Maximum precision closed-form solution for localizing diffraction-limited spots in noisy images
Larkin, Joshua D.; Cook, Peter R.
2012-01-01
Super-resolution techniques like PALM and STORM require accurate localization of single fluorophores detected using a CCD. Popular localization algorithms inefficiently assume each photon registered by a pixel can only come from an area in the specimen corresponding to that pixel (not from neighboring areas), before iteratively (slowly) fitting a Gaussian to pixel intensity; they fail with noisy images. We present an alternative; a probability distribution extending over many pixels is assigned to each photon, and independent distributions are joined to describe emitter location. We compare algorithms, and recommend which serves best under different conditions. At low signal-to-noise ratios, ours is 2-fold more precise than others, and 2 orders of magnitude faster; at high ratios, it closely approximates the maximum likelihood estimate. PMID:23038398
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilting, Jens; Lehnertz, Klaus
2015-08-01
We investigate a recently published analysis framework based on Bayesian inference for the time-resolved characterization of interaction properties of noisy, coupled dynamical systems. It promises wide applicability and a better time resolution than well-established methods. At the example of representative model systems, we show that the analysis framework has the same weaknesses as previous methods, particularly when investigating interacting, structurally different non-linear oscillators. We also inspect the tracking of time-varying interaction properties and propose a further modification of the algorithm, which improves the reliability of obtained results. We exemplarily investigate the suitability of this algorithm to infer strength and direction of interactions between various regions of the human brain during an epileptic seizure. Within the limitations of the applicability of this analysis tool, we show that the modified algorithm indeed allows a better time resolution through Bayesian inference when compared to previous methods based on least square fits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crutchfield, James Patrick, Jr.
Deterministic dynamics often leads to complex, unpredictable behavior. This randomness or chaos produces information and limits one's ability to predict future events. There are two components to this imposed ignorance. The first arises in a mathematical context from highly convoluted orbit structures in state space. These allow a system to rapidly visit many regions of state space. In a physical context, the second comes from the coupling of the system -under-study to other systems that provide information to it. Extrinsic information sources preclude the exact determination of the system's state. By the mechanism of their complex orbits, chaotic systems amplify this uncertainty into unpredictable macroscopic behavior. The physical study of chaotic dynamical systems is incomplete without an appreciation of how external fluctuations affect their predictability. Using information theory we describe how to measure the unpredictability of (i) deterministic chaotic systems (without extrinsic noise), and (ii) nondeterministic chaotic systems (coupled to extrinsic noise). Scaling concepts are invaluable tools in this. Scaling reveals that extrinsic noise acts as a disordering field for chaos. Furthermore, even for systems with extrinsic noise, scaling captures fundamental features of chaotic behavior. It provides a unified framework for the topological, metric, and Renyi dimensions and entropies. The physical relevance of these concepts lies in their ability to analyze noisy chaotic signals. The information theoretic approach to temporally complex behavior is applied to chaotic signals from two hydrodynamic experiments. In addition, the dynamic aspects of pattern evolution and the possible breakdown of (naive) dynamical systems theory is discussed for experiments with an image processing system. The first appendix contains descriptions of algorithms for dynamical systems studies. The second discusses a movie on the geometric structure of chaotic driven oscillators using
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yee, Eugene
2007-04-01
Although a great deal of research effort has been focused on the forward prediction of the dispersion of contaminants (e.g., chemical and biological warfare agents) released into the turbulent atmosphere, much less work has been directed toward the inverse prediction of agent source location and strength from the measured concentration, even though the importance of this problem for a number of practical applications is obvious. In general, the inverse problem of source reconstruction is ill-posed and unsolvable without additional information. It is demonstrated that a Bayesian probabilistic inferential framework provides a natural and logically consistent method for source reconstruction from a limited number of noisy concentration data. In particular, the Bayesian approach permits one to incorporate prior knowledge about the source as well as additional information regarding both model and data errors. The latter enables a rigorous determination of the uncertainty in the inference of the source parameters (e.g., spatial location, emission rate, release time, etc.), hence extending the potential of the methodology as a tool for quantitative source reconstruction. A model (or, source-receptor relationship) that relates the source distribution to the concentration data measured by a number of sensors is formulated, and Bayesian probability theory is used to derive the posterior probability density function of the source parameters. A computationally efficient methodology for determination of the likelihood function for the problem, based on an adjoint representation of the source-receptor relationship, is described. Furthermore, we describe the application of efficient stochastic algorithms based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) for sampling from the posterior distribution of the source parameters, the latter of which is required to undertake the Bayesian computation. The Bayesian inferential methodology for source reconstruction is validated against real
Dr. Katja Lindenberg
2005-11-20
During the one-year period 2004-2005 our work continued to focus on nonlinear noisy systems, with special attention to spatially extended systems. There is a history of many decades of research in the sciences and engineering on the behavior of noninear noisy systems, but only in the past ten years or so has a theoretical understanding of spatially extended systems begun to emerge. This has been the outcome of a symbiosis of numerical simulations not possible until recently, laboratory experiments, and new analytic methods.
Optimal entrainment of heterogeneous noisy neurons
Wilson, Dan; Holt, Abbey B.; Netoff, Theoden I.; Moehlis, Jeff
2015-01-01
We develop a methodology to design a stimulus optimized to entrain nonlinear, noisy limit cycle oscillators with uncertain properties. Conditions are derived which guarantee that the stimulus will entrain the oscillators despite these uncertainties. Using these conditions, we develop an energy optimal control strategy to design an efficient entraining stimulus and apply it to numerical models of noisy phase oscillators and to in vitro hippocampal neurons. In both instances, the optimal stimuli outperform other similar but suboptimal entraining stimuli. Because this control strategy explicitly accounts for both noise and inherent uncertainty of model parameters, it could have experimental relevance to neural circuits where robust spike timing plays an important role. PMID:26074762
Reentrant transition in coupled noisy oscillators.
Kobayashi, Yasuaki; Kori, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
We report on a synchronization-breaking instability observed in a noisy oscillator unidirectionally coupled to a pacemaker. Using a phase oscillator model, we find that, as the coupling strength is increased, the noisy oscillator lags behind the pacemaker more frequently and the phase slip rate increases, which may not be observed in averaged phase models such as the Kuramoto model. Investigation of the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation enables us to obtain the reentrant transition line between the synchronized state and the phase slip state. We verify our theory using the Brusselator model, suggesting that this reentrant transition can be found in a wide range of limit cycle oscillators. PMID:25679676
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jing-Ling; Kwek, L. C.; Oh, C. H.
2002-05-01
In a recent paper [D. A. Meyer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 1052 (1999)], it has been shown that a classical zero-sum strategic game can become a winning quantum game for the player with a quantum device. Nevertheless, it is well known that quantum systems easily decohere in noisy environments. In this paper, we show that if the handicapped player with classical means can delay his action for a sufficiently long time, the quantum version reverts to the classical zero-sum game under decoherence.
Loudness, noisiness, and vibration effects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1984-01-01
The physical measurement of noise that determines psychological and physical behavioral effects in real life is investigated. The roles of loudness and noisiness judgement in the development of these measurement procedures are also examined.
Noisy metrology beyond the standard quantum limit.
Chaves, R; Brask, J B; Markiewicz, M; Kołodyński, J; Acín, A
2013-09-20
Parameter estimation is of fundamental importance in areas from atomic spectroscopy and atomic clocks to gravitational wave detection. Entangled probes provide a significant precision gain over classical strategies in the absence of noise. However, recent results seem to indicate that any small amount of realistic noise restricts the advantage of quantum strategies to an improvement by at most a multiplicative constant. Here, we identify a relevant scenario in which one can overcome this restriction and attain superclassical precision scaling even in the presence of uncorrelated noise. We show that precision can be significantly enhanced when the noise is concentrated along some spatial direction, while the Hamiltonian governing the evolution which depends on the parameter to be estimated can be engineered to point along a different direction. In the case of perpendicular orientation, we find superclassical scaling and identify a state which achieves the optimum. PMID:24093232
Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek
2016-06-01
We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified.
Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information.
Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek
2016-01-01
We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified. PMID:27306041
Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information
Duan, Fabing; Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Abbott, Derek
2016-01-01
We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the weak signal energy. The conditions for occurrence of a noise-enhanced capacity effect are discussed, and the capacity difference between this noisy communication channel and other nonlinear channels is clarified. PMID:27306041
Globally coupled noisy oscillators with inhomogeneous periodic forcing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabbay, Michael; Larsen, Michael L.; Tsimring, Lev S.
2004-12-01
We study the collective properties of an array of nonlinear noisy oscillators driven by nonidentical periodic signals. We consider the case of a globally coupled array of harmonically forced, weakly nonlinear oscillators where there is a constant difference between the phases of the forcing signals applied to adjacent oscillators. This system is a prototypical model of a nonlinear phased array receiver. We derive analytical results for the array output in the limit of a large number of oscillators for the noise-free and noisy cases. Numerical simulations show good agreement with the theoretical analysis.
Neuromorphic Learning From Noisy Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merrill, Walter C.; Troudet, Terry
1993-01-01
Two reports present numerical study of performance of feedforward neural network trained by back-propagation algorithm in learning continuous-valued mappings from data corrupted by noise. Two types of noise considered: plant noise which affects dynamics of controlled process and data-processing noise, which occurs during analog processing and digital sampling of signals. Study performed with view toward use of neural networks as neurocontrollers to substitute for, or enhance, performances of human experts in controlling mechanical devices in presence of sensor and actuator noise and to enhance performances of more-conventional digital feedback electronic process controllers in noisy environments.
Extracting insight from noisy cellular networks.
Landry, Christian R; Levy, Emmanuel D; Abd Rabbo, Diala; Tarassov, Kirill; Michnick, Stephen W
2013-11-21
Network biologists attempt to extract meaningful relationships among genes or their products from very noisy data. We argue that what we categorize as noisy data may sometimes reflect noisy biology and therefore may shield a hidden meaning about how networks evolve and how matter is organized in the cell. We present practical solutions, based on existing evolutionary and biophysical concepts, through which our understanding of cell biology can be enormously enriched. PMID:24267884
Collective fluctuations in networks of noisy components
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masuda, Naoki; Kawamura, Yoji; Kori, Hiroshi
2010-09-01
Collective dynamics result from interactions among noisy dynamical components. Examples include heartbeats, circadian rhythms and various pattern formations. Because of noise in each component, collective dynamics inevitably involve fluctuations, which may crucially affect the functioning of the system. However, the relation between the fluctuations in isolated individual components and those in collective dynamics is not clear. Here, we study a linear dynamical system of networked components subjected to independent Gaussian noise and analytically show that the connectivity of networks determines the intensity of fluctuations in the collective dynamics. Remarkably, in general directed networks including scale-free networks, the fluctuations decrease more slowly with system size than the standard law stated by the central limit theorem. They even remain finite for a large system size when global directionality of the network exists. Moreover, such non-trivial behavior appears even in undirected networks when nonlinear dynamical systems are considered. We demonstrate it with a coupled oscillator system.
The Quantum Steganography Protocol via Quantum Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Zhan-Hong; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian
2015-08-01
As a promising branch of quantum information hiding, Quantum steganography aims to transmit secret messages covertly in public quantum channels. But due to environment noise and decoherence, quantum states easily decay and change. Therefore, it is very meaningful to make a quantum information hiding protocol apply to quantum noisy channels. In this paper, we make the further research on a quantum steganography protocol for quantum noisy channels. The paper proved that the protocol can apply to transmit secret message covertly in quantum noisy channels, and explicity showed quantum steganography protocol. In the protocol, without publishing the cover data, legal receivers can extract the secret message with a certain probability, which make the protocol have a good secrecy. Moreover, our protocol owns the independent security, and can be used in general quantum communications. The communication, which happen in our protocol, do not need entangled states, so our protocol can be used without the limitation of entanglement resource. More importantly, the protocol apply to quantum noisy channels, and can be used widely in the future quantum communication.
Object Detection under Noisy Condition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Halkarnikar, P. P.; Khandagle, H. P.; Talbar, S. N.; Vasambekar, P. N.
2010-11-01
Identifying moving objects from a video sequence is a fundamental and critical task in many computer-vision applications. Such automatic object detection soft wares have many applications in surveillance, auto navigation and robotics. A common approach is to perform background subtraction, which identifies the moving object from portion of video sequences. These soft wares work good under normal condition but tend to give false alarms when tested in real life conditions. Such a condition arises due to fog, smoke, glares ect. These situations are termed as noisy conditions and objects are detected under such conditions. In this paper we created noise by addition of standard Gaussian noise in clean video and compare the response of the detection system to various noise level.
Numerical Differentiation of Noisy, Nonsmooth Data
Chartrand, Rick
2011-01-01
We consider the problem of differentiating a function specified by noisy data. Regularizing the differentiation process avoids the noise amplification of finite-difference methods. We use total-variation regularization, which allows for discontinuous solutions. The resulting simple algorithm accurately differentiates noisy functions, including those which have a discontinuous derivative.
A practical test for noisy chaotic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
BenSaïda, Ahmed
2015-12-01
This code computes the largest Lyapunov exponent and tests for the presence of a chaotic dynamics, as opposed to stochastic dynamics, in a noisy scalar series. The program runs under MATLAB® programming language.
Reconstructing Directed Networks From Noisy Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tam, Hiu Ching; Ching, Emily Sc
Complex systems can be fruitfully studied as networks of many elementary units, known as nodes, interacting with one another with the interactions being the links between the nodes. The overall behavior of the systems depends crucially on the network structure depicting how the nodes are linked with each other. It is usually possible to measure the dynamics of the individual nodes but difficult, if not impossible, to directly measure the interactions or links between the nodes. For most systems of interest, the links are directional in that one node affects the dynamics of the other but not vice versa. Moreover, the strength of interaction can vary for different links. Reconstructing directed and weighted networks from dynamics is one of the biggest challenges in network research. We have studied directed and weighted networks modelled by noisy dynamical systems with nonlinear dynamics and developed a method that reconstructs the links and their directions using only the dynamics of the nodes as input. Our method is motivated by a mathematical result derived for dynamical systems that approach a fixed point in the noise-free limit. We show that our method gives good reconstruction results for several directed and weighted networks with different nonlinear dynamics. Supported by Hong Kong Research Grants Council under Grant No. CUHK 14300914.
Collective Chemotaxis through Noisy Multicellular Gradient Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew
2016-08-01
Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment and while the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells polarization to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimal cluster size for most efficient migration. We discuss how our model could be validated using simple, phenomenological experiments.
Collective Chemotaxis through Noisy Multicellular Gradient Sensing.
Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew
2016-08-01
Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue occurs in many biological processes such as morphogenesis and cancer metastasis. Clusters of migratory cells in these systems are capable of responding to gradients of <1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell length. Multicellular systems are extremely sensitive to their environment, and although the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, how this information leads to coherent migration remains poorly understood. We develop a computational model of multicellular sensing and migration in which groups of cells collectively measure noisy chemical gradients. The output of the sensing process is coupled to the polarization of individual cells to model migratory behavior. Through the use of numerical simulations, we find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias, but larger clusters also induce more drag on collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimal cluster size for most efficient migration. We discuss how our model could be validated using simple, phenomenological experiments. PMID:27508447
Nanotubes for noisy signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ian Yenyin
Nanotubes can process noisy signals. We present two central results in support of this general thesis and make an informed extrapolation that uses nanotubes to improve body armor. The first result is that noise can help nanotubes detect weak signals. The finding confirmed a stochastic-resonance theoretical prediction that noise can enhance detection at the nano-level. Laboratory experiments with nanotubes showed that three types of noise improved three measures of detection. Small amounts of Gaussian, uniform, and Cauchy additive white noise increased mutual-information, cross-correlation, and bit-error-rate measures before degrading them with further increases in noise. Nanotubes can apply this noise-enhancement and nanotube electrical and mechanical properties to improve signal processing. Similar noise enhancement may benefit a proposed nanotube-array cochlear-model spectral processing. The second result is that nanotube antennas can directly detect narrowband electromagnetic (EM) signals. The finding showed that nanotube and thin-wire dipoles are similar: They are resonant and narrowband and can implement linear-array designs if the EM waves in the nanotubes propagate at or near the free-space velocity of light. The nanotube-antenna prediction is based on a Fresnel-zone or near-zone analysis of antenna impedance using a quantum-conductor model. The analysis also predicts a failure to resonate if the nanotube EM-wave propagation is much slower than free-space light propagation. We extrapolate based on applied and theoretical analysis of body armor. Field experiments used a baseball comparison and statistical and other techniques to model body-armor bruising effects. A baseball comparison showed that a large caliber handgun bullet can hit an armored chest as hard as a fast baseball can hit a bare chest. Adaptive fuzzy systems learned to predict a bruise profile directly from the experimental data and also from statistical analysis of the data. Nanotube signal
Magic state distillation protocols with noisy Clifford gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Peter
2013-03-01
A promising approach to universal fault-tolerant quantum computation is to implement the non-universal group of Clifford gates, and to achieve universality by adding the ability to prepare high-fidelity copies of certain ``magic states''. By applying state distillation protocols, many noisy copies of a magic state ancilla can be purified into a smaller number of clean copies which are arbitrarily close to the perfect state, using only Clifford operations. In practice, the Clifford gates themselves will be noisy, which can limit the efficiency of state distillation and put a floor on the achievable fidelity with the desired state. Recently, a number of new state distillation protocols have been proposed that have the potential to reduce the required resource overhead. I analyze these protocols and explore the tradeoffs between these different approaches to magic state distillation when noisy Clifford gates are taken into account. Supported in part by IARPA under contract D11PC20165, by NSF under Grant No. PHY-0803371, by DOE under Grant No. DE-FG03-92-ER40701, and by NSA/ARO under Grant No. W911NF-09-1-0442.
Theory of noisy learning in nonlinear perceptrons: The cavity approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Peixun
2001-08-01
The cavity method is applied to study the supervised learning of noisy examples in nonlinear perceptrons. The advantage of this mean field method is demonstrated in this study on the unique characteristics of nonlinear perceptrons. Mean field equations of this complex system are obtained. The information conflict inherent in noisy examples gives rise to instability of the perturbative calculation if the weight decay to the student weight vector is weak. The occurrence of rough energy landscape with many metastable states and preferentially learning some examples in the cost of sacrificing others are investigated. It is found that the distribution of activation to examples shows band gaps when information conflict is serious, which is the case when both the training set and the noise temperature are large. The generalization ability of a nonlinear perceptron trained with noisy examples is studied and compared with linear case. It is found that the student is able to decipher the rule of teacher in the large training set limit if it has the knowledge of the weight length of the teacher. Phase transition from a good generalization state to a poor one when the weight decay strength or the size of training set varies is predicted in theory and confirmed by simulation results. The full phase diagram of the system is plotted. The origin of discrepancy between theory and simulation is mainly attributed to the effect of rough energy landscape beside the finite size effect.
Aviation noise: Costs of phasing out noisy aircraft
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1991-07-01
In Sept. 1990 this group testified on the costs of phasing out older, relatively noisy aircraft and on how these costs would be affected by the independent adoption of noise restrictions by airports. In Nov. 1990 the Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990 was enacted. This act phased out the noisiest jets currently in use by the year 2000 and limits the discretion of airports to adopt their own noise restrictions. This report briefly describes the likely effects of this Act on the costs to the airline industry of aviation noise restrictions.
Broadband time-reversing array retrofocusing in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabra, Karim G.; Khosla, Sunny R.; Dowling, David R.
2002-02-01
Acoustic time reversal is a promising technique for spatial and temporal focusing of sound in unknown environments. Acoustic time reversal can be implemented with an array of transducers that listens to a remote sound source and then transmits a time-reversed version of what was heard. In a noisy environment, the performance of such a time-reversing array (TRA) will be degraded because the array will receive and transmit noise, and the intended signal may be masked by ambient noise at the retrofocus location. This article presents formal results for the signal-to-noise ratio at the intended focus (SNRf) for TRAs that receive and send finite-duration broadband signals in noisy environments. When the noise is homogeneous and uncorrelated, and a broadcast power limitation sets the TRA's electronic amplification, the formal results can be simplified to an algebraic formula that includes the characteristics of the signal, the remote source, the TRA, and the noisy environment. Here, SNRf is found to be proportional to the product of the signal bandwidth and the duration of the signal pulse after propagation through the environment. Using parabolic-equation propagation simulations, the formal results for SNRf are illustrated for a shallow water environment at source-array ranges of 1 to 40 km and bandwidths from several tens of Hz to more than 500 Hz for a signal center frequency of 500 Hz. Shallow-water TRA noise rejection is predicted to be superior to that possible in free space because TRAs successfully exploit multipath-propagation.
On covariance structure in noisy, big data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paffenroth, Randy C.; Nong, Ryan; Du Toit, Philip C.
2013-09-01
Herein we describe theory and algorithms for detecting covariance structures in large, noisy data sets. Our work uses ideas from matrix completion and robust principal component analysis to detect the presence of low-rank covariance matrices, even when the data is noisy, distorted by large corruptions, and only partially observed. In fact, the ability to handle partial observations combined with ideas from randomized algorithms for matrix decomposition enables us to produce asymptotically fast algorithms. Herein we will provide numerical demonstrations of the methods and their convergence properties. While such methods have applicability to many problems, including mathematical finance, crime analysis, and other large-scale sensor fusion problems, our inspiration arises from applying these methods in the context of cyber network intrusion detection.
Synchronization of noisy systems by stochastic signals
Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Moss, F.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Shulgin, B.; Collins, J.J.
1999-07-01
We study, in terms of synchronization, the {ital nonlinear response} of noisy bistable systems to a stochastic external signal, represented by Markovian dichotomic noise. We propose a general kinetic model which allows us to conduct a full analytical study of the nonlinear response, including the calculation of cross-correlation measures, the mean switching frequency, and synchronization regions. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations of a noisy overdamped bistable oscillator. We show that dichotomic noise can instantaneously synchronize the switching process of the system. We also show that synchronization is most pronounced at an optimal noise level{emdash}this effect connects this phenomenon with aperiodic stochastic resonance. Similar synchronization effects are observed for a stochastic neuron model stimulated by a stochastic spike train. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Multi Agent Reward Analysis for Learning in Noisy Domains
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.
2005-01-01
In many multi agent learning problems, it is difficult to determine, a priori, the agent reward structure that will lead to good performance. This problem is particularly pronounced in continuous, noisy domains ill-suited to simple table backup schemes commonly used in TD(lambda)/Q-learning. In this paper, we present a new reward evaluation method that allows the tradeoff between coordination among the agents and the difficulty of the learning problem each agent faces to be visualized. This method is independent of the learning algorithm and is only a function of the problem domain and the agents reward structure. We then use this reward efficiency visualization method to determine an effective reward without performing extensive simulations. We test this method in both a static and a dynamic multi-rover learning domain where the agents have continuous state spaces and where their actions are noisy (e.g., the agents movement decisions are not always carried out properly). Our results show that in the more difficult dynamic domain, the reward efficiency visualization method provides a two order of magnitude speedup in selecting a good reward. Most importantly it allows one to quickly create and verify rewards tailored to the observational limitations of the domain.
Lizards speed up visual displays in noisy motion habitats
Ord, Terry J; Peters, Richard A; Clucas, Barbara; Stamps, Judy A
2007-01-01
Extensive research over the last few decades has revealed that many acoustically communicating animals compensate for the masking effect of background noise by changing the structure of their signals. Familiar examples include birds using acoustic properties that enhance the transmission of vocalizations in noisy habitats. Here, we show that the effects of background noise on communication signals are not limited to the acoustic modality, and that visual noise from windblown vegetation has an equally important influence on the production of dynamic visual displays. We found that two species of Puerto Rican lizard, Anolis cristatellus and A. gundlachi, increase the speed of body movements used in territorial signalling to apparently improve communication in visually ‘noisy’ environments of rapidly moving vegetation. This is the first evidence that animals change how they produce dynamic visual signals when communicating in noisy motion habitats. Taken together with previous work on acoustic communication, our results show that animals with very different sensory ecologies can face similar environmental constraints and adopt remarkably similar strategies to overcome these constraints. PMID:17264059
Recovering magnetization distributions from their noisy diffraction data
Loh, Ne-Te Duane; Eisebitt, Stefan; Flewett, Samuel; Elser, Veit
2010-12-15
We study, using simulated experiments inspired by thin-film magnetic domain patterns, the feasibility of phase retrieval in x-ray diffractive imaging in the presence of intrinsic charge scattering given only photon-shot-noise limited diffraction data. We detail a reconstruction algorithm to recover the sample's magnetization distribution under such conditions and compare its performance with that of Fourier transform holography. Concerning the design of future experiments, we also chart out the reconstruction limits of diffractive imaging when photon-shot-noise and the intensity of charge scattering noise are independently varied. This work is directly relevant to the time-resolved imaging of magnetic dynamics using coherent and ultrafast radiation from x-ray free-electron lasers and also to broader classes of diffractive imaging experiments which suffer noisy data, missing data, or both.
Steering Chiral Swimmers along Noisy Helical Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank
2009-08-01
Chemotaxis along helical paths towards a target releasing a chemoattractant is found in sperm cells and many microorganisms. We discuss the stochastic differential geometry of the noisy helical swimming path of a chiral swimmer. A chiral swimmer equipped with a simple feedback system can navigate in a concentration gradient of chemoattractant. We derive an effective equation for the alignment of helical paths with a concentration gradient which is related to the alignment of a dipole in an external field and discuss the chemotaxis index.
Period variability of coupled noisy oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mori, Fumito; Kori, Hiroshi
2013-03-01
Period variability, quantified by the standard deviation (SD) of the cycle-to-cycle period, is investigated for noisy phase oscillators. We define the checkpoint phase as the beginning or end point of one oscillation cycle and derive an expression for the SD as a function of this phase. We find that the SD is dependent on the checkpoint phase only when oscillators are coupled. The applicability of our theory is verified using a realistic model. Our work clarifies the relationship between period variability and synchronization from which valuable information regarding coupling can be inferred.
A Noisy 10GB Provenance Database
Cheah, You-Wei; Plale, Beth; Kendall-Morwick, Joey; Leake, David; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya
2011-06-06
Provenance of scientific data is a key piece of the metadata record for the data's ongoing discovery and reuse. Provenance collection systems capture provenance on the fly, however, the protocol between application and provenance tool may not be reliable. Consequently, the provenance record can be partial, partitioned, and simply inaccurate. We use a workflow emulator that models faults to construct a large 10GB database of provenance that we know is noisy (that is, has errors). We discuss the process of generating the provenance database, and show early results on the kinds of provenance analysis enabled by the large provenance.
Quantum private comparison over noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siddhu, Vikesh; Arvind
2015-08-01
Quantum private comparison (QPC) allows us to protect private information during its comparison. In the past, various three-party quantum protocols have been proposed that claim to work well under noisy conditions. Here, we tackle the problem of QPC under noise. We analyze the EPR-based protocol under depolarizing noise, bit flip and phase flip noise. We show how noise affects the robustness of the EPR-based protocol. We then present a straightforward protocol based on CSS codes to perform QPC which is robust against noise and secure under general attacks.
Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.
1984-10-19
A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.
Optimal information storage in noisy synapses under resource constraints.
Varshney, Lav R; Sjöström, Per Jesper; Chklovskii, Dmitri B
2006-11-01
Experimental investigations have revealed that synapses possess interesting and, in some cases, unexpected properties. We propose a theoretical framework that accounts for three of these properties: typical central synapses are noisy, the distribution of synaptic weights among central synapses is wide, and synaptic connectivity between neurons is sparse. We also comment on the possibility that synaptic weights may vary in discrete steps. Our approach is based on maximizing information storage capacity of neural tissue under resource constraints. Based on previous experimental and theoretical work, we use volume as a limited resource and utilize the empirical relationship between volume and synaptic weight. Solutions of our constrained optimization problems are not only consistent with existing experimental measurements but also make nontrivial predictions. PMID:17088208
Stabilized quasi-Newton optimization of noisy potential energy surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaefer, Bastian; Ghasemi, S. Alireza; Roy, Shantanu; Goedecker, Stefan; Goedecker Group Team
Optimizations of atomic positions belong to the most frequently performed tasks in electronic structure calculations. Many simulations like global minimum searches or the identification of chemical reaction pathways can require the computation of hundreds or thousands of minimizations or saddle points. To automatize these tasks, optimization algorithms must not only be efficient but also very reliable. Unfortunately, computational noise in forces and energies is inherent to electronic structure codes. This computational noise poses a severe problem to the stability of efficient optimization methods like the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno algorithm. In this talk a recently published technique that allows to obtain significant curvature information of noisy potential energy surfaces is presented. This technique was used to construct both, a stabilized quasi-Newton minimization method and a stabilized quasi-Newton saddle finding approach. With the help of benchmarks both the minimizer and the saddle finding approach were demonstrated to be superior to comparable existing methods.
Characterization of noisy symbolic time series.
Kulp, Christopher W; Smith, Suzanne
2011-02-01
The 0-1 test for chaos is a recently developed time series characterization algorithm that can determine whether a system is chaotic or nonchaotic. While the 0-1 test was designed for deterministic series, in real-world measurement situations, noise levels may not be known and the 0-1 test may have difficulty distinguishing between chaos and randomness. In this paper, we couple the 0-1 test for chaos with a test for determinism and apply these tests to noisy symbolic series generated from various model systems. We find that the pairing of the 0-1 test with a test for determinism improves the ability to correctly distinguish between chaos and randomness from a noisy series. Furthermore, we explore the modes of failure for the 0-1 test and the test for determinism so that we can better understand the effectiveness of the two tests to handle various levels of noise. We find that while the tests can handle low noise and high noise situations, moderate levels of noise can lead to inconclusive results from the two tests. PMID:21405890
Classification with Noisy Labels by Importance Reweighting.
Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng
2016-03-01
In this paper, we study a classification problem in which sample labels are randomly corrupted. In this scenario, there is an unobservable sample with noise-free labels. However, before being observed, the true labels are independently flipped with a probability ρ ∈ [0,0.5), and the random label noise can be class-conditional. Here, we address two fundamental problems raised by this scenario. The first is how to best use the abundant surrogate loss functions designed for the traditional classification problem when there is label noise. We prove that any surrogate loss function can be used for classification with noisy labels by using importance reweighting, with consistency assurance that the label noise does not ultimately hinder the search for the optimal classifier of the noise-free sample. The other is the open problem of how to obtain the noise rate ρ. We show that the rate is upper bounded by the conditional probability P(∧Y|X) of the noisy sample. Consequently, the rate can be estimated, because the upper bound can be easily reached in classification problems. Experimental results on synthetic and real datasets confirm the efficiency of our methods. PMID:27046490
Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.
1986-01-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmani, Armin
2015-10-01
Based on the Heisenberg-picture analog of the master equation, we develop a method for computing the exact time dependence of noise-averaged observables for general noninteracting fermionic systems with noisy fluctuations. Upon noise averaging, these fluctuations generate effective interactions, limiting analytical approaches. While the short-time dynamics can be studied with Langevin-type numerical simulations, the long-time limit is not amenable to such simulations. Our results provide access to this long-time limit. As a simple example, we examine the fate of the fractional charge in cold-atom emulations of polyacetylene after stochastic driving. We find that in a quantum quench to a fluctuating hopping Hamiltonian, the fractional charge remains robust for hopping between different sublattices, while it becomes unstable in the presence of noisy hopping on the same sublattice.
Noisy one-way quantum computations: The role of correlations
Chaves, Rafael; Melo, Fernando de
2011-08-15
A scheme to evaluate computation fidelities within the one-way model is developed and explored to understand the role of correlations in the quality of noisy quantum computations. The formalism is promptly applied to many computation instances and unveils that a higher amount of entanglement in the noisy resource state does not necessarily imply a better computation.
Entanglement evolution of two qubits under noisy environments
Li Jungang; Zou Jian; Shao Bin
2010-10-15
The entanglement evolution of two qubits under local, single-, and two-sided noisy channels is investigated. It is found that for all pure initial states, the entanglement under a one-sided noisy channel is completely determined by the maximal trace distance which is the main element to construct the measure of non-Markovianity. For the two-sided noisy channel case, when the qubits are initially prepared in a general class of states, either pure or mixed, the entanglement can be expressed as the product of the initial entanglement and the channels' action on the maximally entangled state.
The noisy voter model on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi
2016-04-01
We propose a new analytical method to study stochastic, binary-state models on complex networks. Moving beyond the usual mean-field theories, this alternative approach is based on the introduction of an annealed approximation for uncorrelated networks, allowing to deal with the network structure as parametric heterogeneity. As an illustration, we study the noisy voter model, a modification of the original voter model including random changes of state. The proposed method is able to unfold the dependence of the model not only on the mean degree (the mean-field prediction) but also on more complex averages over the degree distribution. In particular, we find that the degree heterogeneity—variance of the underlying degree distribution—has a strong influence on the location of the critical point of a noise-induced, finite-size transition occurring in the model, on the local ordering of the system, and on the functional form of its temporal correlations. Finally, we show how this latter point opens the possibility of inferring the degree heterogeneity of the underlying network by observing only the aggregate behavior of the system as a whole, an issue of interest for systems where only macroscopic, population level variables can be measured.
The noisy voter model on complex networks
Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi
2016-01-01
We propose a new analytical method to study stochastic, binary-state models on complex networks. Moving beyond the usual mean-field theories, this alternative approach is based on the introduction of an annealed approximation for uncorrelated networks, allowing to deal with the network structure as parametric heterogeneity. As an illustration, we study the noisy voter model, a modification of the original voter model including random changes of state. The proposed method is able to unfold the dependence of the model not only on the mean degree (the mean-field prediction) but also on more complex averages over the degree distribution. In particular, we find that the degree heterogeneity—variance of the underlying degree distribution—has a strong influence on the location of the critical point of a noise-induced, finite-size transition occurring in the model, on the local ordering of the system, and on the functional form of its temporal correlations. Finally, we show how this latter point opens the possibility of inferring the degree heterogeneity of the underlying network by observing only the aggregate behavior of the system as a whole, an issue of interest for systems where only macroscopic, population level variables can be measured. PMID:27094773
The noisy voter model on complex networks.
Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi
2016-01-01
We propose a new analytical method to study stochastic, binary-state models on complex networks. Moving beyond the usual mean-field theories, this alternative approach is based on the introduction of an annealed approximation for uncorrelated networks, allowing to deal with the network structure as parametric heterogeneity. As an illustration, we study the noisy voter model, a modification of the original voter model including random changes of state. The proposed method is able to unfold the dependence of the model not only on the mean degree (the mean-field prediction) but also on more complex averages over the degree distribution. In particular, we find that the degree heterogeneity-variance of the underlying degree distribution-has a strong influence on the location of the critical point of a noise-induced, finite-size transition occurring in the model, on the local ordering of the system, and on the functional form of its temporal correlations. Finally, we show how this latter point opens the possibility of inferring the degree heterogeneity of the underlying network by observing only the aggregate behavior of the system as a whole, an issue of interest for systems where only macroscopic, population level variables can be measured. PMID:27094773
Geometric quantum discord under noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhiming; Qiu, Daowen
2016-05-01
In this work, we mainly analyze the dynamics of geometric quantum discord under a common dissipating environment. Our results indicate that geometric quantum discord is generated when the initial state is a product state. The geometric quantum discord increases from zero to a stable value with the increasing time, and the variations of stable values depend on the system size. For different initial product states, geometric quantum discord has some different behaviors in contrast with entanglement. For initial maximally entangled state, it is shown that geometric quantum discord decays with the increasing dissipated time. It is found that for EPR state, entanglement is more robust than geometric quantum discord, which is a sharp contrast to the existing result that quantum discord is more robust than entanglement in noisy environments. However, for GHZ state and W state, geometric quantum discord is more stable than entanglement. By the comparison of quantum discord and entanglement, we find that a common dissipating environment brings complicated effects on quantum correlation, which may deepen our understanding of physical impacts of decohering environment on quantum correlation. In the end, we analyze the effects of collective dephasing noise and rotating noise to a class of two-qubit X states, and we find that quantum correlation is not altered by the collective noises.
Noisy signaling through promoter logic gates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerstung, Moritz; Timmer, Jens; Fleck, Christian
2009-01-01
We study the influence of noisy transcription factor signals on cis-regulatory promoter elements. These elements process the probability of binary binding events analogous to computer logic gates. At equilibrium, this probability is given by the so-called input function. We show that transcription factor noise causes deviations from the equilibrium value due to the nonlinearity of the input function. For a single binding site, the correction is always negative resulting in an occupancy below the mean-field level. Yet for more complex promoters it depends on the correlation of the transcription factor signals and the geometry of the input function. We present explicit solutions for the basic types of AND and OR gates. The correction size varies among these different types of gates and signal types, mainly being larger in AND gates and for correlated fluctuations. In all cases we find excellent agreement between the analytical results and numerical simulations. We also study the E. coli Lac operon as an example of an AND NOR gate. We present a consistent mathematical method that allows one to separate different sources of noise and quantifies their effect on promoter occupation. A surprising result of our analysis is that Poissonian molecular fluctuations, in contrast to external fluctuations, do no contribute to the correction.
Quantum steganography with noisy quantum channels
Shaw, Bilal A.; Brun, Todd A.
2011-02-15
Steganography is the technique of hiding secret information by embedding it in a seemingly ''innocent'' message. We present protocols for hiding quantum information by disguising it as noise in a codeword of a quantum error-correcting code. The sender (Alice) swaps quantum information into the codeword and applies a random choice of unitary operation, drawing on a secret random key she shares with the receiver (Bob). Using the key, Bob can retrieve the information, but an eavesdropper (Eve) with the power to monitor the channel, but without the secret key, cannot distinguish the message from channel noise. We consider two types of protocols: one in which the hidden quantum information is stored locally in the codeword, and another in which it is embedded in the space of error syndromes. We analyze how difficult it is for Eve to detect the presence of secret messages, and estimate rates of steganographic communication and secret key consumption for specific protocols and examples of error channels. We consider both the case where there is no actual noise in the channel (so that all errors in the codeword result from the deliberate actions of Alice), and the case where the channel is noisy and not controlled by Alice and Bob.
Textured surface identification in noisy color images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Celenk, Mehmet
1996-06-01
Automatic identification of textured surfaces is essential in many imaging applications such as image data compression and scene recognition. In these applications, a vision system is required to detect and identify irregular textures in the noisy color images. This work proposes a method for texture field characterization based on the local textural features. We first divide a given color image into n multiplied by n local windows and extract textural features in each window independently. In this step, the size of a window should be small enough so that each window can include only two texture fields. Separation of texture areas in a local window is first carried out by the Otsu or Kullback threshold selection technique on three color components separately. The 3-D class separation is then performed using the Fisher discriminant. The result of local texture classification is combined by the K-means clustering algorithm. The texture fields detected in a window are characterized by their mean vectors and an element-to-set membership relation. We have experimented with the local feature extraction part of the method using a color image of irregular textures. Results show that the method is effective for capturing the local textural features.
Hearing conservation practices in eight noisy industries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daniell, William E.; Swan, Susan S.; Camp, Janice; Cohen, Martin; McDaniel, Mary M.; Stebbins, John; Leo, Robert
2005-04-01
This study evaluated noise exposures and hearing conservation practices at 76 companies in eight industries with high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Nearly all companies had exposures that required a hearing conservation program, and more than half had exposures that required consideration of noise controls. The use of noise measurements and consideration of controls was low in all industries. The completeness of hearing conservation programs was strongly associated with the extent of exposure in an industry, although practices varied widely within industries. Most companies had substantial deficiencies. More than one-third did not conduct annual training, and training had shortcomings at many others. One-third had not conducted audiometry. Hearing protection was commonly underused. Reported use was highest at companies with relatively complete programs, and in industries where exposure was most prevalent and least intermittent. Many employees had difficulty estimating how often, and presumably when, their exposure was excessive. There is a need for new strategies to promote and maintain hearing conservation efforts in noisy industries. The industries with greatest margin for improvement are not the noisiest industries but those where exposure is moderate or intermittent. [Work supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.
Exploring the Noisy Threshold Function in Designing Bayesian Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jurgelenaite, Rasa; Lucas, Peter; Heskes, Tom
Causal independence modelling is a well-known method both for reducing the size of probability tables and for explaining the underlying mechanisms in Bayesian networks. Many Bayesian network models incorporate causal independence assumptions; however, only the noisy OR and noisy AND, two examples of causal independence models, are used in practice. Their underlying assumption that either at least one cause, or all causes together, give rise to an effect, however, seems unnecessarily restrictive. In the present paper a new, more flexible, causal independence model is proposed, based on the Boolean threshold function. A connection is established between conditional probability distributions based on the noisy threshold model and Poisson binomial distributions, and the basic properties of this probability distribution are studied in some depth. The successful application of the noisy threshold model in the refinement of a Bayesian network for the diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia demo nstrates the practical value of the presented theory.
The Noisiness of Low Frequency Bands of Noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, B. W.
1975-01-01
The relative noisiness of low frequency 1/3-octave bands of noise was examined. The frequency range investigated was bounded by the bands centered at 25 and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 to 95 db (SPL). Thirty-two subjects used a method of adjustment technique, producing comparison band intensities as noisy as 100 and 200 Hz standard bands at 60 and 72 db. The work resulted in contours of equal noisiness for 1/3-octave bands, ranging in intensity from approximately 58 to 86 db (SPL). These contours were compared with the standard equal noisiness contours; in the region of overlap, between 50 and 200 Hz, the agreement was good.
Unconditional security from noisy quantum storage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehner, Stephanie
2010-03-01
We consider the implementation of two-party cryptographic primitives based on the sole physical assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. An important example of such a task is secure identification. Here, Alice wants to identify herself to Bob (possibly an ATM machine) without revealing her password. More generally, Alice and Bob wish to solve problems where Alice holds an input x (e.g. her password), and Bob holds an input y (e.g. the password an honest Alice should possess), and they want to obtain the value of some function f(x,y) (e.g. the equality function). Security means that the legitimate users should not learn anything beyond this specification. That is, Alice should not learn anything about y and Bob should not learn anything about x, other than what they may be able to infer from the value of f(x,y). We show that any such problem can be solved securely in the noisy-storage model by constructing protocols for bit commitment and oblivious transfer, where we prove security against the most general attack. Our protocols can be implemented with present-day hardware used for quantum key distribution. In particular, no quantum storage is required for the honest parties. Our work raises a large number of immediate theoretical as well as experimental questions related to many aspects of quantum information science, such as for example understanding the information carrying properties of quantum channels and memories, randomness extraction, min-entropy sampling, as well as constructing small handheld devices which are suitable for the task of secure identification. [4pt] Full version available at arXiv:0906.1030 (theoretical) and arXiv:0911.2302 (practically oriented).
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits.
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Equivalence between learning in noisy perceptrons and tree committee machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Copelli, Mauro; Kinouchi, Osame; Caticha, Nestor
1996-06-01
We study learning from single presentation of examples (on-line learning) in single-layer perceptrons and tree committee machines (TCMs). Lower bounds for the perceptron generalization error as a function of the noise level ɛ in the teacher output are calculated. We find that local learning in a TCM with K hidden units is simply related to learning in a simple perceptron with a corresponding noise level ɛ(K). For a large number of examples and finite K the generalization error decays as α-1CM, where αCM is the number of examples per adjustable weight in the TCM. We also show that on-line learning is possible even in the K-->∞ limit, but with the generalization error decaying as α-1/2CM. The simple Hebb rule can also be applied to the TCM, but now the error decays as α-1/2CM for finite K and α-1/4CM for K-->∞. Exponential decay of the generalization error in both the noisy perceptron learning and in the TCM is obtained by using the learning by queries strategy.
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-01-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region. PMID:27189039
Computational quantum-classical boundary of noisy commuting quantum circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujii, Keisuke; Tamate, Shuhei
2016-05-01
It is often said that the transition from quantum to classical worlds is caused by decoherence originated from an interaction between a system of interest and its surrounding environment. Here we establish a computational quantum-classical boundary from the viewpoint of classical simulatability of a quantum system under decoherence. Specifically, we consider commuting quantum circuits being subject to decoherence. Or equivalently, we can regard them as measurement-based quantum computation on decohered weighted graph states. To show intractability of classical simulation in the quantum side, we utilize the postselection argument and crucially strengthen it by taking noise effect into account. Classical simulatability in the classical side is also shown constructively by using both separable criteria in a projected-entangled-pair-state picture and the Gottesman-Knill theorem for mixed state Clifford circuits. We found that when each qubit is subject to a single-qubit complete-positive-trace-preserving noise, the computational quantum-classical boundary is sharply given by the noise rate required for the distillability of a magic state. The obtained quantum-classical boundary of noisy quantum dynamics reveals a complexity landscape of controlled quantum systems. This paves a way to an experimentally feasible verification of quantum mechanics in a high complexity limit beyond classically simulatable region.
Pandemics and immune memory in the noisy Penna model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cebrat, Stanisław; Bonkowska, Katarzyna; Biecek, Przemysław
2007-06-01
In the noisy Penna model of ageing, instead of counting the number of defective loci which eventually kill an individual, the noise describing the health status of individuals is introduced. This white noise is composed of two components: the environmental one and the personal one. If the sum of both trespasses the limit set for the individuals homeodynamics the individual dies. The energy of personal fluctuations depends on the number of defective loci expressed in the individuals genome. Environmental fluctuations, the same for all individuals can include some signals, corresponding to the exposition to pathogens which could be dangerous for a fraction of the organisms. Personal noise and the component of random environmental fluctuations, when superimposed on the signal can be life threatening if they are stronger than the limit set for individuals homeodynamics. Nevertheless, some organisms survive the period of dangerous signal and they may remember the signal in the future, like antigens are remembered by our immune systems. Unfortunately, this memory weakens with time and, even worse, some additional defective genes are switched on during the ageing. If the same pathogens (signals) emerge during the lifespan of the population, a fraction of the population could remember it and could respond by increasing the resistance to it. Again, unfortunately for some individuals, their memory could be too weak and their own health status has worsened due to the accumulated mutations, they have to die. Though, a fraction of individuals can survive the pandemics due to the immune memory, but a fraction of population has no such a memory because they were born after the last pandemic or they didnt notice this pandemic. Our simple model, by implementing the noise instead of deterministic threshold of genetic defects, describes how the impact of pandemics on populations depends on the time which elapsed between the two incidents and how the different age groups of
Extortion under uncertainty: Zero-determinant strategies in noisy games
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Dong; Rong, Zhihai; Zhou, Tao
2015-05-01
Repeated game theory has been one of the most prevailing tools for understanding long-running relationships, which are the foundation in building human society. Recent works have revealed a new set of "zero-determinant" (ZD) strategies, which is an important advance in repeated games. A ZD strategy player can exert unilateral control on two players' payoffs. In particular, he can deterministically set the opponent's payoff or enforce an unfair linear relationship between the players' payoffs, thereby always seizing an advantageous share of payoffs. One of the limitations of the original ZD strategy, however, is that it does not capture the notion of robustness when the game is subjected to stochastic errors. In this paper, we propose a general model of ZD strategies for noisy repeated games and find that ZD strategies have high robustness against errors. We further derive the pinning strategy under noise, by which the ZD strategy player coercively sets the opponent's expected payoff to his desired level, although his payoff control ability declines with the increase of noise strength. Due to the uncertainty caused by noise, the ZD strategy player cannot ensure his payoff to be permanently higher than the opponent's, which implies dominant extortions do not exist even under low noise. While we show that the ZD strategy player can still establish a novel kind of extortions, named contingent extortions, where any increase of his own payoff always exceeds that of the opponent's by a fixed percentage, and the conditions under which the contingent extortions can be realized are more stringent as the noise becomes stronger.
Data and Network Science for Noisy Heterogeneous Systems
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rider, Andrew Kent
2013-01-01
Data in many growing fields has an underlying network structure that can be taken advantage of. In this dissertation we apply data and network science to problems in the domains of systems biology and healthcare. Data challenges in these fields include noisy, heterogeneous data, and a lack of ground truth. The primary thesis of this work is that…
Methods for measuring the loudness and noisiness of complex sounds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kryter, K.
1970-01-01
Physical and temporal aspects of sound which influence the rating of subjective noisiness are intensity, spectrum shape and bandwidth, spectral complexity, and duration. Objective rating methods include a graphic method, full octave and one-third octave methods, and methods that measure one value over all frequencies.
Synchronization of the Noisy Electrosensitive Cells in the Paddlefish
Neiman, A.; Pei, X.; Russell, D.; Wojtenek, W.; Wilkens, L.; Moss, F.; Braun, H.A.; Voigt, K.; Huber, M.T.
1999-01-01
Synchronization of electrosensitive cells of the paddlefish is studied by means of electrophysiological experiments. Different types of noisy phase locked regimes are observed. The experimental data are compared with computer simulations of a noise-mediated modified Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model and of a stochastic circle map. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society }
The Effects of Noisy Data on Text Retrieval.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taghva, Kazem; And Others
1994-01-01
Discusses the use of optical character recognition (OCR) for inputting documents in an information retrieval system and describes a study that used an OCR-generated database and its corresponding corrected version to examine query evaluation in the presence of noisy data. Scanning technology, recognition technology, and retrieval technology are…
Neural basis of identity information extraction from noisy face images.
Hermann, Petra; Bankó, Éva M; Gál, Viktor; Vidnyánszky, Zoltán
2015-05-01
Previous research has made significant progress in identifying the neural basis of the remarkably efficient and seemingly effortless face perception in humans. However, the neural processes that enable the extraction of facial information under challenging conditions when face images are noisy and deteriorated remains poorly understood. Here we investigated the neural processes underlying the extraction of identity information from noisy face images using fMRI. For each participant, we measured (1) face-identity discrimination performance outside the scanner, (2) visual cortical fMRI responses for intact and phase-randomized face stimuli, and (3) intrinsic functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI. Our whole-brain analysis showed that the presence of noise led to reduced and increased fMRI responses in the mid-fusiform gyrus and the lateral occipital cortex, respectively. Furthermore, the noise-induced modulation of the fMRI responses in the right face-selective fusiform face area (FFA) was closely associated with individual differences in the identity discrimination performance of noisy faces: smaller decrease of the fMRI responses was accompanied by better identity discrimination. The results also revealed that the strength of the intrinsic functional connectivity within the visual cortical network composed of bilateral FFA and bilateral object-selective lateral occipital cortex (LOC) predicted the participants' ability to discriminate the identity of noisy face images. These results imply that perception of facial identity in the case of noisy face images is subserved by neural computations within the right FFA as well as a re-entrant processing loop involving bilateral FFA and LOC. PMID:25948266
Immunity in the Noisy Penna Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biecek, Przemysław; Cebrat, Stanisław
We have modified the Penna standard sexual model in such a way, that the state of each individual has been determined by the individual fluctuation and the fluctuation of the environment. If the sum of both fluctuations is higher than the assumed limit, the organism dies. Additionally, the individuals can learn the trends of the environment's fluctuations, diminishing their deleterious effects. This mechanism leads to the higher mortality of the youngest individuals and the lowest mortality of individuals just before reaching the minimum reproduction age. These phenomena are observed in any mortality curve describing the age structures of human populations.
Coordinating Multi-Rover Systems: Evaluation Functions for Dynamic and Noisy Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turner, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian
2005-01-01
This paper addresses the evolution of control strategies for a collective: a set of entities that collectively strives to maximize a global evaluation function that rates the performance of the full system. Directly addressing such problems by having a population of collectives and applying the evolutionary algorithm to that population is appealing, but the search space is prohibitively large in most cases. Instead, we focus on evolving control policies for each member of the collective. The fundamental issue in this approach is how to create an evaluation function for each member of the collective that is both aligned with the global evaluation function and is sensitive to the fitness changes of the member, while relatively insensitive to the fitness changes of other members. We show how to construct evaluation functions in dynamic, noisy and communication-limited collective environments. On a rover coordination problem, a control policy evolved using aligned and member-sensitive evaluations outperfoms global evaluation methods by up to 400%. More notably, in the presence of a larger number of rovers or rovers with noisy and communication limited sensors, the proposed method outperforms global evaluation by a higher percentage than in noise-free conditions with a small number of rovers.
Desert ants achieve reliable recruitment across noisy interactions
Razin, Nitzan; Eckmann, Jean-Pierre; Feinerman, Ofer
2013-01-01
We study how desert ants, Cataglyphis niger, a species that lacks pheromone-based recruitment mechanisms, inform each other about the presence of food. Our results are based on automated tracking that allows us to collect a large database of ant trajectories and interactions. We find that interactions affect an ant's speed within the nest. Fast ants tend to slow down, whereas slow ones increase their speed when encountering a faster ant. Faster ants tend to exit the nest more frequently than slower ones. So, if an ant gains enough speed through encounters with others, then she tends to leave the nest and look for food. On the other hand, we find that the probability for her to leave the nest depends only on her speed, but not on whether she had recently interacted with a recruiter that has found the food. This suggests a recruitment system in which ants communicate their state by very simple interactions. Based on this assumption, we estimate the information-theoretical channel capacity of the ants’ pairwise interactions. We find that the response to the speed of an interacting nest-mate is very noisy. The question is then how random interactions with ants within the nest can be distinguished from those interactions with a recruiter who has found food. Our measurements and model suggest that this distinction does not depend on reliable communication but on behavioural differences between ants that have found the food and those that have not. Recruiters retain high speeds throughout the experiment, regardless of the ants they interact with; non-recruiters communicate with a limited number of nest-mates and adjust their speed following these interactions. These simple rules lead to the formation of a bistable switch on the level of the group that allows the distinction between recruitment and random noise in the nest. A consequence of the mechanism we propose is a negative effect of ant density on exit rates and recruitment success. This is, indeed, confirmed by
Finding the Way with a Noisy Brain
Cheung, Allen; Vickerstaff, Robert
2010-01-01
Successful navigation is fundamental to the survival of nearly every animal on earth, and achieved by nervous systems of vastly different sizes and characteristics. Yet surprisingly little is known of the detailed neural circuitry from any species which can accurately represent space for navigation. Path integration is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous navigation strategies in the animal kingdom. Despite a plethora of computational models, from equational to neural network form, there is currently no consensus, even in principle, of how this important phenomenon occurs neurally. Recently, all path integration models were examined according to a novel, unifying classification system. Here we combine this theoretical framework with recent insights from directed walk theory, and develop an intuitive yet mathematically rigorous proof that only one class of neural representation of space can tolerate noise during path integration. This result suggests many existing models of path integration are not biologically plausible due to their intolerance to noise. This surprising result imposes significant computational limitations on the neurobiological spatial representation of all successfully navigating animals, irrespective of species. Indeed, noise-tolerance may be an important functional constraint on the evolution of neuroarchitectural plans in the animal kingdom. PMID:21085678
Continuous data assimilation with stochastically noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bessaih, Hakima; Olson, Eric; Titi, Edriss S.
2015-03-01
We analyse the performance of a data-assimilation algorithm based on a linear feedback control when used with observational data that contains measurement errors. Our model problem consists of dynamics governed by the two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, observational measurements given by finite volume elements or nodal points of the velocity field and measurement errors which are represented by stochastic noise. Under these assumptions, the data-assimilation algorithm consists of a system of stochastically forced Navier-Stokes equations. The main result of this paper provides explicit conditions on the observation density (resolution) which guarantee explicit asymptotic bounds, as the time tends to infinity, on the error between the approximate solution and the actual solutions which is corresponding to these measurements, in terms of the variance of the noise in the measurements. Specifically, such bounds are given for the limit supremum, as the time tends to infinity, of the expected value of the L2-norm and of the H1 Sobolev norm of the difference between the approximating solution and the actual solution. Moreover, results on the average time error in mean are stated. birthday.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Noisy zigzag transition, fluctuations, and thermal bifurcation threshold.
Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2013-06-01
We study the zigzag transition in a system of particles with screened electrostatic interaction, submitted to a thermal noise. At finite temperature, this configurational phase transition is an example of noisy supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The measurements of transverse fluctuations allow a complete description of the bifurcation region, which takes place between the deterministic threshold and a thermal threshold beyond which thermal fluctuations do not allow the system to flip between the symmetric zigzag configurations. We show that a divergence of the saturation time for the transverse fluctuations allows a precise and unambiguous definition of this thermal threshold. Its evolution with the temperature is shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions from noisy bifurcation theory. PMID:23848655
Noisy zigzag transition, fluctuations, and thermal bifurcation threshold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Delfau, Jean-Baptiste; Coste, Christophe; Saint Jean, Michel
2013-06-01
We study the zigzag transition in a system of particles with screened electrostatic interaction, submitted to a thermal noise. At finite temperature, this configurational phase transition is an example of noisy supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. The measurements of transverse fluctuations allow a complete description of the bifurcation region, which takes place between the deterministic threshold and a thermal threshold beyond which thermal fluctuations do not allow the system to flip between the symmetric zigzag configurations. We show that a divergence of the saturation time for the transverse fluctuations allows a precise and unambiguous definition of this thermal threshold. Its evolution with the temperature is shown to be in good agreement with theoretical predictions from noisy bifurcation theory.
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C. H.
2014-11-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Quantum error correction assisted by two-way noisy communication.
Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Sixia; Fan, Heng; Oh, C H
2014-01-01
Pre-shared non-local entanglement dramatically simplifies and improves the performance of quantum error correction via entanglement-assisted quantum error-correcting codes (EAQECCs). However, even considering the noise in quantum communication only, the non-local sharing of a perfectly entangled pair is technically impossible unless additional resources are consumed, such as entanglement distillation, which actually compromises the efficiency of the codes. Here we propose an error-correcting protocol assisted by two-way noisy communication that is more easily realisable: all quantum communication is subjected to general noise and all entanglement is created locally without additional resources consumed. In our protocol the pre-shared noisy entangled pairs are purified simultaneously by the decoding process. For demonstration, we first present an easier implementation of the well-known EAQECC [[4, 1, 3; 1
Machine printed text and handwriting identification in noisy document images.
Zheng, Yefeng; Li, Huiping; Doermann, David
2004-03-01
In this paper, we address the problem of the identification of text in noisy document images. We are especially focused on segmenting and identifying between handwriting and machine printed text because: 1) Handwriting in a document often indicates corrections, additions, or other supplemental information that should be treated differently from the main content and 2) the segmentation and recognition techniques requested for machine printed and handwritten text are significantly different. A novel aspect of our approach is that we treat noise as a separate class and model noise based on selected features. Trained Fisher classifiers are used to identify machine printed text and handwriting from noise and we further exploit context to refine the classification. A Markov Random Field-based (MRF) approach is used to model the geometrical structure of the printed text, handwriting, and noise to rectify misclassifications. Experimental results show that our approach is robust and can significantly improve page segmentation in noisy document collections. PMID:15376881
Casting polymer nets to optimize noisy molecular codes
Tlusty, Tsvi
2008-01-01
Life relies on the efficient performance of molecular codes, which relate symbols and meanings via error-prone molecular recognition. We describe how optimizing a code to withstand the impact of molecular recognition noise may be understood from the statistics of a two-dimensional network made of polymers. The noisy code is defined by partitioning the space of symbols into regions according to their meanings. The “polymers” are the boundaries between these regions, and their statistics define the cost and the quality of the noisy code. When the parameters that control the cost–quality balance are varied, the polymer network undergoes a transition, where the number of encoded meanings rises discontinuously. Effects of population dynamics on the evolution of molecular codes are discussed. PMID:18550822
Identification and tracking of particular speaker in noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Hideyuki; Ohkado, Minoru
2004-10-01
Human is able to exchange information smoothly using voice under different situations such as noisy environment in a crowd and with the existence of plural speakers. We are able to detect the position of a source sound in 3D space, extract a particular sound from mixed sounds, and recognize who is talking. By realizing this mechanism with a computer, new applications will be presented for recording a sound with high quality by reducing noise, presenting a clarified sound, and realizing a microphone-free speech recognition by extracting particular sound. The paper will introduce a realtime detection and identification of particular speaker in noisy environment using a microphone array based on the location of a speaker and the individual voice characteristics. The study will be applied to develop an adaptive auditory system of a mobile robot which collaborates with a factory worker.
An integrated approach to improving noisy speech perception
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koval, Serguei; Stolbov, Mikhail; Smirnova, Natalia; Khitrov, Mikhail
2002-05-01
For a number of practical purposes and tasks, experts have to decode speech recordings of very poor quality. A combination of techniques is proposed to improve intelligibility and quality of distorted speech messages and thus facilitate their comprehension. Along with the application of noise cancellation and speech signal enhancement techniques removing and/or reducing various kinds of distortions and interference (primarily unmasking and normalization in time and frequency fields), the approach incorporates optimal listener expert tactics based on selective listening, nonstandard binaural listening, accounting for short-term and long-term human ear adaptation to noisy speech, as well as some methods of speech signal enhancement to support speech decoding during listening. The approach integrating the suggested techniques ensures high-quality ultimate results and has successfully been applied by Speech Technology Center experts and by numerous other users, mainly forensic institutions, to perform noisy speech records decoding for courts, law enforcement and emergency services, accident investigation bodies, etc.
Shape Adaptive, Robust Iris Feature Extraction from Noisy Iris Images
Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah
2013-01-01
In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate. PMID:24696801
Magnitude Estimation with Noisy Integrators Linked by an Adaptive Reference
Thurley, Kay
2016-01-01
Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect). Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims toward answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural) integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes. PMID:26909028
Magnitude Estimation with Noisy Integrators Linked by an Adaptive Reference.
Thurley, Kay
2016-01-01
Judgments of physical stimuli show characteristic biases; relatively small stimuli are overestimated whereas relatively large stimuli are underestimated (regression effect). Such biases likely result from a strategy that seeks to minimize errors given noisy estimates about stimuli that itself are drawn from a distribution, i.e., the statistics of the environment. While being conceptually well described, it is unclear how such a strategy could be implemented neurally. The present paper aims toward answering this question. A theoretical approach is introduced that describes magnitude estimation as two successive stages of noisy (neural) integration. Both stages are linked by a reference memory that is updated with every new stimulus. The model reproduces the behavioral characteristics of magnitude estimation and makes several experimentally testable predictions. Moreover, the model identifies the regression effect as a means of minimizing estimation errors and explains how this optimality strategy depends on the subject's discrimination abilities and on the stimulus statistics. The latter influence predicts another property of magnitude estimation, the so-called range effect. Beyond being successful in describing decision-making, the present work suggests that noisy integration may also be important in processing magnitudes. PMID:26909028
A reconstruction method for gappy and noisy arterial flow data.
Yakhot, Alexander; Anor, Tomer; Karniadakis, George Em
2007-12-01
Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), Kriging interpolation, and smoothing are applied to reconstruct gappy and noisy data of blood flow in a carotid artery. While we have applied these techniques to clinical data, in this paper in order to rigorously evaluate their effectiveness we rely on data obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Specifically, gappy data sets are generated by removing nodal values from high-resolution 3-D CFD data (at random or in a fixed area) while noisy data sets are formed by superimposing speckle noise on the CFD results. A combined POD-Kriging procedure is applied to planar data sets mimicking coarse resolution "ultrasound-like" blood flow images. A method for locating the vessel wall boundary and for calculating the wall shear stress (WSS) is also proposed. The results show good agreement with the original CFD data. The combined POD-Kriging method, enhanced by proper smoothing if needed, holds great potential in dealing effectively with gappy and noisy data reconstruction of in vivo velocity measurements based on color Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) imaging or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). PMID:18092738
Shape adaptive, robust iris feature extraction from noisy iris images.
Ghodrati, Hamed; Dehghani, Mohammad Javad; Danyali, Habibolah
2013-10-01
In the current iris recognition systems, noise removing step is only used to detect noisy parts of the iris region and features extracted from there will be excluded in matching step. Whereas depending on the filter structure used in feature extraction, the noisy parts may influence relevant features. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of noise factors on feature extraction has not been considered in the previous works. This paper investigates the effect of shape adaptive wavelet transform and shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet for feature extraction on the iris recognition performance. In addition, an effective noise-removing approach is proposed in this paper. The contribution is to detect eyelashes and reflections by calculating appropriate thresholds by a procedure called statistical decision making. The eyelids are segmented by parabolic Hough transform in normalized iris image to decrease computational burden through omitting rotation term. The iris is localized by an accurate and fast algorithm based on coarse-to-fine strategy. The principle of mask code generation is to assign the noisy bits in an iris code in order to exclude them in matching step is presented in details. An experimental result shows that by using the shape adaptive Gabor-wavelet technique there is an improvement on the accuracy of recognition rate. PMID:24696801
Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty.
Fung, R; Hanna, A M; Vendrell, O; Ramakrishna, S; Seideman, T; Santra, R; Ourmazd, A; Ourmazd, A
2016-04-28
Imperfect knowledge of the times at which 'snapshots' of a system are recorded degrades our ability to recover dynamical information, and can scramble the sequence of events. In X-ray free-electron lasers, for example, the uncertainty--the so-called timing jitter--between the arrival of an optical trigger ('pump') pulse and a probing X-ray pulse can exceed the length of the X-ray pulse by up to two orders of magnitude, marring the otherwise precise time-resolution capabilities of this class of instruments. The widespread notion that little dynamical information is available on timescales shorter than the timing uncertainty has led to various hardware schemes to reduce timing uncertainty. These schemes are expensive, tend to be specific to one experimental approach and cannot be used when the record was created under ill-defined or uncontrolled conditions such as during geological events. Here we present a data-analytical approach, based on singular-value decomposition and nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis, that can recover the history and dynamics of a system from a dense collection of noisy snapshots spanning a sufficiently large multiple of the timing uncertainty. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by extracting the underlying dynamics on the few-femtosecond timescale from noisy experimental X-ray free-electron laser data recorded with 300-femtosecond timing uncertainty. Using a noisy dataset from a pump-probe experiment on the Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules, our analysis reveals vibrational wave-packets consisting of components with periods as short as 15 femtoseconds, as well as more rapid changes, which have yet to be fully explored. Our approach can potentially be applied whenever dynamical or historical information is tainted by timing uncertainty. PMID:27121840
Dynamics from noisy data with extreme timing uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, R.; Ourmazd, A.; Hanna, A. M.; Vendrell, O.; Ramakrishna, S.; Seideman, T.; Santra, R.; Ourmazd, A.
2016-04-01
Imperfect knowledge of the times at which ‘snapshots’ of a system are recorded degrades our ability to recover dynamical information, and can scramble the sequence of events. In X-ray free-electron lasers, for example, the uncertainty—the so-called timing jitter—between the arrival of an optical trigger (‘pump’) pulse and a probing X-ray pulse can exceed the length of the X-ray pulse by up to two orders of magnitude, marring the otherwise precise time-resolution capabilities of this class of instruments. The widespread notion that little dynamical information is available on timescales shorter than the timing uncertainty has led to various hardware schemes to reduce timing uncertainty. These schemes are expensive, tend to be specific to one experimental approach and cannot be used when the record was created under ill-defined or uncontrolled conditions such as during geological events. Here we present a data-analytical approach, based on singular-value decomposition and nonlinear Laplacian spectral analysis, that can recover the history and dynamics of a system from a dense collection of noisy snapshots spanning a sufficiently large multiple of the timing uncertainty. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by extracting the underlying dynamics on the few-femtosecond timescale from noisy experimental X-ray free-electron laser data recorded with 300-femtosecond timing uncertainty. Using a noisy dataset from a pump-probe experiment on the Coulomb explosion of nitrogen molecules, our analysis reveals vibrational wave-packets consisting of components with periods as short as 15 femtoseconds, as well as more rapid changes, which have yet to be fully explored. Our approach can potentially be applied whenever dynamical or historical information is tainted by timing uncertainty.
Allard, Rémy; Faubert, Jocelyn
2008-08-01
Visual psychophysics often manipulates the contrast of the image on a digital display screen. Therefore, the limitation of the number of different luminance intensities displayable for most computers (typically, 256) is frequently an issue. To avoid this problem, experimenters generally need to purchase special hardware (graphic cards) and/or develop specific computer programs. Here, we describe an easy-to-implement method, consisting of adding noise to the displayed stimulus, that we call the noisy-bit method. This random dithering method, generalized to 256 luminance intensities, is equivalent to displaying continuous luminance intensities plus a certain amount of noise. Psychophysical testing using a standard spatiotemporal resolution (60 Hz and 1,024 x 768 pixels) demonstrated that the noise introduced by the noisy-bit method has no significant impact on contrast threshold and is not visible. We conclude that the noisy-bit method, combined with the standard 256 luminance levels, is perceptually equivalent to an analog display with a continuous luminance intensity resolution when the spatiotemporal resolution is high enough that the noise becomes negligible (which is easily attainable with the typical spatiotemporal resolutions of present-day computers). PMID:18697669
Direct characterization of quantum dynamics with noisy ancilla
Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Humble, Travis S.
2015-11-23
We present methods for the direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) in which both the principal and ancilla systems undergo noisy processes. Using a concatenated error detection code, we discriminate between located and unlocated errors on the principal system in what amounts to filtering of ancilla noise. The example of composite noise involving amplitude damping and depolarizing channels is used to demonstrate the method, while we find the rate of noise filtering is more generally dependent on code distance. Furthermore our results indicate the accuracy of quantum process characterization can be greatly improved while remaining within reach of current experimentalmore » capabilities.« less
Direct Characterization of Quantum Dynamics with Noisy Ancilla
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumitrescu, Eugene; Humble, Travis
We present methods for the direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) in which both the principal and ancilla systems undergo noisy processes. Using a concatenated error detection code, we discriminate between located and unlocated errors on the principal system in what amounts to filtering of ancilla noise. The example of composite noise involving amplitude damping and depolarizing channels is used to demonstrate the method, while we find the rate of noise filtering is more generally dependent on code distance. Our results indicate the accuracy of quantum process characterization can be greatly improved while remaining within reach of current experimental capabilities. We acknowledge support from the IC postdoctoral research program.
Performance evaluation of antenna arrays with noisy carrier reference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, T. Y.; Clare, L. P.
1981-01-01
The performance evaluation of coherent receivers with noisy carrier references and multiple antennas is presented. The received signal is assumed to be residual carrier BPSK, with a PLL used for extracting the carrier. Explicit relationships between the error probabilities and the various system parameters are given. Specific results are given for the performance gain of combined carrier referencing over baseband only combining when the channel alignment process is ideal. A simple asymptotic expression for the performance gain is determined when the number of antennas used is increased without bound. Examples using Deep Space Network receivers illustrate the performance of each arraying structure.
Direct characterization of quantum dynamics with noisy ancilla
Dumitrescu, Eugene F.; Humble, Travis S.
2015-11-23
We present methods for the direct characterization of quantum dynamics (DCQD) in which both the principal and ancilla systems undergo noisy processes. Using a concatenated error detection code, we discriminate between located and unlocated errors on the principal system in what amounts to filtering of ancilla noise. The example of composite noise involving amplitude damping and depolarizing channels is used to demonstrate the method, while we find the rate of noise filtering is more generally dependent on code distance. Furthermore our results indicate the accuracy of quantum process characterization can be greatly improved while remaining within reach of current experimental capabilities.
Statistical Analysis of Noisy Signals Using Classification Tools
Thompson, Sandra E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Johnson, Timothy J.; Foster, Nancy S.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Amonette, James E.
2005-06-04
The potential use of chemicals, biotoxins and biological pathogens are a threat to military and police forces as well as the general public. Rapid identification of these agents is made difficult due to the noisy nature of the signal that can be obtained from portable, in-field sensors. In previously published articles, we created a flowchart that illustrated a method for triaging bacterial identification by combining standard statistical techniques for discrimination and identification with mid-infrared spectroscopic data. The present work documents the process of characterizing and eliminating the sources of the noise and outlines how multidisciplinary teams are necessary to accomplish that goal.
Entanglement and communication-reducing properties of noisy N-qubit states
Laskowski, Wieslaw; Paterek, Tomasz; Brukner, Caslav; Zukowski, Marek
2010-04-15
We consider properties of states of many qubits, which arise after sending certain entangled states via various noisy channels (white noise, colored noise, local depolarization, dephasing, and amplitude damping). Entanglement of these states and their ability to violate certain classes of Bell inequalities are studied. States which violate them allow a higher than classical efficiency in solving related distributed computational tasks with constrained communication. This is a direct property of such states--not requiring their further modification via stochastic local operations and classical communication such as entanglement purification or distillation procedures. We identify families of multiparticle states which are entangled but nevertheless allow the local realistic description of specific Bell experiments. For some of them, the 'gap' between the critical values for entanglement and violation of Bell inequality remains finite even in the limit of infinitely many qubits.
End-to-end quality measure for transmission of compressed imagery over a noisy coded channel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korwar, V. N.; Lee, P. J.
1981-01-01
For the transmission of imagery at high data rates over large distances with limited power and system gain, it is usually necessary to compress the data before transmitting it over a noisy channel that uses channel coding to reduce the effect of noise introduced errors. Both compression and channel noise introduce distortion into the imagery. In order to design a communication link that provides adequate quality of received images, it is necessary first to define some suitable distortion measure that accounts for both these kinds of distortion and then to perform various tradeoffs to arrive at system parameter values that will provide a sufficiently low level of received image distortion. The overall mean square error is used as the distortion measure and a description of how to perform these tradeoffs are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, M. E.
1991-01-01
This paper presents a new approach to processing noisy startracker measurements in spacecraft attitude determination systems. It takes N measurements in each T-second interval and combines them to produce tracker outputs that are estimates of star position at the end of each interval, when the tracker outputs become available. This is an improvement over the standard method, measurement averaging, which generates outputs that are estimates of the average position of the star over each interval. This new scheme is superior to measurement averaging when the spacecraft has some rotation rate as in target tracking or earth pointing. Also, it is not just limited to startracker, but has potential application wherever measurement averaging of sensor outputs is used.
An efficient method for simulation of noisy coupled multi-dimensional oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stinchcombe, Adam R.; Forger, Daniel B.
2016-09-01
We present an efficient computational method for the study of populations of noisy coupled oscillators. By taking a population density approach in which the probability density of observing an oscillator at a point of state space is the primary variable instead of the states of all of the oscillators, we are able to seamlessly account for intrinsic noise within the oscillators and global coupling within the population. The population is assumed to consist of a large number of oscillators so that the noise process is well sampled over the population. Our numerical method is able to solve the governing equation even in the challenging case of limit cycle oscillators with a large number of state variables. Instead of simulating a prohibitive number of oscillators, our particle method simulates relatively few particles allowing for the efficient solution of the governing equation.
Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.
Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H
2016-01-01
Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775
Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.
2016-03-01
Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.
Optimal block cosine transform image coding for noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vaishampayan, V.; Farvardin, N.
1986-01-01
The two dimensional block transform coding scheme based on the discrete cosine transform was studied extensively for image coding applications. While this scheme has proven to be efficient in the absence of channel errors, its performance degrades rapidly over noisy channels. A method is presented for the joint source channel coding optimization of a scheme based on the 2-D block cosine transform when the output of the encoder is to be transmitted via a memoryless design of the quantizers used for encoding the transform coefficients. This algorithm produces a set of locally optimum quantizers and the corresponding binary code assignment for the assumed transform coefficient statistics. To determine the optimum bit assignment among the transform coefficients, an algorithm was used based on the steepest descent method, which under certain convexity conditions on the performance of the channel optimized quantizers, yields the optimal bit allocation. Comprehensive simulation results for the performance of this locally optimum system over noisy channels were obtained and appropriate comparisons against a reference system designed for no channel error were rendered.
Extensions to minimum relative entropy inversion for noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ulrych, Tadeusz J.; Woodbury, Allan D.
2003-12-01
Minimum relative entropy (MRE) and Tikhonov regularization (TR) were compared by Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] on the basis of an example plume source reconstruction problem originally proposed by Skaggs and Kabala [Water Resour. Res. 30 (1994) 71] and a boxcar-like function. Although Neupauer et al. [Water Resour. Res. 36 (2000) 2469] were careful in their conclusions to note the basis of these comparisons, we show that TR does not perform well on problems in which delta-like sources are convolved with diffuse-groundwater contamination response functions, particularly in the presence of noise. We also show that it is relatively easy to estimate an appropriate value for ɛ, the hyperparameter needed in the minimum relative entropy solution for the inverse problem in the presence of noise. This can be estimated in a variety of ways, including estimation from the data themselves, analysis of data residuals, and a rigorous approach using the real cepstrum and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Regardless of the approach chosen, for the sample problem reported herein, excellent resolution of multiple delta-like spikes is produced from MRE from noisy, diffuse data. The usefulness of MRE for noisy inverse problems has been demonstrated.
AveBoost2: Boosting for Noisy Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oza, Nikunj C.
2004-01-01
AdaBoost is a well-known ensemble learning algorithm that constructs its constituent or base models in sequence. A key step in AdaBoost is constructing a distribution over the training examples to create each base model. This distribution, represented as a vector, is constructed to be orthogonal to the vector of mistakes made by the pre- vious base model in the sequence. The idea is to make the next base model's errors uncorrelated with those of the previous model. In previous work, we developed an algorithm, AveBoost, that constructed distributions orthogonal to the mistake vectors of all the previous models, and then averaged them to create the next base model s distribution. Our experiments demonstrated the superior accuracy of our approach. In this paper, we slightly revise our algorithm to allow us to obtain non-trivial theoretical results: bounds on the training error and generalization error (difference between training and test error). Our averaging process has a regularizing effect which, as expected, leads us to a worse training error bound for our algorithm than for AdaBoost but a superior generalization error bound. For this paper, we experimented with the data that we used in both as originally supplied and with added label noise-a small fraction of the data has its original label changed. Noisy data are notoriously difficult for AdaBoost to learn. Our algorithm's performance improvement over AdaBoost is even greater on the noisy data than the original data.
Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels
Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C. H.
2016-01-01
Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence. PMID:26935775
Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live
Duarte, Marina H. L.; Vecci, Marco A.; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J.
2011-01-01
Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396
Identification of Bifurcations from Observations of Noisy Biological Oscillators.
Salvi, Joshua D; Ó Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Hudspeth, A J
2016-08-23
Hair bundles are biological oscillators that actively transduce mechanical stimuli into electrical signals in the auditory, vestibular, and lateral-line systems of vertebrates. A bundle's function can be explained in part by its operation near a particular type of bifurcation, a qualitative change in behavior. By operating near different varieties of bifurcation, the bundle responds best to disparate classes of stimuli. We show how to determine the identity of and proximity to distinct bifurcations despite the presence of substantial environmental noise. Using an improved mechanical-load clamp to coerce a hair bundle to traverse different bifurcations, we find that a bundle operates within at least two functional regimes. When coupled to a high-stiffness load, a bundle functions near a supercritical Hopf bifurcation, in which case it responds best to sinusoidal stimuli such as those detected by an auditory organ. When the load stiffness is low, a bundle instead resides close to a subcritical Hopf bifurcation and achieves a graded frequency response-a continuous change in the rate, but not the amplitude, of spiking in response to changes in the offset force-a behavior that is useful in a vestibular organ. The mechanical load in vivo might therefore control a hair bundle's responsiveness for effective operation in a particular receptor organ. Our results provide direct experimental evidence for the existence of distinct bifurcations associated with a noisy biological oscillator, and demonstrate a general strategy for bifurcation analysis based on observations of any noisy system. PMID:27558723
A multistaged automatic restoration of noisy microscopy cell images.
Xu, Jinwei; Hu, Jiankun; Jia, Xiuping
2015-01-01
Automated cell segmentation for microscopy cell images has recently become an initial step for further image analysis in cell biology. However, microscopy cell images are easily degraded by noise during the readout procedure via optical-electronic imaging systems. Such noise degradations result in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and poor image quality for cell identification. In order to improve SNR for subsequent segmentation and image-based quantitative analysis, the commonly used state-of-art restoration techniques are applied but few of them are suitable for corrupted microscopy cell images. In this paper, we propose a multistaged method based on a novel integration of trend surface analysis, quantile-quantile plot, bootstrapping, and the Gaussian spatial kernel for the restoration of noisy microscopy cell images. We show this multistaged approach achieves higher performance compared with other state-of-art restoration techniques in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio and structure similarity in synthetic noise experiments. This paper also reports an experiment on real noisy microscopy data which demonstrated the advantages of the proposed restoration method for improving segmentation performance. PMID:25291801
Noisy human neighbours affect where urban monkeys live.
Duarte, Marina H L; Vecci, Marco A; Hirsch, André; Young, Robert J
2011-12-23
Urban areas and many natural habitats are being dominated by a new selection pressure: anthropogenic noise. The ongoing expansion of urban areas, roads and airports throughout the world makes the noise almost omnipresent. Urbanization and the increase of noise levels form a major threat to living conditions in and around cities. Insight into the behavioural strategies of urban survivors may explain the sensitivity of other species to urban selection pressures. Here, we show that urban black-tufted marmosets (Callithrix penicillata) living in noisy urban areas may select their home-range based primarily on ambient noise level. We have tested the hypothesis that the noise from vehicular traffic and visitors in an urban park in Brazil influences the use of home-range (space) by urban marmosets. Marmosets even avoided noisy areas with high food availability. In addition, they systematically preferred the quieter areas even with dynamic changes in the acoustic landscape of the park between weekdays and Sundays (no observations were made on Saturdays). These data provide evidence that the use of home-range by wild animals can be affected by a potential aversive stimulus such as noise pollution. PMID:21715396
Forecasting turbulent modes with nonparametric diffusion models: Learning from noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berry, Tyrus; Harlim, John
2016-04-01
In this paper, we apply a recently developed nonparametric modeling approach, the "diffusion forecast", to predict the time-evolution of Fourier modes of turbulent dynamical systems. While the diffusion forecasting method assumes the availability of a noise-free training data set observing the full state space of the dynamics, in real applications we often have only partial observations which are corrupted by noise. To alleviate these practical issues, following the theory of embedology, the diffusion model is built using the delay-embedding coordinates of the data. We show that this delay embedding biases the geometry of the data in a way which extracts the most stable component of the dynamics and reduces the influence of independent additive observation noise. The resulting diffusion forecast model approximates the semigroup solutions of the generator of the underlying dynamics in the limit of large data and when the observation noise vanishes. As in any standard forecasting problem, the forecasting skill depends crucially on the accuracy of the initial conditions. We introduce a novel Bayesian method for filtering the discrete-time noisy observations which works with the diffusion forecast to determine the forecast initial densities. Numerically, we compare this nonparametric approach with standard stochastic parametric models on a wide-range of well-studied turbulent modes, including the Lorenz-96 model in weakly chaotic to fully turbulent regimes and the barotropic modes of a quasi-geostrophic model with baroclinic instabilities. We show that when the only available data is the low-dimensional set of noisy modes that are being modeled, the diffusion forecast is indeed competitive to the perfect model.
Inferring the spatiotemporal DNA replication program from noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, A.; Bechhoefer, J.
2014-03-01
We generalize a stochastic model of DNA replication to the case where replication-origin-initiation rates vary locally along the genome and with time. Using this generalized model, we address the inverse problem of inferring initiation rates from experimental data concerning replication in cell populations. Previous work based on curve fitting depended on arbitrarily chosen functional forms for the initiation rate, with free parameters that were constrained by the data. We introduce a nonparametric method of inference that is based on Gaussian process regression. The method replaces specific assumptions about the functional form of the initiation rate with more general prior expectations about the smoothness of variation of this rate, along the genome and in time. Using this inference method, we recover, with high precision, simulated replication schemes from noisy data that are typical of current experiments.
Information jet: Handling noisy big data from weakly disconnected network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aurongzeb, Deeder
Sudden aggregation (information jet) of large amount of data is ubiquitous around connected social networks, driven by sudden interacting and non-interacting events, network security threat attacks, online sales channel etc. Clustering of information jet based on time series analysis and graph theory is not new but little work is done to connect them with particle jet statistics. We show pre-clustering based on context can element soft network or network of information which is critical to minimize time to calculate results from noisy big data. We show difference between, stochastic gradient boosting and time series-graph clustering. For disconnected higher dimensional information jet, we use Kallenberg representation theorem (Kallenberg, 2005, arXiv:1401.1137) to identify and eliminate jet similarities from dense or sparse graph.
A direct search algorithm for optimization with noisy function evaluations
Anderson, E.; Ferris, M.
1994-12-31
In this paper we describe a new direct search algorithm, reminiscent of the Nelder-Mead method, and related to a more recent pattern search algorithm proposed by Torczon. We believe that this method has applications in situations in which each function evaluation is noisy, but in which repeated function evaluations at the same point can be used to progressively reduce the error. For example, this will occur if the objective function value is given as a result of a simulation experiment. We investigate the convergence behaviour of the new algorithm for problems in which each function evaluation returns the true value of the function plus a random error drawn from a Normal distribution.
Trading in markets with noisy information: an evolutionary analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloembergen, Daan; Hennes, Daniel; McBurney, Peter; Tuyls, Karl
2015-07-01
We analyse the value of information in a stock market where information can be noisy and costly, using techniques from empirical game theory. Previous work has shown that the value of information follows a J-curve, where averagely informed traders perform below market average, and only insiders prevail. Here we show that both noise and cost can change this picture, in several cases leading to opposite results where insiders perform below market average, and averagely informed traders prevail. Moreover, we investigate the effect of random explorative actions on the market dynamics, showing how these lead to a mix of traders being sustained in equilibrium. These results provide insight into the complexity of real marketplaces, and show under which conditions a broad mix of different trading strategies might be sustainable.
Reconstruction of pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance
Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan
2015-01-01
We investigate a practical technology for reconstructing nanosecond pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance, which is based on the modulation instability. A theoretical model of this method for optical pulse signal is built to effectively recover the pulse image. The nanosecond noise-hidden images grow at the expense of noise during the stochastic resonance process in a photorefractive medium. The properties of output images are mainly determined by the input signal-to-noise intensity ratio, the applied voltage across the medium, and the correlation length of noise background. A high cross-correlation gain is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse images in various imaging applications. PMID:26067911
Decoding information from noisy, redundant, and intentionally distorted sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yi-Kuo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Laureti, Paolo; Moret, Lionel
2006-11-01
Advances in information technology reduce barriers to information propagation, but at the same time they also induce the information overload problem. For the making of various decisions, mere digestion of the relevant information has become a daunting task due to the massive amount of information available. This information, such as that generated by evaluation systems developed by various web sites, is in general useful but may be noisy and may also contain biased entries. In this study, we establish a framework to systematically tackle the challenging problem of information decoding in the presence of massive and redundant data. When applied to a voting system, our method simultaneously ranks the raters and the ratees using only the evaluation data, consisting of an array of scores each of which represents the rating of a ratee by a rater. Not only is our approach effective in decoding information, it is also shown to be robust against various hypothetical types of noise as well as intentional abuses.
Grothendieck's constant and local models for noisy entangled quantum states
Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Toner, Benjamin
2006-06-15
We relate the nonlocal properties of noisy entangled states to Grothendieck's constant, a mathematical constant appearing in Banach space theory. For two-qubit Werner states {rho}{sub p}{sup W}=p|{psi}{sup -}><{psi}{sup -}|+(1-p)1/4, we show that there is a local model for projective measurements if and only if p{<=}1/K{sub G}(3), where K{sub G}(3) is Grothendieck's constant of order 3. Known bounds on K{sub G}(3) prove the existence of this model at least for p < or approx. 0.66, quite close to the current region of Bell violation, p{approx}0.71. We generalize this result to arbitrary quantum states.
Symplectic geometry spectrum regression for prediction of noisy time series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates; Sivakumar, Bellie; Mengersen, Kerrie
2016-05-01
We present the symplectic geometry spectrum regression (SGSR) technique as well as a regularized method based on SGSR for prediction of nonlinear time series. The main tool of analysis is the symplectic geometry spectrum analysis, which decomposes a time series into the sum of a small number of independent and interpretable components. The key to successful regularization is to damp higher order symplectic geometry spectrum components. The effectiveness of SGSR and its superiority over local approximation using ordinary least squares are demonstrated through prediction of two noisy synthetic chaotic time series (Lorenz and Rössler series), and then tested for prediction of three real-world data sets (Mississippi River flow data and electromyographic and mechanomyographic signal recorded from human body).
Symplectic geometry spectrum regression for prediction of noisy time series.
Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates; Sivakumar, Bellie; Mengersen, Kerrie
2016-05-01
We present the symplectic geometry spectrum regression (SGSR) technique as well as a regularized method based on SGSR for prediction of nonlinear time series. The main tool of analysis is the symplectic geometry spectrum analysis, which decomposes a time series into the sum of a small number of independent and interpretable components. The key to successful regularization is to damp higher order symplectic geometry spectrum components. The effectiveness of SGSR and its superiority over local approximation using ordinary least squares are demonstrated through prediction of two noisy synthetic chaotic time series (Lorenz and Rössler series), and then tested for prediction of three real-world data sets (Mississippi River flow data and electromyographic and mechanomyographic signal recorded from human body). PMID:27300890
Cavity approach to noisy learning in nonlinear perceptrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Peixun; Michael Wong, K. Y.
2001-12-01
We analyze the learning of noisy teacher-generated examples by nonlinear and differentiable student perceptrons using the cavity method. The generic activation of an example is a function of the cavity activation of the example, which is its activation in the perceptron that learns without the example. Mean-field equations for the macroscopic parameters and the stability condition yield results consistent with the replica method. When a single value of the cavity activation maps to multiple values of the generic activation, there is a competition in learning strategy between preferentially learning an example and sacrificing it in favor of the background adjustment. We find parameter regimes in which examples are learned preferentially or sacrificially, leading to a gap in the activation distribution. Full phase diagrams of this complex system are presented, and the theory predicts the existence of a phase transition from poor to good generalization states in the system. Simulation results confirm the theoretical predictions.
Measurement of infinitesimal phase response curves from noisy real neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ota, Keisuke; Omori, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Shigeo; Miyakawa, Hiroyoshi; Okada, Masato; Aonishi, Toru
2011-10-01
We sought to measure infinitesimal phase response curves (iPRCs) from rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. It is difficult to measure iPRCs from noisy neurons because of the dilemma that either the linearity or the signal-to-noise ratio of responses to external perturbations must be sacrificed. To overcome this difficulty, we used an iPRC measurement model formulated as the Langevin phase equation (LPE) to extract iPRCs in the Bayesian scheme. We then simultaneously verified the effectiveness of the measurement model and the reliability of the estimated iPRCs by demonstrating that LPEs with the estimated iPRCs could predict the stochastic behaviors of the same neurons, whose iPRCs had been measured, when they were perturbed by periodic stimulus currents. Our results suggest that the LPE is an effective model for real oscillating neurons and that many theoretical frameworks based on it may be applicable to real nerve systems.
Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Shalchi, A.; Hussein, M. E-mail: m_hussein@physics.umanitoba.ca
2014-10-10
A model for noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence was recently proposed. This model was already used to study the random walk of magnetic field lines. In the current article we use the same model to investigate the diffusion of energetic particles across the mean magnetic field. To compute the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, two analytical theories are used, namely, the Non-Linear Guiding Center theory and the Unified Non-Linear Transport (UNLT) theory. It is shown that the two theories provide different results for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient. We also perform test-particle simulations for the aforementioned turbulence model. We show that only the UNLT theory describes perpendicular transport accurately, confirming that this is a powerful tool in diffusion theory.
Edge detection of noisy images based on cellular neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huaqing; Liao, Xiaofeng; Li, Chuandong; Huang, Hongyu; Li, Chaojie
2011-09-01
This paper studies a technique employing both cellular neural networks (CNNs) and linear matrix inequality (LMI) for edge detection of noisy images. Our main work focuses on training templates of noise reduction and edge detection CNNs. Based on the Lyapunov stability theorem, we derive a criterion for global asymptotical stability of a unique equilibrium of the noise reduction CNN. Then we design an approach to train edge detection templates, and this approach can detect the edge precisely and efficiently, i.e., by only one iteration. Finally, we illustrate performance of the proposed methodology from the aspect of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) through computer simulations. Moreover, some comparisons are also given to prove that our method outperforms classical operators in gray image edge detection.
On comparison of accuracy of approximate solutions of operator equations with noisy data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hämarik, Uno
2016-06-01
We consider an operator equation with noisy data where the noise level is given. The case of noisy data is especially actual in ill-posed problems. We formulate a criterion for comparison of accuracy of two approximate solutions get by arbitrary (different) methods. This generalizes previous results about monotonicity of error of approximate solutions generated by the same method but using different parameters.
Evolving Multi Rover Systems in Dynamic and Noisy Environments
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian
2005-01-01
In this chapter, we address how to evolve control strategies for a collective: a set of entities that collectively strives to maximize a global evaluation function that rates the performance of the full system. Addressing such problems by directly applying a global evolutionary algorithm to a population of collectives is unworkable because the search space is prohibitively large. Instead, we focus on evolving control policies for each member of the collective, where each member is trying to maximize the fitness of its own population. The main difficulty with this approach is creating fitness evaluation functions for the members of the collective that induce the collective to achieve high performance with respect to the system level goal. To overcome this difficulty, we derive member evaluation functions that are both aligned with the global evaluation function (ensuring that members trying to achieve high fitness results in a collective with high fitness) and sensitive to the fitness of each member (a member's fitness depends more on its own actions than on actions of other members). In a difficult rover coordination problem in dynamic and noisy environments, we show how to construct evaluation functions that lead to good collective behavior. The control policy evolved using aligned and member-sensitive evaluations outperforms global evaluation methods by up to a factor of four. in addition we show that the collective continues to perform well in the presence of high noise levels and when the environment is highly dynamic. More notably, in the presence of a larger number of rovers or rovers with noisy sensors, the improvements due to the proposed method become significantly more pronounced.
Judgements of relative noisiness of a supersonic transport and several commercial-service aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Powell, C. A.
1977-01-01
Two laboratory experiments were conducted on the relative noisiness of takeoff and landing operations of a supersonic transport and several other aircraft in current commercial service. A total of 96 subjects made noisiness judgments on 120 tape-recorded flyover noises in the outdoor-acoustic-simulation experiment; 32 different subjects made judgments on the noises in the indoor-acoustic-simulation experiment. The judgments were made by using the method of numerical category scaling. The effective perceived noise level underestimated the noisiness of the supersonic transport by 3.5 db. For takeoff operations, no difference was found between the noisiness of the supersonic transport and the group of other aircraft for the A-weighted rating scale; however, for landing operations, the noisiness of the supersonic transport was overestimated by 3.7 db. Very high correlation was found between the outdoor-simulation experiment and the indoor-simulation experiment.
Quantum Correlations of Two Relativistic Spin-{1}/{2} Particles Under Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdian, M.; Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.; Makaremi, T.
2016-02-01
We study the quantum correlation dynamics of bipartite spin-{1}/{2} density matrices for two particles under Wigner rotations induced by Lorentz transformations which is transmitted through noisy channels. We compare quantum entanglement, geometric discord(GD), and quantum discord (QD) for bipartite relativistic spin-{1}/{2} states under noisy channels. We find out QD and GD tend to death asymptotically but a sudden change in the decay rate of the entanglement occurs under noisy channels. Also, bipartite relativistic spin density matrices are considered as a quantum channel for teleportation one-qubit state under the influence of depolarizing noise and compare fidelity for various velocities of observers.
Analysis of overlapped and noisy hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectra.
Guttman, Miklos; Weis, David D; Engen, John R; Lee, Kelly K
2013-12-01
Noisy and overlapped mass spectrometry data hinder the sequence coverage that can be obtained from hydrogen deuterium exchange analysis, and places a limit on the complexity of the samples that can be studied by this technique. Advances in instrumentation have addressed these limits, but as the complexity of the biological samples under investigation increases, these problems are re-encountered. Here we describe the use of binomial distribution fitting with asymmetric linear squares regression for calculating the accurate deuterium content for mass envelopes of low signal or that contain significant overlap. The approach is demonstrated with a test data set of HIV Env gp140 wherein inclusion of the new analysis regime resulted in obtaining exchange data for 42 additional peptides, improving the sequence coverage by 11%. At the same time, the precision of deuterium uptake measurements was improved for nearly every peptide examined. The improved processing algorithms also provide an efficient method for deconvolution of bimodal mass envelopes and EX1 kinetic signatures. All these functions and visualization tools have been implemented in the new version of the freely available software, HX-Express v2. PMID:24018862
Analysis of Overlapped and Noisy Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guttman, Miklos; Weis, David D.; Engen, John R.; Lee, Kelly K.
2013-12-01
Noisy and overlapped mass spectrometry data hinder the sequence coverage that can be obtained from hydrogen deuterium exchange analysis, and places a limit on the complexity of the samples that can be studied by this technique. Advances in instrumentation have addressed these limits, but as the complexity of the biological samples under investigation increases, these problems are re-encountered. Here we describe the use of binomial distribution fitting with asymmetric linear squares regression for calculating the accurate deuterium content for mass envelopes of low signal or that contain significant overlap. The approach is demonstrated with a test data set of HIV Env gp140 wherein inclusion of the new analysis regime resulted in obtaining exchange data for 42 additional peptides, improving the sequence coverage by 11 %. At the same time, the precision of deuterium uptake measurements was improved for nearly every peptide examined. The improved processing algorithms also provide an efficient method for deconvolution of bimodal mass envelopes and EX1 kinetic signatures. All these functions and visualization tools have been implemented in the new version of the freely available software, HX-Express v2.
Reconstructing Breakage Fusion Bridge Architectures Using Noisy Copy Numbers
Bafna, Vineet
2015-01-01
Abstract The Breakage Fusion Bridge (BFB) process is a key marker for genomic instability, producing highly rearranged genomes in relatively small numbers of cell cycles. While the process itself was observed during the late 1930s, little is known about the extent of BFB in tumor genome evolution. Moreover, BFB can dramatically increase copy numbers of chromosomal segments, which in turn hardens the tasks of both reference-assisted and ab initio genome assembly. Based on available data such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) and Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) data, we show here how BFB evidence may be identified, and how to enumerate all possible evolutions of the process with respect to observed data. Specifically, we describe practical algorithms that, given a chromosomal arm segmentation and noisy segment copy number estimates, produce all segment count vectors supported by the data that can be produced by BFB, and all corresponding BFB architectures. This extends the scope of analyses described in our previous work, which produced a single count vector and architecture per instance. We apply these analyses to a comprehensive human cancer dataset, demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the computation, and suggest methods for further assertions of candidate BFB samples. Source code of our tool can be found online. PMID:26020441
Improved restoration algorithm for weakly blurred and strongly noisy image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Qianshun; Xia, Guo; Zhou, Haiyang; Bai, Jian; Yu, Feihong
2015-10-01
In real applications, such as consumer digital imaging, it is very common to record weakly blurred and strongly noisy images. Recently, a state-of-art algorithm named geometric locally adaptive sharpening (GLAS) has been proposed. By capturing local image structure, it can effectively combine denoising and sharpening together. However, there still exist two problems in the practice. On one hand, two hard thresholds have to be constantly adjusted with different images so as not to produce over-sharpening artifacts. On the other hand, the smoothing parameter must be manually set precisely. Otherwise, it will seriously magnify the noise. However, these parameters have to be set in advance and totally empirically. In a practical application, this is difficult to achieve. Thus, it is not easy to use and not smart enough. In an effort to improve the restoration effect of this situation by way of GLAS, an improved GLAS (IGLAS) algorithm by introducing the local phase coherence sharpening Index (LPCSI) metric is proposed in this paper. With the help of LPCSI metric, the two hard thresholds can be fixed at constant values for all images. Compared to the original method, the thresholds in our new algorithm no longer need to change with different images. Based on our proposed IGLAS, its automatic version is also developed in order to compensate for the disadvantages of manual intervention. Simulated and real experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can not only obtain better performances compared with the original method, but it is very easy to apply.
Detecting trends in noisy data series: application to biomarker series.
Bellera, Carine A; Hanley, James A; Joseph, Lawrence; Albertsen, Peter C
2008-05-01
It is common to define a change in health status or in a disease state on the basis of a sustained rise (or decline) in a biomarker over time. However, such observations are often subject to important variability unrelated to the underlying biologic process. The authors propose a method to evaluate rules that define an event on the basis of consecutive increases (or decreases) in the observations, given the presence of random variation. They examine how well these rules correctly identify a truly rising biomarker trajectory and, conversely, how often they can recognize a truly stable series or a slowly rising series. The method relies on simulation of realistic, sophisticated data sets that accurately reflect the systematic and random variations observed in marker series. These flexible, empirically based simulations enable estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of rules of consecutive rises as a function of the underlying trend, amount of random variation, and schedule of measurements (frequency and duration of follow-up). The authors illustrate the approach with postradiotherapy series of prostate-specific antigen, where three consecutive rises in prostate-specific antigen indicate treatment failure; the data are described by using a Bayesian hierarchical changepoint model. The method is particularly flexible and could be applied to evaluate other rules that purport to accurately detect upturns (downturns) in other noisy data series, including other medical data or other application areas. PMID:18303004
The Noisy Expectation-Maximization Algorithm for Multiplicative Noise Injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osoba, Osonde; Kosko, Bart
2016-03-01
We generalize the noisy expectation-maximization (NEM) algorithm to allow arbitrary modes of noise injection besides just adding noise to the data. The noise must still satisfy a NEM positivity condition. This generalization includes the important special case of multiplicative noise injection. A generalized NEM theorem shows that all measurable modes of injecting noise will speed the average convergence of the EM algorithm if the noise satisfies a generalized NEM positivity condition. This noise-benefit condition has a simple quadratic form for Gaussian and Cauchy mixture models in the case of multiplicative noise injection. Simulations show a multiplicative-noise EM speed-up of more than 27% in a simple Gaussian mixture model. Injecting blind noise only slowed convergence. A related theorem gives a sufficient condition for an average EM noise benefit for arbitrary modes of noise injection if the data model comes from the general exponential family of probability density functions. A final theorem shows that injected noise slows EM convergence on average if the NEM inequalities reverse and the noise satisfies a negativity condition.
Synchronous Generator Model Parameter Estimation Based on Noisy Dynamic Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berhausen, Sebastian; Paszek, Stefan
2016-01-01
In recent years, there have occurred system failures in many power systems all over the world. They have resulted in a lack of power supply to a large number of recipients. To minimize the risk of occurrence of power failures, it is necessary to perform multivariate investigations, including simulations, of power system operating conditions. To conduct reliable simulations, the current base of parameters of the models of generating units, containing the models of synchronous generators, is necessary. In the paper, there is presented a method for parameter estimation of a synchronous generator nonlinear model based on the analysis of selected transient waveforms caused by introducing a disturbance (in the form of a pseudorandom signal) in the generator voltage regulation channel. The parameter estimation was performed by minimizing the objective function defined as a mean square error for deviations between the measurement waveforms and the waveforms calculated based on the generator mathematical model. A hybrid algorithm was used for the minimization of the objective function. In the paper, there is described a filter system used for filtering the noisy measurement waveforms. The calculation results of the model of a 44 kW synchronous generator installed on a laboratory stand of the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science of the Silesian University of Technology are also given. The presented estimation method can be successfully applied to parameter estimation of different models of high-power synchronous generators operating in a power system.
Measuring the robustness of link prediction algorithms under noisy environment.
Zhang, Peng; Wang, Xiang; Wang, Futian; Zeng, An; Xiao, Jinghua
2016-01-01
Link prediction in complex networks is to estimate the likelihood of two nodes to interact with each other in the future. As this problem has applications in a large number of real systems, many link prediction methods have been proposed. However, the validation of these methods is so far mainly conducted in the assumed noise-free networks. Therefore, we still miss a clear understanding of how the prediction results would be affected if the observed network data is no longer accurate. In this paper, we comprehensively study the robustness of the existing link prediction algorithms in the real networks where some links are missing, fake or swapped with other links. We find that missing links are more destructive than fake and swapped links for prediction accuracy. An index is proposed to quantify the robustness of the link prediction methods. Among the twenty-two studied link prediction methods, we find that though some methods have low prediction accuracy, they tend to perform reliably in the "noisy" environment. PMID:26733156
Alignment of Noisy and Uniformly Scaled Time Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipowsky, Constanze; Dranischnikow, Egor; Göttler, Herbert; Gottron, Thomas; Kemeter, Mathias; Schömer, Elmar
The alignment of noisy and uniformly scaled time series is an important but difficult task. Given two time series, one of which is a uniformly stretched subsequence of the other, we want to determine the stretching factor and the offset of the second time series within the first one. We adapted and enhanced different methods to address this problem: classical FFT-based approaches to determine the offset combined with a naïve search for the stretching factor or its direct computation in the frequency domain, bounded dynamic time warping and a new approach called shotgun analysis, which is inspired by sequencing and reassembling of genomes in bioinformatics. We thoroughly examined the strengths and weaknesses of the different methods on synthetic and real data sets. The FFT-based approaches are very accurate on high quality data, the shotgun approach is especially suitable for data with outliers. Dynamic time warping is a candidate for non-linear stretching or compression. We successfully applied the presented methods to identify steel coils via their thickness profiles.
Control of noisy quantum systems: Field-theory approach to error mitigation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hipolito, Rafael; Goldbart, Paul M.
2016-04-01
We consider the basic quantum-control task of obtaining a target unitary operation (i.e., a quantum gate) via control fields that couple to the quantum system and are chosen to best mitigate errors resulting from time-dependent noise, which frustrate this task. We allow for two sources of noise: fluctuations in the control fields and fluctuations arising from the environment. We address the issue of control-error mitigation by means of a formulation rooted in the Martin-Siggia-Rose (MSR) approach to noisy, classical statistical-mechanical systems. To do this, we express the noisy control problem in terms of a path integral, and integrate out the noise to arrive at an effective, noise-free description. We characterize the degree of success in error mitigation via a fidelity metric, which characterizes the proximity of the sought-after evolution to ones that are achievable in the presence of noise. Error mitigation is then best accomplished by applying the optimal control fields, i.e., those that maximize the fidelity subject to any constraints obeyed by the control fields. To make connection with MSR, we reformulate the fidelity in terms of a Schwinger-Keldysh (SK) path integral, with the added twist that the "forward" and "backward" branches of the time contour are inequivalent with respect to the noise. The present approach naturally and readily allows the incorporation of constraints on the control fields—a useful feature in practice, given that constraints feature in all real experiments. In addition to addressing the noise average of the fidelity, we consider its full probability distribution. The information content present in this distribution allows one to address more complex questions regarding error mitigation, including, in principle, questions of extreme value statistics, i.e., the likelihood and impact of rare instances of the fidelity and how to harness or cope with their influence. We illustrate this MSR-SK reformulation by considering a model
Joint Remote Preparation of an Arbitrary Two-Qubit State in Noisy Environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guan, Xiao-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Li-Chen; Yang, Yi-Xian
2014-07-01
Utilizing a general joint remote state preparation (JRSP) model, we investigate the JRSP of an arbitrary two-qubit quantum state in noisy environments. Two important decoherence noise models, the amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise, have been considered in our paper. Our investigation of the noisy environment mainly focuses on the process of distributing the channel state. We use fidelity to describe how close the output state with the prepared state are, and how much information has been lost in the transmission. Interestingly, studies show that, if the initial state is successfully prepared, the fidelities in these two cases will only depend on the amplitude parameter of the initial state and the decoherence noisy rate, but have nothing to do with the phase information. Finally, we make some discussions for these two cases to show that in which noisy environment more information will be lost.
[Development of improving speech perception of cochlear implants in noisy environment].
Pan, Haolai; Chen, Zhengnong
2016-01-01
Cochlear implantation has been a standard therapy for treating severe deafness because patients who receive it have better speech perception. However, the hearing performance of cochlear implantation in noisy environment is far from satisfaction. Efforts have been made to reverse such condition, such as EAS, bimodal stimulation, environment-adaptive speech enhancement and multipolar stimulation, and patients who receive it get more or less better speech perception in noisy environment than traditional cochlear implantation. PMID:27192923
Linear Models Based on Noisy Data and the Frisch Scheme*
Ning, Lipeng; Georgiou, Tryphon T.; Tannenbaum, Allen; Boyd, Stephen P.
2016-01-01
We address the problem of identifying linear relations among variables based on noisy measurements. This is a central question in the search for structure in large data sets. Often a key assumption is that measurement errors in each variable are independent. This basic formulation has its roots in the work of Charles Spearman in 1904 and of Ragnar Frisch in the 1930s. Various topics such as errors-in-variables, factor analysis, and instrumental variables all refer to alternative viewpoints on this problem and on ways to account for the anticipated way that noise enters the data. In the present paper we begin by describing certain fundamental contributions by the founders of the field and provide alternative modern proofs to certain key results. We then go on to consider a modern viewpoint and novel numerical techniques to the problem. The central theme is expressed by the Frisch–Kalman dictum, which calls for identifying a noise contribution that allows a maximal number of simultaneous linear relations among the noise-free variables—a rank minimization problem. In the years since Frisch’s original formulation, there have been several insights, including trace minimization as a convenient heuristic to replace rank minimization. We discuss convex relaxations and theoretical bounds on the rank that, when met, provide guarantees for global optimality. A complementary point of view to this minimum-rank dictum is presented in which models are sought leading to a uniformly optimal quadratic estimation error for the error-free variables. Points of contact between these formalisms are discussed, and alternative regularization schemes are presented. PMID:27168672
Identifying Ionized Regions in Noisy Redshifted 21 cm Data Sets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malloy, Matthew; Lidz, Adam
2013-04-01
One of the most promising approaches for studying reionization is to use the redshifted 21 cm line. Early generations of redshifted 21 cm surveys will not, however, have the sensitivity to make detailed maps of the reionization process, and will instead focus on statistical measurements. Here, we show that it may nonetheless be possible to directly identify ionized regions in upcoming data sets by applying suitable filters to the noisy data. The locations of prominent minima in the filtered data correspond well with the positions of ionized regions. In particular, we corrupt semi-numeric simulations of the redshifted 21 cm signal during reionization with thermal noise at the level expected for a 500 antenna tile version of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), and mimic the degrading effects of foreground cleaning. Using a matched filter technique, we find that the MWA should be able to directly identify ionized regions despite the large thermal noise. In a plausible fiducial model in which ~20% of the volume of the universe is neutral at z ~ 7, we find that a 500-tile MWA may directly identify as many as ~150 ionized regions in a 6 MHz portion of its survey volume and roughly determine the size of each of these regions. This may, in turn, allow interesting multi-wavelength follow-up observations, comparing galaxy properties inside and outside of ionized regions. We discuss how the optimal configuration of radio antenna tiles for detecting ionized regions with a matched filter technique differs from the optimal design for measuring power spectra. These considerations have potentially important implications for the design of future redshifted 21 cm surveys.
Noisy Hangul character recognition with fuzzy tree classifier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Seong-Whan
1992-08-01
Decision trees have been applied to solve a wide range of pattern recognition problems. In a tree classifier, a sequence of decision rules are used to assign an unknown sample to a pattern class. The main advantage of a decision tree over a single stage classifier is that the complex global decision making process can be divided into a number of simpler and local decisions at different levels of the tree. At each stage of the decision process, the feature subset best suited for that classification task can be selected. It can be shown that this approach provides better results than the use of the best feature subset for a single decision classifier. In addition, in large set problems where the number of classes is very large, the tree classifier can make a global decision much more quickly than the single stage classifier. However, a major weak point of a tree classifier is its error accumulation effect when the number of classes is very large. To overcome this difficulty, a fuzzy tree classifier with the following characteristics is implemented: (1) fuzzy logic search is used to find all `possible correct classes,'' and some similarity measures are used to determine the `most probable class;'' (2) global training is applied to generate extended terminals in order to enhance the recognition rate; (3) both the training and search algorithms have been given a lot of flexibility, to provide tradeoffs between error and rejection rates, and between the recognition rate and speed. Experimental results for the recognition of 520 most frequently used noisy Hangul character categories revealed a very high recognition rate of 99.8 percent and very high speed of 100 samples/sec, when the program was written in C and run on general purpose SUN4 SPARCstation
Methodology to estimate the relative pressure field from noisy experimental velocity data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bolin, C. D.; Raguin, L. G.
2008-11-01
The determination of intravascular pressure fields is important to the characterization of cardiovascular pathology. We present a two-stage method that solves the inverse problem of estimating the relative pressure field from noisy velocity fields measured by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) on an irregular domain with limited spatial resolution, and includes a filter for the experimental noise. For the pressure calculation, the Poisson pressure equation is solved by embedding the irregular flow domain into a regular domain. To lessen the propagation of the noise inherent to the velocity measurements, three filters - a median filter and two physics-based filters - are evaluated using a 2-D Couette flow. The two physics-based filters outperform the median filter for the estimation of the relative pressure field for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR = 5 to 30). The most accurate pressure field results from a filter that applies in a least-squares sense three constraints simultaneously: consistency between measured and filtered velocity fields, divergence-free and additional smoothness conditions. This filter leads to a 5-fold gain in accuracy for the estimated relative pressure field compared to without noise filtering, in conditions consistent with PC-MRI of the carotid artery: SNR = 5, 20 x 20 discretized flow domain (25 X 25 computational domain).
High-dimensional quantum state transfer in a noisy network environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Wei; Li, Jun-Lin; Long, Gui-Lu
2015-04-01
We propose and analyze an efficient high-dimensional quantum state transfer protocol in an XX coupling spin network with a hypercube structure or chain structure. Under free spin wave approximation, unitary evolution results in a perfect high-dimensional quantum swap operation requiring neither external manipulation nor weak coupling. Evolution time is independent of either distance between registers or dimensions of sent states, which can improve the computational efficiency. In the low temperature regime and thermodynamic limit, the decoherence caused by a noisy environment is studied with a model of an antiferromagnetic spin bath coupled to quantum channels via an Ising-type interaction. It is found that while the decoherence reduces the fidelity of state transfer, increasing intra-channel coupling can strongly suppress such an effect. These observations demonstrate the robustness of the proposed scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175094 and 91221205) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB9216002). Long Gui-Lu also thanks the support of Center of Atomic and Molecular Nanoscience of Tsinghua University, China.
Deterministic joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jin-Fang; Liu, Jin-Ming; Xu, Xin-Ye
2015-09-01
Using four Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states as the shared quantum channel, we investigate the deterministic joint remote preparation of an arbitrary two-qubit state in the presence of noisy environments through the analytical solution of the master equation in the Lindblad form. By means of unitary matrix decomposition method, quantum logic circuit for the deterministic joint remote state preparation (JRSP) protocol is first constructed. Then, we analytically derive the average fidelities of the deterministic JRSP process under the influence of Pauli noises, zero-temperature and high-temperature reservoirs acting on the four EPR pairs. It is found that the average fidelities under the action of different noises display different evolution behaviors. Moreover, for the specific noises examined in this paper, in the long-time limit, the dephasing noise and the zero-temperature environment have the relatively weak effect on their respective average fidelities, whereas the isotropic noise and the high-temperature environment have the relatively strong effect.
Noise cross correlation functions in a noisy region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaudot, I.; Beucler, E.; Mocquet, A.; Schimmel, M.; Le Feuvre, M.; Leparoux, D.; Côte, P.
2013-12-01
the strong directivity of the noise and the seismicity. Rapid changes in the noise directivity are also studied since they appear to deteriorate the reconstruction of the NCFs. The NCFs are computed using different schemes and the convergence toward an empirical Green's function is analyzed using two criteria of quality: the signal to noise ratio and the similarity. The objective is to explore the existing correlation techniques in a noisy region.
A variational ensemble scheme for noisy image data assimilation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Yin; Robinson, Cordelia; Heitz, Dominique; Mémin, Etienne
2014-05-01
Data assimilation techniques aim at recovering a system state variables trajectory denoted as X, along time from partially observed noisy measurements of the system denoted as Y. These procedures, which couple dynamics and noisy measurements of the system, fulfill indeed a twofold objective. On one hand, they provide a denoising - or reconstruction - procedure of the data through a given model framework and on the other hand, they provide estimation procedures for unknown parameters of the dynamics. A standard variational data assimilation problem can be formulated as the minimization of the following objective function with respect to the initial discrepancy, η, from the background initial guess: δ« J(η(x)) = 1∥Xb (x) - X (t ,x)∥2 + 1 tf∥H(X (t,x ))- Y (t,x)∥2dt. 2 0 0 B 2 t0 R (1) where the observation operator H links the state variable and the measurements. The cost function can be interpreted as the log likelihood function associated to the a posteriori distribution of the state given the past history of measurements and the background. In this work, we aim at studying ensemble based optimal control strategies for data assimilation. Such formulation nicely combines the ingredients of ensemble Kalman filters and variational data assimilation (4DVar). It is also formulated as the minimization of the objective function (1), but similarly to ensemble filter, it introduces in its objective function an empirical ensemble-based background-error covariance defined as: B ≡ <(Xb -
Fuzzy Logic Based Edge Detection in Smooth and Noisy Clinical Images
Haq, Izhar
2015-01-01
Edge detection has beneficial applications in the fields such as machine vision, pattern recognition and biomedical imaging etc. Edge detection highlights high frequency components in the image. Edge detection is a challenging task. It becomes more arduous when it comes to noisy images. This study focuses on fuzzy logic based edge detection in smooth and noisy clinical images. The proposed method (in noisy images) employs a 3×3 mask guided by fuzzy rule set. Moreover, in case of smooth clinical images, an extra mask of contrast adjustment is integrated with edge detection mask to intensify the smooth images. The developed method was tested on noise-free, smooth and noisy images. The results were compared with other established edge detection techniques like Sobel, Prewitt, Laplacian of Gaussian (LOG), Roberts and Canny. When the developed edge detection technique was applied to a smooth clinical image of size 270×290 pixels having 24 dB ‘salt and pepper’ noise, it detected very few (22) false edge pixels, compared to Sobel (1931), Prewitt (2741), LOG (3102), Roberts (1451) and Canny (1045) false edge pixels. Therefore it is evident that the developed method offers improved solution to the edge detection problem in smooth and noisy clinical images. PMID:26407133
Do Quiet Areas Afford Greater Health-Related Quality of Life than Noisy Areas?
Shepherd, Daniel; Welch, David; Dirks, Kim N.; McBride, David
2013-01-01
People typically choose to live in quiet areas in order to safeguard their health and wellbeing. However, the benefits of living in quiet areas are relatively understudied compared to the burdens associated with living in noisy areas. Additionally, research is increasingly focusing on the relationship between the human response to noise and measures of health and wellbeing, complementing traditional dose-response approaches, and further elucidating the impact of noise and health by incorporating human factors as mediators and moderators. To further explore the benefits of living in quiet areas, we compared the results of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire datasets collected from households in localities differentiated by their soundscapes and population density: noisy city, quiet city, quiet rural, and noisy rural. The dose-response relationships between noise annoyance and HRQOL measures indicated an inverse relationship between the two. Additionally, quiet areas were found to have higher mean HRQOL domain scores than noisy areas. This research further supports the protection of quiet locales and ongoing noise abatement in noisy areas. PMID:23535280
Characterization of emergent synaptic topologies in noisy neural networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Aaron James
of a LIF neuron subjected to Gaussian white noise (GWN). The system reduces to the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck first passage time problem, the solution of which we build into the mapping method of Chapter 2. We demonstrate that simulations using the stochastic mapping have reduced computation time compared to traditional Runge-Kutta methods by more than a factor of 150. In Chapter 4, we use the stochastic mapping to study the dynamics of emerging synaptic topologies in noisy networks. With the addition of membrane noise, networks with dynamical synapses can admit states in which the distribution of the synaptic weights is static under spontaneous activity, but the random connectivity between neurons is dynamical. The widely cited problem of instabilities in networks with STDP is avoided with the implementation of a synaptic decay and an activation threshold on each synapse. When such networks are presented with stimulus modeled by a focused excitatory current, chain-like networks can emerge with the addition of an axon-remodeling plasticity rule, a topological constraint on the connectivity modeling the finite resources available to each neuron. The emergent topologies are the result of an iterative stochastic process. The dynamics of the growth process suggest a strong interplay between the network topology and the spike sequences they produce during development. Namely, the existence of an embedded spike sequence alters the distribution of synaptic weights through the entire network. The roles of model parameters that affect the interplay between network structure and activity are elucidated. Finally, we propose two mathematical growth models, which are complementary, that capture the essence of the growth dynamics observed in simulations. In Chapter 5, we present an extension of the stochastic mapping that allows the possibility of neuronal cooperation. We demonstrate that synaptic topologies admitting stereotypical sequences can emerge in yet higher, biologically
Park, Jinsoo; Kim, Wooil; Han, David K.; Ko, Hanseok
2014-01-01
A new voice activity detector for noisy environments is proposed. In conventional algorithms, the endpoint of speech is found by applying an edge detection filter that finds the abrupt changing point in a feature domain. However, since the frame energy feature is unstable in noisy environments, it is difficult to accurately find the endpoint of speech. Therefore, a novel feature extraction algorithm based on the double-combined Fourier transform and envelope line fitting is proposed. It is combined with an edge detection filter for effective detection of endpoints. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is evaluated and compared to other VAD algorithms using two different databases, which are AURORA 2.0 database and SITEC database. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well under a variety of noisy conditions. PMID:25170520
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Li-Nan; Ma, Jing; Yu, Si-Yuan; Tan, Li-Ying; Ran, Qi-Wen
2015-02-01
The entanglement evolution of the bipartite quantum system which is initially prepared in extended Werner-like state under the influence of independent or collective noisy channels are investigated by solving the master equation in Lindblad form. With the aid of the concurrence, we find that the initial state can preserve more entanglement in certain region when it is transmitted through the collective Pauli σ x or σ y noisy channel than the corresponding independent noisy channel. For the Pauli σ z or the depolarizing channel, however, the collective decoherence can speed up the process of entanglement decay. Meanwhile, we show that the purity of initial state has a great influence on the region which the entanglement can be preserved.
Quantum Dynamics in Noisy Backgrounds: from Sampling to Dissipation and Fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliveira, O.; Paula, W. de; Frederico, T.; Hussein, M. S.
2016-08-01
We investigate the dynamics of a quantum system coupled linearly to Gaussian white noise using functional methods. By performing the integration over the noisy field in the evolution operator, we get an equivalent non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, which evolves the quantum state with a dissipative dynamics. We also show that if the integration over the noisy field is done for the time evolution of the density matrix, a gain contribution from the fluctuations can be accessed in addition to the loss one from the non-hermitian Hamiltonian dynamics. We illustrate our study by computing analytically the effective non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, which we found to be the complex frequency harmonic oscillator, with a known evolution operator. It leads to space and time localisation, a common feature of noisy quantum systems in general applications.
Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the amplitude of EEG synchrony patterns.
Kim, Diana J; Yogendrakumar, Vignan; Chiang, Joyce; Ty, Edna; Wang, Z Jane; McKeown, Martin J
2013-01-01
Noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation has been associated with numerous cognitive and behavioural effects, such as enhancement of visual memory in healthy individuals, improvement of visual deficits in stroke patients, as well as possibly improvement of motor function in Parkinson's disease; yet, the mechanism of action is unclear. Since Parkinson's and other neuropsychiatric diseases are characterized by maladaptive dynamics of brain rhythms, we investigated whether noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation was associated with measurable changes in EEG oscillatory rhythms within theta (4-7.5 Hz), low alpha (8-10 Hz), high alpha (10.5-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz) and gamma (31-50 Hz) bands. We recorded the EEG while simultaneously delivering noisy bilateral, bipolar stimulation at varying intensities of imperceptible currents - at 10, 26, 42, 58, 74 and 90% of sensory threshold - to ten neurologically healthy subjects. Using standard spectral analysis, we investigated the transient aftereffects of noisy stimulation on rhythms. Subsequently, using robust artifact rejection techniques and the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator regression and cross-validation, we assessed the combinations of channels and power spectral features within each EEG frequency band that were linearly related with stimulus intensity. We show that noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation predominantly leads to a mild suppression of gamma power in lateral regions immediately after stimulation, followed by delayed increase in beta and gamma power in frontal regions approximately 20-25 s after stimulation ceased. Ongoing changes in the power of each oscillatory band throughout frontal, central/parietal, occipital and bilateral electrodes predicted the intensity of galvanic vestibular stimulation in a stimulus-dependent manner, demonstrating linear effects of stimulation on brain rhythms. We propose that modulation of neural oscillations is a potential mechanism for the previously-described cognitive
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Layland, J. W.
1974-01-01
An approximate analysis of the effect of a noisy carrier reference on the performance of sequential decoding is presented. The analysis uses previously developed techniques for evaluating noisy reference performance for medium-rate uncoded communications adapted to sequential decoding for data rates of 8 to 2048 bits/s. In estimating the ten to the minus fourth power deletion probability thresholds for Helios, the model agrees with experimental data to within the experimental tolerances. The computational problem involved in sequential decoding, carrier loop effects, the main characteristics of the medium-rate model, modeled decoding performance, and perspectives on future work are discussed.
Effects of quantum noises and noisy quantum operations on entanglement and special dense coding
Quek, Sylvanus; Li Ziang; Yeo Ye
2010-02-15
We show how noncommuting noises could cause a Bell state {chi}{sub 0} to suffer entanglement sudden death (ESD). ESD may similarly occur when a noisy operation acts, if the corresponding Hamiltonian and Lindblad operator do not commute. We study the implications of these in special dense coding S. When noises that cause ESD act, we show that {chi}{sub 0} may lose its capacity for S before ESD occurs. Similarly, {chi}{sub 0} may fail to yield information transfer better than classically possible when the encoding operations are noisy, though entanglement is not destroyed in the process.
Aliabadi, Mohsen; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Mansoorizadeh, Muharram
2014-03-01
It is highly important to analyze the acoustic properties of workrooms in order to identify best noise control measures from the standpoint of noise exposure limits. Due to the fact that sound pressure is dependent upon environments, it cannot be a suitable parameter for determining the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise pollution. This paper aims to empirically analyze noise source characteristics and acoustic properties of noisy embroidery workrooms based on special parameters. In this regard, reverberation time as the special room acoustic parameter in 30 workrooms was measured based on ISO 3382-2. Sound power quantity of embroidery machines was also determined based on ISO 9614-3. Multiple linear regression was employed for predicting reverberation time based on acoustic features of the workrooms using MATLAB software. The results showed that the measured reverberation times in most of the workrooms were approximately within the ranges recommended by ISO 11690-1. Similarity between reverberation time values calculated by the Sabine formula and measured values was relatively poor (R (2) = 0.39). This can be due to the inaccurate estimation of the acoustic influence of furniture and formula preconditions. Therefore, this value cannot be considered representative of an actual acoustic room. However, the prediction performance of the regression method with root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.23 s and R (2) = 0.69 is relatively acceptable. Because the sound power of the embroidery machines was relatively high, these sources get the highest priority when it comes to applying noise controls. Finally, an objective approach for the determination of the share of workroom acoustic characteristics in producing noise could facilitate the identification of cost-effective noise controls. PMID:24214295
Lasko, Thomas A; Denny, Joshua C; Levy, Mia A
2013-01-01
Inferring precise phenotypic patterns from population-scale clinical data is a core computational task in the development of precision, personalized medicine. The traditional approach uses supervised learning, in which an expert designates which patterns to look for (by specifying the learning task and the class labels), and where to look for them (by specifying the input variables). While appropriate for individual tasks, this approach scales poorly and misses the patterns that we don't think to look for. Unsupervised feature learning overcomes these limitations by identifying patterns (or features) that collectively form a compact and expressive representation of the source data, with no need for expert input or labeled examples. Its rising popularity is driven by new deep learning methods, which have produced high-profile successes on difficult standardized problems of object recognition in images. Here we introduce its use for phenotype discovery in clinical data. This use is challenging because the largest source of clinical data - Electronic Medical Records - typically contains noisy, sparse, and irregularly timed observations, rendering them poor substrates for deep learning methods. Our approach couples dirty clinical data to deep learning architecture via longitudinal probability densities inferred using Gaussian process regression. From episodic, longitudinal sequences of serum uric acid measurements in 4368 individuals we produced continuous phenotypic features that suggest multiple population subtypes, and that accurately distinguished (0.97 AUC) the uric-acid signatures of gout vs. acute leukemia despite not being optimized for the task. The unsupervised features were as accurate as gold-standard features engineered by an expert with complete knowledge of the domain, the classification task, and the class labels. Our findings demonstrate the potential for achieving computational phenotype discovery at population scale. We expect such data
Automated marker tracking using noisy X-ray images degraded by the treatment beam.
Wisotzky, E; Fast, M F; Oelfke, U; Nill, S
2015-06-01
This study demonstrates the feasibility of automated marker tracking for the real-time detection of intrafractional target motion using noisy kilovoltage (kV) X-ray images degraded by the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. The authors previously introduced the in-line imaging geometry, in which the flat-panel detector (FPD) is mounted directly underneath the treatment head of the linear accelerator. They found that the 121 kVp image quality was severely compromised by the 6 MV beam passing through the FPD at the same time. Specific MV-induced artefacts present a considerable challenge for automated marker detection algorithms. For this study, the authors developed a new imaging geometry by re-positioning the FPD and the X-ray tube. This improved the contrast-to-noise-ratio between 40% and 72% at the 1.2 mAs/image exposure setting. The increase in image quality clearly facilitates the quick and stable detection of motion with the aid of a template matching algorithm. The setup was tested with an anthropomorphic lung phantom (including an artificial lung tumour). In the tumour one or three Calypso beacons were embedded to achieve better contrast during MV radiation. For a single beacon, image acquisition and automated marker detection typically took around 76 ± 6 ms. The success rate was found to be highly dependent on imaging dose and gantry angle. To eliminate possible false detections, the authors implemented a training phase prior to treatment beam irradiation and also introduced speed limits for motion between subsequent images. PMID:25280891
Lasko, Thomas A.; Denny, Joshua C.; Levy, Mia A.
2013-01-01
Inferring precise phenotypic patterns from population-scale clinical data is a core computational task in the development of precision, personalized medicine. The traditional approach uses supervised learning, in which an expert designates which patterns to look for (by specifying the learning task and the class labels), and where to look for them (by specifying the input variables). While appropriate for individual tasks, this approach scales poorly and misses the patterns that we don’t think to look for. Unsupervised feature learning overcomes these limitations by identifying patterns (or features) that collectively form a compact and expressive representation of the source data, with no need for expert input or labeled examples. Its rising popularity is driven by new deep learning methods, which have produced high-profile successes on difficult standardized problems of object recognition in images. Here we introduce its use for phenotype discovery in clinical data. This use is challenging because the largest source of clinical data – Electronic Medical Records – typically contains noisy, sparse, and irregularly timed observations, rendering them poor substrates for deep learning methods. Our approach couples dirty clinical data to deep learning architecture via longitudinal probability densities inferred using Gaussian process regression. From episodic, longitudinal sequences of serum uric acid measurements in 4368 individuals we produced continuous phenotypic features that suggest multiple population subtypes, and that accurately distinguished (0.97 AUC) the uric-acid signatures of gout vs. acute leukemia despite not being optimized for the task. The unsupervised features were as accurate as gold-standard features engineered by an expert with complete knowledge of the domain, the classification task, and the class labels. Our findings demonstrate the potential for achieving computational phenotype discovery at population scale. We expect such data
Lowry, Hélène; Lill, Alan; Wong, Bob B. M.
2012-01-01
Background Urban environments generate constant loud noise, which creates a formidable challenge for many animals relying on acoustic communication. Some birds make vocal adjustments that reduce auditory masking by altering, for example, the frequency (kHz) or timing of vocalizations. Another adjustment, well documented for birds under laboratory and natural field conditions, is a noise level-dependent change in sound signal amplitude (the ‘Lombard effect’). To date, however, field research on amplitude adjustments in urban environments has focused exclusively on bird song. Methods We investigated amplitude regulation of alarm calls using, as our model, a successful urban ‘adapter’ species, the Noisy miner, Manorina melanocephala. We compared several different alarm calls under contrasting noise conditions. Results Individuals at noisier locations (arterial roads) alarm called significantly more loudly than those at quieter locations (residential streets). Other mechanisms known to improve sound signal transmission in ‘noise’, namely use of higher perches and in-flight calling, did not differ between site types. Intriguingly, the observed preferential use of different alarm calls by Noisy miners inhabiting arterial roads and residential streets was unlikely to have constituted a vocal modification made in response to sound-masking in the urban environment because the calls involved fell within the main frequency range of background anthropogenic noise. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that a species, which has the ability to adjust the amplitude of its signals, might have a ‘natural’ advantage in noisy urban environments. PMID:22238684
Dutta, Anirban; Rahmani, Armin; Del Campo, Adolfo
2016-08-19
We show that a thermally isolated system driven across a quantum phase transition by a noisy control field exhibits anti-Kibble-Zurek behavior, whereby slower driving results in higher excitations. We characterize the density of excitations as a function of the ramping rate and the noise strength. The optimal driving time to minimize excitations is shown to scale as a universal power law of the noise strength. Our findings reveal the limitations of adiabatic protocols such as quantum annealing and demonstrate the universality of the optimal ramping rate. PMID:27588838
Near-optimal assembly for shotgun sequencing with noisy reads
2014-01-01
Recent work identified the fundamental limits on the information requirements in terms of read length and coverage depth required for successful de novo genome reconstruction from shotgun sequencing data, based on the idealistic assumption of no errors in the reads (noiseless reads). In this work, we show that even when there is noise in the reads, one can successfully reconstruct with information requirements close to the noiseless fundamental limit. A new assembly algorithm, X-phased Multibridging, is designed based on a probabilistic model of the genome. It is shown through analysis to perform well on the model, and through simulations to perform well on real genomes. PMID:25252708
Quantum correlation dynamics of two qubits in noisy environments: The factorization law and beyond
Zhang, Guo-Feng; Ji, Ai-Ling; Fan, Heng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2012-09-15
We investigate the quantum correlations of two qubits under conditions of single-sided and two-sided noisy channels when the initial state of the system belongs to a subclass of X structured ones in terms of measurement-induced nonlocality, measurement-induced disturbance and quantum discord. The results show that measurement-induced nonlocality has a factorization law, regardless of whether there are single-sided or two-sided noisy channels. However, there is no simple factorization relation for measurement-induced disturbance and quantum discord. Also, we compare the evolution of these quantum correlations as functions of time. For the four Bell initial states, we find that the measurement-induced disturbance evolution equations are the same when the channel is single-sided, but they will be divided into two categories when the channel is two-sided. Quantum correlations decay more quickly when the channel is two-sided. Furthermore, quantum discord presents sudden change in the derivative of its time evolution. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The quantum correlation dynamics of two qubits under noisy environmental conditions is investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurement-induced nonlocality has a factorization law, regardless of whether there are single-sided or two-sided noisy channels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is no simple factorization relation for measurement-induced disturbance and quantum discord.
FALSE DETERMINATIONS OF CHAOS IN SHORT NOISY TIME SERIES. (R828745)
A method (NEMG) proposed in 1992 for diagnosing chaos in noisy time series with 50 or fewer observations entails fitting the time series with an empirical function which predicts an observation in the series from previous observations, and then estimating the rate of divergenc...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Winstone, Naomi; Davis, Alyson; De Bruyn, Bart
2012-01-01
Young children are frequently exposed to sounds such as speech and music in noisy listening conditions, which have the potential to disrupt their learning. Missing input that is masked by louder sounds can, under the right conditions, be "filled in" by the perceptual system using a process known as perceptual restoration. This experiment…
Probabilistic inference of molecular networks from noisy data sources.
Iossifov, Ivan; Krauthammer, Michael; Friedman, Carol; Hatzivassiloglou, Vasileios; Bader, Joel S; White, Kevin P; Rzhetsky, Andrey
2004-05-22
Information on molecular networks, such as networks of interacting proteins, comes from diverse sources that contain remarkable differences in distribution and quantity of errors. Here, we introduce a probabilistic model useful for predicting protein interactions from heterogeneous data sources. The model describes stochastic generation of protein-protein interaction networks with real-world properties, as well as generation of two heterogeneous sources of protein-interaction information: research results automatically extracted from the literature and yeast two-hybrid experiments. Based on the domain composition of proteins, we use the model to predict protein interactions for pairs of proteins for which no experimental data are available. We further explore the prediction limits, given experimental data that cover only part of the underlying protein networks. This approach can be extended naturally to include other types of biological data sources. PMID:14871876
Dynamical decoupling leads to improved scaling in noisy quantum metrology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekatski, Pavel; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Dür, Wolfgang
2016-07-01
We consider the usage of dynamical decoupling in quantum metrology, where the joint evolution of system plus environment is described by a Hamiltonian. We show that by ultra-fast unitary control operations acting locally only on system qubits, noise can be eliminated while the desired evolution is only reduced by at most a constant factor, leading to Heisenberg scaling. We identify all kinds of noise where such an approach is applicable. Only noise that is generated by the Hamiltonian to be estimated itself cannot be altered. However, even for such parallel noise, one can achieve an improved scaling as compared to the standard quantum limit for any local noise by means of symmetrization. Our results are also applicable in other schemes based on dynamical decoupling, e.g. the generation of high-fidelity entangling gates.
Multiscale Morphological Filtering for Analysis of Noisy and Complex Images
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kher, A.; Mitra, S.
1993-01-01
Images acquired with passive sensing techniques suffer from illumination variations and poor local contrasts that create major difficulties in interpretation and identification tasks. On the other hand, images acquired with active sensing techniques based on monochromatic illumination are degraded with speckle noise. Mathematical morphology offers elegant techniques to handle a wide range of image degradation problems. Unlike linear filters, morphological filters do not blur the edges and hence maintain higher image resolution. Their rich mathematical framework facilitates the design and analysis of these filters as well as their hardware implementation. Morphological filters are easier to implement and are more cost effective and efficient than several conventional linear filters. Morphological filters to remove speckle noise while maintaining high resolution and preserving thin image regions that are particularly vulnerable to speckle noise were developed and applied to SAR imagery. These filters used combination of linear (one-dimensional) structuring elements in different (typically four) orientations. Although this approach preserves more details than the simple morphological filters using two-dimensional structuring elements, the limited orientations of one-dimensional elements approximate the fine details of the region boundaries. A more robust filter designed recently overcomes the limitation of the fixed orientations. This filter uses a combination of concave and convex structuring elements. Morphological operators are also useful in extracting features from visible and infrared imagery. A multiresolution image pyramid obtained with successive filtering and a subsampling process aids in the removal of the illumination variations and enhances local contrasts. A morphology-based interpolation scheme was also introduced to reduce intensity discontinuities created in any morphological filtering task. The generality of morphological filtering techniques in
Quantum gates with optimal bandwidth in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Low, Guang Hao; Theodore, Yoder; Chuang, Isaac
The traditional approach of open-loop quantum error correction suppresses certain systematic imperfections ɛ in quantum control to higher orders ɛ (L) by a well-designed sequence of L imperfect quantum gates. However, this philosophy of maximal flatness leads to an ɛ-bandwidth that scales poorly with length and a residual that is easily overwhelmed by unaccounted sources of noise. We advance the paradigm of equiripple compensated gates that directly optimize for bandwidth given the limitations imposed by noise of magnitude δ, leading to dramatically improved performance. Where ɛ represent amplitude errors, we provide a formalism that generalizes both approaches and is effective at finding such gates. With it, we provide in closed-form the phase angles for an optimal family of population inversion gates with an ɛ -bandwidth of (logδ-1/L) - a quadratic improvement over optimal maximally flat variants. We also construct optimal NOT gates and discuss extensions to other gates and error models.
Smartphone-based hearing screening in noisy environments.
Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan
2014-01-01
It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692
Cicadas impact bird communication in a noisy tropical rainforest
Hall, Robert; Ray, William; Beck, Angela; Zook, James
2015-01-01
Many animals communicate through acoustic signaling, and “acoustic space” may be viewed as a limited resource that organisms compete for. If acoustic signals overlap, the information in them is masked, so there should be selection toward strategies that reduce signal overlap. The extent to which animals are able to partition acoustic space in acoustically diverse habitats such as tropical forests is poorly known. Here, we demonstrate that a single cicada species plays a major role in the frequency and timing of acoustic communication in a neotropical wet forest bird community. Using an automated acoustic monitor, we found that cicadas vary the timing of their signals throughout the day and that the frequency range and timing of bird vocalizations closely track these signals. Birds significantly avoid temporal overlap with cicadas by reducing and often shutting down vocalizations at the onset of cicada signals that utilize the same frequency range. When birds do vocalize at the same time as cicadas, the vocalizations primarily occur at nonoverlapping frequencies with cicada signals. Our results greatly improve our understanding of the community dynamics of acoustic signaling and reveal how patterns in biotic noise shape the frequency and timing of bird vocalizations in tropical forests. PMID:26023277
Wireless medical ultrasound video transmission through noisy channels.
Panayides, A; Pattichis, M S; Pattichis, C S
2008-01-01
Recent advances in video compression such as the current state-of-the-art H.264/AVC standard in conjunction with increasingly available bitrate through new technologies like 3G, and WiMax have brought mobile health (m-Health) healthcare systems and services closer to reality. Despite this momentum towards m-Health systems and especially e-Emergency systems, wireless channels remain error prone, while the absence of objective quality metrics limits the ability of providing medical video of adequate diagnostic quality at a required bitrate. In this paper we investigate different encoding schemes and loss rates in medical ultrasound video transmission and come to conclusions involving efficiency, the trade-off between bitrate and quality, while we highlight the relationship linking video quality and the error ratio of corrupted P and B frames. More specifically, we investigate IPPP, IBPBP and IBBPBBP coding structures under packet loss rates of 2%, 5%, 8% and 10% and derive that the latter attains higher SNR ratings in all tested cases. A preliminary clinical evaluation shows that for SNR ratings higher than 30 db, video diagnostic quality may be adequate, while above 30.5 db the diagnostic information available in the reconstructed ultrasound video is close to that of the original. PMID:19163920
Smartphone-Based Hearing Screening in Noisy Environments
Na, Youngmin; Joo, Hyo Sung; Yang, Hyejin; Kang, Soojin; Hong, Sung Hwa; Woo, Jihwan
2014-01-01
It is important and recommended to detect hearing loss as soon as possible. If it is found early, proper treatment may help improve hearing and reduce the negative consequences of hearing loss. In this study, we developed smartphone-based hearing screening methods that can ubiquitously test hearing. However, environmental noise generally results in the loss of ear sensitivity, which causes a hearing threshold shift (HTS). To overcome this limitation in the hearing screening location, we developed a correction algorithm to reduce the HTS effect. A built-in microphone and headphone were calibrated to provide the standard units of measure. The HTSs in the presence of either white or babble noise were systematically investigated to determine the mean HTS as a function of noise level. When the hearing screening application runs, the smartphone automatically measures the environmental noise and provides the HTS value to correct the hearing threshold. A comparison to pure tone audiometry shows that this hearing screening method in the presence of noise could closely estimate the hearing threshold. We expect that the proposed ubiquitous hearing test method could be used as a simple hearing screening tool and could alert the user if they suffer from hearing loss. PMID:24926692
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schöniger, Anneli; Wöhling, Thomas; Nowak, Wolfgang
2014-05-01
Bayesian model averaging ranks the predictive capabilities of alternative conceptual models based on Bayes' theorem. The individual models are weighted with their posterior probability to be the best one in the considered set of models. Finally, their predictions are combined into a robust weighted average and the predictive uncertainty can be quantified. This rigorous procedure does, however, not yet account for possible instabilities due to measurement noise in the calibration data set. This is a major drawback, since posterior model weights may suffer a lack of robustness related to the uncertainty in noisy data, which may compromise the reliability of model ranking. We present a new statistical concept to account for measurement noise as source of uncertainty for the weights in Bayesian model averaging. Our suggested upgrade reflects the limited information content of data for the purpose of model selection. It allows us to assess the significance of the determined posterior model weights, the confidence in model selection, and the accuracy of the quantified predictive uncertainty. Our approach rests on a brute-force Monte Carlo framework. We determine the robustness of model weights against measurement noise by repeatedly perturbing the observed data with random realizations of measurement error. Then, we analyze the induced variability in posterior model weights and introduce this "weighting variance" as an additional term into the overall prediction uncertainty analysis scheme. We further determine the theoretical upper limit in performance of the model set which is imposed by measurement noise. As an extension to the merely relative model ranking, this analysis provides a measure of absolute model performance. To finally decide, whether better data or longer time series are needed to ensure a robust basis for model selection, we resample the measurement time series and assess the convergence of model weights for increasing time series length. We illustrate
Statistics of actin-propelled trajectories in noisy environments.
Wen, Fu-Lai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Leung, Kwan-Tai
2016-06-01
Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories. Specifically, the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the trajectories is computed and found to show a super-ballistic scaling with an exponent 3 in the early stage, followed by a crossover to a normal, diffusive scaling of exponent 1 in the late stage. For open-end trajectories such as straights and S-shaped curves, the time of crossover matches the decay time of orientational order of the velocities along trajectories, suggesting that it is the spreading of velocities that leads to the crossover. We show that the super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from the initial, linearly increasing correlation of velocities, before time translational symmetry is established. When the spreading of velocities reaches a steady state in the long-time limit, short-range correlation then yields a diffusive scaling in MSD. In contrast, close-loop trajectories like circles exhibit localized periodic motion, which inhibits spreading. The initial super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from velocity correlation that both linearly increases and oscillates in time. Finally, we find that the above statistical features of the trajectories transcend the nature of noises, be it additive or multiplicative, and generalize to other self-propelled systems that are not necessarily actin based. PMID:27415296
Statistics of actin-propelled trajectories in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wen, Fu-Lai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi; Leung, Kwan-tai
2016-06-01
Actin polymerization is ubiquitously utilized to power the locomotion of eukaryotic cells and pathogenic bacteria in living systems. Inevitably, actin polymerization and depolymerization proceed in a fluctuating environment that renders the locomotion stochastic. Previously, we have introduced a deterministic model that manages to reproduce actin-propelled trajectories in experiments, but not to address fluctuations around them. To remedy this, here we supplement the deterministic model with noise terms. It enables us to compute the effects of fluctuating actin density and forces on the trajectories. Specifically, the mean-squared displacement (MSD) of the trajectories is computed and found to show a super-ballistic scaling with an exponent 3 in the early stage, followed by a crossover to a normal, diffusive scaling of exponent 1 in the late stage. For open-end trajectories such as straights and S-shaped curves, the time of crossover matches the decay time of orientational order of the velocities along trajectories, suggesting that it is the spreading of velocities that leads to the crossover. We show that the super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from the initial, linearly increasing correlation of velocities, before time translational symmetry is established. When the spreading of velocities reaches a steady state in the long-time limit, short-range correlation then yields a diffusive scaling in MSD. In contrast, close-loop trajectories like circles exhibit localized periodic motion, which inhibits spreading. The initial super-ballistic scaling of MSD arises from velocity correlation that both linearly increases and oscillates in time. Finally, we find that the above statistical features of the trajectories transcend the nature of noises, be it additive or multiplicative, and generalize to other self-propelled systems that are not necessarily actin based.
Noisy transport in reaction-diffusion systems with quenched disorder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Missel, Andrew Royce
Reaction-diffusion (RD) models are useful tools for studying a wide variety of natural phenomena. The effects of quenched disorder in the reaction rates on RD models is not completely understood, especially in parameter regimes where internal noise or stochasticity is also important. In the first part of this dissertation, I will examine an RD model in which both quenched disorder and stochasticity are important. The model consists of particles (labeled A) which diffuse around space and reproduce (A → 2A), die (A → 0), and compete with one another (2A → A) with rates that depend on position. Specifically, birth is only allowed in localized patches called "oases," while death is allowed in the "desert" that comprises the rest of space. In the limit of low oasis density, transport through the system is achieved via rare "hopping" events when small concentrations of particles make it through the desert from one oasis to another. To correctly account for this hopping---and to accurately describe the nature of transport in the system---it is necessary to take stochasticity into account. In order to determine the nature of transport in this system analytically, I will use a variety of tools drawn from disparate sources, including the theory of hopping conduction in doped semiconductors and first passage percolation. These tools will allow for predictions to be made for a number of important transport-related features: the infection time, or time needed for the population to traverse the system; the velocity of the front moving through the system; and the dynamic roughening of the front. I will also present the results of simulations of the system that largely confirm the analytical predictions. Finally, in the second part of the dissertation I will study a pair of closely related RD models, one of which exhibits an active to absorbing state phase transition.
Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaffner, Christian
2010-09-01
We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. König, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from König suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from König requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our “canonical” protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.
Pairwise Quantum Discord for a Symmetric Multi-Qubit System in Different Types of Noisy Channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, You-Neng; Zeng, Ke; Wang, Guo-You
2016-06-01
We study the pairwise quantum discord (QD) for a symmetric multi-qubit system in different types of noisy channels, such as phase-flip, amplitude damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels. Using the QD and geometric quantum discord (GMQD) to quantify quantum correlations, some analytical and numerical results are presented. The results show that, the QD dynamics is strongly related to the number of spin particles N as well as the initial parameter 𝜃 of the one-axis twisting collective state. With the number of spin particles N increasing, the amount of the QD increases. However, when the amount of the QD arrives at a stable maximal value, the QD is independence of the number of spin particles N increasing. The behavior of the QD is symmetrical during a period 0 ≤ 𝜃 ≤ 2 π. Moreover, we compare the QD dynamics with the GMQD for a symmetric multi-qubit system in different types of noisy channels.
Noisy image magnification with total variation regularization and order-changed dictionary learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Jian; Chang, Zhiguo; Fan, Jiulun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wu, Xiaomin; Wang, Yanzi
2015-12-01
Noisy low resolution (LR) images are always obtained in real applications, but many existing image magnification algorithms can not get good result from a noisy LR image. We propose a two-step image magnification algorithm to solve this problem. The proposed algorithm takes the advantages of both regularization-based method and learning-based method. The first step is based on total variation (TV) regularization and the second step is based on sparse representation. In the first step, we add a constraint on the TV regularization model to magnify the LR image and at the same time to suppress the noise in it. In the second step, we propose an order-changed dictionary training algorithm to train the dictionaries which is dominated by texture details. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm performs better than many other algorithms when the noise is not serious. The proposed algorithm can also provide better visual quality on natural LR images.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Xiaowei; Hao, Shuhong; Tian, Caixing; Su, Xiaolong; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi
2016-02-01
Squeezed state can increase the signal-to-noise ratio in quantum communication and quantum measurement. However, losses and noises existing in real communication channels will reduce or even totally destroy the squeezing. The phenomenon of disappearance of the squeezing will result in the failure of quantum communication. In this letter, we present the experimental demonstrations on the disappearance and revival of the squeezing in quantum communication with squeezed state. The experimental results show that the squeezed light is robust (squeezing never disappears) in a pure lossy but noiseless channel. While in a noisy channel, the excess noise will lead to the disappearance of the squeezing, and the squeezing can be revived by the use of a correlated noisy channel (non-Markovian environment). The channel capacity of quantum communication is increased after the squeezing is revived. The presented results provide useful technical references for quantum communication with squeezed light.
Bidirectional controlled teleportation by using nine-qubit entangled state in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuan-hua; Jin, Xian-min
2016-02-01
A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation (BQCT) by using a nine-qubit entangled state as a quantum channel, where Alice may transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits A_1 and A_2 to Bob; and at the same time, Bob may also transmit an arbitrary two-qubit state called qubits B_1 and B_2 to Alice via the control of the supervisor Charlie. Based on our channel, we explicitly show how the bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation protocol works. And we show this bidirectional quantum controlled teleportation scheme may be determinate and secure. Taking the amplitude-damping noise and the phase-damping noise as typical noisy channels, we analytically derive the fidelities of the BQCT process and show that the fidelities in these two cases only depend on the amplitude parameter of the initial state and the decoherence noisy rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.
2016-07-01
We investigate the inactive-active phase transition in an array of additive (exclusive-or) cellular automata (CA) under noise. The model is closely related with the Domany-Kinzel (DK) probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA), for which there are rigorous as well as numerical estimates on the transition probabilities. Here, we characterize the critical behavior of the noisy additive cellular automaton by mean field analysis and finite-size scaling and show that its phase transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behavior. As a by-product of our analysis, we argue that the critical behavior of the noisy elementary CA 90 and 102 (in Wolfram’s enumeration scheme) must be the same. We also perform an empirical investigation of the mean field equations to assess their quality and find that away from the critical point (but not necessarily very far away) the mean field approximations provide a reasonably good description of the dynamics of the PCA.
Simple protocols for oblivious transfer and secure identification in the noisy-quantum-storage model
Schaffner, Christian
2010-09-15
We present simple protocols for oblivious transfer and password-based identification which are secure against general attacks in the noisy-quantum-storage model as defined in R. Koenig, S. Wehner, and J. Wullschleger [e-print arXiv:0906.1030]. We argue that a technical tool from Koenig et al. suffices to prove security of the known protocols. Whereas the more involved protocol for oblivious transfer from Koenig et al. requires less noise in storage to achieve security, our ''canonical'' protocols have the advantage of being simpler to implement and the security error is easier control. Therefore, our protocols yield higher OT rates for many realistic noise parameters. Furthermore, a proof of security of a direct protocol for password-based identification against general noisy-quantum-storage attacks is given.
Sensing of Particular Speakers for the Construction of Voice Interface Utilized in Noisy Environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawada, Hideyuki; Ohkado, Minoru
Human is able to exchange information smoothly using voice under different situations such as noisy environment in a crowd and with the existence of plural speakers. We are able to detect the position of a source sound in 3D space, extract a particular sound from mixed sounds, and recognize who is talking. By realizing this mechanism with a computer, new applications will be presented for recording a sound with high quality by reducing noise, presenting a clarified sound, and realizing a microphone-free speech recognition by extracting particular sound. The paper will introduce a realtime detection and identification of particular speaker in noisy environment using a microphone array based on the location of a speaker and the individual voice characteristics. The study will be applied to develop an adaptive auditory system of a mobile robot which collaborates with a factory worker.
Security of modified Ping-Pong protocol in noisy and lossy channel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yun-Guang; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Wang, Shuang; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu
2014-05-01
The ``Ping-Pong'' (PP) protocol is a two-way quantum key protocol based on entanglement. In this protocol, Bob prepares one maximally entangled pair of qubits, and sends one qubit to Alice. Then, Alice performs some necessary operations on this qubit and sends it back to Bob. Although this protocol was proposed in 2002, its security in the noisy and lossy channel has not been proven. In this report, we add a simple and experimentally feasible modification to the original PP protocol, and prove the security of this modified PP protocol against collective attacks when the noisy and lossy channel is taken into account. Simulation results show that our protocol is practical.
Clustering of noisy image data using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pemmaraju, Surya; Mitra, Sunanda
1992-01-01
Identification of outliers or noise in a real data set is often quite difficult. A recently developed adaptive fuzzy leader clustering (AFLC) algorithm has been modified to separate the outliers from real data sets while finding the clusters within the data sets. The capability of this modified AFLC algorithm to identify the outliers in a number of real data sets indicates the potential strength of this algorithm in correct classification of noisy real data.
Lee, Soojin; Kim, Diana J; Svenkeson, Daniel; Parras, Gabriel; Oishi, Meeko Mitsuko K; McKeown, Martin J
2015-01-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized clinically by slowness of movement, rigidity, tremor, postural instability, and often cognitive impairments. Recent studies have demonstrated altered cortico-basal ganglia rhythms in PD, which raises the possibility of a role for non-invasive stimulation therapies such as noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). We applied noisy GVS to 12 mild-moderately affected PD subjects (Hoehn and Yahr 1.5-2.5) off medication while they performed a sinusoidal visuomotor joystick tracking task, which alternated between 2 task conditions depending on whether the displayed cursor position underestimated the actual error by 30% ('Better') or overestimated by 200% ('Worse'). Either sham or subthreshold, noisy GVS (0.1-10 Hz, 1/f-type power spectrum) was applied in pseudorandom order. We used exploratory (linear discriminant analysis with bootstrapping) and confirmatory (robust multivariate linear regression) methods to determine if the presence of GVS significantly affected our ability to predict cursor position based on target variables. Variables related to displayed error were robustly seen to discriminate GVS in all subjects particularly in the Worse condition. If we considered higher frequency components of the cursor trajectory as "noise," the signal-to-noise ratio of cursor trajectory was significantly increased during the GVS stimulation. The results suggest that noisy GVS influenced motor performance of the PD subjects, and we speculate that they were elicited through a combination of mechanisms: enhanced cingulate activity resulting in modulation of frontal midline theta rhythms, improved signal processing in neuromotor system via stochastic facilitation and/or enhanced "vigor" known to be deficient in PD subjects. Further work is required to determine if GVS has a selective effect on corrective submovements that could not be detected by the current analyses. PMID:25698944
Which verification qubits perform best for secure communication in noisy channel?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Thapliyal, Kishore; Pathak, Anirban; Pan, Alok Kumar; De, Asok
2016-04-01
In secure quantum communication protocols, a set of single qubits prepared using 2 or more mutually unbiased bases or a set of n-qubit (n≥ 2) entangled states of a particular form are usually used to form a verification string which is subsequently used to detect traces of eavesdropping. The qubits that form a verification string are referred to as decoy qubits, and there exists a large set of different quantum states that can be used as decoy qubits. In the absence of noise, any choice of decoy qubits provides equivalent security. In this paper, we examine such equivalence for noisy environment (e.g., in amplitude damping, phase damping, collective dephasing and collective rotation noise channels) by comparing the decoy-qubit-assisted schemes of secure quantum communication that use single-qubit states as decoy qubits with the schemes that use entangled states as decoy qubits. Our study reveals that the single- qubit-assisted scheme performs better in some noisy environments, while some entangled-qubit-assisted schemes perform better in other noisy environments. Specifically, single-qubit-assisted schemes perform better in amplitude damping and phase damping noisy channels, whereas a few Bell-state-based decoy schemes are found to perform better in the presence of the collective noise. Thus, if the kind of noise present in a communication channel (i.e., the characteristics of the channel) is known or measured, then the present study can provide the best choice of decoy qubits required for implementation of schemes of secure quantum communication through that channel.
Ma, Jianfen; Hu, Yi; Loizou, Philipos C.
2009-01-01
The articulation index (AI), speech-transmission index (STI), and coherence-based intelligibility metrics have been evaluated primarily in steady-state noisy conditions and have not been tested extensively in fluctuating noise conditions. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the performance of new speech-based STI measures, modified coherence-based measures, and AI-based measures operating on short-term (30 ms) intervals in realistic noisy conditions. Much emphasis is placed on the design of new band-importance weighting functions which can be used in situations wherein speech is corrupted by fluctuating maskers. The proposed measures were evaluated with intelligibility scores obtained by normal-hearing listeners in 72 noisy conditions involving noise-suppressed speech (consonants and sentences) corrupted by four different maskers (car, babble, train, and street interferences). Of all the measures considered, the modified coherence-based measures and speech-based STI measures incorporating signal-specific band-importance functions yielded the highest correlations (r=0.89–0.94). The modified coherence measure, in particular, that only included vowel∕consonant transitions and weak consonant information yielded the highest correlation (r=0.94) with sentence recognition scores. The results from this study clearly suggest that the traditional AI and STI indices could benefit from the use of the proposed signal- and segment-dependent band-importance functions. PMID:19425678
Blind noisy image quality evaluation using a deformable ant colony algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Li; Huang, Xiaotong; Tian, Jing; Fu, Xiaowei
2014-04-01
The objective of blind noisy image quality assessment is to evaluate the quality of the degraded noisy image without the knowledge of the ground truth image. Its performance relies on the accuracy of the noise statistics estimated from homogenous blocks. The major challenge of block-based approaches lies in the block size selection, as it affects the local noise derivation. To tackle this challenge, a deformable ant colony optimization (DACO) approach is proposed in this paper to adaptively adjust the ant size for image block selection. The proposed DACO approach considers that the size of the ant is adjustable during foraging. For the smooth image blocks, more pheromone is deposited, and then the size of ant is increased. Therefore, this strategy enables the ants to have dynamic food-search capability, leading to more accurate selection of homogeneous blocks. Furthermore, the regression analysis is used to obtain image quality score by exploiting the above-estimated noise statistics. Experimental results are provided to justify that the proposed approach outperforms conventional approaches to provide more accurate noise statistics estimation and achieve a consistent image quality evaluation performance for both the artificially generated and real-world noisy images.
Marching along to an Offbeat Drum: Entrainment of Synthetic Gene Oscillators by a Noisy Stimulus.
Butzin, Nicholas C; Hochendoner, Philip; Ogle, Curtis T; Hill, Paul; Mather, William H
2016-02-19
Modulation of biological oscillations by stimuli lies at the root of many phenomena, including maintenance of circadian rhythms, propagation of neural signals, and somitogenesis. While it is well established that regular periodic modulation can entrain an oscillator, an aperiodic (noisy) modulation can also robustly entrain oscillations. This latter scenario may describe, for instance, the effect of irregular weather patterns on circadian rhythms, or why irregular neural stimuli can still reliably transmit information. A synthetic gene oscillator approach has already proven to be useful in understanding the entrainment of biological oscillators by periodic signaling, mimicking the entrainment of a number of noisy oscillating systems. We similarly seek to use synthetic biology as a platform to understand how aperiodic signals can strongly correlate the behavior of cells. This study should lead to a deeper understanding of how fluctuations in our environment and even within our body may promote substantial synchrony among our cells. Specifically, we investigate experimentally and theoretically the entrainment of a synthetic gene oscillator in E. coli by a noisy stimulus. This phenomenon was experimentally studied and verified by a combination of microfluidics and microscopy using the real synthetic circuit. Stochastic simulation of an associated model further supports that the synthetic gene oscillator can be strongly entrained by aperiodic signals, especially telegraph noise. Finally, widespread applicability of aperiodic entrainment beyond the synthetic gene oscillator is supported by results derived from both a model for a natural oscillator in D. discoideum and a model for predator-prey oscillations. PMID:26524465
Time-bin-encoding-based remote states generation of nitrogen-vacancy centers through noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Shi-Lei; Chen, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2015-02-01
We design proposals to generate a remote Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state and a W state of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers coupled to microtoroidal resonators (MTRs) through noisy channels by utilizing time-bin encoding processes and fast-optical-switch-based polarization rotation operations. The polarization and phase noise induced by noisy channels generally affect the time of state generation but not its success probability and fidelity. Besides, the above proposals can be generalized to n-qubit between two or among n remote nodes with success probability unity under ideal conditions. Furthermore, the proposals are robust for regular noise-changeable channels for the n-node case. This method is also useful in other remote quantum information processing tasks through noisy channels. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11264042, 61465013, 11465020, and 11165015), the Program for Chun Miao Excellent Talents of Jilin Provincial Department of Education (Grant No. 201316), and the Talent Program of Yanbian University of China (Grant No. 950010001).
Does finite-temperature decoding deliver better optima for noisy Hamiltonians?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ochoa, Andrew J.; Nishimura, Kohji; Nishimori, Hidetoshi; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
The minimization of an Ising spin-glass Hamiltonian is an NP-hard problem. Because many problems across disciplines can be mapped onto this class of Hamiltonian, novel efficient computing techniques are highly sought after. The recent development of quantum annealing machines promises to minimize these difficult problems more efficiently. However, the inherent noise found in these analog devices makes the minimization procedure difficult. While the machine might be working correctly, it might be minimizing a different Hamiltonian due to the inherent noise. This means that, in general, the ground-state configuration that correctly minimizes a noisy Hamiltonian might not minimize the noise-less Hamiltonian. Inspired by rigorous results that the energy of the noise-less ground-state configuration is equal to the expectation value of the energy of the noisy Hamiltonian at the (nonzero) Nishimori temperature [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn., 62, 40132930 (1993)], we numerically study the decoding probability of the original noise-less ground state with noisy Hamiltonians in two space dimensions, as well as the D-Wave Inc. Chimera topology. Our results suggest that thermal fluctuations might be beneficial during the optimization process in analog quantum annealing machines.
Nath, Audrey R.; Beauchamp, Michael S.
2011-01-01
Humans are remarkably adept at understanding speech, even when it is contaminated by noise. Multisensory integration may explain some of this ability: combining independent information from the auditory modality (vocalizations) and the visual modality (mouth movements) reduces noise and increases accuracy. Converging evidence suggests that the superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical brain area for multisensory integration, but little is known about its role in the perception of noisy speech. Behavioral studies have shown that perceptual judgments are weighted by the reliability of the sensory modality: more reliable modalities are weighted more strongly, even if the reliability changes rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the functional connectivity of STS with auditory and visual cortex could provide a neural mechanism for perceptual reliability-weighting. To test this idea, we performed five blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) fMRI and behavioral experiments in 34 healthy subjects. We found increased functional connectivity between the STS and auditory cortex when the auditory modality was more reliable (less noisy) and increased functional connectivity between the STS and visual cortex when the visual modality was more reliable, even when the reliability changed rapidly during presentation of successive words. This finding matched the results of a behavioral experiment in which the perception of incongruent audiovisual syllables was biased toward the more reliable modality, even with rapidly changing reliability. Changes in STS functional connectivity may be an important neural mechanism underlying the perception of noisy speech. PMID:21289179
A rating scale experiment on loudness, noisiness and annoyance of environmental sounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hiramatsu, K.; Takagi, K.; Yamamoto, T.
1988-12-01
How people judge loudness, noisiness and annoyance of sounds was investigated by using a variety of environmental sounds. Fifty male and female subjects, aged from 18 to 60 years, heard 59 environmental sounds as well as seven kinds of white noise and judged their loudness, noisiness and annoyance on rating scales. Average scores on the three concepts given to the steady white noises are approximately in linear proportion to the level of the noise, with high correlation coefficients. The relationships were used to convert the scores given to the sounds to the levels of white noise which would have the same scores and can be regarded as points of subjective equality ( PSE's) of the sounds. It is found that the PSE thus obtained concerning loudness is best correlated among the three with Perceived Level and that concerning annoyance is least correlated with the level. Scattergrams of PSE's between the three concepts plotted against each other showed considerably high correlations. They are more correlated when sounds such as music, church bell, birds, etc., being on average judged pleasant or neutral, are excluded. This suggests that the human responses concerning those three concepts of auditory sensation and/or perception are mutually correlated. Lower correlation between loudness and annoyance, however, suggests sounds heard as equally loud could be differently annoying. More detailed analysis of the results showed that the judgement of loudness was not independent of noisiness and/or annoyance of the sound.
Sequence-Based Pronunciation Variation Modeling for Spontaneous ASR Using a Noisy Channel Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, Hansjörg; Sakti, Sakriani; Hori, Chiori; Kashioka, Hideki; Nakamura, Satoshi; Minker, Wolfgang
The performance of English automatic speech recognition systems decreases when recognizing spontaneous speech mainly due to multiple pronunciation variants in the utterances. Previous approaches address this problem by modeling the alteration of the pronunciation on a phoneme to phoneme level. However, the phonetic transformation effects induced by the pronunciation of the whole sentence have not yet been considered. In this article, the sequence-based pronunciation variation is modeled using a noisy channel approach where the spontaneous phoneme sequence is considered as a “noisy” string and the goal is to recover the “clean” string of the word sequence. Hereby, the whole word sequence and its effect on the alternation of the phonemes will be taken into consideration. Moreover, the system not only learns the phoneme transformation but also the mapping from the phoneme to the word directly. In this study, first the phonemes will be recognized with the present recognition system and afterwards the pronunciation variation model based on the noisy channel approach will map from the phoneme to the word level. Two well-known natural language processing approaches are adopted and derived from the noisy channel model theory: Joint-sequence models and statistical machine translation. Both of them are applied and various experiments are conducted using microphone and telephone of spontaneous speech.
New approach for T-wave end detection on electrocardiogram: Performance in noisy conditions
2011-01-01
Background The detection of T-wave end points on electrocardiogram (ECG) is a basic procedure for ECG processing and analysis. Several methods have been proposed and tested, featuring high accuracy and percentages of correct detection. Nevertheless, their performance in noisy conditions remains an open problem. Methods A new approach and algorithm for T-wave end location based on the computation of Trapezium's areas is proposed and validated (in terms of accuracy and repeatability), using signals from the Physionet QT Database. The performance of the proposed algorithm in noisy conditions has been tested and compared with one of the most used approaches for estimating the T-wave end point: the method based on the threshold on the first derivative. Results The results indicated that the proposed approach based on Trapezium's areas outperformed the baseline method with respect to accuracy and repeatability. Also, the proposed method is more robust to wideband noise. Conclusions The trapezium-based approach has a good performance in noisy conditions and does not rely on any empirical threshold. It is very adequate for use in scenarios where the levels of broadband noise are significant. PMID:21906317
Location of Microearthquakes in Various Noisy Environments Using Envelope Stacking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oye, V.; Gharti, H.
2009-12-01
Monitoring of microearthquakes is routinely conducted in various environments such as hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs, mines, dams, seismically active faults, volcanoes, nuclear power plants and CO2 storages. In many of these cases the handled data is sensitive and the interpretation of the data may be vital. In some cases, such as during mining or hydraulic fracturing activities, the number of microearthquakes is very large with tens to thousands of events per hour. In others, almost no events occur during a week and furthermore, it might not be anticipated that many events occur at all. However, the general setup of seismic networks, including surface and downhole stations, is usually optimized to record as many microearthquakes as possible, thereby trying to lower the detection threshold of the network. This process is obviously limited to some extent. Most microearthquake location techniques take advantage of a combination of P- and S-wave onset times that often can be picked reliably in an automatic mode. Moreover, when using seismic wave onset times, sometimes in combination with seismic wave polarization, these methods are more accurate compared to migration-based location routines. However, many events cannot be located because their magnitude is too small, i.e. the P- and/or S-wave onset times cannot be picked accurately on a sufficient number of receivers. Nevertheless, these small events are important for the interpretation of the processes that are monitored and even an inferior estimate of event locations and strengths is valuable information. Moreover, the smaller the event the more often such events statistically occur and the more important such additional information becomes. In this study we try to enhance the performance of any microseismic network, providing additional estimates of event locations below the actual detection threshold. We present a migration-based event location method, where we project the recorded seismograms onto the ray
The Noisiness of Low-Frequency One-Third Octave Bands of Noise. M.S. Thesis - Southampton Univ.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawton, B. W.
1975-01-01
This study examined the relative noisiness of low frequency one-third octave bands of noise bounded by the bands centered at 25 Hz and 200 Hz, with intensities ranging from 50 db sound pressure level (SPL) to 95 db SPL. The thirty-two subjects used a method-of-adjustment technique, producing comparison-band intensities as noisy as standard bands centered at 100 Hz and 200 Hz with intensities of 60 db SPL and 72 db SPL. Four contours of equal noisiness were developed for one-third octave bands, extending down to 25 Hz and ranging in intensity from approximately 58 db SPL to 86 db SPL. These curves were compared with the contours of equal noisiness of Kryter and Pearsons. In the region of overlap (between 50 Hz and 200 Hz) the agreement was good.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araújo, Mario; Areán, Daniel; Lizana, Javier M.
2016-07-01
We study the effects of disorder on strongly coupled compressible matter in 2+1 dimensions. Our system consists of a D3/D5 intersection at finite temperature and in the presence of a disordered chemical potential. We first study the impact of disorder on the charge density and the quark condensate. Next, we focus on the DC conductivity and derive analytic expressions for the corrections induced by weak disorder. It is found that disorder enhances the DC conductivity at low charge density, while for large charge density the conductivity is reduced. We present numerical simulations both for weak and strong disorder. Finally, we show how disorder gives rise to a sublinear behavior for the conductivity as a function of the charge density, a behavior qualitatively similar to predictions and observations for electric transport in graphene.
Lauzeral, Christine; Grenouillet, Gaël; Brosse, Sébastien
2012-01-01
Species distribution models (SDMs) are widespread in ecology and conservation biology, but their accuracy can be lowered by non-environmental (noisy) absences that are common in species occurrence data. Here we propose an iterative ensemble modelling (IEM) method to deal with noisy absences and hence improve the predictive reliability of ensemble modelling of species distributions. In the IEM approach, outputs of a classical ensemble model (EM) were used to update the raw occurrence data. The revised data was then used as input for a new EM run. This process was iterated until the predictions stabilized. The outputs of the iterative method were compared to those of the classical EM using virtual species. The IEM process tended to converge rapidly. It increased the consensus between predictions provided by the different methods as well as between those provided by different learning data sets. Comparing IEM and EM showed that for high levels of non-environmental absences, iterations significantly increased prediction reliability measured by the Kappa and TSS indices, as well as the percentage of well-predicted sites. Compared to EM, IEM also reduced biases in estimates of species prevalence. Compared to the classical EM method, IEM improves the reliability of species predictions. It particularly deals with noisy absences that are replaced in the data matrices by simulated presences during the iterative modelling process. IEM thus constitutes a promising way to increase the accuracy of EM predictions of difficult-to-detect species, as well as of species that are not in equilibrium with their environment. PMID:23166691
[Application of a modified method of wavelet noise removing to noisy ICP-AES spectra].
Ma, Xiao-guo; Zhang, Zhan-xia
2003-06-01
A new method for noise removal from signal by the wavelet transform was developed. Compared with analytical signal, noise has higher frequency and smaller amplitude. By the new wavelet filtering method, the high frequency components were first removed, and then the small ones in the remaining transformed vectors were discarded. The proposed approach was evaluated by the processing of simulated and experimental noisy ICP-AES spectra. Different amounts of noise were added to a Gaussian peak to obtain a series of noisy ICP spectra. The simulated noisy spectra with R (signal to noise ratio) = 6 and N (data number) = 51, and with R = 6 and N = 17 were used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The performances of noise removal by the wavelet smoothing, the wavelet denoising and the proposed technique were compared. It was found that using the new approach, the relative errors of peak height would be no more than 5% for spectra with normal sampling points and R > or = 2. Moreover, the baseline could be easily defined, which was helpful to the accurate measurement of peak height. Experimental spectra of Al and V at low concentrations were processed by the proposed method. Intense noises were efficiently removed and the spectra became smoother without underestimating the analytical signal. The distortion of V 303.310 nm line was substantially rectified. The linear correlation coefficients between the peak heights in the reconstructed spectra and the concentrations were found to be 0.9953 for Al and 0.9836 for V, respectively. PMID:12953539
Dendritic tree extraction from noisy maximum intensity projection images in C. elegans
2014-01-01
Background Maximum Intensity Projections (MIP) of neuronal dendritic trees obtained from confocal microscopy are frequently used to study the relationship between tree morphology and mechanosensory function in the model organism C. elegans. Extracting dendritic trees from noisy images remains however a strenuous process that has traditionally relied on manual approaches. Here, we focus on automated and reliable 2D segmentations of dendritic trees following a statistical learning framework. Methods Our dendritic tree extraction (DTE) method uses small amounts of labelled training data on MIPs to learn noise models of texture-based features from the responses of tree structures and image background. Our strategy lies in evaluating statistical models of noise that account for both the variability generated from the imaging process and from the aggregation of information in the MIP images. These noisy models are then used within a probabilistic, or Bayesian framework to provide a coarse 2D dendritic tree segmentation. Finally, some post-processing is applied to refine the segmentations and provide skeletonized trees using a morphological thinning process. Results Following a Leave-One-Out Cross Validation (LOOCV) method for an MIP databse with available “ground truth” images, we demonstrate that our approach provides significant improvements in tree-structure segmentations over traditional intensity-based methods. Improvements for MIPs under various imaging conditions are both qualitative and quantitative, as measured from Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and the yield and error rates in the final segmentations. In a final step, we demonstrate our DTE approach on previously unseen MIP samples including the extraction of skeletonized structures, and compare our method to a state-of-the art dendritic tree tracing software. Conclusions Overall, our DTE method allows for robust dendritic tree segmentations in noisy MIPs, outperforming traditional intensity
Limitations on quantum key repeaters.
Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas
2015-01-01
A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol. PMID:25903096
Study and Simulation of Enhancements for TCP Performance Over Noisy High Latency Links
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Partridge, Craig
1999-01-01
The goal of this study is to better understand how TCP behaves over noisy, high-latency links such as satellite links and propose improvements to TCP implementations such that TCP might better handle such links. This report is comprised of a series of smaller reports, presentations and recommendations. Included in these documents are a summary of the TCP enhancement techniques for large windows, protect against wrap around (PAWS), use of selective acknowledgements (SACK), increasing TCP's initial window and recommendations to implement TCP pacing.
Critical avalanches and subsampling in map-based neural networks coupled with noisy synapses.
Girardi-Schappo, M; Kinouchi, O; Tragtenberg, M H R
2013-08-01
Many different kinds of noise are experimentally observed in the brain. Among them, we study a model of noisy chemical synapse and obtain critical avalanches for the spatiotemporal activity of the neural network. Neurons and synapses are modeled by dynamical maps. We discuss the relevant neuronal and synaptic properties to achieve the critical state. We verify that networks of functionally excitable neurons with fast synapses present power-law avalanches, due to rebound spiking dynamics. We also discuss the measuring of neuronal avalanches by subsampling our data, shedding light on the experimental search for self-organized criticality in neural networks. PMID:24032969
Romano, Raffaele; Loock, Peter van
2010-07-15
Quantum teleportation enables deterministic and faithful transmission of quantum states, provided a maximally entangled state is preshared between sender and receiver, and a one-way classical channel is available. Here, we prove that these resources are not only sufficient, but also necessary, for deterministically and faithfully sending quantum states through any fixed noisy channel of maximal rank, when a single use of the cannel is admitted. In other words, for this family of channels, there are no other protocols, based on different (and possibly cheaper) sets of resources, capable of replacing quantum teleportation.
Self-calibration of a noisy multiple-sensor system with genetic algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brooks, Richard R.; Iyengar, S. Sitharama; Chen, Jianhua
1996-01-01
This paper explores an image processing application of optimization techniques which entails interpreting noisy sensor data. The application is a generalization of image correlation; we attempt to find the optimal gruence which matches two overlapping gray-scale images corrupted with noise. Both taboo search and genetic algorithms are used to find the parameters which match the two images. A genetic algorithm approach using an elitist reproduction scheme is found to provide significantly superior results. The presentation includes a graphic presentation of the paths taken by tabu search and genetic algorithms when trying to find the best possible match between two corrupted images.
Intelligibility Assessment of Ideal Binary-Masked Noisy Speech with Acceptance of Room Acoustic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vladimír, Sedlak; Daniela, Durackova; Roman, Zalusky; Tomas, Kovacik
2015-01-01
In this paper the intelligibility of ideal binary-masked noisy signal is evaluated for different signal to noise ratio (SNR), mask error, masker types, distance between source and receiver, reverberation time and local criteria for forming the binary mask. The ideal binary mask is computed from time-frequency decompositions of target and masker signals by thresholding the local SNR within time-frequency units. The intelligibility of separated signal is measured using different objective measures computed in frequency and perceptual domain. The present study replicates and extends the findings which were already presented but mainly shows impact of room acoustic on the intelligibility performance of IBM technique.
Symbolic dynamics-based error analysis on chaos synchronization via noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Da; Zhang, Fuchen; Liu, Jia-Ming
2014-07-01
In this study, symbolic dynamics is used to research the error of chaos synchronization via noisy channels. The theory of symbolic dynamics reduces chaos to a shift map that acts on a discrete set of symbols, each of which contains information about the system state. Using this transformation, a coder-decoder scheme is proposed. A model for the relationship among word length, region number of a partition, and synchronization error is provided. According to the model, the fundamental trade-off between word length and region number can be optimized to minimize the synchronization error. Numerical simulations provide support for our results.
Noisy bases in Hilbert space: A new class of thermal coherent states and their properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vourdas, A.; Bishop, R. F.
1995-01-01
Coherent mixed states (or thermal coherent states) associated with the displaced harmonic oscillator at finite temperature, are introduced as a 'random' (or 'thermal' or 'noisy') basis in Hilbert space. A resolution of the identity for these states is proved and used to generalize the usual coherent state formalism for the finite temperature case. The Bargmann representation of an operator is introduced and its relation to the P and Q representations is studied. Generalized P and Q representations for the finite temperature case are also considered and several interesting relations among them are derived.
Design of source coders and joint source/channel coders for noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sayood, Khalid; Rost, Martin C.; Michels, Alan
1987-01-01
A theory behind a proposed joint source/channel coding approach is developed and a variable rate design approach which provides substantial improvement over current joint source/channel coder designs is obtained. The Rice algorithm as applied to the output of the Gamma Ray Detector of the Mars Orbiter is evaluated. An alternative algorithm is obtained which outperforms the Rice both in terms of data compression and noisy channel performance. A high-fidelity low-rate image compression algorithm is developed which provides almost distortionless compression of high resolution images.
A Statistical and Spectral Model for Representing Noisy Sounds with Short-Time Sinusoids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanna, Pierre; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam
2005-12-01
We propose an original model for noise analysis, transformation, and synthesis: the CNSS model. Noisy sounds are represented with short-time sinusoids whose frequencies and phases are random variables. This spectral and statistical model represents information about the spectral density of frequencies. This perceptually relevant property is modeled by three mathematical parameters that define the distribution of the frequencies. This model also represents the spectral envelope. The mathematical parameters are defined and the analysis algorithms to extract these parameters from sounds are introduced. Then algorithms for generating sounds from the parameters of the model are presented. Applications of this model include tools for composers, psychoacoustic experiments, and pedagogy.
Frequency-Zooming ARMA Modeling for Analysis of Noisy String Instrument Tones
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esquef, Paulo A. A.; Karjalainen, Matti; Välimäki, Vesa
2003-12-01
This paper addresses model-based analysis of string instrument sounds. In particular, it reviews the application of autoregressive (AR) modeling to sound analysis/synthesis purposes. Moreover, a frequency-zooming autoregressive moving average (FZ-ARMA) modeling scheme is described. The performance of the FZ-ARMA method on modeling the modal behavior of isolated groups of resonance frequencies is evaluated for both synthetic and real string instrument tones immersed in background noise. We demonstrate that the FZ-ARMA modeling is a robust tool to estimate the decay time and frequency of partials of noisy tones. Finally, we discuss the use of the method in synthesis of string instrument sounds.
Variable-order fractional numerical differentiation for noisy signals by wavelet denoising
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yi-Ming; Wei, Yan-Qiao; Liu, Da-Yan; Boutat, Driss; Chen, Xiu-Kai
2016-04-01
In this paper, a numerical method is proposed to estimate the variable-order fractional derivatives of an unknown signal in noisy environment. Firstly, the wavelet denoising process is adopted to reduce the noise effect for the signal. Secondly, polynomials are constructed to fit the denoised signal in a set of overlapped subintervals of a considered interval. Thirdly, the variable-order fractional derivatives of these fitting polynomials are used as the estimations of the unknown ones, where the values obtained near the boundaries of each subinterval are ignored in the overlapped parts. Finally, numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method.
Bass, Ellen J.; Baumgart, Leigh A.; Shepley, Kathryn Klein
2014-01-01
Displaying both the strategy that information analysis automation employs to makes its judgments and variability in the task environment may improve human judgment performance, especially in cases where this variability impacts the judgment performance of the information analysis automation. This work investigated the contribution of providing either information analysis automation strategy information, task environment information, or both, on human judgment performance in a domain where noisy sensor data are used by both the human and the information analysis automation to make judgments. In a simplified air traffic conflict prediction experiment, 32 participants made probability of horizontal conflict judgments under different display content conditions. After being exposed to the information analysis automation, judgment achievement significantly improved for all participants as compared to judgments without any of the automation's information. Participants provided with additional display content pertaining to cue variability in the task environment had significantly higher aided judgment achievement compared to those provided with only the automation's judgment of a probability of conflict. When designing information analysis automation for environments where the automation's judgment achievement is impacted by noisy environmental data, it may be beneficial to show additional task environment information to the human judge in order to improve judgment performance. PMID:24847184
Daily Sleep Changes in a Noisy Environment Assessed by Subjective and Polygraphic Sleep Parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawada, T.; Sasazawa, Y.; Kiryu, Y.; Suzuki, S.
1997-08-01
Habituation of sleep to a noisy environment was investigated by self-rated sleep scores, polygraphic sleep parameters, and a performance test on the following morning. The self-rated sleep questionaire, OSA, includes five factors of subjective sleep quality: sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling and sleep initiation. The polygraphic sleep parameters were six sleep stages in minutes, sleep latency, REM latency, REM cycle, REM duration, frequency and duration in minutes of awakening during sleep, total sleep time, number of sleep stage shifts, sleep efficiency, number of sleep spindles and density. The differences between reaction times before sleep that night and the following morning were also examined. The subjects were twelve students aged 19 to 21 who were tested a total of 96 nights. Each subject slept in an experimental room and was exposed to recorded passing truck noise with peak levels of 45, 50, 55 and 60 dB(A) at intervals of 15 min. Significant changes were recognized in Stage 1, MT, frequency of awakening and number of sleep stage shifts. The authors speculate that the decrease in the shallow stage as noisy nights were repeated reflects habituation of night sleep to repeated passing truck noise, whose interval, duration and nature was constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, S.; Yuan, X.
2016-06-01
A generic probabilistic model, under fundamental Bayes' rule and Markov assumption, is introduced to integrate the process of mobile platform localization with optical sensors. And based on it, three relative independent solutions, bundle adjustment, Kalman filtering and particle filtering are deduced under different and additional restrictions. We want to prove that first, Kalman filtering, may be a better initial-value supplier for bundle adjustment than traditional relative orientation in irregular strips and networks or failed tie-point extraction. Second, in high noisy conditions, particle filtering can act as a bridge for gap binding when a large number of gross errors fail a Kalman filtering or a bundle adjustment. Third, both filtering methods, which help reduce the error propagation and eliminate gross errors, guarantee a global and static bundle adjustment, who requires the strictest initial values and control conditions. The main innovation is about the integrated processing of stochastic errors and gross errors in sensor observations, and the integration of the three most used solutions, bundle adjustment, Kalman filtering and particle filtering into a generic probabilistic localization model. The tests in noisy and restricted situations are designed and examined to prove them.
Accurate estimation of motion blur parameters in noisy remote sensing image
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Xueyan; Wang, Lin; Shao, Xiaopeng; Wang, Huilin; Tao, Zhong
2015-05-01
The relative motion between remote sensing satellite sensor and objects is one of the most common reasons for remote sensing image degradation. It seriously weakens image data interpretation and information extraction. In practice, point spread function (PSF) should be estimated firstly for image restoration. Identifying motion blur direction and length accurately is very crucial for PSF and restoring image with precision. In general, the regular light-and-dark stripes in the spectrum can be employed to obtain the parameters by using Radon transform. However, serious noise existing in actual remote sensing images often causes the stripes unobvious. The parameters would be difficult to calculate and the error of the result relatively big. In this paper, an improved motion blur parameter identification method to noisy remote sensing image is proposed to solve this problem. The spectrum characteristic of noisy remote sensing image is analyzed firstly. An interactive image segmentation method based on graph theory called GrabCut is adopted to effectively extract the edge of the light center in the spectrum. Motion blur direction is estimated by applying Radon transform on the segmentation result. In order to reduce random error, a method based on whole column statistics is used during calculating blur length. Finally, Lucy-Richardson algorithm is applied to restore the remote sensing images of the moon after estimating blur parameters. The experimental results verify the effectiveness and robustness of our algorithm.
A hybrid algorithm for robust acoustic source localization in noisy and reverberant environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajagopalan, Ramesh; Dessonville, Timothy
2014-09-01
Acoustic source localization using microphone arrays is widely used in videoconferencing and surveillance systems. However, it still remains a challenging task to develop efficient algorithms for accurate estimation of source location using distributed data processing. In this work, we propose a new algorithm for efficient localization of a speaker in noisy and reverberant environments such as videoconferencing. We propose a hybrid algorithm that combines generalized cross correlation based phase transform method (GCC-PHAT) and Tabu search to obtain a robust and accurate estimate of the speaker location. The Tabu Search algorithm iteratively improves the time difference of arrival (TDOA) estimate of GCC-PHAT by examining the neighboring solutions until a convergence in the TDOA value is obtained. Experiments were performed based on real world data recorded from a meeting room in the presence of noise such as computer and fans. Our results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid algorithm outperforms GCC-PHAT especially when the noise level is high. This shows the robustness of the proposed algorithm in noisy and realistic videoconferencing systems.
Localization of a sound source in a noisy environment by hyperbolic curves in quefrency domain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Choon-Su; Jeon, Jong-Hoon; Kim, Yang-Hann
2014-10-01
Time Difference of Arrivals (TDOAs) of sound waves between microphones have to do with source localization. How well a sound source can be localized depends on how precisely the TDOAs are estimated. Although many ways to estimate TDOA have been proposed, noise always prevents us from finding exact time differences more or less in practice. Cross correlation has been the most prevalent way to estimate time difference, and various cross correlations robust to noise have also been developed. Nevertheless, much remains to be done for exact TDOA estimation under noisy environments. A novel way to show time delays in quefrency domain by removing noise has been proposed, which is called Minimum Variance Cepstrum (MVC). In particular, it is practically desirable to visualize source position with as few number of sensors as possible. Once TDOAs are obtained precisely, it is enough to show the source position in a 2-D plane using hyperbolic curves with only three sensors. In this work, the MVC is adopted to accurately estimate TDOAs under noise, and a way to localize an acoustic source by intersecting hyperbolic curves using the TDOAs between three microphones is proposed. Numerical simulations on TDOA estimation and source localization with white Gaussian noise demonstrated that the proposed method worked well under the noisy environment, and we compared the results with those of other old but well-established cross correlation estimators. In addition, experiments to detect a leaking point on a pipe successfully showed where the leak sound was generated.
Noisy decision thresholds can account for suboptimal detection of low coherence motion.
Price, Nicholas S C; VanCuylenberg, John B
2016-01-01
Noise in sensory signals can vary over both space and time. Moving random dot stimuli are commonly used to quantify how the visual system accounts for spatial noise. In these stimuli, a fixed proportion of "signal" dots move in the same direction and the remaining "noise" dots are randomly replotted. The spatial coherence, or proportion of signal versus noise dots, is fixed across time; however, this means that little is known about how temporally-noisy signals are integrated. Here we use a stimulus with low temporal coherence; the signal direction is only presented on a fraction of frames. Human observers are able to reliably detect and discriminate the direction of a 200 ms motion pulse, even when just 25% of frames within the pulse move in the signal direction. Using psychophysical reverse-correlation analyses, we show that observers are strongly influenced by the number of near-target directions spread throughout the pulse, and that consecutive signal frames have only a small additional influence on perception. Finally, we develop a model inspired by the leaky integration of the responses of direction-selective neurons, which reliably represents motion direction, and which can account for observers' sub-optimal detection of motion pulses by incorporating a noisy decision threshold. PMID:26726736
Noisy decision thresholds can account for suboptimal detection of low coherence motion
Price, Nicholas S. C.; VanCuylenberg, John B.
2016-01-01
Noise in sensory signals can vary over both space and time. Moving random dot stimuli are commonly used to quantify how the visual system accounts for spatial noise. In these stimuli, a fixed proportion of “signal” dots move in the same direction and the remaining “noise” dots are randomly replotted. The spatial coherence, or proportion of signal versus noise dots, is fixed across time; however, this means that little is known about how temporally-noisy signals are integrated. Here we use a stimulus with low temporal coherence; the signal direction is only presented on a fraction of frames. Human observers are able to reliably detect and discriminate the direction of a 200 ms motion pulse, even when just 25% of frames within the pulse move in the signal direction. Using psychophysical reverse-correlation analyses, we show that observers are strongly influenced by the number of near-target directions spread throughout the pulse, and that consecutive signal frames have only a small additional influence on perception. Finally, we develop a model inspired by the leaky integration of the responses of direction-selective neurons, which reliably represents motion direction, and which can account for observers’ sub-optimal detection of motion pulses by incorporating a noisy decision threshold. PMID:26726736
Noisy transcription factor NF-κB oscillations stabilize and sensitize cytokine signaling in space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangstad, Sirin W.; Feldager, Cilie W.; Juul, Jeppe; Trusina, Ala
2013-02-01
NF-κB is a major transcription factor mediating inflammatory response. In response to a pro-inflammatory stimulus, it exhibits a characteristic response—a pulse followed by noisy oscillations in concentrations of considerably smaller amplitude. NF-κB is an important mediator of cellular communication, as it is both activated by and upregulates production of cytokines, signals used by white blood cells to find the source of inflammation. While the oscillatory dynamics of NF-κB has been extensively investigated both experimentally and theoretically, the role of the noise and the lower secondary amplitude has not been addressed. We use a cellular automaton model to address these issues in the context of spatially distributed communicating cells. We find that noisy secondary oscillations stabilize concentric wave patterns, thus improving signal quality. Furthermore, both lower secondary amplitude as well as noise in the oscillation period might be working against chronic inflammation, the state of self-sustained and stimulus-independent excitations. Our findings suggest that the characteristic irregular secondary oscillations of lower amplitude are not accidental. On the contrary, they might have evolved to increase robustness of the inflammatory response and the system's ability to return to a pre-stimulated state.
Semi-supervised learning for detecting text-lines in noisy document images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Zongyi; Zhou, Hanning
2010-01-01
Document layout analysis is a key step in document image understanding with wide applications in document digitization and reformatting. Identifying correct layout from noisy scanned images is especially challenging. In this paper, we introduce a semi-supervised learning framework to detect text-lines from noisy document images. Our framework consists of three steps. The first step is the initial segmentation that extracts text-lines and images using simple morphological operations. The second step is a grouping-based layout analysis that identifies text-lines, image zones, column separator and vertical border noise. It is able to efficiently remove the vertical border noises from multi-column pages. The third step is an online classifier that is trained with the high confidence line detection results from Step Two, and filters out noise from low confidence lines. The classifier effectively removes speckle noises embedded inside the content zones. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the state-of-the-art work in the field on the UW-III database. We choose the results reported by the Image Understanding Pattern Recognition Research (IUPR) and Scansoft Omnipage SDK 15.5. We evaluate the performances at both the page frame level and the text-line level. The result shows that our system has much lower false-alarm rate, while maintains similar content detection rate. In addition, we also show that our online training model generalizes better than algorithms depending on offline training.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rfifi, Saad
2016-06-01
The eavesdropping attacks applied in the quantum secret sharing (QSS) protocols through a phase-damping noisy environment are very easy to be realized. In fact, the QSS fidelity has an ordinary behaviour with just one peak according to the noise rate value for many values of the quantum message amplitude. The present work employs a Fock cavity field in such protocols to complicate any eavesdropping attacks through a phase-damping noisy environment. Indeed, only the legitimate users who can adjust the cavity parameters to reach periodically the fidelity peaks.
Signal detection via residence-time asymmetry in noisy bistable devices.
Bulsara, A R; Seberino, C; Gammaitoni, L; Karlsson, M F; Lundqvist, B; Robinson, J W C
2003-01-01
We introduce a dynamical readout description for a wide class of nonlinear dynamic sensors operating in a noisy environment. The presence of weak unknown signals is assessed via the monitoring of the residence time in the metastable attractors of the system, in the presence of a known, usually time-periodic, bias signal. This operational scenario can mitigate the effects of sensor noise, providing a greatly simplified readout scheme, as well as significantly reduced processing procedures. Such devices can also show a wide variety of interesting dynamical features. This scheme for quantifying the response of a nonlinear dynamic device has been implemented in experiments involving a simple laboratory version of a fluxgate magnetometer. We present the results of the experiments and demonstrate that they match the theoretical predictions reasonably well. PMID:12636577
An Efficient Method for Noisy Cell Image Segmentation Using Generalized α-Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadek, Samy; Al-Hamadi, Ayoub; Michaelis, Bernd; Sayed, Usama
In 1953, a functional extension by A. Rènyi to generalize traditional Shannon's entropy known as α-entropies was proposed. The functionalities of α-entropies share the major properties of Shannon's entropy. Moreover, these entropies can be easily estimated using a kernel estimate. This makes their use by many researchers in computer vision community highly appealing . In this paper, an efficient and fast entropic method for noisy cell image segmentation is presented. The method utilizes generalized α-entropy to measure the maximum structural information of image and to locate the optimal threshold desired by segmentation. To speed up the proposed method, computations are carried out on 1D histograms of image. Experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient and much more tolerant to noise than other state-of-the-art segmentation techniques.
Antithetic Integral Feedback Ensures Robust Perfect Adaptation in Noisy Biomolecular Networks.
Briat, Corentin; Gupta, Ankit; Khammash, Mustafa
2016-01-27
The ability to adapt to stimuli is a defining feature of many biological systems and critical to maintaining homeostasis. While it is well appreciated that negative feedback can be used to achieve homeostasis when networks behave deterministically, the effect of noise on their regulatory function is not understood. Here, we combine probability and control theory to develop a theory of biological regulation that explicitly takes into account the noisy nature of biochemical reactions. We introduce tools for the analysis and design of robust homeostatic circuits and propose a new regulation motif, which we call antithetic integral feedback. This motif exploits stochastic noise, allowing it to achieve precise regulation in scenarios where similar deterministic regulation fails. Specifically, antithetic integral feedback preserves the stability of the overall network, steers the population of any regulated species to a desired set point, and adapts perfectly. We suggest that this motif may be prevalent in endogenous biological circuits and useful when creating synthetic circuits. PMID:27136686
Phase estimation from noisy phase fringe patterns using linearly independent basis functions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod
2015-12-01
A novel technique is proposed for obtaining unwrapped phase estimation from a highly noisy exponential phase field. In this technique, the interference phase is represented as a linear combination of linearly independent and pre-defined basis functions along each row/column of the phase field at a time. Consequently, the problem of phase estimation is converted into the problem of the estimation of the weights of the basis functions. The extended Kalman filter formulation allows for the accurate estimation of these weights. The simulation results indicate that the formulation offers a strong noise robustness in the phase estimation. Experimental results obtained using digital holographic interferometry and digital speckle pattern interferometry set-ups are provided to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed method.
Detecting nonlocality of noisy multipartite states with the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaves, Rafael; Acín, Antonio; Aolita, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Daniel
2014-04-01
The Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality was originally proposed as a Bell inequality to detect nonlocality in bipartite systems. However, it can also be used to certify the nonlocality of multipartite quantum states. We apply this to study the nonlocality of multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ), W, and graph states under local decoherence processes. We derive lower bounds on the critical local-noise strength tolerated by the states before becoming local. In addition, for the whole noisy dynamics, we derive lower bounds on the corresponding nonlocal content for the three classes of states. All the bounds presented can be calculated efficiently and, in some cases, provide significantly tighter estimates than with any other known method. For example, they reveal that N -qubit GHZ states undergoing local dephasing are, for all N , nonlocal throughout all the dephasing dynamics.
Purity of Gaussian states: Measurement schemes and time evolution in noisy channels
Paris, Matteo G.A.; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Serafini, Alessio; De Siena, Silvio
2003-07-01
We present a systematic study of the purity for Gaussian states of single-mode continuous variable systems. We prove the connection of purity to observable quantities for these states, and show that the joint measurement of two conjugate quadratures is necessary and sufficient to determine the purity at any time. The statistical reliability and the range of applicability of the proposed measurement scheme are tested by means of Monte Carlo simulated experiments. We then consider the dynamics of purity in noisy channels. We derive an evolution equation for the purity of general Gaussian states both in thermal and in squeezed thermal baths. We show that purity is maximized at any given time for an initial coherent state evolving in a thermal bath, or for an initial squeezed state evolving in a squeezed thermal bath whose asymptotic squeezing is orthogonal to that of the input state.
Mackey-Glass noisy chaotic time series prediction by a swarm-optimized neural network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
López-Caraballo, C. H.; Salfate, I.; Lazzús, J. A.; Rojas, P.; Rivera, M.; Palma-Chilla, L.
2016-05-01
In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) was developed for the time series prediction. The hybrid ANN+PSO algorithm was applied on Mackey-Glass noiseless chaotic time series in the short-term and long-term prediction. The performance prediction is evaluated and compared with similar work in the literature, particularly for the long-term forecast. Also, we present properties of the dynamical system via the study of chaotic behaviour obtained from the time series prediction. Then, this standard hybrid ANN+PSO algorithm was complemented with a Gaussian stochastic procedure (called stochastic hybrid ANN+PSO) in order to obtain a new estimator of the predictions that also allowed us compute uncertainties of predictions for noisy Mackey-Glass chaotic time series. We study the impact of noise for three cases with a white noise level (σ N ) contribution of 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1.
An efficient technique for the performance evaluation of antenna arrays with noisy carrier reference
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yan, T. Y.; Clare, L.
1981-01-01
An efficient computational technique is developed to evaluate the performance of coherent receivers with noisy carrier reference and multiple antennas. The received signal is assumed to be uncoded residual carrier BPSK (binary phase shift keying), with a PLL (phase locked loop) used for extracting the carrier. Explicit relationships between the error probabilities and the various system parameters are given. Specific results are given for the performance gain of combined carrier referencing over baseband only combining when the channel alignment process is ideal. A simple asymptotic expression for the performance gain is determined when the number of antennas used is increased without bound. An example using a Block 3 Deep Space Network PLL illustrates the performance of each arraying structure. The technique used is applicable to the performance evaluation for other receivers having similar decision statistics.
Theory of magnetic field line random walk in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Ruffolo, D.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2013-01-15
When a magnetic field consists of a mean part and fluctuations, the stochastic wandering of its field lines is often treated as a diffusive process. Under suitable conditions, a stable value is found for the mean square transverse displacement per unit parallel displacement relative to the mean field. Here, we compute the associated field line diffusion coefficient for a highly anisotropic 'noisy' reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of the magnetic field, which is useful in describing low frequency turbulence in the presence of a strong applied DC mean magnetic field, as may be found, for example, in the solar corona, or in certain laboratory devices. Our approach is nonperturbative, based on Corrsin's independence hypothesis, and makes use of recent advances in understanding factors that control decorrelation over a range of parameters described by the Kubo number. Both Bohm and quasilinear regimes are identified.
Local homogeneity combined with DCT statistics to blind noisy image quality assessment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Lingxian; Chen, Li; Chen, Heping
2015-03-01
In this paper a novel method for blind noisy image quality assessment is proposed. First, it is believed that human visual system (HVS) is more sensitive to the local smoothness area in a noise image, an adaptively local homogeneous block selection algorithm is proposed to construct a new homogeneous image named as homogeneity blocks (HB) based on computing each pixel characteristic. Second, applying the discrete cosine transform (DCT) for each HB and using high frequency component to evaluate image noise level. Finally, a modified peak signal to noise ratio (MPSNR) image quality assessment approach is proposed based on analysis DCT kurtosis distributions change and noise level above-mentioned. Simulations show that the quality scores that produced from the proposed algorithm are well correlated with the human perception of quality and also have a stability performance.
Analytically exact correction scheme for signal extraction from noisy magnitude MR signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koay, Cheng Guan; Basser, Peter J.
2006-04-01
An analytically exact method is proposed to extract the signal intensity and the noise variance simultaneously from noisy magnitude MR signals. This method relies on a fixed point formula of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a correction factor. The correction factor, which is a function of SNR, establishes a fundamental link between the variance of the magnitude MR signal and the variance of the underlying Gaussian noise in the two quadrature channels. A more general but very similar method is developed for parallel signal acquisitions with multiple receiver coils. In the context of MR imaging, the proposed method can be carried out on a pixel-by-pixel basis if the mean and the standard deviation of the magnitude signal are available.
Mobile robot trajectory tracking using noisy RSS measurements: an RFID approach.
Miah, M Suruz; Gueaieb, Wail
2014-03-01
Most RF beacons-based mobile robot navigation techniques rely on approximating line-of-sight (LOS) distances between the beacons and the robot. This is mostly performed using the robot's received signal strength (RSS) measurements from the beacons. However, accurate mapping between the RSS measurements and the LOS distance is almost impossible to achieve in reverberant environments. This paper presents a partially-observed feedback controller for a wheeled mobile robot where the feedback signal is in the form of noisy RSS measurements emitted from radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The proposed controller requires neither an accurate mapping between the LOS distance and the RSS measurements, nor the linearization of the robot model. The controller performance is demonstrated through numerical simulations and real-time experiments. PMID:24268746
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirz, V.; Beutel, J.; Gruber, S.; Gubler, S.; Purves, R. S.
2014-09-01
Detecting and monitoring of moving and potentially hazardous slopes requires reliable estimations of velocities. Separating any movement signal from measurement noise is crucial for understanding the temporal variability of slope movements and detecting changes in the movement regime, which may be important indicators of the process. Thus, methods capable of estimating velocity and its changes reliably are required. In this paper we develop and test a method for deriving velocities based on noisy GPS (Global Positioning System) data, suitable for various movement patterns and variable signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR). We tested this method on synthetic data, designed to mimic the characteristics of diverse processes, but where we have full knowledge of the underlying velocity patterns, before applying it to explore data collected.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salehi, Mohammad Reza; Abiri, Ebrahim; Dehyadegari, Louiza
2013-10-01
This paper seeks to investigate an approach of photonic reservoir computing for optical speech recognition on an examination isolated digit recognition task. An analytical approach in photonic reservoir computing is further drawn on to decrease time consumption, compared to numerical methods; which is very important in processing large signals such as speech recognition. It is also observed that adjusting reservoir parameters along with a good nonlinear mapping of the input signal into the reservoir, analytical approach, would boost recognition accuracy performance. Perfect recognition accuracy (i.e. 100%) can be achieved for noiseless speech signals. For noisy signals with 0-10 db of signal to noise ratios, however, the accuracy ranges observed varied between 92% and 98%. In fact, photonic reservoir application demonstrated 9-18% improvement compared to classical reservoir networks with hyperbolic tangent nodes.
Parallel diffusion of energetic particles interacting with noisy reduced MHD turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, A.; Shalchi, A.
2016-03-01
We investigate analytically parallel diffusion in noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic (NRMHD) turbulence. We employ different theories such as quasi-linear theory, second-order quasi-linear theory, and the weakly non-linear theory to compute the parallel diffusion coefficient. Our analytical findings are compared with test-particle simulations performed previously. We demonstrate systematically that quasi-linear theory does not work for the turbulence model considered here because it provides an infinite parallel diffusion coefficient. The second-order theory, on the other hand, provides a finite parallel mean free path which is, however, too large. Only by using the weakly non-linear theory we can reproduce the simulations and, thus, we conclude that resonance broadening due to perpendicular diffusion is an important effect if it comes to particle transport along the mean field in NRMHD turbulence.
Graph-regularized 3D shape reconstruction from highly anisotropic and noisy images
Heinrich, Stephanie; Drewe, Philipp; Lou, Xinghua; Umrania, Shefali; Rätsch, Gunnar
2014-01-01
Analysis of microscopy images can provide insight into many biological processes. One particularly challenging problem is cellular nuclear segmentation in highly anisotropic and noisy 3D image data. Manually localizing and segmenting each and every cellular nucleus is very time-consuming, which remains a bottleneck in large-scale biological experiments. In this work, we present a tool for automated segmentation of cellular nuclei from 3D fluorescent microscopic data. Our tool is based on state-of-the-art image processing and machine learning techniques and provides a user-friendly graphical user interface. We show that our tool is as accurate as manual annotation and greatly reduces the time for the registration. PMID:25866587
Parameter estimation of the FitzHugh-Nagumo model using noisy measurements for membrane potential.
Che, Yanqiu; Geng, Li-Hui; Han, Chunxiao; Cui, Shigang; Wang, Jiang
2012-06-01
This paper proposes an identification method to estimate the parameters of the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) model for a neuron using noisy measurements available from a voltage-clamp experiment. By eliminating an unmeasurable recovery variable from the FHN model, a parametric second order ordinary differential equation for the only measurable membrane potential variable can be obtained. In the presence of the measurement noise, a simple least squares method is employed to estimate the associated parameters involved in the FHN model. Although the available measurements for the membrane potential are contaminated with noises, the proposed identification method aided by wavelet denoising can also give the FHN model parameters with satisfactory accuracy. Finally, two simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:22757546
Implementation of two-party protocols in the noisy-storage model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehner, Stephanie; Curty, Marcos; Schaffner, Christian; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2010-05-01
The noisy-storage model allows the implementation of secure two-party protocols under the sole assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. No quantum storage is thereby required for the honest parties. Examples of such protocols include bit commitment, oblivious transfer, and secure identification. Here, we provide a guideline for the practical implementation of such protocols. In particular, we analyze security in a practical setting where the honest parties themselves are unable to perform perfect operations and need to deal with practical problems such as errors during transmission and detector inefficiencies. We provide explicit security parameters for two different experimental setups using weak coherent, and parametric down-conversion sources. In addition, we analyze a modification of the protocols based on decoy states.
Analysis of nonlinear noisy integrate & fire neuron models: blow-up and steady states
2011-01-01
Nonlinear Noisy Leaky Integrate and Fire (NNLIF) models for neurons networks can be written as Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations on the probability density of neurons, the main parameters in the model being the connectivity of the network and the noise. We analyse several aspects of the NNLIF model: the number of steady states, a priori estimates, blow-up issues and convergence toward equilibrium in the linear case. In particular, for excitatory networks, blow-up always occurs for initial data concentrated close to the firing potential. These results show how critical is the balance between noise and excitatory/inhibitory interactions to the connectivity parameter. AMS Subject Classification: 35K60, 82C31, 92B20. PMID:22657097
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nie, H.-Y.; McIntyre, N. S.
2007-02-01
Liquid 1-decanethiol was confined on an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip apex and the effect was investigated by measuring amplitude-distance curves in dynamic force mode. Within the working distance in the dynamic force mode AFM, the thiol showed strong interactions bridging between a gold-coated probe tip and a gold-coated Si substrate, resulting in unstable amplitude and noisy AFM images. We show that under such a situation, the amplitude change is dominated by the extra forces induced by the active material loaded on the tip apex, overwhelming the amplitude change caused by the geometry of the sample surface, thus resulting in noise in the image the tip collects. We also show that such a contaminant may be removed from the apex by pushing the tip into a material soft enough to avoid damage to the tip.
Model-based failure detection for cylindrical shells from noisy vibration measurements.
Candy, J V; Fisher, K A; Guidry, B L; Chambers, D H
2014-12-01
Model-based processing is a theoretically sound methodology to address difficult objectives in complex physical problems involving multi-channel sensor measurement systems. It involves the incorporation of analytical models of both physical phenomenology (complex vibrating structures, noisy operating environment, etc.) and the measurement processes (sensor networks and including noise) into the processor to extract the desired information. In this paper, a model-based methodology is developed to accomplish the task of online failure monitoring of a vibrating cylindrical shell externally excited by controlled excitations. A model-based processor is formulated to monitor system performance and detect potential failure conditions. The objective of this paper is to develop a real-time, model-based monitoring scheme for online diagnostics in a representative structural vibrational system based on controlled experimental data. PMID:25480059
Implementation of two-party protocols in the noisy-storage model
Wehner, Stephanie; Curty, Marcos; Schaffner, Christian; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2010-05-15
The noisy-storage model allows the implementation of secure two-party protocols under the sole assumption that no large-scale reliable quantum storage is available to the cheating party. No quantum storage is thereby required for the honest parties. Examples of such protocols include bit commitment, oblivious transfer, and secure identification. Here, we provide a guideline for the practical implementation of such protocols. In particular, we analyze security in a practical setting where the honest parties themselves are unable to perform perfect operations and need to deal with practical problems such as errors during transmission and detector inefficiencies. We provide explicit security parameters for two different experimental setups using weak coherent, and parametric down-conversion sources. In addition, we analyze a modification of the protocols based on decoy states.
Nonparametric Bayesian Dictionary Learning for Analysis of Noisy and Incomplete Images
Zhou, Mingyuan; Chen, Haojun; Paisley, John; Ren, Lu; Li, Lingbo; Xing, Zhengming; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Carin, Lawrence
2013-01-01
Nonparametric Bayesian methods are considered for recovery of imagery based upon compressive, incomplete, and/or noisy measurements. A truncated beta-Bernoulli process is employed to infer an appropriate dictionary for the data under test and also for image recovery. In the context of compressive sensing, significant improvements in image recovery are manifested using learned dictionaries, relative to using standard orthonormal image expansions. The compressive-measurement projections are also optimized for the learned dictionary. Additionally, we consider simpler (incomplete) measurements, defined by measuring a subset of image pixels, uniformly selected at random. Spatial interrelationships within imagery are exploited through use of the Dirichlet and probit stick-breaking processes. Several example results are presented, with comparisons to other methods in the literature. PMID:21693421
The lower bound to the concurrence for four-qubit W state under noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Espoukeh, Pakhshan; Pedram, Pouria
2015-02-01
We study the dynamics of four-qubit W state under various noisy environments by solving analytically the master equation in the Lindblad form in which the Lindblad operators correspond to the Pauli matrices and describe the decoherence of states. Also, we investigate the dynamics of the entanglement using the lower bound to the concurrence. It is found that while the entanglement decreases monotonically for Pauli-Z noise, it decays suddenly for other three noises. Moreover, by studying the time evolution of entanglement of various maximally entangled four-qubit states, we indicate that the four-qubit W state is more robust under same-axis Pauli channels. Furthermore, three-qubit W state preserves more entanglement with respect to the four-qubit W state, except for the Pauli-Z noise.
Multi-Robot, Multi-Target Particle Swarm Optimization Search in Noisy Wireless Environments
Kurt Derr; Milos Manic
2009-05-01
Multiple small robots (swarms) can work together using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for a single robot to accomplish. The problem considered in this paper is exploration of an unknown environment with the goal of finding a target(s) at an unknown location(s) using multiple small mobile robots. This work demonstrates the use of a distributed PSO algorithm with a novel adaptive RSS weighting factor to guide robots for locating target(s) in high risk environments. The approach was developed and analyzed on multiple robot single and multiple target search. The approach was further enhanced by the multi-robot-multi-target search in noisy environments. The experimental results demonstrated how the availability of radio frequency signal can significantly affect robot search time to reach a target.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, C. M., Jr.; Monopoli, R. V.
1974-01-01
A linear system identification technique developed by Lion is adapted for use on a third-order system with six unknown parameters and noisy input-output measurements. A digital computer is employed so that rapid identification takes place with only two state variable filters. Bias in the parameter estimates is partially eliminated by a signal-to-noise ratio testing procedure.
An EEMD-ICA Approach to Enhancing Artifact Rejection for Noisy Multivariate Neural Data.
Zeng, Ke; Chen, Dan; Ouyang, Gaoxiang; Wang, Lizhe; Liu, Xianzeng; Li, Xiaoli
2016-06-01
As neural data are generally noisy, artifact rejection is crucial for data preprocessing. It has long been a grand research challenge for an approach which is able: 1) to remove the artifacts and 2) to avoid loss or disruption of the structural information at the same time, thus the risk of introducing bias to data interpretation may be minimized. In this study, an approach (namely EEMD-ICA) was proposed to first decompose multivariate neural data that are possibly noisy into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) using ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Independent component analysis (ICA) was then applied to the IMFs to separate the artifactual components. The approach was tested against the classical ICA and the automatic wavelet ICA (AWICA) methods, which were dominant methods for artifact rejection. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in handling neural data possibly with intensive noises, experiments on artifact removal were performed using semi-simulated data mixed with a variety of noises. Experimental results indicate that the proposed approach continuously outperforms the counterparts in terms of both normalized mean square error (NMSE) and Structure SIMilarity (SSIM). The superiority becomes even greater with the decrease of SNR in all cases, e.g., SSIM of the EEMD-ICA can almost double that of AWICA and triple that of ICA. To further examine the potentials of the approach in sophisticated applications, the approach together with the counterparts were used to preprocess a real-life epileptic EEG with absence seizure. Experiments were carried out with the focus on characterizing the dynamics of the data after artifact rejection, i.e., distinguishing seizure-free, pre-seizure and seizure states. Using multi-scale permutation entropy to extract feature and linear discriminant analysis for classification, the EEMD-ICA performed the best for classifying the states (87.4%, about 4.1% and 8.7% higher than that of AWICA and ICA
Determination of the optimum sampling frequency of noisy images by spatial statistics
Sanchez-Brea, Luis Miguel; Bernabeu, Eusebio
2005-06-01
In optical metrology the final experimental result is normally an image acquired with a CCD camera. Owing to the sampling at the image, an interpolation is usually required. For determining the error in the measured parameters with that image, knowledge of the uncertainty at the interpolation is essential. We analyze how kriging, an estimator used in spatial statistics, can generate convolution kernels for filtering noise in regularly sampled images. The convolution kernel obtained with kriging explicitly depends on the spatial correlation and also on metrological conditions, such as the random fluctuations of the measured quantity, and the resolution of the measuring devices. Kriging, in addition, allows us to determine the uncertainty of the interpolation, and we have analyzed it in terms of the sampling frequency and the random fluctuations of the image, comparing it with Nyquist criterion. By use of kriging, it is possible to determine the optimum-required sampling frequency for a noisy image so that the uncertainty at interpolation is below a threshold value.
Adaptive algorithm for blind separation from noisy time-varying mixtures.
Koivunen, V; Enescu, M; Oja, E
2001-10-01
This article addresses the problem of blind source separation from time-varying noisy mixtures using a state variable model and recursive estimation. An estimate of each source signal is produced real time at the arrival of new observed mixture vector. The goal is to perform the separation and attenuate noise simultaneously, as well as to adapt to changes that occur in the mixing system. The observed data are projected along the eigenvectors in signal subspace. The subspace is tracked real time. Source signals are modeled using low-order AR (autoregressive) models, and noise is attenuated by trading off between the model and the information provided by measurements. The type of zero-memory nonlinearity needed in separation is determined on-line. Predictor-corrector filter structures are proposed, and their performance is investigated in simulation using biomedical and communications signals at different noise levels and a time-varying mixing system. In quantitative comparison to other widely used methods, significant improvement in output signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. PMID:11571001
Gradolewski, Dawid; Redlarski, Grzegorz
2014-09-01
The main obstacle in development of intelligent autodiagnosis medical systems based on the analysis of phonocardiography (PCG) signals is noise. The noise can be caused by digestive and respiration sounds, movements or even signals from the surrounding environment and it is characterized by wide frequency and intensity spectrum. This spectrum overlaps the heart tones spectrum, which makes the problem of PCG signal filtrating complex. The most common method for filtering such signals are wavelet denoising algorithms. In previous studies, in order to determine the optimum wavelet denoising parameters the disturbances were simulated by Gaussian white noise. However, this paper shows that this noise has a variable character. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is adaptation of a wavelet denoising algorithm for the filtration of real PCG signal disturbances from signals recorded by a mobile devices in a noisy environment. The best results were obtained for Coif 5 wavelet at the 10th decomposition level with the use of a minimaxi threshold selection algorithm and mln rescaling function. The performance of the algorithm was tested on four pathological heart sounds: early systolic murmur, ejection click, late systolic murmur and pansystolic murmur. PMID:25038586
Performance analysis of seismocardiography for heart sound signal recording in noisy scenarios.
Jain, Puneet Kumar; Tiwari, Anil Kumar; Chourasia, Vijay S
2016-01-01
This paper presents a system based on Seismocardiography (SCG) to monitor the heart sound signal for the long-term. It uses an accelerometer, which is of small size and low weight and, thus, convenient to wear. Such a system should also be robust to various noises which occur in real life scenarios. Therefore, a detailed analysis is provided of the proposed system and its performance is compared to the performance of the Phoncardiography (PCG) system. For this purpose, both signals of five subjects were simultaneously recorded in clinical and different real life noisy scenarios. For the quantitative analysis, the detection rate of fundamental heart sound components, S1 and S2, is obtained. Furthermore, a quality index based on the energy of fundamental components is also proposed and obtained for the same. Results show that both the techniques are able to acquire the S1 and S2, in clinical set-up. However, in real life scenarios, we observed many favourable features in the proposed system as compared to PCG, for its use for long-term monitoring. PMID:26860039
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sato, Hayato; Ota, Ryo; Morimoto, Masayuki; Sato, Hiroshi
2005-04-01
Assessing sound environment of classrooms for the aged is a very important issue, because classrooms can be used by the aged for their lifelong learning, especially in the aged society. Hence hearing loss due to aging is a considerable factor for classrooms. In this study, the optimal speech level in noisy fields for both young adults and aged persons was investigated. Listening difficulty ratings and word intelligibility scores for familiar words were used to evaluate speech transmission performance. The results of the tests demonstrated that the optimal speech level for moderate background noise (i.e., less than around 60 dBA) was fairly constant. Meanwhile, the optimal speech level depended on the speech-to-noise ratio when the background noise level exceeded around 60 dBA. The minimum required speech level to minimize difficulty ratings for the aged was higher than that for the young. However, the minimum difficulty ratings for both the young and the aged were given in the range of speech level of 70 to 80 dBA of speech level.
Information extraction from noisy televiewer logs of inclined holes in hard rock
Burns, K.L.
1985-01-01
A feature-extraction method was adapted from satellite image-processing to the problem of extracting information from extremely noisy and narrow-range televiewer imagery from GT-2 at Fenton Hill. From televiewer logs, 733 structures were recovered, compared with 42 from core. The average spacings were 3.13 and 0.55 feet, respectively, indicating that the televiewer yielded only 17.5% of the information available from core. Two televiewer runs overlapped between 4000 and 4275 feet depth, but no detectable structures were repeated on both runs. The lack of repetition was explained as due to random processes arising from thermally-induced electronic noise and manually-operated narrow-range recording. Two new coefficients of association were defined, termed ''coplanarity'' P, and ''collinearity'', L, respectively. The coplanarity of foliations demonstrated that, despite no repetition of individuals, the two runs could be correlated. The coplanarity averaged 60 degrees, falling to 43.5 degrees at match, at a lag of -4.5 feet. There was no systematic maximum in the coplanarity for fractures, indicating that these were not serially-correlated. A periodicity in the collinearity for foliations indicated a set of folds with wavelength of 80 feet. 8 refs., 10 figs.
The Noisy Encoding of Disparity Model of the McGurk Effect
Magnotti, John F.; Beauchamp, Michael S.
2014-01-01
In the McGurk effect, incongruent auditory and visual syllables are perceived as a third, completely different syllable. This striking illusion has become a popular assay of multisensory integration for individuals and clinical populations. However, there is enormous variability in how often the illusion is evoked by different stimuli and how often the illusion is perceived by different individuals. Most studies of the McGurk effect have used only one stimulus, making it impossible to separate stimulus and individual differences. We created a probabilistic model to separately estimate stimulus and individual differences in behavioral data from 165 individuals viewing up to 14 different McGurk stimuli. The noisy encoding of disparity (NED) model characterizes stimuli by their audiovisual disparity and characterizes individuals by how noisily they encode the stimulus disparity and by their disparity threshold for perceiving the illusion. The model accurately described perception of the McGurk effect in our sample, suggesting that differences between individuals are stable across stimulus differences. The most important benefit of the NED model is that it provides a method to compare multisensory integration across individuals and groups without the confound of stimulus differences. An added benefit is the ability to predict frequency of the McGurk effect for stimuli never before seen by an individual. PMID:25245268
Tsunami Lead Wave Reconstruction Based on Noisy Sea Surface Height Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Kegen
2016-06-01
This paper presents a Tsunami lead wave reconstruction method using noisy sea surface height (SSH) measurements such as observed by a satellite-carried GNSS reflectometry (GNSS-R) sensor. It is proposed to utilize wavelet theory to mitigate the strong noise in the GNSS-R based SSH measurements. Through extracting the noise components by high-pass filters at decomposition stage and shrinking the noise by thresholding prior to reconstruction, the noise is greatly reduced. Real Tsunami data based simulation results demonstrate that in presence of SSH measurement error of standard deviation 50 cm the accuracy in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) of the lead wave height (true value 145.5 cm) and wavelength (true value 592.0 km) estimation is 21.5 cm and 56.2 km, respectively. The results also show that the proposed wavelet based method considerably outperforms the Kalman filter based method on average. The results demonstrate that the proposed wave reconstruction approach has the potential for Tsunami detection and parameter estimation to assist in achieving reliable Tsunami warning.
Phase-locked spiking of inner ear hair cells and the driven noisy Adler equation
Shlomovitz, Roie; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn
2014-01-01
The inner ear constitutes a remarkably sensitive mechanical detector. This detection occurs in a noisy and highly viscous environment, as the sensory cells—the hair cells—are immersed in a fluid-filled compartment and operate at room or higher temperatures. We model the active motility of hair cell bundles of the vestibular system with the Adler equation, which describes the phase degree of freedom of bundle motion. We explore both analytically and numerically the response of the system to external signals, in the presence of white noise. The theoretical model predicts that hair bundles poised in the quiescent regime can exhibit sporadic spikes—sudden excursions in the position of the bundle. In this spiking regime, the system exhibits stochastic resonance, with the spiking rate peaking at an optimal level of noise. Upon the application of a very weak signal, the spikes occur at a preferential phase of the stimulus cycle. We compare the theoretical predictions of our model to experimental measurements obtained in vitro from individual hair cells. Finally, we show that an array of uncoupled hair cells could provide a sensitive detector that encodes the frequency of the applied signal. PMID:25485081
Phase-locked spiking of inner ear hair cells and the driven noisy Adler equation.
Shlomovitz, Roie; Roongthumskul, Yuttana; Ji, Seung; Bozovic, Dolores; Bruinsma, Robijn
2014-12-01
The inner ear constitutes a remarkably sensitive mechanical detector. This detection occurs in a noisy and highly viscous environment, as the sensory cells-the hair cells-are immersed in a fluid-filled compartment and operate at room or higher temperatures. We model the active motility of hair cell bundles of the vestibular system with the Adler equation, which describes the phase degree of freedom of bundle motion. We explore both analytically and numerically the response of the system to external signals, in the presence of white noise. The theoretical model predicts that hair bundles poised in the quiescent regime can exhibit sporadic spikes-sudden excursions in the position of the bundle. In this spiking regime, the system exhibits stochastic resonance, with the spiking rate peaking at an optimal level of noise. Upon the application of a very weak signal, the spikes occur at a preferential phase of the stimulus cycle. We compare the theoretical predictions of our model to experimental measurements obtained in vitro from individual hair cells. Finally, we show that an array of uncoupled hair cells could provide a sensitive detector that encodes the frequency of the applied signal. PMID:25485081
Visual analytics of inherently noisy crowdsourced data on ultra high resolution displays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huynh, Andrew; Ponto, Kevin; Lin, Albert Yu-Min; Kuester, Falko
The increasing prevalence of distributed human microtasking, crowdsourcing, has followed the exponential increase in data collection capabilities. The large scale and distributed nature of these microtasks produce overwhelming amounts of information that is inherently noisy due to the nature of human input. Furthermore, these inputs create a constantly changing dataset with additional information added on a daily basis. Methods to quickly visualize, filter, and understand this information over temporal and geospatial constraints is key to the success of crowdsourcing. This paper present novel methods to visually analyze geospatial data collected through crowdsourcing on top of remote sensing satellite imagery. An ultra high resolution tiled display system is used to explore the relationship between human and satellite remote sensing data at scale. A case study is provided that evaluates the presented technique in the context of an archaeological field expedition. A team in the field communicated in real-time with and was guided by researchers in the remote visual analytics laboratory, swiftly sifting through incoming crowdsourced data to identify target locations that were identified as viable archaeological sites.
Long-distance quantum communication over noisy networks without long-time quantum memory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazurek, Paweł; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Horodecki, Paweł; Łodyga, Justyna; Pankowski, Łukasz; PrzysieŻna, Anna
2014-12-01
The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062324 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.062324] the authors put forward an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in a dimension D and transmission of quantum information in a D +1 -dimensional network. We show that it is possible to obtain long-distance entanglement in a noisy two-dimensional (2D) network, even when taking into account that encoding and decoding of a state is exposed to an error. For 3D networks we propose a simple encoding and decoding scheme based solely on syndrome measurements on 2D Kitaev topological quantum memory. Our procedure constitutes an alternative scheme of state injection that can be used for universal quantum computation on 2D Kitaev code. It is shown that the encoding scheme is equivalent to teleporting the state, from a specific node into a whole two-dimensional network, through some virtual EPR pair existing within the rest of network qubits. We present an analytic lower bound on fidelity of the encoding and decoding procedure, using as our main tool a modified metric on space-time lattice, deviating from a taxicab metric at the first and the last time slices.
Noisy attractors and ergodic sets in models of gene regulatory networks.
Ribeiro, Andre S; Kauffman, Stuart A
2007-08-21
We investigate the hypothesis that cell types are attractors. This hypothesis was criticized with the fact that real gene networks are noisy systems and, thus, do not have attractors [Kadanoff, L., Coppersmith, S., Aldana, M., 2002. Boolean Dynamics with Random Couplings. http://www.citebase.org/abstract?id=oai:arXiv.org:nlin/0204062]. Given the concept of "ergodic set" as a set of states from which the system, once entering, does not leave when subject to internal noise, first, using the Boolean network model, we show that if all nodes of states on attractors are subject to internal state change with a probability p due to noise, multiple ergodic sets are very unlikely. Thereafter, we show that if a fraction of those nodes are "locked" (not subject to state fluctuations caused by internal noise), multiple ergodic sets emerge. Finally, we present an example of a gene network, modelled with a realistic model of transcription and translation and gene-gene interaction, driven by a stochastic simulation algorithm with multiple time-delayed reactions, which has internal noise and that we also subject to external perturbations. We show that, in this case, two distinct ergodic sets exist and are stable within a wide range of parameters variations and, to some extent, to external perturbations. PMID:17543998
Impact source localization on an elastic plate in a noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jin-Ho; Kim, Yang-Hann
2006-10-01
Conventional source localization techniques when the source is located on a dispersive medium require both the time-of-arrival differences (TOADs) between the transducer signals and the group velocities. Furthermore, they are only practically applicable if we have a high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In practice, the material properties or the geometry of a medium are not fully known; therefore the group velocity is not available. The transducers' signals are usually very small or embedded in noise. In this paper, we propose a novel impact source localization method, in the case where we have the source on an elastic plate. The method is applicable even if we do not know the group velocity and we have a relatively small SNR. The group velocities are obtained by estimating a source location based on the measured TOADs. The estimated group velocities have a minimum variance at the impact source location. However, this estimation degrades as the SNR decreases. To reduce the noise effect, an exponential function is asymmetrically weighted in smoothed Wigner-Ville distributions (WVDs). Experiments and simulations are carried out to verify the validity of this technique. As a result, the proposed technique is found to be effective even in a relatively noisy environment.
Garcia-Ojalvo, Jordi; Süel, Gürol M.
2011-01-01
Cells must make reliable decisions under fluctuating extracellular conditions, but also be flexible enough to adapt to such changes. How cells reconcile these seemingly contradictory requirements through the dynamics of cellular decision-making is poorly understood. To study this issue we quantitatively measured gene expression and protein localization in single cells of the model organism Bacillus subtilis during the progression to spore formation. We found that sporulation proceeded through noisy and reversible steps towards an irreversible, all-or-none commitment point. Specifically, we observed cell-autonomous and spontaneous bursts of gene expression and transient protein localization events during sporulation. Based on these measurements we developed mathematical population models to investigate how the degree of reversibility affects cellular decision-making. In particular, we evaluated the effect of reversibility on the 1) reliability in the progression to sporulation, and 2) adaptability under changing extracellular stress conditions. Results show that reversible progression allows cells to remain responsive to long-term environmental fluctuations. In contrast, the irreversible commitment point supports reliable execution of cell fate choice that is robust against short-term reductions in stress. This combination of opposite dynamic behaviors (reversible and irreversible) thus maximizes both adaptable and reliable decision-making over a broad range of changes in environmental conditions. These results suggest that decision-making systems might employ a general hybrid strategy to cope with unpredictably fluctuating environmental conditions. PMID:22102806
Localization based on two-stage treatment for dealing with noisy and biased distance measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Hyeonwoo; Lee, Jewon; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Sang Woo
2012-12-01
Localization can be performed by trilateration in which the coordinates of a target are calculated by using the coordinates of reference points and the distances between each reference point and the target. Because the distances are measured on the basis of the time-of-flight of various kinds of signals, they contain errors which are the noise and bias. The presence of bias can become a major problem because its magnitude is generally unknown. In this article, we propose an algorithm that combines the Kalman filter (KF) and the least square (LS) algorithm to treat noisy and biased distances measured by chirp spread spectrum ranging defined in IEEE 802.15.4a. By using the KF, we remove the noise in the measured distance; hence, the noise-eliminated distance, which still contains bias, is obtained. The next step consists of the calculation of the target coordinates by using the weighted LS algorithm. This algorithm uses the noise-eliminated distance obtained by using the KF, and the weighting parameters of the algorithm are determined to reduce the effects of bias. To confirm the accuracy of the proposed algorithm, we present the results of indoor localization experiments.
Wavelet shrinkage of a noisy dynamical system with non-linear noise impact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique
2016-06-01
By filtering wavelet coefficients, it is possible to construct a good estimate of a pure signal from noisy data. Especially, for a simple linear noise influence, Donoho and Johnstone (1994) have already defined an optimal filter design in the sense of a minimization of the error made when estimating the pure signal. We set here a different framework where the influence of the noise is non-linear. In particular, we propose a method to filter the wavelet coefficients of a discrete dynamical system disrupted by a weak noise, in order to construct good estimates of the pure signal, including Bayes' estimate, minimax estimate, oracular estimate or thresholding estimate. We present the example of a logistic and a Lorenz chaotic dynamical system as well as an adaptation of our technique in order to show empirically the robustness of the thresholding method in presence of leptokurtic noise. Moreover, we test both the hard and the soft thresholding and also another kind of smoother thresholding which seems to have almost the same reconstruction power as the hard thresholding. Finally, besides the tests on an estimated dataset, the method is tested on financial data: oil prices and NOK/USD exchange rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Jianfei; Chen, Chang W.
2000-04-01
In this paper, we proposed a fixed-length robust joint source- channel coding (JSCC) scheme for image transmission over noisy channels. Three channel models are studied: binary symmetric channels (BSC) and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels for memoryless channels, and Gilbert-Elliott channels (GEC) for bursty channels. We derive, in this research, an explicit operational rate-distortion (R-D) function, which represents an end-to-end error measurement that includes errors due to both quantization and channel noise. In particular, we are able to incorporate the channel transition probability and channel bit error rate into the R-D function in the case of bursty channels. With the operational R-D function, bits are allocated not only among different subsources, but also between source coding and channel coding so that, under a fixed transmission rate, an optimum tradeoff between source coding accuracy and channel error protection can be achieved. This JSCC scheme is also integrated with allpass filtering source shaping to further improve the robustness against channel errors. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can achieve not only high PSNR performance, but also excellent perceptual quality. Compared with the state-of-the-art JSCC schemes, this proposed scheme outperforms most of them especially when the channel mismatch occurs.
Crack detection in beams in noisy conditions using scale fractal dimension analysis of mode shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, R. B.; Ostachowicz, W.; Cao, M. S.; Su, Z.
2014-06-01
Fractal dimension analysis of mode shapes has been actively studied in the area of structural damage detection. The most prominent features of fractal dimension analysis are high sensitivity to damage and instant determination of damage location. However, an intrinsic deficiency is its susceptibility to measurement noise, likely obscuring the features of damage. To address this deficiency, this study develops a novel damage detection method, scale fractal dimension (SFD) analysis of mode shapes, based on combining the complementary merits of a stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and Katz’s fractal dimension in damage characterization. With this method, the SWT is used to decompose a mode shape into a set of scale mode shapes at scale levels, with damage information and noise separated into distinct scale mode shapes because of their dissimilar scale characteristics; the Katz’s fractal dimension individually runs on every scale mode shape in the noise-adaptive condition provided by the SWT to canvass damage. Proof of concept for the SFD analysis is performed on cracked beams simulated by the spectral finite element method; the reliability of the method is assessed using Monte Carlo simulation to mimic the operational variability in realistic damage diagnosis. The proposed method is further experimentally validated on a cracked aluminum beam with mode shapes acquired by a scanning laser vibrometer. The results show that the SFD analysis of mode shapes provides a new strategy for damage identification in noisy conditions.
The evolution of alternative adaptive strategies for effective communication in noisy environments.
Ord, Terry J; Charles, Grace K; Hofer, Rebecca K
2011-01-01
Animals communicating socially are expected to produce signals that are conspicuous within the habitats in which they live. The particular way in which a species adapts to its environment will depend on its ancestral condition and evolutionary history. At this point, it is unclear how properties of the environment and historical factors interact to shape communication. Tropical Anolis lizards advertise territorial ownership using visual displays in habitats where visual motion or "noise" from windblown vegetation poses an acute problem for the detection of display movements. We studied eight Anolis species that live in similar noise environments but belong to separate island radiations with divergent evolutionary histories. We found that species on Puerto Rico displayed at times when their signals were more likely to be detected by neighboring males and females (during periods of low noise). In contrast, species on Jamaica displayed irrespective of the level of environmental motion, apparently because these species have a display that is effective in a range of viewing conditions. Our findings appear to reflect a case of species originating from different evolutionary starting points evolving different signal strategies for effective communication in noisy environments. PMID:21117941
Elad, M; Feuer, A
1997-01-01
The three main tools in the single image restoration theory are the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimator, and the set theoretic approach using projection onto convex sets (POCS). This paper utilizes the above known tools to propose a unified methodology toward the more complicated problem of superresolution restoration. In the superresolution restoration problem, an improved resolution image is restored from several geometrically warped, blurred, noisy and downsampled measured images. The superresolution restoration problem is modeled and analyzed from the ML, the MAP, and POCS points of view, yielding a generalization of the known superresolution restoration methods. The proposed restoration approach is general but assumes explicit knowledge of the linear space- and time-variant blur, the (additive Gaussian) noise, the different measured resolutions, and the (smooth) motion characteristics. A hybrid method combining the simplicity of the ML and the incorporation of nonellipsoid constraints is presented, giving improved restoration performance, compared with the ML and the POCS approaches. The hybrid method is shown to converge to the unique optimal solution of a new definition of the optimization problem. Superresolution restoration from motionless measurements is also discussed. Simulations demonstrate the power of the proposed methodology. PMID:18285235
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mutch, W. Alan C.
2005-05-01
Life support with a mechanical ventilator is used to manage patients with a variety of lung diseases including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Recently, management of ARDS has concentrated on ventilating at lower airway pressure using lower tidal volume. A large international study demonstrated a 22% reduction in mortality with the low tidal volume approach. The potential advantages of adding physiologic noise with fractal characteristics to the respiratory rate and tidal volume as delivered by a mechanical ventilator are discussed. A so-called biologically variable ventilator (BVV), incorporating such noise, has been developed. Here we show that the benefits of noisy ventilation - at lower tidal volumes - can be deduced from a simple probabilistic result known as Jensen"s Inequality. Using the local convexity of the pressure-volume relationship in the lung we demonstrate that the addition of noise results in higher mean tidal volume or lower mean airway pressure. The consequence is enhanced gas exchange or less stress on the lungs, both clinically desirable. Jensen"s Inequality has important considerations in engineering, information theory and thermodynamics. Here is an example of the concept applied to medicine that may have important considerations for the clinical management of critically ill patients. Life support devices, such as mechanical ventilators, are of vital use in critical care units and operating rooms. These devices usually have monotonous output. Improving mechanical ventilators and other life support devices may be as simple as adding noise to their output signals.
An analysis dictionary learning algorithm under a noisy data model with orthogonality constraint.
Zhang, Ye; Yu, Tenglong; Wang, Wenwu
2014-01-01
Two common problems are often encountered in analysis dictionary learning (ADL) algorithms. The first one is that the original clean signals for learning the dictionary are assumed to be known, which otherwise need to be estimated from noisy measurements. This, however, renders a computationally slow optimization process and potentially unreliable estimation (if the noise level is high), as represented by the Analysis K-SVD (AK-SVD) algorithm. The other problem is the trivial solution to the dictionary, for example, the null dictionary matrix that may be given by a dictionary learning algorithm, as discussed in the learning overcomplete sparsifying transform (LOST) algorithm. Here we propose a novel optimization model and an iterative algorithm to learn the analysis dictionary, where we directly employ the observed data to compute the approximate analysis sparse representation of the original signals (leading to a fast optimization procedure) and enforce an orthogonality constraint on the optimization criterion to avoid the trivial solutions. Experiments demonstrate the competitive performance of the proposed algorithm as compared with three baselines, namely, the AK-SVD, LOST, and NAAOLA algorithms. PMID:25126605
Shen, Hui-min; Lee, Kok-Meng; Hu, Liang; Foong, Shaohui; Fu, Xin
2016-01-01
Localization of active neural source (ANS) from measurements on head surface is vital in magnetoencephalography. As neuron-generated magnetic fields are extremely weak, significant uncertainties caused by stochastic measurement interference complicate its localization. This paper presents a novel computational method based on reconstructed magnetic field from sparse noisy measurements for enhanced ANS localization by suppressing effects of unrelated noise. In this approach, the magnetic flux density (MFD) in the nearby current-free space outside the head is reconstructed from measurements through formulating the infinite series solution of the Laplace's equation, where boundary condition (BC) integrals over the entire measurements provide "smooth" reconstructed MFD with the decrease in unrelated noise. Using a gradient-based method, reconstructed MFDs with good fidelity are selected for enhanced ANS localization. The reconstruction model, spatial interpolation of BC, parametric equivalent current dipole-based inverse estimation algorithm using reconstruction, and gradient-based selection are detailed and validated. The influences of various source depths and measurement signal-to-noise ratio levels on the estimated ANS location are analyzed numerically and compared with a traditional method (where measurements are directly used), and it was demonstrated that gradient-selected high-fidelity reconstructed data can effectively improve the accuracy of ANS localization. PMID:26358243
Extracting Periodic Transit Signals from Noisy Light Curves using Fourier Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samsing, Johan
2015-07-01
We present a simple and powerful method for extracting transit signals associated with a known transiting planet from noisy light curves. Assuming the orbital period of the planet is known and the signal is periodic, we illustrate that systematic noise can be removed in Fourier space at all frequencies by only using data within a fixed time frame with a width equal to an integer number of orbital periods. This results in a reconstruction of the full transit signal, which on average is unbiased despite no prior knowledge of either the noise or the transit signal itself being used in the analysis. The method therefore has clear advantages over standard phase folding, which normally requires external input such as nearby stars or noise models for removing systematic components. In addition, we can extract the full orbital transit signal (360°) simultaneously, and Kepler-like data can be analyzed in just a few seconds. We illustrate the performance of our method by applying it to a dataset composed of light curves from Kepler with a fake injected signal emulating a planet with rings. For extracting periodic transit signals, our presented method is in general the optimal and least biased estimator and could therefore lead the way toward the first detections of, e.g., planet rings and exo-trojan asteroids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolowski, Thomas; Tkačik, Gašper
Spatio-temporal protein signals play a crucial role in communicating information within and between cells. However, their ability to convey signals robustly is hampered by noise in gene regulation and biochemical transport, occuring at low copy numbers. While we increasingly understand distinct strategies of biochemical noise control, it remains unclear how nature orchestrates them to maximize information flow. Our recent work extends our information-theoretic framework for gene regulation to an explicitly spatial setting. We constructed a stochastic model enabling fast calculation of local means and variances in a spatially coupled gene regulatory system, which we use for rigorous quantification of information flow in an ensemble of units sensing a spatially distributed input and exchanging information via diffusion. By applying our framework to the paradigmatic Bcd-Hbk system in early fly development, we demonstrate that diffusive coupling can be of substantial benefit in encoding positional information, and uncover a novel optimal regulatory strategy relying on spatial coupling. Thanks to the generic methodology employed, our framework is universally applicable for realistic predictive modeling and data-driven inference of multicellular systems engaging in noisy communication. Institute of Science and Technology Austria, Am Campus 1, A-3400 Klosterneuburg, Austria.
A Robust Supervised Variable Selection for Noisy High-Dimensional Data
Kalina, Jan; Schlenker, Anna
2015-01-01
The Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (MRMR) approach to supervised variable selection represents a successful methodology for dimensionality reduction, which is suitable for high-dimensional data observed in two or more different groups. Various available versions of the MRMR approach have been designed to search for variables with the largest relevance for a classification task while controlling for redundancy of the selected set of variables. However, usual relevance and redundancy criteria have the disadvantages of being too sensitive to the presence of outlying measurements and/or being inefficient. We propose a novel approach called Minimum Regularized Redundancy Maximum Robust Relevance (MRRMRR), suitable for noisy high-dimensional data observed in two groups. It combines principles of regularization and robust statistics. Particularly, redundancy is measured by a new regularized version of the coefficient of multiple correlation and relevance is measured by a highly robust correlation coefficient based on the least weighted squares regression with data-adaptive weights. We compare various dimensionality reduction methods on three real data sets. To investigate the influence of noise or outliers on the data, we perform the computations also for data artificially contaminated by severe noise of various forms. The experimental results confirm the robustness of the method with respect to outliers. PMID:26137474
Radar tomography assisted three-dimensional localization via the noisy stepped frequency waveform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vela, Russell; Bracken, L. Justin E.
2013-05-01
Radar tomography has been an active area of investigation at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) for many years. Building upon this knowledge base, recent efforts have begun to focus on developing synergistic combinations between noise based waveforms and radar tomographic imaging techniques. More specifically, an emphasis has been placed on extending the traditional dimensionality from two to three, while condensing the familiar overall required instantaneous bandwidth for noise based radar systems. Through the inclusion of a Direction of Arrival (DOA) capability into the radar RF architecture, and through back projection processing, a target is capable of being located both in its azimuthal and elevation position between multiple towers. The previously developed Noisy Stepped Frequency (NSF) waveform is utilized as the excitation source from each radar towers thereby reducing the necessary instantaneous bandwidth. The thumb-tack-like response of the NSF waveform provides a "sharpened" image of the target and better assists in the localization of the target in its appropriate elevation. The DOA is implemented through the Generalized Cross Correlation (GCC) method. Through the processing combination of back projection and DOA, imaging and localization of both single, and multiple targets is realizable for a three dimensional geometry. Simulated and experimental validations shall be provided and compared.
Resolution of direction of arrival and number of signal(s) in a highly noisy environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C.
1998-07-01
The majority of Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) estimation methods studied in the literature work effectively in relatively strong signal power environment [positive dB of Array- Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (ASNR)]. In weak power signal environments, conventional beamformer-based and subspace-based methods fail to estimate the DOA correctly. The MaxMax method allows to maintain accurate estimates of the DOA even in extremely noisy environments (-10 dB of ASNR). The method is reviewed and its performance is compared with that of the Conventional Beamformer, Capon's Beamformer, MUSIC, ESPRIT, and Min-Norm methods. In contrast with the subspace-based methods which entirely depend on the full rank signal covariance matrix, the MaxMax method does not. Hence, the performance of the method remains superior to that of the others without adjusting the algorithm to the characteristics of source signals such as multipath or singlepath. If the signal power is so weak that its presence is almost negligible, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) or Minimum Description Length (MDL) do not yield correct estimates the number of signal paths. A new 'spatial sampling' technique and its performance are presented for estimating the number of signals in case of strongly suppressed signal power.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrillo, José Antonio; Perthame, Benoît; Salort, Delphine; Smets, Didier
2015-09-01
The Noisy Integrate-and-Fire equation is a standard non-linear Fokker-Planck equation used to describe the activity of a homogeneous neural network characterized by its connectivity b (each neuron connected to all others through synaptic weights); b > 0 describes excitatory networks and b < 0 inhibitory networks. In the excitatory case, it was proved that, once the proportion of neurons that are close to their action potential {{V}\\text{F}} is too high, solutions cannot exist for all times. In this paper, we show a priori uniform bounds in time on the firing rate to discard the scenario of blow-up, and, for small connectivity, we prove qualitative properties on the long time behavior of solutions. The methods are based on the one hand on relative entropy and Poincaré inequalities leading to L2 estimates and on the other hand, on the notion of ‘universal super-solution’ and parabolic regularizing effects to obtain {{L}∞} bounds.
Broadband Processing in a Noisy Shallow Ocean Environment: A Particle Filtering Approach
Candy, J. V.
2016-04-14
Here we report that when a broadband source propagates sound in a shallow ocean the received data can become quite complicated due to temperature-related sound-speed variations and therefore a highly dispersive environment. Noise and uncertainties disrupt this already chaotic environment even further because disturbances propagate through the same inherent acoustic channel. The broadband (signal) estimation/detection problem can be decomposed into a set of narrowband solutions that are processed separately and then combined to achieve more enhancement of signal levels than that available from a single frequency, thereby allowing more information to be extracted leading to a more reliable source detection.more » A Bayesian solution to the broadband modal function tracking, pressure-field enhancement, and source detection problem is developed that leads to nonparametric estimates of desired posterior distributions enabling the estimation of useful statistics and an improved processor/detector. In conclusion, to investigate the processor capabilities, we synthesize an ensemble of noisy, broadband, shallow-ocean measurements to evaluate its overall performance using an information theoretical metric for the preprocessor and the receiver operating characteristic curve for the detector.« less
Hierarchy in loss of nonlocal correlations of two-qubit states in noisy environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paulson, K. G.; Satyanarayana, S. V. M.
2016-04-01
Composite quantum systems exhibit nonlocal correlations. These counterintuitive correlations form a resource for quantum information processing and quantum computation. In our previous work on two-qubit maximally entangled mixed states, we observed that entangled states, states that can be used for quantum teleportation, states that violate Bell-CHSH inequality, and states that do not admit local hidden variable description is the hierarchy in terms of the order of nonlocal correlations. In order to establish this hierarchy, in the present work, we investigate the effect of noise on two-qubit states that exhibit higher-order nonlocal correlations. We find that loss of nonlocal correlations in the presence of noise follows the same hierarchy, that is, higher-order nonlocal correlation disappears for small strength of noise, whereas lower-order nonlocal correlations survive strong noisy environment. We show this results for decoherence due to amplitude damping channel on various quantum states. However, we observe that same hierarchy is followed by states undergoing decoherence due to phase damping as well as depolarizing channels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sunahara, Y.; Kojima, F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish a method for identifying unknown parameters involved in the boundary state of a class of diffusion systems under noisy observations. A mathematical model of the system dynamics is given by a two-dimensional diffusion equation. Noisy observations are made by sensors allocated on the system boundary. Starting with the mathematical model mentioned above, an online parameter estimation algorithm is proposed within the framework of the maximum likelihood estimation. Existence of the optimal solution and related necessary conditions are discussed. By solving a local variation of the cost functional with respect to the perturbation of parameters, the estimation mechanism is proposed in a form of recursive computations. Finally, the feasibility of the estimator proposed here is demonstrated through results of digital simulation experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Mao-Sen; Xu, Wei; Ren, Wei-Xin; Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Sha, Gang-Gang; Pan, Li-Xia
2016-08-01
Detection of multiple damage using modal curvature in noisy environments has become a research focus of considerable challenge and great significance over the last few years. However, a noticeable deficiency of modal curvature is its susceptibility to noise, which usually results in a noisy modal curvature with obscured damage signature. To address this deficiency, this study formulates a new concept of complex-wavelet modal curvature. Complex-wavelet modal curvature features the ability to reveal and delineate damage under noisy conditions. The effectiveness of the concept is analytically verified using cracked beams with various types of boundary conditions. The applicability is further experimentally validated by an aluminum beam with a single crack and a carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer composite beam with three cracks in the laboratory with mode shapes measured by a scanning laser vibrometer. Both analytical and experimental results have demonstrated that the complex-wavelet modal curvature is capable of revealing slight damage by eliminating noise interference, with no need for prior knowledge of either material properties or boundary conditions of the beam under inspection.
Continuous-variable entanglement distillation and noncommutative central limit theorems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Earl T.; Genoni, Marco G.; Eisert, Jens
2013-04-01
Entanglement distillation transforms weakly entangled noisy states into highly entangled states, a primitive to be used in quantum repeater schemes and other protocols designed for quantum communication and key distribution. In this work, we present a comprehensive framework for continuous-variable entanglement distillation schemes that convert noisy non-Gaussian states into Gaussian ones in many iterations of the protocol. Instances of these protocols include (a) the recursive-Gaussifier protocol, (b) the temporally reordered recursive-Gaussifier protocol, and (c) the pumping-Gaussifier protocol. The flexibility of these protocols gives rise to several beneficial trade-offs related to success probabilities or memory requirements, which can be adjusted to reflect experimental demands. Despite these protocols involving measurements, we relate the convergence in this protocol to new instances of noncommutative central limit theorems, in a formalism that we lay out in great detail. Implications of the findings for quantum repeater schemes are discussed.
Neuroscience-inspired computational systems for speech recognition under noisy conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schafer, Phillip B.
advantage of the neural representation's invariance in noise. The scheme centers on a speech similarity measure based on the longest common subsequence between spike sequences. The combined encoding and decoding scheme outperforms a benchmark system in extremely noisy acoustic conditions. Finally, I consider methods for decoding spike representations of continuous speech. To help guide the alignment of templates to words, I design a syllable detection scheme that robustly marks the locations of syllabic nuclei. The scheme combines SVM-based training with a peak selection algorithm designed to improve noise tolerance. By incorporating syllable information into the ASR system, I obtain strong recognition results in noisy conditions, although the performance in noiseless conditions is below the state of the art. The work presented here constitutes a novel approach to the problem of ASR that can be applied in the many challenging acoustic environments in which we use computer technologies today. The proposed spike-based processing methods can potentially be exploited in effcient hardware implementations and could significantly reduce the computational costs of ASR. The work also provides a framework for understanding the advantages of spike-based acoustic coding in the human brain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feigin, A. M.; Fidelin, G. A.; Loskutov, E. M.; Molkov, Ya. I.; Mukhin, D. N.
2009-04-01
We propose a new approach to determining embedding dimension when reconstructing dynamic systems from noisy time series. The available methods of the reconstructing typically include two main steps: (1) reconstruction of the system's phase variables and (2) construction of a model reproducing behavior of the system in the corresponding region of phase space. Reconstruction of phase variables is accomplished, for example, by the method of delay coordinates [1] in the space of dimension referred to as embedding dimension. The embedding dimension should preferably be chosen to be minimum possible. In the absence of additional information about the system, the principal technique for determining embedding dimension is the false nearest neighbor method [2] that is easily realized. Unfortunately, this method is inefficient when the observed time series contains a pronounced noise component [3], thus making it inapplicable for reconstruction of natural systems. The basic feature of the second step - construction of a model from noisy time series - is its incorrectness. Namely, there always exist an infinite number of solutions approximating the observed data with preset accuracy. It is intuitively clear that for the great majority of applications the model will be the better the simpler it is. The authors of [4] proposed to use description length as a measure of such simplicity. The principle of minimum description length implies that the model corresponding to the least description length is the best. As was demonstrated in [5], this provides an effective tool for choosing technical parameters of the model, including the optimal number of such parameters. In the current work we use the principle of minimum description length (MDL) for determining embedding dimension. For this we take the universal model in the form of an artificial neural network that includes embedding dimension as a parameter. The specific feature of using neural networks is the need to introduce
Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Dunkin, Robin C; Williams, Terrie M
2015-06-01
Many animals produce louder, longer or more repetitious vocalizations to compensate for increases in environmental noise. Biological costs of increased vocal effort in response to noise, including energetic costs, remain empirically undefined in many taxa, particularly in marine mammals that rely on sound for fundamental biological functions in increasingly noisy habitats. For this investigation, we tested the hypothesis that an increase in vocal effort would result in an energetic cost to the signaler by experimentally measuring oxygen consumption during rest and a 2 min vocal period in dolphins that were trained to vary vocal loudness across trials. Vocal effort was quantified as the total acoustic energy of sounds produced. Metabolic rates during the vocal period were, on average, 1.2 and 1.5 times resting metabolic rate (RMR) in dolphin A and B, respectively. As vocal effort increased, we found that there was a significant increase in metabolic rate over RMR during the 2 min following sound production in both dolphins, and in total oxygen consumption (metabolic cost of sound production plus recovery costs) in the dolphin that showed a wider range of vocal effort across trials. Increases in vocal effort, as a consequence of increases in vocal amplitude, repetition rate and/or duration, are consistent with behavioral responses to noise in free-ranging animals. Here, we empirically demonstrate for the first time in a marine mammal, that these vocal modifications can have an energetic impact at the individual level and, importantly, these data provide a mechanistic foundation for evaluating biological consequences of vocal modification in noise-polluted habitats. PMID:25852069
Detection of bifurcations in noisy coupled systems from multiple time series
Williamson, Mark S. Lenton, Timothy M.
2015-03-15
We generalize a method of detecting an approaching bifurcation in a time series of a noisy system from the special case of one dynamical variable to multiple dynamical variables. For a system described by a stochastic differential equation consisting of an autonomous deterministic part with one dynamical variable and an additive white noise term, small perturbations away from the system's fixed point will decay slower the closer the system is to a bifurcation. This phenomenon is known as critical slowing down and all such systems exhibit this decay-type behaviour. However, when the deterministic part has multiple coupled dynamical variables, the possible dynamics can be much richer, exhibiting oscillatory and chaotic behaviour. In our generalization to the multi-variable case, we find additional indicators to decay rate, such as frequency of oscillation. In the case of approaching a homoclinic bifurcation, there is no change in decay rate but there is a decrease in frequency of oscillations. The expanded method therefore adds extra tools to help detect and classify approaching bifurcations given multiple time series, where the underlying dynamics are not fully known. Our generalisation also allows bifurcation detection to be applied spatially if one treats each spatial location as a new dynamical variable. One may then determine the unstable spatial mode(s). This is also something that has not been possible with the single variable method. The method is applicable to any set of time series regardless of its origin, but may be particularly useful when anticipating abrupt changes in the multi-dimensional climate system.
Ajemian, Robert; D’Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio
2013-01-01
During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability–plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning—preasymptotic and postasymptotic—because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed—memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently. PMID:24324147
Automatic Identification of Application I/O Signatures from Noisy Server-Side Traces
Liu, Yang; Gunasekaran, Raghul; Ma, Xiaosong; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S
2014-01-01
Competing workloads on a shared storage system cause I/O resource contention and application performance vagaries. This problem is already evident in today s HPC storage systems and is likely to become acute at exascale. We need more interaction between application I/O requirements and system software tools to help alleviate the I/O bottleneck, moving towards I/O-aware job scheduling. However, this requires rich techniques to capture application I/O characteristics, which remain evasive in production systems. Traditionally, I/O characteristics have been obtained using client-side tracing tools, with drawbacks such as non-trivial instrumentation/development costs, large trace traffic, and inconsistent adoption. We present a novel approach, I/O Signature Identifier (IOSI), to characterize the I/O behavior of data-intensive applications. IOSI extracts signatures from noisy, zero-overhead server-side I/O throughput logs that are already collected on today s supercomputers, without interfering with the compiling/execution of applications. We evaluated IOSI using the Spider storage system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the S3D turbulence application (running on 18,000 Titan nodes), and benchmark-based pseudo-applications. Through our ex- periments we confirmed that IOSI effectively extracts an application s I/O signature despite significant server-side noise. Compared to client-side tracing tools, IOSI is transparent, interface-agnostic, and incurs no overhead. Compared to alternative data alignment techniques (e.g., dynamic time warping), it offers higher signature accuracy and shorter processing time.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wirz, V.; Gruber, S.; Gubler, S.; Purves, R. S.
2014-02-01
Knowledge of processes and factors affecting slope instability is essential for detecting and monitoring potentially hazardous slopes. Knowing the timing of acceleration or deceleration of slope movements can help to identify important controls and hence to increase our process understanding. For this methods to derive reliable velocity estimations are important. The aim of this study was to develop and test a method to derive velocities based on noisy GPS data of various movement patterns and variable signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR). Derived velocities represent reliable average velocities representative for a given period. The applied smoothing windows directly depends on the SNR of the data, which is modeled using Monte Carlo simulation. Hence, all obtained velocities have a SNR above a predefined threshold and for each velocity period the SNR is known, which helps to interpret the temporal variability. In sensitivity tests with synthetic time-series the method was compared to established methods to derive velocities based on GPS positions, including spline and Kernel regression smoothing. Those sensitivity tests clearly demonstrated that methods are required that adopt the time window to the underlying error of the position data. The presented method performs well, even for a high noise levels and variable SNR. Different methods were further applied to investigate the inter-annual variability of permafrost slope movements based on daily GPS- and inclinometer data. In the framework of the new method, we further analyzed the error caused by a rotation of the GPS mast (hmast = 1.5 m). If the tilting is higher than its uncertainty, the rotational movement can be separated and the direction of movement became more uniform. At one GPS station, more than 12% of the measured displacement at the antenna was caused by the rotation of the station.
Ajemian, Robert; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Moorman, Helene; Bizzi, Emilio
2013-12-24
During the process of skill learning, synaptic connections in our brains are modified to form motor memories of learned sensorimotor acts. The more plastic the adult brain is, the easier it is to learn new skills or adapt to neurological injury. However, if the brain is too plastic and the pattern of synaptic connectivity is constantly changing, new memories will overwrite old memories, and learning becomes unstable. This trade-off is known as the stability-plasticity dilemma. Here a theory of sensorimotor learning and memory is developed whereby synaptic strengths are perpetually fluctuating without causing instability in motor memory recall, as long as the underlying neural networks are sufficiently noisy and massively redundant. The theory implies two distinct stages of learning--preasymptotic and postasymptotic--because once the error drops to a level comparable to that of the noise-induced error, further error reduction requires altered network dynamics. A key behavioral prediction derived from this analysis is tested in a visuomotor adaptation experiment, and the resultant learning curves are modeled with a nonstationary neural network. Next, the theory is used to model two-photon microscopy data that show, in animals, high rates of dendritic spine turnover, even in the absence of overt behavioral learning. Finally, the theory predicts enhanced task selectivity in the responses of individual motor cortical neurons as the level of task expertise increases. From these considerations, a unique interpretation of sensorimotor memory is proposed--memories are defined not by fixed patterns of synaptic weights but, rather, by nonstationary synaptic patterns that fluctuate coherently. PMID:24324147
Sequential quantum secret sharing in a noisy environment aided with weak measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ray, Maharshi; Chatterjee, Sourav; Chakrabarty, Indranil
2016-05-01
In this work we give a (n,n)-threshold protocol for sequential secret sharing of quantum information for the first time. By sequential secret sharing we refer to a situation where the dealer is not having all the secrets at the same time, at the beginning of the protocol; however if the dealer wishes to share secrets at subsequent phases she/he can realize it with the help of our protocol. First of all we present our protocol for three parties and later we generalize it for the situation where we have more (n> 3) parties. Interestingly, we show that our protocol of sequential secret sharing requires less amount of quantum as well as classical resource as compared to the situation wherein existing protocols are repeatedly used. Further in a much more realistic situation, we consider the sharing of qubits through two kinds of noisy channels, namely the phase damping channel (PDC) and the amplitude damping channel (ADC). When we carry out the sequential secret sharing in the presence of noise we observe that the fidelity of secret sharing at the kth iteration is independent of the effect of noise at the (k - 1)th iteration. In case of ADC we have seen that the average fidelity of secret sharing drops down to ½ which is equivalent to a random guess of the quantum secret. Interestingly, we find that by applying weak measurements one can enhance the average fidelity. This increase of the average fidelity can be achieved with certain trade off with the success probability of the weak measurements.
An efficient system for reliably transmitting image and video data over low bit rate noisy channels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Costello, Daniel J., Jr.; Huang, Y. F.; Stevenson, Robert L.
1994-01-01
This research project is intended to develop an efficient system for reliably transmitting image and video data over low bit rate noisy channels. The basic ideas behind the proposed approach are the following: employ statistical-based image modeling to facilitate pre- and post-processing and error detection, use spare redundancy that the source compression did not remove to add robustness, and implement coded modulation to improve bandwidth efficiency and noise rejection. Over the last six months, progress has been made on various aspects of the project. Through our studies of the integrated system, a list-based iterative Trellis decoder has been developed. The decoder accepts feedback from a post-processor which can detect channel errors in the reconstructed image. The error detection is based on the Huber Markov random field image model for the compressed image. The compression scheme used here is that of JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group). Experiments were performed and the results are quite encouraging. The principal ideas here are extendable to other compression techniques. In addition, research was also performed on unequal error protection channel coding, subband vector quantization as a means of source coding, and post processing for reducing coding artifacts. Our studies on unequal error protection (UEP) coding for image transmission focused on examining the properties of the UEP capabilities of convolutional codes. The investigation of subband vector quantization employed a wavelet transform with special emphasis on exploiting interband redundancy. The outcome of this investigation included the development of three algorithms for subband vector quantization. The reduction of transform coding artifacts was studied with the aid of a non-Gaussian Markov random field model. This results in improved image decompression. These studies are summarized and the technical papers included in the appendices.
Learning grammar rules of building parts from precise models and noisy observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehbi, Y.; Plümer, L.
The automatic interpretation of dense three-dimensional (3D) point clouds is still an open research problem. The quality and usability of the derived models depend to a large degree on the availability of highly structured models which represent semantics explicitly and provide a priori knowledge to the interpretation process. The usage of formal grammars for modelling man-made objects has gained increasing interest in the last few years. In order to cope with the variety and complexity of buildings, a large number of fairly sophisticated grammar rules are needed. As yet, such rules mostly have to be designed by human experts. This article describes a novel approach to machine learning of attribute grammar rules based on the Inductive Logic Programming paradigm. Apart from syntactic differences, logic programs and attribute grammars are basically the same language. Attribute grammars extend context-free grammars by attributes and semantic rules and provide a much larger expressive power. Our approach to derive attribute grammars is able to deal with two kinds of input data. On the one hand, we show how attribute grammars can be derived from precise descriptions in the form of examples provided by a human user as the teacher. On the other hand, we present the acquisition of models from noisy observations such as 3D point clouds. This includes the learning of geometric and topological constraints by taking measurement errors into account. The feasibility of our approach is proven exemplarily by stairs, and a generic framework for learning other building parts is discussed. Stairs aggregate an arbitrary number of steps in a manner which is specified by topological and geometric constraints and can be modelled in a recursive way. Due to this recursion, they pose a special challenge to machine learning. In order to learn the concept of stairs, only a small number of examples were required. Our approach represents and addresses the quality of the given observations and
Normandin, M D; Koeppe, R A; Morris, E D
2012-02-01
Input function noise contributes to model-predicted values and should be accounted for during parameter estimation. This problem has been examined in the context of PET data analysis using a noisy image-derived arterial input function. Huesman and Mazoyer (1987 Phys. Med. Biol 32 1569-79) incorporated the effect of error in the measured input function into the objective function and observed a subsequent improvement in the accuracy of parameters estimated from a kinetic model of cardiac blood flow. Such a treatment has not been applied to the reference region models commonly used to analyze dynamic positron emission tomography data with receptor-ligand tracers. Here, we propose a strategy for selection of weighting factors that accounts for noise in the reference region input function and test the method on two common formulations of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). We present a simulation study which demonstrates that the proposed weighting approach improves the accuracy of estimated binding potential at high noise levels and when the reference tissue and target regions of interest are of comparable size. In the second simulation experiment, we show that using a small, homogeneous reference tissue with our weighting technique may have advantages over input functions derived from a larger (and thus less noisy), heterogeneous region with conventional weighting. A comparative analysis of clinical [(11)C]flumazenil data found a small but significant increase in estimated binding potential when using the proposed weighting method, consistent with the finding of reduced negative bias in our simulation study. The weighting strategy described here accounts for noise in the reference region input function and may improve the performance of the SRTM in applications where data are noisy and the reference region is relatively small. This technique may offer similar benefits to other models using reference region inputs, particularly those derived from the SRTM
Adel Ghahraman, Mansoureh; Zahmatkesh, Maryam; Pourbakht, Akram; Seifi, Behjat; Jalaie, Shohreh; Adeli, Soheila; Niknami, Zohreh
2016-04-01
There are several anatomical connections between vestibular system and brain areas construct spatial memory. Since subliminal noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) has been demonstrated to enhance some types of memory, we speculated that application of noisy GVS may improve spatial memory in a rat model of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced cognitive impairment. Moreover, we attempted to determine the effect of repeated exposure to GVS on spatial memory performance. The spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. The groups received 1 (ICV-STZ/GVS-I) or 5 (ICV-STZ/GVS-II) sessions, each lasting 30 min, of low amplitude noisy GVS, or no GVS at all (Control, ICV-saline, ICV-STZ/noGVS). Hippocampal morphological changes investigated with cresyl violet staining and the immediate early gene product c-Fos, as a neuronal activity marker, was measured. Hippocampal c-Fos positive cells increased in both GVS stimulated groups. We observed significantly improved spatial performance only in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group. Histological evaluation showed normal density in ICV-STZ/GVS-II group whereas degeneration observed in ICV-STZ/GVS-I group similar to ICV-STZ/noGVS. The results showed the improvement of memory impairment after repeated exposure to GVS. This effect may be due in part to frequent activation of the vestibular neurons and the hippocampal regions connected to them. Our current study suggests the potential role of GVS as a practical method to combat cognitive decline induced by sporadic Alzheimer disease. PMID:26892259
Neo, Yik Yaw; Parie, Lisa; Bakker, Frederique; Snelderwaard, Peter; Tudorache, Christian; Schaaf, Marcel; Slabbekoorn, Hans
2015-01-01
Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioral patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio). The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa) can affect the swimming behavior of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120-140 dB re 1 μPa) and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa). Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behavior to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behavior in any captive condition. PMID:25741256
Neo, Yik Yaw; Parie, Lisa; Bakker, Frederique; Snelderwaard, Peter; Tudorache, Christian; Schaaf, Marcel; Slabbekoorn, Hans
2015-01-01
Auditory sensitivity in fish serves various important functions, but also makes fish susceptible to noise pollution. Human-generated sounds may affect behavioral patterns of fish, both in natural conditions and in captivity. Fish are often kept for consumption in aquaculture, on display in zoos and hobby aquaria, and for medical sciences in research facilities, but little is known about the impact of ambient sounds in fish tanks. In this study, we conducted two indoor exposure experiments with zebrafish (Danio rerio). The first experiment demonstrated that exposure to moderate sound levels (112 dB re 1 μPa) can affect the swimming behavior of fish by changing group cohesion, swimming speed and swimming height. Effects were brief for both continuous and intermittent noise treatments. In the second experiment, fish could influence exposure to higher sound levels by swimming freely between an artificially noisy fish tank (120–140 dB re 1 μPa) and another with ambient noise levels (89 dB re 1 μPa). Despite initial startle responses, and a brief period in which many individuals in the noisy tank dived down to the bottom, there was no spatial avoidance or noise-dependent tank preference at all. The frequent exchange rate of about 60 fish passages per hour between tanks was not affected by continuous or intermittent exposures. In conclusion, small groups of captive zebrafish were able to detect sounds already at relatively low sound levels and adjust their behavior to it. Relatively high sound levels were at least at the on-set disturbing, but did not lead to spatial avoidance. Further research is needed to show whether zebrafish are not able to avoid noisy areas or just not bothered. Quantitatively, these data are not directly applicable to other fish species or other fish tanks, but they do indicate that sound exposure may affect fish behavior in any captive condition. PMID:25741256
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Normandin, M. D.; Koeppe, R. A.; Morris, E. D.
2012-02-01
Input function noise contributes to model-predicted values and should be accounted for during parameter estimation. This problem has been examined in the context of PET data analysis using a noisy image-derived arterial input function. Huesman and Mazoyer (1987 Phys. Med. Biol 32 1569-79) incorporated the effect of error in the measured input function into the objective function and observed a subsequent improvement in the accuracy of parameters estimated from a kinetic model of cardiac blood flow. Such a treatment has not been applied to the reference region models commonly used to analyze dynamic positron emission tomography data with receptor-ligand tracers. Here, we propose a strategy for selection of weighting factors that accounts for noise in the reference region input function and test the method on two common formulations of the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM). We present a simulation study which demonstrates that the proposed weighting approach improves the accuracy of estimated binding potential at high noise levels and when the reference tissue and target regions of interest are of comparable size. In the second simulation experiment, we show that using a small, homogeneous reference tissue with our weighting technique may have advantages over input functions derived from a larger (and thus less noisy), heterogeneous region with conventional weighting. A comparative analysis of clinical [11C]flumazenil data found a small but significant increase in estimated binding potential when using the proposed weighting method, consistent with the finding of reduced negative bias in our simulation study. The weighting strategy described here accounts for noise in the reference region input function and may improve the performance of the SRTM in applications where data are noisy and the reference region is relatively small. This technique may offer similar benefits to other models using reference region inputs, particularly those derived from the SRTM.
Albocher, U.; Barbone, P.E.; Richards, M.S.; Oberai, A.A.; Harari, I.
2014-01-01
We apply the adjoint weighted equation method (AWE) to the direct solution of inverse problems of incompressible plane strain elasticity. We show that based on untreated noisy displacements, the reconstruction of the shear modulus can be very poor. We link this poor performance to loss of coercivity of the weak form when treating problems with discontinuous coefficients. We demonstrate that by smoothing the displacements and appending a regularization term to the AWE formulation, a dramatic improvement in the reconstruction can be achieved. With these improvements, the advantages of the AWE method as a direct solution approach can be extended to a wider range of problems. PMID:25383085
The effects of wall surface defects on boundary-layer transition in quiet and noisy supersonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morrisette, E. Leon; Creel, Theodore R., Jr.
1987-01-01
The design of supersonic vehicles with laminar flow control and vehicles such as the Space Shuttle requires information on allowable transition tolerances to fabrication defects such as discrete surface roughness and waviness. A relatively large data base on the effects of discrete roughness on transition exists for subsonic and supersonic speeds. The existing supersonic wind tunnel transition data are contaminated by wind tunnel noise emanating from the turbulent boundary layers on the nozzle walls. Roughness and waviness transition data obtained in a quiet Mach 3.5 supersonic wind tunnel are compared with those obtained in conventional noisy flows.
Loescher, D.H.; Noren, K.
1996-09-01
The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.
Gorney, J E
1994-01-01
This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moosavi, S. Amin; Montakhab, Afshin
2014-05-01
Motivated by recent experiments in neuroscience which indicate that neuronal avalanches exhibit scale invariant behavior similar to self-organized critical systems, we study the role of noisy (nonconservative) local dynamics on the critical behavior of a sandpile model which can be taken to mimic the dynamics of neuronal avalanches. We find that despite the fact that noise breaks the strict local conservation required to attain criticality, our system exhibits true criticality for a wide range of noise in various dimensions, given that conservation is respected on the average. Although the system remains critical, exhibiting finite-size scaling, the value of critical exponents change depending on the intensity of local noise. Interestingly, for a sufficiently strong noise level, the critical exponents approach and saturate at their mean-field values, consistent with empirical measurements of neuronal avalanches. This is confirmed for both two and three dimensional models. However, the addition of noise does not affect the exponents at the upper critical dimension (D =4). In addition to an extensive finite-size scaling analysis of our systems, we also employ a useful time-series analysis method to establish true criticality of noisy systems. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work in neuroscience as well as some implications for the general phenomena of criticality in nonequilibrium systems.
Choi, Yong-Sun; Lee, Soo-Young
2013-09-01
A nonlinear speech feature extraction algorithm was developed by modeling human cochlear functions, and demonstrated as a noise-robust front-end for speech recognition systems. The algorithm was based on a model of the Organ of Corti in the human cochlea with such features as such as basilar membrane (BM), outer hair cells (OHCs), and inner hair cells (IHCs). Frequency-dependent nonlinear compression and amplification of OHCs were modeled by lateral inhibition to enhance spectral contrasts. In particular, the compression coefficients had frequency dependency based on the psychoacoustic evidence. Spectral subtraction and temporal adaptation were applied in the time-frame domain. With long-term and short-term adaptation characteristics, these factors remove stationary or slowly varying components and amplify the temporal changes such as onset or offset. The proposed features were evaluated with a noisy speech database and showed better performance than the baseline methods such as mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) and RASTA-PLP in unknown noisy conditions. PMID:23558292
Zilli, Eric A; Hasselmo, Michael E
2010-01-01
One of the two primary classes of models of grid cell spatial firing uses interference between oscillators at dynamically modulated frequencies. Generally these models are presented in terms of idealized oscillators (modeled as sinusoids) which differ from biological oscillators in multiple, important ways. Here we show that two more realistic, noisy neural models (Izhikevich's simple model and a biophysical model of an entorhinal cortex stellate cell) can be successfully used as oscillators in a model of this type. When additive noise is included in the models such that uncoupled or sparsely-coupled cells show realistic interspike interval variance, both synaptic and gap-junction coupling can synchronize networks of cells to produce comparatively less variable network-level oscillations. We show that the frequency of these oscillatory networks can be controlled sufficiently well to produce stable grid cell spatial firing on the order of at least 2-5 minutes, despite the high noise level. Our results suggest that the basic principles of oscillatory interference models work with more realistic models of noisy neurons. Nevertheless, a number of simplifications were still made and future work should examine increasingly realistic models. PMID:20943925
A model for the emergence of the genetic code as a transition in a noisy information channel.
Tlusty, Tsvi
2007-11-21
The genetic code maps the 64 nucleotide triplets (codons) to 20 amino acids. Some argue that the specific form of the code with its 20 amino acids might be a 'frozen accident' because of the overwhelming effects of any further change. Others see it as a consequence of primordial biochemical pathways and their evolution. Here we examine a scenario in which evolution drives the emergence of a genetic code by selecting for an amino acid map that minimizes the impact of errors. We treat the stochastic mapping of codons to amino acids as a noisy information channel with a natural fitness measure. Organisms compete by the fitness of their codes and, as a result, a genetic code emerges at a supercritical transition in the noisy channel, when the mapping of codons to amino acids becomes non-random. At the phase transition, a small expansion is valid and the emergent code is governed by smooth modes of the Laplacian of errors. These modes are in turn governed by the topology of the error-graph, in which codons are connected if they are likely to be confused. This topology sets an upper bound-which is related to the classical map-coloring problem-on the number of possible amino acids. The suggested scenario is generic and may describe a mechanism for the formation of other error-prone biological codes, such as the recognition of DNA sites by proteins in the transcription regulatory network. PMID:17826800
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Shang; Jiang, Weikang; Pan, Siwei
2015-12-01
A modified inverse patch transfer function (iPTF) method is used to reconstruct the normal velocities of the target source in a noisy environment. The iPTF method simplifies the Helmholtz integral equation to one term by constructing a Green's function satisfying Neumann boundary conditions for an enclosure, which is generally constructed by slowly convergent modal expansions. The main objective of the present work is to provide an evanescent Green's function to improve the convergence of calculations. A brief description of the iPTF method and two sets of Green's functions for a rectangular cavity are presented firstly. In simulations, both the Green's functions are used to calculate the condition numbers of impedance matrices describing the relation between source and measurement patches, and the time cost of calculation based on the two sets of Green's functions at 450 Hz is compared. Double pressure measurements are then employed as the input data instead of pressure and velocity measurements. The normal velocities of two baffled loudspeakers are reconstructed by the combination of a measurement method and a Green's function in the presence of a disturbing source in the frequency range of 50-1000 Hz. In addition, the double pressure measurements are examined by an experiment. The precise identification of the sources indicates that the double pressure measurements are capable of localizing sources in a noisy environment. It is also found that the reconstruction with the evanescent Green's functions is slightly better than that with the modal expansions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasilnikov, Nikolay N.; Krasilnikova, Olga I.; Shelepin, Yury E.
2000-04-01
In the experimental verification of the ideal observer theory applicability to observation of: achromatic, monochromatic, pure chromatic and chromatic noisy images by real human- observer under threshold conditions we used the method of comparative measurements. We measured and compared the correct identification probabilities of the test objects in noisy above mentioned images by real human-observer and computer model of ideal observer. For the case when we have no full knowledge about test objects parameters we've developed the modified Zigert-Kotelnikov algorithm and appropriate model. In particular, when all image parameters are a priory known, this algorithm coincides with the ideal observer one. We formulated 3 new laws of matched filtering of exactly known color images and concluded that the probabilities of correct identification by the observer and by the computer model are in good agreement in a wide range of noise intensities. Absence of a priori information about test objects coordinates unlike test objects sizes information influences greatly on the correct identification probabilities. Our results are useful in modeling of human vision under threshold conditions. The developed model may be effectively used for estimation of picture quality impairment on the monitor screen, the diagnostic of the human visual system condition, etc.
Hiley, Michael J; Yeadon, Maurice R
2014-08-01
The upstart is a fundamental skill in gymnastics, requiring whole body coordination to transfer the gymnast from a swing beneath the bar to a support position above the bar. The aim of this study was to determine the solution space within which a gymnast could successfully perform an upstart. A previous study had shown that the underlying control strategy for the upstart could be accounted for by maximizing the likelihood of success while operating in a noisy environment. In the current study, data were collected on a senior gymnast and a computer simulation model of a gymnast and bar was used to determine the solution space for maximizing success while operating in a noisy environment. The effects of timing important actions, gymnast strength, and movement execution noise on the success of the upstart were then systematically determined. The solution space for the senior gymnast was relatively large. Decreasing strength and increasing movement execution noise reduced the size of the solution space. A weaker gymnast would have to use a different technique than that used by the senior gymnast to produce an acceptable success rate. PMID:24603774
Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
ten Wolde, Pieter Rein; Becker, Nils B.; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Mugler, Andrew
2016-03-01
In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this receptor input noise as much as possible. These networks, however, are also intrinsically stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, which is the timescale over which fluctuations in the state of the receptor, arising from the stochastic receptor-ligand binding, decay. We then describe how downstream signaling pathways integrate these receptor-state fluctuations, and how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time set by the downstream network, together impose a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor input noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes (groups) of resources—receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy—and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Webb, S. J.; Van Buren, R.
2013-12-01
Airborne geophysical methods play an important role in the exploration for kimberlites. As regions become more intensively explored, smaller kimberlites, which can be extremely difficult to find, are being targeted. These smaller kimberlites, as evidenced by the M-1 Maarsfontein pipe in the Klipspringer cluster in South Africa, can be highly profitable. The Goedgevonden and Syferfontein pipes are small kimberlites (~0.2 ha) ~25 km NNE of Klerksdorp in South Africa. The Goedgevonden pipe has been known since the 1930s and is diamondiferous, but not commercially viable due to small stone size and low quality of stones. In the early 1990s, Gold Fields used this pipe as a typical kimberlite to collect example geophysical data. The nearby (~1 km to the east) Syferfontein pipe is not diamondiferous but was discovered in 1994 as part of a speculative airborne EM survey conducted by Gold Fields and Geodass (now CGG) as part of their case study investigations. Both kimberlites have had extensive ground geophysical survey data collected and have prominent magnetic, gravity and EM responses that aided in the delineation of the pipes. These pipes represent a realistic and challenging case study target due to their small size and the magnetically noisy environment into which they have been emplaced. The discovery of the Syferfontein pipe in 1994 stimulated further testing of airborne methods, especially as the surface was undisturbed. These pipes are located in a region that hosts highly variably magnetized Hospital Hill shales, dolerite dykes and Ventersdorp lavas, a 2-3 m thick resistive ferricrete cap and significant cultural features such as an electric railroad and high tension power line. Although the kimberlites both show prominent magnetic anomalies on ground surveys, the airborne data are significantly noisy and the pipes do not show up as well determined targets. However, the clay-rich weathered zone of the pipes provides an ideal target for the EM method, and both
Geophysical Prospection of Archaeological Structures in a Noisy Area in Shayzar, Syria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seren, S.; Hinterleitner, A.; Löcker, K.; Bayirli, E.
2009-04-01
Site The roman town "Caesarea", which was named "Sezer" and used as a citadel in middle ages, is located within the modern town "Shayzar" in the north-west of Syria. The modern buildings, power lines and the streets with a lot of cars cause a very noisy environment for geophysical prospection. A football ground of about 50x90 m was chosen for testing both methods, magnetic and ground penetrating radar (GPR), to detect archaeological structures. Instruments and survey area The magnetic survey was carried out using a fluxgate magnetic acquisition system with 4 sensors in gradient array from the manufacturer FÖRSTER® mounted on a one wheel cart. The cart was developed in our institute and allows to record high quality data in areas with difficult field conditions. An optical distance measurement system on the wheel ensures an exact positioning of the magnetic data. The measurement grid was 50x10 cm. GPR survey was carried out using a NOGGIN system with 250 MHz antenna from the manufacturer Sensors & Software. A new base plate was mounted on the antenna for the easy moving at rough surface conditions. The measurement grid was 50x5 cm. Data processing The magnetic data are processed using the self developed software ApMag. The main steps of the processing are filtering, removing of the line pattern, interpolation to a grid of 10x10 cm, geo-referencing and producing of a grey scale magnetogramm for visualizing in a geographical information system (GIS). The GPR data are automatically processed using the self developed software package ApRadar. Several pre-processing steps were carried out including removing of constant shifts, automatic detection of the starting point (time zero), frequency dependent high-pass filtering and a background removal filter to get the best results for each measurement. There is no gain control algorithm applied to the traces of a section but a statistical correction of each depth-slice for each section. This is equal to an automatic gain
Keil, Matthias S
2015-10-01
Power laws describe brain functions at many levels (from biophysics to psychophysics). It is therefore possible that they are generated by similar underlying mechanisms. Previously, the response properties of a collision-sensitive neuron were reproduced by a model which used a power law for scaling its inhibitory input. A common characteristic of such neurons is that they integrate information across a large part of the visual field. Here we present a biophysically plausible model of collision-sensitive neurons with η-like response properties, in which we assume that each information channel is noisy and has a response threshold. Then, an approximative power law is obtained as a result of pooling these channels. We show that with this mechanism one can successfully predict many response characteristics of the Lobula Giant Movement Detector Neuron (LGMD). Moreover, the results depend critically on noise in the inhibitory pathway, but they are fairly robust against noise in the excitatory pathway. PMID:26513150
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickerson, Naomi; Fitzsimons, Joseph; Benjamin, Simon
2015-03-01
Exquisite quantum control has now been achieved in small ion traps, in nitrogen-vacancy centres and in superconducting qubit clusters. We can regard such a system as a universal cell with diverse technological uses from communication to large-scale computing, provided that the cell is able to network with others and overcome any noise in the interlinks. We show that loss-tolerant entanglement purification makes quantum computing feasible with the noisy and lossy links that are realistic today: With a modestly complex cell design, and using a surface code protocol with a network noise threshold of 13 . 3 % , we find that interlinks which attempt entanglement at a rate of 2 MHz but suffer 98 % photon loss can result in kilohertz computer clock speeds (i.e. rate of high fidelity stabilizer measurements). Improved links would dramatically increase the clock speed. Our simulations employed local gates of a fidelity already achieved in ion trap devices.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickerson, Naomi H.; Fitzsimons, Joseph F.; Benjamin, Simon C.
2014-10-01
Exquisite quantum control has now been achieved in small ion traps, in nitrogen-vacancy centers and in superconducting qubit clusters. We can regard such a system as a universal cell with diverse technological uses from communication to large-scale computing, provided that the cell is able to network with others and overcome any noise in the interlinks. Here, we show that loss-tolerant entanglement purification makes quantum computing feasible with the noisy and lossy links that are realistic today: With a modestly complex cell design, and using a surface code protocol with a network noise threshold of 13.3%, we find that interlinks that attempt entanglement at a rate of 2 MHz but suffer 98% photon loss can result in kilohertz computer clock speeds (i.e., rate of high-fidelity stabilizer measurements). Improved links would dramatically increase the clock speed. Our simulations employ local gates of a fidelity already achieved in ion trap devices.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hellman, R. P.
1984-01-01
Absolute magnitude estimation methods were used to investigate the relation between the overall perceived magnitude of noise tone complexes and the location of the tone within the spectrum. In contrast to 'noisiness', loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship of the single tones added to low- and high-pass noises in these tests, and to the spectral shape of the noise. Tones centered in noise produce nonmonotonic loudness and annoyance growth functions, while those added to the noise skirt produce power functions. Although a tone correction for annoyance is warranted for certain noise-tone configurations, none of the calculation procedures proposed can take all of the variables relevant to the perceived annoyance of tonal components into account. Complex auditory interactions generated by the simultaneous presentation of noise and tone can substantially account for the effects observed.
Keil, Matthias S.
2015-01-01
Power laws describe brain functions at many levels (from biophysics to psychophysics). It is therefore possible that they are generated by similar underlying mechanisms. Previously, the response properties of a collision-sensitive neuron were reproduced by a model which used a power law for scaling its inhibitory input. A common characteristic of such neurons is that they integrate information across a large part of the visual field. Here we present a biophysically plausible model of collision-sensitive neurons with η-like response properties, in which we assume that each information channel is noisy and has a response threshold. Then, an approximative power law is obtained as a result of pooling these channels. We show that with this mechanism one can successfully predict many response characteristics of the Lobula Giant Movement Detector Neuron (LGMD). Moreover, the results depend critically on noise in the inhibitory pathway, but they are fairly robust against noise in the excitatory pathway. PMID:26513150
Cheng, Karen Elizabeth; Crary, David J; Ray, Jaideep; Safta, Cosmin
2013-01-01
Objective We discuss the use of structural models for the analysis of biosurveillance related data. Methods and results Using a combination of real and simulated data, we have constructed a data set that represents a plausible time series resulting from surveillance of a large scale bioterrorist anthrax attack in Miami. We discuss the performance of anomaly detection with structural models for these data using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and activity monitoring operating characteristic (AMOC) analysis. In addition, we show that these techniques provide a method for predicting the level of the outbreak valid for approximately 2 weeks, post-alarm. Conclusions Structural models provide an effective tool for the analysis of biosurveillance data, in particular for time series with noisy, non-stationary background and missing data. PMID:23037798
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holzmann, Gerard J.
2008-01-01
In the last 3 decades or so, the size of systems we have been able to verify formally with automated tools has increased dramatically. At each point in this development, we encountered a different set of limits -- many of which we were eventually able to overcome. Today, we may have reached some limits that may be much harder to conquer. The problem I will discuss is the following: given a hypothetical machine with infinite memory that is seamlessly shared among infinitely many CPUs (or CPU cores), what is the largest problem size that we could solve?
Svirskis, Gytis; Kotak, Vibhakar; Sanes, Dan H; Rinzel, John
2004-06-01
Voltage-dependent membrane conductances support specific neurophysiological properties. To investigate the mechanisms of coincidence detection, we activated gerbil medial superior olivary (MSO) neurons with dynamic current-clamp stimuli in vitro. Spike-triggered reverse-correlation analysis for injected current was used to evaluate the integration of subthreshold noisy signals. Consistent with previous reports, the partial blockade of low-threshold potassium channels (I(KLT)) reduced coincidence detection by slowing the rise of current needed on average to evoke a spike. However, two factors point toward the involvement of a second mechanism. First, the reverse correlation currents revealed that spike generation was associated with a preceding hyperpolarization. Second, rebound action potentials are 45% larger compared to depolarization-evoked spikes in the presence of an I(KLT) antagonist. These observations suggest that the sodium current (I(Na)) was substantially inactivated at rest. To test this idea, I(Na) was enhanced by increasing extracellular sodium concentration. This manipulation reduced coincidence detection, as reflected by slower spike-triggering current, and diminished the hyperpolarization phase in the reverse-correlation currents. As expected, a small outward bias current decreased the pre-spike hyperpolarization phase, and TTX blockade of I(Na) nearly eliminated the hyperpolarization phase in the reverse correlation current. A computer model including Hodgkin-Huxley type conductances for spike generation and for I(KLT) showed reduction in coincidence detection when I(KLT) was reduced or when I(Na) was increased. We hypothesize that desirable synaptic signals first remove some inactivation of I(Na) and reduce activation of I(KLT) to create a brief temporal window for coincidence detection of subthreshold noisy signals. PMID:14749317
Whole Sentence Spelling and Grammar Correction Using a Noisy Channel Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Park, Yonghahk Albert
2013-01-01
Automated grammar correction techniques have seen improvement over the years, but there is still much room for increased performance. Current correction techniques mainly focus on identifying and correcting a specific type of error, such as verb form misuse or preposition misuse, which restricts the corrections to a limited scope. We introduce a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Huong Thi Thien
2011-01-01
The two objectives of this single-subject study were to assess how an FM system use impacts parent-child interaction in a noisy listening environment, and how a parent/caregiver training affect the interaction between parent/caregiver and child. Two 5-year-old children with hearing loss and their parent/caregiver participated. Experiment 1 was…
Application of adaptive subband coding for noisy bandlimited ECG signal processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aditya, Krishna; Chu, Chee-Hung H.; Szu, Harold H.
1996-03-01
An approach to impulsive noise suppression and background normalization of digitized bandlimited electrovcardiogram signals is presented. This approach uses adaptive wavelet filters that incorporate the band-limited a priori information and the shape information of a signal to decompose the data. Empirical results show that the new algorithm has good performance in wideband impulsive noise suppression and background normalization for subsequent wave detection, when compared with subband coding using Daubechie's D4 wavelet, without the bandlimited adaptive wavelet transform.
Smith, Robert
1966-01-01
Dr Robert Smith surveys the history of birth control and sounds a warning for the future of mankind, if the population explosion is allowed to continue unchecked. He stresses the importance of the role of the general practitioner in the limitation of births. Sir Theodore Fox describes the work of the Family Planning Association and stresses that, increasingly, this is a specialist service covering all aspects of fertility. He also feels that the general practitioner has a role in family planning. PMID:5954261
Neighborhoods of periodic orbits and the stationary distribution of a noisy chaotic system.
Heninger, Jeffrey M; Lippolis, Domenico; Cvitanović, Predrag
2015-12-01
The finest state-space resolution that can be achieved in a physical dynamical system is limited by the presence of noise. In the weak-noise approximation, the stochastic neighborhoods of deterministic periodic orbits can be computed from distributions stationary under the action of a local Fokker-Planck operator and its adjoint. We derive explicit formulas for widths of these distributions in the case of chaotic dynamics, when the periodic orbits are hyperbolic. The resulting neighborhoods form a basis for functions on the attractor. The global stationary distribution, needed for calculation of long-time expectation values of observables, can be expressed in this basis. PMID:26764789
Etchepareborda, Pablo; Vadnjal, Ana Laura; Federico, Alejandro; Kaufmann, Guillermo H
2012-09-15
We evaluate the extension of the exact nonlinear reconstruction technique developed for digital holography to the phase-recovery problems presented by other optical interferometric methods, which use carrier modulation. It is shown that the introduction of an analytic wavelet analysis in the ridge of the cepstrum transformation corresponding to the analyzed interferogram can be closely related to the well-known wavelet analysis of the interferometric intensity. Subsequently, the phase-recovery process is improved. The advantages and limitations of this framework are analyzed and discussed using numerical simulations in singular scalar light fields and in temporal speckle pattern interferometry. PMID:23041878
Neighborhoods of periodic orbits and the stationary distribution of a noisy chaotic system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heninger, Jeffrey M.; Lippolis, Domenico; Cvitanović, Predrag
2015-12-01
The finest state-space resolution that can be achieved in a physical dynamical system is limited by the presence of noise. In the weak-noise approximation, the stochastic neighborhoods of deterministic periodic orbits can be computed from distributions stationary under the action of a local Fokker-Planck operator and its adjoint. We derive explicit formulas for widths of these distributions in the case of chaotic dynamics, when the periodic orbits are hyperbolic. The resulting neighborhoods form a basis for functions on the attractor. The global stationary distribution, needed for calculation of long-time expectation values of observables, can be expressed in this basis.
Xu, Yang; Darga, Donald; Smid, Jason; Zysk, Adam M; Teh, Daniel; Boppart, Stephen A; Scott Carney, P
2016-09-01
In this Letter, we report the first application of two phase denoising algorithms to Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) velocity maps. When combined with unwrapping algorithms, significantly extended fluid velocity dynamic range is achieved. Instead of the physical upper bound, the fluid velocity dynamic range is now limited by noise level. We show comparisons between physical simulated ideal velocity maps and the experimental results of both algorithms. We demonstrate unwrapped DOCT velocity maps having a peak velocity nearly 10 times the theoretical measurement range. PMID:27607963
Experimental quantum key distribution with finite-key security analysis for noisy channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bacco, Davide; Canale, Matteo; Laurenti, Nicola; Vallone, Giuseppe; Villoresi, Paolo
2013-09-01
In quantum key distribution implementations, each session is typically chosen long enough so that the secret key rate approaches its asymptotic limit. However, this choice may be constrained by the physical scenario, as in the perspective use with satellites, where the passage of one terminal over the other is restricted to a few minutes. Here we demonstrate experimentally the extraction of secure keys leveraging an optimal design of the prepare-and-measure scheme, according to recent finite-key theoretical tight bounds. The experiment is performed in different channel conditions, and assuming two distinct attack models: individual attacks or general quantum attacks. The request on the number of exchanged qubits is then obtained as a function of the key size and of the ambient quantum bit error rate. The results indicate that viable conditions for effective symmetric, and even one-time-pad, cryptography are achievable.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.; Tikhomirov, Vasily V.
2015-08-01
Principal limitations of the standard THz-TDS method for the detection and identification are demonstrated under real conditions (at long distance of about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) using neutral substances thick paper bag, paper napkins and chocolate. We show also that the THz-TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even if the THz signals were measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); silicon-based semiconductors were used as the samples. However, the integral correlation criteria, based on SDA method, allows us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the neutral substances. The discussed algorithm shows high probability of the substance identification and a reliability of realization in practice, especially for security applications and non-destructive testing.
Kercel, Stephen W.
1998-10-11
For several reasons, Bayesian parameter estimation is superior to other methods for extracting features of a weak signal from noise. Since it exploits prior knowledge, the analysis begins from a more advantageous starting point than other methods. Also, since ''nuisance parameters'' can be dropped out of the Bayesian analysis, the description of the model need not be as complete as is necessary for such methods as matched filtering. In the limit for perfectly random noise and a perfect description of the model, the signal-to-noise ratio improves as the square root of the number of samples in the data. Even with the imperfections of real-world data, Bayesian approaches this ideal limit of performance more closely than other methods. A major unsolved problem in landmine detection is the fusion of data from multiple sensor types. Bayesian data fusion is only beginning to be explored as a solution to the problem. In single sensor processes Bayesian analysis can sense multiple parameters from the data stream of the one sensor. It does so by computing a joint probability density function of a set of parameter values from the sensor output. However, there is no inherent requirement that the information must come from a single sensor. If multiple sensors are applied to a single process, where several different parameters are implicit in each sensor output data stream, the joint probability density function of all the parameters of interest can be computed in exactly the same manner as the single sensor case. Thus, it is just as practical to base decisions on multiple sensor outputs as it is for single sensors. This should provide a practical way to combine the outputs of dissimilar sensors, such as ground penetrating radar and electromagnetic induction devices, producing a better detection decision than could be provided by either sensor alone.
Castillo, Rogelio; Alonso, Gustavo; Palacios, Javier C.
2004-02-15
A method for nonlinear analysis of instabilities in boiling water reactors (BWRs) is presented. Both the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent method and the Slope of the Correlation Integral (SOCI) method are used to analyze the average power reactor monitor (APRM) signals from a BWR. The main advantage of using the two methods in a complementary manner is that doing so results in an enhancement of the capability to analyze noisy systems, such as the APRM signals in a BWR. Previously, such nonlinear analysis had been performed using independently either the Dominant Lyapunov Exponent Method or the SOCI method. These two methods are sensitive to noise in a signal and normally require large amounts of data for a reliable analysis.This proposed system for nonlinear analysis is composed first of a home-developed computer program called 'SLOPE', which is based on the SOCI method. Then, the signal analysis is also performed by the 'LENNS' code, which is used to obtain the dominant Lyapunov exponent. Since only the dominant Lyapunov exponent is computed, there is no need to acquire large amounts of data; thus, computational processing time is greatly reduced, even in the case of noisy data.The system was used to analyze BWR signals containing stationary and nonstationary limit cycles. It was found that this method satisfactorily calculates the limit cycles, extracting useful information from noisy signals.
Viral-mediated noisy gene expression reveals biphasic E2f1 response to MYC
Wong, Jeffrey V.; Yao, Guang; Nevins, Joseph R.; You, Lingchong
2011-01-01
Gene expression mediated by viral vectors is subject to cell-to-cell variability, which limits the accuracy of gene delivery. When coupled with single-cell measurements, however, such variability provides an efficient means to quantify signaling dynamics in mammalian cells. Here, we illustrate the utility of this approach by mapping the E2f1 response to MYC, serum stimulation, or both. Our results revealed an underappreciated mode of gene regulation: E2f1 expression first increased then decreased as MYC input increased. This biphasic pattern was also reflected in other nodes of the network including the miR-17-92 micro RNA cluster and p19Arf. A mathematical model of the network successfully predicted modulation of the biphasic E2F response by serum and a CDK inhibitor. In addition to demonstrating how noise can be exploited to probe signaling dynamics, our results reveal how coordination of the MYC/RB/E2F pathway enables dynamic discrimination of aberrant and normal levels of growth stimulation. PMID:21292160
Optimal estimation of the diffusion coefficient from non-averaged and averaged noisy magnitude data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kristoffersen, Anders
2007-08-01
The magnitude operation changes the signal distribution in MRI images from Gaussian to Rician. This introduces a bias that must be taken into account when estimating the apparent diffusion coefficient. Several estimators are known in the literature. In the present paper, two novel schemes are proposed. Both are based on simple least squares fitting of the measured signal, either to the median (MD) or to the maximum probability (MP) value of the Probability Density Function (PDF). Fitting to the mean (MN) or a high signal-to-noise ratio approximation to the mean (HS) is also possible. Special attention is paid to the case of averaged magnitude images. The PDF, which cannot be expressed in closed form, is analyzed numerically. A scheme for performing maximum likelihood (ML) estimation from averaged magnitude images is proposed. The performance of several estimators is evaluated by Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We focus on typical clinical situations, where the number of acquisitions is limited. For non-averaged data the optimal choice is found to be MP or HS, whereas uncorrected schemes and the power image (PI) method should be avoided. For averaged data MD and ML perform equally well, whereas uncorrected schemes and HS are inadequate. MD provides easier implementation and higher computational efficiency than ML. Unbiased estimation of the diffusion coefficient allows high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and may therefore help solving the problem of crossing fibers encountered in white matter tractography.
Probabilistic characteristics of noisy Van der Pol type oscillator with nonlinear damping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubkov, A. A.; Litovsky, I. A.
2016-05-01
The exact Fokker–Planck equation for the joint probability distribution of amplitude and phase of a Van der Pol oscillator perturbed by both additive and multiplicative noise sources with arbitrary nonlinear damping is first derived by the method of functional splitting of averages. We truncate this equation in the usual manner using the smallness of the damping parameter and obtain a general expression for the stationary probability density function of oscillation amplitude, which is valid for any nonlinearity in the feedback loop of the oscillator. We analyze the dependence of this stationary solution on system parameters and intensities of noise sources for two different situations: (i) Van der Pol generator with soft and hard excitation regimes; (ii) Van der Pol oscillator with negative nonlinear damping. As shown, in the first case the probability distribution of amplitude demonstrates one characteristic maximum, which indicates the presence of a stable limit cycle in the system. The non-monotonic dependence of stationary probability density function on oscillation frequency is also detected. In the second case we examine separately three situations: linear oscillator with two noise sources, nonlinear oscillator with additive noise and nonlinear oscillator with frequency fluctuations. For the last two situations, noise-induced transitions in the system under consideration are found.
Quantum Fisher information of an open and noisy system in the steady state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Altintas, Azmi Ali
2016-04-01
We study the quantum Fisher information (QFI) per particle of an open (particles can enter and leave the system) and dissipative (far from thermodynamical equilibrium) steady state system of two qubits in a noise which is decoherence. We show the behavior of QFI per particle of the system due to changes of reset and decoherence parameters r and γ respectively. The parameter r is the strength of the reset mechanism, γ is the strength of decoherence and in our case it is dephasing channel. The parameters γ and r are real numbers. We observe that the reset parameter must be bigger than decoherence parameter. We have found that by choosing coupling parameter g as 5 γ the QFI per particle is 1.00226 which is greater than shot noise limit at γ = 0.5 and r = 14. Also the concurrence and negativity of the such state have been calculated and they are found as 0.0992486 and 0.0496243 respectively. We have shown that when the concurrence and negativity of some specific states different than zero, which means the state is entangled, the QFI of the system is greater than 1. The QFI per particle, concurrence and negativity shows that the chosen case is weakly entangled. We discovered that the optimal direction depends on the parameters r and γ and a change in the direction affects the behavior of the QFI of the system.
Robust image-based estimation of cardiac tissue parameters and their uncertainty from noisy data.
Neumann, Dominik; Mansi, Tommaso; Georgescu, Bogdan; Kamen, Ali; Kayvanpour, Elham; Amr, Ali; Sedaghat-Hamedani, Farbod; Haas, Jan; Katus, Hugo; Meder, Benjamin; Hornegger, Joachim; Comaniciu, Dorin
2014-01-01
Clinical applications of computational cardiac models require precise personalization, i.e. fitting model parameters to capture patient's physiology. However, due to parameter non-identifiability, limited data, uncertainty in the clinical measurements, and modeling assumptions, various combinations of parameter values may exist that yield the same quality of fit. Hence, there is a need for quantifying the uncertainty in estimated parameters and to ascertain the uniqueness of the found solution. This paper presents a stochastic method to estimate the parameters of an image-based electromechanical model of the heart and their uncertainty due to noise in measurements. First, Bayesian inference is applied to fully estimate the posterior probability density function (PDF) of the model. To that end, Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling is used, which is made computationally tractable by employing a fast surrogate model based on Polynomial Chaos Expansion, instead of the true forward model. Then, we use the mean-shift algorithm to automatically find the modes of the PDF and select the most likely one while being robust to noise. The approach is used to estimate global active stress and passive stiffness from invasive pressure and image-based volume quantification. Experiments on eight patients showed that not only our approach yielded goodness of fits equivalent to a well-established deterministic method, but we could also demonstrate the non-uniqueness of the problem and report uncertainty estimates, crucial information for subsequent clinical assessments of the personalized models. PMID:25485357
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maussang, F.; Chanussot, J.; Hétet, A.; Amate, M.
2007-12-01
An original algorithm for the detection of small objects in a noisy background is proposed. Its application to underwater objects detection by sonar imaging is addressed. This new method is based on the use of higher-order statistics (HOS) that are locally estimated on the images. The proposed algorithm is divided into two steps. In a first step, HOS (skewness and kurtosis) are estimated locally using a square sliding computation window. Small deterministic objects have different statistical properties from the background they are thus highlighted. The influence of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the results is studied in the case of Gaussian noise. Mathematical expressions of the estimators and of the expected performances are derived and are experimentally confirmed. In a second step, the results are focused by a matched filter using a theoretical model. This enables the precise localization of the regions of interest. The proposed method generalizes to other statistical distributions and we derive the theoretical expressions of the HOS estimators in the case of a Weibull distribution (both when only noise is present or when a small deterministic object is present within the filtering window). This enables the application of the proposed technique to the processing of synthetic aperture sonar data containing underwater mines whose echoes have to be detected and located. Results on real data sets are presented and quantitatively evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.
Scheinker, Alexander; Baily, Scott; Young, Daniel; Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Prokop, Mark
2014-08-01
In this work, an implementation of a recently developed model-independent adaptive control scheme, for tuning uncertain and time varying systems, is demonstrated on the Los Alamos linear particle accelerator. The main benefits of the algorithm are its simplicity, ability to handle an arbitrary number of components without increased complexity, and the approach is extremely robust to measurement noise, a property which is both analytically proven and demonstrated in the experiments performed. We report on the application of this algorithm for simultaneous tuning of two buncher radio frequency (RF) cavities, in order to maximize beam acceptance into the accelerating electromagnetic fieldmore » cavities of the machine, with the tuning based only on a noisy measurement of the surviving beam current downstream from the two bunching cavities. The algorithm automatically responds to arbitrary phase shift of the cavity phases, automatically re-tuning the cavity settings and maximizing beam acceptance. Because it is model independent it can be utilized for continuous adaptation to time-variation of a large system, such as due to thermal drift, or damage to components, in which the remaining, functional components would be automatically re-tuned to compensate for the failing ones. We start by discussing the general model-independent adaptive scheme and how it may be digitally applied to a large class of multi-parameter uncertain systems, and then present our experimental results.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xuemei; Ni, Wenbo
2016-09-01
For loosely coupled INS/GPS integrated navigation systems with low-cost and low-accuracy microelectromechanical device inertial sensors, in order to obtain enough accuracy, a full-state nonlinear dynamic model rather than a linearized error model is much more preferable. Particle filters are particularly for nonlinear and non-Gaussian situations, but typical bootstrap particle filters (BPFs) and some improved particle filters (IPFs) such as auxiliary particle filters (APFs) and Gaussian particle filters (GPFs) cannot solve the mismatch between the importance function and the likelihood function very well. The predicted particles propagated through inertial navigation equations cannot be scattered with certainty within the effective range of current observation when there are large drift errors of the inertial sensors. Therefore, the current observation cannot play the correction role well and these particle filters are invalid to some extent. The proposed IPF firstly estimates the corresponding state bias errors according to the current observation and then corrects the bias errors of the predicted particles before determining the weights and resampling the particles. Simulations and practical experiments both show that the proposed IPF can effectively solve the mismatch between the importance function and the likelihood function of a BPF and compensate the accumulated errors of INSs very well. It has great robustness in a serious noisy scenario.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Ye; Sorella, Sandro
2014-03-01
We introduce a general and efficient method for the calculation of vibrational frequencies of electronic systems, ranging from molecules to solids. By performing damped molecular dynamics with ab initio forces, we show that quantum vibrational frequencies can be evaluated by diagonalizing the time averaged position-position or force-force correlation matrices, although the ionic motion is treated on the classical level within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. The novelty of our approach is to evaluate atomic forces with QMC by means of a highly accurate and correlated variational wave function which is optimized simultaneously during the dynamics. QMC is an accurate and promising many-body technique for electronic structure calculation thanks to massively parallel computers. However, since infinite statistics is not feasible, property evaluation may be affected by large noise that is difficult to harness. Our approach controls the QMC stochastic bias systematically and gives very accurate results with moderate computational effort, namely even with noisy forces. We prove the accuracy and efficiency of our method on the water monomer[A. Zen et al., JCTC 9 (2013) 4332] and dimer. We are currently working on the challenging problem of simulating liquid water at ambient conditions.
Senkowski, Daniel; Saint-Amour, Dave; Gruber, Thomas; Foxe, John J.
2008-01-01
In a crowded scene we can effectively focus our attention on a specific speaker while largely ignoring sensory inputs from other speakers. How attended speech inputs are extracted from similar competing information has been primarily studied in the auditory domain. Here we examined the deployment of visuo-spatial attention in multiple speaker scenarios. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP) were monitored as a real-time index of visual attention towards three competing speakers. Participants were instructed to detect a target syllable by the center speaker and ignore syllables from two flanking speakers. The study incorporated interference trials (syllables from three speakers), no-interference trials (syllable from center speaker only), and periods without speech stimulation in which static faces were presented. An enhancement of flanking speaker induced SSVEP was found 70-220 ms after sound onset over left temporal scalp during interference trials. This enhancement was negatively correlated with the behavioral performance of participants - those who showed largest enhancements had the worst speech recognition performance. Additionally, poorly performing participants exhibited enhanced flanking speaker induced SSVEP over visual scalp during periods without speech stimulation. The present study provides neurophysiologic evidence that the deployment of visuo-spatial attention to flanking speakers interferes with the recognition of multisensory speech signals under noisy environmental conditions. PMID:18678262
Scheinker, Alexander; Baily, Scott; Young, Daniel; Kolski, Jeffrey S.; Prokop, Mark
2014-08-01
In this work, an implementation of a recently developed model-independent adaptive control scheme, for tuning uncertain and time varying systems, is demonstrated on the Los Alamos linear particle accelerator. The main benefits of the algorithm are its simplicity, ability to handle an arbitrary number of components without increased complexity, and the approach is extremely robust to measurement noise, a property which is both analytically proven and demonstrated in the experiments performed. We report on the application of this algorithm for simultaneous tuning of two buncher radio frequency (RF) cavities, in order to maximize beam acceptance into the accelerating electromagnetic field cavities of the machine, with the tuning based only on a noisy measurement of the surviving beam current downstream from the two bunching cavities. The algorithm automatically responds to arbitrary phase shift of the cavity phases, automatically re-tuning the cavity settings and maximizing beam acceptance. Because it is model independent it can be utilized for continuous adaptation to time-variation of a large system, such as due to thermal drift, or damage to components, in which the remaining, functional components would be automatically re-tuned to compensate for the failing ones. We start by discussing the general model-independent adaptive scheme and how it may be digitally applied to a large class of multi-parameter uncertain systems, and then present our experimental results.
Moore, Steven T; Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R; Yungher, Don A; MacDougall, Hamish G
2015-01-01
Performance on a visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular stimulation was assessed in nine healthy subjects. Four subjects had previously been adapted to 120 min exposure to noisy Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) over 12 weekly sessions of 10 min; the remaining five subjects had never experienced GVS. Subjects were seated in a flight simulator and asked to null the roll motion of a visual bar presented on a screen using a joystick. Both the visual bar and the simulator cabin were moving in roll with a pseudorandom (sum of sines) waveform that were uncorrelated. The cross correlation coefficient, which ranges from 1 (identical waveforms) to 0 (unrelated waveforms), was calculated for the ideal (perfect nulling of bar motion) and actual joystick input waveform for each subject. The cross correlation coefficient for the GVS-adapted group (0.90 [SD 0.04]) was significantly higher (t[8] = 3.162; p = 0.013) than the control group (0.82 [SD 0.04]), suggesting that prior adaptation to GVS was associated with an enhanced ability to perform the visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular noise. PMID:26106308
Moore, Steven T.; Dilda, Valentina; Morris, Tiffany R.; Yungher, Don A.; MacDougall, Hamish G.
2015-01-01
Performance on a visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular stimulation was assessed in nine healthy subjects. Four subjects had previously been adapted to 120 min exposure to noisy Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) over 12 weekly sessions of 10 min; the remaining five subjects had never experienced GVS. Subjects were seated in a flight simulator and asked to null the roll motion of a visual bar presented on a screen using a joystick. Both the visual bar and the simulator cabin were moving in roll with a pseudorandom (sum of sines) waveform that were uncorrelated. The cross correlation coefficient, which ranges from 1 (identical waveforms) to 0 (unrelated waveforms), was calculated for the ideal (perfect nulling of bar motion) and actual joystick input waveform for each subject. The cross correlation coefficient for the GVS-adapted group (0.90 [SD 0.04]) was significantly higher (t[8] = 3.162; p = 0.013) than the control group (0.82 [SD 0.04]), suggesting that prior adaptation to GVS was associated with an enhanced ability to perform the visuomotor task in the presence of novel vestibular noise. PMID:26106308
Liu, Nehemiah T; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Salinas, Jose; Batchinsky, Andriy I
2014-04-01
Heart-rate complexity (HRC) has been proposed as a new vital sign for critical care medicine. The purpose of this research was to develop a reliable method for determining HRC continuously in real time in critically ill patients using multiple waveform channels that also compensates for noisy and unreliable data. Using simultaneously acquired electrocardiogram (Leads I, II, V) and arterial blood pressure waveforms sampled at 360 Hz from 250 patients (over 375 h of patient data), we evaluated a new data fusion framework for computing HRC in real time. The framework employs two algorithms as well as signal quality indices. HRC was calculated (via the method of sample entropy), and equivalence tests were then performed. Bland-Altman plots and box plots of differences between mean HRC values were also obtained. Finally, HRC differences were analyzed by paired t tests. The gold standard for obtaining true means was manual verification of R waves and subsequent entropy calculations. Equivalence tests between mean HRC values derived from manually verified sequences and those derived from automatically detected peaks showed that the "Fusion" values were the least statistically different from the gold standard. Furthermore, the fusion of waveform sources produced better error density distributions than those derived from individual waveforms. The data fusion framework was shown to provide in real-time a reliable continuously streamed HRC value, derived from multiple waveforms in the presence of noise and artifacts. This approach will be validated and tested for assessment of HRC in critically ill patients. PMID:23990286
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, David A.; Moody, Stephen E.; Peccoud, Jean
2010-02-01
We have developed a fundamentally new type of cytometer to track the statistics of dynamic molecular interactions in hundreds of individual live cells within a single experiment. This entirely new high-throughput experimental system, which we have named Cyto•IQ, reports statistical, rather than image-based data for a large cellular population. Like a flow cytometer, Cyto•IQ rapidly measures several fluorescent probes in a large population of cells to yield a reduced statistical model that is matched to the experimental goals set by the user. However, Cyto•IQ moves beyond flow cytometry by tracking multiple probes in individual cells over time. Using adaptive learning algorithms, we process data in real time to maximize the convergence of the statistical model parameter estimators. Software controlling Cyto•IQ integrates existing open source applications to interface hardware components, process images, and adapt the data acquisition strategy based on previously acquired data. These innovations allow the study of larger populations of cells, and molecular interactions with more complex dynamics, than is possible with traditional microscope-based approaches. Cyto•IQ supports research to characterize the noisy dynamics of molecular interactions controlling biological processes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.
2015-05-01
We show possibility of the detection and identification of substance at long distance (several metres, for example) using the THz pulse reflected from the object under the real conditions: at room temperature and humidity of about 70%. The main feature of this report consists in a demonstration of the detection and identification of substance using the computer processing of the noisy THz pulse. Amplitude of the useful signal is less than the amplitude of a noise. Nevertheless, it is possible to detect "fingerprint" frequencies of substance if these frequencies are known and the SDA method is used together with new assessments for probability estimation for presence of detected frequencies. Essential restrictions of the commonly used THz TDS method for the detection and identification under real conditions (at long distance about 3.5 m and at a high relative humidity more than 50%) are demonstrated using the physical experiment with chocolate bar and thick paper bag. We show also that the THz TDS method detects spectral features of dangerous substances even in the THz signals measured in laboratory conditions (at distance 30-40 cm from the receiver and at a low relative humidity less than 2%); the n-Si and p-Si semiconductors were used as neutral substances. However, the integral correlation and likeness criteria, based on SDA method, allow us to detect the absence of dangerous substances in the samples. Current results show feasibility of using the discussed method of the THz pulsed spectroscopy for the counter-terrorism problem.
Assessing uncertainty in model parameters based on sparse and noisy experimental data.
Hiroi, Noriko; Swat, Maciej; Funahashi, Akira
2014-01-01
To perform parametric identification of mathematical models of biological events, experimental data are rare to be sufficient to estimate target behaviors produced by complex non-linear systems. We performed parameter fitting to a cell cycle model with experimental data as an in silico experiment. We calibrated model parameters with the generalized least squares method with randomized initial values and checked local and global sensitivity of the model. Sensitivity analyses showed that parameter optimization induced less sensitivity except for those related to the metabolism of the transcription factors c-Myc and E2F, which are required to overcome a restriction point (R-point). We performed bifurcation analyses with the optimized parameters and found the bimodality was lost. This result suggests that accumulation of c-Myc and E2F induced dysfunction of R-point. We performed a second parameter optimization based on the results of sensitivity analyses and incorporating additional derived from recent in vivo data. This optimization returned the bimodal characteristics of the model with a narrower range of hysteresis than the original. This result suggests that the optimized model can more easily go through R-point and come back to the gap phase after once having overcome it. Two parameter space analyses showed metabolism of c-Myc is transformed as it can allow cell bimodal behavior with weak stimuli of growth factors. This result is compatible with the character of the cell line used in our experiments. At the same time, Rb, an inhibitor of E2F, can allow cell bimodal behavior with only a limited range of stimuli when it is activated, but with a wider range of stimuli when it is inactive. These results provide two insights; biologically, the two transcription factors play an essential role in malignant cells to overcome R-point with weaker growth factor stimuli, and theoretically, sparse time-course data can be used to change a model to a biologically expected state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsuboi, Yutaka; Ihara, Takehiro; Takagi, Kazuyuki; Ozeki, Kazuhiko
A solution to the problem of improving robustness to noise in automatic speech recognition is presented in the framework of multi-band, multi-SNR, and multi-path approaches. In our word recognizer, the whole frequency band is divided into seven-overlapped subbands, and then sub-band noisy phoneme HMMs are trained on speech data mixed with the filtered white Gaussian noise at multiple SNRs. The acoustic model of a word is built as a set of concatenations of clean and noisy sub-band phoneme HMMs arranged in parallel. A Viterbi decoder allows a search path to transit to another SNR condition at a phoneme boundary. The recognition scores of the sub-bands are then recombined to give the score for a word. Experiments show that the overlapped seven-band system yields the best performance under nonstationary ambient noises. It is also shown that the use of filtered white Gaussian noise is advantageous for training noisy phoneme HMMs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hellman, R. P.
1985-01-01
A large scale laboratory investigation of loudness, annoyance, and noisiness produced by single-tone-noise complexes was undertaken to establish a broader data base for quanitification and prediction of perceived annoyance of sounds containing tonal components. Loudness, annoyance, and noisiness were distinguished as separate, distinct, attributes of sound. Three different spectral patterns of broadband noise with and without added tones were studied: broadband-flat, low-pass, and high-pass. Judgments were obtained by absolute magnitude estimation supplement by loudness matching. The data were examined and evaluated to determine the potential effects of (1) the overall sound pressure level (SPL) of the noise-tone complex, (2) tone SPL, (3) noise SPL, (4) tone-to-noise ratio, (5) the frequency of the added tone, (6) noise spectral shape, and (7) subjective attribute judged on absolute magnitude of annoyance. Results showed that, in contrast to noisiness, loudness and annoyance growth behavior depends on the relationship between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between the frequency of the added tone and the spectral shape of the noise. The close correspondence between loundness and annoyance suggests that, to better understand perceived annoyance of sound mixtures, it is necessary to relate the results to basic auditory mechanisms governing loudness and masking.
Jia Xun; Lou Yifei; Li Ruijiang; Song, William Y.; Jiang, Steve B.
2010-04-15
Purpose: Cone-beam CT (CBCT) plays an important role in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT). However, the large radiation dose from serial CBCT scans in most IGRT procedures raises a clinical concern, especially for pediatric patients who are essentially excluded from receiving IGRT for this reason. The goal of this work is to develop a fast GPU-based algorithm to reconstruct CBCT from undersampled and noisy projection data so as to lower the imaging dose. Methods: The CBCT is reconstructed by minimizing an energy functional consisting of a data fidelity term and a total variation regularization term. The authors developed a GPU-friendly version of the forward-backward splitting algorithm to solve this model. A multigrid technique is also employed. Results: It is found that 20-40 x-ray projections are sufficient to reconstruct images with satisfactory quality for IGRT. The reconstruction time ranges from 77 to 130 s on an NVIDIA Tesla C1060 (NVIDIA, Santa Clara, CA) GPU card, depending on the number of projections used, which is estimated about 100 times faster than similar iterative reconstruction approaches. Moreover, phantom studies indicate that the algorithm enables the CBCT to be reconstructed under a scanning protocol with as low as 0.1 mA s/projection. Comparing with currently widely used full-fan head and neck scanning protocol of {approx}360 projections with 0.4 mA s/projection, it is estimated that an overall 36-72 times dose reduction has been achieved in our fast CBCT reconstruction algorithm. Conclusions: This work indicates that the developed GPU-based CBCT reconstruction algorithm is capable of lowering imaging dose considerably. The high computation efficiency in this algorithm makes the iterative CBCT reconstruction approach applicable in real clinical environments.
Mourad, Ramy; Dawy, Zaher; Morcos, Faruck
2013-01-01
Group testing, also known as pooling, is a common technique used in high-throughput experiments in molecular biology to significantly reduce the number of tests required to identify rare biological interactions while correcting for experimental noise. Central to the group testing problem are 1) a pooling design that lays out how items are grouped together into pools for testing and 2) a decoder that interprets the results of the tested pools, identifying the active compounds. In this work, we take advantage of decoder guarantees from the field of compressed sensing (CS) to address the problem of efficient and reliable detection of biological interaction in noisy high-throughput experiments. We also use efficient combinatorial algorithms from group testing as well as established measurement matrices from CS to create pooling designs. First, we formulate the group testing problem in terms of a Boolean CS framework. We then propose a low-complexity l1-norm decoder to interpret pooling test results and identify active compounds. We demonstrate the robustness of the proposed l1-norm decoder in simulated experiments with false-positive and false-negative error rates typical of high-throughput experiments. When benchmarked against the current state-of-the-art methods, the proposed l1-norm decoder provides superior error correction for the majority of the cases considered while being notably faster computationally. Additionally, we test the performance of the l1-norm decoder against a real experimental data set, where 12,675 prey proteins were screened against 12 bait proteins. Lastly, we study the impact of different sparse pooling design matrices on decoder performance and show that the shifted transversal design (STD) is the most suitable among the pooling designs surveyed for biological applications of CS. PMID:24407306
Waiblinger, Christian; Brugger, Dominik; Whitmire, Clarissa J.; Stanley, Garrett B.; Schwarz, Cornelius
2015-01-01
Rodents use active whisker movements to explore their environment. The “slip hypothesis” of whisker-related tactile perception entails that short-lived kinematic events (abrupt whisker movements, called “slips”, due to bioelastic whisker properties that occur during active touch of textures) carry the decisive texture information. Supporting this hypothesis, previous studies have shown that slip amplitude and frequency occur in a texture-dependent way. Further, experiments employing passive pulsatile whisker deflections revealed that perceptual performance based on pulse kinematics (i.e., signatures that resemble slips) is far superior to the one based on time-integrated variables like frequency and intensity. So far, pulsatile stimuli were employed in a noise free environment. However, the realistic scenario involves background noise (e.g., evoked by rubbing across the texture). Therefore, if slips are used for tactile perception, the tactile neuronal system would need to differentiate slip-evoked spikes from those evoked by noise. To test the animals under these more realistic conditions, we presented passive whisker-deflections to head-fixed trained rats, consisting of “slip-like” events (waveforms mimicking slips occurring with touch of real textures) embedded into background noise. Varying the (i) shapes (ramp or pulse); (ii) kinematics (amplitude, velocity, etc.); and (iii) the probabilities of occurrence of slip-like events, we observed that rats could readily detect slip-like events of different shapes against noisy background. Psychophysical curves revealed that the difference of slip event and noise amplitude determined perception, while increased probability of occurrence (frequency) had barely any effect. These results strongly support the notion that encoding of kinematics dominantly determines whisker-related tactile perception while the computation of frequency or intensity plays a minor role. PMID:26528148
Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony
2011-01-01
Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called "earless" frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377
Boistel, Renaud; Aubin, Thierry; Cloetens, Peter; Langer, Max; Gillet, Brigitte; Josset, Patrice; Pollet, Nicolas; Herrel, Anthony
2011-01-01
Atelopus franciscus is a diurnal bufonid frog that lives in South-American tropical rain forests. As in many other frogs, males produce calls to defend their territories and attract females. However, this species is a so-called “earless” frog lacking an external tympanum and is thus anatomically deaf. Moreover, A. franciscus has no external vocal sac and lives in a sound constraining environment along river banks where it competes with other calling frogs. Despite these constraints, male A. franciscus reply acoustically to the calls of conspecifics in the field. To resolve this apparent paradox, we studied the vocal apparatus and middle-ear, analysed signal content of the calls, examined sound and signal content propagation in its natural habitat, and performed playback experiments. We show that A. franciscus males can produce only low intensity calls that propagate a short distance (<8 m) as a result of the lack of an external vocal sac. The species-specific coding of the signal is based on the pulse duration, providing a simple coding that is efficient as it allows discrimination from calls of sympatric frogs. Moreover, the signal is redundant and consequently adapted to noisy environments. As such a coding system can be efficient only at short-range, territory holders established themselves at short distances from each other. Finally, we show that the middle-ear of A. franciscus does not present any particular adaptations to compensate for the lack of an external tympanum, suggesting the existence of extra-tympanic pathways for sound propagation. PMID:21779377
Quantum-limited Amplification via Dissipation in Superconducting Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metelmann, A.; Clerk, A. A.
2015-03-01
The development of parametric amplifiers based on superconducting circuits has led to an impressive improvement in the precision and sensitivity of measurements in the quantum regime. However, standard cavity-based parametric amplifiers suffer from a fixed gain-bandwidth product. Moreover they are reciprocal devices, i.e., they amplify in both directions, leading to the requirement of additional noisy elements as circulators in the measurement chain. In our recent work we discussed a phase-insensitive quantum amplifier which utilizes dissipative interactions in a parametrically-coupled three-mode bosonic system. The use of dissipative interactions provides a fundamental advantage over standard cavity-based parametric amplifiers: large photon number gains are possible with quantum-limited added noise, with no limitation on the gain-bandwidth product. In this talk we present how this can be extended to phase-sensitive amplifiers and discuss the possibilities of making the amplifier directional.
Origin of information-limiting noise correlations
Kanitscheider, Ingmar; Coen-Cagli, Ruben; Pouget, Alexandre
2015-01-01
The ability to discriminate between similar sensory stimuli relies on the amount of information encoded in sensory neuronal populations. Such information can be substantially reduced by correlated trial-to-trial variability. Noise correlations have been measured across a wide range of areas in the brain, but their origin is still far from clear. Here we show analytically and with simulations that optimal computation on inputs with limited information creates patterns of noise correlations that account for a broad range of experimental observations while at same time causing information to saturate in large neural populations. With the example of a network of V1 neurons extracting orientation from a noisy image, we illustrate to our knowledge the first generative model of noise correlations that is consistent both with neurophysiology and with behavioral thresholds, without invoking suboptimal encoding or decoding or internal sources of variability such as stochastic network dynamics or cortical state fluctuations. We further show that when information is limited at the input, both suboptimal connectivity and internal fluctuations could similarly reduce the asymptotic information, but they have qualitatively different effects on correlations leading to specific experimental predictions. Our study indicates that noise at the sensory periphery could have a major effect on cortical representations in widely studied discrimination tasks. It also provides an analytical framework to understand the functional relevance of different sources of experimentally measured correlations. PMID:26621747
Fluctuations and discreteness in diffusion limited growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devita, Jason P.
This thesis explores the effects of fluctuations and discreteness on the growth of physical systems where diffusion plays an important role. It focuses on three related problems, all dependent on diffusion in a fundamental way, but each with its own unique challenges. With diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), the relationship between noisy and noise-free Laplacian growth is probed by averaging the results of noisy growth. By doing so in a channel geometry, we are able to compare to known solutions of the noise-free problem. We see that while the two are comparable, there are discrepancies which are not well understood. In molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), we create efficient computational algorithms, by replacing random walkers (diffusing atoms) with approximately equivalent processes. In one case, the atoms are replaced by a continuum field. Solving for the dynamics of the field yields---in an average sense---the dynamics of the atoms. In the other case, the atoms are treated as individual random-walking particles, but the details of the dynamics are changed to an (approximately) equivalent set of dynamics. This approach involves allowing adatoms to take long hops. We see approximately an order of magnitude speed up for simulating island dynamics, mound growth, and Ostwald ripening. Some ideas from the study of MBE are carried over to the study of front propagation in reaction-diffusion systems. Many of the analytic results about front propagation are derived from continuum models. It is unclear, however, that these results accurately describe the properties of a discrete system. It is reasonable to think that discrete systems will converge to the continuum results when sufficiently many particles are included. However, computational evidence of this is difficult to obtain, since the interesting properties tend to depend on a power law of the logarithm of the number of particles. Thus, the number of particles included in simulations must be exceedingly large. By
Noisy homoclinic pulse dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eaves, T. S.; Balmforth, Neil J.
2016-04-01
The effect of stochastic perturbations on nearly homoclinic pulse trains is considered for three model systems: a Duffing oscillator, the Lorenz-like Shimizu-Morioka model, and a co-dimension-three normal form. Using the Duffing model as an example, it is demonstrated that the main effect of noise does not originate from the neighbourhood of the fixed point, as is commonly assumed, but due to the perturbation of the trajectory outside that region. Singular perturbation theory is used to quantify this noise effect and is applied to construct maps of pulse spacing for the Shimizu-Morioka and normal form models. The dynamics of these stochastic maps is then explored to examine how noise influences the sequence of bifurcations that take place adjacent to homoclinic connections in Lorenz-like and Shilnikov-type flows.
Noisy homoclinic pulse dynamics.
Eaves, T S; Balmforth, Neil J
2016-04-01
The effect of stochastic perturbations on nearly homoclinic pulse trains is considered for three model systems: a Duffing oscillator, the Lorenz-like Shimizu-Morioka model, and a co-dimension-three normal form. Using the Duffing model as an example, it is demonstrated that the main effect of noise does not originate from the neighbourhood of the fixed point, as is commonly assumed, but due to the perturbation of the trajectory outside that region. Singular perturbation theory is used to quantify this noise effect and is applied to construct maps of pulse spacing for the Shimizu-Morioka and normal form models. The dynamics of these stochastic maps is then explored to examine how noise influences the sequence of bifurcations that take place adjacent to homoclinic connections in Lorenz-like and Shilnikov-type flows. PMID:27131483
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kong, Jeffrey
1994-01-01
This thesis focuses on the subject of the accuracy of parameter estimation and system identification techniques. Motivated by a complicated load measurement from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, advanced system identification techniques are needed. The objective of this problem is to accurately predict the load experienced by the aircraft wing structure during flight determined from a set of calibrated load and gage response relationship. We can then model the problem as a black box input-output system identification from which the system parameter has to be estimated. Traditional LS (Least Square) techniques and the issues of noisy data and model accuracy are addressed. A statistical bound reflecting the change in residual is derived in order to understand the effects of the perturbations on the data. Due to the intrinsic nature of the LS problem, LS solution faces the dilemma of the trade off between model accuracy and noise sensitivity. A method of conflicting performance indices is presented, thus allowing us to improve the noise sensitivity while at the same time configuring the degredation of the model accuracy. SVD techniques for data reduction are studied and the equivalence of the Correspondence Analysis (CA) and Total Least Squares Criteria are proved. We also looked at nonlinear LS problems with NASA F-111 data set as an example. Conventional methods are neither easily applicable nor suitable for the specific load problem since the exact model of the system is unknown. Neural Network (NN) does not require prior information on the model of the system. This robustness motivated us to apply the NN techniques on our load problem. Simulation results for the NN methods used in both the single load and the 'warning signal' problems are both useful and encouraging. The performance of the NN (for single load estimate) is better than the LS approach, whereas no conventional approach was tried for the 'warning signals' problems. The NN design methodology is also
Helmer, Markus; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Stephan, Valeska; Treue, Stefan; Geisel, Theo; Battaglia, Demian
2016-01-01
Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain). They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even stimulus
Helmer, Markus; Kozyrev, Vladislav; Stephan, Valeska; Treue, Stefan; Geisel, Theo; Battaglia, Demian
2016-01-01
Tuning curves are the functions that relate the responses of sensory neurons to various values within one continuous stimulus dimension (such as the orientation of a bar in the visual domain or the frequency of a tone in the auditory domain). They are commonly determined by fitting a model e.g. a Gaussian or other bell-shaped curves to the measured responses to a small subset of discrete stimuli in the relevant dimension. However, as neuronal responses are irregular and experimental measurements noisy, it is often difficult to determine reliably the appropriate model from the data. We illustrate this general problem by fitting diverse models to representative recordings from area MT in rhesus monkey visual cortex during multiple attentional tasks involving complex composite stimuli. We find that all models can be well-fitted, that the best model generally varies between neurons and that statistical comparisons between neuronal responses across different experimental conditions are affected quantitatively and qualitatively by specific model choices. As a robust alternative to an often arbitrary model selection, we introduce a model-free approach, in which features of interest are extracted directly from the measured response data without the need of fitting any model. In our attentional datasets, we demonstrate that data-driven methods provide descriptions of tuning curve features such as preferred stimulus direction or attentional gain modulations which are in agreement with fit-based approaches when a good fit exists. Furthermore, these methods naturally extend to the frequent cases of uncertain model selection. We show that model-free approaches can identify attentional modulation patterns, such as general alterations of the irregular shape of tuning curves, which cannot be captured by fitting stereotyped conventional models. Finally, by comparing datasets across different conditions, we demonstrate effects of attention that are cell- and even stimulus
Kreeger, Lauren J; Arshed, Arslaan; MacLeod, Katrina M
2012-11-01
The intrinsic properties of tonically firing neurons in the cochlear nucleus contribute to representing average sound intensity by favoring synaptic integration across auditory nerve inputs, reducing phase locking to fine temporal acoustic structure and enhancing envelope locking. To determine whether tonically firing neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus angularis (NA) resemble ideal integrators, we investigated their firing responses to noisy current injections during whole cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices. One subclass of neurons (36% of tonically firing neurons, mainly subtype tonic III) showed no significant changes in firing rate with noise fluctuations, acting like pure integrators. In contrast, many tonically firing neurons (>60%, mainly subtype tonic I or II) showed a robust sensitivity to noisy current fluctuations, increasing their firing rates with increased fluctuation amplitudes. For noise-sensitive tonic neurons, the firing rate vs. average current curves with noise had larger maximal firing rates, lower gains, and wider dynamic ranges compared with FI curves for current steps without noise. All NA neurons showed fluctuation-driven patterning of spikes with a high degree of temporal reliability and millisecond spike time precision. Single-spiking neurons in NA also responded to noisy currents with higher firing rates and reliable spike trains, although less precisely than nucleus magnocellularis neurons. Thus some NA neurons function as integrators by encoding average input levels over wide dynamic ranges regardless of current fluctuations, others detect the degree of coherence in the inputs, and most encode the temporal patterns contained in their inputs with a high degree of precision. PMID:22914650
Miller, R.; Black, W.; Miele, M.; Morgan, T.; Ivanov, J.; Xia, J.; Peterie, S.
2011-01-01
A high-resolution seismic reflection investigation mapped reflectors and identified characteristics potentially influencing the interpretation of the hydrogeology underlying a portion of the Oxnard Plain in Ventura County, California. Design and implementation of this study was heavily influenced by high levels of cultural noise from vehicles, power lines, roads, manufacturing facilities, and underground utilities/vaults. Acquisition and processing flows were tailored to this noisy environment and relatively shallow target interval. Layering within both upper and lower aquifer systems was delineated at a vertical resolution potential of around 2.5 m at 350 m depth. ?? 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Limits to Chemically Guided Multicellular Migration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varennes, Julien; Han, Bumsoo; Mugler, Andrew
Collective cell migration in response to a chemical cue requires both multicellular sensing of chemical gradients and coordinated mechanical action. Examples from morphogenesis and cancer metastasis demonstrate that clusters of migratory cells are extremely sensitive, responding to gradients of less than 1% difference in chemical concentration across a cell body. While the limits to multicellular sensing are becoming known, the ensuing consequences for coherent migration remain poorly understood. We develop a model of multicellular sensing and migration based on the cellular Potts model. Multicellular sensing of noisy chemical gradients is modeled as a process of local excitation and global inhibition (LEGI) among communicating cells. The output of the sensing process is coupled to individual cells' polarization to model migratory behavior. We find that larger clusters of cells detect the gradient direction with higher precision and thus achieve stronger polarization bias. At the same time, larger clusters are also accompanied by less coherent collective motion. The trade-off between these two effects leads to an optimally efficient cluster size. We discuss how our results relate to cancer metastasis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Hong-Bo; Dokos, Socrates
2013-06-01
We present a hybrid symplectic geometry and central tendency measure (CTM) method for detection of determinism in noisy time series. CTM is effective for detecting determinism in short time series and has been applied in many areas of nonlinear analysis. However, its performance significantly degrades in the presence of strong noise. In order to circumvent this difficulty, we propose to use symplectic principal component analysis (SPCA), a new chaotic signal de-noising method, as the first step to recover the system dynamics. CTM is then applied to determine whether the time series arises from a stochastic process or has a deterministic component. Results from numerical experiments, ranging from six benchmark deterministic models to 1/f noise, suggest that the hybrid method can significantly improve detection of determinism in noisy time series by about 20 dB when the data are contaminated by Gaussian noise. Furthermore, we apply our algorithm to study the mechanomyographic (MMG) signals arising from contraction of human skeletal muscle. Results obtained from the hybrid symplectic principal component analysis and central tendency measure demonstrate that the skeletal muscle motor unit dynamics can indeed be deterministic, in agreement with previous studies. However, the conventional CTM method was not able to definitely detect the underlying deterministic dynamics. This result on MMG signal analysis is helpful in understanding neuromuscular control mechanisms and developing MMG-based engineering control applications.
A necessary condition for applying MUSIC algorithm in limited-view inverse scattering problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Taehoon; Park, Won-Kwang
2015-09-01
Throughout various results of numerical simulations, it is well-known that MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm can be applied in the limited-view inverse scattering problems. However, the application is somehow heuristic. In this contribution, we identify a necessary condition of MUSIC for imaging of collection of small, perfectly conducting cracks. This is based on the fact that MUSIC imaging functional can be represented as an infinite series of Bessel function of integer order of the first kind. Numerical experiments from noisy synthetic data supports our investigation.
Quantum limits on optical phase estimation accuracy from classical rate-distortion theory
Nair, Ranjith
2014-12-04
The classical information-theoretic lower bound on the distortion of a random variable upon transmission through a noisy channel is applied to quantum-optical phase estimation. An approach for obtaining Bayesian lower bounds on the phase estimation accuracy is described that employs estimates of the classical capacity of the relevant quantum-optical channels. The Heisenberg limit for lossless phase estimation is derived for arbitrary probe state and prior distributions of the phase, and shot-noise scaling of the phase accuracy is established in the presence of nonzero loss for a parallel entanglement-assisted strategy with a single probe mode.
On the scaling limits of low-frequency noise in SiGe HBTs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansen, Jarle A.; Jin, Zhenrong; Cressler, John D.; Cui, Yan; Niu, Guofu; Liang, Qingqing; Rieh, Jae-Sung; Freeman, Greg; Ahlgren, Dave; Joseph, Alvin
2004-11-01
The low-frequency noise in high-speed transistors generally increases (degrades) as device technologies down-scale for higher performance. Interestingly, the latest generation of deep-submicron SiGe HBTs breaks this trend, and we find record-low noise corner frequencies of 220 Hz in SiGe HBTs with a peak fT of 210 GHz. An explanation for this behavior based on a reduction of the number of dominant noisy traps is offered, and microscopic 2-D simulations of noise are used to support this claim and explore the origins and scaling limits of low-frequency noise in advanced SiGe HBTs.
Limited-path-length entanglement percolation in quantum complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cuquet, Martí; Calsamiglia, John
2011-03-01
We study entanglement distribution in quantum complex networks where nodes are connected by bipartite entangled states. These networks are characterized by a complex structure, which dramatically affects how information is transmitted through them. For pure quantum state links, quantum networks exhibit a remarkable feature absent in classical networks: it is possible to effectively rewire the network by performing local operations on the nodes. We propose a family of such quantum operations that decrease the entanglement percolation threshold of the network and increase the size of the giant connected component. We provide analytic results for complex networks with an arbitrary (uncorrelated) degree distribution. These results are in good agreement with numerical simulations, which also show enhancement in correlated and real-world networks. The proposed quantum preprocessing strategies are not robust in the presence of noise. However, even when the links consist of (noisy) mixed-state links, one can send quantum information through a connecting path with a fidelity that decreases with the path length. In this noisy scenario, complex networks offer a clear advantage over regular lattices, namely, the fact that two arbitrary nodes can be connected through a relatively small number of steps, known as the small-world effect. We calculate the probability that two arbitrary nodes in the network can successfully communicate with a fidelity above a given threshold. This amounts to working out the classical problem of percolation with a limited path length. We find that this probability can be significant even for paths limited to few connections and that the results for standard (unlimited) percolation are soon recovered if the path length exceeds by a finite amount the average path length, which in complex networks generally scales logarithmically with the size of the network.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallmitjana, S.; Ricart, I.; Bosch, S.; Gargallo, A.; Acosta, E.
2015-02-01
The study of caustics is important because they contain information about the image formation properties of optical systems. In this work we use the concept of caustic as a set of focal points, and we have developed a second order approach theory to determine local slopes and curvatures of a wavefront emerging from an optical system. The method is based on the use of a point diffraction interferometer, and the analysis of the interferograms allows us to compute the focal region. Experimental results obtained with a plano-convex lens demonstrate the accuracy of the combined theoretical-experimental method here developed. Application to noisy wavefronts such as those produced by biological samples, specifically in crystalline lenses of fish eyes, are also exposed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paliwal, Deepak; Choudhur, Achintya; Govandhan, T.
2014-06-01
Fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings requires efficient signal processing techniques. For this purpose, the performances of envelope detection with fast Fourier transform (FFT) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) of vibration signals produced from a bearing with defects on inner race and rolling element, have been examined at low signal to noise ratio. Both simulated and experimental signals from identical bearings have been considered for the purpose of analysis. The bearings have been modeled as spring-mass-dashpot systems and the simulated signals have been obtained considering transfer functions for the bearing systems subjected to impulsive loads due to the defects. Frequency B spline wavelets have been applied for CWT and a discussion on wavelet selection has been presented for better effectiveness. Results show that use of CWT with the proposed wavelets overcomes the short coming of FFT while processing a noisy vibration signals for defect detection of bearings.
Ríos-Chelén, Alejandro Ariel; Salaberria, C; Barbosa, I; Macías Garcia, C; Gil, D
2012-11-01
Song learning has evolved within several avian groups. Although its evolutionary advantage is not clear, it has been proposed that song learning may be advantageous in allowing birds to adapt their songs to the local acoustic environment. To test this hypothesis, we analysed patterns of song adjustment to noisy environments and explored their possible link to song learning. Bird vocalizations can be masked by low-frequency noise, and birds respond to this by singing higher-pitched songs. Most reports of this strategy involve oscines, a group of birds with learning-based song variability, and it is doubtful whether species that lack song learning (e.g. suboscines) can adjust their songs to noisy environments. We address this question by comparing the degree of song adjustment to noise in a large sample of oscines (17 populations, 14 species) and suboscines (11 populations, 7 species), recorded in Brazil (Manaus, Brasilia and Curitiba) and Mexico City. We found a significantly stronger association between minimum song frequency and noise levels (effect size) in oscines than in suboscines, suggesting a tighter match in oscines between song transmission capacity and ambient acoustics. Suboscines may be more vulnerable to acoustic pollution than oscines and thus less capable of colonizing cities or acoustically novel habitats. Additionally, we found that species whose song frequency was more divergent between populations showed tighter noise-song frequency associations. Our results suggest that song learning and/or song plasticity allows adaptation to new habitats and that this selective advantage may be linked to the evolution of song learning and plasticity. PMID:22905893
Tamaki, Kiyoshi; Kato, Go
2010-02-15
One of the simplest security proofs of quantum key distribution is based on the so-called complementarity scenario, which involves the complementarity control of an actual protocol and a virtual protocol [M. Koashi, e-print arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)]. The existing virtual protocol has a limitation in classical postprocessing, i.e., the syndrome for the error-correction step has to be encrypted. In this paper, we remove this limitation by constructing a quantum circuit for the virtual protocol. Moreover, our circuit with a shield system gives an intuitive proof of why adding noise to the sifted key increases the bit error rate threshold in the general case in which one of the parties does not possess a qubit. Thus, our circuit bridges the simple proof and the use of wider classes of classical postprocessing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca
2013-04-01
An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.
Limited range of motion is a term meaning that a joint or body part cannot move through its normal range of motion. ... Motion may be limited because of a problem within the joint, swelling of tissue around the joint, ...
High-fidelity gate operations for quantum computing beyond dephasing time limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Souza, Alexandre M.; Sarthour, Roberto S.; Oliveira, Ivan S.; Suter, Dieter
2015-12-01
The implementation of quantum gates with fidelities that exceed the threshold for reliable quantum computing requires robust gates whose performance is not limited by the precision of the available control fields. The performance of these gates also should not be affected by the noisy environment of the quantum register. Here we use randomized benchmarking of quantum gate operations to compare the performance of different families of gates that compensate errors in the control field amplitudes and decouple the system from the environmental noise. We obtain average fidelities of up to 99.8%, which exceeds the threshold value for some quantum error correction schemes as well as the expected limit from the dephasing induced by the environment.
Random walks, diffusion limited aggregation in a wedge, and average conformal maps.
Sander, Leonard M; Somfai, Ellák
2005-06-01
We investigate diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in a wedge geometry. Arneodo and collaborators have suggested that the ensemble average of DLA cluster density should be close to the noise-free selected Saffman-Taylor finger. We show that a different, but related, ensemble average, that of the conformal maps associated with random clusters, yields a nontrivial shape which is also not far from the Saffman-Taylor finger. However, we have previously demonstrated that the same average of DLA in a channel geometry is not the Saffman-Taylor finger. This casts doubt on the idea that the average of noisy diffusion-limited growth is governed by a simple transcription of noise-free results. PMID:16035911
Gallegos, F.R.
1996-06-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described.
Gallegos, F.R.
1997-01-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the beam current limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beamline below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Search for Lyman Limit Absorption Edge in Quasar Continuum
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, W.-H.; Malkan, M. A.; Chang, Thomas H. W.
1993-12-01
We examine the low resolution UV spectra of the 37 quasars in HST Key Project to search for intrinsic Lyman absorption edge which may be a signature of thermal accretion disks. Only 28 QSOs have proper redshifts to place the region of interest in the G160L window. We fit the L_β with two gaussians to remove the line. We then avoid 20 and 50 Angstroms on the blue and red sides of 912 Angstroms in the rest frame, and take 80 Angstroms bins (rest frame) on both sides but further out for analysis. We compare the single power-law fitting (to the entire range across the edge), with the two power-law fitting to blue and red bands. We also measure the percentage drop of flux over the Lyman limit. There are 7 objects with intrinsically noisy spectra, which were presumably caused by intervening Lyman absorption systems. Applying the two methods on the rest 21 objects, we found {24%} candidates to have possible rest frame Lyman limit absorption edges. Same analyses have also been performed on optical spectra of medium- to high-redshift QSOs from Lick Observatory and Hale Observatory. Similar results were also found.
Emmanouilidou, Dimitra; McCollum, Eric D.; Park, Daniel E.
2015-01-01
Goal Chest auscultation constitutes a portable low-cost tool widely used for respiratory disease detection. Though it offers a powerful means of pulmonary examination, it remains riddled with a number of issues that limit its diagnostic capability. Particularly, patient agitation (especially in children), background chatter, and other environmental noises often contaminate the auscultation, hence affecting the clarity of the lung sound itself. This paper proposes an automated multiband denoising scheme for improving the quality of auscultation signals against heavy background contaminations. Methods The algorithm works on a simple two-microphone setup, dynamically adapts to the background noise and suppresses contaminations while successfully preserving the lung sound content. The proposed scheme is refined to offset maximal noise suppression against maintaining the integrity of the lung signal, particularly its unknown adventitious components that provide the most informative diagnostic value during lung pathology. Results The algorithm is applied to digital recordings obtained in the field in a busy clinic in West Africa and evaluated using objective signal fidelity measures and perceptual listening tests performed by a panel of licensed physicians. A strong preference of the enhanced sounds is revealed. Significance The strengths and benefits of the proposed method lie in the simple automated setup and its adaptive nature, both fundamental conditions for everyday clinical applicability. It can be simply extended to a real-time implementation, and integrated with lung sound acquisition protocols. PMID:25879837
Ash, Stephen M.; Ip-Lin, King
2015-01-01
Duplicate patient records in health information systems have received increased attention in recent time due to regulatory incentives to integrate the healthcare enterprise. Historically, most patient record matching systems have been limited to simple applications of the Fellegi-Sunter theory of record linkage with edit distance based string similarity measurements. String similarity approaches ignore the rich semantic information present by reducing it to a simple syntactic comparison of characters. This work describes an updated approach to building clinical medical record linkage systems, which embraces the unavoidable problems present in real-world patient matching. Using a ground truth dataset of a real patient population, we demonstrate that systems built in this fashion improve recall by 76% with little reduction in precision. This result empirically demonstrates the size of the gap between sophisticated systems and naïve approaches. Additionally, it accentuates the difficulty in estimating the false negative error in this setting as previous research has reported much higher levels of recall, due, in part, to measuring from biased samples. PMID:26306279
Ash, Stephen M; Ip-Lin, King
2015-01-01
Duplicate patient records in health information systems have received increased attention in recent time due to regulatory incentives to integrate the healthcare enterprise. Historically, most patient record matching systems have been limited to simple applications of the Fellegi-Sunter theory of record linkage with edit distance based string similarity measurements. String similarity approaches ignore the rich semantic information present by reducing it to a simple syntactic comparison of characters. This work describes an updated approach to building clinical medical record linkage systems, which embraces the unavoidable problems present in real-world patient matching. Using a ground truth dataset of a real patient population, we demonstrate that systems built in this fashion improve recall by 76% with little reduction in precision. This result empirically demonstrates the size of the gap between sophisticated systems and naïve approaches. Additionally, it accentuates the difficulty in estimating the false negative error in this setting as previous research has reported much higher levels of recall, due, in part, to measuring from biased samples. PMID:26306279
Deneux, Thomas; Kaszas, Attila; Szalay, Gergely; Katona, Gergely; Lakner, Tamás; Grinvald, Amiram; Rózsa, Balázs; Vanzetta, Ivo
2016-01-01
Extracting neuronal spiking activity from large-scale two-photon recordings remains challenging, especially in mammals in vivo, where large noises often contaminate the signals. We propose a method, MLspike, which returns the most likely spike train underlying the measured calcium fluorescence. It relies on a physiological model including baseline fluctuations and distinct nonlinearities for synthetic and genetically encoded indicators. Model parameters can be either provided by the user or estimated from the data themselves. MLspike is computationally efficient thanks to its original discretization of probability representations; moreover, it can also return spike probabilities or samples. Benchmarked on extensive simulations and real data from seven different preparations, it outperformed state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with the finding obtained from systematic data investigation (noise level, spiking rate and so on) that photonic noise is not necessarily the main limiting factor, our method allows spike extraction from large-scale recordings, as demonstrated on acousto-optical three-dimensional recordings of over 1,000 neurons in vivo. PMID:27432255
Deneux, Thomas; Kaszas, Attila; Szalay, Gergely; Katona, Gergely; Lakner, Tamás; Grinvald, Amiram; Rózsa, Balázs; Vanzetta, Ivo
2016-01-01
Extracting neuronal spiking activity from large-scale two-photon recordings remains challenging, especially in mammals in vivo, where large noises often contaminate the signals. We propose a method, MLspike, which returns the most likely spike train underlying the measured calcium fluorescence. It relies on a physiological model including baseline fluctuations and distinct nonlinearities for synthetic and genetically encoded indicators. Model parameters can be either provided by the user or estimated from the data themselves. MLspike is computationally efficient thanks to its original discretization of probability representations; moreover, it can also return spike probabilities or samples. Benchmarked on extensive simulations and real data from seven different preparations, it outperformed state-of-the-art algorithms. Combined with the finding obtained from systematic data investigation (noise level, spiking rate and so on) that photonic noise is not necessarily the main limiting factor, our method allows spike extraction from large-scale recordings, as demonstrated on acousto-optical three-dimensional recordings of over 1,000 neurons in vivo. PMID:27432255
Optimally combined confidence limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janot, P.; Le Diberder, F.
1998-02-01
An analytical and optimal procedure to combine statistically independent sets of confidence levels on a quantity is presented. This procedure does not impose any constraint on the methods followed by each analysis to derive its own limit. It incorporates the a priori statistical power of each of the analyses to be combined, in order to optimize the overall sensitivity. It can, in particular, be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several analyses searching for the Higgs boson in different decay channels, with different selection efficiencies, mass resolution and expected background. It can also be used to combine the mass limits obtained by several experiments (e.g. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3 and OPAL, at LEP 2) independently of the method followed by each of these experiments to derive their own limit. A method to derive the limit set by one analysis is also presented, along with an unbiased prescription to optimize the expected mass limit in the no-signal-hypothesis.
Systematics and limit calculations
Fisher, Wade; /Fermilab
2006-12-01
This note discusses the estimation of systematic uncertainties and their incorporation into upper limit calculations. Two different approaches to reducing systematics and their degrading impact on upper limits are introduced. An improved {chi}{sup 2} function is defined which is useful in comparing Poisson distributed data with models marginalized by systematic uncertainties. Also, a technique using profile likelihoods is introduced which provides a means of constraining the degrading impact of systematic uncertainties on limit calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sinclair, W. K.
2000-01-01
Radiation exposures to individuals in space can greatly exceed natural radiation exposure on Earth and possibly normal occupational radiation exposures as well. Consequently, procedures limiting exposures would be necessary. Limitations were proposed by the Radiobiological Advisory Panel of the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council in 1970. This panel recommended short-term limits to avoid deterministic effects and a single career limit (of 4 Sv) based on a doubling of the cancer risk in men aged 35 to 55. Later, when risk estimates for cancer had increased and were recognized to be age and sex dependent, the NCRP, in Report No. 98 in 1989, recommended a range of career limits based on age and sex from 1 to 4 Sv. NCRP is again in the process of revising recommendations for astronaut exposure, partly because risk estimates have increased further and partly to recognize trends in limiting radiation exposure occupationally on the ground. The result of these considerations is likely to be similar short-term limits for deterministic effects but modified career limits.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hansen, Janne Hedegaard
2012-01-01
In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Showers, R. M.; Lin, S.-Y.; Schulz, R. B.
1981-02-01
Both fundamental and state-of-the-art limits are treated with emphasis on the former. Fundamental limits result from both natural and man-made electromagnetic noise which then affect two basic ratios, signal-to-noise (S/N) and extraneous-input-to-noise (I/N). Tolerable S/N values are discussed for both digital and analog communications systems. These lead to tolerable signal-to-extraneous-input (S/I) ratios, again for digital and analog communications systems, as well as radar and sonar. State-of-the-art limits for transmitters include RF noise emission, spurious emissions, and intermodulation. Receiver limits include adjacent-channel interactions, image, IF, and other spurious responses, including cross modulation, intermodulation, and desensitization. Unintentional emitters and receivers are also discussed. Coupling limitations between undesired sources and receptors are considered from mechanisms including radiation, induction, and conduction.
Physical limits on kinesin-5–mediated chromosome congression in the smallest mitotic spindles
McCoy, Kelsey M.; Tubman, Emily S.; Claas, Allison; Tank, Damien; Clancy, Shelly Applen; O’Toole, Eileen T.; Berman, Judith; Odde, David J.
2015-01-01
A characteristic feature of mitotic spindles is the congression of chromosomes near the spindle equator, a process mediated by dynamic kinetochore microtubules. A major challenge is to understand how precise, submicrometer-scale control of kinetochore microtubule dynamics is achieved in the smallest mitotic spindles, where the noisiness of microtubule assembly/disassembly will potentially act to overwhelm the spatial information that controls microtubule plus end–tip positioning to mediate congression. To better understand this fundamental limit, we conducted an integrated live fluorescence, electron microscopy, and modeling analysis of the polymorphic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which contains one of the smallest known mitotic spindles (<1 μm). Previously, ScCin8p (kinesin-5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was shown to mediate chromosome congression by promoting catastrophe of long kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). Using C. albicans yeast and hyphal kinesin-5 (Kip1p) heterozygotes (KIP1/kip1∆), we found that mutant spindles have longer kMTs than wild-type spindles, consistent with a less-organized spindle. By contrast, kinesin-8 heterozygous mutant (KIP3/kip3∆) spindles exhibited the same spindle organization as wild type. Of interest, spindle organization in the yeast and hyphal states was indistinguishable, even though yeast and hyphal cell lengths differ by two- to fivefold, demonstrating that spindle length regulation and chromosome congression are intrinsic to the spindle and largely independent of cell size. Together these results are consistent with a kinesin-5–mediated, length-dependent depolymerase activity that organizes chromosomes at the spindle equator in C. albicans to overcome fundamental noisiness in microtubule self-assembly. More generally, we define a dimensionless number that sets a fundamental physical limit for maintaining congression in small spindles in the face of assembly noise and find that C. albicans operates very close to
Physical limits on kinesin-5-mediated chromosome congression in the smallest mitotic spindles.
McCoy, Kelsey M; Tubman, Emily S; Claas, Allison; Tank, Damien; Clancy, Shelly Applen; O'Toole, Eileen T; Berman, Judith; Odde, David J
2015-11-01
A characteristic feature of mitotic spindles is the congression of chromosomes near the spindle equator, a process mediated by dynamic kinetochore microtubules. A major challenge is to understand how precise, submicrometer-scale control of kinetochore micro-tubule dynamics is achieved in the smallest mitotic spindles, where the noisiness of microtubule assembly/disassembly will potentially act to overwhelm the spatial information that controls microtubule plus end-tip positioning to mediate congression. To better understand this fundamental limit, we conducted an integrated live fluorescence, electron microscopy, and modeling analysis of the polymorphic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which contains one of the smallest known mitotic spindles (<1 μm). Previously, ScCin8p (kinesin-5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was shown to mediate chromosome congression by promoting catastrophe of long kinetochore microtubules (kMTs). Using C. albicans yeast and hyphal kinesin-5 (Kip1p) heterozygotes (KIP1/kip1∆), we found that mutant spindles have longer kMTs than wild-type spindles, consistent with a less-organized spindle. By contrast, kinesin-8 heterozygous mutant (KIP3/kip3∆) spindles exhibited the same spindle organization as wild type. Of interest, spindle organization in the yeast and hyphal states was indistinguishable, even though yeast and hyphal cell lengths differ by two- to fivefold, demonstrating that spindle length regulation and chromosome congression are intrinsic to the spindle and largely independent of cell size. Together these results are consistent with a kinesin-5-mediated, length-dependent depolymerase activity that organizes chromosomes at the spindle equator in C. albicans to overcome fundamental noisiness in microtubule self-assembly. More generally, we define a dimensionless number that sets a fundamental physical limit for maintaining congression in small spindles in the face of assembly noise and find that C. albicans operates very close to this
McGinnis, J M
1985-01-01
Recent years have been marked by unprecedented accomplishments in preventing disease and reducing mortality. More gains can be expected, but there are limits. The forces shaping the nature and potential of prevention programs can be characterized as points falling along a spectrum ranging from the purely scientific to the purely social. This paper focuses on four elements of that spectrum, discussing some of the limitations to prevention that are presented by biological, technical, ethical, and economic factors. The author concludes with an essentially optimistic perspective on the prospects, special opportunities, and imperatives inherent in each of the categories of limitations discussed. PMID:3923530
Force Limited Vibration Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry; Chang, Kurng Y.
2005-01-01
This slide presentation reviews the concept and applications of Force Limited Vibration Testing. The goal of vibration testing of aerospace hardware is to identify problems that would result in flight failures. The commonly used aerospace vibration tests uses artificially high shaker forces and responses at the resonance frequencies of the test item. It has become common to limit the acceleration responses in the test to those predicted for the flight. This requires an analysis of the acceleration response, and requires placing accelerometers on the test item. With the advent of piezoelectric gages it has become possible to improve vibration testing. The basic equations have are reviewed. Force limits are analogous and complementary to the acceleration specifications used in conventional vibration testing. Just as the acceleration specification is the frequency spectrum envelope of the in-flight acceleration at the interface between the test item and flight mounting structure, the force limit is the envelope of the in-flight force at the interface . In force limited vibration tests, both the acceleration and force specifications are needed, and the force specification is generally based on and proportional to the acceleration specification. Therefore, force limiting does not compensate for errors in the development of the acceleration specification, e.g., too much conservatism or the lack thereof. These errors will carry over into the force specification. Since in-flight vibratory force data are scarce, force limits are often derived from coupled system analyses and impedance information obtained from measurements or finite element models (FEM). Fortunately, data on the interface forces between systems and components are now available from system acoustic and vibration tests of development test models and from a few flight experiments. Semi-empirical methods of predicting force limits are currently being developed on the basis of the limited flight and system test
DeShong, J.A.
1960-03-01
A control-limiting device for monltoring a control system is described. The system comprises a conditionsensing device, a condition-varying device exerting a control over the condition, and a control means to actuate the condition-varying device. A control-limiting device integrates the total movement or other change of the condition-varying device over any interval of time during a continuum of overlapping periods of time, and if the tothl movement or change of the condition-varying device exceeds a preset value, the control- limiting device will switch the control of the operated apparatus from automatic to manual control.
Galilean limit of electrodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reula, O. A.; Hamity, V. H.; Frittelli, S.
The final interest of the authors' work is to study the Newtonian limit as an approximation to General Relativity. In this paper they show, using the Galilean limit of electrodynamics with external sources as a test model, some of the problems that they will be confronted with, and the techniques that are introduced to attack them. The crucial physical issue, to define an asymptotic expansion of a class of solutions, is the selection of initial data which results of imposing regularity conditions in the nonrelativistic limit. The authors' model is an example of a more general class of systems which includes, hopefully, the gravitational field plus matter.
McBranch, Duncan W.; Mattes, Benjamin R.; Koskelo, Aaron C.; Heeger, Alan J.; Robinson, Jeanne M.; Smilowitz, Laura B.; Klimov, Victor I.; Cha, Myoungsik; Sariciftci, N. Serdar; Hummelen, Jan C.
1998-01-01
Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.
Cohen, S.A.; Budny, R.V.; Corso, V.; Boychuck, J.; Grisham, L.; Heifetz, D.; Hosea, J.; Luyber, S.; Loprest, P.; Manos, D.
1984-07-01
A limiter with a specially contoured front face and the ability to rotate during tokamak discharges has been installed in a PLT pump duct. These features have been selected to handle the unique particle removal and heat load requirements of ICRF heating and lower-hybrid current-drive experiments. The limiter has been conditioned and commissioned in an ion-beam test stand by irradiation with 1 MW power, 200 ms duration beams of 40 keV hydrogen ions. Operation in PLT during ohmic discharges has proven the ability of the limiter to reduce localized heating caused by energetic electron bombardment and to remove about 2% of the ions lost to the PLT walls and limiters.
Goldsworthy, W.W.; Robinson, J.B.
1959-03-31
A peak voltage amplitude limiting system adapted for use with a cascade type amplifier is described. In its detailed aspects, the invention includes an amplifier having at least a first triode tube and a second triode tube, the cathode of the second tube being connected to the anode of the first tube. A peak limiter triode tube has its control grid coupled to thc anode of the second tube and its anode connected to the cathode of the second tube. The operation of the limiter is controlled by a bias voltage source connected to the control grid of the limiter tube and the output of the system is taken from the anode of the second tube.
Henry's Law and Noisy Knuckles.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kimbrough, Doris R.
1999-01-01
Discusses Henry's Law which describes the relationship between the pressure of gas and the concentration of that gas in a solution. Presents an application of Henry's Law to the cracking of knuckles. (CCM)
Noisy quantum phase communication channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teklu, Berihu; Trapani, Jacopo; Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.
2015-06-01
We address quantum phase channels, i.e communication schemes where information is encoded in the phase-shift imposed to a given signal, and analyze their performances in the presence of phase diffusion. We evaluate mutual information for coherent and phase-coherent signals, and for both ideal and realistic phase receivers. We show that coherent signals offer better performances than phase-coherent ones, and that realistic phase channels are effective ones in the relevant regime of low energy and large alphabets.
Adaptive sampling for noisy problems
Cantu-Paz, E
2004-03-26
The usual approach to deal with noise present in many real-world optimization problems is to take an arbitrary number of samples of the objective function and use the sample average as an estimate of the true objective value. The number of samples is typically chosen arbitrarily and remains constant for the entire optimization process. This paper studies an adaptive sampling technique that varies the number of samples based on the uncertainty of deciding between two individuals. Experiments demonstrate the effect of adaptive sampling on the final solution quality reached by a genetic algorithm and the computational cost required to find the solution. The results suggest that the adaptive technique can effectively eliminate the need to set the sample size a priori, but in many cases it requires high computational costs.
Optimal Limited Contingency Planning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.
2003-01-01
For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank
2011-01-01
The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.
Improved limited discrepancy search
Korf, R.E.
1996-12-31
We present an improvement to Harvey and Ginsberg`s limited discrepancy search algorithm, which eliminates much of the redundancy in the original, by generating each path from the root to the maximum search depth only once. For a complete binary tree of depth d this reduces the asymptotic complexity from O(d+2/2 2{sup d}) to O(2{sup d}). The savings is much less in a partial tree search, or in a heavily pruned tree. The overhead of the improved algorithm on a complete binary tree is only a factor of b/(b - 1) compared to depth-first search. While this constant factor is greater on a heavily pruned tree, this improvement makes limited discrepancy search a viable alternative to depth-first search, whenever the entire tree may not be searched. Finally, we present both positive and negative empirical results on the utility of limited discrepancy search, for the problem of number partitioning.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Glassman, Arthur J.
1993-01-01
A method for estimating turbine limit-load pressure ratio from turbine map information is presented and demonstrated. It is based on a mean line analysis at the last-rotor exit. The required map information includes choke flow rate at all speeds as well as pressure ratio and efficiency at the onset of choke at design speed. One- and two-stage turbines are analyzed to compare the results with those from a more rigorous off-design flow analysis and to show the sensitivities of the computed limit-load pressure ratios to changes in the key assumptions.
McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.
1998-04-21
Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.
Limits on nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C.
2016-05-01
In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.
Intellectually Limited Mothers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaminer, Ruth K.; Cohen, Herbert J.
The paper examines whether a relationship exists between intellectual limitation on the mother's part and unfavorable outcomes for her children. The scope of the problem is examined and the difficulties inherent in estimating prevalence are noted. The issue of child neglect, rather than abuse is shown to be a major problem among institutionalized…
Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Gapanov, O.A.
1995-11-01
A one-dimensional model for a multiheaded detonation has been constructed with account for friction, heat losses, and the decay of gas velocity pulsations. The existence of detonation limits in narrow channels has been numerically shown. The calculation results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tyler, Barbara R.; Biesekerski, Joan
The Quinmester course "The Outer Limits" involves an exploration of unknown worlds, mental and physical, through fiction and nonfiction. Its purpose is to focus attention on the ongoing conquest of the frontiers of the mind, the physical world, and outer space. The subject matter includes identification and investigation of unknown worlds in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cottey, Alan
2012-01-01
The author reflects briefly on what limited degree of global ecological stability and human cultural stability may be achieved, provided that humanity retains hope and does not give way to despair or hide in denial. These thoughts were triggered by a recent conference on International Stability and Systems Engineering. (Contains 5 notes.)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mindess, Harvey
1983-01-01
Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)
Limitations in scatter propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lampert, E. W.
1982-04-01
A short description of the main scatter propagation mechanisms is presented; troposcatter, meteor burst communication and chaff scatter. For these propagation modes, in particular for troposcatter, the important specific limitations discussed are: link budget and resulting hardware consequences, diversity, mobility, information transfer and intermodulation and intersymbol interference, frequency range and future extension in frequency range for troposcatter, and compatibility with other services (EMC).
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Arriola, Sonya; Murphy, Katy
2010-01-01
Undocumented students are a population defined by limitations. Their lack of legal residency and any supporting paperwork (e.g., Social Security number, government issued identification) renders them essentially invisible to the American and state governments. They cannot legally work. In many states, they cannot legally drive. After the age of…
Defining structural limit zones
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merchant, D. H.
1978-01-01
Method for defining limit loads uses probability distribution of largest load occurring during given time intervals. Method is compatible with both deterministic and probabilistic structural design criteria. It also rationally accounts for fact that longer structure is exposed to random loading environment, greater is possibility that it will experience extreme load.
Fracture mechanics validity limits
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.
1994-01-01
Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in
Telescopic limiting magnitudes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, Bradley E.
1990-01-01
The prediction of the magnitude of the faintest star visible through a telescope by a visual observer is a difficult problem in physiology. Many prediction formulas have been advanced over the years, but most do not even consider the magnification used. Here, the prediction algorithm problem is attacked with two complimentary approaches: (1) First, a theoretical algorithm was developed based on physiological data for the sensitivity of the eye. This algorithm also accounts for the transmission of the atmosphere and the telescope, the brightness of the sky, the color of the star, the age of the observer, the aperture, and the magnification. (2) Second, 314 observed values for the limiting magnitude were collected as a test of the formula. It is found that the formula does accurately predict the average observed limiting magnitudes under all conditions.
Dudley, Nigel
2002-04-11
Trust remuneration committees are paying chief executives above the limits recommended in Department of Health guidance. In doing so they are ignoring the government's stated policy of fair pay for all in the NHS and their duty of accountability. Excessive awards made by a remuneration committee can be subject to judicial review and overturned. The health secretary should review the workings of trust remuneration committees and ensure that their decisions are transparent to the public. PMID:11989336
Stace, Thomas M.
2010-07-15
The precision of typical thermometers consisting of N particles scales as {approx}1/{radical}(N). For high-precision thermometry and thermometric standards, this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to {approx}1/N, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.
Limits of social mobilization.
Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad
2013-04-16
The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719
Greb, G.A.; Johnson, G.W.
1983-01-01
Since 1969, the focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitations Talks (SALT) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some form of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus that enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2014-10-21
Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587
Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J.; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W.; Gimeno, German
2013-09-10
Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sliney, David H.
1990-07-01
Historically many different agencies and standards organizations have proposed laser occupational exposure limits (EL1s) or maximum permissible exposure (MPE) levels. Although some safety standards have been limited in scope to manufacturer system safety performance standards or to codes of practice most have included occupational EL''s. Initially in the 1960''s attention was drawn to setting EL''s however as greater experience accumulated in the use of lasers and some accident experience had been gained safety procedures were developed. It became clear by 1971 after the first decade of laser use that detailed hazard evaluation of each laser environment was too complex for most users and a scheme of hazard classification evolved. Today most countries follow a scheme of four major hazard classifications as defined in Document WS 825 of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). The classifications and the associated accessible emission limits (AEL''s) were based upon the EL''s. The EL and AEL values today are in surprisingly good agreement worldwide. There exists a greater range of safety requirements for the user for each class of laser. The current MPE''s (i. e. EL''s) and their basis are highlighted in this presentation. 2. 0
Rutherford, Alex; Cebrian, Manuel; Dsouza, Sohan; Moro, Esteban; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad
2013-01-01
The Internet and social media have enabled the mobilization of large crowds to achieve time-critical feats, ranging from mapping crises in real time, to organizing mass rallies, to conducting search-and-rescue operations over large geographies. Despite significant success, selection bias may lead to inflated expectations of the efficacy of social mobilization for these tasks. What are the limits of social mobilization, and how reliable is it in operating at these limits? We build on recent results on the spatiotemporal structure of social and information networks to elucidate the constraints they pose on social mobilization. We use the DARPA Network Challenge as our working scenario, in which social media were used to locate 10 balloons across the United States. We conduct high-resolution simulations for referral-based crowdsourcing and obtain a statistical characterization of the population recruited, geography covered, and time to completion. Our results demonstrate that the outcome is plausible without the presence of mass media but lies at the limit of what time-critical social mobilization can achieve. Success relies critically on highly connected individuals willing to mobilize people in distant locations, overcoming the local trapping of diffusion in highly dense areas. However, even under these highly favorable conditions, the risk of unsuccessful search remains significant. These findings have implications for the design of better incentive schemes for social mobilization. They also call for caution in estimating the reliability of this capability. PMID:23576719
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen Greb, G.; Johnson, Gerald W.
1983-10-01
Following World War II, American scientists and politicians proposed in the Baruch plan a radical solution to the problem of nuclear weapons: to eliminate them forever under the auspices of an international nuclear development authority. The Soviets, who as yet did not possess the bomb, rejected this plan. Another approach suggested by Secretary of War Henry Stimson to negotiate directly with the Soviet Union was not accepted by the American leadership. These initial arms limitation failures both reflected and exacerbated the hostile political relationship of the superpowers in the 1950s and 1960s. Since 1969, the more modest focus of the Soviet-American arms control process has been on limiting the numbers and sizes of both defensive and offensive strategic systems. The format for this effort has been the Strategic Arms Limitatins Talks (Salt) and more recently the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START). Both sides came to these negotiations convinced that nuclear arsenals had grown so large that some for of mutual restraint was needed. Although the SALT/START process has been slow and ponderous, it has produced several concrete the agreements and collateral benefits. The 1972 ABM Treaty restricts the deployment of ballistic missile defense systems, the 1972 Interim Agreement places a quantitative freeze on each side's land based and sea based strategic launchers, and the as yet unratified 1979 SALT II Treaty sets numerical limits on all offensive strategic systems and sublimits on MIRVed systems. Collateral benefits include improved verification procedures, working definitions and counting rules, and permanent bureaucratic apparatus which enhance stability and increase the chances for achieving additional agreements.
Darmann, Francis Anthony
2013-10-08
A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.
Limits to the precision of gradient sensing with spatial communication and temporal integration.
Mugler, Andrew; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya
2016-02-01
Gradient sensing requires at least two measurements at different points in space. These measurements must then be communicated to a common location to be compared, which is unavoidably noisy. Although much is known about the limits of measurement precision by cells, the limits placed by the communication are not understood. Motivated by recent experiments, we derive the fundamental limits to the precision of gradient sensing in a multicellular system, accounting for communication and temporal integration. The gradient is estimated by comparing a "local" and a "global" molecular reporter of the external concentration, where the global reporter is exchanged between neighboring cells. Using the fluctuation-dissipation framework, we find, in contrast to the case when communication is ignored, that precision saturates with the number of cells independently of the measurement time duration, because communication establishes a maximum length scale over which sensory information can be reliably conveyed. Surprisingly, we also find that precision is improved if the local reporter is exchanged between cells as well, albeit more slowly than the global reporter. The reason is that whereas exchange of the local reporter weakens the comparison, it decreases the measurement noise. We term such a model "regional excitation-global inhibition." Our results demonstrate that fundamental sensing limits are necessarily sharpened when the need to communicate information is taken into account. PMID:26792517
Limits to the precision of gradient sensing with spatial communication and temporal integration
Mugler, Andrew; Levchenko, Andre; Nemenman, Ilya
2016-01-01
Gradient sensing requires at least two measurements at different points in space. These measurements must then be communicated to a common location to be compared, which is unavoidably noisy. Although much is known about the limits of measurement precision by cells, the limits placed by the communication are not understood. Motivated by recent experiments, we derive the fundamental limits to the precision of gradient sensing in a multicellular system, accounting for communication and temporal integration. The gradient is estimated by comparing a “local” and a “global” molecular reporter of the external concentration, where the global reporter is exchanged between neighboring cells. Using the fluctuation–dissipation framework, we find, in contrast to the case when communication is ignored, that precision saturates with the number of cells independently of the measurement time duration, because communication establishes a maximum length scale over which sensory information can be reliably conveyed. Surprisingly, we also find that precision is improved if the local reporter is exchanged between cells as well, albeit more slowly than the global reporter. The reason is that whereas exchange of the local reporter weakens the comparison, it decreases the measurement noise. We term such a model “regional excitation–global inhibition.” Our results demonstrate that fundamental sensing limits are necessarily sharpened when the need to communicate information is taken into account. PMID:26792517
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacob, R. W.; Bradley, B.; Hermance, J. F.; Mustard, J.
2004-12-01
Vegetated cover is affected over time by such factors as long and short term climate changes, inter-annual climate variability, changes in the hydrologic cycle, and anthropogenic land cover change. Although remote sensing has revolutionized the way vegetation changes are observed, the full potential is often hampered by missing data due to instrumentation, weather conditions (clouds) or ground cover (snow). These breaks in the time series make it difficult, if not impossible, to employ a number of classical time series methods - such as standard Fourier analysis - to characterize the phenology of vegetation for individual years and between years. We have constructed a recursive least-square (LS) algorithm, drawing on concepts from Bayesian statistics, that generates a robust polynomial interpolation of a noisy, biased, discontinuous data set. The heart of our procedure employs an asymmetric weighted LS technique to jointly (simultaneously) fit time series data on a pixel-by-pixel basis to two classes of polynomials. One polynomial accounts for long-term change and inter-annual fluctuations. The second class of polynomials consists of a set of annual 8-th order spline functions constrained to observe certain continuity constraints between years. Estimated data points that are substituted for missing data are down-weighted by an adjustable measure to influence the high-order intra-annual curve-fit. Thus the curve-fit model relies mainly on observed data, when they are available, but is stabilized by the estimated data. Preliminary testing of our algorithm demonstrated its stability was vulnerable when dealing with data sets having substantial gaps over extended periods of time. Our solution was to pre-condition these data gaps by introducing estimated data based on an a priori estimate of the average annual cycle plus long term, low-order variations for each pixel. In addition, a minimum roughness criterion was invoked for the average annual cycle during times when
Limitations of inclusive fitness.
Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O
2013-12-10
Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847
(Limiting the greenhouse effect)
Rayner, S.
1991-01-07
Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johansson, S.
2013-06-01
Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.
Limitations of inclusive fitness
Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.; Wilson, Edward O.
2013-01-01
Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed. PMID:24277847
Chivukula, R. Sekhar; Simmons, Elizabeth H.; Di Chiara, Stefano; Foadi, Roshan
2009-11-01
We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling from large corrections. This 'doublet-extended standard model' adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4)xU(1){sub X}{approx}SU(2){sub L}xSU(2){sub R}xP{sub LR}xU(1){sub X} symmetry in the top-quark mass generating sector. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2){sub L}xU(1){sub Y} electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M{yields}0) and standard-model-like (M{yields}{infinity}) limits. In this simple model, we find that the experimental limits on the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling favor smaller M while the presence of a potentially sizable negative contribution to {alpha}T strongly favors large M. Comparison with precision electroweak data shows that the heavy partner of the top quark must be heavier than about 3.4 TeV, making it difficult to search for at LHC. This result demonstrates that electroweak data strongly limit the amount by which the custodial symmetry of the top-quark mass generating sector can be enhanced relative to the standard model. Using an effective field theory calculation, we illustrate how the leading contributions to {alpha}T, {alpha}S, and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling in this model arise from an effective operator coupling right-handed top quarks to the Z boson, and how the effects on these observables are correlated. We contrast this toy model with extradimensional models in which the extended custodial symmetry is invoked to control the size of additional contributions to {alpha}T and the Zb{sub L}b{sub L} coupling, while leaving the standard model contributions essentially unchanged.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships... AND SUBSEQUENT CROP, PROGRAM, OR FISCAL YEARS Payment Eligibility § 1400.204 Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar...
Nature limits filarial transmission
Chandra, Goutam
2008-01-01
Lymphatic filariasis, caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori is a public health problem of considerable magnitude of the tropics and subtropics. Presently 1.3 billion people are at risk of lymphatic filariasis (LF) infection and about 120 million people are affected in 83 countries. In this context it is worth mentioning that 'nature' itself limits filarial transmission to a great extent in a number of ways such as by reducing vector populations, parasitic load and many other bearings. Possibilities to utilize these bearings of natural control of filariasis should be searched and if manipulations on nature, like indiscriminate urbanization and deforestation, creating sites favourable for the breeding of filarial vectors and unsanitary conditions, water pollution with organic matters etc., are reduced below the threshold level, we will be highly benefited. Understandings of the factors related to natural phenomena of control of filariasis narrated in this article may help to adopt effective control strategies. PMID:18500974
Physical limits to magnetogenetics.
Meister, Markus
2016-01-01
This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. PMID:27529126
Physical limits to magnetogenetics
Meister, Markus
2016-01-01
This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17210.001 PMID:27529126
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pappalardo, S.; Alfonso, M. M.; Mirabella, I. B.
2011-10-01
The LCL has been extensively used in ESA scientific satellites and since a few years ago is being also the baseline device for earth observation satellites such as CRYOSAT 1 and 2, SENTINAL 1, 2 and 3, EARTWATCH, etc. It seems that the use of this LCL is also being considered as an alternative to fuse approach for commercial telecommunication satellites. Scope of this document is to provide a technical description of the Integrated Current Limiter device (shortly ICL later on) developed inside the domain of ESTECContract22049-09-NL-A Twith STMicroelectronics s.r.l. (ref. Invitation to Tender AO/1-5784/08/NL/A T). The design of the ICL device takes into account both ESA and power electronics designer's experience. This experience is more than 25 years long in Europe. The ICL design has been leaded in order to be fully compliant with the applicable specification issued by ESA and the major European power electronics manufacturers that have participated in its edition.
Limits of computational biology
Bray, Dennis
2015-01-01
Abstract Are we close to a complete inventory of living processes so that we might expect in the near future to reproduce every essential aspect necessary for life? Or are there mechanisms and processes in cells and organisms that are presently inaccessible to us? Here I argue that a close examination of a particularly well-understood system— that of Escherichia coli chemotaxis— shows we are still a long way from a complete description. There is a level of molecular uncertainty, particularly that responsible for fine-tuning and adaptation to myriad external conditions, which we presently cannot resolve or reproduce on a computer. Moreover, the same uncertainty exists for any process in any organism and is especially pronounced and important in higher animals such as humans. Embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, immune recognition, memory formation, and survival in the real world, all depend on vast numbers of subtle variations in cell chemistry most of which are presently unknown or only poorly characterized. Overcoming these limitations will require us to not only accumulate large quantities of highly detailed data but also develop new computational methods able to recapitulate the massively parallel processing of living cells. PMID:25318467
Confidence limits and their errors
Rajendran Raja
2002-03-22
Confidence limits are common place in physics analysis. Great care must be taken in their calculation and use especially in cases of limited statistics. We introduce the concept of statistical errors of confidence limits and argue that not only should limits be calculated but also their errors in order to represent the results of the analysis to the fullest. We show that comparison of two different limits from two different experiments becomes easier when their errors are also quoted. Use of errors of confidence limits will lead to abatement of the debate on which method is best suited to calculate confidence limits.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garrett, C.
2008-12-01
Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.
Exercise limitation following transplantation.
Williams, Trevor J; McKenna, Michael J
2012-07-01
Organ transplantation is one of the medical miracles or the 20th century. It has the capacity to substantially improve exercise performance and quality of life in patients who are severely limited with chronic organ failure. We focus on the most commonly performed solid-organ transplants and describe peak exercise performance following recovery from transplantation. Across all of the common transplants, evaluated significant reduction in VO2peak is seen (typically renal and liver 65%-80% with heart and/or lung 50%-60% of predicted). Those with the lowest VO2peak pretransplant have the lowest VO2peak posttransplant. Overall very few patients have a VO2peak in the normal range. Investigation of the cause of the reduction of VO2peak has identified many factors pre- and posttransplant that may contribute. These include organ-specific factors in the otherwise well-functioning allograft (e.g., chronotropic incompetence in heart transplantation) as well as allograft dysfunction itself (e.g., chronic lung allograft dysfunction). However, looking across all transplants, a pattern emerges. A low muscle mass with qualitative change in large exercising skeletal muscle groups is seen pretransplant. Many factor posttransplant aggravate these changes or prevent them recovering, especially calcineurin antagonist drugs which are key immunosuppressing agents. This results in the reduction of VO2peak despite restoration of near normal function of the initially failing organ system. As such organ transplantation has provided an experiment of nature that has focused our attention on an important confounder of chronic organ failure-skeletal muscle dysfunction. PMID:23723030
Qu, G
1989-01-01
With over 1 billion population, China is adding some 15 million to that total each year. And in the 18 years from 1982 to 2000, the net increase of Chinese population is expected to exceed 200 million. Because of the gigantic pressure from population and some mistakes in policies, the levels of ecological destruction and environment pollution are both serious. This includes deforestation, grassland degradation, desert encroachment, water resources shortage, and waste of mineral resources. Natural disasters including floods and droughts caused by those problems happen more and more frequently. If development damages the resource base, it can only result in a false prosperity, the so-called hollow economy. A large number of environmental problems result directly or indirectly from the pressure of population growth. Studies show that the appropriate number of people that can be supported by China's 9.6 million sq. km is about 700 million. However, this limit is now exceeded by over 300 million people, and will be exceeded by 500 million by the end of this century. Therefore, the task is to implement a birth control policy. At present, in urban areas, the goal of family planning has been reached, but in rural areas hard work is needed. Population control in urban areas, especially in big and medium-sized cities, includes dealing with the inflow of migrants from the countryside. There are 13 cities with a population above 2 million, 37 cities above 1-2 million, and 75 cities above 0.5-1 million. A lot of cities are very crowded, exerting great pressure on the environment. The booming of rural enterprises could provide a good solution to control the flow of rural people into big and medium-sized cities. The relationship between population, resources, environment, and development should be managed properly. PMID:12291350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolpert, David H.
2008-07-01
We show that physical devices that perform observation, prediction, or recollection share an underlying mathematical structure. We call devices with that structure “inference devices”. We present a set of existence and impossibility results concerning inference devices. These results hold independent of the precise physical laws governing our universe. In a limited sense, the impossibility results establish that Laplace was wrong to claim that even in a classical, non-chaotic universe the future can be unerringly predicted, given sufficient knowledge of the present. Alternatively, these impossibility results can be viewed as a non-quantum-mechanical “uncertainty principle”. The mathematics of inference devices has close connections to the mathematics of Turing Machines (TMs). In particular, the impossibility results for inference devices are similar to the Halting theorem for TMs. Furthermore, one can define an analog of Universal TMs (UTMs) for inference devices. We call those analogs “strong inference devices”. We use strong inference devices to define the “inference complexity” of an inference task, which is the analog of the Kolmogorov complexity of computing a string. A task-independent bound is derived on how much the inference complexity of an inference task can differ for two different inference devices. This is analogous to the “encoding” bound governing how much the Kolmogorov complexity of a string can differ between two UTMs used to compute that string. However no universe can contain more than one strong inference device. So whereas the Kolmogorov complexity of a string is arbitrary up to specification of the UTM, there is no such arbitrariness in the inference complexity of an inference task. We informally discuss the philosophical implications of these results, e.g., for whether the universe “is” a computer. We also derive some graph-theoretic properties governing any set of multiple inference devices. We also present an
Determining the least limiting water range using limited soil data
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR) is a useful tool to evaluate changes in soil physical condition caused by changing soil management. It incorporates limitations to plant growth based on limiting aeration, water holding capacity and soil strength. A disadvantage of the LLWR is the need to determ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Junghoon; Zheng, Yili; Yin, Zhye; Doerschuk, Peter C.; Johnson, John E.
2010-08-01
Cryo electron microscopy is frequently used on biological specimens that show a mixture of different types of object. Because the electron beam rapidly destroys the specimen, the beam current is minimized which leads to noisy images (SNR substantially less than 1) and only one projection image per object (with an unknown projection direction) is collected. For situations where the objects can reasonably be described as coming from a finite set of classes, an approach based on joint maximum likelihood estimation of the reconstruction of each class and then use of the reconstructions to label the class of each image is described and demonstrated on two challenging problems: an assembly mutant of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and portals of the bacteriophage P22.
COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation
Preston, Benjamin L
2013-01-01
An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.
Limits to Open Class Performance?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowers, Albion H.
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation describes the limits to open class performance. The contents include: 1) Standard Class; 2) 15m/Racing Class; 3) Open Class; and 4) Design Solutions associated with assumptions, limiting parameters, airfoil performance, current trends, and analysis.
Psychological Disorders and Functional Limitations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brentar, John T.
2008-01-01
Psychological disorders lead to functional limitations that can impact a student's performance in school. These students are eligible for accommodations if they can demonstrate that a specific disability exists and that it substantially limits one or more major life activity. The most common functional limitations reported by this population…
Flanders, H.E. Jr.
1990-01-01
The Service Level D (faulted) load capacity of a conventional three-bolt pipe-clamp based upon the limit analysis method is presented. The load distribution, plastic hinge locations, and collapse load are developed for the lower bound limit load method. The results of the limit analysis are compared with the manufacturer's rated loads. 3 refs.
Updates on Force Limiting Improvements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kolaini, Ali R.; Scharton, Terry
2013-01-01
The following conventional force limiting methods currently practiced in deriving force limiting specifications assume one-dimensional translation source and load apparent masses: Simple TDOF model; Semi-empirical force limits; Apparent mass, etc.; Impedance method. Uncorrelated motion of the mounting points for components mounted on panels and correlated, but out-of-phase, motions of the support structures are important and should be considered in deriving force limiting specifications. In this presentation "rock-n-roll" motions of the components supported by panels, which leads to a more realistic force limiting specifications are discussed.
Beating the Classical Limits of Information Transmission using a Quantum Decoder
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karim, Akib; Huang, Zixin; Chapman, Rob; Tomamichel, Marco; Flammia, Steve; Peruzzo, Alberto
Reliable transmission of information over a noisy channel is a fundamental challenge in communication theory. The emergence of quantum technologies has created a new class of strategies that allow for message recovery greater than purely classical methods. Despite this, for minimal uses of the channel, finding such schemes remains a challenge. We investigate the amplitude damping channel which describes physical systems that suffer energy loss such as in cavity quantum electrodynamics or spin chain excitations. We derive and experimentally demonstrate the fundamental limit for message recovery possible with only classical methods. We then propose a quantum decoder and experimentally demonstrate message recovery past this classical limit. We use polarisation-encoded photonic qubits. The post-amplitude damping states are generated by an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer and entanglement is accomplished with a linear optical probabilistic controlled z gate. Our quantum decoder uses a single entangling gate at the receiver where other similar schemes rely on both the sender and the receiver having quantum devices. Our results present an advance in discovering the quantum capabilities of finite resource communications, with specific regard to the amplitude damping channel.
Detection limits of CDNC and albedo changes by Marine Cloud Brightening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
N, Aswathy V.; Quaas, Johannes; Mülmenstädt, Johannes
2015-04-01
Marine cloud brightening (MCB) is one of the proposed futuristic climate engineering techniques. MCB aims in seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with cloud condensation nuclei which might increase the cloud droplet number concentration(CDNC) and thereby increasing the albedo of the clouds. Clouds are highly variable, complex and inhomogeneous in nature. Detecting the signals of climate engineering in the high natural variability of clouds is essential to prove the efficiency of climate engineering. Objective of this work is to perform a detection limit for the albedo change induced by MCB climate engineering. We thus provide a top-down approach reducing the extent in region and time period required to provide a statistically significant change in albedo due to MCB climate engineering. Study involve satellite observations from MODIS and CERES. We evaluate the change in low could cover albedo with change in CDNC, which is derived from MODIS data. Study aim to provide a map of the detection limits for different regions in terms of CDNC increment as well as albedo change. We intend to provide a quantitative solution for otherwise obvious queries such as how large? how long? and how much intense? the MCB experiment should be to provide a statistically significant signal from the noisy natural variability. We also try to use signatures easier to identify in cloud properties, like temporally as well as spatially changing pattern in modification.
Recursive adaptive frame integration limited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafailov, Michael K.
2006-05-01
Recursive Frame Integration Limited was proposed as a way to improve frame integration performance and mitigate issues related to high data rate needed for conventional frame integration. The technique applies two thresholds - one tuned for optimum probability of detection, the other to manage required false alarm rate - and allows a non-linear integration process that, along with Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) gain, provides system designers more capability where cost, weight, or power considerations limit system data rate, processing, or memory capability. However, Recursive Frame Integration Limited may have performance issues when single frame SNR is really low. Recursive Adaptive Frame Integration Limited is proposed as a means to improve limited integration performance with really low single frame SNR. It combines the benefits of nonlinear recursive limited frame integration and adaptive thresholds with a kind of conventional frame integration.
Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution
Kerrisk, J.F.
1984-12-31
This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.
FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES
Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R
2009-02-09
Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.
Delving into Limits of Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cory, Beth; Smith, Ken W.
2011-01-01
Limits are foundational to the central concepts of calculus. However, the authors' experiences with students and educational research abound with examples of students' misconceptions about limits and infinity. The authors wanted calculus students to understand, appreciate, and enjoy their first introduction to advanced mathematical thought. Thus,…
The limits of crop productivity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bugbee, Bruce; Monje, Oscar
1992-01-01
The component processes that govern yield limits in food crops are reviewed and how each process can be individually measured is described. The processes considered include absorption of photosynthetic radiation by green tissue, carbon-fixation efficiency in photosynthesis, carbon use efficiency in respiration, biomass allocation to edible products, and efficiency of photosynthesis and respiration. The factors limiting yields in optimal environments are considered.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grogger, Jeffrey
2004-01-01
Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…
Beam-limiting and radiation-limiting interlocks
Macek, R.J.
1996-04-01
This paper reviews several aspects of beam-limiting and radiation- limiting interlocks used for personnel protection at high-intensity accelerators. It is based heavily on the experience at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) where instrumentation-based protection is used extensively. Topics include the need for ``active`` protection systems, system requirements, design criteria, and means of achieving and assessing acceptable reliability. The experience with several specific devices (ion chamber-based beam loss interlock, beam current limiter interlock, and neutron radiation interlock) designed and/or deployed to these requirements and criteria is evaluated.
Prediction of Limit Strains in Limiting Dome Height Formability Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zadpoor, Amir A.; Sinke, Jos; Benedictus, Rinze
2007-04-01
In this paper, the Marciniak-Kunczynski (MK) method is combined with the Storen-Rice analysis in order to improve accuracy of the predicted limit strains in Limiting Dome Height (LDH) test. FEM simulation is carried out by means of a commercial FEM code (ABAQUS) and FEM results are postprocessed by using an improved MK code. It has been shown that while original MK method considerably misspredicts the limit strains, a combination of MK method and Storen-Rice analysis can predict the dome height with a very good accuracy.
Force Limited Vibration Testing Monograph
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharton, Terry D.
1997-01-01
The practice of limiting the shaker force in vibration tests was investigated at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in 1990 after the mechanical failure of an aerospace component during a vibration test. Now force limiting is used in almost every major vibration test at JPL and in many vibration tests at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and at many aerospace contractors. The basic ideas behind force limiting have been in the literature for several decades, but the piezo-electric force transducers necessary to conveniently implement force limiting have been available only in the last decade. In 1993, funding was obtained from the NASA headquarters Office of Chief Engineer to develop and document the technology needed to establish force limited vibration testing as a standard approach available to all NASA centers and aerospace contractors. This monograph is the final report on that effort and discusses the history, theory, and applications of the method in some detail.
LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)
Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.
1997-01-01
The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device.
Limitations of wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of ozone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, D. R.; Hoppel, K. W.; Nedoluha, G. E.; Kuhl, D. D.; Baker, N. L.; Xu, L.; Rosmond, T. E.
2013-03-01
Time-dependent variational data assimilation allows the possibility of extracting wind information from observations of ozone or other trace gases. Since trace gas observations are not available at sufficient resolution for deriving feature-track winds, they must be combined with model background information to produce an analysis. If done with time-dependent variational assimilation, wind information may be extracted via the adjoint of the linearized tracer continuity equation. This paper presents idealized experiments that illustrate the mechanics of tracer-wind extraction and demonstrate some of the limitations of this procedure. We first examine tracer-wind extraction using a simple one-dimensional advection equation. The analytic solution for a single trace gas observation is discussed along with numerical solutions for multiple observations. The limitations of tracer-wind extraction are then explored using highly idealized ozone experiments performed with a development version of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) in which globally distributed hourly stratospheric ozone profiles are assimilated in a single 6 h update cycle in January 2009. Starting with perfect background ozone conditions, but imperfect dynamical conditions, ozone errors develop over the 6 h background window. Wind increments are introduced in the analysis in order to reduce the differences between background ozone and ozone observations. For "perfect" observations (unbiased and no random error), this results in root-mean-square (RMS) vector wind error reductions of up to ~4 m s-1 in the winter hemisphere and tropics. Wind extraction is more difficult in the summer hemisphere due to weak ozone gradients and smaller background wind errors. The limitations of wind extraction are also explored for observations with imposed random errors and for limited sampling patterns. As expected, the amount of wind information extracted degrades as observation errors or data voids increase. In the
Chunk Limits and Length Limits in Immediate Recall: A Reconciliation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, Zhijian; Cowan, Nelson
2005-01-01
Whereas some research on immediate recall of verbal lists has suggested that it is limited by the number of chunks that can be recalled (e.g., N. Cowan, Z. Chen, & J. N. Rouder, 2004; E. Tulving & J. E. Patkau, 1962), other research has suggested that it is limited by the length of the material to be recalled (e.g., A. D. Baddeley, N. Thomson, &…
Quasi-Static Hydrodynamic Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Masi, Anna; Olla, Stefano
2015-12-01
We consider hydrodynamic limits of interacting particles systems with open boundaries, where the exterior parameters change in a time scale slower than the typical relaxation time scale. The limit deterministic profiles evolve quasi-statically. These limits define rigorously the thermodynamic quasi static transformations also for transitions between non-equilibrium stationary states. We study first the case of the symmetric simple exclusion, where duality can be used, and then we use relative entropy methods to extend to other models like zero range systems. Finally we consider a chain of anharmonic oscillators in contact with a thermal Langevin bath with a temperature gradient and a slowly varying tension applied to one end.
Expenditure limits and cost containment.
Ginsburg, P B
1993-01-01
The Clinton administration's proposal for health care reform would tie limits on premiums and, indirectly, provider payment rates to a national health care budget. An expenditure limit (or global budget) is a mechanism to calibrate the parameters of underlying cost containment policies. This article analyzes provider rate setting and managed competition and discusses how they can be guided by expenditure limits. Particular attention is paid to health systems that include elements of both traditional fee-for-service insurance and organized systems of care. Success in containing costs also will require additional policies that can supplement rate setting and managed competition to achieve specific goals to slow spending growth. PMID:8288402
Nuclear Structure at the Limits
Nazarewicz, Witold
1997-12-31
One of the frontiers of today`s nuclear science is the ``journey to the limits``: of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this talk, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2011-01-01
In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law.
Subdiffraction-limited focusing lens.
Davis, J A; Cottrell, D M; Maley, C A; Crivello, M R
1994-07-01
We describe techniques for making a diffractive optical element that produces a subdiffraction-limited spot size. We provide experimental verification, using a diffraction optical element that is constructed on a magneto-optic spatial light modulator. PMID:20935762
Pumped limiter development on ISX
Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.
1981-01-01
Pumped limiter configurations are being suggested for FED and INTOR for helium ash exhaust and fuel particle control. The goal of the pump limiter studies in ISX is the selection of the most promising concept and its evaluation in the ISX-C device under the following conditions: (1) quasi steady state operation (less than or equal to 30s), (2) high edge power densities, and (3) particle control by means of mechanical devices. We are considering various options, including particle scraper and ballistic particle collection concepts as well as the current FED design. In ISX-B we will test a full-size pump limiter and directly compare the heat removal and particle control capabilities with a bundle divertor. In ISX-C the steady state operation characteristics of pump limiters will be explored.
Limits to Open Class Performance?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowers, Albion H.
2008-01-01
This presentation discusses open or unlimited class aircraft performance limitations and design solutions. Limitations in this class of aircraft include slow climbing flight which requires low wing loading, high cruise speed which requires high wing loading, gains in induced or viscous drag alone which result in only half the gain overall and other structural problems (yaw inertia and spins, flutter and static loads integrity). Design solutions include introducing minimum induced drag for a given span (elliptical span load or winglets) and introducing minimum induced drag for a bell shaped span load. It is concluded that open class performance limits (under current rules and technologies) is very close to absolute limits, though some gains remain to be made from unexplored areas and new technologies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ross, W. A.
1975-01-01
Fundamental conservation principles indicate existence of a limit to growth operative in the near future. General properties of geometric growth are presented with timescales showing population increases. Projections for natural and energy resource consumption are examined. (BP)
Limit cycle vibrations in turbomachinery
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, S. G.
1991-01-01
The focus is on an examination of rotordynamic systems which are simultaneously susceptible to limit cycle instability and subharmonic response. Characteristics of each phenomenon are determined as well as their interrelationship. A normalized, single mass rotor model is examined as well as a complex model of the high pressure fuel turbopump and the Space Shuttle Main Engine. Entrainment of limit cycle instability by subharmonic response is demonstrated for both models. The nonuniqueness of the solution is also demonstrated.
Limiting technology by negotiated agreement
Carnesale, A.
1983-01-01
The author concentrates on anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems as an example of a continuing effort to limit technology by negotiated agreement. He first discusses the ABM treaty of 1972, ratified by both the US and the USSR. Afterwards, he briefly treats each of the following: ballistic missile defense (BMD) dilemmas; nature of the BMD choice; technology; economics; deterrence; nuclear warfighting; relations with allies; arms control; Star Wars; and on limiting technology.
Mattas, R.F.; Billone, M.; Hassanein, A.
1996-08-01
The recent U.S. effort on the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shield has been focused on the limiter module design. This is a multi-disciplinary effort that covers design layout, fabrication, thermal hydraulics, materials evaluation, thermo- mechanical response, and predicted response during off-normal events. The results of design analyses are presented. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented concerning, the capability of the limiter modules to meet performance goals and to be fabricated within design specifications using existing technology.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiménez Tejero, C. E.; Dagnino, D.; Sallarès, V.; Ranero, C. R.
2015-10-01
Ongoing works on full waveform inversion (FWI) are yielding an increasing number of objective functions as alternative to the traditional L2-waveform. These studies aim at designing more robust functions and inversion strategies to reduce the intrinsic dependence of the FWI results on (1) the initial model and (2) the lowest frequency present in field data. In this work, we perform a comparative study of five objective functions in time domain under a common 2-D-acoustic FWI scheme using the Marmousi model as benchmark. In particular, we compare results obtained with L2-based functions that consider the minimization of different wave attributes; the waveform-based, non-integration-method; instantaneous envelope; a modified version of the wrapped instantaneous phase and an improved version of the cross-correlation travel time (CCTT) method; and hybrid strategies combining some of them. We evaluate the robustness of these functionals as a function of their performance with and without low frequencies in the data and the presence of random white Gaussian noise. Our results reveal promising strategies to invert noisy data with limited low-frequency content (≥4 Hz), which is the single strategy using the instantaneous phase objective function followed by the hybrid strategies using the instantaneous phase or CCTT as initial models, in particular the combinations [I. Phase + Waveform], [CCTT + Waveform] and [CCTT + I. Phase].
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, A.; Moreno, E.; Rubio, B.; Calas, H.; Galarza, N.; Rubio, J.; Diez, L.; Castellanos, L.; Gómez, T.
Some technical aspects of two Spanish cooperation projects, funded by DPI and Innpacto Programs of the R&D National Plan, are discussed. The objective is to analyze the common belief about than the ultrasonic testing in MHz range is not a tool utilizable to detect internal flaws in highly attenuating pieces made of coarse-grained steel. In fact high-strength steels, used in some safe industrial infrastructures of energy & transport sectors, are difficult to be inspected using the conventional "state of the art" in ultrasonic technology, due to their internal microstructures are very attenuating and coarse-grained. It is studied if this inspection difficulty could be overcome by finding intense interrogating pulses and advanced signal processing of the acquired echoes. A possible solution would depend on drastically improving signal-to-noise-ratios, by applying new advances on: ultrasonic transduction, HV electronics for intense pulsed driving of the testing probes, and an "ad-hoc" digital processing or focusing of the received noisy signals, in function of each material to be inspected. To attain this challenging aim on robust steel pieces would open the possibility of obtaining improvements in inspecting critical industrial components made of highly attenuating & dispersive materials, as new composites in aeronautic and motorway bridges, or new metallic alloys in nuclear area, where additional testing limitations often appear.
Passive fault current limiting device
Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.
1999-04-06
A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.
Passive fault current limiting device
Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.
1999-01-01
A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.
Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.
2016-04-01
The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.
What limits working memory capacity?
Oberauer, Klaus; Farrell, Simon; Jarrold, Christopher; Lewandowsky, Stephan
2016-07-01
We review the evidence for the 3 principal theoretical contenders that vie to explain why and how working memory (WM) capacity is limited. We examine the possibility that capacity limitations arise from temporal decay; we examine whether they might reflect a limitation in cognitive resources; and we ask whether capacity might be limited because of mutual interference of representations in WM. We evaluate each hypothesis against a common set of findings reflecting the capacity limit: The set-size effect and its modulation by domain-specificity and heterogeneity of the memory set; the effects of unfilled retention intervals and of distractor processing in the retention interval; and the pattern of correlates of WM tests. We conclude that-at least for verbal memoranda-a decay explanation is untenable. A resource-based view remains tenable but has difficulty accommodating several findings. The interference approach has its own set of difficulties but accounts best for the set of findings, and therefore, appears to present the most promising approach for future development. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26950009
Thermodynamic Limit in Statistical Physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzemsky, A. L.
2014-03-01
The thermodynamic limit in statistical thermodynamics of many-particle systems is an important but often overlooked issue in the various applied studies of condensed matter physics. To settle this issue, we review tersely the past and present disposition of thermodynamic limiting procedure in the structure of the contemporary statistical mechanics and our current understanding of this problem. We pick out the ingenious approach by Bogoliubov, who developed a general formalism for establishing the limiting distribution functions in the form of formal series in powers of the density. In that study, he outlined the method of justification of the thermodynamic limit when he derived the generalized Boltzmann equations. To enrich and to weave our discussion, we take this opportunity to give a brief survey of the closely related problems, such as the equipartition of energy and the equivalence and nonequivalence of statistical ensembles. The validity of the equipartition of energy permits one to decide what are the boundaries of applicability of statistical mechanics. The major aim of this work is to provide a better qualitative understanding of the physical significance of the thermodynamic limit in modern statistical physics of the infinite and "small" many-particle systems.
Statistical limitations on molecular evolution.
Perlovsky, Leonid I
2002-06-01
Complexity of functions evolving in an evolution process are expected to be limited by the time length of an evolution process among other factors. This paper outlines a general method of deriving function-complexity limitations based on mathematical statistics and independent from details of a biological or genetic mechanism of the evolution of the function. Limitations on the emergence of life are derived, these limitations indicate a possibility of a very fast evolution and are consistent with "RNA world" hypothesis. The discussed method is general and can be used to characterize evolution of more specific biological organism functions and relate functions to genetic structures. The derived general limitations indicate that a co-evolution of multiple functions and species could be a slow process, whereas an evolution of a specific function might proceed very fast, so that no trace of intermediate forms (species) is preserved in fossil records of phenotype or DNA structure; this is consistent with a picture of "punctuated equilibrium". PMID:12023805