of an arrestin-like molecule, but this remains to be tested. One of the experimental advantages of Limulus photoreceptors is the large size of the single photon responses and the fact that even single G proteins produce a detectable response. This made possible the observation that nonhydrolyzable GTP analogues produce discrete transient events rather than the step-like events that would be predicted by previous models. This observation led us to a new view of how enzyme deactivation is coupled to GTP hydrolysis on G protein. According to this view, enzymes are activated by G protein, but can be deactivated by processes that are not dependent on G protein or the hydrolysis of GTP. We have conducted several types of experiments, including some on the vertebrate rod system, that strongly support this hypothesis. A second major theme of this review is transduction noise. The available biochemical evidence suggests that both G protein and G protein-activated enzymes are likely to become spontaneously active and generate undesirable noise. Our measurements indicate, however, that this noise is orders of magnitude smaller than would be predicted by simple models, suggesting that special mechanisms must exist for suppressing this noise. We have proposed a specific mechanism by which enzymes regulated allosterically by multiple subunits could act as coincidence detectors to reduce transduction noise. Finally, there is the fundamental question of which second messengers have a direct role in invertebrate phototransduction. After Fesenko et al. (1985) showed that the light

  7. Reduction of helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise by active rotor control technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean; Brooks, Thomas F.

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade-vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations.

  8. INVITED PAPER: Application of an active device for helicopter noise reduction in JAXA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Kobiki, Noboru; Tanabe, Yasutada

    2010-02-01

    Important issues in noise problems for current helicopters are described. An active tab (AT) was developed as a new active device for noise/vibration reduction under research cooperation between Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Kawada Industries, Inc. The wind tunnel test was conducted in order to investigate the effectiveness of the AT on the aeroacoustic characteristics of a helicopter. From the wind tunnel test, the capability of reducing blade vortex interaction (BVI) noise by an AT was verified. A new control law using instantaneous pressure change on a blade during BVI phenomena was introduced and applied to the wind tunnel testing. This new control law shows reasonable controllability for helicopter noise reduction. Furthermore, in order to analyze noise characteristics, the advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code named JAXA_ov3d was developed in JAXA and extended to include CFD-CSD (computational structure dynamics) coupling by using the beam theory for blade deformation.

  9. On the role of the radiation directivity in noise reduction for STOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruschka, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    The radiation characteristics of distributed randomly fluctuating acoustic sources when shielded by finite surfaces are discussed briefly. A number of model tests using loudspeakers as artificial noise sources with a given broadband power density spectrum are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of reducing the radiated noise intensity in certain directions due to shielding. In the lateral direction of the source array noise reductions of 12 dB are observed with relatively small shields. The same shields reduce the backward radiation by approximately 20 dB. With the results obtained in these acoustic model tests the potentials of jet noise reduction of jet flap propulsion systems applicable in future STOL aircraft are discussed. The jet flap configuration as a complex aerodynamic noise source is described briefly.

  10. Reduction of Helicopter Blade-Vortex Interaction Noise by Active Rotor Control Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Yung H.; Gmelin, Bernd; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Brooks, Thomas F.; Philippe, Jean J.; Prieur, Jean

    1997-01-01

    Helicopter blade-vortex interaction noise is one of the most severe noise sources and is very important both in community annoyance and military detection. Research over the decades has substantially improved basic physical understanding of the mechanisms generating rotor blade-vortex interaction noise and also of controlling techniques, particularly using active rotor control technology. This paper reviews active rotor control techniques currently available for rotor blade vortex interaction noise reduction, including higher harmonic pitch control, individual blade control, and on-blade control technologies. Basic physical mechanisms of each active control technique are reviewed in terms of noise reduction mechanism and controlling aerodynamic or structural parameters of a blade. Active rotor control techniques using smart structures/materials are discussed, including distributed smart actuators to induce local torsional or flapping deformations, Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  11. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process. PMID:21895058

  12. Lead-Lag Control for Helicopter Vibration and Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gandhi, Farhan

    1995-01-01

    , meant to achieve lag motion amplitudes up to 45 degrees. In order to reduce the required actuation force, the blade hinges were moved to 40% of the blade radius to increase the rotating lag frequency to approximately 1/rev. The blade hinges were redesigned to produce a flap-lag coupling so the large flapwise aerodynamic loads could be exploited to actuate the blades in the lag direction. A wind tunnel test of this rotor concept revealed actuation and blade motion scheduling problems. The project was eventually discontinued due to these problems and high blade stresses. Around the same time, at Boelkow in Germany, a similar lead-lag rotor program was conducted under the leadership of Hans Derschmidt. Here, too, the blade hinges were moved outboard to 34% radius to reduce the actuation loads. The main difference between this and the United Aircraft program was the use of a mechanical actuation scheme with maximum lead-lag motions of 400. This program was also discontinued for unclear reasons. The present study is directed toward conducting a comprehensive analytical examination to evaluate the effectiveness of controlled lead-lag motions in reducing vibratory hub loads and increasing maximum flight speed. Since both previous studies on this subject were purely experimental, only a limited data set and physical understanding of the problem was obtained. With the currently available analytical models and computational resources, the present effort is geared toward developing an in-depth physical understanding of the precise underlying mechanisms by which vibration reduction may be achieved. Additionally, in recognition of the fact that large amplitude lead-lag motions would - (i) be difficult to implement, and (ii) produce very large blade stresses; the present study examines the potential of only moderate-to-small lead-lag motions for reduction of vibratory hub loads. Using such an approach, the emphasis is not on eliminating the periodic variations in tangential velocity

  13. Reduction of Noise Generated from Lower Part of Shinkansen Cars by Sound Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurita, Takeshi; Kikuchi, Yoshiki; Yamada, Haruo; Ido, Atsushi; Murata, Kaoru; Akiyama, Satoru

    In order to reduce Shinkansen wayside noise at higher speeds, it is necessary to reduce not only pantograph noise but also noise from the lower part of cars. With the aim of absorbing noise from the lower part of the car through a process of multiple sound reflections between the car body and a noise barrier, we developed sound-absorbing panels for the lower part of the car bodies through acoustic tests using a full-scale cut car model and running tests using "FASTECH360S", a high-speed test train of JR-East. In order to assess which sound-absorption areas are more effective in reducing wayside noise coming from the lower part of the cars, we conducted running tests with the sound-absorbing and non-sound-absorbing panels in different layout configurations. As a result, we found that: 1) attaching sound-absorbing panels reduces wayside noise from FASTECH360S running at 320 km/h by approximately 0.9 dB at a point 25 meters from the track, 2) sound-absorbing panels installed to side skirts have the greatest noise reduction effect and 3) the sound-absorbing panels at the front and back ends of the bogie space and on the side beam contribute almost nothing to noise reduction.

  14. Earthquake Seismic Risk Reduction in Ohio: ODNR's Efforts to Address Issues with Natural and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besana-Ostman, G. M.

    2013-05-01

    With the increasing concerns regarding both natural and induced seismicity in Ohio, ODNR (Ohio Department of Natural Resources) initial efforts on seismic risk reduction paved way to various changes and improvement to tackle several major issues. For natural earthquakes, regional seismicity indicates a NE-SW structure in the northern portion of the area associated with a number of moderate historical earthquakes but no active trace identified. On the other hand, earthquakes of 1986 and 2011 are most probably incidents of induced seismicity that trigger more public uproar against disposal of regulated waste waters through injections. ODNR, in efforts to adapt with increasing need to regulate all operations related to both the Utica and Marcellus shale play within the state, had recently strengthen itself both through additional human resources and improved infrastructure. Tougher regulations and additional field tests were required that took effect immediately when a M4 earthquake was associated with the operations of an injection well. Public meetings were undertaken focused on educating many local inhabitants related to oil and gas operations, hydraulic fracturing, injection wells, and seismicity. Trainings for new and existing staff were regularly done especially for field inspection, data management and technology advancements. Considering the existing seismic stations that are few and distant related to sites of the injection wells, additional seismic stations were installed to gather baseline data and monitor for earthquakes within the injection area(s). Furthermore, to assess if the sites of the injection wells are safe from active structures, initial geomorphic and structural analyses indicated possible active faults in the northern portion of state oriented NE-SW. With the above-mentioned recent changes, ODNR had made a significant leap not only in the improvement of its principal regulatory role in the state for oil and gas operations but also in its

  15. Evaluating the Effort Expended to Understand Speech in Noise Using a Dual-Task Paradigm: The Effects of Providing Visual Speech Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Sarah; Gagne, Jean-Pierre; Alepins, Majolaine; Dubois, Pascale

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Using a dual-task paradigm, 2 experiments (Experiments 1 and 2) were conducted to assess differences in the amount of listening effort expended to understand speech in noise in audiovisual (AV) and audio-only (A-only) modalities. Experiment 1 had equivalent noise levels in both modalities, and Experiment 2 equated speech recognition…

  16. Civil helicopter noise assessment study Boeing-Vertol model 347. [recommendations for reduction of helicopter noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinterkeuser, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to forecast the noise restrictions which may be imposed on civil transport helicopters in the 1975-1985 time period. Certification and community acceptance criteria were predicted. A 50 passenger tandem rotor helicopter based on the Boeing-Vertol Model 347 was studied to determine the noise reductions required, and the means of achieving them. Some of the important study recommendations are: (1) certification limits should be equivalent to 95 EPNdb at data points located at 500 feet to each side of the touchdown/takeoff point, and 1000 feet from this point directly under the approach and departure flight path. (2) community acceptance should be measured as Equivalent Noise Level (Leq), based on dBA, with separate limits for day and night operations, and (3) in order to comply with the above guidelines, the Model 347 helicopter will require studies and tests leading to several modifications.

  17. Studies of blade-vortex interaction noise reduction by rotor blade modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.

    1993-01-01

    Blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise is one of the most objectionable types of helicopter noise. This impulsive blade-slap noise can be particularly intense during low-speed landing approach and maneuvers. Over the years, a number of flight and model rotor tests have examined blade tip modification and other blade design changes to reduce this noise. Many times these tests have produced conflicting results. In the present paper, a number of these studies are reviewed in light of the current understanding of the BVI noise problem. Results from one study in particular are used to help establish the noise reduction potential and to shed light on the role of blade design. Current blade studies and some new concepts under development are also described.

  18. Prediction and reduction of aircraft noise in outdoor environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Bao N.

    This dissertation investigates the noise due to an en-route aircraft cruising at high altitudes. It offers an improved understanding into the combined effects of atmospheric propagation, ground reflection, and source motion on the impact of en-route aircraft noise. A numerical model has been developed to compute pressure time-histories due to a uniformly moving source above a flat ground surface in the presence of a horizontally stratified atmosphere. For a moving source at high elevations, contributions from a direct and specularly reflected wave are sufficient in predicting the sound field close to the ground. In the absence of wind effects, the predicted sound field from a single overhead flight trajectory can be used to interpolate pressure time histories at all other receiver locations via a simplified ray model for the incoherent sound field. This approach provides an efficient method for generating pressure time histories in a three-dimensional space for noise impact studies. A variety of different noise propagation methods are adapted to a uniformly moving source to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of their predictions. The techniques include: analytical methods, the Fast Field Program (FFP), and asymptotic analysis methods (e.g., ray tracing and more advanced formulations). Source motion effects are introduced via either a retarded time analysis or a Lorentz transform approach depending on the complexity of the problem. The noise spectrum from a single emission frequency, moving source has broadband characteristics. This is a consequence of the Doppler shift which continuously modifies the perceived frequency of the source as it moves relative to a stationary observer on the ground. Thus, the instantaneous wavefronts must be considered in both the frequency dependent ground impedance model and the atmospheric absorption model. It can be shown that the Doppler factor is invariant along each ray path. This gives rise to a path dependent atmospheric

  19. HSCT noise reduction technology development at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majjigi, Rudramuni K.

    1992-04-01

    The topics covered include the following: High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle design approaches; GE aircraft engine (GEAE) HSCT acoustics research; 2DCD non-IVP suppressor ejector; key sensitivities from reference aircraft; acoustic experiments; aero-mixing experimental set-up; fluid shield nozzle; HSCT Mach 2.4 flade nozzle; noise prediction; nozzle concept for GE/Boeing joint test; scale model hot core flow path modified to prevent hub-choking CFL3-D solution; HSCT exhaust nozzle status; and key acoustic technology issues for HSCT's.

  20. Nature-Inspired Airfoils for Environmental Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Suyeong; Kyung, Richard

    2013-11-01

    Recently, study on the insects' flapping flight became one of the challenging research subjects in the field of environmental engineering and aeronautics because of its potential applicability to intelligent micro-robots capable of autonomous flight and the next generation aerial-vehicles. In order to uncover its curious unsteady characteristics, many researchers have conducted experimental and computational studies on the unsteady aerodynamics of insects' flapping flight. In the present work, the unsteady flow physics around insect wings are conducted by utilizing numerical and computational simulation. The e-AIRS [6] (e-Science Aerospace Integrated Research System) gives a balanced service between computational and experimental aerodynamics, along with integrated research process of these two research activities. This paper presents the wing motions and their aerodynamics with a two dimensional approach to reduce environmental noise during the airflight. Also this paper shows an optimal phase angle, where the thrust is maximized at the position of minimized drag, which occurs when noise is minimized. Aside from the two-dimensional approach, stroke angles and phase angles of the airfoils are set as parameters, to determine which motion yields the best aerodynamic characteristics.

  1. Noise reduction of video imagery through simple averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorder Bruegge, Richard W.

    1999-02-01

    Examiners in the Special Photographic Unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division conduct examinations of questioned photographic evidence of all types, including surveillance imagery recorded on film and video tape. A primary type of examination includes side-by- side comparisons, in which unknown objects or people depicted in the questioned images are compared with known objects recovered from suspects or with photographs of suspects themselves. Most imagery received in the SPU for such comparisons originate from time-lapse video or film systems. In such circumstances, the delay between sequential images is so great that standard image summing and/or averaging techniques are useless as a means of improving image detail in questioned subjects or objects without also resorting to processing-intensive pattern reconstruction algorithms. Occasionally, however, the receipt of real-time video imagery will include a questioned object at rest. In such cases, it is possible to use relatively simple image averaging techniques as a means of reducing transient noise in the images, without further compromising the already-poor resolution inherent in most video surveillance images. This paper presents an example of one such case in which multiple images were averaged to reduce the transient noise to a sufficient degree to permit the positive identification of a vehicle based upon the presence of scrape marks and dents on the side of the vehicle.

  2. Comparison of speech intelligibility in cockpit noise using SPH-4 flight helmet with and without active noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, Jeffrey W.; Simpson, Carol A.

    1990-01-01

    Active Noise Reduction (ANR) is a new technology which can reduce the level of aircraft cockpit noise that reaches the pilot's ear while simultaneously improving the signal to noise ratio for voice communications and other information bearing sound signals in the cockpit. A miniature, ear-cup mounted ANR system was tested to determine whether speech intelligibility is better for helicopter pilots using ANR compared to a control condition of ANR turned off. Two signal to noise ratios (S/N), representative of actual cockpit conditions, were used for the ratio of the speech to cockpit noise sound pressure levels. Speech intelligibility was significantly better with ANR compared to no ANR for both S/N conditions. Variability of speech intelligibility among pilots was also significantly less with ANR. When the stock helmet was used with ANR turned off, the average PB Word speech intelligibility score was below the Normally Acceptable level. In comparison, it was above that level with ANR on in both S/N levels.

  3. Noise reduction evaluation of grids in a supersonic air stream with application to Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seiner, J. M.; Manning, J. C.; Nystrom, P.; Pao, S. P.

    1977-01-01

    Near field acoustic measurements were obtained for a model supersonic air jet perturbed by a screen. Noise reduction potential in the vicinity of the space shuttle vehicle during ground launch when the rocket exhaust flow is perturbed by a grid was determined. Both 10 and 12 mesh screens were utilized for this experiment, and each exhibited a noise reduction only at very low frequencies in the near field forward arc. A power spectrum analysis revealed that a modest reduction of from 3 to 5 decibels exists below a Strouhal number S sub t = 0.11. Above S sub t = 0.11 screen harmonics increased the observed sound pressure level. The favorable noise reductions obtained with screens for S sub t 0.11 may be of substantial interest for the space shuttle at ground launch.

  4. Noise Reduction Techniques and Scaling Effects towards Photon Counting CMOS Image Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Boukhayma, Assim; Peizerat, Arnaud; Enz, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the read noise in CMOS image sensors (CISs) based on four-transistors (4T) pixels, column-level amplification and correlated multiple sampling. Starting from the input-referred noise analytical formula, process level optimizations, device choices and circuit techniques at the pixel and column level of the readout chain are derived and discussed. The noise reduction techniques that can be implemented at the column and pixel level are verified by transient noise simulations, measurement and results from recently-published low noise CIS. We show how recently-reported process refinement, leading to the reduction of the sense node capacitance, can be combined with an optimal in-pixel source follower design to reach a sub-0.3erms- read noise at room temperature. This paper also discusses the impact of technology scaling on the CIS read noise. It shows how designers can take advantage of scaling and how the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistor gate leakage tunneling current appears as a challenging limitation. For this purpose, both simulation results of the gate leakage current and 1/f noise data reported from different foundries and technology nodes are used.

  5. Noise reduction by the application of an air-bubble curtain in offshore pile driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Underwater noise pollution is a by-product of marine industrial operations. In particular, the noise generated when a foundation pile is driven into the soil with an impact hammer is considered to be harmful for the aquatic species. In an attempt to reduce the ecological footprint, several noise mitigation techniques have been investigated. Among the various solutions proposed, the air-bubble curtain is often applied due to its efficacy in noise reduction. In this paper, a model is proposed for the investigation of the sound reduction during marine piling when an air-bubble curtain is placed around the pile. The model consists of the pile, the surrounding water and soil media, and the air-bubble curtain which is positioned at a certain distance from the pile surface. The solution approach is semi-analytical and is based on the dynamic sub-structuring technique and the modal decomposition method. Two main results of the paper can be distinguished. First, a new model is proposed that can be used for predictions of the noise levels in a computationally efficient manner. Second, an analysis is presented of the principal mechanisms that are responsible for the noise reduction due to the application of the air-bubble curtain in marine piling. The understanding of these mechanisms turns to be crucial for the exploitation of the maximum efficiency of the system. It is shown that the principal mechanism of noise reduction depends strongly on the frequency content of the radiated sound and the characteristics of the bubbly medium. For piles of large diameter which radiate most of the acoustic energy at relatively low frequencies, the noise reduction is mainly attributed to the mismatch of the acoustic impedances between the seawater and the bubbly layer. On the contrary, for smaller piles and when the radiated acoustic energy is concentrated at frequencies close to, or higher than, the resonance frequency of the air bubbles, the sound absorption within the bubbly layer

  6. Noise reduction in muon tomography for detecting high density objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benettoni, M.; Bettella, G.; Bonomi, G.; Calvagno, G.; Calvini, P.; Checchia, P.; Cortelazzo, G.; Cossutta, L.; Donzella, A.; Furlan, M.; Gonella, F.; Pegoraro, M.; Rigoni Garola, A.; Ronchese, P.; Squarcia, S.; Subieta, M.; Vanini, S.; Viesti, G.; Zanuttigh, P.; Zenoni, A.; Zumerle, G.

    2013-12-01

    The muon tomography technique, based on multiple Coulomb scattering of cosmic ray muons, has been proposed as a tool to detect the presence of high density objects inside closed volumes. In this paper a new and innovative method is presented to handle the density fluctuations (noise) of reconstructed images, a well known problem of this technique. The effectiveness of our method is evaluated using experimental data obtained with a muon tomography prototype located at the Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN). The results reported in this paper, obtained with real cosmic ray data, show that with appropriate image filtering and muon momentum classification, the muon tomography technique can detect high density materials, such as lead, albeit surrounded by light or medium density material, in short times. A comparison with algorithms published in literature is also presented.

  7. Burst noise reduction of image by decimation and adaptive weighted median filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Fumitaka; Meguro, Mitsuhiko; Hamada, Nozomu

    2000-12-01

    The removal of noise in image is one of the important issues, and useful as a preprocessing for edge detection, motion estimation and so on. Recently, many studies on the nonlinear digital filter for impulsive noise reduction have been reported. The median filter, the representative of the nonlinear filters, is very effective for removing impulsive noise and preserving sharp edge. In some cases, burst (i.e., successive) impulsive noise is added to image, and this type of noise is difficult to remove by using the median filter. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive Weighted Median (AWM) filter with Decimation (AWM-D filter) for burst noise reduction. This method can also be applied to recover large destructive regions, such as blotch and scratch. The proposed filter is an extension of the Decimated Median (DM) filter, which is useful for reducing successive impulsive noise. The DM filter can split long impulsive noise sequences into short ones, and remove burst noise in spite of the short filter window. Nevertheless, the DM filter also has two disadvantages. One is that the signals without added noise is unnecessary filtered. The other is that the position information in the window is not considered in the weight determinative process, as common in the median type filter. To improve detail-preserving property of the DM filter, we use the noise detection procedure and the AWM-D filter, which can be tuned by Least Mean Absolute (LMA) algorithm. The AWM-D filter preserves details more precisely than the median-type filter, because the AWM-D filter has the weights that can control the filter output. Through some simulations, the higher performance of the proposed filter is shown compared with the simple median, the WM filter, and the DM filter.

  8. Assessment of Soft Vane and Metal Foam Engine Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Michael G.; Parrott, Tony L.; Sutliff, Daniel L.; Hughes, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Two innovative fan-noise reduction concepts developed by NASA are presented - soft vanes and over-the-rotor metal foam liners. Design methodologies are described for each concept. Soft vanes are outlet guide vanes with internal, resonant chambers that communicate with the exterior aeroacoustic environment via a porous surface. They provide acoustic absorption via viscous losses generated by interaction of unsteady flows with the internal solid structure. Over-the-rotor metal foam liners installed at or near the fan rotor axial plane provide rotor noise absorption. Both concepts also provide pressure-release surfaces that potentially inhibit noise generation. Several configurations for both concepts are evaluated with a normal incidence tube, and the results are used to guide designs for implementation in two NASA fan rigs. For soft vanes, approximately 1 to 2 dB of broadband inlet and aft-radiated fan noise reduction is achieved. For over-the-rotor metal foam liners, up to 3 dB of fan noise reduction is measured in the low-speed fan rig, but minimal reduction is measured in the high-speed fan rig. These metal foam liner results are compared with a static engine test, in which inlet sound power level reductions up to 5 dB were measured. Brief plans for further development are also provided.

  9. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  10. Cascaded systems analysis of noise reduction algorithms in dual-energy imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Richard, Samuel; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2008-02-15

    An important aspect of dual-energy (DE) x-ray image decomposition is the incorporation of noise reduction techniques to mitigate the amplification of quantum noise. This article extends cascaded systems analysis of imaging performance to DE imaging systems incorporating linear noise reduction algorithms. A general analytical formulation of linear DE decomposition is derived, with weighted log subtraction and several previously reported noise reduction algorithms emerging as special cases. The DE image noise-power spectrum (NPS) and modulation transfer function (MTF) demonstrate that noise reduction algorithms impart significant, nontrivial effects on the spatial-frequency-dependent transfer characteristics which do not cancel out of the noise-equivalent quanta (NEQ). Theoretical predictions were validated in comparison to the measured NPS and MTF. The resulting NEQ was integrated with spatial-frequency-dependent task functions to yield the detectability index, d{sup '}, for evaluation of DE imaging performance using different decomposition algorithms. For a 3 mm lung nodule detection task, the detectability index varied from d{sup '}<1 (i.e., nodule barely visible) in the absence of noise reduction to d{sup '}>2.5 (i.e., nodule clearly visible) for ''anti-correlated noise reduction'' (ACNR) or ''simple-smoothing of the high-energy image'' (SSH) algorithms applied to soft-tissue or bone-only decompositions, respectively. Optimal dose allocation (A{sup *}, the fraction of total dose delivered in the low-energy projection) was also found to depend on the choice of noise reduction technique. At fixed total dose, multi-function optimization suggested a significant increase in optimal dose allocation from A{sup *}=0.32 for conventional log subtraction to A{sup *}=0.79 for ACNR and SSH in soft-tissue and bone-only decompositions, respectively. Cascaded systems analysis extended to the general formulation of DE image decomposition provided an objective means of

  11. Noise reduction in ultrasonic computerized tomography by preprocessing for projection data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norose, Yoko; Mizutani, Koichi; Wakatsuki, Naoto; Ebihara, Tadashi

    2015-07-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic computerized tomography (CT) using time-of-flights (TOFs) has been used for the nondestructive inspection of steel billets with high acoustic attenuation. One of the remaining problems of this method is noise in CT images, which makes it difficult to distinguish defects from noise. Conventionally, noise is suppressed by a low-pass filter (LPF) in the process of filtered back projection (FBP). However, it has been found that there is residual noise even after filtering. To cope with this problem, in this study, the noise observed in ultrasonic testing was examined. As a result, it was found that the TOF data used for CT processing contains impulse noise, which remains in the CT image even after filtering, owing to the existence of transducer directivity. To remove impulse noise selectively, we propose a noise reduction technique for ultrasonic CT for steel billet inspection, that is, preprocessing (outlier detection and removal) of TOF data. The performance of the proposed technique was evaluated experimentally. The obtained results suggest that the proposed technique can remove impulse noise selectively and markedly improve the quality of the CT image. Hence, the proposed technique can improve the performance of ultrasonic CT for steel billet inspection.

  12. An adaptive way for improving noise reduction using local geometric projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leontitsis, Alexandros; Bountis, Tassos; Pagge, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    We propose an adaptive way to improve noise reduction by local geometric projection. From the neighborhood of each candidate point in phase space, we identify the best subspace that the point will be orthogonally projected to. The signal subspace is formed by the most significant eigendirections of the neighborhood, while the less significant ones define the noise subspace. We provide a simple criterion to separate the most significant eigendirections from the less significant ones. This criterion is based on the maximum logarithmic difference between the neighborhood eigendirection lengths, and the assumption that there is at least one eigendirection that corresponds to the noise subspace. In this way, we take into account the special characteristics of each neighborhood and introduce a more successful noise reduction technique. Results are presented for a chaotic time series of the Hénon map and Ikeda map, as well as on the Nasdaq Composite index.

  13. Experimental investigation for the noise reduction of a small diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, C.M.; Caresana, F.; Bossio, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Noise legislation emphasizes the need for the development of quieter engines, and much has been done for automotive and large industrial engines. Now there is a growing interest in reducing the noise of small Diesel engines used widely in agriculture, generator sets and other stationary applications. Furthermore, since new engine structural designs require large investments in new plant and production techniques, there is a considerable incentive for the engine manufacturer to achieve noise reduction by modification and development of the existing designs. This paper discusses a case in which structural modifications of an existing small Diesel engine caused by design and production constraints have been analyzed so that necessary functional changes have given rise also to noise reduction.

  14. Noise Reduction for Low-Dose Single-Slice Helical CT Sinograms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Li, Tianfang; Lu, Hongbing; Liang, Zhengrong

    2006-01-01

    Helical computed tomography (HCT) has several advantages over conventional step-and-shoot CT for imaging a relatively large object, especially for dynamic studies. However, HCT may increase X-ray exposure significantly. This work aims to reduce the radiation by lowering X-ray tube current (mA) and filtering low-mA (or dose) sinogram noise of HCT. The noise reduction method is based on three observations on HCT: (1) the axial sampling of HCT projections is nearly continuous as detection system rotates; (2) the noise distribution in sinogram space is nearly a Gaussian after system calibration (including logarithmic transform); and (3) the relationship between the calibrated data mean and variance can be expressed as an exponential functional across the field-of-view. Based on the second and third observations, a penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) solution is an optimal choice, where the weight is given by the mean-variance relationship. The first observation encourages the use of Karhunen-Loève (KL) transform along the axial direction because of the associated correlation. In the KL domain, the eigenvalue of each principal component and the derived data variance provide the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information, resulting in a SNR-adaptive noise reduction. The KL-PWLS noise-reduction method was implemented analytically for efficient restoration of large volume HCT sinograms. Simulation studies showed a noticeable improvement, in terms of image quality and defect detectability, of the proposed noise-reduction method over the Ordered-Subsets Expectation-Maximization reconstruction and the conventional low-pass noise filtering with optimal cutoff frequency and/or other filter parameters. PMID:16932806

  15. The “Median” Method for the Reduction of Noise and Trigger Jitter on Waveform Data

    PubMed Central

    Paulter, N. G.; Larson, D. R.

    2005-01-01

    The “median” method for the reduction of the effect of noise and trigger jitter on waveform data is described. The effectiveness of this method was examined using simulations and experiments and, for typical jitter and noise observed in electrical pulse metrology, is shown to provide reconstructed waveforms with transition durations that accurately match those of the input signal. Also, for aberrations, an upper bound on the error in the amplitude of the aberration is provided. PMID:27308176

  16. Reduction of phase noise in nanowire spin orbit torque oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liu; Verba, Roman; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Schneider, Tobias; Smith, Andrew; Duan, Zheng; Youngblood, Brian; Lenz, Kilian; Lindner, Jürgen; Slavin, Andrei N.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.

    2015-11-01

    Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are compact, tunable sources of microwave radiation that serve as a test bed for studies of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at the nanometer length scale. The spin torque in an STO can be created by spin-orbit interaction, but low spectral purity of the microwave signals generated by spin orbit torque oscillators hinders practical applications of these magnetic nanodevices. Here we demonstrate a method for decreasing the phase noise of spin orbit torque oscillators based on Pt/Ni80Fe20 nanowires. We experimentally demonstrate that tapering of the nanowire, which serves as the STO active region, significantly decreases the spectral linewidth of the generated signal. We explain the observed linewidth narrowing in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model. The model reveals that spatial non-uniformity of the spin current density in the tapered nanowire geometry hinders the excitation of higher order spin-wave modes, thus stabilizing the single-mode generation regime. This non-uniformity also generates a restoring force acting on the excited self-oscillatory mode, which reduces thermal fluctuations of the mode spatial position along the wire. Both these effects improve the STO spectral purity.

  17. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  18. Reduction of phase noise in nanowire spin orbit torque oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Liu; Verba, Roman; Tiberkevich, Vasil; Schneider, Tobias; Smith, Andrew; Duan, Zheng; Youngblood, Brian; Lenz, Kilian; Lindner, Jürgen; Slavin, Andrei N.; Krivorotov, Ilya N.

    2015-01-01

    Spin torque oscillators (STOs) are compact, tunable sources of microwave radiation that serve as a test bed for studies of nonlinear magnetization dynamics at the nanometer length scale. The spin torque in an STO can be created by spin-orbit interaction, but low spectral purity of the microwave signals generated by spin orbit torque oscillators hinders practical applications of these magnetic nanodevices. Here we demonstrate a method for decreasing the phase noise of spin orbit torque oscillators based on Pt/Ni80Fe20 nanowires. We experimentally demonstrate that tapering of the nanowire, which serves as the STO active region, significantly decreases the spectral linewidth of the generated signal. We explain the observed linewidth narrowing in the framework of the Ginzburg-Landau auto-oscillator model. The model reveals that spatial non-uniformity of the spin current density in the tapered nanowire geometry hinders the excitation of higher order spin-wave modes, thus stabilizing the single-mode generation regime. This non-uniformity also generates a restoring force acting on the excited self-oscillatory mode, which reduces thermal fluctuations of the mode spatial position along the wire. Both these effects improve the STO spectral purity. PMID:26592432

  19. A research program to reduce interior noise in general aviation airplanes. Influence of depressurization and damping material on the noise reduction characteristics of flat and curved stiffened panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navaneethan, R.; Streeter, B.; Koontz, S.; Roskam, J.

    1981-01-01

    Some 20 x 20 aluminum panels were studied in a frequency range from 20 Hz to 5000 Hz. The noise sources used were a swept sine wave generator and a random noise generator. The effect of noise source was found to be negligible. Increasing the pressure differential across the panel gave better noise reduction below the fundamental resonance frequency due to an increase in stiffness. The largest increase occurred in the first 1 psi pressure differential. The curved, stiffened panel exhibited similar behavior, but with a lower increase of low frequency noise reduction. Depressurization on these panels resulted in decreased noise reduction at higher frequencies. The effect of damping tapes on the overall noise reduction values of the test specimens was small away from the resonance frequency. In the mass-law region, a slight and proportional improvement in noise reduction was observed by adding damping material. Adding sound absorbtion material to a panel with damping material beneficially increased noise reduction at high frequencies.

  20. Hybrid feedforward-feedback active noise reduction for hearing protection and communication.

    PubMed

    Ray, Laura R; Solbeck, Jason A; Streeter, Alexander D; Collier, Robert D

    2006-10-01

    A hybrid active noise reduction (ANR) architecture is presented and validated for a circumaural earcup and a communication earplug. The hybrid system combines source-independent feedback ANR with a Lyapunov-tuned leaky LMS filter (LyLMS) improving gain stability margins over feedforward ANR alone. In flat plate testing, the earcup demonstrates an overall C-weighted total noise reduction of 40 dB and 30-32 dB, respectively, for 50-800 Hz sum-of-tones noise and for aircraft or helicopter cockpit noise, improving low frequency (<100 Hz) performance by up to 15 dB over either control component acting individually. For the earplug, a filtered-X implementation of the LyLMS accommodates its nonconstant cancellation path gain. A fast time-domain identification method provides a high-fidelity, computationally efficient, infinite impulse response cancellation path model, which is used for both the filtered-X implementation and communication feedthrough. Insertion loss measurements made with a manikin show overall C-weighted total noise reduction provided by the ANR earplug of 46-48 dB for sum-of-tones 80-2000 Hz and 40-41 dB from 63 to 3000 Hz for UH-60 helicopter noise, with negligible degradation in attenuation during speech communication. For both hearing protectors, a stability metric improves by a factor of 2 to several orders of magnitude through hybrid ANR. PMID:17069300

  1. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  2. Full-Scale Investigation of Several Jet-Engine Noise-Reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1958-01-01

    A number of noise-suppression nozzles were tested on full-scale engines. In general, these nozzles achieved noise reduction by the mixing interference of adjacent jets, that is, by using multiple-slot-nozzles. Several of the nozzles achieved reductions in sound power of approximately 5 decibels (nearly 70 percent) with small thrust losses (approx. 1 percent). The maximum sound-pressure level was reduced by as much as 18 decibels in particular frequency bands. Some of the nozzles showed considerable spatial asymmetry; that is, the sound field was not rotationally symmetrical. A method of calculating the limiting frequency effected by such nozzles is presented. Furthermore data are shown that appear to indicate that further reductions in sound power will not be easily achieved from nozzles using mixing interference as a means of noise suppression

  3. Use of a plane jet for flow-induced noise reduction of tandem rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, Zhao; Xi-xiang, Yang; Patrick, N. Okolo; Wei-hua, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Unsteady wake from upstream components of landing gear impinging on downstream components could be a strong noise source. The use of a plane jet is proposed to reduce this flow-induced noise. Tandem rods with different gap widths were utilized as the test body. Both acoustic and aerodynamic tests were conducted in order to validate this technique. Acoustic test results proved that overall noise emission from tandem rods could be lowered and tonal noise could be removed with use of the plane jet. However, when the plane jet was turned on, in some frequency range it could be the subsequent main contributor instead of tandem rods to total noise emission whilst in some frequency range rods could still be the main contributor. Moreover, aerodynamic tests fundamentally studied explanations for the noise reduction. Specifically, not only impinging speed to rods but speed and turbulence level to the top edge of the rear rod could be diminished by the upstream plane jet. Consequently, the vortex shedding induced by the rear rod was reduced, which was confirmed by the speed, Reynolds stress as well as the velocity fluctuation spectral measured in its wake. This study confirmed the potential use of a plane jet towards landing gear noise reduction. Project partially supported by the European Union FP7 CleanSky Joint Technology Initiative “ALLEGRA” (Grant No. 308225).

  4. Reduction of electronic noise from radiofrequency generator during radiofrequency ablation in interventional MRI.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Thomas; Sinha, Usha; Lu, David; Sinha, Shantanu

    2002-01-01

    MRI has been used increasingly in the recent past for the guidance and monitoring of minimally invasive interventional procedures, using typically radiofrequency (RF) and laser energy, cryoablation, and percutaneous ethanol. RF energy has been used over the last 30 years for the ablation of tissues. Its use in conjunction with MRI for monitoring is limited, however, because of the electronic noise produced by the RF generators, which can significantly deteriorate image quality. The objective of this work was to devise methods by which this noise can be reduced to an acceptable level to allow simultaneous acquisition of MR images for monitoring purposes with the application of RF energy. Three different methods of noise reduction were investigated in a 0.2 T MR scanner: filtration using external hardware circuitry, MR scanner software-controlled filtration, and keyholing. The last two methods were unable by themselves to suppress the noise to an acceptable degree. Hardware filtration, however, provides excellent suppression of RF noise and is able to withstand up to 12 W of RF energy. When all the three approaches are combined, significant reduction of RF noise is achieved. The feasibility of creating an RF lesion of about 1.2 cm diameter in vivo in a porcine model simultaneously with temperature-sensitive MRI with adequate noise suppression is demonstrated. PMID:11884792

  5. Mixing noise reduction for rectangular supersonic jets by nozzle shaping and induced screech mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Edward J.; Raman, Ganesh

    1993-01-01

    Two methods of mixing noise modification were studied for supersonic jets flowing from rectangular nozzles with an aspect ratio of about five and a small dimension of about 1.4 cm. The first involves nozzle geometry variation using either single (unsymmetrical) or double bevelled (symmetrical) thirty degree cutbacks of the nozzle exit. Both converging (C) and converging-diverging (C-D) versions were tested. The double bevelled C-D nozzle produced a jet mixing noise reduction of about 4 dB compared to a standard rectangular C-D nozzle. In addition all bevelled nozzles produced an upstream shift in peak mixing noise which is conducive to improved attenuation when the nozzle is used in an acoustically treated duct. A large increase in high frequency noise also occurred near the plane of the nozzle exit. Because of near normal incidence, this noise can be easily attenuated with wall treatment. The second approach uses paddles inserted on the edge of the two sides of the jet to induce screech and greatly enhance the jet mixing. Although screech and mixing noise levels are increased, the enhanced mixing moves the source locations upstream and may make an enclosed system more amenable to noise reduction using wall acoustic treatment.

  6. Optimization of the poro-serrated trailing edges for airfoil broadband noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Chong, Tze Pei; Dubois, Elisa

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports an aeroacoustic investigation of a NACA0012 airfoil with a number of poro-serrated trailing edge devices that contain porous materials of various air flow resistances at the gaps between adjacent members of the serrated-sawtooth trailing edge. The main objective of this work is to determine whether multiple-mechanisms on the broadband noise reduction can co-exist on a poro-serrated trailing edge. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of low-flow resistivity, the vortex shedding tone at low-frequency could not be completely suppressed at high-velocity, but a reasonably good broadband noise reduction can be achieved at high-frequency. When the sawtooth gaps are filled with porous material of very high-flow resistivity, no vortex shedding tone is present, but the serration effect on the broadband noise reduction becomes less effective. An optimal choice of the flow resistivity for a poro-serrated configuration has been identified, where it can surpass the conventional serrated trailing edge of the same geometry by achieving a further 1.5 dB reduction in the broadband noise while completely suppressing the vortex shedding tone. A weakened turbulent boundary layer noise scattering at the poro-serrated trailing edge is reflected by the lower-turbulence intensity at the near wake centreline across the whole spanwise wavelength of the sawtooth. PMID:27586762

  7. Static and wind tunnel model tests for the development of externally blown flap noise reduction techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pennock, A. P.; Swift, G.; Marbert, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Externally blown flap models were tested for noise and performance at one-fifth scale in a static facility and at one-tenth scale in a large acoustically-treated wind tunnel. The static tests covered two flap designs, conical and ejector nozzles, third-flap noise-reduction treatments, internal blowing, and flap/nozzle geometry variations. The wind tunnel variables were triple-slotted or single-slotted flaps, sweep angle, and solid or perforated third flap. The static test program showed the following noise reductions at takeoff: 1.5 PNdB due to treating the third flap; 0.5 PNdB due to blowing from the third flap; 6 PNdB at flyover and 4.5 PNdB in the critical sideline plane (30 deg elevation) due to installation of the ejector nozzle. The wind tunnel program showed a reduction of 2 PNdB in the sideline plane due to a forward speed of 43.8 m/s (85 kn). The best combination of noise reduction concepts reduced the sideline noise of the reference aircraft at constant field length by 4 PNdB.

  8. Local surface plasmon mediated extraordinary optical transmission of multi-spatial-mode quantum noise reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrie, Benjamin J; Evans, Philip G; Pooser, Raphael C

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the coherent transduction of quantum noise reduction, or squeezed light, by Ag localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Squeezed light, generated through four-wave-mixing in Rb vapor, is coupled to a Ag nanohole array designed to exhibit LSP mediated extraordinary-optical transmission (EOT) spectrally coincident with the squeezed light source at 795 nm. We demonstrate that quantum noise reduction as a function of transmission is found to match closely with linear attenuation models, thus demonstrating that the photon-LSP-photon transduction process is coherent near the LSP resonance.

  9. Evaluation of noise reduction systems for cochlear implant users in different acoustic environment.

    PubMed

    Hamacher, V; Doering, W H; Mauer, G; Fleischmann, H; Hennecke, J

    1997-11-01

    Evaluation of two different noise reduction algorithms for speech intelligibility enhancement in cochlear implant (CI) users is described in this report. The algorithms accomplish sophisticated interchannel processing of the noisy speech signals, picked up with two microphones, to form an improved monaural output signal, which is directly fed into the auxiliary input of the CI speech processor. Speech intelligibility tests were carried out in different realistic everyday life listening conditions to provide general and expressive performance assessment. Extensive tests in four CI users showed considerable speech intelligibility improvement using these noise reduction systems in adverse everyday life listening conditions. PMID:9391593

  10. Interior Noise Reduction by Adaptive Feedback Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the possible use of adaptive digital filtering techniques in simultaneous, multiple-mode identification of the modal parameters of a vibrating structure in real-time. It is intended that the results obtained from this project will be used for state estimation needed in adaptive structural acoustics control. The work done in this project is basically an extension of the work on real-time single mode identification, which was performed successfully using a digital signal processor (DSP) at NASA, Langley. Initially, in this investigation the single mode identification work was duplicated on a different processor, namely the Texas Instruments TMS32OC40 DSP. The system identification results for the single mode case were very good. Then an algorithm for simultaneous two mode identification was developed and tested using analytical simulation. When it successfully performed the expected tasks, it was implemented in real-time on the DSP system to identify the first two modes of vibration of a cantilever aluminum beam. The results of the simultaneous two mode case were good but some problems were identified related to frequency warping and spurious mode identification. The frequency warping problem was found to be due to the bilinear transformation used in the algorithm to convert the system transfer function from the continuous-time domain to the discrete-time domain. An alternative approach was developed to rectify the problem. The spurious mode identification problem was found to be associated with high sampling rates. Noise in the signal is suspected to be the cause of this problem but further investigation will be needed to clarify the cause. For simultaneous identification of more than two modes, it was found that theoretically an adaptive digital filter can be designed to identify the required number of modes, but the algebra became very complex which made it impossible to implement in the DSP system used in this study

  11. Noise Reduction with Lobed Mixers: Nozzle-Length and Free-Jet Speed Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James C.; Boyd, Kathy C.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic test results are presented for 1/4th-scaled nozzles with internal lobed mixers used for reduction of subsonic jet noise of turbofan engines with bypass ratio above 5 and jet speeds up to 830 ft/s. One coaxial and three forced lobe mixers were tested with variations in lobe penetration, cut-outs in lobe-sidewall, lobe number and nozzle-length. Measured exit flow profiles and thrusts are used to assist the inferences from acoustic data. It is observed that lobed mixers reduce the low-frequency noise due to more uniformly mixed exit flow; but they may also increase the high-frequency noise at peak perceived noise (PNL) angle and angles upstream of it due to enhanced mixing inside the nozzle. Cut-outs and low lobe penetration reduce the annoying portion of the spectrum but lead to less uniform exit flow. Due to the dominance of internal duct noise in unscalloped, high-penetration mixers their noise is not reduced as much with increase in free-jet speed as that of coaxial or cut-out lobed mixers. The latter two mixers also show no change in PNL over the wide range of nozzle-lengths tested because most of their noise sources are outside the nozzle; whereas, the former show an increase in noise with decrease in nozzle-length.

  12. Optimum Noise Reduction Methods for the Interior of Vehicles and Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavossi, Ph. D., Hasson M.

    The most effective methods of noise reduction in vehicles and Aircraft cabins are investigated. The first goal is to determine the optimal means of noise mitigation without change in external shape of the vehicle, or aircraft cabin exterior such as jet engine or fuselage design, with no significant added weight. The second goal is to arrive at interior designs that can be retrofitted to the existing interiors, to reduce overall noise level for the passengers. The physical phenomena considered are; relaxation oscillations, forced vibrations with non-linear damping and sub-harmonic resonances. The negative and positive damping coefficients and active noise cancelations methods are discussed. From noise power-spectrum for a prototype experimental setup, the most energetic vibration modes are determined, that require the highest damping. The proposed technique will utilize the arrangement of uniformly distributed open Helmholtz resonators, with sound absorbing surface. They are tuned to the frequencies that correspond to the most energetic noise levels. The resonators dissipate noise energy inside the vehicle, or aircraft cabin, at the peak frequencies of the noise spectrum, determined for different vehicle or aircraft cabin, interior design models.

  13. Optimization and Modeling of Noise Reduction for Turbulent Jets with Induced Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostamimonjezi, Sara

    This project relates to the development of next-generation high-speed aircraft that are efficient and environmentally compliant. The emphasis of the research is on reducing noise from high-performance engines that will power these aircraft. A strong component of engine noise is jet mixing noise that comes from the turbulent mixing process between the high-speed exhaust flow of the engine and the atmosphere. The fan flow deflection method (FFD) suppresses jet noise by deflecting the fan stream downward, by a few degrees, with respect to the core stream. This reduces the convective Mach number of the primary shear layer and turbulent kinetic energy in the downward direction and therefore reduces the noise emitted towards the ground. The redistribution of the fan stream is achieved with inserting airfoil-shaped vanes inside the fan duct. Aerodynamic optimization of FFD has been done by Dr. Juntao Xiong using a computational fluid dynamics code to maximize reduction of noise perceived by the community while minimizing aerodynamic losses. The optimal vane airfoils are used in a parametric experimental study of 50 4-vane deflector configurations. The vane chord length, angle of attack, and azimuthal location are the parameters studied in acoustic optimization. The best vane configuration yields a reduction in cumulative (downward + sideline) effective perceived noise level (EPNL) of 5.3 dB. The optimization study underscores the sensitivity of FFD to deflector parameters and the need for careful design in the practical implementation of this noise reduction approach. An analytical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) and acoustic analogy is developed to predict the spectral changes from a known baseline in the direction of peak emission. A generalized form for space-time correlation is introduced that allows shapes beyond the traditional exponential forms. Azimuthal directivity based on the wavepacket model of jet noise is integrated with the acoustic

  14. Statistical CT noise reduction with multiscale decomposition and penalized weighted least squares in the projection domain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Shaojie; Tang Xiangyang

    2012-09-15

    Purposes: The suppression of noise in x-ray computed tomography (CT) imaging is of clinical relevance for diagnostic image quality and the potential for radiation dose saving. Toward this purpose, statistical noise reduction methods in either the image or projection domain have been proposed, which employ a multiscale decomposition to enhance the performance of noise suppression while maintaining image sharpness. Recognizing the advantages of noise suppression in the projection domain, the authors propose a projection domain multiscale penalized weighted least squares (PWLS) method, in which the angular sampling rate is explicitly taken into consideration to account for the possible variation of interview sampling rate in advanced clinical or preclinical applications. Methods: The projection domain multiscale PWLS method is derived by converting an isotropic diffusion partial differential equation in the image domain into the projection domain, wherein a multiscale decomposition is carried out. With adoption of the Markov random field or soft thresholding objective function, the projection domain multiscale PWLS method deals with noise at each scale. To compensate for the degradation in image sharpness caused by the projection domain multiscale PWLS method, an edge enhancement is carried out following the noise reduction. The performance of the proposed method is experimentally evaluated and verified using the projection data simulated by computer and acquired by a CT scanner. Results: The preliminary results show that the proposed projection domain multiscale PWLS method outperforms the projection domain single-scale PWLS method and the image domain multiscale anisotropic diffusion method in noise reduction. In addition, the proposed method can preserve image sharpness very well while the occurrence of 'salt-and-pepper' noise and mosaic artifacts can be avoided. Conclusions: Since the interview sampling rate is taken into account in the projection domain

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis on noise reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. J.; Y Cao, T.; Su, J.; Qin, G. L.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, analysis on noise source and reduction in a multi-blade centrifugal fan used for air-conditioners was carried out by experimental and numerical methods. Firstly, an experimental system using microphone mounted on volute surface for measuring surface pressure fluctuations of volute was designed and introduced, then surface pressure fluctuations of the whole volute for a multi-blade centrifugal fan were measured by this system, and the inlet noise for this fan was also obtained. And then, based on the experimental results, the aerodynamic noise source of the studied fan was analysed. The surface pressure fluctuations of the volute showed that there were largest surface pressure fluctuations near the volute tongue, and peaks appeared at the Blade Passing Frequency (BPF). The spectra of fan inlet noise showed that the peaks also appeared at BPF, and noise levels in a wide range of frequency were also larger. Secondly, the internal flow of the fan was simulated by commercial software under the same conditions with the experiment, and then the fluid flow and acoustic power field were obtained and discussed. The contours of acoustic power level showed that the larger noise was generated at the impeller area close to the outlet of scroll and at the volute tongue, which is same as that from experiment. Based on all of the results, we can find that the vortex noise is an important part of fan noise for the studied fan, and the rotation noise also cannot be neglected. Finally, several reduction methods that are thought to be effective based on experimental and numerical results were suggested.

  16. Assessing the Role of Effort Reduction in the Reinforcing Efficacy of Timeout from Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuska, Chad M.; Mikorski, Jeff; Perone, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Rats responded on concurrent schedules of shock-postponement or deletion (avoidance) and timeout from avoidance. In Experiment 1, 3 rats' responses on one lever postponed shocks for 20 s and responses on a second lever produced a 1-min timeout according to a variable-interval 45-s schedule. Across conditions, a warning signal (white noise) was…

  17. Effects of digital noise reduction on speech perception for children with hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Stelmachowicz, Patricia; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Nishi, Kanae; McCreery, Ryan; Woods, William

    2010-01-01

    Objective While numerous studies have investigated the effects of single-microphone digital noise reduction algorithms for adults with hearing loss, similar studies have not been conducted with young hearing-impaired children. The goal of this study was to examine the effects of a commonly-used digital noise reduction scheme (spectral subtraction) in children with mild-moderately severe sensorineural hearing losses. It was hypothesized that the process of spectral subtraction may alter or degrade speech signals in some way. Such degradation may have little influence on the perception of speech by hearing-impaired adults who are likely to use contextual information under such circumstances. For young children who are still developing various language skills, however, signal degradation may have a more detrimental effect on the perception of speech. Design Sixteen children (eight 5–7 year olds and eight 8–10 year olds) with mild-moderately severe hearing loss participated in this study. All participants wore binaural behind-the-ear hearing aids where noise reduction processing was performed independently in 16 bands with center frequencies spaced 500 Hz apart up to 7500 Hz. Test stimuli were nonsense syllables, words, and sentences in a background of noise. For all stimuli, data were obtained with noise reduction on and off. Results In general, performance improved as a function of SNR for all three speech materials. The main effect for stimulus type was significant and post hoc comparisons of stimulus type indicated that speech recognition was higher for sentences than for both nonsense syllables and words, but no significant differences were observed between nonsense syllables and words. The main effect for noise reduction and the two-way interaction between noise reduction and stimulus type were not significant. Significant age group effects were observed, but the two-way interaction between NR and age group was not significant. Conclusions Consistent with

  18. A theoretical investigation of noise reduction through the cylindrical fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, R. B.; Mixson, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    Interior noise in the fuselage of a twin-engine, propeller-driven aircraft with two propellers rotating in opposite directions is studied analytically. The fuselage was modeled as a stiffened cylindrical shell with simply supported ends, and the effects of stringers and frames were averaged over the shell surface. An approximate mathematical model of the propeller noise excitation was formulated which includes some of the propeller noise characteristics such as sweeping pressure waves around the sidewalls due to propeller rotation and the localized nature of the excitation with the highest levels near the propeller plane. Results are presented in the form of noise reduction, which is the difference between the levels of external and interior noise. The influence of propeller noise characteristics on the noise reduction was studied. The results indicate that the sweep velocity of the excitation around the fuselage sidewalls is critical to noise reduction.

  19. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise using higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1989-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  20. Reduction of blade-vortex interaction noise through higher harmonic pitch control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Thomas F.; Booth, Earl R., Jr.; Jolly, J. Ralph, Jr.; Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.

    1990-01-01

    An acoustics test using an aeroelastically scaled rotor was conducted to examine the effectiveness of higher harmonic blade pitch control for the reduction of impulsive blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise. A four-bladed, 110 in. diameter, articulated rotor model was tested in a heavy gas (Freon-12) medium in Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Noise and vibration measurements were made for a range of matched flight conditions, where prescribed (open-loop) higher harmonic pitch was superimposed on the normal (baseline) collective and cyclic trim pitch. For the inflow-microphone noise measurements, advantage was taken of the reverberance in the hard walled tunnel by using a sound power determination approach. Initial findings from on-line data processing for three of the test microphones are reported for a 4/rev (4P) collective pitch control for a range of input amplitudes and phases. By comparing these results to corresponding baseline (no control) conditions, significant noise reductions (4 to 5 dB) were found for low-speed descent conditions, where helicopter BVI noise is most intense. For other rotor flight conditions, the overall noise was found to increase. All cases show increased vibration levels.

  1. Shock associated noise reduction from inverted-velocity-profile coannular jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanna, H. K.; Tam, C. K. W.; Brown, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    Acoustic measurements show that the shock noise from the outer stream is virtually eliminated when the inner stream is operated at a Mach number just above unity, regardless of all the other jet operating conditions. At this optimum condition, the coannular jet provides the maximum noise reduction relative to the equivalent single jet. The shock noise reduction can be achieved at inverted-as well as normal-velocity-profile conditions, provided the coannular jet is operated with the inner stream just slightly supersonic. Analytical models for the shock structure and shock noise are developed indicate that a drastic change in the outer stream shock cell structure occurs when the inner stream increases its velocity from subsonic to supersonic. At this point, the almost periodic shock cell structure of the outer stream nearly completely disappears the noise radiated is minimum. Theoretically derive formulae for the peak frequencies and intensity scaling of shock associated noise are compared with the measured results, and good agreement is found for both subsonic and supersonic inner jet flows.

  2. An optimal linear filter for the reduction of noise superimposed to the EEG signal.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, F; Cerutti, S

    1983-10-01

    In the present paper a procedure for the reduction of super-imposed noise on EEG tracings is described, which makes use of linear digital filtering and identification methods. In particular, an optimal filter (a Kalman filter) has been developed which is intended to capture the disturbances of the electromyographic noise on the basis of an a priori modelling which considers a series of impulses with a temporal occurrence according to a Poisson distribution as a noise generating mechanism. The experimental results refer to the EEG tracings recorded from 20 patients in normal resting conditions: the procedure consists of a preprocessing phase (which uses also a low-pass FIR digital filter), followed by the implementation of the identification and the Kalman filter. The performance of the filters is satisfactory also from the clinical standpoint, obtaining a marked reduction of noise without distorting the useful information contained in the signal. Furthermore, when using the introduced method, the EEG signal generating mechanism is accordingly parametrized as AR/ARMA models, thus obtaining an extremely sensitive feature extraction with interesting and not yet completely studied pathophysiological meanings. The above procedure may find a general application in the field of noise reduction and the better enhancement of information contained in the wide set of biological signals. PMID:6632838

  3. Full-scale Investigation of Several Jet-engine Noise-reduction Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coles, Willard D; Callaghan, Edmund E

    1957-01-01

    A number of nozzles which use the mixing interference of adjacent jets for noise suppression were investigated. Reductions in sound power of nearly 70 percent (5 db) with thrust losses of 1 percent were achieved. A method of calculating the limiting frequency affected by this type of suppression nozzle, that is , multiple-slot nozzles, is presented. Data are shown which indicate that further large reductions in sound power are not likely with mixing-interference nozzles.

  4. Large Engine Technology (LET) Task XXXVII Low-Bypass Ratio Mixed Turbofan Engine Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, Joseph R.; Zysman, Steven H.; Barber, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center supported a three year effort to develop the technology for reducing jet noise from low-bypass ratio engines. This effort concentrated on both analytical and experimental approaches using various mixer designs. CFD and MGB predictions are compared with LDV and noise data, respectively. While former predictions matched well with data, experiment shows a need for improving the latter predictions. Data also show that mixing noise can be sensitive to engine hardware upstream of the mixing exit plane.

  5. Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götzinger, Erich; Pircher, Michael; Baumann, Bernhard; Schmoll, Tilman; Sattmann, Harald; Leitgeb, Rainer A.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2011-07-01

    We present a high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system based on polarization maintaining fibers and two high speed CMOS line scan cameras capable of retinal imaging with up to 128 k A-lines/s. This high imaging speed strongly reduces motion artifacts and therefore averaging of several B-scans is possible, which strongly reduces speckle noise and improves image quality. We present several methods for averaging retardation and optic axis orientation, the best one providing a 5 fold noise reduction. Furthermore, a novel scheme of calculating images of degree of polarization uniformity is presented. We quantitatively compare the noise reduction depending on the number of averaged frames and discuss the limits of frame numbers that can usefully be averaged.

  6. Gabor-based anisotropic diffusion for speckle noise reduction in medical ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Han, Hong; Ji, Chunhong; Yu, Jinhua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Wenping

    2014-06-01

    In ultrasound (US), optical coherence tomography, synthetic aperture radar, and other coherent imaging systems, images are corrupted by multiplicative speckle noise that obscures image interpretation. An anisotropic diffusion (AD) method based on the Gabor transform, named Gabor-based anisotropic diffusion (GAD), is presented to suppress speckle in medical ultrasonography. First, an edge detector using the Gabor transform is proposed to capture directionality of tissue edges and discriminate edges from noise. Then the edge detector is embedded into the partial differential equation of AD to guide the diffusion process and iteratively denoise images. To enhance GAD's adaptability, parameters controlling diffusion are determined from a fully formed speckle region that is automatically detected. We evaluate the GAD on synthetic US images simulated with three models and clinical images acquired in vivo. Compared with seven existing speckle reduction methods, the GAD is superior to other methods in terms of noise reduction and detail preservation. PMID:24977366

  7. An experimental study of USB flap noise reduction through mean flow modification. [Upper Surface Blown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, M. C.; Yu, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mean flow modification on the noise production of upper surface blown flaps has been studied experimentally. Mean velocity profile at the nozzle exit was modified from the usual 'top-hat' shape to 'Gamma' and 'L'-shaped profiles. The 'L'-modification caused noise reduction around and above the peak frequency of the 'top-hat' spectrum when compared on an equal thrust per exit area basis. Modification to 'Gamma'-shaped profile resulted in a shift of the spectrum to lower frequencies and a lower overall noise reduction. These modifications alter the development of the large scale disturbances in the upper shear layer and trailing edge wake of the wall jet geometry.

  8. Reduction of high-speed impulsive noise by blade planform modification of a model helicopter rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. A.; Hoad, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The reduction of high speed impulsive noise for the UH-1H helicopter was investigated by using an advanced main rotor system. The advanced rotor system had a tapered blade planform compared with the rectangular planform of the standard rotor system. Models of both the advanced main rotor system and the UH-1H standard main rotor system were tested at 1/4 scale in the 4 by 7 Meter Tunnel. In plane acoustic measurements of the high speed impulsive noise demonstrated that the advanced rotor system on the UH-1H helicopter reduced the high speed impulsive noise by up to 20 dB, with a reduction in overall sound pressure level of up to 5 dB.

  9. Reduction of gradient acoustic noise in MRI using SENSE-EPI.

    PubMed

    de Zwart, Jacco A; van Gelderen, Peter; Kellman, Peter; Duyn, Jeff H

    2002-08-01

    A new approach to reduce gradient acoustic noise levels in EPI experiments is presented. Using multichannel RF receive coils, combined with SENSE data acquisition and reconstruction, gradient slew-rates in single-shot EPI were reduced fourfold for rate-2 and ninefold for rate-3 SENSE. Multislice EPI experiments were performed on three different scanner platforms. With 3.4 mm in-plane resolution, measuring 6 slices per second (12 slices with 2000 ms TR), this resulted in average sound pressure level reductions of 11.3 dB(A) and 16.5 dB(A) for rate-2 and rate-3 SENSE, respectively. BOLD fMRI experiments, using visually paced finger-tapping paradigms, showed no detrimental effect of the acoustic noise reduction strategy on temporal noise levels and t scores. PMID:12202101

  10. Reduction of 1/f noise in graphene after electron-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahid Hossain, Md.; Rumyantsev, Sergey; Shur, Michael S.; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2013-04-01

    We investigated experimentally the effect of the electron-beam irradiation on the level of the low-frequency 1/f noise in graphene devices. It was found that 1/f noise in graphene reduces with increasing concentration of defects induced by irradiation. The increased amount of structural disorder in graphene under irradiation was verified with micro-Raman spectroscopy. The bombardment of graphene devices with 20-keV electrons reduced the noise spectral density, SI/I2 (I is the source-drain current) by an order-of magnitude at the radiation dose of 104 μC/cm2. We analyzed the observed noise reduction in the limiting cases of the mobility and carrier number fluctuation mechanisms. The obtained results are important for the proposed graphene applications in analog, mixed-signal, and radio-frequency systems, integrated circuits and sensors.

  11. Experimental study on noise reduction effect of a muffler inserted in liquid transporting pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, T.; Xu, W. W.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2013-12-01

    In order to reduce the noise of liquid transporting pipelines caused by the motion of the power unit, a kind of compact hydrodynamic muffler used in pipes with small diameters is proposed which achieves good vibration damping as well as hydrodynamic noise reduction. Based on the rubber damper tube, according to the structure characteristics, the muffler is composed of two main parts, the rubber damper tube and the inner noise reducing structure. Experiment on insertion loss of the muffler in stationary state is conducted. It is found that the rubber damper tube itself has a good performance at noise reducing at the frequency band considered here, total insertion loss values can reach 10 dB and the inner structures improve the performance of the muffler at low frequency band.

  12. Noise Reduction Potential of Large, Over-the-Wing Mounted, Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Indeed, the noise goal for NASA's Aeronautics Enterprise calls for technologies that will help to provide a 20 EPNdB reduction relative to today's levels by the year 2022. Further, the large fan diameters of modem, increasingly higher bypass ratio engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large, ultra high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this over-the-wing design is believed to offer noise shielding benefits to observers on the ground. This paper describes the analytical certification noise predictions of a notional, long haul, commercial quadjet transport with advanced, high bypass engines mounted above the wing.

  13. Children's Performance in Complex Listening Conditions: Effects of Hearing Loss and Digital Noise Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of hearing loss (HL) on children's performance for an auditory task under demanding listening conditions and to determine the effect of digital noise reduction (DNR) on that performance. Method: Fifty children with normal hearing (NH) and 30 children with HL (8-12 years of age) categorized words in the presence of…

  14. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques from 2 MHz to 200 MHz -- Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K., III; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the second part of a two-paper series. The first paper discussed cable types and shield connections. In this second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz.

  15. Optimal Flight for Ground Noise Reduction in Helicopter’s Landing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirokazu; Uchida, Junichi; Gomi, Hiromi; Matayoshi, Naoki; Okuno, Yoshinori

    This study aims to obtain the optimal flights of a helicopter that reduce ground noise in its landing approach with an optimization technique and to conduct flight tests for confirming the effectiveness of the optimal solutions. Past experiments of JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) shows the noise of the helicopter varies significantly according to its flight conditions, especially depending on the flight path angle. We therefore build a simple noise model of the helicopter, in which the level of the noise generated from a point sound source is a function only of the flight path angle. By using equations of motion for flight in a vertical plane, we define optimal control problems for minimizing noise levels measured at points on the ground surface, and obtain optimal controls for specified initial altitudes, flight constraints, and wind conditions. The obtained optimal flights avoid the flight path angle which generates the large noise and decrease the flight time, which are different from the conventional flight. Finally, we verify the validity of the optimal flight patterns by the flight experiments. The actual flights following the optimal ones also result in the noise reduction, which shows the effectiveness of the optimization.

  16. Optimal Flight for Ground Noise Reduction in Helicopter Landing Approach: Optimal Altitude and Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Takeshi; Ishii, Hirokazu; Uchida, Junichi; Gomi, Hiromi; Matayoshi, Naoki; Okuno, Yoshinori

    This study aims to obtain the optimal flights of a helicopter that reduce ground noise during landing approach with an optimization technique, and to conduct flight tests for confirming the effectiveness of the optimal solutions. Past experiments of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) show that the noise of a helicopter varies significantly according to its flight conditions, especially depending on the flight path angle. We therefore build a simple noise model for a helicopter, in which the level of the noise generated from a point sound source is a function only of the flight path angle. Using equations of motion for flight in a vertical plane, we define optimal control problems for minimizing noise levels measured at points on the ground surface, and obtain optimal controls for specified initial altitudes, flight constraints, and wind conditions. The obtained optimal flights avoid the flight path angle which generates large noise and decrease the flight time, which are different from conventional flight. Finally, we verify the validity of the optimal flight patterns through flight experiments. The actual flights following the optimal paths resulted in noise reduction, which shows the effectiveness of the optimization.

  17. Evaluation of a Transient Noise Reduction Algorithm in Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Hehrmann, Phillipp; Hamacher, Volkmar; Nogueira, Waldo; Lenarz, Thomas; Büchner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Dealing with environmental noises presents a major issue for cochlear implant (CI) users. Hence, digital noise reduction (DNR) schemes have become important features of CI systems. Many noises like for example clinking glasses or slamming doors, have impulsive onsets and decay quickly. Common DNR algorithms cannot handle this type of noise in an appropriate way. In this study, we investigated the effect of an algorithm specially designed for such noises with 12 CI users (age range: 45 to 75 years). Speech scores in noise and quiet as well as subjective ratings of speech clarity, comfort and overall preference were measured. The main finding was a significant improvement of up to 1.7 dB of the speech reception threshold in noise as well as increased speech clarity. Speech in quiet was not negatively affected by the algorithm. The study revealed that the tested algorithm has the potential to improve CI listening. However, further research is needed regarding the effectiveness and suitability of the algorithm in daily use. PMID:26779325

  18. Speckle noise reduction of medical ultrasound images in complex wavelet domain using mixture priors.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Hossein; Vafadust, Mansur; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Gazor, Saeed

    2008-09-01

    Speckle noise is an inherent nature of ultrasound images, which may have negative effect on image interpretation and diagnostic tasks. In this paper, we propose several multiscale nonlinear thresholding methods for ultrasound speckle suppression. The wavelet coefficients of the logarithm of image are modeled as the sum of a noise-free component plus an independent noise. Assuming that the noise-free component has some local mixture distribution (MD), and the noise is either Gaussian or Rayleigh, we derive the minimum mean squared error (MMSE) and the averaged maximum a posteriori (AMAP) estimators for noise reduction. We use Gaussian and Laplacian MD for each noise-free wavelet coefficient to characterize their heavy-tailed property. Since we estimate the parameters of the MD using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm and local neighbors, the proposed MD incorporates some information about the intrascale dependency of the wavelet coefficients. To evaluate our spatially adaptive despeckling methods, we use both real medical ultrasound and synthetically introduced speckle images for speckle suppression. The simulation results show that our method outperforms several recently and the state-of-the-art techniques qualitatively and quantitatively. PMID:18713684

  19. Impacts of Daily Bag Limit Reductions on Angler Effort in Wisconsin Walleye Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beard, T.D., Jr.; Cox, S.P.; Carpenter, S.R.

    2003-01-01

    Angler effort is an important factor affecting recreational fisheries. However, angler responses are rarely incorporated into recreational fisheries regulations or predictions. Few have attempted to examine how daily bag limit regulations affect total angling pressure and subsequent stock densities. Our paper develops a theoretical basis for predicting angler effort and harvest rate based on stock densities and bag limit regulations. We examined data from a management system that controls the total exploitation of walleyes Sander vitreus (formerly Stizostedion vitreum) in northern Wisconsin lakes and compared these empirical results with the predictions from a theoretical effort and harvest rate response model. The data indicated that higher general angler effort occurs on lakes regulated with a 5-walleye daily limit than on lakes regulated with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. General walleye catch rates were lower on lakes with a 5-walleye limit than on lakes with either a 2- or 3-walleye daily limit. An effort response model predicted a logarithmic relationship between angler effort and adult walleye density and that an index of attractiveness would be greater on lakes with high bag limits. Predictions from the harvest rate model with constant walleye catchability indicated that harvest rates increased nonlinearly with increasing density. When the effort model was fitted to data from northern Wisconsin, we found higher lake attractiveness at 5-walleye-limit lakes. We conclude that different groups of anglers respond differently to bag limit changes and that reliance on daily bag limits may not be sufficient to maintain high walleye densities in some lakes in this region.

  20. Perceived social loafing and anticipated effort reduction among young football (soccer) players: an achievement goal perspective.

    PubMed

    Høigaard, Rune; Ommundsen, Yngvar

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motivational climates, personal achievement goals, and three different aspects of social loafing in football (soccer). 170 male competitive football players completed questionnaires assessing perceived motivational climate, achievement goal, and measures of perceived social loafing (anticipation of lower effort amongst their teammates and themselves). The results indicated a marginal but significant positive relationship between an ego-oriented achievement goal and perceived social loafing. In addition, a mastery climate was negatively associated with perceived social loafing and anticipation of lower effort of team members, particularly for athletes who also strongly endorsed a task-oriented achievement goal. A performance climate, in contrast, related positively with these two aspects of social loafing. A mastery climate also related negatively to the third aspect of social loafing, i.e., players' readiness to reduce their own effort in response to their perception of social loafing among their teammates. PMID:17688105

  1. TH-A-18C-03: Noise Correlation in CBCT Projection Data and Its Application for Noise Reduction in Low-Dose CBCT

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, H; Huang, J; Ma, J; Chen, W; Ouyang, L; Wang, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the noise correlation properties of cone-beam CT (CBCT) projection data and to incorporate the noise correlation information to a statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for noise reduction in low-dose CBCT. Methods: In this study, we systematically investigated the noise correlation properties among detector bins of CBCT projection data by analyzing repeated projection measurements. The measurements were performed on a TrueBeam on-board CBCT imaging system with a 4030CB flat panel detector. An anthropomorphic male pelvis phantom was used to acquire 500 repeated projection data at six different dose levels from 0.1 mAs to 1.6 mAs per projection at three fixed angles. To minimize the influence of the lag effect, lag correction was performed on the consecutively acquired projection data. The noise correlation coefficient between detector bin pairs was calculated from the corrected projection data. The noise correlation among CBCT projection data was then incorporated into the covariance matrix of the penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) criterion for noise reduction of low-dose CBCT. Results: The analyses of the repeated measurements show that noise correlation coefficients are non-zero between the nearest neighboring bins of CBCT projection data. The average noise correlation coefficients for the first- and second- order neighbors are about 0.20 and 0.06, respectively. The noise correlation coefficients are independent of the dose level. Reconstruction of the pelvis phantom shows that the PWLS criterion with consideration of noise correlation (PWLS-Cor) results in a lower noise level as compared to the PWLS criterion without considering the noise correlation (PWLS-Dia) at the matched resolution. Conclusion: Noise is correlated among nearest neighboring detector bins of CBCT projection data. An accurate noise model of CBCT projection data can improve the performance of the statistics-based projection restoration algorithm for low

  2. Noise reduction and image enhancement using a hardware implementation of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Robert; Williams, Erin; de Tremiolles, Ghislain; Tannhof, Pascal

    1999-03-01

    In this paper, we present a neural based solution developed for noise reduction and image enhancement using the ZISC, an IBM hardware processor which implements the Restricted Coulomb Energy algorithm and the K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm. Artificial neural networks present the advantages of processing time reduction in comparison with classical models, adaptability, and the weighted property of pattern learning. The goal of the developed application is image enhancement in order to restore old movies (noise reduction, focus correction, etc.), to improve digital television images, or to treat images which require adaptive processing (medical images, spatial images, special effects, etc.). Image results show a quantitative improvement over the noisy image as well as the efficiency of this system. Further enhancements are being examined to improve the output of the system.

  3. LES-based evaluation of a microjet noise reduction concept in static and flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shur, Mikhail L.; Spalart, Philippe R.; Strelets, Mikhail Kh.

    2011-08-01

    The Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) numerical system established since 2002 for jet-noise computation is first evaluated in terms of recent gains in accuracy with increased computer resources, and is then used to explore the relatively new "microjet" noise-reduction concept (injection of high-pressure microjets in the vicinity of the main jet nozzle exit), which currently attracts attention in the aeroacoustic community. The simulations, which are carried out with an emulation of the microjets by specially designed distributed sources of mass, momentum, and energy in the governing equations, are found to capture the essential features of the flow/turbulence and the far-field noise alteration by the microjets observed in experiments, and to reveal the subtle flow features responsible for the effect of injection on noise. They also confirm the experimental observation that in static conditions microjets provide a noise reduction comparable with that from chevrons in the low-frequency range, and probably have a less pronounced high-frequency penalty. This positive evaluation of the microjets concept is, however, mitigated by the far less favorable results of simulations in flight conditions, which were never studied experimentally. The latter results, which are awaiting an experimental verification, make a practical use of the concept in its current form rather unlikely.

  4. Direct-to-digital holography reduction of reference hologram noise and fourier space smearing

    DOEpatents

    Voelkl, Edgar

    2006-06-27

    Systems and methods are described for reduction of reference hologram noise and reduction of Fourier space smearing, especially in the context of direct-to-digital holography (off-axis interferometry). A method of reducing reference hologram noise includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference image waves; and transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference image wave. A method of reducing smearing in Fourier space includes: recording a plurality of reference holograms; processing the plurality of reference holograms into a corresponding plurality of reference complex image waves; transforming the corresponding plurality of reference image waves into a reduced noise reference complex image wave; recording a hologram of an object; processing the hologram of the object into an object complex image wave; and dividing the complex image wave of the object by the reduced noise reference complex image wave to obtain a reduced smearing object complex image wave.

  5. Experimental investigation of the noise reduction of supersonic exhaust jets with fluidic inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powers, Russell William Walter

    The noise produced by the supersonic, high temperature jets that exhaust from military aircraft is becoming a hazard to naval personnel and a disturbance to communities near military bases. Methods to reduce the noise produced from these jets in a practical full-scale environment are difficult. The development and analysis of distributed nozzle blowing for the reduction of radiated noise from supersonic jets is described. Model scale experiments of jets that simulate the exhaust jets from typical low-bypass ratio military jet aircraft engines during takeoff are performed. Fluidic inserts are created that use distributed blowing in the divergent section of the nozzle to simulate mechanical, hardwall corrugations, while having the advantage of being an active control method. This research focuses on model scale experiments to better understand the fluidic insert noise reduction method. Distributed blowing within the divergent section of the military-style convergent divergent nozzle alters the shock structure of the jet in addition to creating streamwise vorticity for the reduction of mixing noise. Enhancements to the fluidic insert design have been performed along with experiments over a large number of injection parameters and core jet conditions. Primarily military-style round nozzles have been used, with preliminary measurements of hardwall corrugations and fluidic inserts in rectangular nozzle geometries also performed. It has been shown that the noise reduction of the fluidic inserts is most heavily dependent upon the momentum flux ratio between the injector and core jet. Maximum reductions of approximately 5.5 dB OASPL have been observed with practical mass flow rates and injection pressures. The first measurements with fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream have been performed. Optimal noise reduction occurs at similar injector parameters in the presence of forward flight. Fluidic inserts in the presence of a forward flight stream were

  6. Reduction of ground noise in the transmitter crowbar instrumentation system by the use of baluns and other noise rejection methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeges, J.; Bhanji, A.

    1987-01-01

    Electrical noise interference in the transmitter crowbar monitoring instrumentation system creates false sensing of crowbar faults during a crowbar firing. One predominant source of noise interference is the conduction of currents in the instrumentation cable shields. Since these circulating ground noise currents produce noise that is similar to the crowbar fault sensing signals, such noise interference reduces the ability to determine true crowbar faults.

  7. Reducing Radiation Dose in Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Using Image Noise Reduction Technology.

    PubMed

    Kastrati, Mirlind; Langenbrink, Lukas; Piatkowski, Michal; Michaelsen, Jochen; Reimann, Doris; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to quantitatively evaluate the reduction of radiation dose in coronary angiography and angioplasty with the use of image noise reduction technology in a routine clinical setting. Radiation dose data from consecutive 605 coronary procedures (397 consecutive coronary angiograms and 208 consecutive coronary interventions) performed from October 2014 to April 2015 on a coronary angiography system with noise reduction technology (Allura Clarity IQ) were collected. For comparison, radiation dose data from consecutive 695 coronary procedures (435 coronary angiograms and 260 coronary interventions) performed on a conventional coronary angiography system from October 2013 to April 2014 were evaluated. Patient radiation dosage was evaluated based on the cumulative dose area product. Operators and operator practice did not change between the 2 evaluated periods. Patient characteristics were collected to evaluate similarity of patient groups. Image quality was evaluated on a 5-grade scale in 30 patients of each group. There were no significant differences between the 2 evaluated groups in gender, age, weight, and fluoroscopy time (6.8 ± 6.1 vs 6.9 ± 6.3 minutes, not significant). The dose area product was reduced from 3195 ± 2359 to 983 ± 972 cGycm(2) (65%, p <0.001) in coronary angiograms and from 7123 ± 4551 to 2431 ± 1788 cGycm(2) (69%, p <0.001) in coronary interventions using the new noise reduction technology. Image quality was graded as similar between the evaluated systems (4.0 ± 0.7 vs 4.2 ± 0.6, not significant). In conclusion, a new x-ray technology with image noise reduction algorithm provides a substantial reduction in radiation exposure without the need to prolong the procedure or fluoroscopy time. PMID:27344273

  8. Method for inserting noise in digital mammography to simulate reduction in radiation dose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Lucas R.; de Oliveira, Helder C. R.; Nunes, Polyana F.; Vieira, Marcelo A. C.

    2015-03-01

    The quality of clinical x-ray images is closely related to the radiation dose used in the imaging study. The general principle for selecting the radiation is ALARA ("as low as reasonably achievable"). The practical optimization, however, remains challenging. It is well known that reducing the radiation dose increases the quantum noise, which could compromise the image quality. In order to conduct studies about dose reduction in mammography, it would be necessary to acquire repeated clinical images, from the same patient, with different dose levels. However, such practice would be unethical due to radiation related risks. One solution is to simulate the effects of dose reduction in clinical images. This work proposes a new method, based on the Anscombe transformation, which simulates dose reduction in digital mammography by inserting quantum noise into clinical mammograms acquired with the standard radiation dose. Thus, it is possible to simulate different levels of radiation doses without exposing the patient to new levels of radiation. Results showed that the achieved quality of simulated images generated with our method is the same as when using other methods found in the literature, with the novelty of using the Anscombe transformation for converting signal-independent Gaussian noise into signal-dependent quantum noise.

  9. Evaluation of Airframe Noise Reduction Concepts via Simulations Using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fares, Ehab; Casalino, Damiano; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady computations are presented for a high-fidelity, 18% scale, semi-span Gulfstream aircraft model in landing configuration, i.e. flap deflected at 39 degree and main landing gear deployed. The simulations employ the lattice Boltzmann solver PowerFLOW® to simultaneously capture the flow physics and acoustics in the near field. Sound propagation to the far field is obtained using a Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings acoustic analogy approach. In addition to the baseline geometry, which was presented previously, various noise reduction concepts for the flap and main landing gear are simulated. In particular, care is taken to fully resolve the complex geometrical details associated with these concepts in order to capture the resulting intricate local flow field thus enabling accurate prediction of their acoustic behavior. To determine aeroacoustic performance, the farfield noise predicted with the concepts applied is compared to high-fidelity simulations of the untreated baseline configurations. To assess the accuracy of the computed results, the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic impact of the noise reduction concepts is evaluated numerically and compared to experimental results for the same model. The trends and effectiveness of the simulated noise reduction concepts compare well with measured values and demonstrate that the computational approach is capable of capturing the primary effects of the acoustic treatment on a full aircraft model.

  10. Environmental noise reduction configuration: Effects on preferences, satisfaction, and speech understanding.

    PubMed

    Zakis, Justin A; Hau, Jutta; Blamey, Peter J

    2009-12-01

    The effects of four configurations of an environmental noise reduction (ENR) algorithm on preferences, speech understanding, and satisfaction were investigated. The gain reduction at 0 dB modulation depth was either 10 dB in all channels (ENR StrongFlat) or shaped from 2-10 dB across channels according to a speech importance function (ENR MildSII). This gain reduction was either invariant (ENR Constant) or varied with (ENR Variable) the noise level. Ten hearing-impaired participants blindly compared pairs of configurations in real-world situations and recorded their preferences. Sentence reception thresholds (SRTs) were measured in quiet and noise, and satisfaction was rated with speech in noise. Half of the participants preferred ENR MildSII and half preferred ENR StrongFlat. All preferred ENR Variable to ENR Constant. Overall, the preferred ENR configuration was preferred to ENR off in 90% of responses. No statistically significant effect on SRTs was found, but a clinically significant effect of up to 2 dB could not be ruled out from the available data. ENR significantly improved satisfaction for listening comfort, ease of speech understanding, and sound quality. PMID:20017682

  11. Development of a SMA-Based, Slat-Gap Filler for Airframe Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L.; Long, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Noise produced by unsteady flow around aircraft structures, termed airframe noise, is an important source of aircraft noise during the approach and landing phases of flight. Conventional leading-edge-slat devices for high lift on typical transport aircraft are a prominent source of airframe noise. Many concepts for slat noise reduction have been investigated. Slat-cove fillers have emerged as an attractive solution, but they maintain the gap flow, leaving some noise production mechanisms unabated, and thus represent a nonoptimal solution. Drooped-leading-edge (DLE) concepts have been proposed as "optimal" because the gap flow is eliminated. The deployed leading edge device is not distinct and separate from the main wing in DLE concepts and the high-lift performance suffers at high angles of attack (alpha) as a consequence. Elusive high-alpha performance and excessive weight penalty have stymied DLE development. The fact that high-lift performance of DLE systems is only affected at high alpha suggests another concept that simultaneously achieves the high-lift of the baseline airfoil and the noise reduction of DLE concepts. The concept involves utilizing a conventional leading-edge slat device and a deformable structure that is deployed from the leading edge of the main wing and closes the gap between the slat and main wing, termed a slat-gap filler (SGF). The deployable structure consists of a portion of the skin of the main wing and it is driven in conjunction with the slat during deployment and retraction. Benchtop models have been developed to assess the feasibility and to study important parameters. Computational models have assisted in the bench-top model design and provided valuable insight in the parameter space as well as the feasibility.

  12. Acoustic noise reduction. January 1970-November 1988 (Citations from the US Patent data base). Report for January 1970-November 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    This bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, devices, and materials for acoustic-noise reduction. Included are noise-reduction techniques for engines, turbines, machinery, motor vehicles, pumps, aircraft cabins, and compressors. (Contains 189 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  13. Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors.

  14. Improvements to local projective noise reduction through higher order and multiscale refinements.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jack Murdoch; Small, Michael; Karrech, Ali

    2015-06-01

    The broad spectrum characteristic of signals from nonlinear systems obstructs noise reduction techniques developed for linear systems. Local projection was developed to reduce noise while preserving nonlinear deterministic structures, and a second order refinement to local projection which was proposed ten years ago does so particularly effectively. It involves adjusting the origin of the projection subspace to better accommodate the geometry of the attractor. This paper describes an analytic motivation for the enhancement from which follows further higher order and multiple scale refinements. However, the established enhancement is frequently as or more effective than the new filters arising from solely geometric considerations. Investigation of the way that measurement errors reinforce or cancel throughout the refined local projection procedure explains the special efficacy of the existing enhancement, and leads to a new second order refinement offering widespread gains. Different local projective filters are found to be best suited to different noise levels. At low noise levels, the optimal order increases as noise increases. At intermediate levels second order tends to be optimal, while at high noise levels prototypical local projection is most effective. The new higher order filters perform better relative to established filters for longer signals or signals corresponding to higher dimensional attractors. PMID:26117108

  15. Noise-Reduction Benefits Analyzed for Over-the-Wing-Mounted Advanced Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    As we look to the future, increasingly stringent civilian aviation noise regulations will require the design and manufacture of extremely quiet commercial aircraft. Also, the large fan diameters of modern engines with increasingly higher bypass ratios pose significant packaging and aircraft installation challenges. One design approach that addresses both of these challenges is to mount the engines above the wing. In addition to allowing the performance trend towards large diameters and high bypass ratio cycles to continue, this approach allows the wing to shield much of the engine noise from people on the ground. The Propulsion Systems Analysis Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field conducted independent analytical research to estimate the noise reduction potential of mounting advanced turbofan engines above the wing. Certification noise predictions were made for a notional long-haul commercial quadjet transport. A large quad was chosen because, even under current regulations, such aircraft sometimes experience difficulty in complying with certification noise requirements with a substantial margin. Also, because of its long wing chords, a large airplane would receive the greatest advantage of any noise-shielding benefit.

  16. Engine isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine vibration isolation for structural-borne interior noise reduction is investigated. A laboratory based test procedure to simulate engine induced structure-borne noise transmission, the testing of a range of candidate isolators for relative performance data, and the development of an analytical model of the transmission phenomena for isolator design evaluation are addressed. The isolator relative performance test data show that the elastomeric isolators do not appear to operate as single degree of freedom systems with respect to noise isolation. Noise isolation beyond 150 Hz levels off and begins to decrease somewhat above 600 Hz. Coupled analytical and empirical models were used to study the structure-borne noise transmission phenomena. Correlation of predicted results with measured data show that (1) the modeling procedures are reasonably accurate for isolator design evaluation, (2) the frequency dependent properties of the isolators must be included in the model if reasonably accurate noise prediction beyond 150 Hz is desired. The experimental and analytical studies were carried out in the frequency range from 10 Hz to 1000 Hz.

  17. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  18. Tiltrotor noise reduction through flight trajectory management and aircraft configuration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Marc

    approaches that take into account the first-order effects of deceleration on the acoustics were systematically designed and compared to a baseline approach profile. The low-noise approaches yielded substantial noise reduction benefits on a hemisphere surrounding the aircraft and on a ground plane below the aircraft's trajectory.

  19. A mass reduction effort of the electric and hybrid vehicle. [composite door panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, R. B.; Jahnle, H. A.

    1980-01-01

    Weight reduction, cost competitiveness, and elimination of the intrusion beam resulted from the redesign and fabrication using composite materials of the door outer panel and intrusion beam from a Chevrolet Impala. The basis of the redesign involved replacing these two steel parts with a single compression molding using the unique approach of simultaneously curing a sheet molding compound outside panel with a continuous glass fiber intrusion strap. A weight reduction of nearly 11 pounds per door was achieved. Additional weight savings are possible by taking advantage of the elimination of the intrusion beam to design thinner door structures. The parts consolidation approach allows the composite structure to be cost competitive with the original steel design for both the lower production car models and for the near to midterm production vehicles using current state of the art composite production techniques. The design, prototype fabrication, costing, material, properties and compression molding production requirements are discussed.

  20. Multifunctional Low Pressure Turbine for Core Noise Reduction, Improved Efficiency, and NOx Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Chris; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David; Acosta, Waldo

    2013-01-01

    Determining the feasibility of the induced synthetic jet is key, and is still TBD. center dot Available LPT vane volume is sufficient for tens of resonators per span-wise hole spacing, so physically feasible. center dot Determination of acoustic attenuation requires accurate model of vane, resonator locations, flow field and incident waves. (TBD) center dot Determination of NOx reduction is also TBD.

  1. Finite element analysis using NASTRAN applied to helicopter transmission vibration/noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howells, R. W.; Sciarra, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element NASTRAN model of the complete forward rotor transmission housing for the Boeing Vertol CH-47 helicopter was developed and applied to reduce transmission vibration/noise at its source. In addition to a description of the model, a technique for vibration/noise prediction and reduction is outlined. Also included are the dynamic response as predicted by NASTRAN, test data, the use of strain energy methods to optimize the housing for minimum vibration/noise, and determination of design modifications which will be manufactured and tested. The techniques presented are not restricted to helicopters but are applicable to any power transmission system. The transmission housing model developed can be used further to evaluate static and dynamic stresses, thermal distortions, deflections and load paths, fail-safety/vulnerability, and composite materials.

  2. Dual-microphone and binaural noise reduction techniques for improved speech intelligibility by hearing aid users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefian Jazi, Nima

    Spatial filtering and directional discrimination has been shown to be an effective pre-processing approach for noise reduction in microphone array systems. In dual-microphone hearing aids, fixed and adaptive beamforming techniques are the most common solutions for enhancing the desired speech and rejecting unwanted signals captured by the microphones. In fact, beamformers are widely utilized in systems where spatial properties of target source (usually in front of the listener) is assumed to be known. In this dissertation, some dual-microphone coherence-based speech enhancement techniques applicable to hearing aids are proposed. All proposed algorithms operate in the frequency domain and (like traditional beamforming techniques) are purely based on the spatial properties of the desired speech source and does not require any knowledge of noise statistics for calculating the noise reduction filter. This benefit gives our algorithms the ability to address adverse noise conditions, such as situations where interfering talker(s) speaks simultaneously with the target speaker. In such cases, the (adaptive) beamformers lose their effectiveness in suppressing interference, since the noise channel (reference) cannot be built and updated accordingly. This difference is the main advantage of the proposed techniques in the dissertation over traditional adaptive beamformers. Furthermore, since the suggested algorithms are independent of noise estimation, they offer significant improvement in scenarios that the power level of interfering sources are much more than that of target speech. The dissertation also shows the premise behind the proposed algorithms can be extended and employed to binaural hearing aids. The main purpose of the investigated techniques is to enhance the intelligibility level of speech, measured through subjective listening tests with normal hearing and cochlear implant listeners. However, the improvement in quality of the output speech achieved by the

  3. A complex noise reduction method for improving visualization of SD-OCT skin biomedical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myakinin, Oleg O.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Bratchenko, Ivan A.; Kornilin, Dmitry V.; Khramov, Alexander G.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we consider the original method of solving noise reduction problem for visualization's quality improvement of SD-OCT skin and tumors biomedical images. The principal advantages of OCT are high resolution and possibility of in vivo analysis. We propose a two-stage algorithm: 1) process of raw one-dimensional A-scans of SD-OCT and 2) remove a noise from the resulting B(C)-scans. The general mathematical methods of SD-OCT are unstable: if the noise of the CCD is 1.6% of the dynamic range then result distortions are already 25-40% of the dynamic range. We use at the first stage a resampling of A-scans and simple linear filters to reduce the amount of data and remove the noise of the CCD camera. The efficiency, improving productivity and conservation of the axial resolution when using this approach are showed. At the second stage we use an effective algorithms based on Hilbert-Huang Transform for more accurately noise peaks removal. The effectiveness of the proposed approach for visualization of malignant and benign skin tumors (melanoma, BCC etc.) and a significant improvement of SNR level for different methods of noise reduction are showed. Also in this study we consider a modification of this method depending of a specific hardware and software features of used OCT setup. The basic version does not require any hardware modifications of existing equipment. The effectiveness of proposed method for 3D visualization of tissues can simplify medical diagnosis in oncology.

  4. Noise

    MedlinePlus

    Noise is all around you, from televisions and radios to lawn mowers and washing machines. Normally, you ... sensitive structures of the inner ear and cause noise-induced hearing loss. More than 30 million Americans ...

  5. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables.

    PubMed

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X; Rios Piedra, Edgar A; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J J

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  6. Noise Reduction in Arterial Spin Labeling Based Functional Connectivity Using Nuisance Variables

    PubMed Central

    Jann, Kay; Smith, Robert X.; Rios Piedra, Edgar A.; Dapretto, Mirella; Wang, Danny J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion image series have recently been utilized for functional connectivity (FC) analysis in healthy volunteers and children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Noise reduction by using nuisance variables has been shown to be necessary to minimize potential confounding effects of head motion and physiological signals on BOLD based FC analysis. The purpose of the present study is to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of different noise reduction strategies (NRS) using nuisance variables to improve perfusion based FC analysis in two cohorts of healthy adults using state of the art 3D background-suppressed (BS) GRASE pseudo-continuous ASL (pCASL) and dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL sequences. Five different NRS were performed in healthy volunteers to compare their performance. We then compared seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in a cohort of 12 children with ASD (3f/9m, age 12.8 ± 1.3 years) and 13 typically developing (TD) children (1f/12m; age 13.9 ± 3 years) in conjunction with NRS. Regression of different combinations of nuisance variables affected FC analysis from a seed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to other areas of the default mode network (DMN) in both BOLD and pCASL data sets. Consistent with existing literature on BOLD-FC, we observed improved spatial specificity after physiological noise reduction and improved long-range connectivity using head movement related regressors. Furthermore, 3D BS GRASE pCASL shows much higher temporal SNR compared to dual-echo 2D-EPI pCASL and similar effects of noise reduction as those observed for BOLD. Seed-based FC analysis using 3D BS GRASE pCASL in children with ASD and TD children showed that noise reduction including physiological and motion related signals as nuisance variables is crucial for identifying altered long-range connectivity from PCC to frontal brain areas associated with ASD. This is the first study that systematically evaluated the effects of

  7. Noise reduction using a multimicrophone array for automatic speech recognition on a handheld computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Scott T.; Larow, Andrew J.; Schoenborn, William E.; Rodriguez, Jason; Gibian, Gary L.

    2001-05-01

    A four-microphone array and signal-processing card have been integrated with a handheld computer such that the integrated device can be carried in and operated with one hand. Automatic speech recognition (ASR) was added to the USAMRMC/TATRCs Battlefield Medical Information System (BMIST) software using an approach that does not require modifying the original code, to produce a Speech-Capable Personal Digital Assistant (SCPDA). Noise reduction was added to allow operation in noisier environments, using the previously reported Hybrid Adaptive Beamformer (HAB) algorithm. Tests demonstrated benefits of the array over the HP/COMPAQ-iPAQ built-in shielded microphone for noise reduction and automatic speech recognition. In electroacoustic and human testing including voice control and voice annotation, the array provided substantial benefit over the built-in microphone. The benefit varied from about 5 dB (worst-case scenario, diffuse noise) to about 20 dB (best-case scenario, directional noise). Future work is expected to produce more rugged SCPDA prototypes for user evaluations, revise the design based on user feedback and real-world testing, and possibly to allow hands-free use by using ASR to replace the push-to-talk switch, providing feedback aurally and/or via a head-up display. [Work supported by the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC), Contract No. DAMD17-02-C-0112.

  8. Robust Distributed Noise Reduction in Hearing Aids with External Acoustic Sensor Nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Alexander; Moonen, Marc

    2009-12-01

    The benefit of using external acoustic sensor nodes for noise reduction in hearing aids is demonstrated in a simulated acoustic scenario with multiple sound sources. A distributed adaptive node-specific signal estimation (DANSE) algorithm, that has a reduced communication bandwidth and computational load, is evaluated. Batch-mode simulations compare the noise reduction performance of a centralized multi-channel Wiener filter (MWF) with DANSE. In the simulated scenario, DANSE is observed not to be able to achieve the same performance as its centralized MWF equivalent, although in theory both should generate the same set of filters. A modification to DANSE is proposed to increase its robustness, yielding smaller discrepancy between the performance of DANSE and the centralized MWF. Furthermore, the influence of several parameters such as the DFT size used for frequency domain processing and possible delays in the communication link between nodes is investigated.

  9. The noise reduction potential of dual-stream coaxial rectangular improperly expanded jet flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dosanjh, Darshan; Spina, Eric F.

    1995-01-01

    The research performed began during Spring 1991 as a project to assess the noise reduction potential of rectangular coaxial nozzle configurations for improperly expanded jets. The research plan consisted of: (1) design of coaxial rectangular nozzle configuration by Syracuse graduate research assistant; (2) construction of nozzles by NASA Langley machinists; and (3) acquisition of preliminary acoustic and optical data for a variety of inner and outer jet pressure ratios.

  10. Numerical Studies on a Rotor with Distributed Suction for Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Thorsten; Arnold, Benjamin; Wolf, Alexander; Krämer, Ewald

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing the flow-induced noise is an important issue in the design of modern onshore wind turbines. There is a number of proven passive means to reduce the aeroacoustic noise, such as the implementation of serrations, porous trailing edges or the aeroacoustic airfoil design. The noise emission can be further reduced by active flow control techniques. In the present study the impact of distributed boundary layer suction on the noise emission of an airfoil and a complete rotor is investigated. Aerodynamic and aeroacoustic wind tunnel tests were performed for the NACA 64-418 airfoil and supplemented by numerical calculations. The aeroacoustic analyses have been conducted by means of the institute's Rnoise prediction scheme. The 2D studies have shown that noise reductions of 5 dB can be achieved by suction at moderate mass flow rates. To study the impact of three-dimensional effects numerical investigations have been conducted on the example of the generic NREL 5MW rotor with suction applied in the outer part of the blade. The predictions for the complete rotor provided smaller benefits compared to those for the isolated airfoil, mainly because the examined suction configurations were not optimized with respect to the extent of the suction patch and suction distribution.

  11. A Computational Study of BVI Noise Reduction Using Active Twist Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, David E.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Sekula, Martin K.

    2010-01-01

    The results of a computational study examining the effects of active-twist control on blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise using the Apache Active Twist Rotor are presented. The primary goal of this activity is to reduce BVI noise during a low-speed descent flight condition using active-twist control. Rotor aeroelastic behavior was modeled using the Comprehensive Analytical Model of Rotorcraft Aerodynamics and Dynamics code and the rotor noise was predicted using the acoustics code PSU-WOPWOP. The accuracy of the analysis was validated through comparisons with experimental acoustic data for the first generation Active Twist Rotor at an advance ratio of mu=0.14. The application of active-twist to the main rotor blade system consisted of harmonic actuation frequencies ranging from 2P to 5P, control phase angles from 0' to 360 , and tip-twist amplitudes ranging from 0.5 to 4.0 . The acoustic analysis was conducted for a single low-speed flight condition of advance ratio =0.14 and shaft angle-of-attack, c^=+6 , with BVI noise levels predicted on a flat plane of observers located 1.1 rotor diameters beneath the rotor. The results indicated reductions of up to 11dB in BVI noise using 1.25 tip-twist amplitude with negligible effects on 4P vertical hub shear.

  12. Helicopter internal noise reduction research and development application to the SA 360 and SA 365 Dauphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marze, H. J.; Dambra, F.

    1978-01-01

    Noise sources inside helicopter cabins are considered with emphasis on the mechanisms of vibration generation inside the main gear box and mechanisms of transmission between source and cabin. The dynamic behavior of the main gear box components is examined in relation to the transfer of vibration energy to the structure. It is indicated that although improvements can be made in noise reduction at the source, a soundproofing treatment isolating the passenger from the noise source is necessary. Soundproofing treatments installed and optimized include: (1) an acoustic screen using the weight effect to isolate the passenger from the noise source; (2) a damping treatment to limit the conversion of the vibratory energy into acoustic energy; and (3) an absorbing treatment achieved either through HELMHOLTZ resonators or through a glass wool blanket to limit the propagation of acoustic waves and the wave reflection effects in the cabin. The application of treatments at the source and the optimization of the sound barriers improved the noise level by about 30 db.

  13. Enhanced ground bounce noise reduction in a low-leakage CMOS multiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Bipin Kumar; Akashe, Shyam; Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, various parameters are used to reduce leakage power, leakage current and noise margin of circuits to enhance their performance. A multiplier is proposed with low-leakage current and low ground bounce noise for the microprocessor, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics engines. The ground bounce noise problem appears when a conventional power-gating circuit transits from sleep-to-active mode. This paper discusses a reduction in leakage current in the stacking power-gating technique by three modes - sleep, active and sleep-to-active. The simulation results are performed on a 4 × 4 carry-save multiplier for leakage current, active power, leakage power and ground bounce noise, and comparison made for different nanoscales. Ground bounce noise is limited to 90%. The leakage current of the circuit is decimated up to 80% and the active power is reduced to 31%. We performed simulations using cadence virtuoso 180 and 45 nm at room temperature at various supply voltages.

  14. Optimal filter design for shielded and unshielded ambient noise reduction in fetal magnetocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comani, S.; Mantini, D.; Alleva, G.; Di Luzio, S.; Romani, G. L.

    2005-12-01

    The greatest impediment to extracting high-quality fetal signals from fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG) is environmental magnetic noise, which may have peak-to-peak intensity comparable to fetal QRS amplitude. Being an unstructured Gaussian signal with large disturbances at specific frequencies, ambient field noise can be reduced with hardware-based approaches and/or with software algorithms that digitally filter magnetocardiographic recordings. At present, no systematic evaluation of filters' performances on shielded and unshielded fMCG is available. We designed high-pass and low-pass Chebychev II-type filters with zero-phase and stable impulse response; the most commonly used band-pass filters were implemented combining high-pass and low-pass filters. The achieved ambient noise reduction in shielded and unshielded recordings was quantified, and the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal-to-distortion ratio (SDR) of the retrieved fetal signals was evaluated. The study regarded 66 fMCG datasets at different gestational ages (22-37 weeks). Since the spectral structures of shielded and unshielded magnetic noise were very similar, we concluded that the same filter setting might be applied to both conditions. Band-pass filters (1.0-100 Hz) and (2.0-100 Hz) provided the best combinations of fetal signal detection rates, SNR and SDR; however, the former should be preferred in the case of arrhythmic fetuses, which might present spectral components below 2 Hz.

  15. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via A Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Dunn, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is discussed. The method is motivated by the need for an efficient and versatile computational tool to assist in parametric noise reduction studies. In this research, the work in reference 1 was extended to include passive noise control treatment on the duct interior. The BEM considers the scattering of incident sound generated by spinning point thrust dipoles in a uniform flow field by a thin cylindrical duct. The acoustic field is written as a superposition of spinning modes. Modal coefficients of acoustic pressure are calculated term by term. The BEM theoretical framework is based on Helmholtz potential theory. A boundary value problem is converted to a boundary integral equation formulation with unknown single and double layer densities on the duct wall. After solving for the unknown densities, the acoustic field is easily calculated. The main feature of the BIEM is the ability to compute any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Other noise prediction methods such as CFD and Finite Element methods lack this property. Additional BIEM attributes include versatility, ease of use, rapid noise predictions, coupling of propagation and radiation both forward and aft, implementable on midrange personal computers, and valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  16. Speckle noise reduction in ultrasound images using a discrete wavelet transform-based image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun Ho; Lee, Ju Hwan; Kim, Sung Min; Park, Sung Yun

    2015-01-01

    Here, the speckle noise in ultrasonic images is removed using an image fusion-based denoising method. To optimize the denoising performance, each discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and filtering technique was analyzed and compared. In addition, the performances were compared in order to derive the optimal input conditions. To evaluate the speckle noise removal performance, an image fusion algorithm was applied to the ultrasound images, and comparatively analyzed with the original image without the algorithm. As a result, applying DWT and filtering techniques caused information loss and noise characteristics, and did not represent the most significant noise reduction performance. Conversely, an image fusion method applying SRAD-original conditions preserved the key information in the original image, and the speckle noise was removed. Based on such characteristics, the input conditions of SRAD-original had the best denoising performance with the ultrasound images. From this study, the best denoising technique proposed based on the results was confirmed to have a high potential for clinical application. PMID:26405924

  17. Premature infant responses to noise reduction by earmuffs: effects on behavioral and physiologic measures.

    PubMed

    Zahr, L K; de Traversay, J

    1995-01-01

    The continuous high-intensity noise in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) is both stressful and harmful for the premature infant. Although some researchers have found evidence that loud noise can cause hearing loss and alter physiologic and behavioral responses, no study to date has investigated the benefits of noise reduction by the use of earmuffs. In this study earmuffs were placed over the premature infants' ears to reduce noise intensity in the NICU while physiologic and behavioral responses were measured. Two sites were used to collect data: in the first setting, 17 low birth weight infants were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group, whereas 13 infants from a second hospital acted as their own controls and were tested with and without earmuffs. Earmuffs that reduced the intensity of noise by 7 to 12 dB were worn by infants in the experimental group only during the observation periods. Infants in the control group were exposed to the usual noise in the NICU. The infant's physiologic and behavioral responses were observed for four 2-hour intervals, morning and evening, on two consecutive days. Most of the significant results were from the site at which infants acted as their own controls. When infants wore the earmuffs, they had significantly higher mean oxygen saturation levels and less fluctuation in oxygen saturation. Furthermore, these infants had less frequent behavioral state changes, spent more time in the quiet sleep state, and had longer bouts in the sleep state. It is imperative that NICUs develop aggressive antinoise policies to substantially and consistently reduce noise. PMID:8648453

  18. Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects: A CFD Validation Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, Brian G.; Schaeffler, Norman W.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2015-01-01

    A rotorcraft fuselage is typically designed with an emphasis on operational functionality with aerodynamic efficiency being of secondary importance. This results in a significant amount of drag during high-speed forward flight that can be a limiting factor for future high-speed rotorcraft designs. To enable higher speed flight, while maintaining a functional fuselage design (i.e., a large rear cargo ramp door), the NASA Rotary Wing Project has conducted both experimental and computational investigations to assess active flow control as an enabling technology for fuselage drag reduction. This paper will evaluate numerical simulations of a flow control system on a generic rotorcraft fuselage with a rotor in forward flight using OVERFLOW, a structured mesh Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver developed at NASA. The results are compared to fuselage forces, surface pressures, and PN flow field data obtained in a wind tunnel experiment conducted at the NASA Langley 14-by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel where significant drag and download reductions were demonstrated using flow control. This comparison showed that the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver was unable to predict the fuselage forces and pressure measurements on the ramp for the baseline and flow control cases. While the CFD was able to capture the flow features, it was unable to accurately predict the performance of the flow control.

  19. Current Research on Methamphetamine: Epidemiology, Medical and Psychiatric Effects, Treatment, and Harm Reduction Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Radfar, Seyed Ramin; Rawson, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Methamphetamine (MA) which is known as “shisheh” in Iran is a drug that widely is used in many parts of the world and it is near to a decade that is available for the most drug users and has a considerable prevalence of use. Due to high abuse prevalence and very new challenging phenomenon, it is very important that researchers and treatment providers become more familiar with different aspects of MA. Discussion It has multiple neurobiological impacts on the nervous system, some of which are transitory and some longer lasting. MA activates the reward system of the brain and produces effects that are highly reinforcing, which can lead to abuse and dependence. Routes of administration that produce rapid onset of the drug’s effects (i.e., smoking and injection) are likely to lead to more rapid addiction and more medical and psychiatric effects. No effective pharmacotherapies have been developed for the treatment of MA dependence; although, this is an area of very active research. Several behavioral treatments have been shown to reduce MA use, but better treatments are needed. Conclusion Harm reduction strategies for non-treatment seeking MA users are needed to reduce the risk of human immunodeficiency virus and other medical risks. The research agenda for MA is substantial, with development of effective pharmacotherapies as one of the most important priorities. Appropriate and effective response for prevention, treatment and harm reduction services due to increasing problems regarding MA in Iran and some other countries in the region. PMID:25984282

  20. Evaluation of Variable-Depth Liner Configurations for Increased Broadband Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, M. G.; Watson, W. R.; Nark, D. M.; Howerton, B. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of variable-depth geometry on the amount of noise reduction that can be achieved with acoustic liners. Results for two variable-depth liners tested in the NASA Langley Grazing Flow Impedance Tube demonstrate significant broadband noise reduction. An impedance prediction model is combined with two propagation codes to predict corresponding sound pressure level profiles over the length of the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube. The comparison of measured and predicted sound pressure level profiles is sufficiently favorable to support use of these tools for investigation of a number of proposed variable-depth liner configurations. Predicted sound pressure level profiles for these proposed configurations reveal a number of interesting features. Liner orientation clearly affects the sound pressure level profile over the length of the liner, but the effect on the total attenuation is less pronounced. The axial extent of attenuation at an individual frequency continues well beyond the location where the liner depth is optimally tuned to the quarter-wavelength of that frequency. The sound pressure level profile is significantly affected by the way in which variable-depth segments are distributed over the length of the liner. Given the broadband noise reduction capability for these liner configurations, further development of impedance prediction models and propagation codes specifically tuned for this application is warranted.

  1. Multifunctional Low-Pressure Turbine for Core Noise Reduction, Improved Efficiency, and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Shyam, Vikram; Rigby, David L.

    2013-01-01

    This work studied the feasibility of using Helmholtz resonator cavities embedded in low-pressure-turbine (LPT) airfoils to (1) reduce core noise by damping acoustic modes; (2) use the synthetic jets produced by the liner hole acoustic oscillations to improve engine efficiency by maintaining turbulent attached flow in the LPT at low-Reynolds-number cruise conditions; and (3) reduce engine nitrogen oxide emissions by lining the internal cavities with materials capable of catalytic conversion. Flat plates with embedded Helmholtz resonators, designed to resonate at either 3000 or at 400 Hz, were simulated using computational fluid dynamics. The simulations were conducted for two inlet Mach numbers, 0.25 and 0.5, corresponding to Reynolds numbers of 90 000 and 164 000 based on the effective chordwise distance to the resonator orifice. The results of this study are (1) the region of acoustic treatment may be large enough to have a benefit; (2) the jets may not possess sufficient strength to reduce flow separation (based on prior work by researchers in the flow control area); and (3) the additional catalytic surface area is not exposed to a high velocity, so it probably does not have any benefit.

  2. Noise reduction for curve-linear structures in real time fluoroscopy applications using directional binary masks

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Martin; Yang, Pengfei; Schafer, Sebastian; Strother, Charles; Mistretta, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Recent efforts in the reconstruction of interventional devices from two distinct views require the segmentation of the object in both fluoroscopic images. Noise might decrease the quality of the segmentation and cause artifacts in the reconstruction. The noise level depends on the x-ray dose the patient is exposed to. The proposed algorithm reduces the noise and enhances the separability of curvilinear devices in background subtracted fluoroscopic images to allow a more accurate segmentation. Methods: The algorithm uses a set of binary masks to estimate a line conformity measure that determines the best direction for a directional filter kernel. If the calculated value exceeds a certain threshold, the directional kernel is used to obtain the filtered value. Otherwise, an isotropic filter kernel is used. Results: The evaluation was performed on a set of 36 fluoroscopic images using a vascular head phantom with three different guidewires and nine different x-ray dosages from 6 nGy/pulse to 45 nGy/pulse as well as a clinical data set containing ten images. Compared with wavelet shrinkage and the bilateral filter, the proposed algorithm increased the average contrast to noise ratio by at least 17.8% for the phantom and 68.9% for the clinical images. The accuracy of the device segmentation was improved on average by at least 17.3% and 14.0%, respectively. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm was able to significantly reduce the amount of noise in the images and therefore increase the quality of the device segmentations compared to both the bilateral filter and the wavelet thresholding approach for all acquired noise levels using rotating directional filter kernels near line structures and isotropic kernels for the background. The application of the proposed algorithm for the 3D reconstruction of curvilinear devices from two views would allow a more accurate reconstruction of the device. PMID:26233192

  3. Reduction and possible elimination of coating thermal noise using a rigidly controlled cavity with a quantum-nondemolition technique.

    PubMed

    Somiya, Kentaro

    2009-06-12

    Thermal noise of a mirror is one of the most important issues in high-precision measurements such as gravitational-wave detection or cold damping experiments. It has been pointed out that thermal noise of a mirror with multilayer coatings can be reduced by mechanical separation of the layers. In this Letter, we introduce a way to further reduce thermal noise by locking the mechanically separated mirrors. The reduction is limited by the standard quantum limit of control noise, but it can be overcome with a quantum-nondemolition technique, which finally raises a possibility of complete elimination of coating thermal noise. PMID:19658917

  4. ARV robotic technologies (ART): a risk reduction effort for future unmanned systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2006-05-01

    The Army's ARV (Armed Robotic Vehicle) Robotic Technologies (ART) program is working on the development of various technological thrusts for use in the robotic forces of the future. The ART program will develop, integrate and demonstrate the technology required to advance the maneuver technologies (i.e., perception, mobility, tactical behaviors) and increase the survivability of unmanned platforms for the future force while focusing on reducing the soldiers' burden by providing an increase in vehicle autonomy coinciding with a decrease in the total number user interventions required to control the unmanned assets. This program will advance the state of the art in perception technologies to provide the unmanned platform an increasingly accurate view of the terrain that surrounds it; while developing tactical/mission behavior technologies to provide the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) the capability to maneuver tactically, in conjunction with the manned systems in an autonomous mode. The ART testbed will be integrated with the advanced technology software and associated hardware developed under this effort, and incorporate appropriate mission modules (e.g. RSTA sensors, MILES, etc.) to support Warfighter experiments and evaluations (virtual and field) in a military significant environment (open/rolling and complex/urban terrain). The outcome of these experiments as well as other lessons learned through out the program life cycle will be used to reduce the current risks that are identified for the future UGV systems that will be developed under the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the early integration of an FCS-like autonomous navigation system onto a tracked skid steer platform.

  5. Stochastic noise reduction upon complexification: positively correlated birth-death type systems.

    PubMed

    Rooman, Marianne; Albert, Jaroslav; Duerinckx, Mitia

    2014-08-01

    Cell systems consist of a huge number of various molecules that display specific patterns of interactions, which have a determining influence on the cell׳s functioning. In general, such complexity is seen to increase with the complexity of the organism, with a concomitant increase of the accuracy and specificity of the cellular processes. The question thus arises how the complexification of systems - modeled here by simple interacting birth-death type processes - can lead to a reduction of the noise - described by the variance of the number of molecules. To gain understanding of this issue, we investigated the difference between a single system containing molecules that are produced and degraded, and the same system - with the same average number of molecules - connected to a buffer. We modeled these systems using Itō stochastic differential equations in discrete time, as they allow straightforward analytical developments. In general, when the molecules in the system and the buffer are positively correlated, the variance on the number of molecules in the system is found to decrease compared to the equivalent system without a buffer. Only buffers that are too noisy themselves tend to increase the noise in the main system. We tested this result on two model cases, in which the system and the buffer contain proteins in their active and inactive state, or protein monomers and homodimers. We found that in the second test case, where the interconversion terms are non-linear in the number of molecules, the noise reduction is much more pronounced; it reaches up to 20% reduction of the Fano factor with the parameter values tested in numerical simulations on an unperturbed birth-death model. We extended our analysis to two arbitrary interconnected systems, and found that the sum of the noise levels in the two systems generally decreases upon interconnection if the molecules they contain are positively correlated. PMID:24632443

  6. Towards Truly Quiet MRI: animal MRI magnetic field gradients as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edelstein, William; El-Sharkawy, Abdel-Monem

    2013-03-01

    Clinical MRI acoustic noise, often substantially exceeding 100 dB, causes patient anxiety and discomfort and interferes with functional MRI (fMRI) and interventional MRI. MRI acoustic noise reduction is a long-standing and difficult technical challenge. The noise is basically caused by large Lorentz forces on gradient windings--surrounding the patient bore--situated in strong magnetic fields (1.5 T, 3 T or higher). Pulsed currents of 300 A or more are switched through the gradient windings in sub-milliseconds. Experimenting with hardware noise reduction on clinical scanners is difficult and expensive because of the large scale and weight of clinical scanner components (gradient windings ~ 1000 kg) that require special handling equipment in large engineering test facilities. Our approach is to produce a Truly Quiet (<70 dB) small-scale animal imager. Results serve as a test platform for acoustic noise reduction measures that can be implemented in clinical scanners. We have so far decreased noise in an animal scale imager from 108 dB to 71 dB, a 37 dB reduction. Our noise reduction measures include: a gradient container that can be evacuated; inflatable antivibration mounts to prevent transmission of vibrations from gradient winding to gradient container; vibration damping of wires going from gradient to the outside world via the gradient container; and a copper passive shield to prevent the generation of eddy currents in the metal cryostat inner bore, which in turn can vibrate and produce noise.

  7. Aerodynamic Measurements of a Gulfstream Aircraft Model With and Without Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuhart, Dan H.; Hannon, Judith A.; Khorrami, Mehdi R.

    2014-01-01

    Steady and unsteady aerodynamic measurements of a high-fidelity, semi-span 18% scale Gulfstream aircraft model are presented. The aerodynamic data were collected concurrently with acoustic measurements as part of a larger aeroacoustic study targeting airframe noise associated with main landing gear/flap components, gear-flap interaction noise, and the viability of related noise mitigation technologies. The aeroacoustic tests were conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel with the facility in the acoustically treated open-wall (jet) mode. Most of the measurements were obtained with the model in landing configuration with the flap deflected at 39º and the main landing gear on and off. Data were acquired at Mach numbers of 0.16, 0.20, and 0.24. Global forces (lift and drag) and extensive steady and unsteady surface pressure measurements were obtained. Comparison of the present results with those acquired during a previous test shows a significant reduction in the lift experienced by the model. The underlying cause was traced to the likely presence of a much thicker boundary layer on the tunnel floor, which was acoustically treated for the present test. The steady and unsteady pressure fields on the flap, particularly in the regions of predominant noise sources such as the inboard and outboard tips, remained unaffected. It is shown that the changes in lift and drag coefficients for model configurations fitted with gear/flap noise abatement technologies fall within the repeatability of the baseline configuration. Therefore, the noise abatement technologies evaluated in this experiment have no detrimental impact on the aerodynamic performance of the aircraft model.

  8. Electrical noise reduction techniques contributing to improved data quality at the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcphee, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    In initial use, the high-speed digital data acquisition systems at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility produced data containing unacceptably high noise levels. Described is a process whereby the contributing noise sources were identified and eliminated. The effects of 60 Hz power, system grounding, EMI/RFI, and other problems are discussed and the corrective action taken is outlined. The overall effort resulted in an improvement of greater than 5:1 in system performance. Although the report describes a system specifically used for wind tunnel data acquisition, the corrective techniques employed are generally applicable to large scale high-speed data systems where signal resolution in the low microvolts range is important.

  9. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagenknecht, C. D.; Bediako, E. D.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described. Coannular, 20-chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation (1969), Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the 20-chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.

  10. Coannular plug nozzle noise reduction and impact of exhaust system designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R.

    1976-01-01

    Reducing the noise generated by high velocity jets has confronted engine designers and acoustics workers alike for the past fifteen years. Some of the jet noise suppressor configurations that are investigated are shown. With the exception of the early CJ-805 daisy suppressor nozzle which found successful application on the Convair 990 airplane, the others were developmental hardware at different stages of the effort in the past eight years - all aiming at potential supersonic cruise aircraft applications. Some significant progress was made as the result of work supported by NASA and FAA in the past two to three years. This work pertains to the concept demonstration and scale model testing of coannular plug nozzles with inverted velocity profile, and to the preliminary study of its application to advanced variable cycle engines (VCE) appropriate for supersonic cruise aircraft.

  11. Potential of combining iterative reconstruction with noise efficient detector design: aggressive dose reduction in head CT

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B; Schabel, C; Fenchel, M; Ernemann, U; Korn, A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With further increase of CT numbers and their dominant contribution to medical exposure, there is a recent quest for more effective dose control. While reintroduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) has proved its potential in many applications, a novel focus is placed on more noise efficient detectors. Our purpose was to assess the potential of IR in combination with an integrated circuit detector (ICD) for aggressive dose reduction in head CT. Methods: Non-contrast low-dose head CT [190 mAs; weighted volume CT dose index (CTDIvol), 33.2 mGy] was performed in 50 consecutive patients, using a new noise efficient detector and IR. Images were assessed in terms of quantitative and qualitative image quality and compared with standard dose acquisitions (320 mAs; CTDIvol, 59.7 mGy) using a conventional detector and filtered back projection. Results: By combining ICD and IR in low-dose examinations, the signal to noise was improved by about 13% above the baseline level in the standard-dose control group. Both, contrast-to-noise ratio (2.02 ± 0.6 vs 1.88 ± 0.4; p = 0.18) and objective measurements of image sharpness (695 ± 84 vs 705 ± 151 change in Hounsfield units per pixel; p = 0.79) were fully preserved in the low-dose group. Likewise, there was no significant difference in the grading of several subjective image quality parameters when both noise-reducing strategies were used in low-dose examinations. Conclusion: Combination of noise efficient detector with IR allows for meaningful dose reduction in head CT without compromise of standard image quality. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of almost 50% dose reduction in head CT dose (1.1 mSv per scan) through combination of novel dose-reducing strategies. PMID:25827204

  12. On the railway track dynamics with rail vibration absorber for noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. X.

    2008-01-01

    A promising means to increase the decay rate of vibration along the rail is using a rail absorber for noise reduction. Compound track models with the tuned rail absorber are developed for investigation of the performance of the absorber on vibration reduction. Through analysis of the track dynamics with the rail absorber some guidelines are given on selection of the types and parameters for the rail absorber. It is found that a large active mass used in the absorber is beneficial to increase the decay rate of rail vibration. The effectiveness of the piecewise continuous absorber is moderate compared with the discrete absorber installed in the middle of sleeper span or at a sleeper. The most effective installation position for the discrete absorber is in the middle of sleeper span. Over high or over low loss factor of the damping material used in the absorber may degrade the performance on vibration reduction.

  13. Noise reduction in computed tomography using a multiplicative continuous-time image reconstruction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Yusaku; Kojima, Takeshi; Yoshinaga, Tetsuya

    2016-03-01

    In clinical X-ray computed tomography (CT), filtered back-projection as a transform method and iterative reconstruction such as the maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization (ML-EM) method are known methods to reconstruct tomographic images. As the other reconstruction method, we have presented a continuous-time image reconstruction (CIR) system described by a nonlinear dynamical system, based on the idea of continuous methods for solving tomographic inverse problems. Recently, we have also proposed a multiplicative CIR system described by differential equations based on the minimization of a weighted Kullback-Leibler divergence. We prove theoretically that the divergence measure decreases along the solution to the CIR system, for consistent inverse problems. In consideration of the noisy nature of projections in clinical CT, the inverse problem belongs to the category of ill-posed problems. The performance of a noise-reduction scheme for a new (previously developed) CIR system was investigated by means of numerical experiments using a circular phantom image. Compared to the conventional CIR and the ML-EM methods, the proposed CIR method has an advantage on noisy projection with lower signal-to-noise ratios in terms of the divergence measure on the actual image under the same common measure observed via the projection data. The results lead to the conclusion that the multiplicative CIR method is more effective and robust for noise reduction in CT compared to the ML-EM as well as conventional CIR methods.

  14. Noise reduction studies for the Cessna model 337 (0-2) airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Dingeldein, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the noise reduction potential of the 0-2 airplane in order to reduce its aural detection distance. Static and flyover noise measurements were made to document the noise signature of the unmodified airplane. The results show that significant reductions in aural detection distance can be achieved by the combination of propeller geometry changes and the addition of engine exhaust mufflers. The best results were estimated for the aircraft equipped with a six-blade propeller operating at 3/4 engine speed in combination with a 3.49 cubic foot exhaust muffler installed on each engine. Detection distance for the modified aircraft is estimated to be reduced from about 4-1/4 miles to about 1-1/2 miles when the aircraft is operating at an altitude of 1,000 ft over grassy terrain. Reducing the altitude to 300 ft over a leafy jungle ground cover should reduce the aural detection distance to 0.9 miles. Reduced aural detection distances were also indicated for a modification utilizing a direct-drive six-blade propeller of reduced radius along with smaller exhaust mufflers.

  15. Characterization of synthetic jet actuators used for jet noise reduction by flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyak, Alexis; Berger, Zachary; Berry, Matthew; Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2013-11-01

    The issue of jet noise introduces various opportunities for advancements in flow control and fluid dynamics. One such method for jet noise reduction involves the use of synthetic jet actuators as shear layer excitation on the flow produced by a fully compressible, turbulent jet. A set of eight zero-net-mass flux actuators are organized around the periphery of the jet in an actuation glove fitting on the nozzle. As some noise reduction has been achieved through the use of this actuation system, further characterization of the system is necessary to fully quantify its capabilities and understand its effect on the flow physics in the shear layer. The synthetic jet actuators are driven by several different frequencies based on the Helmholtz resonance of the cavities, with measurements taken at several locations along the actuator orifice. Velocity profiles are then constructed from the measured response using hot wire anemometry. Such experimental results provide vital insight into the flow field created by the synthetic jet actuator system, allowing for more effective modification to the actuation glove.

  16. Speech understanding performance of cochlear implant subjects using time-frequency masking-based noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Obaid ur Rehman; van Dijk, Bas; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2012-05-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) recipients report severe degradation of speech understanding under noisy conditions. Most CI recipients typically can require about 10-25 dB higher signal-to-noise ratio than normal hearing (NH) listeners in order to achieve similar speech understanding performance. In recent years, significant emphasis has been put on binaural algorithms, which not only make use of the head shadow effect, but also have two or more microphone signals at their disposal to generate binaural inputs. Most of the CI recipients today are unilaterally implanted but they can still benefit from the binaural processing utilizing a contralateral microphone. The phase error filtering (PEF) algorithm tries to minimize the phase error variance utilizing a time-frequency mask for noise reduction. Potential improvement in speech intelligibility offered by the algorithm is evaluated with four different kinds of mask functions. The study reveals that the PEF algorithm which uses a contralateral microphone but unilateral presentation provides considerable improvement in intelligibility for both NH and CI subjects. Further, preference rating test suggests that CI subjects can tolerate higher levels of distortions than NH subjects, and therefore, more aggressive noise reduction for CI recipients is possible. PMID:22345522

  17. A PIV Study of Slotted Air Injection for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda S.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    Results from acoustic and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are presented for single and dual-stream jets with fluidic injection on the core stream. The fluidic injection nozzles delivered air to the jet through slots on the interior of the nozzle at the nozzle trailing edge. The investigations include subsonic and supersonic jet conditions. Reductions in broadband shock noise and low frequency mixing noise were obtained with the introduction of fluidic injection on single stream jets. Fluidic injection was found to eliminate shock cells, increase jet mixing, and reduce turbulent kinetic energy levels near the end of the potential core. For dual-stream subsonic jets, the introduction of fluidic injection reduced low frequency noise in the peak jet noise direction and enhanced jet mixing. For dual-stream jets with supersonic fan streams and subsonic core streams, the introduction of fluidic injection in the core stream impacted the jet shock cell structure but had little effect on mixing between the core and fan streams.

  18. Improved Kalman Filter Method for Measurement Noise Reduction in Multi Sensor RFID Systems

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Ki Hwan; Lee, Seung Joon; Kyung, Yeo Sun; Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Min Chul; Jung, Kyung Kwon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the range of available Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags has been widened to include smart RFID tags which can monitor their varying surroundings. One of the most important factors for better performance of smart RFID system is accurate measurement from various sensors. In the multi-sensing environment, some noisy signals are obtained because of the changing surroundings. We propose in this paper an improved Kalman filter method to reduce noise and obtain correct data. Performance of Kalman filter is determined by a measurement and system noise covariance which are usually called the R and Q variables in the Kalman filter algorithm. Choosing a correct R and Q variable is one of the most important design factors for better performance of the Kalman filter. For this reason, we proposed an improved Kalman filter to advance an ability of noise reduction of the Kalman filter. The measurement noise covariance was only considered because the system architecture is simple and can be adjusted by the neural network. With this method, more accurate data can be obtained with smart RFID tags. In a simulation the proposed improved Kalman filter has 40.1%, 60.4% and 87.5% less Mean Squared Error (MSE) than the conventional Kalman filter method for a temperature sensor, humidity sensor and oxygen sensor, respectively. The performance of the proposed method was also verified with some experiments. PMID:22346641

  19. Flaperon Modification Effect on Jet-Flap Interaction Noise Reduction for Chevron Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Mengle, Vinod G.; Stoker, Robert W.; Brusniak, Leon; Elkoby, Ronen

    2007-01-01

    Jet-flap interaction (JFI) noise can become an important component of far field noise when a flap is immersed in the engine propulsive stream or is in its entrained region, as in approach conditions for under-the-wing engine configurations. We experimentally study the effect of modifying the flaperon, which is a high speed aileron between the inboard and outboard flaps, at both approach and take-off conditions using scaled models in a free jet. The flaperon modifications were of two types: sawtooth trailing edge and mini vortex generators (vg s). Parametric variations of these two concepts were tested with a round coaxial nozzle and an advanced chevron nozzle, with azimuthally varying fan chevrons, using both far field microphone arrays and phased microphone arrays for source diagnostics purposes. In general, the phased array results corroborated the far field results in the upstream quadrant pointing to JFI near the flaperon trailing edge as the origin of the far field noise changes. Specific sawtooth trailing edges in conjunction with the round nozzle gave marginal reduction in JFI noise at approach, and parallel co-rotating mini-vg s were somewhat more beneficial over a wider range of angles, but both concepts were noisier at take-off conditions. These two concepts had generally an adverse JFI effect when used in conjunction with the advanced chevron nozzle at both approach and take-off conditions.

  20. Phase-noise reduction in surface wave oscillators by using nonlinear sustaining amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Avramov, Ivan D

    2006-04-01

    Nonlinear sustaining amplifier operation has been investigated and applied to high-power negative resistance oscillators (NRO), using single-port surface transverse wave (STW) resonators, and single-transistor sustaining amplifiers for feedback-loop STW oscillators (FLSO) stabilized with two-port STW devices. In all cases, self-limiting, silicon (Si)-bipolar sustaining amplifiers that operate in the highly nonlinear AB-, B-, or C-class modes are implemented. Phase-noise reduction is based on the assumption that a sustaining amplifier, operating in one of these modes, uses current limiting and remains cut off over a significant portion of the wave period. Therefore, it does not generate 1/f noise over the cut-off portion of the radio frequency (RF) cycle, and this reduces the close-in oscillator phase noise significantly. The proposed method has been found to provide phase-noise levels in the -111 to -119 dBc/Hz range at 1 KHz carrier offset in 915 MHz C-class power NRO and FLSO generating up to 23 dBm of RF-power at RF versus dc (RF/dc) efficiencies exceeding 40%. C-class amplifier design techniques are used for adequate matching and high RF/dc efficiency. PMID:16615574

  1. Multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies for coordinated stimulation in bilateral cochlear implant devices.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Loizou, Philipos C

    2010-05-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BI-CI) recipients achieve high word recognition scores in quiet listening conditions. Still, there is a substantial drop in speech recognition performance when there is reverberation and more than one interferers. BI-CI users utilize information from just two directional microphones placed on opposite sides of the head in a so-called independent stimulation mode. To enhance the ability of BI-CI users to communicate in noise, the use of two computationally inexpensive multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies exploiting information simultaneously collected by the microphones associated with two behind-the-ear (BTE) processors (one per ear) is proposed. To this end, as many as four microphones are employed (two omni-directional and two directional) in each of the two BTE processors (one per ear). In the proposed two-microphone binaural strategies, all four microphones (two behind each ear) are being used in a coordinated stimulation mode. The hypothesis is that such strategies combine spatial information from all microphones to form a better representation of the target than that made available with only a single input. Speech intelligibility is assessed in BI-CI listeners using IEEE sentences corrupted by up to three steady speech-shaped noise sources. Results indicate that multi-microphone strategies improve speech understanding in single- and multi-noise source scenarios. PMID:21117762

  2. Investigating Differences in Preferred Noise Reduction Strength Among Hearing Aid Users.

    PubMed

    Neher, Tobias; Wagener, Kirsten C

    2016-01-01

    Even though hearing aid (HA) users can respond very differently to noise reduction (NR) processing, knowledge about possible drivers of this variability (and thus ways of addressing it in HA fittings) is sparse. The current study investigated differences in preferred NR strength among HA users. Participants were groups of experienced users with clear preferences ("NR lovers"; N = 14) or dislikes ("NR haters"; N = 13) for strong NR processing, as determined in two earlier studies. Maximally acceptable background noise levels, detection thresholds for speech distortions caused by NR processing, and self-reported "sound personality" traits were considered as candidate measures for explaining group membership. Participants also adjusted the strength of the (binaural coherence-based) NR algorithm to their preferred level. Consistent with previous findings, NR lovers favored stronger processing than NR haters, although there also was some overlap. While maximally acceptable noise levels and detection thresholds for speech distortions tended to be higher for NR lovers than for NR haters, group differences were only marginally significant. No clear group differences were observed in the self-report data. Taken together, these results indicate that preferred NR strength is an individual trait that is fairly stable across time and that is not easily captured by psychoacoustic, audiological, or self-report measures aimed at indexing susceptibility to background noise and processing artifacts. To achieve more personalized NR processing, an effective approach may be to let HA users determine the optimal setting themselves during the fitting process. PMID:27604781

  3. Real-Time Noise Reduction for Mossbauer Spectroscopy through Online Implementation of a Modified Kalman Filter

    SciTech Connect

    Abrecht, David G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Eiden, Gregory C.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2015-02-01

    Spectrum-processing software that incorporates a gaussian smoothing kernel within the statistics of first-order Kalman filtration has been developed to provide cross-channel spectral noise reduction for increased real-time signal-to-noise ratios for Mossbauer spectroscopy. The filter was optimized for the breadth of the gaussian using the Mossbauer spectrum of natural iron foil, and comparisons between the peak broadening, signal-to-noise ratios, and shifts in the calculated hyperfine parameters are presented. The results of optimization give a maximum improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of 51.1% over the unfiltered spectrum at a gaussian breadth of 27 channels, or 2.5% of the total spectrum width. The full-width half-maximum of the spectrum peaks showed an increase of 19.6% at this optimum point, indicating a relatively weak increase in the peak broadening relative to the signal enhancement, leading to an overall increase in the observable signal. Calculations of the hyperfine parameters showed no statistically significant deviations were introduced from the application of the filter, confirming the utility of this filter for spectroscopy applications.

  4. Arousal from sleep: the physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB(A) reduction in aircraft flyover noise.

    PubMed

    LeVere, T E; Davis, N

    1977-07-01

    The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB(A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep. PMID:196586

  5. Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

    1977-01-01

    The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

  6. Maximizing Iodine Contrast-to-Noise Ratios in Abdominal CT Imaging through Use of Energy Domain Noise Reduction and Virtual Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT1

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the iodine contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for abdominal computed tomography (CT) when using energy domain noise reduction and virtual monoenergetic dual-energy (DE) CT images and to compare the CNR to that attained with single-energy CT at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the institutional review board with waiver of informed consent. A syringe filled with diluted iodine contrast material was placed into 30-, 35-, and 45-cm-wide water phantoms and scanned with a dual-source CT scanner in both DE and single-energy modes with matched scanner output. Virtual monoenergetic images were generated, with energies ranging from 40 to 110 keV in 10-keV steps. A previously developed energy domain noise reduction algorithm was applied to reduce image noise by exploiting information redundancies in the energy domain. Image noise and iodine CNR were calculated. To show the potential clinical benefit of this technique, it was retrospectively applied to a clinical DE CT study of the liver in a 59-year-old male patient by using conventional and iterative reconstruction techniques. Image noise and CNR were compared for virtual monoenergetic images with and without energy domain noise reduction at each virtual monoenergetic energy (in kiloelectron volts) and phantom size by using a paired t test. CNR of virtual monoenergetic images was also compared with that of single-energy images acquired with 80, 100, 120, and 140 kV. Results Noise reduction of up to 59% (28.7/65.7) was achieved for DE virtual monoenergetic images by using an energy domain noise reduction technique. For the commercial virtual monoenergetic images, the maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 70 keV and was 18.6, 16.6, and 10.8 for the 30-, 35-, and 45-cm phantoms. After energy domain noise reduction, maximum iodine CNR was achieved at 40 keV and increased to 30.6, 25.4, and 16.5. These CNRs represented improvement of up to 64% (12.0/18.6) with

  7. Reduction of noise generated by air conditioning and ventilation plants and transmitted to inhabited areas. [application of silencers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harastaseanu, E.; Cristescu, G.; Mercea, F.

    1974-01-01

    The fans with which the conditioning and ventilation plants of weaving and spinning mills are equipped and the conditioning devices used in certain confection and knit wear departments of the textile industry generate loud noise. Solutions are presented for reducing the noise generated by the fans of ventilation and conditioning plants and transmitted to inhabited regions down to the admissible level, as well as the results obtained by experimental application of some noise reduction solutions in the conditioning plants of a spinning mill.

  8. Autonomous Slat-Cove-Filler Device for Reduction of Aeroacoustic Noise Associated with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Kidd, Reggie T. (Inventor); Lockard, David P (Inventor); Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Streett, Craig L. (Inventor); Weber, Douglas Leo (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A slat cove filler is utilized to reduce airframe noise resulting from deployment of a leading edge slat of an aircraft wing. The slat cove filler is preferably made of a super elastic shape memory alloy, and the slat cove filler shifts between stowed and deployed shapes as the slat is deployed. The slat cove filler may be configured such that a separate powered actuator is not required to change the shape of the slat cove filler from its deployed shape to its stowed shape and vice-versa. The outer contour of the slat cove filler preferably follows a profile designed to maintain accelerating flow in the gap between the slat cove filler and wing leading edge to provide for noise reduction.

  9. Localized, Non-Harmonic Active Flap Motions for Low Frequency In-Plane Rotor Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Ben W.; Potsdam, Mark; Kitaplioglu, Cahit; LeMasurier, Philip; Lorber, Peter; Andrews, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A first-of-its-kind demonstration of the use of localized, non-harmonic active flap motions, for suppressing low frequency, in-plane rotor noise, is reported in this paper. Operational feasibility is verified via testing of the full-scale AATD/Sikorsky/UTRC active flap demonstration rotor in the NFAC's 40- by 80-Foot anechoic wind tunnel. Effectiveness of using localized, non-harmonic active flap motions are compared to conventional four-per-rev harmonic flap motions, and also active flap motions derived from closed-loop acoustics implementations. All three approaches resulted in approximately the same noise reductions over an in-plane three-by-three microphone array installed forward and near in-plane of the rotor in the nearfield. It is also reported that using an active flap in this localized, non-harmonic manner, resulted in no more that 2% rotor performance penalty, but had the tendency to incur higher hub vibration levels.

  10. A New Technique for Reduction the Phase Induced Intensity Noise in SAC-OCDMA Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd, Thanaa Hussein; Aljunid, Syed Alwee; Fadhil, Hilal Adnan

    2011-12-01

    A new code for reduction the phase induced intensity noise has been presented. The new code is proposed for Spectral Amplitude-Coding Optical Code Division Multiple Accesses (SAC-OCDMA). This new code family we call it Dynamic Cyclic Shift (DCS) code. The DCS code reduced the effect of Multi Access Interference (MAI) due to it is the property of variable cross correlation. We find that the performance of the DCS code is a batter than other SAC-OCDMA codes such as; Random Diagonal (RD) code, Modified Quadratic Congruence (MQC) code and Modified Frequency Hopping (MFH) code. Through the mathematical calculation and simulation analysis, for the bit-error rate of DCS code is significantly better than other SAC-OCDMA codes, the effect of Phase Induced Intensity Noise is reduced. In addition, proofof-principle simulations of 10 Gb/s for 20 km have been successfully demonstrated and achieved low BER compared to the other codes.

  11. Measures for the reduction of the noise and vibration level of apartment house elevators. [changes in construction and insulation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enescu, N.; Munteanu, M.; Stan, A.

    1974-01-01

    The reduction of the level of elevator noise and vibrations in apartment buildings was studied. By improving the mounting and gearing conditions of the winch and soundproofing the winch chamber, as well as by covering the elevator's control panel, the noise and vibration level was appreciably reduced.

  12. Active Vibration Control for Helicopter Interior Noise Reduction Using Power Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, J.; Chevva, K.; Sun, F.; Blanc, A.; Kim, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work performed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) under Contract NNL11AA06C. The objective of this program is to develop technology to reduce helicopter interior noise resulting from multiple gear meshing frequencies. A novel active vibration control approach called Minimum Actuation Power (MAP) is developed. MAP is an optimal control strategy that minimizes the total input power into a structure by monitoring and varying the input power of controlling sources. MAP control was implemented without explicit knowledge of the phasing and magnitude of the excitation sources by driving the real part of the input power from the controlling sources to zero. It is shown that this occurs when the total mechanical input power from the excitation and controlling sources is a minimum. MAP theory is developed for multiple excitation sources with arbitrary relative phasing for single or multiple discrete frequencies and controlled by a single or multiple controlling sources. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of MAP for structural vibration reduction of a realistic rotorcraft interior structure. MAP control resulted in significant average global vibration reduction of a single frequency and multiple frequency excitations with one controlling actuator. Simulations also demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the observed vibration reductions on interior radiated noise.

  13. Noise reduction in small-animal PET images using a multiresolution transform.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Jose M; Ochoa Domínguez, Humberto de Jesús; Vergara Villegas, Osslan Osiris; Ortega Máynez, Leticia; Mederos, Boris

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of denoising reconstructed small animal positron emission tomography (PET) images, based on a multiresolution approach which can be implemented with any transform such as contourlet, shearlet, curvelet, and wavelet. The PET images are analyzed and processed in the transform domain by modeling each subband as a set of different regions separated by boundaries. Homogeneous and heterogeneous regions are considered. Each region is independently processed using different filters: a linear estimator for homogeneous regions and a surface polynomial estimator for the heterogeneous region. The boundaries between the different regions are estimated using a modified edge focusing filter. The proposed approach was validated by a series of experiments. Our method achieved an overall reduction of up to 26% in the %STD of the reconstructed image of a small animal NEMA phantom. Additionally, a test on a simulated lesion showed that our method yields better contrast preservation than other state-of-the art techniques used for noise reduction. Thus, the proposed method provides a significant reduction of noise while at the same time preserving contrast and important structures such as lesions. PMID:24951682

  14. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew A J; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R; Bhatia, Kailash P; Husain, Masud

    2015-06-29

    Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost--a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson's disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. PMID:26096975

  15. Reward Pays the Cost of Noise Reduction in Motor and Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Sanjay G.; Chong, Trevor T.-J.; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Batla, Amit; Stamelou, Maria; Jarman, Paul R.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Summary Speed-accuracy trade-off is an intensively studied law governing almost all behavioral tasks across species. Here we show that motivation by reward breaks this law, by simultaneously invigorating movement and improving response precision. We devised a model to explain this paradoxical effect of reward by considering a new factor: the cost of control. Exerting control to improve response precision might itself come at a cost—a cost to attenuate a proportion of intrinsic neural noise. Applying a noise-reduction cost to optimal motor control predicted that reward can increase both velocity and accuracy. Similarly, application to decision-making predicted that reward reduces reaction times and errors in cognitive control. We used a novel saccadic distraction task to quantify the speed and accuracy of both movements and decisions under varying reward. Both faster speeds and smaller errors were observed with higher incentives, with the results best fitted by a model including a precision cost. Recent theories consider dopamine to be a key neuromodulator in mediating motivational effects of reward. We therefore examined how Parkinson’s disease (PD), a condition associated with dopamine depletion, alters the effects of reward. Individuals with PD showed reduced reward sensitivity in their speed and accuracy, consistent in our model with higher noise-control costs. Including a cost of control over noise explains how reward may allow apparent performance limits to be surpassed. On this view, the pattern of reduced reward sensitivity in PD patients can specifically be accounted for by a higher cost for controlling noise. PMID:26096975

  16. Reducing Patient Radiation Dose With Image Noise Reduction Technology in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Procedures.

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Michael; Hauptmann, Karl Eugen

    2016-03-01

    X-ray radiation exposure is of great concern for patients undergoing structural heart interventions. In addition, a larger group of medical staff is required and exposed to radiation compared with percutaneous coronary interventions. This study aimed at quantifying radiation dose reduction with implementation of specific image noise reduction technology (NRT) in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures. We retrospectively analyzed 104 consecutive patients with TAVI procedures, 52 patients before and 52 after optimization of x-ray radiation chain, and implementation of NRT. Patients with 1-step TAVI and complex coronary intervention, or complex TAVI procedures, were excluded. Before the procedure, all patients received a multislice computed tomography scan, which was used to size aortic annulus, select the optimal implantation plane, valve type and size, and guide valve implantation using a software tool. Air kerma and kerma-area product were compared in both groups to determine patient radiation dose reduction. Baseline parameters, co-morbidity, or procedural data were comparable between groups. Mean kerma-area product was significantly lower (p <0.001) in the NRT group compared with the standard group (60 ± 39 vs 203 ± 106 Gy × cm(2), p <0.001), which corresponds to a reduction of 70%. Mean air kerma was reduced by 64% (494 ± 360 vs 1,355 ± 657 mGy, p <0.001). In conclusion, using optimized x-ray chain combined with specific image noise reduction technology has the potential to significantly reduce by 2/3 radiation dose in standard TAVI procedures without worsening image quality or prolonging procedure time. PMID:26742472

  17. Landscape Planning for Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Reduction. II. Balancing Watershed Size, Number of Watersheds, and Implementation Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T.; Diebel, Matthew W.; Vander Zanden, M. Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs—i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds—have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from 2 to 200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km2; and optimal expenditure ranged from 21,000 to 35,000/km2. The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km2. These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  18. Reduction of Aerodynamic Noise Generated by a Bluff-Shaped Pantograph Head Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishige, Hiroaki; Minobe, Takayuki; Ikeda, Mitsuru; Suzuki, Masahiro

    With an increase in the maximum speed of Shinkansen trains, it becomes imperative to resolve aerodynamic and aeroacoustic problems related to pantographs. Hence, some methods based on flow control have been studied to improve the aerodynamic and aeroacoustic characteristics. In this study, the authors attempted to control the flow around a pantograph by using synthetic jets. The results of numerical and experimental tests indicate that the synthetic jets can stabilize the flow around the bluff-shaped pantograph head, thus resulting in a reduction in aerodynamic noise.

  19. Optical noise reduction for dc-removed coaxial holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Shin; Minabe, Jiro; Kawano, Katsunori

    2007-01-15

    A method of reconstructing positive and negative images from Fourier holograms recorded without the dc components is demonstrated by use of a coaxial holographic storage system. Reconstructed images are obtained by adding a phase-modulated dc component of the signal beam on reading. Contrast reversal of the reconstructed images can be achieved by reversing the readout reference pattern. This method can realize not only optical noise reduction but also less consumption of the dynamic range of the recording medium, potentially contributing to increasing the number of multiplexed holograms. PMID:17186050

  20. Experimental and theoretical sound transmission. [reduction of interior noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.; Muirhead, V. U.; Smith, H. W.; Durenberger, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    The capabilities of the Kansas University- Flight Research Center for investigating panel sound transmission as a step toward the reduction of interior noise in general aviation aircraft were discussed. Data obtained on panels with holes, on honeycomb panels, and on various panel treatments at normal incidence were documented. The design of equipment for panel transmission loss tests at nonnormal (slanted) sound incidence was described. A comprehensive theory-based prediction method was developed and shows good agreement with experimental observations of the stiffness controlled, the region, the resonance controlled region, and the mass-law region of panel vibration.

  1. TEM Cell Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques From 2 MHz to 200 MHz - Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Evans, William C.; Reed, Joshua L.; Shimp, Samuel K.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated in a TEM cell operating with radiated fields from 2 - 200 MHz. It is the first part of a two-paper series. This first paper discusses cable types and shield connections. In the second paper, the effects of load and source resistances and chassis connections are examined. For each topic, well established theories are compared to data from a real-world physical system. Finally, recommendations for minimizing cable susceptibility (and thus cable emissions) are presented. There are numerous papers and textbooks that present theoretical analyses of cable noise reduction techniques. However, empirical data is often targeted to low frequencies (e.g. <50 KHz) or high frequencies (>100 MHz). Additionally, a comprehensive study showing the relative effects of various noise reduction techniques is needed. These include the use of dedicated return wires, twisted wiring, cable shielding, shield connections, changing load or source impedances, and implementing load- or source-to-chassis isolation. We have created an experimental setup that emulates a real-world electrical system, while still allowing us to independently vary a host of parameters. The goal of the experiment was to determine the relative effectiveness of various noise reduction techniques when the cable is in the presence of radiated emissions from 2 MHz to 200 MHz. The electronic system (Fig. 1) consisted of two Hammond shielded electrical enclosures, one containing the source resistance, and the other containing the load resistance. The boxes were mounted on a large aluminium plate acting as the chassis. Cables connecting the two boxes measured 81 cm in length and were attached to the boxes using standard D38999 military-style connectors. The test setup is shown in Fig. 2. Electromagnetic fields were created using an HP8657B signal generator, MiniCircuits ZHL-42W-SMA amplifier, and an EMCO 5103 TEM cell. Measurements were

  2. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  3. Development of an impact noise reduction method by the adding of a small thickness elastomeric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arz, Jean-Pierre

    The starting point of this Ph.D. is the industrial issue submitted to the ETS by the company Bombardier Recreational Products (BRP) of the noise reduction of the tracked drive mechanism of snowmobiles. The overall goal of is to develop a method to predict the impact noise reduction obtained by the adding of an elastomeric layer specimen of small thickness between the impacting body and the impacted structure which is a complex structure (i.e. a structure whose geometry is complex and whose composition involves several materials). To reach this overall goal, three specific goals have been fixed: (1) characterize the behavior under impact of different small thickness elastomeric layers; (2) predict the impact force generated when an elastomeric layer is added on a complex vibrating structure; and (3) validate experimentally the whole method by applying it to the impact noise reduction of a bar of the snowmobile track. To reach the first specific goal (characterize the behavior under impact of different small thickness elastomeric layers), a specific experimental characterization method has been developed. Firstly, an experimental device has been realized to submit the elastomeric layer specimens to the reproducible impact conditions of an impact hammer. The measurement of the penetration depth of the hammer into the elastomeric layer is achieved by recording its motion with a high-speed camera and by detecting its position by further analysis on the individual images. Secondly, the experimental curves obtained are analyzed to point out their main characteristics and choose an appropriate impact model. Thirdly, the contact force parameters are estimated from the experimental results and from the impact model. Using this method, eight impacted elastomeric specimens have been characterized. The results show that a more precise characterization than hardness is obtained. To reach the second specific goal (predict the impact force generated when an elastomeric layer is

  4. Optimal guidance and control for investigating aircraft noise-impact reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Carson, T. M.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology for investigating the reduction of community noise impact is reported. This report is concerned with the development of two models to provide data: a guidance generator and an aircraft control generator suitable for various current and advanced types of aircraft. The guidance generator produces the commanded path information from inputs chosen by an operator from a graphic scope display of a land-use map of the terminal area. The guidance generator also produces smoothing at the junctions of straight-line paths.The aircraft control generator determines the optimal set of the available controls such that the aircraft will follow the commanded path. The solutions for the control functions are given and shown to be dependent on the class of aircraft to be considered, that is, whether the thrust vector is rotatable and whether the thrust vector affects the aerodynamic forces. For the class of aircraft possessing a rotatable thrust vector, the solution is redundant; this redundancy is removed by the additional condition that the noise inpact be minimized. Information from both the guidance generator and the aircraft control generator is used by the footprint program to construct the noise footprint.

  5. Experimental Study of Active Techniques for Blade/Vortex Interaction Noise Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobiki, Noboru; Murashige, Atsushi; Tsuchihashi, Akihiko; Yamakawa, Eiichi

    This paper presents the experimental results of the effect of Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) and Active Flap on the Blade/Vortex Interaction (BVI) noise. Wind tunnel tests were performed with a 1-bladed rotor system to evaluate the simplified BVI phenomenon avoiding the complicated aerodynamic interference which is characteristically and inevitably caused by a multi-bladed rotor. Another merit to use this 1-bladed rotor system is that the several objective active techniques can be evaluated under the same condition installed in the same rotor system. The effects of the active techniques on the BVI noise reduction were evaluated comprehensively by the sound pressure, the blade/vortex miss distance obtained by Laser light Sheet (LLS), the blade surface pressure distribution and the tip vortex structure by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The correlation among these quantities to describe the effect of the active techniques on the BVI conditions is well obtained. The experiments show that the blade/vortex miss distance is more dominant for BVI noise than the other two BVI governing factors, such as blade lift and vortex strength at the moment of BVI.

  6. Computational analysis of noise reduction devices in axial fans with stabilized finite element formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.; Rispoli, F.; Sheard, A. G.; Tezduyar, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    The paper illustrates how a computational fluid mechanic technique, based on stabilized finite element formulations, can be used in analysis of noise reduction devices in axial fans. Among the noise control alternatives, the study focuses on the use of end-plates fitted at the blade tips to control the leakage flow and the related aeroacoustic sources. The end-plate shape is configured to govern the momentum transfer to the swirling flow at the blade tip. This flow control mechanism has been found to have a positive link to the fan aeroacoustics. The complex physics of the swirling flow at the tip, developing under the influence of the end-plate, is governed by the rolling up of the jet-like leakage flow. The RANS modelling used in the computations is based on the streamline-upwind/Petrov-Galerkin and pressure-stabilizing/Petrov-Galerkin methods, supplemented with the DRDJ stabilization. Judicious determination of the stabilization parameters involved is also a part of our computational technique and is described for each component of the stabilized formulation. We describe the flow physics underlying the design of the noise control device and illustrate the aerodynamic performance. Then we investigate the numerical performance of the formulation by analysing the inner workings of the stabilization operators and of their interaction with the turbulence model.

  7. Noise reduction of coincidence detector output by the inferior colliculus of the barn owl.

    PubMed

    Christianson, G Björn; Peña, José Luis

    2006-05-31

    A recurring theme in theoretical work is that integration over populations of similarly tuned neurons can reduce neural noise. However, there are relatively few demonstrations of an explicit noise reduction mechanism in a neural network. Here we demonstrate that the brainstem of the barn owl includes a stage of processing apparently devoted to increasing the signal-to-noise ratio in the encoding of the interaural time difference (ITD), one of two primary binaural cues used to compute the position of a sound source in space. In the barn owl, the ITD is processed in a dedicated neural pathway that terminates at the core of the inferior colliculus (ICcc). The actual locus of the computation of the ITD is before ICcc in the nucleus laminaris (NL), and ICcc receives no inputs carrying information that did not originate in NL. Unlike in NL, the rate-ITD functions of ICcc neurons require as little as a single stimulus presentation per ITD to show coherent ITD tuning. ICcc neurons also displayed a greater dynamic range with a maximal difference in ITD response rates approximately double that seen in NL. These results indicate that ICcc neurons perform a computation functionally analogous to averaging across a population of similarly tuned NL neurons. PMID:16738236

  8. Trailing-edge noise reduction using derivative-free optimization and large-eddy simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsden, Alison L.; Wang, Meng; Dennis, J. E.; Moin, Parviz

    Derivative-free optimization techniques are applied in conjunction with large-eddy simulation (LES) to reduce the noise generated by turbulent flow over a hydrofoil trailing edge. A cost function proportional to the radiated acoustic power is derived based on the Ffowcs Williams and Hall solution to Lighthill's equation. Optimization is performed using the surrogate-management framework with filter-based constraints for lift and drag. To make the optimization more efficient, a novel method has been developed to incorporate Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) calculations for constraint evaluation. Separation of the constraint and cost-function computations using this method results in fewer expensive LES computations. This work demonstrates the ability to fully couple optimization to large-eddy simulation for time-accurate turbulent flow. The results demonstrate an 89% reduction in noise power, which comes about primarily by the elimination of low-frequency vortex shedding. The higher-frequency broadband noise is reduced as well, by a subtle change in the lower surface near the trailing edge.

  9. An active structural acoustic control approach for the reduction of the structure-borne road noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douville, Hugo; Berry, Alain; Masson, Patrice

    2002-11-01

    The reduction of the structure-borne road noise generated inside the cabin of an automobile is investigated using an Active Structural Acoustic Control (ASAC) approach. First, a laboratory test bench consisting of a wheel/suspension/lower suspension A-arm assembly has been developed in order to identify the vibroacoustic transfer paths (up to 250 Hz) for realistic road noise excitation of the wheel. Frequency Response Function (FRF) measurements between the excitation/control actuators and each suspension/chassis linkage are used to characterize the different transfer paths that transmit energy through the chassis of the car. Second, a FE/BE model (Finite/Boundary Elements) was developed to simulate the acoustic field of an automobile cab interior. This model is used to predict the acoustic field inside the cabin as a response to the measured forces applied on the suspension/chassis linkages. Finally, an experimental implementation of ASAC is presented. The control approach relies on the use of inertial actuators to modify the vibration behavior of the suspension and the automotive chassis such that its noise radiation efficiency is decreased. The implemented algorithm consists of a MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) feedforward configuration with a filtered-X LMS algorithm using an advanced reference signal (width FIR filters) using the Simulink/Dspace environment for control prototyping.

  10. Blade-mounted trailing edge flap control for BVI noise reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hassan, A. A.; Charles, B. D.; Tadghighi, H.; Sankar, L. N.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical procedures based on the 2-D and 3-D full potential equations and the 2-D Navier-Stokes equations were developed to study the effects of leading and trailing edge flap motions on the aerodynamics of parallel airfoil-vortex interactions and on the aerodynamics and acoustics of the more general self-generated rotor blade vortex interactions (BVI). For subcritical interactions, the 2-D results indicate that the trailing edge flap can be used to alleviate the impulsive loads experienced by the airfoil. For supercritical interactions, the results show the necessity of using a leading edge flap, rather than a trailing edge flap, to alleviate the interaction. Results for various time dependent flap motions and their effect on the predicted temporal sectional loads, differential pressures, and the free vortex trajectories are presented. For the OLS model rotor, contours of a BVI noise metric were used to quantify the effects of the trailing edge flap on the size and directivity of the high/low intensity noise region(s). Average reductions in the BVI noise levels on the order of 5 dB with moderate power penalties on the order of 18 pct. for a four bladed rotor and 58 pct. for a two bladed rotor were obtained.

  11. Rotorcraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huston, R. J. (Compiler)

    1982-01-01

    The establishment of a realistic plan for NASA and the U.S. helicopter industry to develop a design-for-noise methodology, including plans for the identification and development of promising noise reduction technology was discussed. Topics included: noise reduction techniques, scaling laws, empirical noise prediction, psychoacoustics, and methods of developing and validing noise prediction methods.

  12. State of the art: Design for noise II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Charts relating to helicopter noise reduction design efforts are given. Information regarding priorities, design guidelines, design margins, risks, noise prediction, derivative trends, design impact, and cost impact is given.

  13. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  14. The correlation study of parallel feature extractor and noise reduction approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Dewi, Deshinta Arrova; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Prabuwono, Anton Satria

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents literature reviews that show variety of techniques to develop parallel feature extractor and finding its correlation with noise reduction approaches for low light intensity images. Low light intensity images are normally displayed as darker images and low contrast. Without proper handling techniques, those images regularly become evidences of misperception of objects and textures, the incapability to section them. The visual illusions regularly clues to disorientation, user fatigue, poor detection and classification performance of humans and computer algorithms. Noise reduction approaches (NR) therefore is an essential step for other image processing steps such as edge detection, image segmentation, image compression, etc. Parallel Feature Extractor (PFE) meant to capture visual contents of images involves partitioning images into segments, detecting image overlaps if any, and controlling distributed and redistributed segments to extract the features. Working on low light intensity images make the PFE face challenges and closely depend on the quality of its pre-processing steps. Some papers have suggested many well established NR as well as PFE strategies however only few resources have suggested or mentioned the correlation between them. This paper reviews best approaches of the NR and the PFE with detailed explanation on the suggested correlation. This finding may suggest relevant strategies of the PFE development. With the help of knowledge based reasoning, computational approaches and algorithms, we present the correlation study between the NR and the PFE that can be useful for the development and enhancement of other existing PFE.

  15. Advanced noise reduction in placental ultrasound imaging using CPU and GPU: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zombori, G.; Ryan, J.; McAuliffe, F.; Rainford, L.; Moran, M.; Brennan, P.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents a comparison of different implementations of 3D anisotropic diffusion speckle noise reduction technique on ultrasound images. In this project we are developing a novel volumetric calcification assessment metric for the placenta, and providing a software tool for this purpose. The tool can also automatically segment and visualize (in 3D) ultrasound data. One of the first steps when developing such a tool is to find a fast and efficient way to eliminate speckle noise. Previous works on this topic by Duan, Q. [1] and Sun, Q. [2] have proven that the 3D noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (3D SRAD) method shows exceptional performance in enhancing ultrasound images for object segmentation. Therefore we have implemented this method in our software application and performed a comparative study on the different variants in terms of performance and computation time. To increase processing speed it was necessary to utilize the full potential of current state of the art Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Our 3D datasets are represented in a spherical volume format. With the aim of 2D slice visualization and segmentation, a "scan conversion" or "slice-reconstruction" step is needed, which includes coordinate transformation from spherical to Cartesian, re-sampling of the volume and interpolation. Combining the noise filtering and slice reconstruction in one process on the GPU, we can achieve close to real-time operation on high quality data sets without the need for down-sampling or reducing image quality. For the GPU programming OpenCL language was used. Therefore the presented solution is fully portable.

  16. Effects of noise reduction on AM perception for hearing-impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Ives, D Timothy; Kalluri, Sridhar; Strelcyk, Olaf; Sheft, Stanley; Miermont, Franck; Coez, Arnaud; Bizaguet, Eric; Lorenzi, Christian

    2014-10-01

    Noise reduction (NR) systems are commonplace in modern digital hearing aids. Though not improving speech intelligibility, NR helps the hearing-aid user in terms of lowering noise annoyance, reducing cognitive load and improving ease of listening. Previous psychophysical work has shown that NR does in fact improve the ability of normal-hearing (NH) listeners to discriminate the slow amplitude-modulation (AM) cues representative of those found in speech. The goal of this study was to assess whether this improvement of AM discrimination with NR can also be observed for hearing-impaired (HI) listeners. AM discrimination was measured at two audio frequencies of 500 Hz and 2 kHz in a background noise with a signal-to-noise ratio of 12 dB. Discrimination was measured for ten HI and ten NH listeners with and without NR processing. The HI listeners had a moderate sensorineural hearing loss of about 50 dB HL at 2 kHz and normal hearing (≤ 20 dB HL) at 500 Hz. The results showed that most of the HI listeners tended to benefit from NR at 500 Hz but not at 2 kHz. However, statistical analyses showed that HI listeners did not benefit significantly from NR at any frequency region. In comparison, the NH listeners showed a significant benefit from NR at both frequencies. For each condition, the fidelity of AM transmission was quantified by a computational model of early auditory processing. The parameters of the model were adjusted separately for the two groups (NH and HI) of listeners. The AM discrimination performance of the HI group (with and without NR) was best captured by a model simulating the loss of the fast-acting amplitude compression applied by the normal cochlea. This suggests that the lack of benefit from NR for HI listeners results from loudness recruitment. PMID:24899379

  17. Single-channel noise reduction using unified joint diagonalization and optimal filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie; Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the important problem of single-channel noise reduction is treated from a new perspective. The problem is posed as a filtering problem based on joint diagonalization of the covariance matrices of the desired and noise signals. More specifically, the eigenvectors from the joint diagonalization corresponding to the least significant eigenvalues are used to form a filter, which effectively estimates the noise when applied to the observed signal. This estimate is then subtracted from the observed signal to form an estimate of the desired signal, i.e., the speech signal. In doing this, we consider two cases, where, respectively, no distortion and distortion are incurred on the desired signal. The former can be achieved when the covariance matrix of the desired signal is rank deficient, which is the case, for example, for voiced speech. In the latter case, the covariance matrix of the desired signal is full rank, as is the case, for example, in unvoiced speech. Here, the amount of distortion incurred is controlled via a simple, integer parameter, and the more distortion allowed, the higher the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Simulations demonstrate the properties of the two solutions. In the distortionless case, the proposed filter achieves only a slightly worse output SNR, compared to the Wiener filter, along with no signal distortion. Moreover, when distortion is allowed, it is possible to achieve higher output SNRs compared to the Wiener filter. Alternatively, when a lower output SNR is accepted, a filter with less signal distortion than the Wiener filter can be constructed.

  18. Speech quality evaluation of a sparse coding shrinkage noise reduction algorithm with normal hearing and hearing impaired listeners.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jinqiu; Hu, Hongmei; Zheng, Chengshi; Li, Guoping; Lutman, Mark E; Bleeck, Stefan

    2015-09-01

    Although there are numerous papers describing single-channel noise reduction strategies to improve speech perception in a noisy environment, few studies have comprehensively evaluated the effects of noise reduction algorithms on speech quality for hearing impaired (HI). A model-based sparse coding shrinkage (SCS) algorithm has been developed, and has shown previously (Sang et al., 2014) that it is as competitive as a state-of-the-art Wiener filter approach in speech intelligibility. Here, the analysis is extended to include subjective quality ratings and a method called Interpolated Paired Comparison Rating (IPCR) is adopted to quantitatively link the benefit of speech intelligibility and speech quality. The subjective quality tests are performed through IPCR to efficiently quantify noise reduction effects on speech quality. Objective measures including frequency-weighted segmental signal-to-noise ratio (fwsegSNR), perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ) and hearing aid speech quality index (HASQI) are adopted to predict the noise reduction effects. Results show little difference in speech quality between the SCS and the Wiener filter algorithm but a difference in quality rating between the HI and NH listeners. HI listeners generally gave better quality ratings of noise reduction algorithms than NH listeners. However, SCS reduced the noise more efficiently at the cost of higher distortions that were detected by NH but not by the HI. SCS is a promising candidate for noise reduction algorithms for HI. In general, care needs to be taken when adopting algorithms that were originally developed for NH participants into hearing aid applications. An algorithm that is evaluated negatively with NH might still bring benefits for HI participants. PMID:26232529

  19. Effect of Two Advanced Noise Reduction Technologies on the Aerodynamic Performance of an Ultra High Bypass Ratio Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christoper E.; Gazzaniga, John A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center anechoic 9- by 15-Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel to investigate two new advanced noise reduction technologies in support of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes. Both technologies were aimed at modifying the local noise source mechanisms of the fan tip vortex/fan case interaction and the rotor wake-stator interaction. For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2.75 to 8.75 percent, depending on configuration, compared to the conventional solid baseline fan case rubstrip also tested. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.8 percent loss in corrected stator vane thrust, which resulted in a total net thrust loss of approximately 0.5 percent compared with the baseline reference stator vane set.

  20. SU-E-I-77: A Noise Reduction Technique for Energy-Resolved Photon-Counting Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Lam Ng, A; Ding, H; Cho, H; Molloi, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Finding the optimal energy threshold setting for an energy-resolved photon-counting detector has an important impact on the maximization of contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR). We introduce a noise reduction method to enhance CNR by reducing the noise in each energy bin without altering the average gray levels in the projection and image domains. Methods: We simulated a four bin energy-resolved photon-counting detector based on Si with a 10 mm depth of interaction. TASMIP algorithm was used to simulate a spectrum of 65 kVp with 2.7 mm Al filter. A 13 mm PMMA phantom with hydroxyapatite and iodine at different concentrations (100, 200 and 300 mg/ml for HA, and 2, 4, and 8 mg/ml for Iodine) was used. Projection-based and Image-based energy weighting methods were used to generate weighted images. A reference low noise image was used for noise reduction purposes. A Gaussian-like weighting function which computes the similarity between pixels of interest was calculated from the reference image and implemented on a pixel by pixel basis for the noisy images. Results: CNR improvement compared to different methods (Charge-Integrated, Photon-Counting and Energy-Weighting) and after noise reduction was highly task-dependent. The CNR improvement with respect to the Charge-Integrated CNR for hydroxyapatite and iodine were 1.8 and 1.5, respectively. In each of the energy bins, the noise was reduced by approximately factor of two without altering their respective average gray levels. Conclusion: The proposed noise reduction technique for energy-resolved photon-counting detectors can significantly reduce image noise. This technique can be used as a compliment to the current energy-weighting methods in CNR optimization.

  1. The Development And Implementation Of A Concept To Permanent Reduction Of Noise Pollution In Production Taking Into Account The Legal And Economic Framework Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaušková, Lucia; Czán, Andrej; Babík, Ondrej; Piešová, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    Article deals with the issue of reducing noise impact in real conditions of industrial production. The solution includes measurements and calculations of noise level the person is exposed to and developing proposals for effective reduction of noise levels at the specific workplace. When assessing noise levels and design to reduce it to an acceptable level we will consider the legal, safety and economic conditions.

  2. A study of the performance of an Olson type active noise controller and the possibility of the reduction of cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, S. E.; Scholaert, H. S. B.

    1981-03-01

    Designed to reduce sound levels by means of an electronic transducing system, the active noise controller is a basic feedback control system composed of a speaker, microphone, amplifier and control unit. Because the scheme can be effective in reducing low frequency noise, it is of particular interest to aircraft manufacturers since attenuation of low frequency noise to increase passenger comfort can be at once costly and cumbersome when conventional sound absorption methods are employed. Olson and May's pioneering work in the 1950's in developing an electronic sound absorber which appeared to be successful over small volumes in a unidirectional sound field is re-examined as well as more recent developments in an effort to test their suitability to the aircraft industry. The results suggest only limited possible use for all systems studied.

  3. Noise reduction by projection direction dependent diffusion for low dose fan-beam x-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shaojie; Mou, Xuanqin; Zhang, Yanbo; Yu, Hengyong

    2011-03-01

    We propose a novel method to reduce the noise in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) imaging. First, the inverse Radon transform is induced for a family of differential expression of projection function. Second, the diffusion partial differential equation (PDE) is generalized from image space to projection space in parallel-beam geometry. Third, the diffusion PDE is further induced from parallel-beam geometry to fan-beam geometry. Finally, the projection direction dependent diffusion is developed to reduce CT noise, which arises from the quantum variation in the low dose exposure of a medical x-ray CT (XCT) system. The proposed noise reduction processes projections iteratively and dependently on x-ray path position, followed by a general CT reconstruction. Numerical simulation studies have demonstrated its feasibility in the noise reduction of low dose fan-beam XCT imaging.

  4. A novel coupling of noise reduction algorithms for particle flow simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimoń, M. J.; Reese, J. M.; Emerson, D. R.

    2016-09-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and its extension based on time-windows have been shown to greatly improve the effectiveness of recovering smooth ensemble solutions from noisy particle data. However, to successfully de-noise any molecular system, a large number of measurements still need to be provided. In order to achieve a better efficiency in processing time-dependent fields, we have combined POD with a well-established signal processing technique, wavelet-based thresholding. In this novel hybrid procedure, the wavelet filtering is applied within the POD domain and referred to as WAVinPOD. The algorithm exhibits promising results when applied to both synthetically generated signals and particle data. In this work, the simulations compare the performance of our new approach with standard POD or wavelet analysis in extracting smooth profiles from noisy velocity and density fields. Numerical examples include molecular dynamics and dissipative particle dynamics simulations of unsteady force- and shear-driven liquid flows, as well as phase separation phenomenon. Simulation results confirm that WAVinPOD preserves the dimensionality reduction obtained using POD, while improving its filtering properties through the sparse representation of data in wavelet basis. This paper shows that WAVinPOD outperforms the other estimators for both synthetically generated signals and particle-based measurements, achieving a higher signal-to-noise ratio from a smaller number of samples. The new filtering methodology offers significant computational savings, particularly for multi-scale applications seeking to couple continuum informations with atomistic models. It is the first time that a rigorous analysis has compared de-noising techniques for particle-based fluid simulations.

  5. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Suder, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are: a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney; an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney and FAA; and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  6. High-quality three-dimensional reconstruction and noise reduction of multifocal images from oversized samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martišek, Dalibor; Procházková, Jana; Ficker, Tomáš

    2015-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction is an indispensable tool in areas such as biology, chemistry, medicine, material sciences, etc. The sample can be reconstructed using confocal or nonconfocal mode of a microscope. The limitation of the confocal approach is the sample size. Currently used devices work mostly with sample surface area up to 1 cm2. We suggest a three-step method that creates 3-D reconstruction from multifocal images in nonconfocal mode that is qualitatively comparable to the confocal results. Our method, thus, takes advantage of both microscope modes-high-quality results without sample size limitation. The preprocessing step eliminates the additive noise with Linderberg-Lévi theorem. The main focus criterion is based on adjusted Fourier transform. In the final step, we eliminate the defective clusters using the adaptive pixel neighborhood algorithm. We proved the effectiveness of our noise reduction and 3-D reconstruction method by the statistical comparisons; the correlation coefficients average 0.987 for all types of Fourier transforms.

  7. Noise reduction of VQ encoded images through anti-gray coding.

    PubMed

    Kuo, C J; Lin, C H; Yeh, C H

    1999-01-01

    Noise reduction of VQ encoded images is achieved through the proposed anti-gray coding (AGC) and noise detection and correction scheme. In AGC, binary indices are assigned to the codevector in such a way that the 1-b neighbors of a code vector are as far apart as possible. To detect the channel errors, we first classify an image into uniform and edge regions. Then we propose a mask to detect the channel errors based on the image classification (uniform or edge region) and the characteristics of AGC. We also mathematically derive a criterion for error detection based on the image classification. Once error indices are detected, the recovered indices can be easily chosen from a "candidate set" by minimizing the gray-level transition across the block boundaries in a VQ encoded image. Simulation results show that the proposed technique provides detection results with smaller than 0.1% probability of error and more than 86.3% probability of detection at a random bit error rate of 0.1%, while the undetected errors are invisible. In addition, the proposed detection and correction techniques improve the image quality (compared with that encoded by AGC) by 3.9 dB. PMID:18262863

  8. Experimental Investigation of Shock-Cell Noise Reduction for Single Stream Nozzles in Simulated Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Brausch, J. F.; Balsa, T. F.; Janardan, B. A.; Knott, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    Seven single stream model nozzles were tested in the Anechoic Free-Jet Acoustic Test Facility to evaluate the effectiveness of convergent divergent (C-D) flowpaths in the reduction of shock-cell noise under both static and mulated flight conditions. The test nozzles included a baseline convergent circular nozzle, a C-D circular nozzle, a convergent annular plug nozzle, a C-D annular plug nozzle, a convergent multi-element suppressor plug nozzle, and a C-D multi-element suppressor plug nozzle. Diagnostic flow visualization with a shadowgraph and aerodynamic plume measurements with a laser velocimeter were performed with the test nozzles. A theory of shock-cell noise for annular plug nozzles with shock-cells in the vicinity of the plug was developed. The benefit of these C-D nozzles was observed over a broad range of pressure ratiosin the vicinity of their design conditions. At the C-D design condition, the C-D annual nozzle was found to be free of shock-cells on the plug.

  9. Portal imaging: Performance improvement in noise reduction by means of wavelet processing.

    PubMed

    González-López, Antonio; Morales-Sánchez, Juan; Larrey-Ruiz, Jorge; Bastida-Jumilla, María-Consuelo; Verdú-Monedero, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the suitability, in terms of noise reduction, of various methods which can be applied to an image type often used in radiation therapy: the portal image. Among these methods, the analysis focuses on those operating in the wavelet domain. Wavelet-based methods tested on natural images--such as the thresholding of the wavelet coefficients, the minimization of the Stein unbiased risk estimator on a linear expansion of thresholds (SURE-LET), and the Bayes least-squares method using as a prior a Gaussian scale mixture (BLS-GSM method)--are compared with other methods that operate on the image domain--an adaptive Wiener filter and a nonlocal mean filter (NLM). For the assessment of the performance, the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), the structural similarity index (SSIM), the Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Spearman rank correlation (ρ) coefficient are used. The performance of the wavelet filters and the NLM method are similar, but wavelet filters outperform the Wiener filter in terms of portal image denoising. It is shown how BLS-GSM and NLM filters produce the smoothest image, while keeping soft-tissue and bone contrast. As for the computational cost, filters using a decimated wavelet transform (decimated thresholding and SURE-LET) turn out to be the most efficient, with calculation times around 1 s. PMID:26602966

  10. Environmentally Responsible Aviation: Propulsion Research to Enable Fuel Burn, Noise and Emissions Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Suder, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) program is maturing technologies to enable simultaneous reduction of fuel burn, noise and emissions from an aircraft engine system. Three engine related Integrated Technology Demonstrations (ITDs) have been completed at Glenn Research Center in collaboration with Pratt Whitney, General Electric and the Federal Aviation Administration. The engine technologies being matured are a low NOx, fuel flexible combustor in partnership with Pratt Whitney, an ultra-high bypass, ducted propulsor system in partnership with Pratt Whitney FAA and high pressure ratio, front-stage core compressor technology in partnership with General Electric. The technical rationale, test configurations and overall results from the test series in each ITD are described. ERA is using system analysis to project the benefits of the ITD technologies on potential aircraft systems in the 2025 timeframe. Data from the ITD experiments were used to guide the system analysis assumptions. Results from the current assessments for fuel burn, noise and oxides of nitrogen emissions are presented.

  11. Chemical noise reduction via mass spectrometry and ion/ion charge inversion: amino acids.

    PubMed

    Hassell, Kerry M; LeBlanc, Yves C; McLuckey, Scott A

    2011-05-01

    Charge inversion ion/ion reactions can provide a significant reduction in chemical noise associated with mass spectra derived from complex mixtures for species composed of both acidic and basic sites, provided the ions derived from the matrix largely undergo neutralization. Amino acids constitute an important class of amphoteric compounds that undergo relatively efficient charge inversion. Precipitated plasma constitutes a relatively complex biological matrix that yields detectable signals at essentially every mass-to-charge value over a wide range. This chemical noise can be dramatically reduced using multiply charged reagent ions that can invert the charge of species amenable to the transfer of multiple charges upon a single interaction and by detecting product ions of opposite polarity. The principle is illustrated here with amino acids present in precipitated plasma subjected to ionization in the positive mode, reaction with anions derived from negative nanoelectrospray ionization of poly (amido amine) dendrimer generation 3.5, and mass analysis in the negative ion mode. PMID:21456599

  12. Noise reduction in holographic reconstruction by combining two spatial light modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leportier, Thibault; Park, Min-Chul; Son, Jung-Young

    2015-05-01

    One of the issues in holographic display is the presence of the zeroth order and the twin image, which degrade quality of reconstructed objects. A common solution is to use an off-axis configuration. However, the spatial separation of the three contributions imposes constraints on the resolution and the size of holograms that can be displayed. In addition, the spatial light modulators (SLM) available present limitations in term of resolution and fill factor. Recently, different methods have been proposed to display complex information and therefore get rid of the twin image. One approach is to use a grating to combine the real and imaginary parts of the holographic data. It requires only one SLM, but the resolution is low as the SLM is divided in two to display the two components of the data. The grating period that should be used also strongly depends on the wavelength and the hologram size. As a result, the tolerance of the system is very low. Another method is to combine two SLMs. In this study, we used a polarizing beam splitter and a wave-plate to exploit the polarization properties of the light and combine the wavefronts coming from two SLMs. One was used to display the hologram while the second compensated the background noise coming from the diffusion of the input light by the pixels and the intrinsic periodic structure of the SLM. A key point is to align precisely the two SLMs to optimize the noise reduction without losing the object's information.

  13. Linear adaptive noise-reduction filters for tomographic imaging: Optimizing for minimum mean square error

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, W Y

    1993-04-01

    This thesis solves the problem of finding the optimal linear noise-reduction filter for linear tomographic image reconstruction. The optimization is data dependent and results in minimizing the mean-square error of the reconstructed image. The error is defined as the difference between the result and the best possible reconstruction. Applications for the optimal filter include reconstructions of positron emission tomographic (PET), X-ray computed tomographic, single-photon emission tomographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Using high resolution PET as an example, the optimal filter is derived and presented for the convolution backprojection, Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse, and the natural-pixel basis set reconstruction methods. Simulations and experimental results are presented for the convolution backprojection method.

  14. Noise reduction in a launch vehicle fairing using actively tuned loudspeakers.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Jonathan D; Clark, Robert L

    2003-04-01

    Loudspeakers tuned as optimal acoustic absorbers can significantly reduce damaging, low frequency, reverberant noise in a full-scale launch vehicle fairing. Irregular geometry, changing payloads, and the compliant nature of the fairing hinder effective implementation of a passively tuned loudspeaker. A method of tuning the loudspeaker dynamics in real time is required to meet the application requirements. Through system identification, the dynamics of the enclosure can be identified and used to tune the dynamics of the loudspeaker for reduction of targeted, high intensity, low-frequency modes that dominate the acoustic response in the fairing. A loudspeaker model with desired dynamics serves as the reference model in a control law designed to tune the dynamics of a non-ideal loudspeaker to act as an optimal tuned absorber. Experimental results indicate that a tuned loudspeaker placed in the nose cone of the fairing significantly reduces acoustic energy and verifies results calculated from the simulation. PMID:12703709

  15. Method for the reduction of signal-induced noise in photomultiplier tubes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, C K; De Young, R J

    2000-04-20

    A new method to reduce photomultiplier tube detector signal-induced noise (SIN) in a lidar system is successfully demonstrated. A metal ring electrode placed external to the photomultiplier tube photocathode is pulsed during the intense near-field lidar return with a potential between 15 and 500 V, resulting in a significant reduction in SIN. The effect of the metal ring voltage on the decay time constant and the magnitude of a simulated lidar signal is presented. Optimal experimental conditions for the use of this device in lidar receivers, such that the lidar decay time constant is not affected, are determined. Mechanisms for this SIN suppression system are discussed in detail, and data were recorded to show that the voltage on the metal ring functions by altering the photomultiplier electron optics. PMID:18345096

  16. Age-Related Benefits of Digital Noise Reduction for Short-Term Word Learning in Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rate of word learning for children with hearing loss (HL) in quiet and in noise compared to normal-hearing (NH) peers. The effects of digital noise reduction (DNR) were examined for children with HL. Method: Forty-one children with NH and 26 children with HL were grouped by age (8-9 years and 11-12 years). The children…

  17. Experimental investigation of shock-cell noise reduction for dual-stream nozzles in simulated flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Yamamoto, K.; Majjigi, R. K.; Brausch, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Six scale-model nozzles were tested in an anechoic facility to evauate the effectiveness of convergent-divergent (C-D) terminations in reducing shock-cell noise of unsuppressed and mechanically suppressed coannular plug nozzles. One hundred fifty-three acoustic test points with inverted velocity profiles were conducted under static and simulated flight conditions. Diagnostic flow visualization with a shadowgraph and velocity measurements with a laser velocimeter were performed on selected plumes. Shock-cells were identified on the plug and downstream of the plug of the unsuppressed convergent coannular nozzle with truncated plug. Broadband peak frequencies predicted with the two shock-cell structures were correlated with the observed spectra using the measured shock-cell spacings. Relative to a convergent circular nozzle, the perceived noise level (PNL) data at an observer angle of 60 deg relative to inlet, indicated a reduction of (1) 6.5 dB and 9.2 dB with unsuppressed C-D coannular nozzle with truncated plug and (2) 7.7 dB and 8.3 dB with suppressed C-D coannular nozzle under static and simulated flight conditions, espectively. The unsuppressed C-D coannular nozzle with truncated plug, operating at the C-D design condition, had shock-cells downstream of the plug with no shock-cells on the plug. The downstream shock-cells were eliminated by replacing the truncated plug with a smooth extension to obtain an additional 2.4 dB and 3 dB front quadrant PNL reduction, under static and simulated flight conditions, respectively. Other results are discussed.

  18. Effect of Community Engagement Interventions on Patient Safety and Risk Reduction Efforts in Primary Health Facilities: Evidence from Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Alhassan, Robert Kaba; Nketiah-Amponsah, Edward; Spieker, Nicole; Arhinful, Daniel Kojo; Ogink, Alice; van Ostenberg, Paul; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient safety and quality care remain major challenges to Ghana’s healthcare system. Like many health systems in Africa, this is largely because demand for healthcare is outstripping available human and material resource capacity of healthcare facilities and new investment is insufficient. In the light of these demand and supply constraints, systematic community engagement (SCE) in healthcare quality assessment can be a feasible and cost effective option to augment existing quality improvement interventions. SCE entails structured use of existing community groups to assess healthcare quality in health facilities. Identified quality gaps are discussed with healthcare providers, improvements identified and rewards provided if the quality gaps are closed. Purpose This paper evaluates whether or not SCE, through the assessment of health service quality, improves patient safety and risk reduction efforts by staff in healthcare facilities. Methods A randomized control trail was conducted in 64 primary healthcare facilities in the Greater Accra and Western regions of Ghana. Patient risk assessments were conducted in 32 randomly assigned intervention and control facilities. Multivariate multiple regression test was used to determine effect of the SCE interventions on staff efforts towards reducing patient risk. Spearman correlation test was used to ascertain associations between types of community groups engaged and risk assessment scores of healthcare facilities. Findings Clinic staff efforts towards increasing patient safety and reducing risk improved significantly in intervention facilities especially in the areas of leadership/accountability (Coef. = 10.4, p<0.05) and staff competencies (Coef. = 7.1, p<0.05). Improvement in service utilization and health resources could not be attributed to the interventions because these were outside the control of the study and might have been influenced by institutional or national level developments between the

  19. Statistical-noise reduction in correlation analysis of high-energy nuclear collisions with event-mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. L.; Bhattarai, P.

    2016-06-01

    The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid-Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid-Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.

  20. Structure-acoustic finite element analyses for noise reduction investigations of launcher payload compartment structures made of CFRP sandwich material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faust, M.; Schweickert, G.; Strobel, F.

    1991-10-01

    An investigation of the noise reduction properties of the Ariane 5 Speltra payload compartment structure is reported. The low frequency noise reduction was calculated by the Finite Element Method (FEM) with a formulation for fluid structure interaction (FE code PERMAS-FS). The results of the different analysis steps including uncoupled and coupled analysis are presented. The uncoupled structure and cavity dynamics results were compared to closed form solutions with good agreement. The introduction of external field effects, i.e. radiation damping and scattering, was performed by using closed form solutions for cylinder type structures. The analyses were performed for 2 different test cylinders and the Speltra cylindrical part. The test cylinder results were compared with the measured noise reductions and good agreement was obtained.

  1. SVD-based optimal filtering for noise reduction in dual microphone hearing aids: a real time implementation and perceptual evaluation.

    PubMed

    Maj, Jean-Baptiste; Royackers, Liesbeth; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, the first real-time implementation and perceptual evaluation of a singular value decomposition (SVD)-based optimal filtering technique for noise reduction in a dual microphone behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing aid is presented. This evaluation was carried out for a speech weighted noise and multitalker babble, for single and multiple jammer sound source scenarios. Two basic microphone configurations in the hearing aid were used. The SVD-based optimal filtering technique was compared against an adaptive beamformer, which is known to give significant improvements in speech intelligibility in noisy environment. The optimal filtering technique works without assumptions about a speaker position, unlike the two-stage adaptive beamformer. However this strategy needs a robust voice activity detector (VAD). A method to improve the performance of the VAD was presented and evaluated physically. By connecting the VAD to the output of the noise reduction algorithms, a good discrimination between the speech-and-noise periods and the noise-only periods of the signals was obtained. The perceptual experiments demonstrated that the SVD-based optimal filtering technique could perform as well as the adaptive beamformer in a single noise source scenario, i.e., the ideal scenario for the latter technique, and could outperform the adaptive beamformer in multiple noise source scenarios. PMID:16189969

  2. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Andreas; Wigström, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu, Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia’s CUDA Interface provided an 8

  3. Three-dimensional anisotropic adaptive filtering of projection data for noise reduction in cone beam CT

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, Andreas; Wigstroem, Lars; Hofmann, Hannes G.; Hornegger, Joachim; Zhu Lei; Strobel, Norbert; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The combination of quickly rotating C-arm gantry with digital flat panel has enabled the acquisition of three-dimensional data (3D) in the interventional suite. However, image quality is still somewhat limited since the hardware has not been optimized for CT imaging. Adaptive anisotropic filtering has the ability to improve image quality by reducing the noise level and therewith the radiation dose without introducing noticeable blurring. By applying the filtering prior to 3D reconstruction, noise-induced streak artifacts are reduced as compared to processing in the image domain. Methods: 3D anisotropic adaptive filtering was used to process an ensemble of 2D x-ray views acquired along a circular trajectory around an object. After arranging the input data into a 3D space (2D projections + angle), the orientation of structures was estimated using a set of differently oriented filters. The resulting tensor representation of local orientation was utilized to control the anisotropic filtering. Low-pass filtering is applied only along structures to maintain high spatial frequency components perpendicular to these. The evaluation of the proposed algorithm includes numerical simulations, phantom experiments, and in-vivo data which were acquired using an AXIOM Artis dTA C-arm system (Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Forchheim, Germany). Spatial resolution and noise levels were compared with and without adaptive filtering. A human observer study was carried out to evaluate low-contrast detectability. Results: The adaptive anisotropic filtering algorithm was found to significantly improve low-contrast detectability by reducing the noise level by half (reduction of the standard deviation in certain areas from 74 to 30 HU). Virtually no degradation of high contrast spatial resolution was observed in the modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis. Although the algorithm is computationally intensive, hardware acceleration using Nvidia's CUDA Interface provided an 8.9-fold

  4. Noise Exposure of Teachers in Nursery Schools—Evaluation of Measures for Noise Reduction When Dropping DUPLO Toy Bricks into Storage Cases by Sound Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gebauer, Konstanze; Scharf, Thomas; Baumann, Uwe; Groneberg, David A.; Bundschuh, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although noise is one of the leading work-related health risk factors for teachers, many nursery schools lack sufficient noise reduction measures. Methods: This intervention study evaluated the noise exposure of nursery school teachers when dropping DUPLO toy bricks into storage cases. Sound analyses of the impact included assessment of the maximum sound pressure level (LAFmax) as well as frequency analyses with 1/3 octave band filter. For the purpose of standardization, a customized gadget was developed. Recordings were performed in 11 cases of different materials and designs to assess the impact on sound level reduction. Thereby, the acoustic effects of three damping materials (foam rubber, carpet, and PU-foam) were investigated. Results: The lowest LAFmax was measured in cases consisting of “metal grid” (90.71 dB) or of a woven willow “basket” (91.61 dB), whereas a case of “aluminium” (103.34 dB) generated the highest impact LAFmax. The frequency analyses determined especially low LAFmax in the frequency bands between 80 and 2500 Hz in cases designs “metal grid” and “basket”. The insertion of PU-foam achieved the most significant attenuation of LAFmax (−13.88 dB) and, in the frequency analyses, the best sound damping. Conclusion: The dropping of DUPLO bricks in cases contributes to the high noise level in nursery schools, but measured LAFmax show no evidence for the danger of acute hearing loss. However, continuous exposure may lead to functional impairment of the hair cells and trigger stress reactions. We recommend noise reduction by utilizing cases of woven “basket” with an insert of PU-foam. PMID:27384575

  5. The effect of oblique angle of sound incidence, realistic edge conditions, curvature and in-plane panel stresses on the noise reduction characteristics of general aviation type panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, F.; Lameris, J.; Dunn, D.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments and a theoretical analysis were conducted to predict the noise reduction of inclined and curved panels. These predictions are compared to the experimental results with reasonable agreement between theory and experiment for panels under an oblique angle of sound incidence. Theoretical as well as experimental results indicate a big increase in noise reduction when a flat test panel is curved. Further curving the panel slightly decreases the noise reduction. Riveted flat panels are shown to give a higher noise reduction in the stiffness-controlled frequency region, while bonded panels are superior in this region when the test panel is curved. Experimentally measured noise reduction characteristics of flat aluminum panels with uniaxial in-plane stresses are presented and discussed. These test results indicate an important improvement in the noise reduction of these panels in the frequency range below the fundamental panel/cavity frequency.

  6. Reduction of Striping Noise in Overlapping LIDAR Intensity Data by Radiometric Normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wai Yeung; Shaker, Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    To serve seamless mapping, airborne LiDAR data are usually collected with multiple parallel strips with one or two cross strip(s). Nevertheless, the overlapping regions of LiDAR data strips are usually found with unbalanced intensity values, resulting in the appearance of stripping noise. Despite that physical intensity correction methods are recently proposed, some of the system and environmental parameters are assumed as constant or not disclosed, leading to such an intensity discrepancy. This paper presents a new normalization technique to adjust the radiometric misalignment found in the overlapping LiDAR data strips. The normalization technique is built upon a second-order polynomial function fitted on the joint histogram plot, which is generated with a set of pairwise closest data points identified within the overlapping region. The method was tested on Teledyne Optech's Gemini dataset (at 1064 nm wavelength), where the LiDAR intensity data were first radiometrically corrected based on the radar (range) equation. Five land cover features were selected to evaluate the coefficient of variation (cv) of the intensity values before and after implementing the proposed method. Reduction of cv was found by 19% to 59% in the Gemini dataset, where the striping noise was significantly reduced in the radiometrically corrected and normalized intensity data. The Gemini dataset was also used to conduct land cover classification, and the overall accuracy yielded a notable improvement of 9% to 18%. As a result, LiDAR intensity data should be pre-processed with radiometric correction and normalization prior to any data manipulation.

  7. Preliminary Experiments on Noise Reduction in Cavities Using Active Impedance Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LACOUR, O.; GALLAND, M. A.; THENAIL, D.

    2000-02-01

    This paper reports experiments on the active control of enclosed sound fields via wall impedance changes. Two methods previously developed allow one to implement practically active acoustic impedances: the first is referred to as “direct” control and permits precise realizations for harmonic excitations, while the second is a hybrid passive/active feedback control well suited for random noise treatments. The two techniques have been already presented [1]; the contribution of this work relies on testing the efficiency of both systems in silencing two enclosures through experimental analyses, subsequently compared with classical analytical description. The first test cavity is one-dimensional; a global sound reduction is achieved by the hybrid system for a broadband primary excitation. The second system is a reactangular three-dimensional cavity closed by a simply supported elastic plate. The noise source is an external load applied at one point of the plate. Different impedance values are successively assigned, their effect being estimated through a global sound level indicator. Attention is also given to plate vibration changes, which may occur. Three typical behaviours of the plate-cavity system are investigated. A first experiment involves an excitation at an acoustic resonance and induces a weak plate-cavity coupling. The second, also at an acoustic resonance of the cavity, yields a strong coupling while the third corresponds to an off-resonance excitation. The hybrid feedback control system provides useful attenuation for all cases, and shows also a promising behaviour when dealing with broadband excitations. It confirms the interest of the method when classical feedforward active control fails, i.e., when reliable prior information of the undesired disturbance is not available.

  8. Noise reduction techniques in the design of a pneumatic-driven hand held power tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, Christian M.

    2005-09-01

    Pneumatic-driven hand-held power tools generate noise in the workplace. Current legislation in Europe and the USA aims at protecting workers against noise exposure. In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires that employers create a hearing conservation program if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). In the European Community under the Directive 2003/10/EC, employers are required to provide hearing protection if the noise exposure within the working environment exceeds 80 dB(A) and must require hearing protection to be worn if the noise exposure exceeds 85 dB(A). This paper examines the sources of noise which contribute to the overall noise from a hand-held power tool. A test plan was developed to identify these individual sources of noise and to determine if structure-borne noise or airborne noise is the dominant source relative to the overall noise level. The measurements were performed per International Standards Organization (ISO) 15744. This paper will describe the methodology used to identify the noise sources and reduce the overall noise of a hand-held power tool.

  9. Reduction of phase noise to amplitude noise conversion in silicon waveguide-based phase-sensitive amplification.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yonghua; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan; Wang, Zhaolu

    2016-04-20

    We use a vector phase sensitive amplification (PSA) scheme, which can eliminate the inherent phase noise (PN) to amplitude noise (AN) conversion in a conventional PSA process. A dispersion-engineered silicon strip waveguide is used to investigate the vector PSA scheme at the telecom wavelengths. The phase-dependent gain and phase-to-phase transfer functions as well as constellation diagram at different signal polarization states (SPSs) are numerically analyzed. It is found that the PN to AN conversion is completely suppressed when the SPS is identical to one of the pump polarization states. Moreover, the binary phase shift keying signal is regenerated by the proposed vector PSA scheme, and the error vector magnitude is calculated to assess the regeneration capacity. Our results have potential application in all-optical signal processing. PMID:27140079

  10. A noise-reduction GWAS analysis implicates altered regulation of neurite outgrowth and guidance in autism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) have proved invaluable for the identification of disease susceptibility genes. However, the prioritization of candidate genes and regions for follow-up studies often proves difficult due to false-positive associations caused by statistical noise and multiple-testing. In order to address this issue, we propose the novel GWAS noise reduction (GWAS-NR) method as a way to increase the power to detect true associations in GWAS, particularly in complex diseases such as autism. Methods GWAS-NR utilizes a linear filter to identify genomic regions demonstrating correlation among association signals in multiple datasets. We used computer simulations to assess the ability of GWAS-NR to detect association against the commonly used joint analysis and Fisher's methods. Furthermore, we applied GWAS-NR to a family-based autism GWAS of 597 families and a second existing autism GWAS of 696 families from the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange (AGRE) to arrive at a compendium of autism candidate genes. These genes were manually annotated and classified by a literature review and functional grouping in order to reveal biological pathways which might contribute to autism aetiology. Results Computer simulations indicate that GWAS-NR achieves a significantly higher classification rate for true positive association signals than either the joint analysis or Fisher's methods and that it can also achieve this when there is imperfect marker overlap across datasets or when the closest disease-related polymorphism is not directly typed. In two autism datasets, GWAS-NR analysis resulted in 1535 significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) blocks overlapping 431 unique reference sequencing (RefSeq) genes. Moreover, we identified the nearest RefSeq gene to the non-gene overlapping LD blocks, producing a final candidate set of 860 genes. Functional categorization of these implicated genes indicates that a significant proportion of them cooperate in a

  11. Global threat reduction initiative efforts to address transportation challenges associated with the recovery of disused radioactive sealed sources - 10460

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, Julie; Abeyta, Cristy L; Griffin, Justin M; Matzke, James L; Pearson, Michael W; Cuthbertson, Abigail; Rawl, Richard; Singley, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Proper disposition of disused radioactive sources is essential for their safe and secure management and necessary to preclude their use in malicious activities. Without affordable, timely transportation options, disused sealed sources remain in storage at hundreds of sites throughout the country and around the world. While secure storage is a temporary measure, the longer sources remain disused or unwanted the chances increase that they will become unsecured or abandoned. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative's Off-Site Source Recovery Project (GTRIlOSRP), recovers thousands of disused and unwanted sealed sources annually as part of GTRl's larger mission to reduce and protect high risk nuclear and radiological materials located at civilian sites worldwide. Faced with decreasing availability of certified transportation containers to support movement of disused and unwanted neutron- and beta/gamma-emitting radioactive sealed sources, GTRIlOSRP has initiated actions to ensure the continued success of the project in timely recovery and management of sealed radioactive sources. Efforts described in this paper to enhance transportation capabilities include: {sm_bullet} Addition of authorized content to existing and planned Type B containers to support the movement of non-special form and other Type B-quantity sealed sources; {sm_bullet} Procurement of vendor services for the design, development, testing and certification of a new Type B container to support transportation of irradiators, teletherapy heads or sources removed from these devices using remote handling capabilities such as the IAEA portable hot cell facility; {sm_bullet} Expansion of shielded Type A container inventory for transportation of gamma-emitting sources in activity ranges requiring use of shielding for conformity with transportation requirements; {sm_bullet} Approval of the S300 Type A fissile container for transport of Pu-239 sealed sources internationally; {sm_bullet} Technology transfer of field

  12. Integrated solid-state nanopore platform for nanopore fabrication via dielectric breakdown, DNA-speed deceleration and noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yusuke; Yanagi, Itaru; Matsui, Kazuma; Yokoi, Takahide; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-01-01

    The practical use of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing requires easy fabrication of the nanopores, reduction of the DNA movement speed and reduction of the ionic current noise. Here, we report an integrated nanopore platform with a nanobead structure that decelerates DNA movement and an insulating polyimide layer that reduces noise. To enable rapid nanopore fabrication, we introduced a controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) process into our system. DNA translocation experiments revealed that single nanopores were created by the CDB process without sacrificing performance in reducing DNA movement speed by up to 10 μs/base or reducing noise up to 600 pArms at 1 MHz. Our platform provides the essential components for proceeding to the next step in the process of DNA sequencing. PMID:27499264

  13. Integrated solid-state nanopore platform for nanopore fabrication via dielectric breakdown, DNA-speed deceleration and noise reduction

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yusuke; Yanagi, Itaru; Matsui, Kazuma; Yokoi, Takahide; Takeda, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The practical use of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing requires easy fabrication of the nanopores, reduction of the DNA movement speed and reduction of the ionic current noise. Here, we report an integrated nanopore platform with a nanobead structure that decelerates DNA movement and an insulating polyimide layer that reduces noise. To enable rapid nanopore fabrication, we introduced a controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) process into our system. DNA translocation experiments revealed that single nanopores were created by the CDB process without sacrificing performance in reducing DNA movement speed by up to 10 μs/base or reducing noise up to 600 pArms at 1 MHz. Our platform provides the essential components for proceeding to the next step in the process of DNA sequencing. PMID:27499264

  14. Strut Shaping of 34m Beam Waveguide Antenna for Reductions in Near-Field RF and Noise Temeperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khayatian, Behrouz; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Britcliffe, Michael J.; Gama, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Struts shaping of the NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) 34m Beam Waveguide (BWG) antenna has been implemented to reduce near-field RF exposure while improving the antenna noise temperature. Strut shaping was achieved by introducing an RF shield that does not compromise the structural integrity of the existing structure. Reduction in the RF near-field exposure will compensate for the planned transmit power increase of the antenna from 20 kW to 80 kW while satisfying safety requirements for RF exposure. Antenna noise temperature was also improved by as much as 1.5 K for the low elevation angles and 0.5 K in other areas. Both reductions of RF near-field exposure and antenna noise temperature were verified through measurements and agree very well with calculated results.

  15. Integrated solid-state nanopore platform for nanopore fabrication via dielectric breakdown, DNA-speed deceleration and noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Yusuke; Yanagi, Itaru; Matsui, Kazuma; Yokoi, Takahide; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    The practical use of solid-state nanopores for DNA sequencing requires easy fabrication of the nanopores, reduction of the DNA movement speed and reduction of the ionic current noise. Here, we report an integrated nanopore platform with a nanobead structure that decelerates DNA movement and an insulating polyimide layer that reduces noise. To enable rapid nanopore fabrication, we introduced a controlled dielectric breakdown (CDB) process into our system. DNA translocation experiments revealed that single nanopores were created by the CDB process without sacrificing performance in reducing DNA movement speed by up to 10 μs/base or reducing noise up to 600 pArms at 1 MHz. Our platform provides the essential components for proceeding to the next step in the process of DNA sequencing.

  16. Reduction of aircraft noise in civil air transport by optimization of flight tracks and takeoff and approach procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottmann, Uwe

    1988-08-01

    Noise optimized design of operational flight procedures for effective noise pollution reduction is analyzed. Power cutback during certain stages of approach and takeoff, extension of distance between sound source and sound receiver, as well as diminution of sound impact time are optimized for specific flight procedures and routings. Five takeoff and three landing procedures are analyzed in acoustic effects. Sound immission is computed by NOISIMSIS (NOISe IMpact SImulation System), a simulation system especially created for this task, under consideration of aircraft type specified sound emission characteristics and performance data as well as different meteorological conditions. The investigations for the example of Frankfurt airport result in formulating a planning guideline with notes and impulses for activities in operational noise abatement.

  17. Experimental study of the effect of viscoelastic damping materials on noise and vibration reduction within railway vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Rongping; Meng, Guang; Yang, Jun; He, Caichun

    2009-01-01

    Interior noise and vibration reduction has become one important concern of railway operating environments due to the influence of increased speeds and reduced vehicle weights for energy efficiency. Three types of viscoelastic damping materials, bitumen-based damping material, water-based damping coating and butyl rubber damping material, were developed to reduce the vibration and noise within railway vehicles. Two sleeper carriages were furnished with the new materials in different patterns of constrained-layer and free-layer damping treatment. The measurements of vibration and noise were carried out in three running carriages. It is found that the reduction effect of damping treatments depends on the running speed. The unweighted root-mean-square acceleration is reduced by 0.08-0.79 and 0.06-0.49 m/s 2 for the carriage treated by bitumen-based as well as water-based damping materials and water-based damping material, respectively. The first two materials reduce vibration in a wider frequency range of 63-1000 Hz than the last. It turns out that the damping treatments of the first two reduce the interior noise level by 5-8 dBA within the carriage, and the last damping material by 1-6 dBA. However, the specific loudness analysis of noises shows that the noise components between 125 and 250 Hz are dominant for the overall loudness, although the low-frequency noise is noticeably decreased by the damping materials. The measure of loudness is shown to be more accurate to assess reduction effect of the damping material on the acoustic comfort.

  18. Meta-Analysis of Free-Response Studies, 1992-2008: Assessing the Noise Reduction Model in Parapsychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Lance; Tressoldi, Patrizio E.; Di Risio, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of meta-analyses on 3 types of free-response study: (a) ganzfeld (a technique that enhances a communication anomaly referred to as "psi"); (b) nonganzfeld noise reduction using alleged psi-enhancing techniques such as dream psi, meditation, relaxation, or hypnosis; and (c) standard free response (nonganzfeld, no noise…

  19. Poisson-Gaussian Noise Reduction Using the Hidden Markov Model in Contourlet Domain for Fluorescence Microscopy Images

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sejung; Lee, Byung-Uk

    2015-01-01

    In certain image acquisitions processes, like in fluorescence microscopy or astronomy, only a limited number of photons can be collected due to various physical constraints. The resulting images suffer from signal dependent noise, which can be modeled as a Poisson distribution, and a low signal-to-noise ratio. However, the majority of research on noise reduction algorithms focuses on signal independent Gaussian noise. In this paper, we model noise as a combination of Poisson and Gaussian probability distributions to construct a more accurate model and adopt the contourlet transform which provides a sparse representation of the directional components in images. We also apply hidden Markov models with a framework that neatly describes the spatial and interscale dependencies which are the properties of transformation coefficients of natural images. In this paper, an effective denoising algorithm for Poisson-Gaussian noise is proposed using the contourlet transform, hidden Markov models and noise estimation in the transform domain. We supplement the algorithm by cycle spinning and Wiener filtering for further improvements. We finally show experimental results with simulations and fluorescence microscopy images which demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed approach. PMID:26352138

  20. Comparison of options for reduction of noise in the test section of the NASA Langley 4x7m wind tunnel, including reduction of nozzle area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustically significant features of the NASA 4X7m wind tunnel and the Dutch-German DNW low speed tunnel are compared to illustrate the reasons for large differences in background noise in the open jet test sections of the two tunnels. Also introduced is the concept of reducing test section noise levels through fan and turning vane source reductions which can be brought about by reducing the nozzle cross sectional area, and thus the circuit mass flow for a particular exit velocity. The costs and benefits of treating sources, paths, and changing nozzle geometry are reviewed.

  1. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  2. A reliable ground bounce noise reduction technique for nanoscale CMOS circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Pattanaik, Manisha

    2015-11-01

    Power gating is the most effective method to reduce the standby leakage power by adding header/footer high-VTH sleep transistors between actual and virtual power/ground rails. When a power gating circuit transitions from sleep mode to active mode, a large instantaneous charge current flows through the sleep transistors. Ground bounce noise (GBN) is the high voltage fluctuation on real ground rail during sleep mode to active mode transitions of power gating circuits. GBN disturbs the logic states of internal nodes of circuits. A novel and reliable power gating structure is proposed in this article to reduce the problem of GBN. The proposed structure contains low-VTH transistors in place of high-VTH footer. The proposed power gating structure not only reduces the GBN but also improves other performance metrics. A large mitigation of leakage power in both modes eliminates the need of high-VTH transistors. A comprehensive and comparative evaluation of proposed technique is presented in this article for a chain of 5-CMOS inverters. The simulation results are compared to other well-known GBN reduction circuit techniques at 22 nm predictive technology model (PTM) bulk CMOS model using HSPICE tool. Robustness against process, voltage and temperature (PVT) variations is estimated through Monte-Carlo simulations.

  3. A coherent model for predicting noise reduction in long enclosures with impedance discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, P. M.; Li, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed for the prediction of sound propagation in a rectangular long enclosure with impedance discontinuities. Based on the image-source method, the boundaries are assumed to be geometrically reflective. An infinite number of image sources are generated by multiple reflections. The sound pressure of each image is obtained by an approximate analytical solution, known as the Weyl-van der Pol formula. The total sound field is then calculated by summation of the contribution from all images. The phase information of each image and the phase change upon reflection are included in the model. A single change of impedance in a two-dimensional duct is focused on as the fundamental problem of the current study. The diffraction effect at the impedance discontinuity is proved to be insignificant, and it is ignored in the formulation. On the assumption that the diffraction effect is not important, the investigation is moved on to a rectangular long enclosure. Measurements are conducted in two model tunnels to validate the proposed prediction model. The predictions are found to give good approximations of the experimental results. The theoretical model serves as the first attempt to optimize the position and pattern of sound absorption materials in a long enclosure, such as an underground railway station or a building corridor, for the reduction of noise and improvement of sound quality.

  4. Effect of advanced aircraft noise reduction technology on the 1990 projected noise environment around Patrick Henry Airport. [development of noise exposure forecast contours for projected traffic volume and aircraft types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthorn, J. M.; Brown, C. G.

    1974-01-01

    A study has been conducted of the future noise environment of Patric Henry Airport and its neighboring communities projected for the year 1990. An assessment was made of the impact of advanced noise reduction technologies which are currently being considered. These advanced technologies include a two-segment landing approach procedure and aircraft hardware modifications or retrofits which would add sound absorbent material in the nacelles of the engines or which would replace the present two- and three-stage fans with a single-stage fan of larger diameter. Noise Exposure Forecast (NEF) contours were computed for the baseline (nonretrofitted) aircraft for the projected traffic volume and fleet mix for the year 1990. These NEF contours are presented along with contours for a variety of retrofit options. Comparisons of the baseline with the noise reduction options are given in terms of total land area exposed to 30 and 40 NEF levels. Results are also presented of the effects on noise exposure area of the total number of daily operations.

  5. Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Separate-Flow High-Bypass Ratio Nozzle Noise Reduction Program Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, John K. C.; Schweiger, Paul S.; Premo, John W.; Barber, Thomas J.; Saiyed, Naseem (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA s model-scale nozzle noise tests show that it is possible to achieve a 3 EPNdB jet noise reduction with inwardfacing chevrons and flipper-tabs installed on the primary nozzle and fan nozzle chevrons. These chevrons and tabs are simple devices and are easy to be incorporated into existing short duct separate-flow nonmixed nozzle exhaust systems. However, these devices are expected to cause some small amount of thrust loss relative to the axisymmetric baseline nozzle system. Thus, it is important to have these devices further tested in a calibrated nozzle performance test facility to quantify the thrust performances of these devices. The choice of chevrons or tabs for jet noise suppression would most likely be based on the results of thrust loss performance tests to be conducted by Aero System Engineering (ASE) Inc. It is anticipated that the most promising concepts identified from this program will be validated in full scale engine tests at both Pratt & Whitney and Allied-Signal, under funding from NASA s Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) programs. This will bring the technology readiness level to the point where the jet noise suppression concepts could be incorporated with high confidence into either new or existing turbofan engines having short-duct, separate-flow nacelles.

  6. In-flight evaluation of noise levels and assessment of active noise reduction systems in the Seahawk S-70B-2 helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, R. B.; Foran, D. A.

    Cabin and at-ear sound spectra in the S-70B-2 at various crew positions and flight conditions were measured in order to determine the noise attenuation properties of the ALPHA helmet and the effectiveness of active noise reduction (ANR) systems developed by the Defence Research Agency-Aerospace Division (formerly the Royal Aerospace Establishment) and the BOSE Corporation. Results show that if newly proposed hearing conservation guidelines are adopted, aircrew wearing the ALPHA helmet would require additional attenuation devices. It is recommended that an ANR system be incorporated into the S-70B-2 as such a system would allow realistic flight duration to be maintained, improve voice communication, and reduce aircrew fatigue.

  7. Understanding Slat Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khorrami, Medhi R.

    2003-01-01

    Model-scale aeroacoustic tests of large civil transports point to the leading-edge slat as a dominant high-lift noise source in the low- to mid-frequencies during aircraft approach and landing. Using generic multi-element high-lift models, complementary experimental and numerical tests were carefully planned and executed at NASA in order to isolate slat noise sources and the underlying noise generation mechanisms. In this paper, a brief overview of the supporting computational effort undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center, is provided. Both tonal and broadband aspects of slat noise are discussed. Recent gains in predicting a slat s far-field acoustic noise, current shortcomings of numerical simulations, and other remaining open issues, are presented. Finally, an example of the ever-expanding role of computational simulations in noise reduction studies also is given.

  8. High-power and ultranarrow DFB laser: the effect of linewidth reduction systems on coherence length and interferometer noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliche, Jean-François; Allard, Martin; Têtu, Michel

    2006-05-01

    In many sensing systems, a highly coherent laser source is necessary to perform sensitive interferometric or coherent measurements. At TeraXion, we have built a compact laser system that provides a stable laser frequency with a very narrow linewidth using a 60 mW DFB semiconductor laser. The linewidth reduction system uses a frequency discriminator to measure the laser frequency noise and provides an electrical feedback to reduce this noise over a given bandwidth. Experimental work shows that the phase noise of the DFB semiconductor laser can be reduced by more than 4 orders of magnitude from 10 Hz to 100 kHz. We analyzed the effect of the particular frequency noise spectrum of such a laser on its degree of coherence, its linewidth and the resulting interferometric noise. The laser linewidth computed from the power spectral density of frequency noise of the laser is reduced from 570 kHz down to an equivalent of 1.8 kHz when the output signal is observed for 30 ms, and from 370 kHz to 18 Hz for 1 ms. Similarly, the coherence length is increased from 145 m up to 45 km for fringes observed over 30 ms. Each result is compared with those obtained with a fiber laser.

  9. Conceptual design study of advanced acoustic composite nacelle. [for achieving reductions in community noise and operating expense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodall, R. G.; Painter, G. W.

    1975-01-01

    Conceptual nacelle designs for wide-bodied and for advanced-technology transports were studied with the objective of achieving significant reductions in community noise with minimum penalties in airplane weight, cost, and in operating expense by the application of advanced composite materials to nacelle structure and sound suppression elements. Nacelle concepts using advanced liners, annular splitters, radial splitters, translating centerbody inlets, and mixed-flow nozzles were evaluated and a preferred concept selected. A preliminary design study of the selected concept, a mixed flow nacelle with extended inlet and no splitters, was conducted and the effects on noise, direct operating cost, and return on investment determined.

  10. Pratt & Whitney/Boeing Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts Final Report for NASA Contract NAS3-97144, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, Larry A.; Hauser, Joseph E.; Mathews, Douglas C.; Topol, David A.; Bielak, Gerald W.; Lan, Justin H.; Premo, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of the work completed in Phase 2 of the Engine Validation of Noise Reduction Concepts (EVNRC) contract. The purpose of the program is to validate, through engine testing, advanced noise reduction concepts aimed at reducing engine noise up to 6 EPNdB and improving nacelle suppression by 50 percent relative to 1992 technology. Phase 1 of the program is completed and is summarized in NASA/CR-2014-218088.

  11. Discrete frequency noise and its reduction in small axial-flow fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, J. M.

    1982-03-01

    The discrete frequency noise radiated from representative types of axial-flow fans used in electronic equipment is studied in detail. Narrowband analysis of the discrete frequency noise radiated by these types of fans has been conducted in a free-field environment. The far-field sound pressure level, radiated directivity, and total radiated power of the discrete frequency noise is presented. The influence of operating point on the sound radiated from the fans is determined. The discrete frequency noise dominates the characteristic acoustic spectra at high flow coefficients.

  12. An efficient technique for the reduction of wavelength noise in resonance-based integrated photonic sensors.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Farshid; Chamanzar, Maysamreza; Eftekhar, Ali A; Adibi, Ali

    2014-11-21

    A systematic study of the limit of detection (LOD) in resonance-based silicon photonic lab-on-chip sensors is presented. The effects of the noise, temperature fluctuations, and the fundamental thermodynamic limit of the resonator are studied. Wavelength noise is identified as the dominant source of noise, and an efficient technique for suppressing this noise is presented. A large ensemble of statistical data from the transmission measurements in a laser-scanning configuration on five silicon nitride (SiN) microrings is collected to discuss and identify the sources of noise. The experimental results show that the LOD is limited by a 3σ wavelength noise of ∼1.8 pm. We present a sub-periodic interferometric technique, relying on an inverse algorithm, to suppress this noise. Our technique reduces the wavelength noise by more than one order of magnitude to an ensemble average of 3σ = 120 fm, for a resonator quality factor (Q) of about 5 × 10(4) without any temperature stabilization or cooling. This technique is readily amenable to on-chip integration to realize highly accurate and low-cost lab-on-chip sensors. PMID:25243248

  13. AFFECT OF NEW BLADES ON NOISE REDUCTION OF SMALL WIND TURBINE WATER PUMPING SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acoustical noise data were collected on small wind turbines used for water pumping -- different blade designs were tested on each wind turbine. Three different blade designs were tested on 1 kW wind turbines and each successive blade design was shown to produce less noise with respect to rotor spee...

  14. Investigation of Flow Conditioners for Compact Jet Engine Simulator Rig Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Michael J.; Haskin, Henry H.

    2011-01-01

    The design requirements for two new Compact Jet Engine Simulator (CJES) units for upcoming wind tunnel testing lead to the distinct possibility of rig noise contamination. The acoustic and aerodynamic properties of several flow conditioner devices are investigated over a range of operating conditions relevant to the CJES units to mitigate the risk of rig noise. An impinging jet broadband noise source is placed in the upstream plenum of the test facility permitting measurements of not only flow conditioner self-noise, but also noise attenuation characteristics. Several perforated plate and honeycomb samples of high porosity show minimal self-noise but also minimal attenuation capability. Conversely, low porosity perforated plate and sintered wire mesh conditioners exhibit noticeable attenuation but also unacceptable self-noise. One fine wire mesh sample (DP450661) shows minimal selfnoise and reasonable attenuation, particularly when combined in series with a 15.6 percent open area (POA) perforated plate upstream. This configuration is the preferred flow conditioner system for the CJES, providing up to 20 dB of broadband attenuation capability with minimal self-noise.

  15. Characterization and reduction of prompt electrical noise on the Saturn PRS x-ray simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.E.; Davies, F.W.; Hedemann, M.A.

    1995-08-01

    Experiments have been conducted to identify and characterize the source of prompt electrical noise observed on piezoelectric sensor data traces recorded at the Saturn soft x-ray source. The amplitude of this noise spike often exceeded the amplitude of the signal of interest. Although the noise duration was short (50 to 100 ns), it interfered with many measurements of soft x-ray induced material response detected with piezoelectric gauges. The noise spike can be due to a combination of sources, including bremsstrahlung radiation. However, it was determined that high-energy electrons generated about 90 per cent of the recorded signal in the near-source region. Fixtures employing permanent magnets reduced the noise spike amplitude by more than a factor of ten, permitting sensitive, high-fidelity, material response measurements to be made with greater accuracy and confidence. Furthermore the test environment is more accurately controlled and defined.

  16. An adaptive integrated algorithm for noninvasive fetal ECG separation and noise reduction based on ICA-EEMD-WS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangchen; Luan, Yihui

    2015-11-01

    High-resolution fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) plays an important role in assisting physicians to detect fetal changes in the womb and to make clinical decisions. However, in real situations, clear FECG is difficult to extract because it is usually overwhelmed by the dominant maternal ECG and other contaminated noise such as baseline wander, high-frequency noise. In this paper, we proposed a novel integrated adaptive algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA), ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD), and wavelet shrinkage (WS) denoising, denoted as ICA-EEMD-WS, for FECG separation and noise reduction. First, ICA algorithm was used to separate the mixed abdominal ECG signal and to obtain the noisy FECG. Second, the noise in FECG was reduced by a three-step integrated algorithm comprised of EEMD, useful subcomponents statistical inference and WS processing, and partial reconstruction for baseline wander reduction. Finally, we evaluate the proposed algorithm using simulated data sets. The results indicated that the proposed ICA-EEMD-WS outperformed the conventional algorithms in signal denoising. PMID:26429348

  17. Elastomeric Structural Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Flap Noise Reduction - Challenges and Approaches to Hyperelastic Structural Modeling and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.

  18. Comparative study of two image space noise reduction methods for computed tomography: bilateral filter and nonlocal means.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Juan C Ramirez; Kelm, Zachary S; Guimaraes, Luis S; Yu, Lifeng; Fletcher, Joel G; Erickson, Bradley J; McCollough, Cynthia H

    2009-01-01

    Optimal noise control is important for improving image quality and reducing radiation dose in computed tomography. Here we investigated two image space based nonlinear filters for noise reduction: the bilateral filter (BF) and the nonlocal means (NLM) algorithm. Images from both methods were compared against those from a commercially available weighted filtered backprojection (WFBP) method. A standard phantom for quality assurance testing was used to quantitatively compare noise and spatial resolution, as well as low contrast detectability (LCD). Additionally, an image dataset from a patient's abdominal CT exam was used to assess the effectiveness of the filters on full dose and simulated half dose acquisitions. We found that both the BF and NLM methods improve the tradeoff between noise and high contrast spatial resolution with no significant difference in LCD. Results from the patient dataset demonstrated the potential of dose reduction with the denoising methods. Care must be taken when choosing the NLM parameters in order to minimize the generation of artifacts that could possibly compromise diagnostic value. PMID:19964998

  19. Acoustic analysis of aft noise reduction techniques measured on a subsonic tip speed 50.8 cm (twenty inch) diameter fan. [quiet engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.; Clemons, A.

    1977-01-01

    Sound data which were obtained during tests of a 50.8 cm diameter, subsonic tip speed, low pressure ratio fan were analyzed. The test matrix was divided into two major investigations: (1) source noise reduction techniques; and (2) aft duct noise reduction with acoustic treatment. Source noise reduction techniques were investigated which include minimizing second harmonic noise by varying vane/blade ratio, variation in spacing, and lowering the Mach number through the vane row to lower fan broadband noise. Treatment in the aft duct which includes flow noise effects, faceplate porosity, rotor OGV treatment, slant cell treatment, and splitter simulation with variable depth on the outer wall and constant thickness treatment on the inner wall was investigated. Variable boundary conditions such as variation in treatment panel thickness and orientation, and mixed porosity combined with variable thickness were examined. Significant results are reported.

  20. Application of python-based Abaqus preprocess and postprocess technique in analysis of gearbox vibration and noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Guilian; Sui, Yunkang; Du, Jiazheng

    2011-06-01

    To reduce vibration and noise, a damping layer and constraint layer are usually pasted on the inner surface of a gearbox thin shell, and their thicknesses are the main parameters in the vibration and noise reduction design. The normal acceleration of the point on the gearbox surface is the main index that can reflect the vibration and noise of that point, and the normal accelerations of different points can reflect the degree of the vibration and noise of the whole structure. The K-S function is adopted to process many points' normal accelerations as the comprehensive index of the vibration characteristics of the whole structure, and the vibration acceleration level is adopted to measure the degree of the vibration and noise. Secondary development of the Abaqus preprocess and postprocess on the basis of the Python scripting programming automatically modifies the model parameters, submits the job, and restarts the analysis totally, which avoids the tedious work of returning to the Abaqus/CAE for modifying and resubmitting and improves the speed of the preprocess and postprocess and the computational efficiency.