Science.gov

Sample records for nolen-schiffer anomaly

  1. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  2. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  3. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  4. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  5. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  6. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  7. ANOMALY STRUCTURE OF SUPERGRAVITY AND ANOMALY CANCELLATION

    SciTech Connect

    Butter, Daniel; Gaillard, Mary K.

    2009-06-10

    We display the full anomaly structure of supergravity, including new D-term contributions to the conformal anomaly. This expression has the super-Weyl and chiral U(1){sub K} transformation properties that are required for implementation of the Green-Schwarz mechanism for anomaly cancellation. We outline the procedure for full anomaly cancellation. Our results have implications for effective supergravity theories from the weakly coupled heterotic string theory.

  8. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  9. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  10. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  11. [Kimmerle's anomaly and stroke].

    PubMed

    Barsukov, S F; Antonov, G I

    1992-10-01

    The anomaly of cranio-vertebral area can frequently be the reason of acute cerebrovascular disorders in vertebro-basilar field. The frequent C1 pathology in the Kimmerle's anomaly. The anatomic studies has shown that 30% of people had this type of anomaly. This pathology can lead to severe vascular diseases of cerebrum because of the squeezing effect upon vertebral arteries in the zone of osteal ponticulus of the rear arch of atlas. PMID:1481402

  12. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  13. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  14. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  15. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  16. Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Gell, Jennifer S

    2003-11-01

    The reproductive organs in both males and females consist of gonads, internal ductal structures, and external genitalia. Normal sexual differentiation is dependent on the genetic sex determined by the presence or absence of the Y chromosome at fertilization. Testes develop under the influence of the Y chromosome and ovaries develop when no Y chromosome is present. In the absence of testes and their normal hormonal products, sexual differentiation proceeds along the female pathway, resulting in a normal female phenotype. Anatomic gynecologic anomalies occur when there is failure of normal embryologic ductal development. These anomalies include congenital absence of the vagina as well as defects in lateral and vertical fusion of the Müllerian ducts. Treatment of müllerian anomalies begins with the correct identification of the anomaly and an understanding of the embryologic origin. This includes evaluation for other associated anomalies such as renal or skeletal abnormalities. After correct identification, treatment options include nonsurgical as well as surgical intervention. This chapter serves to review the embryology and development of the reproductive system and to describe common genital tract anomalies. Details of surgical or nonsurgical correction of these anomalies are presented. PMID:14724770

  17. Behavioral economics without anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, H

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral economics is often conceived as the study of anomalies superimposed on a rational system. As research has progressed, anomalies have multiplied until little is left of rationality. Another conception of behavioral economics is based on the axiom that value is always maximized. It incorporates so-called anomalies either as conflicts between temporal patterns of behavior and the individual acts comprising those patterns or as outcomes of nonexponential time discounting. This second conception of behavioral economics is both empirically based and internally consistent. PMID:8551195

  18. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  19. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well.

  20. Anomalies and entanglement entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Tatsuma; Yarom, Amos

    2016-03-01

    We initiate a systematic study of entanglement and Rényi entropies in the presence of gauge and gravitational anomalies in even-dimensional quantum field theories. We argue that the mixed and gravitational anomalies are sensitive to boosts and obtain a closed form expression for their behavior under such transformations. Explicit constructions exhibiting the dependence of entanglement entropy on boosts is provided for theories on spacetimes with non-trivial magnetic fluxes and (or) non-vanishing Pontryagin classes.

  1. On isostatic geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haxby, W. F.; Turcotte, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    In regions of slowly varying lateral density changes, the gravity and geoid anomalies may be expressed as power series expansions in topography. Geoid anomalies in isostatically compensated regions can be directly related to the local dipole moment of the density-depth distribution. This relationship is used to obtain theoretical geoid anomalies for different models of isostatic compensation. The classical Pratt and Airy models give geoid height-elevation relationships differing in functional form but predicting geoid anomalies of comparable magnitude. The thermal cooling model explaining ocean floor subsidence away from mid-ocean ridges predicts a linear age-geoid height relationship of 0.16 m/m.y. Geos 3 altimetry profiles were examined to test these theoretical relationships. A profile over the mid-Atlantic ridge is closely matched by the geoid curve derived from the thermal cooling model. The observed geoid anomaly over the Atlantic margin of North America can be explained by Airy compensation. The relation between geoid anomaly and bathymetry across the Bermuda Swell is consistent with Pratt compensation with a 100-km depth of compensation.

  2. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  3. QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Jens O.; Leganger, Lars E.; Strickland, Michael; Su, Nan

    2011-10-15

    In this brief report we compare the predictions of a recent next-to-next-to-leading order hard-thermal-loop perturbation theory (HTLpt) calculation of the QCD trace anomaly to available lattice data. We focus on the trace anomaly scaled by T{sup 2} in two cases: N{sub f}=0 and N{sub f}=3. When using the canonical value of {mu}=2{pi}T for the renormalization scale, we find that for Yang-Mills theory (N{sub f}=0) agreement between HTLpt and lattice data for the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly begins at temperatures on the order of 8T{sub c}, while treating the subtracted piece as an interaction term when including quarks (N{sub f}=3) agreement begins already at temperatures above 2T{sub c}. In both cases we find that at very high temperatures the T{sup 2}-scaled trace anomaly increases with temperature in accordance with the predictions of HTLpt.

  4. Modeling the Pioneer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibovitz, Jacques

    2007-04-01

    Scientists continue their attempts to model the observed Pioneer anomaly (PA) as an artifact of measurement or of equipment operation. Scientists also explore ``new physics'' as a possible explanation, but they have eliminated dark matter (DM). Here, the main arguments used to eliminate DM are refuted and then the anomaly is modeled by application of Newton laws to the observed macroscopic properties of DM. Around a central mass M, the modeling predicts a DM distribution that produces the PA at short distances (R smaller than 188 AU) from a star like the Sun, and a flat rotation curve at sufficiently large distances from the center of a galaxy. Below about 188 AU from the Sun, the modeling predicts that the anomaly may be expressed as PA = 8.3E-8 [R̂(-2)] -- 1 cm (s)̂(-2). It shows that the anomaly remains fairly constant down to 5 AU, decreases significantly from 5 AU to 1 AU where it becomes zero and changes sign below a distance of 1 AU, then increases rapidly in magnitude as R decreases in that range. Verifiable tests are proposed. Some related topics for future research are proposed.

  5. Anomaly discrimination in hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shih-Yu; Paylor, Drew; Chang, Chein-I.

    2014-05-01

    Anomaly detection finds data samples whose signatures are spectrally distinct from their surrounding data samples. Unfortunately, it cannot discriminate the anomalies it detected one from another. In order to accomplish this task it requires a way of measuring spectral similarity such as spectral angle mapper (SAM) or spectral information divergence (SID) to determine if a detected anomaly is different from another. However, this arises in a challenging issue of how to find an appropriate thresholding value for this purpose. Interestingly, this issue has not received much attention in the past. This paper investigates the issue of anomaly discrimination which can differentiate detected anomalies without using any spectral measure. The ideas are to makes use unsupervised target detection algorithms, Automatic Target Generation Process (ATGP) coupled with an anomaly detector to distinguish detected anomalies. Experimental results show that the proposed methods are indeed very effective in anomaly discrimination.

  6. Antler anomalies in tule elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.P.; Jessup, David A.; Barrett, Reginald H.

    1988-01-01

    Antler anomalies were evident in tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) within 1 yr of reintroduction to Point Reyes, California (USA). These anomalies are consistent with previously described mineral deficiency-induced anomalies in cervids. The elk were judged deficient in copper. Low levels of copper in soils and vegetation at the release site, exacerbated by possible protein deficiency due to poor range conditions, are postulated as likely causes of the antler anomalies.

  7. Mass Anomalies on Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.; Jacobson, R. A.; Lau, E. L.; Moore, W. B.; Palguta, J.

    2004-01-01

    Radio Doppler data from two Ganymede encounters (G1 and G2) on the first two orbits in the Galileo mission have been analyzed previously for gravity information . For a satellite in hydrostatic equilibrium, its gravitational field can be modeled adequately by a truncated spherical harmonic series of degree two. However, a fourth degree field is required in order to fit the second Galileo flyby (G2). This need for a higher degree field strongly suggests that Ganymede s gravitational field is perturbed by a gravity anomaly near the G2 closest approach point (79.29 latitude, 123.68 west longitude). In fact, a plot of the Doppler residuals , after removal of the best-fit model for the zero degree term (GM) and the second degree moments (J2 and C22), suggests that if an anomaly exists, it is located downtrack of the closest approach point, closer to the equator.

  8. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  9. Hypercharged anomaly mediation.

    PubMed

    Dermísek, Radovan; Verlinde, Herman; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2008-04-01

    We show that, in string models with the minimal supersymmetric standard model residing on D-branes, the bino mass can be generated in a geometrically separated hidden sector. Hypercharge mediation thus naturally teams up with anomaly mediation. The mixed scenario predicts a distinctive yet viable superpartner spectrum, provided that the ratio alpha between the bino and gravitino mass lies in the range 0.05 < or = |alpha| < or = 0.25 and m(3/2) > or = 35 TeV. We summarize some of the experimental signatures of this scenario. PMID:18517937

  10. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  11. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  12. Trace anomaly driven inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.; Hertog, T.; Reall, H. S.

    2001-04-01

    This paper investigates Starobinsky's model of inflation driven by the trace anomaly of conformally coupled matter fields. This model does not suffer from the problem of contrived initial conditions that occurs in most models of inflation driven by a scalar field. The universe can be nucleated semiclassically by a cosmological instanton that is much larger than the Planck scale provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. There are two cosmological instantons: the four sphere and a new ``double bubble'' solution. This paper considers a universe nucleated by the four sphere. The AdS/CFT correspondence is used to calculate the correlation function for scalar and tensor metric perturbations during the ensuing de Sitter phase. The analytic structure of the scalar and tensor propagators is discussed in detail. Observational constraints on the model are discussed. Quantum loops of matter fields are shown to strongly suppress short scale metric perturbations, which implies that short distance modifications of gravity would probably not be observable in the cosmic microwave background. This is probably true for any model of inflation provided there are sufficiently many matter fields. This point is illustrated by a comparison of anomaly driven inflation in four dimensions and in a Randall-Sundrum brane-world model.

  13. Automated anomaly detection processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraiman, James B.; Arouh, Scott L.; Webb, Michael L.

    2002-07-01

    Robust exploitation of tracking and surveillance data will provide an early warning and cueing capability for military and civilian Law Enforcement Agency operations. This will improve dynamic tasking of limited resources and hence operational efficiency. The challenge is to rapidly identify threat activity within a huge background of noncombatant traffic. We discuss development of an Automated Anomaly Detection Processor (AADP) that exploits multi-INT, multi-sensor tracking and surveillance data to rapidly identify and characterize events and/or objects of military interest, without requiring operators to specify threat behaviors or templates. The AADP has successfully detected an anomaly in traffic patterns in Los Angeles, analyzed ship track data collected during a Fleet Battle Experiment to detect simulated mine laying behavior amongst maritime noncombatants, and is currently under development for surface vessel tracking within the Coast Guard's Vessel Traffic Service to support port security, ship inspection, and harbor traffic control missions, and to monitor medical surveillance databases for early alert of a bioterrorist attack. The AADP can also be integrated into combat simulations to enhance model fidelity of multi-sensor fusion effects in military operations.

  14. Quantum anomalies in dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Son, D.T.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2004-10-01

    We consider the effects of quantum anomalies involving the baryon current for high-density matter. In the effective Lagrangian, the anomaly terms describe the interaction of three light fields: the electromagnetic photons A{sub {mu}}, neutral light Nambu-Goldstone bosons ({pi}, {eta}, {eta}{sup '}), and the superfluid phonon. The anomaly induced interactions lead to a number of interesting phenomena which may have phenomenological consequences observable in neutron stars.

  15. Rare Upper Airway Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Alanna; Clemmens, Clarice; Jacobs, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    A broad spectrum of congenital upper airway anomalies can occur as a result of errors during embryologic development. In this review, we will describe the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management strategies for a few select, rare congenital malformations of this system. The diagnostic tools used in workup of these disorders range from prenatal tests to radiological imaging, swallowing evaluations, indirect or direct laryngoscopy, and rigid bronchoscopy. While these congenital defects can occur in isolation, they are often associated with disorders of other organ systems or may present as part of a syndrome. Therefore workup and treatment planning for patients with these disorders often involves a team of multiple specialists, including paediatricians, otolaryngologists, pulmonologists, speech pathologists, gastroenterologists, and geneticists. PMID:26277452

  16. Genetics of lymphatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

  17. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  18. Medical management of vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Cameron C

    2016-03-01

    We have entered an exciting era in the care of patients with vascular anomalies. These disorders require multidisciplinary care and coordination and dedicated centers have emerged to address this need. Vascular tumors have been treated with medical therapies for many years, while malformations have been historically treated with endovascular and operative procedures. The recent serendipitous discoveries of propranolol and sirolimus for vascular anomalies have revolutionized this field. In particular, sirolimus responses are challenging the dogma that vascular malformations are not biologically active. While initially explored for lymphatic anomalies, sirolimus is now being used broadly throughout the spectrum of vascular anomalies. Whether medical therapies are reserved for refractory patients or used first line is currently dependent on the experience and availability of alternative therapies at each institution. On the horizon, we anticipate new drugs targeting genes and pathways involved in vascular anomalies to be developed. Also, combinations of medications and protocols combining medical and procedural approaches are in development for refractory patients. PMID:27607327

  19. Congenital Anomalies of the Nose.

    PubMed

    Funamura, Jamie L; Tollefson, Travis T

    2016-04-01

    Congenital anomalies of the nose range from complete aplasia of the nose to duplications and nasal masses. Nasal development is the result of a complex embryologic patterning and fusion of multiple primordial structures. Loss of signaling proteins or failure of migration or proliferation can result in structural anomalies with significant cosmetic and functional consequences. Congenital anomalies of the nose can be categorized into four broad categories: (1) aplastic or hypoplastic, (2) hyperplastic or duplications, (3) clefts, and (4) nasal masses. Our knowledge of the embryologic origin of these anomalies helps dictate subsequent work-up for associated conditions, and the appropriate treatment or surgical approach to manage newborns and children with these anomalies. PMID:27097134

  20. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  1. Binning of satellite magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomaly signals over satellite orbits were simulated to investigate numerical averaging as an anomaly estimator. Averaging as an anomaly estimator involves significant problems concerning spatial and amplitude smoothing of the satellite magnetic observations. The results of simulations suggest that the error of numerical averaging constitutes a small and relatively minor component of the total error-budget of higher orbital anomaly estimates, whereas for lower orbital estimates numerical averaging error increases substantially. As an alternative to numerical averaging, least-squares collocation was investigated and observed to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates, particularly as the orbital elevation of prediction was decreased towards the crustal sources. In contrast to averaging, collocation is a significantly more resource-intensive procedure to apply because of the practical, but surmountable problems related to establishing and inverting the covariance matrix for accurate anomaly prediction. However, collocation may be much more effectively used to exploit the anomaly details contained in the lower orbital satellite magnetic data for geologic analysis.

  2. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  3. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  5. Satellite elevation magnetic anomaly maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The problem of inverting 2 deg average MAGSAT scalar anomalies for the region 80 W, 60 E longitude and 40 S, 70 N latitude was attempted on the LARS computer; however, the effort was aborted due to insufficient allocation of CPU-time. This problem is currently being resubmitted and should be implemented shortly for quantitative comparison with free-air gravity anomaly, geothermal, and tectonic data.

  6. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  7. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Blei, Francine

    2015-04-01

    Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies encompass entities with a vascular anomaly as the predominant feature vs those syndromes with predominant somatic overgrowth and a vascular anomaly as a more minor component. The focus of this article is to categorize these syndromes phenotypically, including updated clinical criteria, radiologic features, evaluation, management issues, pathophysiology, and genetic information. A literature review was conducted in PubMed using key words "overgrowth syndromes and vascular anomalies" as well as specific literature reviews for each entity and supportive genetic information (e.g., somatic mosaicism). Additional searches in OMIM and Gene Reviews were conducted for each syndrome. Disease entities were categorized by predominant clinical features, known genetic information, and putative affected signaling pathway. Overgrowth syndromes with vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of disorders, often with variable clinical expression, due to germline or somatic mutations. Overgrowth can be focal (e.g., macrocephaly) or generalized, often asymmetrically (and/or mosaically) distributed. All germ layers may be affected, and the abnormalities may be progressive. Patients with overgrowth syndromes may be at an increased risk for malignancies. Practitioners should be attentive to patients having syndromes with overgrowth and vascular defects. These patients require proactive evaluation, referral to appropriate specialists, and in some cases, early monitoring for potential malignancies. Progress in identifying vascular anomaly-related overgrowth syndromes and their genetic etiology has been robust in the past decade and is contributing to genetically based prenatal diagnosis and new therapies targeting the putative causative genetic mutations. PMID:25937473

  8. Toward Baseline Software Anomalies in NASA Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layman, Lucas; Zelkowitz, Marvin; Basili, Victor; Nikora, Allen P.

    2012-01-01

    In this fast abstract, we provide preliminary findings an analysis of 14,500 spacecraft anomalies from unmanned NASA missions. We provide some baselines for the distributions of software vs. non-software anomalies in spaceflight systems, the risk ratings of software anomalies, and the corrective actions associated with software anomalies.

  9. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  10. Non-relativistic scale anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arav, Igal; Chapman, Shira; Oz, Yaron

    2016-06-01

    We extend the cohomological analysis in arXiv:1410.5831 of anisotropic Lifshitz scale anomalies. We consider non-relativistic theories with a dynamical critical exponent z = 2 with or without non-relativistic boosts and a particle number symmetry. We distinguish between cases depending on whether the time direction does or does not induce a foliation structure. We analyse both 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions. In 1 + 1 dimensions we find no scale anomalies with Galilean boost symmetries. The anomalies in 2 + 1 dimensions with Galilean boosts and a foliation structure are all B-type and are identical to the Lifshitz case in the purely spatial sector. With Galilean boosts and without a foliation structure we find also an A-type scale anomaly. There is an infinite ladder of B-type anomalies in the absence of a foliation structure with or without Galilean boosts. We discuss the relation between the existence of a foliation structure and the causality of the field theory.

  11. Experimental Anomalies in Neutrino Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palamara, Ornella

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, experimental anomalies ranging in significance (2.8-3.8 σ) have been reported from a variety of experiments studying neutrinos over baselines less than 1 km. Results from the LSND and MiniBooNE short-baseline νe /νe appearance experiments show anomalies which cannot be described by oscillations between the three standard model neutrinos (the ``LSND anomaly''). In addition, a re-analysis of the anti-neutrino flux produced by nuclear power reactors has led to an apparent deficit in νe event rates in a number of reactor experiments (the ``reactor anomaly''). Similarly, calibration runs using 51Cr and 37Ar radioactive sources in the Gallium solar neutrino experiments GALLEX and SAGE have shown an unexplained deficit in the electron neutrino event rate over very short distances (the ``Gallium anomaly''). The puzzling results from these experiments, which together may suggest the existence of physics beyond the Standard Model and hint at exciting new physics, including the possibility of additional low-mass sterile neutrino states, have raised the interest in the community for new experimental efforts that could eventually solve this puzzle. Definitive evidence for sterile neutrinos would be a revolutionary discovery, with implications for particle physics as well as cosmology. Proposals to address these signals by employing accelerator, reactor and radioactive source experiments are in the planning stages or underway worldwide. In this talk some of these will be reviewed, with emphasis on the accelerator programs.

  12. Measuring anomaly with algorithmic entropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Wanda M.

    Anomaly detection refers to the identification of observations that are considered outside of normal. Since they are unknown to the system prior to training and rare, the anomaly detection problem is particularly challenging. Model based techniques require large quantities of existing data are to build the model. Statistically based techniques result in the use of statistical metrics or thresholds for determining whether a particular observation is anomalous. I propose a novel approach to anomaly detection using wavelet based algorithmic entropy that does not require modeling or large amounts of data. My method embodies the concept of information distance that rests on the fact that data encodes information. This distance is large when little information is shared, and small when there is greater information sharing. I compare my approach with several techniques in the literature using data obtained from testing of NASA's Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME)

  13. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  14. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  15. Boundary terms of conformal anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the structure of the boundary terms in the conformal anomaly integrated over a manifold with boundaries. We suggest that the anomalies of type B, polynomial in the Weyl tensor, are accompanied with the respective boundary terms of the Gibbons-Hawking type. Their form is dictated by the requirement that they produce a variation which compensates the normal derivatives of the metric variation on the boundary in order to have a well-defined variational procedure. This suggestion agrees with recent findings in four dimensions for free fields of various spins. We generalize this consideration to six dimensions and derive explicitly the respective boundary terms. We point out that the integrated conformal anomaly in odd dimensions is non-vanishing due to the boundary terms. These terms are specified in three and five dimensions.

  16. Branchial Anomalies: Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Azeez, Arun; Thada, Nikhil Dinaker; Rao, Pallavi; Prasad, Kishore Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To find out the incidence of involvement of individual arches, anatomical types of lesions, the age and sex incidence, the site and side of predilection, the common clinical features, the common investigations, treatment, and complications of the different anomalies. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery. Design. A 10 year retrospective study. Participants. 30 patients with clinically proven branchial anomalies including patients with bilateral disease totaling 34 lesions. Main Outcome Measures. The demographical data, clinical features, type of branchial anomalies, and the management details were recorded and analyzed. Results and Observations. The mean age of presentation was 18.67 years. Male to female sex ratio was 1.27 : 1 with a male preponderance. Of the 34 lesions, maximum incidence was of second arch anomalies (50%) followed by first arch. We had two cases each of third and fourth arch anomalies. Only 1 (3.3%) patients of the 30 presented with lesion at birth. The most common pathological type of lesions was fistula (58.82%) followed by cyst. 41.18% of the lesions occurred on the right side. All the patients underwent surgical excision. None of our patients had involvement of facial nerve in first branchial anomaly. All patients had tracts going superficial to the facial nerve. Conclusion. Confirming the extent of the tract is mandatory before any surgery as these lesions pass in relation to some of the most vital structures of the neck. Surgery should always be the treatment option. injection of dye, microscopic removal and inclusion of surrounding tissue while excising the tract leads to a decreased incidence of recurrence. PMID:24772172

  17. Genetic basis for vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kirkorian, A Yasmine; Grossberg, Anna L; Püttgen, Katherine B

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental genetics of many isolated vascular anomalies and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies have been elucidated. The rate of discovery continues to increase, expanding our understanding of the underlying interconnected molecular pathways. This review summarizes genetic and clinical information on the following diagnoses: capillary malformation, venous malformation, lymphatic malformation, arteriovenous malformation, PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS), Proteus syndrome, SOLAMEN syndrome, Sturge-Weber syndrome, phakomatosis pigmentovascularis, congenital hemangioma, verrucous venous malformation, cutaneomucosal venous malformation, blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome, capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome, Parkes-Weber syndrome, and Maffucci syndrome. PMID:27607321

  18. Boundary anomalies and correlation functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-08-01

    It was shown recently that boundary terms of conformal anomalies recover the universal contribution to the entanglement entropy and also play an important role in the boundary monotonicity theorem of odd-dimensional quantum field theories. Motivated by these results, we investigate relationships between boundary anomalies and the stress tensor correlation functions in conformal field theories. In particular, we focus on how the conformal Ward identity and the renormalization group equation are modified by boundary central charges. Renormalized stress tensors induced by boundary Weyl invariants are also discussed, with examples in spherical and cylindrical geometries.

  19. Observational manifestations of anomaly inflow

    SciTech Connect

    Boyarsky, Alexey; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail

    2005-10-15

    In theories with chiral couplings, one of the important consistency requirements is that of the cancellation of a gauge anomaly. In particular, this is one of the conditions imposed on the hypercharges in the standard model. However, anomaly cancellation condition of the standard model looks unnatural from the perspective of a theory with extra dimensions. Indeed, if our world were embedded into an odd-dimensional space, then the full theory would be automatically anomaly-free. In this paper we discuss the physical consequences of anomaly noncancellation for effective 4-dimensional field theory. We demonstrate that in such a theory parallel electric and magnetic fields get modified. In particular, this happens for any particle possessing both electric charge and magnetic moment. This effect, if observed, can serve as a low energy signature of extra dimensions. On the other hand, if such an effect is absent or is very small, then from the point of view of any theory with extra dimensions it is just another fine-tuning and should acquire theoretical explanation.

  20. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  1. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  2. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menikoff, R.

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the 'excess wall heating' in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  3. Local gravity anomalies produced by dislocation sources.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Dilatancy, in general, does not correspond to the absence of a free air anomaly, as might be suggested by the special case of a spherical source of dilatation. For two-dimensional models a cylindrical source of dilatation produces no free air gravity anomaly, dip-slip faulting produces no Bouguer anomaly, and open cracks produce a Bouguer anomaly equal to that which would be produced had the material within the crack been mined out without deforming the solid. -from Author

  4. Anomaly constraints on monopoles and dyons

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, Csaba; Shirman, Yuri; Terning, John

    2010-06-15

    Fermions with magnetic charges can contribute to anomalies. We derive the axial anomaly and gauge anomalies for monopoles and dyons, and find eight new gauge anomaly cancellation conditions in a general theory with both electric and magnetic charges. As a by-product, we also extend the Zwanziger two-potential formalism to include the {theta} parameter, and elaborate on the condition for CP invariance in theories with fermionic dyons.

  5. Loop anomalies in the causal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigore, Dan-Radu

    2015-01-01

    We consider gauge models in the causal approach and study one-loop contributions to the chronological products and the anomalies they produce. We prove that in order greater than 4 there are no one-loop anomalies. Next we analyze one-loop anomalies in the second- and third-order of the perturbation theory. We prove that the even parity contributions (with respect to parity) do not produce anomalies; for the odd parity contributions we reobtain the well-known result.

  6. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-07-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  7. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  8. Titanium isotopic anomalies in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of Ti isotopic compositions have shown that virtually every Ca-Al-rich Allende inclusion contains anomalous Ti. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of Ti isotopic compositions in meteorites. One objective of the study is to evaluate the possibility of a relation between oxygen and Ti anomalies, while another objective is to explore questions regarding the origin of the Ti anomalies. A summary of the major experimental findings of the study of Ti isotopic compositions is also presented. It is noted that an assessment of the implications of the Ti results favors a chemical memory type of model in which products from various nucleosynthetic sources survive in mineral grains. Isotopic heterogeneities are then preserved due to incomplete mixing and/or equilibriation with the bulk of solar system matter. Strong arguments are found to exist against a pure late supernova injection model.

  9. Model selection for anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnaev, E.; Erofeev, P.; Smolyakov, D.

    2015-12-01

    Anomaly detection based on one-class classification algorithms is broadly used in many applied domains like image processing (e.g. detection of whether a patient is "cancerous" or "healthy" from mammography image), network intrusion detection, etc. Performance of an anomaly detection algorithm crucially depends on a kernel, used to measure similarity in a feature space. The standard approaches (e.g. cross-validation) for kernel selection, used in two-class classification problems, can not be used directly due to the specific nature of a data (absence of a second, abnormal, class data). In this paper we generalize several kernel selection methods from binary-class case to the case of one-class classification and perform extensive comparison of these approaches using both synthetic and real-world data.

  10. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars. PMID

  11. Pigmentary anomalies and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Toriello, Helga V

    2011-01-01

    A number of syndromes that include hearing loss in the phenotype also have pigmentary anomalies as a component manifestation. One of the most common of these is Waardenburg syndrome, which includes hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss in the phenotype. There are four types of Waardenburg syndrome, distinguishable from each other by clinical findings. However, there are several other syndromes which include not only hypopigmentation, but also hyperpigmentation in the phenotype. This paper serves as a review of many of these syndromes. PMID:21358185

  12. Cloacal anomaly with bladder tumor

    PubMed Central

    Seth, Amlesh; Ram, Ishwar

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma of bladder occurring in a 36-year-old female with persistent cloacal anomaly who presented with frequency, urgency, dysuria, and recurrent urinary tract infection is reported. Contrast Enhanced Computed Tomography with three dimensional reconstruction showed presence of bladder tumor and persistent cloaca. She underwent pelvic exenteration and wet colostomy. Histopathologic findings revealed locally advanced moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:23956519

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly.

    PubMed

    Cacciaguerra, S; Lo Presti, L; Di Leo, L; Grasso, S; Gangarossa, S; Di Benedetto, V; Di Benedetto, A

    1998-02-01

    The authors present a case of prenatal diagnosis of cloacal anomaly, characterized by the presence of oligohydramnios and cystic pelvic mass with changing features during observation. Postnatal study confirmed the presence of a recto-cloacal fistula, with a high confluence of the urinary, genital and intestinal systems. Both parents had a chromosome 9 inversion (p11q13), but the child was chromosomally normal. PMID:9561584

  14. Anomalies and Discrete Chiral Symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Creutz, M.

    2009-09-07

    The quantum anomaly that breaks the U(1) axial symmetry of massless multi-flavored QCD leaves behind a discrete flavor-singlet chiral invariance. With massive quarks, this residual symmetry has a close connection with the strong CP-violating parameter theta. One result is that if the lightest quarks are degenerate, then a first order transition will occur when theta passes through pi. The resulting framework helps clarify when the rooting prescription for extrapolating in the number of flavors is valid.

  15. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  16. Global anomalies and effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golkar, Siavash; Sethi, Savdeep

    2016-05-01

    We show that matching anomalies under large gauge transformations and large diffeomorphisms can explain the appearance and non-renormalization of couplings in effective field theory. We focus on thermal effective field theory, where we argue that the appearance of certain unusual Chern-Simons couplings is a consequence of global anomalies. As an example, we show that a mixed global anomaly in four dimensions fixes the chiral vortical effect coefficient (up to an overall additive factor). This is an experimentally measurable prediction from a global anomaly. For certain situations, we propose a simpler method for calculating global anomalies which uses correlation functions rather than eta invariants.

  17. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  18. Trends in environmentally induced spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, Daniel C.

    1989-01-01

    The Spacecraft Anomaly Data Base was useful in identifying trends in anomaly occurrence. Trends alone do not provide quantitative testimony to a spacecraft's reliability, but they do indicate areas that command closer study. An in-depth analysis of a specific anomaly can be expensive and difficult without access to the spacecraft. Statistically verified anomaly trends can provide a good reference point to begin anomaly analysis. Many spacecraft experience an increase in anomalies during the period of several days centered on the solar equinox, a period that is also correlated with sun eclipse at geostationary altitude and an increase in major geomagnetic storms. Increase anomaly occurrence can also be seen during the local time interval between midnight and dawn. This local time interval represents a region in Earth's near space that experiences an enhancement in electron plasma density due to a migration from the magnetotail during or following a geomagnetic substorm.

  19. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  20. Anomaly detection for internet surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Henri; Raaijmakers, Stephan; Halma, Arvid; Wedemeijer, Harry

    2012-06-01

    Many threats in the real world can be related to activity of persons on the internet. Internet surveillance aims to predict and prevent attacks and to assist in finding suspects based on information from the web. However, the amount of data on the internet rapidly increases and it is time consuming to monitor many websites. In this paper, we present a novel method to automatically monitor trends and find anomalies on the internet. The system was tested on Twitter data. The results showed that it can successfully recognize abnormal changes in activity or emotion.

  1. Hot flow anomalies at Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, D. G.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J. A.; Coates, A. J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.; Boardsen, S.; Moore, T. E.; Barabash, S.

    2012-04-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  2. Space Weather, Cosmic Rays, and Satellite Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Dorman

    Results are presented of the Satellite Anomaly Project, which aims to improve the methods of safeguarding satellites in the Earth’s magnetosphere from the negative effects of the space environment. Anomaly data from the USSR and Russian “Kosmos” series satellites in the period 1971-1999 are combined into one database, together with similar information on other spacecraft. This database contains, beyond the anomaly information, various characteristics of space weather: geomagnetic activity indices (Ap, AE and Dst), fluxes and fluencies of electrons and protons at different energies, high energy cosmic ray variations and other solar, interplanetary and solar wind data. A comparative analysis of the distribution of each of these parameters relative to satellite anomalies was carried out for the total number of anomalies (about 6000 events), and separately for high altitude orbit satellites ( 5000 events) and low altitude (about 800 events). No relation was found between low and high altitude satellite anomalies. Daily numbers of satellite anomalies, averaged by a superposed epoch method around sudden storm commencements and proton event onsets for high (>1500 km) and low (<1500 km) altitude orbits revealed a big difference in behavior. Satellites were divided into several groups according to their orbital characteristics (altitude and inclination). The relation of satellite anomalies to the environmental parameters was found to be different for various orbits, and this should be taken into account when developing anomaly frequency models. The preliminary anomaly frequency models are presented.

  3. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  4. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esat, T. M.; Ireland, T. R.

    1989-02-01

    The abundances of chromium isotopes, in refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite, show wide-spread anomalies. The chromium isotope anomalies are similar in pattern to the anomalies discovered in Ca and Ti. The largest effects occur at the neutron-rich isotopes Ca-48, Ti-50 and Cr-54. Individual Cr-rich pink spinels, from the Murchison meteorite, exhibit large and variable excesses in Cr-53 and Cr-54 including the largest Cr-53 anomaly so far reported. Magnesium isotopes, in Murchison Cr-poor blue spinels, also show variable anomalies in Mg-26 including mass-dependent fractionation favoring the lighter isotopes. The Cr-53, Cr-54 and Mg-26 anomalies in Murchison spinels are indicative of a heterogeneous distribution of magnesium and chromium isotopes in the early solar nebula and require a contribution from several nucleosynthetic components in addition to physicochemical processing.

  5. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  6. Sea level anomalies exacerbate beach erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Ethan J.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.; Fegley, Stephen R.; Luettich, Richard A.

    2014-07-01

    Sea level anomalies are intra-seasonal increases in water level forced by meteorological and oceanographic processes unrelated to storms. The effects of sea level anomalies on beach morphology are unknown but important to constrain because these events have been recognized over large stretches of continental margins. Here, we present beach erosion measurements along Onslow Beach, a barrier island on the U.S. East Coast, in response to a year with frequent sea level anomalies and no major storms. The anomalies enabled extensive erosion, which was similar and in most places greater than the erosion that occurred during a year with a hurricane. These results highlight the importance of sea level anomalies in facilitating coastal erosion and advocate for their inclusion in beach-erosion models and management plans. Sea level anomalies amplify the erosive effects of accelerated sea level rise and changes in storminess associated with global climate change.

  7. Acardiac anceps: a rare congenital anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Nigam, Aruna; Agarwal, Rohini; Saxena, Pikee; Barla, Jaya

    2014-01-01

    Acardiac twin is a rare congenital anomaly and is exclusively associated with monochorionic twin pregnancies. The abnormalities occur due to abnormal communication between the two fetuses in the form of arterioarterial and venovenous communications, resulting in a grossly abnormal acardiac twin with reduction anomalies mainly of the upper body and gross oedema. Since no two acardiac twins are alike, this case report will add to the acardiac twin anomaly spectrum. PMID:24717594

  8. The Mars Rover Spirit FLASH anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, Glenn E.; Neilson, Tracy C.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover 'Spirit' suffered a debilitating anomaly that prevented communication with Earth for several anxious days. With the eyes of the world upon us, the anomaly team used each scrap of information, our knowledge of the system, and sheer determination to analyze and fix the problem, then return the vehicle to normal operation. This paper will discuss the Spirit FLASH anomaly, including the drama of the investigation, the root cause and the lessons learned from the experience.

  9. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  10. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  11. Initial scalar magnetic anomaly map from Magsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Magsat data acquired during the November 1979-June 1980 mission was used to derive a scalar magnetic anomaly map covering +50 to -50 deg geographic latitude, and the separation of anomaly fields from core and external fields was accomplished by techniques developed for POGO satellite data. Except in the Atlantic and Pacific at latitudes south of -15 deg, comparison of the Magsat map with its POGO data-derived counterpart shows basic anomaly patterns to be reproducible, and higher resolution due to Magsat's lower measurement altitude. Color-coded scalar anomaly maps are presented for both satellites.

  12. Conscious and unconscious detection of semantic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    When asked What superhero is associated with bats, Robin, the Penguin, Metropolis, Catwoman, the Riddler, the Joker, and Mr. Freeze? people frequently fail to notice the anomalous word Metropolis. The goals of this study were to determine whether detection of semantic anomalies, like Metropolis, is conscious or unconscious and whether this detection is immediate or delayed. To achieve these goals, participants answered anomalous and nonanomalous questions as their reading times for words were recorded. Comparisons between detected versus undetected anomalies revealed slower reading times for detected anomalies-a finding that suggests that people immediately and consciously detected anomalies. Further, comparisons between first and second words following undetected anomalies versus nonanomalous controls revealed some slower reading times for first and second words-a finding that suggests that people may have unconsciously detected anomalies but this detection was delayed. Taken together, these findings support the idea that when we are immediately aware of a semantic anomaly (i.e., immediate conscious detection) our language processes make immediate adjustments in order to reconcile contradictory information of anomalies with surrounding text; however, even when we are not consciously aware of semantic anomalies, our language processes still make these adjustments, although these adjustments are delayed (i.e., delayed unconscious detection). PMID:25624136

  13. Satellite Magnetic Anomalies of Africa and Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data of Africa, Europe, and adjacent marine areas were reduced to the pole assuming a constant inducing Earth's magnetic field of 60,000 nT. This process leads to a consistent anomaly data set free from marked variations in directional and intensity effects of the Earth's magnetic field over this extensive region. The resulting data are correlated with long wave length-pass filtered free-air gravity anomalies; regional heat flow, and tectonic data to investigate magatectonic elements and the region's geologic history. Magnetic anomalies are related to both ancient as well as more recent Cenozoic structural features.

  14. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  15. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  16. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies.

    PubMed Central

    Schrander-Stumpel, C T; de Die-Smulders, C E; Hennekam, R C; Fryns, J P; Bouckaert, P X; Brouwer, O F; da Costa, J J; Lommen, E J; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P D

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases had cleft lip/palate, anophthalmia/microphthalmia, or a cardiac defect. Mental retardation was found in five of the surviving 11 patients and early death occurred in one-third. We compared the cases with OAVS and hydrocephalus with published reports of OAVS and other cerebral anomalies and found no significant clinical differences. However, the clinical characteristics were clearly more severely expressed than generally found in patients with OAVS. Children with OAVS and more severe clinical features, especially anophthalmia/microphthalmia and cleft lip/palate, seem to be at an increased risk for cerebral malformations and for mental retardation. Images PMID:1583660

  17. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  18. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  19. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  20. Global magnetic anomaly and aurora of Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.

    1990-01-01

    The large offset and tilt of Neptune's dipole magnetic field combine to create a global magnetic anomaly, analogous to but much more important than earth's South Atlantic Anomaly. Energetic particle precipitation loss within the Neptune anomaly creates 'atmospheric drift shadows' within which particle fluxes are greatly reduced. The energetic particle dropout observed by Voyager near closest approach occurred near the predicted times when Voyager passed within the atmospheric drift shadow. Extremely soft, structured bursts of ions and electrons within the drift shadow may result from plasma wave-induced pitch angle scattering of trapped particles confined near the magnetic equator. The dropout does not necessarily imply that Voyager passed through an earth-like discrete auroral zone, as earlier reported. The ion and electron fluxes observed within the dropout period correspond to particles that must precipitate to Neptune's atmosphere within the anomaly region. This anomaly precipitation can account for a major portion of the ultraviolet emissions previously identified as Neptune aurora.

  1. A New, Principled Approach to Anomaly Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Bridges, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Intrusion detection is often described as having two main approaches: signature-based and anomaly-based. We argue that only unsupervised methods are suitable for detecting anomalies. However, there has been a tendency in the literature to conflate the notion of an anomaly with the notion of a malicious event. As a result, the methods used to discover anomalies have typically been ad hoc, making it nearly impossible to systematically compare between models or regulate the number of alerts. We propose a new, principled approach to anomaly detection that addresses the main shortcomings of ad hoc approaches. We provide both theoretical and cyber-specific examples to demonstrate the benefits of our more principled approach.

  2. Structure of Hot Flow Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2012-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were first discovered in 1980s. These are active processes of hot plasma bulks formation that usually occur at planetary bow shocks. Though HFA were studied for long time it is still not clear if they are reforming structures and what defines particular internal structure of HFA. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used 10-sec measurements of complex plasma analyzer SCA-1 and 1-second magnetic field measurements, and ELECTRON spectrometer 2-dimensional measurements with 3,75-sec temporal resolution. Five anomalies that were observed on the basis of well resolved structure for which we obtained displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA, and estimated the size. We checked if main criteria of HFA formation were fulfilled for each case. The following criteria were satisfied: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it, bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion convection velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities viewed in coordinate system of shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. Ion velocity distributions confirm this triple structure of HFA. Thomsen et al. [1986] identified the region within HFA that they called "internal recovery". It looks like central region that we call narrow central part. Vaisberg et al. [1999] discussed separation of HFA into 2 distinct parts that correspond to leading and trailing parts. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs we assumed that "internal recovery" region is the source of energy and momentum around interplanetary current sheet crossing. HFA

  3. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  4. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog. PMID:19946851

  5. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  6. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  7. Hot Flow Anomaly Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, A.; Vaisberg, O. L.

    2010-12-01

    Hot Flow Anomaly observed on Interball-Tail on 03.14.1996 is investigated. The normal to the interplanetary current sheet interacting with bow shock was determined in assumption of tangential discontinuity. Calculated motional electric field was directed towards current sheet. The bow shock before HFA arrival to the spacecraft was quasi-perpendicular, and was quasi-parallel after HFA passage. Respectively, of the shocks, bracketing HFA, were quasi-perpendicular before HFA passage and quasi-parallel after it. With averaged velocity of plasma within the body of HFA and duration of HFA observation we determined its size in normal to the current sheet direction as ~ 2.5 RE. HFA consists of two regions separated by thin layer with different plasma characteristics. Convection of plasma within HFA, as observed along spacecraft trajectory by subtracting averaged velocity from observed velocities, show that plasma in each of two regions is moving from separating layer. It indicates that separating layer is the site of energy deposition from interaction of the solar wind with ions reflected from the shock. This is confirmed by analysis of ion velocity distributions in this layer.

  8. Thermal Infrared Anomalies of Several Strong Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Congxin; Guo, Xiao; Qin, Manzhong

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of “time-frequency relative power spectrum.” (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  9. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  10. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting. PMID:24222728

  11. Analysis of Renal Anomalies in VACTERL Association

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Bridget K.; Khromykh, Alina; Martinez, Ariel F.; Carney, Tyler; Hadley, Donald W.; Solomon, Benjamin D.

    2014-01-01

    VACTERL association refers to a combination of congenital anomalies that can include: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac malformations, Tracheo-Esophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, Renal anomalies (typically structural renal anomalies), and Limb anomalies. We conducted a description of a case series to characterize renal findings in a cohort of patients with VACTERL association. Out of the overall cohort, 48 patients (with at least 3 component features of VACTERL and who had abdominal ultrasound performed) met criteria for analysis. Four other patients were additionally analyzed separately, with the hypothesis that subtle renal system anomalies may occur in patients who would not otherwise meet criteria for VACTERL association. Thirty-three (69%) of the 48 patients had a clinical manifestation affecting the renal system. The most common renal manifestation (RM) was vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in addition to a structural defect (present in 27%), followed by unilateral renal agenesis (24%), and then dysplastic/multicystic kidneys or duplicated collected system (18% for each). Twenty-two (88%) of the 25 patients with a structural RM had an associated anorectal malformation. Individuals with either isolated lower anatomic anomalies, or both upper and lower anatomic anomalies were not statistically more likely to have a structural renal defect than those with isolated upper anatomic anomalies (p=0.22, p=0.284 respectively). Given the high prevalence of isolated VUR in our cohort, we recommend a screening VCUG or other imaging modality be obtained to evaluate for VUR if initial renal US shows evidence of obstruction or renal scarring, as well as ongoing evaluation of renal health. PMID:25196458

  12. Considerations in the Interpretation of Cosmological Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peiris, Hiranya V.

    2014-05-01

    Anomalies drive scientific discovery - they are associated with the cutting edge of the research frontier, and thus typically exploit data in the low signal-to-noise regime. In astronomy, the prevalence of systematics - both ``known unknowns'' and ``unknown unknowns'' - combined with increasingly large datasets, the widespread use of ad hoc estimators for anomaly detection, and the ``look-elsewhere'' effect, can lead to spurious false detections. In this informal note, I argue that anomaly detection leading to discoveries of new physics requires a combination of physical understanding, careful experimental design to avoid confirmation bias, and self-consistent statistical methods. These points are illustrated with several concrete examples from cosmology.

  13. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  14. Crustal structure interpreted from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    This review, discusses publications during the last quadrennium (1987-1990) that used aeromagnetic data, marine magnetic data, satellite magnetic data, and rock magnetic and petrologic data to provide information on the sources of magnetic anomalies. The publications reviewed reflect increased integration of rock magnetic property and petrologic studies with magnetic anomaly interpretation studies, particularly in deep crustal magnetization, exploration for hydrocarbons, and inversion of marine magnetic anomalies. Interpretations of aeromagnetic data featuring image display techniques and using the horizontal gradient method for locating magnetization boundaries became standard.

  15. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  16. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  17. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  18. Magnetosheath Flow Anomalies in 3-D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaisberg, O. L.; Burch, J. L.; Smirnov, V. N.; Avanov, L. A.; Moore, T. E.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Skalsky, A. A.; Borodkova, N. L.; Coffey, V. N.; Gallagher, D. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Measurements of the plasma and magnetic field with high temporal resolution on the Interball Tail probe reveal many flow anomalies in the magnetosheath. They are usually seen as flow direction and number density variations, accompanied by magnetic field discontinuities. Large flow anomalies with number density variations of factor of 2 or more and velocity variations of 100 km/s or more are seen with periodicity of about I per hour. The cases of flow anomalies following in succession are also observed, and suggest their decay while propagating through the magnetosheath. Some magnetospheric disturbances observed in the outer magnetosphere after the satellite has crossed the magnetopause on the inbound orbit suggest their association with magnetosheath flow anomalies observed in the magnetosheath prior to magnetopause crossing.

  19. Tunguska Genetic Anomaly and Electrophonic Meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silagadze, Z. K.

    2005-03-01

    One of great mysteries of the Tunguska event is its genetic impact. Some genetic anomalies were reported in the plants, insects and people of the Tunguska region. Remarkably, the increased rate of biological mutations was found not only within the epicenter area, but also along the trajectory of the Tunguska Space Body (TSB). At that no traces of radioactivity were found, which could be reliably associated with the Tunguska event. The main hypotheses about the nature of the TSB, a stony asteroid, a comet nucleus or a carbonaceous chondrite, readily explain the absence of radioactivity but give no clues how to deal with the genetic anomaly. A choice between these hypotheses, as far as the genetic anomaly is concerned, is like to the choice between ``blue devil, green devil and speckled devil'', to quote late Academician N.V. Vasilyev. However, if another mysterious phenomenon, electrophonic meteors, is evoked, the origin of the Tunguska genetic anomaly becomes less obscure.

  20. Lunar magnetic anomalies and surface optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Schubert, G.

    1980-04-01

    Consideration is given to the influence of lunar magnetic anomalies on the darkening of the lunar surface by solar wind ion bombardment. It is shown that lunar magnetic anomalies with dipole moments much greater than 5 x 10 to the 13th gauss cu cm will strongly deflect the typical solar wind, producing local plasma voids at the lunar surface. Direct measurements of lunar magnetic fields have shown most lunar magnetic fields to have moments below this level, with the exception of anomalies detected in the areas of the Reiner Gamma albedo feature, the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and Mare Marginis. Such magnetic anomalies are shown to be capable of accounting for the higher albedo and swirl-like morphology f these features by the deflection and focusing incident solar wind ions, which tend to darken the surface upon impact.

  1. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  2. Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

  3. US Aeromagnetic and Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Sexton, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO) Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous U.S. were screened for periods of intense diurnal magnetic activity and reduced to anomaly form, filtered, and continued upward. A number of correlations between the NOO, POGO and preliminary MAGSAT data are evident at satellite elevations, including a prominent transcontinental magnetic high which extends from the Anadarko Basin to the Cincinnati Arch. The transcontinental magnetic high is breached by negative anomalies located over the Rio Grande Rift and Mississippi River Aulacogen. Differentially reduced-to-pole NOO and POGO magnetic anomaly data show that the transcontinental magnetic high corresponds to a well-defined regional trend of negative free-air gravity and enhanced crustal thickness anomalies.

  4. Geologic analysis of averaged magnetic satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    To investigate relative advantages and limitations for quantitative geologic analysis of magnetic satellite scalar anomalies derived from arithmetic averaging of orbital profiles within equal-angle or equal-area parallelograms, the anomaly averaging process was simulated by orbital profiles computed from spherical-earth crustal magnetic anomaly modeling experiments using Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. The results indicate that averaging can provide reasonable values at satellite elevations, where contributing error factors within a given parallelogram include the elevation distribution of the data, and orbital noise and geomagnetic field attributes. Various inversion schemes including the use of equivalent point dipoles are also investigated as an alternative to arithmetic averaging. Although inversion can provide improved spherical grid anomaly estimates, these procedures are problematic in practice where computer scaling difficulties frequently arise due to a combination of factors including large source-to-observation distances ( 400 km), high geographic latitudes, and low geomagnetic field inclinations.

  5. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  6. Renal Anomalies Associated with Ectopic Neurohypophysis

    PubMed Central

    Özen, Samim; Şişmek, Damla Gökşen; Önder, Asan; Darcan, Şükran

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Although the etiology of ectopic neurohypophysis that leads to pituitary hormone deficiencies is not yet clearly understood, birth trauma or genetic factors have been considered responsible. Concurrent cranial and extracranial congenital anomalies have been reported in such cases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of renal anomalies in nonsyndromic cases with ectopic neurohypophysis. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of 20 patients with ectopic neurohypophysis who were followed up between January 1990 and December 2007 in a tertiary University Hospital. Results: Renal anomalies were identified in three (15%) cases including unilateral renal agenesis in one case, renal hypoplasia in one case, and double collecting system and unilateral renal agenesis in one case. Conclusions: In the present study, the increased frequency of renal anomalies in cases of ectopic neurohypophysis was highlighted, and it was emphasized that there might be common genetic factors that lead to such associations. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:21750632

  7. Design and Implementation of an Anomaly Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bagherjeiran, A; Cantu-Paz, E; Kamath, C

    2005-07-11

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a general-purpose anomaly detector for streaming data. Based on a survey of similar work from the literature, a basic anomaly detector builds a model on normal data, compares this model to incoming data, and uses a threshold to determine when the incoming data represent an anomaly. Models compactly represent the data but still allow for effective comparison. Comparison methods determine the distance between two models of data or the distance between a model and a point. Threshold selection is a largely neglected problem in the literature, but the current implementation includes two methods to estimate thresholds from normal data. With these components, a user can construct a variety of anomaly detection schemes. The implementation contains several methods from the literature. Three separate experiments tested the performance of the components on two well-known and one completely artificial dataset. The results indicate that the implementation works and can reproduce results from previous experiments.

  8. Zinc Isotope Anomalies in bulk Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, P. S.; Boyet, M.; Moynier, F.

    2014-09-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that Zn isotope anomalies are present in bulk primitive meteorites, consistent with the injection of material derived from a neutron-rich supernova source into the solar nebula.

  9. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  10. Classifying gauge anomalies through symmetry-protected trivial orders and classifying gravitational anomalies through topological orders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, we systematically study gauge anomalies in bosonic and fermionic weak-coupling gauge theories with gauge group G (which can be continuous or discrete) in d space-time dimensions. We show a very close relation between gauge anomalies for gauge group G and symmetry-protected trivial (SPT) orders (also known as symmetry-protected topological (SPT) orders) with symmetry group G in one-higher dimension. The SPT phases are classified by group cohomology class Hd+1(G,R/Z). Through a more careful consideration, we argue that the gauge anomalies are described by the elements in Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]⊕Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z). The well known Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies are classified by the free part of Hd+1(G,R/Z) (denoted as Free[Hd+1(G,R/Z)]). We refer to other kinds of gauge anomalies beyond Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies as non-ABJ gauge anomalies, which include Witten SU(2) global gauge anomalies. We introduce a notion of π-cohomology group, Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z), for the classifying space BG, which is an Abelian group and include Tor[Hd+1(G,R/Z)] and topological cohomology group Hd+1(BG,R/Z) as subgroups. We argue that Hπ˙d+1(BG,R/Z) classifies the bosonic non-ABJ gauge anomalies and partially classifies fermionic non-ABJ anomalies. Using the same approach that shows gauge anomalies to be connected to SPT phases, we can also show that gravitational anomalies are connected to topological orders (i.e., patterns of long-range entanglement) in one-higher dimension.

  11. Congenital Anomalies in Infant with Congenital Hypothyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Zahra; Yavarikia, Alireza; Torabian, Saadat

    2012-01-01

    Objective Congenital hypothyroidism is characterized by inadequate thyroid hormone production in newborn infants. Many infants with CH have co-occurring congenital malformations. This is an investigation on the frequency and types of congenital anomalies in infants with congenital hypothyroidism born from May 2006-2010 in Hamadan, west province of Iran. Methods The Iranian neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism was initiated in May 2005. This prospective descriptive study was conducted in infants diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism being followed up in Pediatric Endocrinology Clinic of Besat Hospital, a tertiary care centre in Hamadan. Cases included all infants with congenital hypothyroidism diagnosed through newborn screening program or detected clinically. Anomalies were identified by clinical examination, echocardiography, and X-ray of the hip during the infant’s first year of life. Results A total of 150 infants with biochemically confirmed primary congenital hypothyroidism (72 females and 78 males) were recruited during the period between May 2006-2010. Overall, 30 (20%) infants had associated congenital anomalies. The most common type of anomaly was Down syndrome. Seven infants (3.1%) had congenital cardiac anomalies such as: ASD (n=3), VSD (n=2), PS (n =1), PDA (n=1). Three children (2.6%) had developmental dysplasia of the hip (n=3). Conclusion The overall frequency of Down syndrome, cardiac malformation and other birth defect was high in infants with CH. This reinforces the need to examine all infants with congenital hypothyroidism for the presence of associated congenital anomalies. PMID:23074545

  12. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  13. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  14. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  15. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly.

    PubMed

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M; Happ, Hannah C; Levin, Alex V; Wheeler, Patricia G; David, Karen L; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie; Semina, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the first study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  16. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  17. Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation - Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dole, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A study identifying horizontal and vertical structures of low patterns occurring with persistent 500 mb height anomalies in the central North Pacific, eastern North Atlantic, and northern Soviet Union regions is presented. The flow patterns of positive and negative anomalies are compared. The relationship between persistent anomalies and small recurrent anomaly patterns is examined. The temporal fluctuations of the persistent patterns are analyzed.

  18. Geological reasons for change in intensity of linear magnetic anomalies of the Kursk magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhavoronkin, I. A.; Kopayev, V. V.

    1985-01-01

    The geological reasons for fluctuations in the anomalous field intensity along the polar axes were examined. The Kursk magnetic anomaly is used as the basis for the study. A geological-geophysical section was constructed which used the results of the interpretation of gravimagnetic anomalies.

  19. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  20. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  1. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  2. The Hubble Space Telescope attitude observer anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdall, Morgan M.; Ramsey, Patrick R.; Swain, Scott R.

    2006-06-01

    In mid-2004, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) began experiencing occasional losses of lock during Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS) guide star acquisitions, threatening a potential loss of science. These failures were associated with an increasing disparity between the FGS-derived estimates of gyro bias calculated in orbit day and those calculated in orbit night. Early efforts to mitigate the operational effects of this Attitude Observer Anomaly (AOA) succeeded; however, the magnitude of the anomaly continued to increase at a linear rate and operational problems resumed in mid-2005. Continued analysis led to an additional on-orbit mitigation strategy that succeeded in reducing the AOA signature. Before the investigation could be completed, HST began operations under the life-extending Two Gyro Science mode. This eliminated both the operational effects of and the visibility into the AOA phenomenon. Possible causes of the anomaly at the vehicle system level included component hardware failures, flight software errors in control law processing, distortion of the telescope optical path, and deformation of vehicle structure. Although the mechanism of the AOA was not definitively identified, the Anomaly Review Board (ARB) chartered to investigate the anomaly concluded that the most likely root cause lies within one of HST's 6 rate-integrating gyroscopes. This paper provides a summary of the initial paths of investigation, the analysis and testing performed to attempt to isolate the source, and a review of the findings of the ARB. The possibility of future operational impacts and available methods of on-orbit mitigation are also addressed.

  3. Vascular anomalies: classification, diagnosis, and natural history.

    PubMed

    Marler, J J; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    In the past, patients with vascular anomalies went from one physician to another. No one seemed to understand the condition, and sometimes the child was harmed by the wrong treatment. Now interdisciplinary vascular anomalies centers are organizing. The disciplines may differ, depending on local interest and capabilities. Such teams form a critical mass for proper diagnosis, therapy, and clinical/basic research. The advances in genetics are leading the way to a molecular understanding of vascular anomalies, and someday, molecular-based, novel therapy. The Internet also has had a major impact on this field. Because of continued confusion about diagnosis and therapy, cyber-savvy parents will self-refer to specialists. Family support groups have arisen and provide commendable service to these patients. PMID:17590938

  4. Rectal ectasia associated with anorectal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Zia-ul-Miraj, M; Brereton, R J

    1997-04-01

    Rectal ectasia may be associated with anorectal anomalies. If not recognized at the time of surgical reconstruction it may lead to megarectosigmoid, resulting in severe constipation and overflow incontinence postoperatively. The authors treated four patients presenting with this condition. One patient born with a low anorectal anomaly and two with high anorectal anomalies experienced intractable constipation caused by megarectum despite otherwise adequate primary reconstructive procedures. A fourth patient had rectal stenosis in association with megarectosigmoid. The ectatic megarectum had to be resected in all the patients to achieve normal bowel actions. The authors feel that resection or tailoring of the ectatic segment should be an integral part of the primary reconstructive procedure. PMID:9126769

  5. Detecting data anomalies methods in distributed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosiej, Lukasz

    2009-06-01

    Distributed systems became most popular systems in big companies. Nowadays many telecommunications companies want to hold large volumes of data about all customers. Obviously, those data cannot be stored in single database because of many technical difficulties, such as data access efficiency, security reasons, etc. On the other hand there is no need to hold all data in one place, because companies already have dedicated systems to perform specific tasks. In the distributed systems there is a redundancy of data and each system holds only interesting data in appropriate form. Data updated in one system should be also updated in the rest of systems, which hold that data. There are technical problems to update those data in all systems in transactional way. This article is about data anomalies in distributed systems. Avail data anomalies detection methods are shown. Furthermore, a new initial concept of new data anomalies detection methods is described on the last section.

  6. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  7. How to quantify structural anomalies in fluids?

    PubMed

    Fomin, Yu D; Ryzhov, V N; Klumov, B A; Tsiok, E N

    2014-07-21

    Some fluids are known to behave anomalously. The so-called structural anomaly which means that the fluid becomes less structures under isothermal compression is among the most frequently discussed ones. Several methods for quantifying the degree of structural order are described in the literature and are used for calculating the region of structural anomaly. It is generally thought that all of the structural order determinations yield qualitatively identical results. However, no explicit comparison was made. This paper presents such a comparison for the first time. The results of some definitions are shown to contradict the intuitive notion of a fluid. On the basis of this comparison, we show that the region of structural anomaly can be most reliably determined from the behavior of the excess entropy. PMID:25053327

  8. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  9. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus_minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a ``steer`s head.`` it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  10. Density variations and anomalies in palladium compacts

    SciTech Connect

    Back, D.; Jones, T.; Ransick, M.; Walburg, T.; Werkmeister, D.

    1992-05-14

    Low-density compacts of palladium powder have relative densities of about 30{plus minus}10% TD. The variations in density are of concern for operations such as chemical/hydrogen pump systems because heat, mass, and momentum transport properties can be affected. Variations in density result from the inherent nature and interacting forces of UASA compaction of powder in cylinders. In addition to these expected variations, discontinuous density anomalies, such as cracks or high density ridges, are also found. An anomaly of particular concern was found to resemble a steer's head.'' it is a symmetrical region of low density located at or near the center of a compact. Typically, this region is surrounded by a band of high density, compacted palladium that sometimes exceeds the density of the surrounding compact matrix by a factor of three. This report examines these density variations and anomalies both theoretically and empirically.

  11. Influence of ionospheric anomalies in the positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Caderot, G.; Moreno, B.; de Lacy, M. C.

    2009-04-01

    GNSS observables depend on the satellite-receiver distance, atmospheric effects, satellite and receiver offsets and phase ambiguities, as well as satellite and receiver equipment delays. GNSS observations specific to a receiver and a satellite (undifferenced observations) can be used to estimate the ionospheric effect. In this study, different procedures are used to estimate the ionospheric delay from GNSS data belonging to permanent GPS stations. In particular, these tests intend to detect ionospheric anomalies under certain conditions in equatorial geographical latitudes. From the Slant Total Electron Content (STEC) estimated between one GPS station and several satellites the contribution of the anomalies is isolated and its amplitude and duration are computed. Finally, an analysis of the possible influence of these anomalies in the positioning estimation is carried out.

  12. Satellite anomalies caused by disturbed space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    Seven types of satellite anomalies are discussed and examples are given from historical reports. Types of anomalies and their causes are: o Single Event Upsets (SEU) caused by penetrating energetic ions; o Deep dielectric ("bulk") charging (DDC) by high-energy electrons; o Surface charging by thermal electrons causing electrostatic discharge (ESD) and Phantom Commands (PC); o Magnetopause crossing events (MPE) that reverse ambient fields at geostationary satellite altitudes; o dB/dT of field-aligned currents causing satellite tumbling at lower altitudes; o Optical effects of high-energy ions on star-trackers and limb sensors; and o Power panel degradation from high-energy ions. Recent and older events are considered, in part because the problems recur even though technology has changed to take them into account and awareness of the conditions causing them seems widespread. Systematic anomaly reporting is requested to increase the significance of records collected for particular events.

  13. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  14. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  15. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  16. Distribution of branchial anomalies in a paediatric Asian population

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Neville Wei Yang; Ibrahim, Shahrul Izham; Tan, Kun Kiaang Henry

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of the present study was to review the distribution and incidence of branchial anomalies in an Asian paediatric population and highlight the challenges involved in the diagnosis of branchial anomalies. METHODS This was a retrospective chart review of all paediatric patients who underwent surgery for branchial anomalies in a tertiary paediatric hospital from August 2007 to November 2012. The clinical notes were correlated with preoperative radiological investigations, intraoperative findings and histology results. Branchial anomalies were classified based on the results of the review. RESULTS A total of 28 children underwent surgery for 30 branchial anomalies during the review period. Two children had bilateral branchial anomalies requiring excision. Of the 30 branchial anomalies, 7 (23.3%) were first branchial anomalies, 5 (16.7%) were second branchial anomalies, 3 (10.0%) were third branchial anomalies, and 4 (13.3%) were fourth branchial anomalies (one of the four patients with fourth branchial anomalies had bilateral branchial anomalies). In addition, seven children had 8 (26.7%) branchial anomalies that were thought to originate from the pyriform sinus; however, we were unable to determine if these anomalies were from the third or fourth branchial arches. There was inadequate information on the remaining 3 (10.0%) branchial anomalies for classification. CONCLUSION The incidence of second branchial anomalies appears to be lower in our Asian paediatric population, while that of third and fourth branchial anomalies was higher. Knowledge of embryology and the related anatomy of the branchial apparatus is crucial in the identification of the type of branchial anomaly. PMID:25917471

  17. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  18. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  19. Modeling And Detecting Anomalies In Scada Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Nils; Wolthusen, Stephen

    The detection of attacks and intrusions based on anomalies is hampered by the limits of specificity underlying the detection techniques. However, in the case of many critical infrastructure systems, domain-specific knowledge and models can impose constraints that potentially reduce error rates. At the same time, attackers can use their knowledge of system behavior to mask their manipulations, causing adverse effects to observed only after a significant period of time. This paper describes elementary statistical techniques that can be applied to detect anomalies in critical infrastructure networks. A SCADA system employed in liquefied natural gas (LNG) production is used as a case study.

  20. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  1. Techniques for interpretation of geoid anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, M. E.

    1979-01-01

    For purposes of geological interpretation, techniques are developed to compute directly the geoid anomaly over models of density within the earth. Ideal bodies such as line segments, vertical sheets, and rectangles are first used to calculate the geoid anomaly. Realistic bodies are modeled with formulas for two-dimensional polygons and three-dimensional polyhedra. By using Fourier transform methods the two-dimensional geoid is seen to be a filtered version of the gravity field, in which the long-wavelength components are magnified and the short-wavelength components diminished.

  2. Effects of Longwave Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, M.; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-01-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  3. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-03-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  4. The intermediate anomaly. [satellite orbit integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nacozy, P.

    1977-01-01

    Time transformations of the equation dt = cr to the n ds, where s is a variable called the intermediate anomaly, are known to reduce global error in the solution of gravitational systems obtained by numerical integration. Attention is given to the Sundman time transformation, and its relation to equations of Keplerian elliptical motion.

  5. Understanding Anomalies to Extract Vacuum Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Murad, P.A

    2004-02-04

    Recent Russian literature contains some interesting speculations of potentially wide applicability regarding the physical vacuum. These investigations examined and applied a theory to various anomalies to try and understand what these events may represent. Data were collected by Dmitriev to quantify these events and identify commonalties that indicate the anomalies might have a natural origin. Dyatlov created theories on the Polarized Inhomogeneous Physical Vacuum where he claimed that each anomaly possessed a distinct boundary separate from its surroundings. Within this inhomogeneous boundary, the theory suggests that the magnetic, electric, gravitic, and spin fields would be different from its surroundings. From these findings, he developed equations that resemble the London equations for a superconductor and are somewhat similar to those developed later by Puthoff. The importance of these events is that with additional understanding, they may offer a means for extracting energy from the physical vacuum. Moreover, one may speculate that these anomalies may represent a gravitational vortex or even a portal or a wormhole to look into potential travel within other dimensions.

  6. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  7. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  8. Gravity anomaly detection: Apollo/Soyuz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbun, F. O.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Schmid, P. E.; Wells, W. T.; Conrad, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    The Goddard Apollo-Soyuz Geodynamics Experiment is described. It was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of tracking and recovering high frequency components of the earth's gravity field by utilizing a synchronous orbiting tracking station such as ATS-6. Gravity anomalies of 5 MGLS or larger having wavelengths of 300 to 1000 kilometers on the earth's surface are important for geologic studies of the upper layers of the earth's crust. Short wavelength Earth's gravity anomalies were detected from space. Two prime areas of data collection were selected for the experiment: (1) the center of the African continent and (2) the Indian Ocean Depression centered at 5% north latitude and 75% east longitude. Preliminary results show that the detectability objective of the experiment was met in both areas as well as at several additional anomalous areas around the globe. Gravity anomalies of the Karakoram and Himalayan mountain ranges, ocean trenches, as well as the Diamantina Depth, can be seen. Maps outlining the anomalies discovered are shown.

  9. Congenital cardiac anomalies in an English bulldog.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Marina J

    2011-11-01

    A 4-year-old male castrated English bulldog was referred to the Atlantic Veterinary College for evaluation of exercise intolerance, multiple syncopal episodes, and a grade IV/VI heart murmur. The dog was shown to have 3 congenital cardiac anomalies: atrial septal defect, mitral valve dysplasia, and subaortic stenosis. Medical management consisted of exercise restriction, atenolol, pimobendan, and taurine. PMID:22547849

  10. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  11. Ocean response to surface heat anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Xingjian; Fung, Inez

    1994-01-01

    An ocean general circulation model (OGCM) is used to study the response of ocean heat and mass transport to positive and negative heat flux anomalies at the ocean surface. As expected, tropical and low-latitude mixed layers respond rapidly (e-folding time about 50-70 years) to external forcing, while the response of the high-latitude mixed layer, especially the Southern Ocean and northern North Atlantic, is very slow (e-folding time greater than 300 yr). The overall response is faster for negative than positive heat flux anomaly at the surface. The meridional heat transport changes by 15% in the first 50 yr in the southern high latitudes. Surprisingly, for the next 400-500 yr the change is very small. The analysis shows that the meridional mass transport intensifies in response to a negative surface heat flux anomaly but weakens in response to a positive heat flux anomaly. For example, at model year 100 the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is reduced from about 18 Sv to about 10 Sv for the positive heat flux experiment but increased to about 26 Sv for the negative heat flux experiment.

  12. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  13. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  14. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  15. Heineman Prize Lecture: Anomaly Cancellation: A Retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, John

    2002-04-01

    The mechanism by which gauge and gravitational anomalies cancel in certain string theories is reviewed. A few new tricks are introduced to make the derivation a little simpler, and the string-theoretic interpretation a little clearer, than in the original 1984 work.

  16. Conformal anomaly actions for dilaton interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Rose, Luigi; Marzo, Carlo; Serino, Mirko

    2014-11-01

    We discuss, in conformally invariant field theories such as QCD with massless fermions, a possible link between the perturbative signature of the conformal anomaly, in the form of anomaly poles of the 1-particle irreducible effective action, and its descrip- tion in terms of Wess-Zumino actions with a dilaton. The two descriptions are expected to capture the UV and IR behaviour of the conformal anomaly, in terms of fundamental and effective degrees of freedom respectively, with the dilaton effective state appearing in a nonlinear realization. As in the chiral case, conformal anomalies seem to be related to the appearance of these effective interactions in the 1PI action in all the gauge-invariant sectors of the Standard Model. We show that, as a consequence of the underlying anomalous symmetry, the infinite hierarchy of recurrence relations involving self-interactions of the dilaton is entirely determined only by the first four of them. This relation can be generalized to any even space-time dimension.

  17. Resolving the Cassini/Huygens relay anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    A test using NASA's DSN to mimic the probe's signal was performed in 2000 and uncovered an anomaly that, unchecked, would result in nearly complete loss of the Huygens mission. This led to a suggested modification to the Cassini trajectory that will result in nearly complete data return for Huygens with minimal impact on Cassini.

  18. The relationship between clear sky water vapor and SST anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas C.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between clear sky water vapor anomalies and the SST anomalies (SSTAs) was investigated with the purpose of providing data for evaluating the clear sky greenhouse effect predicted in many global warming scenarios, by statistically analyzing anomaly data sets of SST and the water vapor anomaly data (obtained by subtracting the mean value of the six years of data for a given month from the observed values). Results show that clear sky water vapor anomalies increase in association with increases in SSTAs. The clear sky water vapor anomalies high in the troposphere were also found to increase with increasing SSTA.

  19. [Clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly].

    PubMed

    Split, Wojciech; Sawrasewicz-Rybak, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to consider Kimmerle anomaly (ponticulus posterior of the atlas) as an anatomic variant, which can cause a set of clinical symptoms and signs. A hundred and eight patients, 58 females and 50 males at the age of 18-59 years (M. 36.9 years, SD = 9.6) with radiologically verified Kimmerle anomaly were examined. A control group comprised 40 healthy subjects at the similar age range. The diagnosis of headaches was based on the criteria proposed by the IHS. A character of headaches, their localization, frequency, duration, number of days with headaches per year, circumstances associated with their onset and concomitant symptoms were evaluated. All the patients were subjected to electrophysiological studies (ENG, EEG and VEP). The results were statistically analyzed using a SPSS/PC+ computer system. It was revealed that clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly occurred most frequently in the third and fourth decade of life (65% of cases). These were most often tension-type headaches (50% of cases with headaches), vascular headaches (26% of cases) and neuralgia (24% of cases). Intensity of headaches was high. Headaches were accompanied by other complaints like vertigo (59% of cases) and in one third of cases--nausea. About 10% of patients also suffered from vomiting, paresthesia, dizziness, short periods of loss of consciousness. Sporadically--tinitus, drop attack, and vegetative symptoms. In cases without pain the most frequent signs were short periods of loss of consciousness, dizziness, and also nausea and dizziness. The EEG examination revealed pathology in 40% of patients with Kimmerle anomaly. The ENG examination in more than 33% of anomaly cases showed injury in the central part of vestibular system. Improper answers were reported in about 75% of the patients during the VEP examination. PMID:12428570

  20. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  1. Pictorial review of coronary anomalies in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Sangita; Aeron, Gunjan; Vojta, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) classically consists of four characteristic features-right ventricular outflow obstruction, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. In addition there are multiple other associated cardiac anomalies, including coronary artery anomalies. In this review, the role of CT angiography and the spectrum of coronary anomalies will be discussed along with importance of such anomalies in the context of surgery. PMID:26283594

  2. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  3. Spectral anomaly detection in deep shadows.

    PubMed

    Kanaev, Andrey V; Murray-Krezan, Jeremy

    2010-03-20

    Although several hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithms have proven useful when illumination conditions provide for enough light, many of these same detection algorithms fail to perform well when shadows are also present. To date, no general approach to the problem has been demonstrated. In this paper, a novel hyperspectral anomaly detection algorithm that adapts the dimensionality of the spectral detection subspace to multiple illumination levels is described. The novel detection algorithm is applied to reflectance domain hyperspectral data that represents a variety of illumination conditions: well illuminated and poorly illuminated (i.e., shadowed). Detection results obtained for objects located in deep shadows and light-shadow transition areas suggest superiority of the novel algorithm over standard subspace RX detection. PMID:20300158

  4. Geomagnetic anomaly detected at hydromagnetic wave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meloni, A.; Medford, L. V.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1985-04-01

    We report the discovery, in northwestern Illinois, of a geomagnetic anomaly, using hydromagnetic wave frequencies as the source spectrum. Three portable magnetometer stations with computer-compatible digital data acquisition systems were operated in a longitude array at Piano and Ashton, Illinois, and Cascade, Iowa (total separation ˜200 km), in 1981-1982. Analysis of the natural geomagnetic field fluctuations in the hydromagnetic wave regime reveals that the vertical components of the detected fluctuations are essentially 180° out of phase between Plano/Ashton and Cascade for variations with periods ˜30-120 s. The observations can be modeled in terms of a shallow (˜10-20 km) north-south oriented geomagnetic anomaly of enhanced conductivity located between Ashton and Cascade, approximately parallel to the Mississippi River valley.

  5. Initial vector magnetic anomaly map from Magsat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Phillips, J. D.; Horner, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    Global magnetic component anomaly field maps have been derived from the Magsat vector magnetometer data obtained from November 1979 through May 1980. The amplitude of variations of the components over the maps are between 10 and 15 nT, well above the noise in the data. Averaged data, in 2-by-2 deg blocks, exhibit standard errors of the mean of about 1 nT over most of the X and Z maps, and about 2 nT over most of the Y maps. Errors rise to about twice these amounts near the auroral belts. Most of the anomalies in the component data are consistent with a crustal magnetization model which incorporates dipoles aligned only in the direction of the main field. However, there appear to be some regions which require dipoles aligned in some other direction i.e., remanent magnetization.

  6. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  7. Holographic trace anomaly and local renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajagopal, Srivatsan; Stergiou, Andreas; Zhu, Yechao

    2015-11-01

    The Hamilton-Jacobi method in holography has produced important results both at a renormalization group (RG) fixed point and away from it. In this paper we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to compute the holographic trace anomaly for four- and six-dimensional boundary conformal field theories (CFTs), assuming higher-derivative gravity and interactions of scalar fields in the bulk. The scalar field contributions to the anomaly appear in CFTs with exactly marginal operators. Moving away from the fixed point, we show that the Hamilton-Jacobi formalism provides a deep connection between the holographic and the local RG. We derive the local RG equation holographically, and verify explicitly that it satisfies Weyl consistency conditions stemming from the commutativity of Weyl scalings. We also consider massive scalar fields in the bulk corresponding to boundary relevant operators, and comment on their effects to the local RG equation.

  8. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  9. Congenital anomalies after assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Pinborg, Anja; Henningsen, Anna-Karina Aaris; Malchau, Sara Sofie; Loft, Anne

    2013-02-01

    Worldwide, more than 5 million children have been born after assisted reproductive technology (ART), and in many developed countries ART infants represent more than 1% of the birth cohorts. It is well known that ART children are at increased risk of congenital malformations even after adjustment for known confounders such as maternal age. The proportion of ART children is not negligible, and knowledge about the causes of the higher risk of congenital malformations is crucial to develop prevention strategies to reduce the future risk in ART children. The aim of this review is to summarize the literature on the association between ART and congenital anomalies with respect to subfertility, fertility treatment other than ART, and different ART methods including intracytoplasmic sperm injection, blastocyst culture, and cryotechniques. Trends over time in ART and congenital anomalies will also be discussed. PMID:23290686

  10. Network Anomaly Detection Based on Wavelet Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei; Ghorbani, Ali A.

    2008-12-01

    Signal processing techniques have been applied recently for analyzing and detecting network anomalies due to their potential to find novel or unknown intrusions. In this paper, we propose a new network signal modelling technique for detecting network anomalies, combining the wavelet approximation and system identification theory. In order to characterize network traffic behaviors, we present fifteen features and use them as the input signals in our system. We then evaluate our approach with the 1999 DARPA intrusion detection dataset and conduct a comprehensive analysis of the intrusions in the dataset. Evaluation results show that the approach achieves high-detection rates in terms of both attack instances and attack types. Furthermore, we conduct a full day's evaluation in a real large-scale WiFi ISP network where five attack types are successfully detected from over 30 millions flows.

  11. Heat flux boundary anomalies and thermal winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes

    2013-04-01

    Several studies have shown strong effects of outer boundary heat flux patterns on the dynamo mechanism in planets. For example, the hemispherical field of the ancient Martian dynamo can be explained by a large scale sinusoidal anomaly of the core mantle boundary heat flux triggered by large scale mantle convection or giant impacts. The magnetic fields show typically the desired effect - though dynamo action is locally stronger where the underneath heat flux is higher. However, it remains an open question if these effects still apply for more realistic planetary parameters, such as vigor of the convection (Rayleigh number) or the rotation rate (Ekman). The sinusoidal variation of the CMB heat flux along the colatitude with larger heat flux in the southern and smaller in the northern hemisphere as used for Mars can lead to a concentration of magnetic field in the south. The shape of such a hemispherical dynamo matches the crustal magnetization pattern at the surface and seems therefore an admissible mode for the ancient Martian dynamo. As the consequence of the emerging latitudinal temperature gradients convection and induction are dominated by thermal winds. These zonal flows were found to be equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric, ageostrophic, of strong amplitude and have therefore a severe effect on core convection and especially the induction process. We measure the underlying thermal anomalies as a function of Rayleigh and Ekman number and show that they are responsible for the thermal winds. Our results suggest that temperature anomalies decrease clearly with the supercriticality of the convection due to faster stirring and mixing, but show no additional dependence on the Ekman number. Interestingly, the decline of the latitudinal temperature anomaly follows a recently suggested scaling law for the thickness of thermal boundary layers. Even though the convective supercriticality of planetary cores is rather large and therefore only a minor effect of thermal

  12. Statistical significance of the gallium anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-06-15

    We calculate the statistical significance of the anomalous deficit of electron neutrinos measured in the radioactive source experiments of the GALLEX and SAGE solar neutrino detectors, taking into account the uncertainty of the detection cross section. We found that the statistical significance of the anomaly is {approx}3.0{sigma}. A fit of the data in terms of neutrino oscillations favors at {approx}2.7{sigma} short-baseline electron neutrino disappearance with respect to the null hypothesis of no oscillations.

  13. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  14. `t Hooft anomaly matching for discrete symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Csaki, C.; Murayama, Hitoshi |

    1998-05-01

    The authors show how to extend the `t Hooft anomaly matching conditions to discrete symmetries. They check these discrete anomally matching conditions on several proposed low-energy spectra of certain strongly interacting gauge theories. The excluded examples include the proposed chirally symmetric vacuum of pure N = 1 supersymmetric yang-Mills theories, certain non-supersymmetric confining theories and some self-dual N = 1 supersymmetric theories based on exceptional groups.

  15. Anomaly detection in the maritime domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Jean

    2008-04-01

    Defence R&D Canada is developing a Collaborative Knowledge Exploitation Framework (CKEF) to support the analysts in efficiently managing and exploiting relevant knowledge assets to achieve maritime domain awareness in joint operations centres of the Canadian Forces. While developing the CKEF, anomaly detection has been clearly recognized as an important aspect requiring R&D. An activity has thus been undertaken to implement, within the CKEF, a proof-of-concept prototype of a rule-based expert system to support the analysts regarding this aspect. This expert system has to perform automated reasoning and output recommendations (or alerts) about maritime anomalies, thereby supporting the identification of vessels of interest and threat analysis. The system must contribute to a lower false alarm rate and a better probability of detection in drawing operator's attention to vessels worthy of their attention. It must provide explanations as to why the vessels may be of interest, with links to resources that help the operators dig deeper. Mechanisms are necessary for the analysts to fine tune the system, and for the knowledge engineer to maintain the knowledge base as the expertise of the operators evolves. This paper portrays the anomaly detection prototype, and describes the knowledge acquisition and elicitation session conducted to capture the know-how of the experts, the formal knowledge representation enablers and the ontology required for aspects of the maritime domain that are relevant to anomaly detection, vessels of interest, and threat analysis, the prototype high-level design and implementation on the service-oriented architecture of the CKEF, and other findings and results of this ongoing activity.

  16. Hamiltonian anomalies of bound states in QED

    SciTech Connect

    Shilin, V. I.; Pervushin, V. N.

    2013-10-15

    The Bound State in QED is described in systematic way by means of nonlocal irreducible representations of the nonhomogeneous Poincare group and Dirac's method of quantization. As an example of application of this method we calculate triangle diagram Para-Positronium {yields} {gamma}{gamma}. We show that the Hamiltonian approach to Bound State in QED leads to anomaly-type contribution to creation of pair of parapositronium by two photon.

  17. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  18. OPAD data analysis. [Optical Plumes Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buntine, Wray L.; Kraft, Richard; Whitaker, Kevin; Cooper, Anita E.; Powers, W. T.; Wallace, Tim L.

    1993-01-01

    Data obtained in the framework of an Optical Plume Anomaly Detection (OPAD) program intended to create a rocket engine health monitor based on spectrometric detections of anomalous atomic and molecular species in the exhaust plume are analyzed. The major results include techniques for handling data noise, methods for registration of spectra to wavelength, and a simple automatic process for estimating the metallic component of a spectrum.

  19. Fusion and normalization to enhance anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, R.; Atkinson, G.; Antoniades, J.; Baumback, M.; Chester, D.; Edwards, J.; Goldstein, A.; Haas, D.; Henderson, S.; Liu, L.

    2009-05-01

    This study examines normalizing the imagery and the optimization metrics to enhance anomaly and change detection, respectively. The RX algorithm, the standard anomaly detector for hyperspectral imagery, more successfully extracts bright rather than dark man-made objects when applied to visible hyperspectral imagery. However, normalizing the imagery prior to applying the anomaly detector can help detect some of the problematic dark objects, but can also miss some bright objects. This study jointly fuses images of RX applied to normalized and unnormalized imagery and has a single decision surface. The technique was tested using imagery of commercial vehicles in urban environment gathered by a hyperspectral visible/near IR sensor mounted in an airborne platform. Combining detections first requires converting the detector output to a target probability. The observed anomaly detections were fitted with a linear combination of chi square distributions and these weights were used to help compute the target probability. Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) quantitatively assessed the target detection performance. The target detection performance is highly variable depending on the relative number of candidate bright and dark targets and false alarms and controlled in this study by using vegetation and street line masks. The joint Boolean OR and AND operations also generate variable performance depending on the scene. The joint SUM operation provides a reasonable compromise between OR and AND operations and has good target detection performance. In addition, new transforms based on normalizing correlation coefficient and least squares generate new transforms related to canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and a normalized image regression (NIR). Transforms based on CCA and NIR performed better than the standard approaches. Only RX detection of the unnormalized of the difference imagery in change detection provides adequate change detection performance.

  20. Weyl anomaly and initial singularity crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Adel

    2016-04-01

    We consider the role of quantum effects, mainly, Weyl anomaly in modifying Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model singular behavior at early times. Weyl anomaly corrections to FLRW models have been considered in the past, here we reconsider this model and show the following: The singularity of this model is weak according to Tipler and Krolak, therefore, the spacetime might admit a geodesic extension. Weyl anomaly corrections change the nature of the initial singularity from a big bang singularity to a sudden singularity. The two branches of solutions consistent with the semiclassical treatment form a disconnected manifold. Joining these two parts at the singularity provides us with a C1 extension to nonspacelike geodesics and leaves the spacetime geodesically complete. Using Gauss-Codazzi equations one can derive generalized junction conditions for this higher-derivative gravity. The extended spacetime obeys Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations and the junction conditions. The junction does not generate Dirac delta functions in matter sources which keeps the equation of state unchanged.

  1. Evaluation of anomalies in GLDAS-1996 dataset.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyao; Zhang, Yongqiang; Yang, Yonghui; Yang, Yanmin; Han, Shumin

    2013-01-01

    Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) data are widely used for land-surface flux simulations. Therefore, the simulation accuracy using GLDAS dataset is largely contingent upon the accuracy of the GLDAS dataset. It is found that GLDAS land-surface model simulated runoff exhibits strong anomalies for 1996. These anomalies are investigated by evaluating four GLDAS meteorological forcing data (precipitation, air temperature, downward shortwave radiation and downward longwave radiation) in six large basins across the world (Danube, Mississippi, Yangtze, Congo, Amazon and Murray-Darling basins). Precipitation data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) are also compared with GLDAS forcing precipitation data. Large errors and lack of monthly variability in GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are the main sources for the anomalies in the simulated runoff. The impact of the precipitation data on simulated runoff for 1996 is investigated with the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) land-surface model in the Yangtze basin, for which area high-quality local precipitation data are obtained from the China Meteorological Administration (CMA). The CABLE model is driven by GLDAS daily precipitation data and CMA daily precipitation, respectively. The simulated daily and monthly runoffs obtained from CMA data are noticeably better than those obtained from GLDAS data, suggesting that GLDAS-1996 precipitation data are not so reliable for land-surface flux simulations. PMID:23579825

  2. MAGSAT scalar anomaly map of South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridgway, J. R.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A scalar magnetic anomaly map was prepared for South America and adjacent marine areas directly from original MAGSAT orbits. The preparation of the map poses special problems, notably in the separation of external field and crustal anomalies, and in the reduction of data to a common altitude. External fields are manifested in a long-wavelength ring current effect, a medium-wavelength equatorial electrojet, and short-wavelength noise. The noise is reduced by selecting profiles from quiet periods, and since the electrojet is confined primarily to dusk profiles, its effect is minimized by drawing the data set from dawn profiles only. The ring current is corrected through the use of the standard ring current equation, augmented by further filtering with a Butterworth bandpass filter. Under the assumption that the time-variant ring current is best removed when a replication of redundant profiles is achieved, a test set of 25 groups of 3 nearly coincident orbits per group is set up for filtering with a range of long-wavelength cutoffs to determine which cutoff best replicates the residual profiles. Altitude differences are then normalized by an inversion of the profile data onto a grid of equivalent point dipoles, and recalculated at an altitude of 350 km. The resulting map, when compared to the 2 deg averaged map, shows more coherent anomalies, with notable differences in the region affected by the electrojet.

  3. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

  4. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-03-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  5. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  6. Galileo spacecraft anomaly and safing recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basilio, Ralph R.; Durham, David M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-level anomaly recovery plan which identifies the steps necessary to recover from a spacecraft 'Safing' incident was developed for the Galileo spacecraft prior to launch. Since launch, a total of four in-flight anomalies have lead to entry into a system fault protection 'Safing' routine which has required the Galileo flight team to refine and execute the recovery plan. These failures have allowed the flight team to develop an efficient recovery process when permanent spacecraft capability degradation is minimal and the cause of the anomaly is quickly diagnosed. With this previous recovery experience and the very focused boundary conditions of a specific potential failure, a Gaspra asteroid recovery plan was designed to be implemented in as quickly as forty hours (desired goal). This paper documents the work performed above, however, the Galileo project remains challenged to develop a generic detailed recovery plan which can be implemented in a relatively short time to configure the spacecraft to a nominal state prior to future high priority mission objectives.

  7. Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals.

  8. Chiral anomaly and transport in Weyl metals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, A A

    2015-03-25

    We present an overview of our recent work on transport phenomena in Weyl metals, which may be connected to their nontrivial topological properties, particularly to chiral anomaly. We argue that there are two basic phenomena, which are related to chiral anomaly in Weyl metals: anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and chiral magnetic effect (CME). While AHE is in principle present in any ferromagnetic metal, we demonstrate that a magnetic Weyl metal is distinguished from an ordinary ferromagnetic metal by the absence of the extrinsic and the Fermi surface part of the intrinsic contributions to the AHE, as long as the Fermi energy is sufficiently close to the Weyl nodes. The AHE in a Weyl metal is thus shown to be a purely intrinsic, universal property, fully determined by the location of the Weyl nodes in the first Brillouin zone. In other words, a ferromagnetic Weyl metal may be thought of as the only example of a ferromagnetic metal with a purely intrinsic AHE. We further develop a fully microscopic theory of diffusive magnetotransport in Weyl metals. We derive coupled diffusion equations for the total and axial (i.e. node-antisymmetric) charge densities and show that chiral anomaly manifests as a magnetic-field-induced coupling between them. We demonstrate that an experimentally-observable consequence of CME in magnetotransport in Weyl metals is a quadratic negative magnetoresistance, which will dominate all other contributions to magnetoresistance under certain conditions and may be regarded as a smoking-gun transport characteristic, unique to Weyl metals. PMID:25712419

  9. Minor anomalies in stillborn and second trimester miscarried fetuses.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Elizabeth; Cold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    In 1964, the landmark paper of Marden, Smith, and McDonald established that multiple minor anomalies in newborn infants are associated with an increased risk for major malformations. There were until now no comparable studies in stillbirths. The Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP) has data regarding nearly 3,000 stillbirths and second trimester losses that have been analyzed for major anomalies and cause of death. One dysmorphologist retrospectively reviewed all 2,397 with usable photographs. Minor anomalies were identified in 1,413 (59%) with 575 of these (41%) having at least one major anomaly. Probability of a major anomaly increased from 7% with no minor anomalies to 15%, 36%, 67%, and 89% with 1, 2, 3, and >33 minor anomalies, respectively. Frequency of minor anomalies was less with lower resolution photographs, but did not show significant differences with maceration or gestational age. The most frequent minor anomalies were infraorbital creases/folds, lowset/posteriorly angulated ears, nuchal edema, flat face, equinovarus foot, camptodactyly, upslanted palpebral fissures, ear antihelix abnormalities (combined), micrognathia/retrognathia, and single transverse palmar crease. Except for infraorbital creases/folds each of these minor anomalies was strongly correlated with major anomalies (P < 0.0001). Infraorbital folds were the only anomaly which increased with placental cause of death, and reanalysis with placental causes excluded showed the expected relationship to major anomalies, suggesting that infraorbital folds may be markers for oligohydramnios due to various causes including placental hypoperfusion. Minor anomalies correlate with presence of major anomalies in stillborn fetuses, regardless of gestational age and maceration, and can provide information to guide decisions regarding laboratory testing and other evaluations. PMID:26373818

  10. Relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and ENSO events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhire, I.; Ahmed, F.; Abutaleb, K.

    2015-10-01

    This study aims primarily at investigating the relationships between Rwandan seasonal rainfall anomalies and El Niño-South Oscillation phenomenon (ENSO) events. The study is useful for early warning of negative effects associated with extreme rainfall anomalies across the country. It covers the period 1935-1992, using long and short rains data from 28 weather stations in Rwanda and ENSO events resourced from Glantz (2001). The mean standardized anomaly indices were calculated to investigate their associations with ENSO events. One-way analysis of variance was applied on the mean standardized anomaly index values per ENSO event to explore the spatial correlation of rainfall anomalies per ENSO event. A geographical information system was used to present spatially the variations in mean standardized anomaly indices per ENSO event. The results showed approximately three climatic periods, namely, dry period (1935-1960), semi-humid period (1961-1976) and wet period (1977-1992). Though positive and negative correlations were detected between extreme short rains anomalies and El Niño events, La Niña events were mostly linked to negative rainfall anomalies while El Niño events were associated with positive rainfall anomalies. The occurrence of El Niño and La Niña in the same year does not show any clear association with rainfall anomalies. However, the phenomenon was more linked with positive long rains anomalies and negative short rains anomalies. The normal years were largely linked with negative long rains anomalies and positive short rains anomalies, which is a pointer to the influence of other factors other than ENSO events. This makes projection of seasonal rainfall anomalies in the country by merely predicting ENSO events difficult.

  11. The "African Anomaly" and the "Pacific Anomaly" in the Lower Mantle: Similarities and Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, L.; He, Y.; Wang, Y.

    2004-12-01

    Seismic results have consistently shown two prominent low-velocity anomalies in the lower mantle, with one beneath southern Africa and the other beneath Pacific. For convenience, we refer them here the "African anomaly" and the "Pacific anomaly". The African anomaly was constrained mostly by the SH, ScS, SHdiff, SKS, SKKS, P, Pdiff and PcP phases recorded in three PASSCAL seismic arrays in Africa: the Tanzania array (1994 - 1995), the Kaapvaal array (1997 - 1999) and the Kenya array (2001-2002). These seismic observations indicate that the African anomaly has a very-low velocity province (VLVP) at its base, extends at least 1300 km above the core-mantle boundary with its edges in the lower mantle dipping toward its center and has a P to S velocity perturbation ratio of 1:3. The VLVP exhibits an "L-shape" changing from a north-south orientation in the South Atlantic Ocean to an east-west direction in the Indian Ocean, and has rapidly varying thicknesses from 300 km to 0 km, steeply dipping edges and a linear gradient of shear velocity reduction from -2% (top) to -9% to -12% (bottom) relative to the preliminary reference Earth model. These structural and velocity features unambiguously indicate that the VLVP, and likely the whole African anomaly, is compositionally distinct. The Pacific anomaly is studied using the ScS and SH waves recorded in the F-net in Japan, the China National Digital Seismographic Network and several dense seismic arrays in the Northern China Interior Structure Project, and the PKP precursors and SKS-SPdKS phases recorded in several WWSSN stations. Our ScS-S differential travel times confirm the early tomographic results that the the base of the Pacific anomaly is broad, but suggest presence of larger shear velocity reductions. The ScS-S differential travel times show residuals as large as 10 seconds when the ScS phases sample the eastern part of the base, which would correspond to an average shear velocity reduction of -5% for a 300-km

  12. The dynamic Allan Variance IV: characterization of atomic clock anomalies.

    PubMed

    Galleani, Lorenzo; Tavella, Patrizia

    2015-05-01

    The number of applications where precise clocks play a key role is steadily increasing, satellite navigation being the main example. Precise clock anomalies are hence critical events, and their characterization is a fundamental problem. When an anomaly occurs, the clock stability changes with time, and this variation can be characterized with the dynamic Allan variance (DAVAR). We obtain the DAVAR for a series of common clock anomalies, namely, a sinusoidal term, a phase jump, a frequency jump, and a sudden change in the clock noise variance. These anomalies are particularly common in space clocks. Our analytic results clarify how the clock stability changes during these anomalies. PMID:25965674

  13. Diphallia with Associated Anomalies: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Prasetyo, Robertus Bebet; Rodjani, Arry

    2013-01-01

    Diphallia or penile duplication is an extremely rare congenital anomaly. It occurs once in every 5.5 million live births. The extent of penile duplication and the number of associated anomalies vary greatly, ranging from a double glans from a penis with no associated anomaly up to complete penile duplication associated with multiple anomalies. Here, we report a 12-year-old boy with complete bifid diphallia associated with bifid scrotum, epispadia, and pubic symphysis diastasis along with a review of the articles pertaining to this anomaly. PMID:24383036

  14. Abundance anomalies in tidal disruption events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The ˜10 per cent of tidal disruption events (TDEs) due to stars more massive than M* ≳ M⊙ should show abundance anomalies due to stellar evolution in helium, carbon and nitrogen, but not oxygen. Helium is always enhanced, but only by up to ˜25 per cent on average because it becomes inaccessible once it is sequestered in the high-density core as the star leaves the main sequence. However, portions of the debris associated with the disrupted core of a main-sequence star can be enhanced in helium by factors of 2-3 for debris at a common orbital period. These helium abundance variations may be a contributor to the observed diversity of hydrogen and helium line strengths in TDEs. A still more striking anomaly is the rapid enhancement of nitrogen and the depletion of carbon due to the CNO cycle - stars with M* ≳ M⊙ quickly show an increase in their average N/C ratio by factors of 3-10. Because low-mass stars evolve slowly and high-mass stars are rare, TDEs showing high N/C will almost all be due to ˜1-2 M⊙ stars disrupted on the main sequence. Like helium, portions of the debris will show still larger changes in C and N, and the anomalies decline as the star leaves the main sequence. The enhanced [N/C] abundance ratio of these TDEs provides the first natural explanation for the rare, nitrogen-rich quasars and may also explain the strong nitrogen emission seen in ultraviolet spectra of ASASSN-14li.

  15. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies. PMID:26239283

  16. Failures and anomalies attributed to spacecraft charging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, R. D.; Alexander, M. B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    The effects of spacecraft charging can be very detrimental to electronic systems utilized in space missions. Assuring that subsystems and systems are protected against charging is an important engineering function necessary to assure mission success. Spacecraft charging is expected to have a significant role in future space activities and programs. Objectives of this reference publication are to present a brief overview of spacecraft charging, to acquaint the reader with charging history, including illustrative cases of charging anomalies, and to introduce current spacecraft charging prevention activities of the Electromagnetics and Environments Branch, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  17. [Unusual anorectal anomalies. A clinical contribution].

    PubMed

    Ghandour, H M; Spalletta, M; Dipaola, G; Balducci, T; Giacomello, L; Piovesan, P; Ottolenghi, A

    1998-05-01

    Anorectal malformations (ARM) include a spectrum of anomalies which have been subdivided as "high", "intermediate" and "low"; a fourth group, defined as "miscellaneous", collects the forms which are most rarely observed. It is important, for a specialist, to know the last ones under the diagnostic and/or therapeutic profile. In this paper, the various problems observed in five cases of ARM considered particularly rare are analysed: a case of anorectal agenesia with recto-cloacal fistula and short uro-genital sinus; a rectal atresia with normal anal canal; a case of anorectal stenosis; an incomplete anal membrane; an anal agenesia with scrotal fistula. PMID:9842215

  18. Supersymmetric Casimir energy and the anomaly polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobev, Nikolay; Bullimore, Mathew; Kim, Hee-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    We conjecture that for superconformal field theories in even dimensions, the supersymmetric Casimir energy on a space with topology S 1 × S D-1 is equal to an equivariant integral of the anomaly polynomial. The equivariant integration is defined with respect to the Cartan subalgebra of the global symmetry algebra that commutes with a given supercharge. We test our proposal extensively by computing the supersymmetric Casimir energy for large classes of superconformal field theories, with and without known Lagrangian descriptions, in two, four and six dimensions.

  19. Horseshoe Appendix: An Extremely Rare Appendiceal Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ch Gyan; Rangaswamy, Raju; Ezung, Yibenthung S.; Singh, H. Manihar

    2016-01-01

    Appendiceal anomalies are extremely rare malformations that are usually found incidentally. Agenesis and duplication of the appendix has been well documented however, the cases of horseshoe appendix reported is very limited, only four cases reported so far. Here, we report a four and half-year-old who underwent interval appendectomy. Intraoperatively both the ends of the appendix were found to be communicating with the cecum with two separate base or stump located at a sagital disposal- the so called “horseshoe appendix”. PMID:27134939

  20. Gravity and magnetic anomaly data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress on the analysis MAGSAT data is reported. The MAGSAT data from 40 deg S to 70 deg N latitude and 30 deg W to 60 E longitude was reduced to radial polarization. In addition, gravity anomaly data from this area were processed and a variety of filtered maps were prepared for combined interpretation of the gravity and magnetic data in conjunction with structural and tectonic maps of the area. The VERSATEC listings and cross-reference maps of variable and array names for the spherical Earth analysis programs NVERTSM, SMFLD, NVERTG, and GFLD were also prepared.

  1. Statistical prediction of satellite magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Von Frese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Ravat, D. N.

    1990-01-01

    Computationally rapid statistical procedures are presented for satellite altitude normalizations and the gridding of magnetic anomaly data, as an alternative to the more commonly used but computationally expensive equivalent-source inversion procedures. The statistical predictions of Magsat observations over South America have demonstrated the great computational advantages of collocation over equivalent source inversion in gridding magnetic anomally data; in general, three-dimensional collocation is an efficient and cost-effective approach for obtaining altitude-normalized anomally grids from orbital or arbitrarily distributed data.

  2. Atmospheric Methane Growth Anomalies, 2007 - Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, D.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Fisher, R. E.; Nisbet, E. G.; Lanoiselle, M.; France, J.

    2012-12-01

    Several marked growth anomalies in atmospheric methane have occurred since 2007. In particular there has been sustained growth in methane in the Southern Hemisphere. This southern growth anomaly is among the larger excursions in the global methane record so far occurring in the 21st century, yet in contrast to Arctic emission, it has had little attention. The increase in methane began in 2007 and continued through early-2012. In the zonal average from the Equator to 30°S, annual increases reached 7.9 ppb/yr in 2007, remained at 7.0 ppb/yr in 2008, fell to around 2.5 ppb/yr in 2009, then increased to 7.9 ppb/yr in 2010. To consider one specific site, recent data from Ascension Island (which samples South Atlantic air almost exclusively) suggests growth of ~11 ppb/yr from July 2010 to July 2011 (winter to winter) falling to 8 ppb/yr over Jan 2011 - Jan 2012 (summer to summer). Isotopic data for 2011 show 13C enrichments and depletions that may suggest inputs from tropical / subtropical fire and wetland sources, respectively. Despite the size of the southern anomaly, there has been virtually no discussion of its causes. Several possibilities exist: some or all may have occurred: 1) that methane emission from southern wetland (late wet season) and fire (dry season) sources increased sharply during this period; 2) that the southern OH methane sink has decreased; 3) that changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have increased inter-hemispheric transport. It is possible that a major factor was high La Nina rainfall in key areas draining into wetlands in southern tropical Africa and Latin America. Tropical methane sources emit roughly 200 Tg methane annually to the atmosphere, nearly two-fifths of the global budget. Thus changes in tropical sources, if sustained on this scale, can have global significance. However the observational network generally is so sparse in the tropics that identifying causes of methane growth events is more akin to guesswork than evidence

  3. Anomaly nucleation constrains SU(2) gauge theories.

    PubMed

    Halverson, James

    2013-12-27

    We argue for the existence of additional constraints on SU(2) gauge theories in four dimensions when realized in ultraviolet completions admitting an analog of D-brane nucleation. In type II string compactifications these constraints are necessary and sufficient for the absence of cubic non-Abelian anomalies in certain nucleated SU(N>2) theories. It is argued that they appear quite broadly in the string landscape. Implications for particle physics are discussed; most realizations of the standard model in this context are inconsistent, unless extra electroweak fermions are added. PMID:24483790

  4. Phenomenological explanation of elastic anomalies in superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Grimsditch, M.; Fullerton, E.E.; Schuller, I.K.

    1993-06-01

    The experimental fact that measured elastic and structural properties of superlattices are strongly correlated can be understood on the basis of a simple model based on the packing of hard spheres. The model is consistent with features of many models that have been proposed to explain the supermodulus effect; but contrary to previous explanations, it allows predictions for a given pair of constitutents to be made. For an arbitrary pair of elements, it predicts the existence or non-existence of an elastic anomaly, and a rough estimate of its magnitude.

  5. Mouse models for understanding human developmental anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Generoso, W.M.

    1989-01-01

    The mouse experimental system presents an opportunity for studying the nature of the underlying mutagenic damage and the molecular pathogenesis of this class of anomalies by virtue of the accessibility of the zygote and its descendant blastomeres. Such studies could contribute to the understanding of the etiology of certain sporadic but common human malformations. The vulnerability of the zygotes to mutagens as demonstrated in the studies described in this report should be a major consideration in chemical safety evaluation. It raises questions regarding the danger to human zygotes when the mother is exposed to drugs and environmental chemicals.

  6. Isotopic anomalies - Chemical memory of Galactic evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, Donald D.

    1988-01-01

    New mechanisms for the chemical memory of isotopic anomalies are proposed which are based on the temporal change during the chemical evolution of the Galaxy of the isotopic composition of the mean ejecta from stars. Because of the differing temporal evolution of primary and secondary products of nucleosynthesis, the isotopic composition of the bulk interstellar medium changes approximately linearly with time, and thus any dust component having an age different from that of average dust will be isotopically anomalous. Special attention is given to C, O, Mg, Si, and isotopically heavy average-stellar condensates of SiC.

  7. Multiple ophthalmic anomalies and digital hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chemke, J; Oliver, M; Mallek, D; Kaveh, Z

    1978-03-01

    Multiple congenital eye and hand anomalies occurred in a young female born to normal but consanguineous parents. Both eyes were microphthalmic with severe corneal, iris lens pathology. Ultrasonography revealed multiple echos from the vitreous. The ocular findings are suggestive of retinal dysplasia. A skeletal dysplasia, presenting as distal phalangeal hypoplasia, was found in both hands. There was no history of intrauterine exposure to drugs. This appears to be a unique association of congenital malformations, without other systemic involvement. Diagnostic and genetic implications are discussed. PMID:97363

  8. Predictability of large interannual Arctic sea-ice anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tietsche, Steffen; Notz, Dirk; Jungclaus, Johann H.; Marotzke, Jochem

    2013-11-01

    In projections of twenty-first century climate, Arctic sea ice declines and at the same time exhibits strong interannual anomalies. Here, we investigate the potential to predict these strong sea-ice anomalies under a perfect-model assumption, using the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model in the same setup as in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). We study two cases of strong negative sea-ice anomalies: a 5-year-long anomaly for present-day conditions, and a 10-year-long anomaly for conditions projected for the middle of the twenty-first century. We treat these anomalies in the CMIP5 projections as the truth, and use exactly the same model configuration for predictions of this synthetic truth. We start ensemble predictions at different times during the anomalies, considering lagged-perfect and sea-ice-assimilated initial conditions. We find that the onset and amplitude of the interannual anomalies are not predictable. However, the further deepening of the anomaly can be predicted for typically 1 year lead time if predictions start after the onset but before the maximal amplitude of the anomaly. The magnitude of an extremely low summer sea-ice minimum is hard to predict: the skill of the prediction ensemble is not better than a damped-persistence forecast for lead times of more than a few months, and is not better than a climatology forecast for lead times of two or more years. Predictions of the present-day anomaly are more skillful than predictions of the mid-century anomaly. Predictions using sea-ice-assimilated initial conditions are competitive with those using lagged-perfect initial conditions for lead times of a year or less, but yield degraded skill for longer lead times. The results presented here suggest that there is limited prospect of predicting the large interannual sea-ice anomalies expected to occur throughout the twenty-first century.

  9. ASSOCIATED NON DIAPHRAGMATIC ANOMALIES AMONG CASES WITH CONGENITAL DIAPHRAGMATIC HERNIA.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Alembik, Y; Dott, B; Roth, M P

    2015-01-01

    Cases with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CDH in a defined population. The anomalies associated with CDH were collected in all live births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 29 years in 386,088 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 139 cases with CDH born during this period (total prevalence of 3.60 per 10,000), 85 (61.2%) had associated major anomalies. There were 25 (18.0%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 12 trisomies 18, and 24 (17.3%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but Fryns syndrome. However, other recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including fetal alcohol syndrome, de Lange syndrome, sequences (laterality sequence and ectopia cordis), and complexes (limb body wall complex). Thirty six (25.9%) of the cases had non syndromic multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies of the cardiovascular system (n = 53, 27.5%), the urogenital system (n = 34, 17.6%), the musculoskeletal system (n = 29, 15.0%), and the central nervous system (n = 19, 9.8%) were the most common other congenital anomalies. We observed specific patterns of anomalies associated with CDH which emphasizes the need to evaluate all patients with CDH for possible associated malformations. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was close to two in three infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with CDH. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CDH. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CDH can be classified into a recognizable anomaly, syndrome or pattern in more than one out of two cases with CDH. PMID:26625659

  10. [Müllerian anomalies. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA)].

    PubMed

    Afrashtehfar, Cyrus Dean Mario; Piña-García, Adrián; Afrashtehfar, Kelvin Ian

    2014-01-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies are a group of uncommon and underdiagnosed entities, which cause specific symptoms in adolescent females and may be associated with infertility as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes. These malformations occur as a result of an arrest or abnormal development of the Müllerian ducts in different stages of the female reproductive tract during gestation. Obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome (OHVIRA), formerly known as the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome, is a rare entity characterized by the presence of a uterus didelphys with an obstructed hemivagina cause by a vaginal septum and the association of a renal anomaly (most commonly renal agenesis) ipsilateral to the obstruction. This syndrome may remain undiagnosed during childhood and usually becomes symptomatic after menarche, causing obstructive symptoms. Occasionally it may be identified after the evaluation of a patient with infertility or recurrent pregnancy loss. The clinical diagnosis is very challenging and requires imaging studies in which ultrasound and MRI play an essential role in the diagnosis, classification and treatment plan. Opportune diagnosis and treatment achieve complete improvement of symptoms, adequate reproductive prognosis and avoid major complications such as endometriosis, pelvic adhesions and infertility. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic methods and treatment of the obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomaly syndrome. PMID:25167360

  11. [Biochemical antenatal screening for fetal anomalies.].

    PubMed

    Torfadóttir, G; Jónsson, J J

    2001-05-01

    Biochemical antenatal screening started 30 years ago. Initially, the goal was to detect neural tube defects by measuring a-fetoprotein in maternal serum (MS-AFP) and amniotic fluid (AF-AFP). The serendipitous discovery of an association between low AFP maternal serum concentration and chromosomal anomalies resulted in increased research interest in biochemical screening in pregnancy. Subsequently double, triple or quadruple tests in 2nd trimester of pregnancy became widely used in combination with fetal chromosome determination in at risk individuals. In Iceland, antenatal screening for chromosomal anomalies has essentially been based on fetal chromosome studies offered to pregnant women 35 years or older. This strategy needs to be revised. Recently first trimester biochemical screening based on maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A (MS-PAPP-A) and free b-human chorionic gonadotropin (MS-free b-hCG) and multivariate risk assessment has been developed. This screening test can be improved if done in conjunction with nuchal translucency measurements in an early sonography scan. PMID:17018982

  12. Radiographic Findings Associated with Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Masand, Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Imaging of patients with vascular tumors and malformations has been sufficiently refined to answer pertinent questions when making treatment decisions in this challenging subgroup of pediatric patients. The imaging modalities at hand include conventional radiography, Doppler ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging with time-resolved, contrast-material enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. This review article will focus on the characteristic imaging features of some focal and diffuse vascular lesions, which have been classified by their clinical history and physical exam, and further labeled as a vascular tumor or slow-flow versus high-flow vascular malformation based on the updated classification system proposed by the International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies. The recent advances in knowledge regarding the biology of these vascular anomalies have led to increased awareness of the current nomenclature. Moreover, with better understanding of the imaging features, the radiologist has become a key player in the multidisciplinary approach offered at various institutions where appropriate treatment algorithms and interventional strategies are put together. This is crucial in avoiding misdiagnosis and improper management. PMID:25045332

  13. Correlating anomalies of the microwave sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakić, Aleksandar; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2007-05-01

    At the largest angular scales the presence of a number of unexpected features has been confirmed by the latest measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Among them are the anomalous alignment of the quadrupole and octopole with each other as well as the stubborn lack of angular correlation on scales >60°. We search for correlations between these two phenomena and demonstrate their absence. A Monte Carlo likelihood analysis confirms previous studies and shows that the joint likelihood of both anomalies is incompatible with the best-fit Λ cold dark matter model at >99.95% C.L. Extending also to higher multipoles, a common special direction (the “Axis of Evil”) has been identified. In the search for an explanation of the anomalies, several studies invoke effects that exhibit an axial symmetry. We find that this interpretation of the “Axis of Evil” is inconsistent with three-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The data require a preferred plane, whereupon the axis is just the normal direction. Rotational symmetry within that plane is ruled out at high confidence.

  14. Correlating anomalies of the microwave sky

    SciTech Connect

    Rakic, Aleksandar; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2007-05-15

    At the largest angular scales the presence of a number of unexpected features has been confirmed by the latest measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Among them are the anomalous alignment of the quadrupole and octopole with each other as well as the stubborn lack of angular correlation on scales >60 deg. We search for correlations between these two phenomena and demonstrate their absence. A Monte Carlo likelihood analysis confirms previous studies and shows that the joint likelihood of both anomalies is incompatible with the best-fit {lambda} cold dark matter model at >99.95% C.L. Extending also to higher multipoles, a common special direction (the 'Axis of Evil') has been identified. In the search for an explanation of the anomalies, several studies invoke effects that exhibit an axial symmetry. We find that this interpretation of the 'Axis of Evil' is inconsistent with three-year data from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP). The data require a preferred plane, whereupon the axis is just the normal direction. Rotational symmetry within that plane is ruled out at high confidence.

  15. Light dark matter anomalies after LUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consistency of light dark matter (DM) elastic scattering in CoGeNT, DAMA, and CDMS-silicon in light of constraints from XENON, CDMS, LUX, PICASSO and COUPP. We consider a variety of operators that have been employed to reconcile anomalies with constraints, including anapole, magnetic dipole, momentum-dependent, and isospin-violating DM. We find that elastic scattering through these alternative operators does not substantially reduce the tension between the signals and the null constraints for operators where at least two of the three purported signals map onto a common space in the DM mass-scattering cross-section plane. Taking a choice of the scintillation efficiency that lies at the -1σ region of the Manzur et al. measurement relieves tension between signals and the LUX constraint—in particular for a magnetic dipole interaction and a xenophobic interaction (though for the latter the signal regions do not substantially overlap). We also find that modest changes in the halo model do not alter this result. We conclude that, even relaxing the assumption about the type of elastic scattering interaction and taking a conservative choice for the scintillation efficiency, LUX and the results from other null experiments remain in tension with a light DM elastic scattering explanation of direct detection anomalies.

  16. Detecting syntactic and semantic anomalies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Moro, Andrea; Bambini, Valentina; Bosia, Marta; Anselmetti, Simona; Riccaboni, Roberta; Cappa, Stefano F; Smeraldi, Enrico; Cavallaro, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    One of the major challenges in the study of language in schizophrenia is to identify specific levels of the linguistic structure that might be selectively impaired. While historically a main semantic deficit has been widely claimed, results are mixed, with also evidence of syntactic impairment. This might be due to heterogeneity in materials and paradigms across studies, which often do not allow to tap into single linguistic components. Moreover, the interaction between linguistic and neurocognitive deficits is still unclear. In this study, we concentrated on syntactic and semantic knowledge. We employed an anomaly detection task including short and long sentences with either syntactic errors violating the principles of Universal Grammar, or a novel form of semantic errors, resulting from a contradiction in the computation of the whole sentence meaning. Fifty-eight patients with diagnosis of schizophrenia were compared to 30 healthy subjects. Results showed that, in patients, only the ability to identify syntactic anomaly, both in short and long sentences, was impaired. This result cannot be explained by working memory abilities or psychopathological features. These findings suggest the presence of an impairment of syntactic knowledge in schizophrenia, at least partially independent of the cognitive and psychopathological profile. On the contrary, we cannot conclude that there is a semantic impairment, at least in terms of compositional semantics abilities. PMID:26519554

  17. Seasonal anomalies in the Canary Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2011-07-01

    Along the northwestern coast of Africa lies an important fishery, stimulated by an upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich, deep-ocean water. Driven by a complex convergence of ocean currents, the waters between the coast, the Portuguese island of Madeira, and the Canary Islands are known to vary dramatically throughout the year, seeing coastal current reversals near the shore and the location of the large-scale Canary Current drifting seasonally, moving offshore in the winter before returning toward the coast in the summer. To sort out the trigger for this seasonal drift, Mason et al. produced a high-resolution model of the Canary Current that captures details of its interaction with the coastal region where the deep water upwelling occurs. The authors found a pair of circular seasonal anomalies that they suggest control the strength and location of the Canary Current. The first, formed in late autumn, is a persistent, clockwise-spinning region of elevated sea surface height and increased flow rates. Its counterpart, a counterclockwise-rotating sea surface depression, is formed in the spring. Both anomalies spawn near the African coast and meander westward at around 2.6 kilometers per day, pushing their way out of the region over the course of a year. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2010JC006665, 2011)

  18. ASTER Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Zehner, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: ASTER Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from ASTER satellite imagery. The temperature is calculated using the Emissivity Normalization Algorithm that separate temperature from emissivity. Areas that had temperature greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered ASTER modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4547052.446651 m Left: 158917.090117 m Right: 4101162.228281 m Bottom: 4101162.228281 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System ’1984 (WGS ’1984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  19. MARSIS antenna flight deployment anomaly and resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Douglas S.; Mobrem, Mehran

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes the resolution of an in flight anomaly that occurred during the deployment of the first of three MARSIS antenna booms. Characteristics of this deployment are described, along with a correlation to finite element models and measured spacecraft inertias, which allowed the intermediate state of the boom to be accurately determined. Based on this information, a spacecraft maneuver was performed that warmed the stalled hinge and led to the first boom successfully locking into its designed geometry. The confirmed partially deployed boom shape was then used to develop a thermal model of the stalled hinge both in its initial solar attitude and during the successful spacecraft maneuver. Results from the hinge thermal model and component level testing were evaluated in order to determine the root cause of the anomaly and the probability of its recurrence on subsequent deployments. These conclusions were then utilized in planning mitigating actions that were implemented during the remaining two boom deployments. Final flight data are presented for both dipole booms indicating a correctly deployed and healthy antenna. The monopole boom deployment was detected but the final state of the boom is unknown.

  20. Theory of hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, A.J.; Mallow, J.V.; Desclaux, J.P.; Weinert, M.

    1983-01-01

    Negative muon spin precession experiments by Yamazaki, et al. have found giant hyperfine anomalies in muonic atoms ranging from a few percent up to 36%. In order to understand their results, we present Breit interaction calculations based on atomic self-consistent unrestricted Dirac-Fock solutions which explicitly include all electrons and the negative muon. The Breit interaction results (including the relativistic correction for the bound muon g-factor), vary from near zero for ..mu../sup -/ O/N to -5% for ..mu../sup -/Pd/Rh; this latter is much larger than the calculated muonic or nuclear Bohr-Weisskopf anomalies and much smaller than the 36% measured value. For ..mu../sup -/Ni/Co we find a calculated range of results (depending on assumed electronic configurations) of -2.3 to -2.7% in excellent agreement with recent measurements of the Yamazaki group. This excellent agreement in ..mu../sup -/Ni/Co provides strong support for the earlier suggestions that the discrepancy in the case of ..mu../sup -/Pd/Rh is due to experimental factors.

  1. Exotic muon decays and the KARMEN anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gninenko, S. N.; Krasnikov, N. V.

    1998-08-01

    An anomaly in time distribution of neutrinos from the ISIS pulsed beam stop source observed by the KARMEN collaboration is discussed. We show that the anomaly can be interpreted as a superposition of two exponentials, both having time constants consistent with the μ+ lifetime of 2.2 μs. It is assumed that they both originate from muon decays at rest. One of them describes the time distribution of the prompt neutrino events, while the other describes the time distribution of events from delayed decays of slowly moving (β~=0.02) particles in the KARMEN calorimeter. We propose here that these particles are produced in exotic decays of positive muons μ+-->e++X, resulting in the second exponential time distribution shifted by the time of flight with respect to the time distribution of neutrino events. This model gives an acceptable fit to the KARMEN data if X has a mass of 103.9 MeV. The possible decay modes of this new massive neutral particle are discussed. This hypothesis can be experimentally tested in the near future by studying the low energy part of the e+ spectrum in the μ+ decays.

  2. Continental and oceanic magnetic anomalies: Enhancement through GRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the POGO and MAGSAT satellites, the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) satellite system will orbit at a minimum elevation to provide significantly better resolved lithospheric magnetic anomalies for more detailed and improved geologic analysis. In addition, GRM will measure corresponding gravity anomalies to enhance our understanding of the gravity field for vast regions of the Earth which are largely inaccessible to more conventional surface mapping. Crustal studies will greatly benefit from the dual data sets as modeling has shown that lithospheric sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies frequently involve density variations which may produce detectable gravity anomalies at satellite elevations. Furthermore, GRM will provide an important replication of lithospheric magnetic anomalies as an aid to identifying and extracting these anomalies from satellite magnetic measurements. The potential benefits to the study of the origin and characterization of the continents and oceans, that may result from the increased GRM resolution are examined.

  3. Symmetric scaling properties in global surface air temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, Costas A.; Efstathiou, Maria N.

    2015-08-01

    We have recently suggested "long-term memory" or internal long-range correlation within the time-series of land-surface air temperature (LSAT) anomalies in both hemispheres. For example, an increasing trend in the LSAT anomalies is followed by another one at a different time in a power-law fashion. However, our previous research was mainly focused on the overall long-term persistence, while in the present study, the upward and downward scaling dynamics of the LSAT anomalies are analysed, separately. Our results show that no significant fluctuation differences were found between the increments and decrements in LSAT anomalies, over the whole Earth and over each hemisphere, individually. On the contrary, the combination of land-surface air and sea-surface water temperature anomalies seemed to cause a departure from symmetry and the increments in the land and sea surface temperature anomalies appear to be more persistent than the decrements.

  4. Non-Abelian anomalies on a curved space with torsion

    SciTech Connect

    Cognola, G.; Giacconi, P.

    1989-05-15

    Using path-integral methods and /zeta/-function regularization a nonperturbative derivation of non-Abelian-covariant and consistent anomalies on a curved space with torsion is given. All terms depending on torsion, that one has in the expression of the consistent anomaly, can be eliminated by adding suitable counterterms to the Lagrangian density. In this way, the well-known result of Bardeen is recovered. The so-called ''covariant anomaly'' will be discussed too.

  5. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Current limitations in the quantitative interpretation of satellite-elevation geopotential field data and magnetic anomaly data were investigated along with techniques to overcome them. A major result was the preparation of an improved scalar magnetic anomaly map of South America and adjacent marine areas directly from the original MAGSAT data. In addition, comparisons of South American and Euro-African data show a strong correlation of anomalies along the Atlantic rifted margins of the continents.

  6. Developmental oral anomalies among schoolchildren in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Salem, G; Holm, S A; Fattah, R; Basset, S; Nasser, C

    1987-06-01

    The present report gives prevalence values for some developmental oral anomalies in 1932 schoolchildren aged 6-12 yr in Gizan region, Saudi Arabia. The developmental oral anomalies identified in this study were: torus palatinus (1.4%), fissured tongue (0.8%), geographic tongue (0.2%), and tongue tie (0.1%). None of the following developmental oral anomalies were observed: lip pits, cleft lip and/or palate, torus mandibularis, microglossia, macroglossia or median rhomboid glossitis. PMID:3474099

  7. Europium anomaly in plagioclase feldspar: experimental results and semiquantitative model.

    PubMed

    Weill, D F; Drake, M J

    1973-06-01

    The partition of europium between plagioclase feldspar and magmatic liquid is considered in terms of the distribution coefficients for divalent and trivalent europium. A model equation is derived giving the europium anomaly in plagioclase as a function of temperature and oxygen fugacity. The model explains europium anomalies in plagioclase synthesized under controlled laboratory conditions as well as the variations of the anomaly observed in natural terrestrial and extraterrestrial igneous rocks. PMID:17806582

  8. Magnetotransport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spivak, B. Z.; Andreev, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    We present a theory of magnetotransport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals. We show that conductivity, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric, and the sound absorption coefficients exhibit strong and anisotropic magnetic field dependencies. We also discuss properties of magnetoplasmons and magnetopolaritons, whose existences are entirely determined by the chiral anomaly. Finally, we discuss the conditions of applicability of the quasiclassical description of electron transport phenomena related to the chiral anomaly.

  9. A global magnetic anomaly map. [obtained from POGO satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A subset of POGO satellite magnetometer data has been formed that is suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. Using a thirteenth order field model, fit to these data, magnetic residuals have been calculated over the world to latitude limits of plus 50 deg. These residuals averaged over one degree latitude-longitude blocks represent a detailed global magnetic anomaly map derived solely from satellite data. Preliminary analysis of the map indicates that the anomalies are real and of geological origin.

  10. Associated noncardiac congenital anomalies among cases with congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-02-01

    Cases with congenital heart defects (CHD) often have other associated anomalies. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the prevalence and the types of associated anomalies in CHD in a defined population. The anomalies associated with CHD were collected in all live births, stillbirths and terminations of pregnancy during 26 years in 346,831 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome in the area covered by our population based registry of congenital anomalies. Of the 4005 cases with CHD born during this period (total prevalence of 115.5 per 10,000), 1055 (26.3%) had associated major anomalies. There were 354 (8.8%) cases with chromosomal abnormalities including 218 trisomies 21, and 99 (2.5%) nonchromosomal recognized dysmorphic conditions. There were no predominant recognized dysmorphic conditions, but VACTERL association. However, other recognized dysmorphic conditions were registered including Noonan syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, and skeletal dysplasias. Six hundred and two (15.0%) of the cases had non syndromic, non chromosomal multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Anomalies in the urinary tract, the musculoskeletal, the digestive, and the central nervous systems were the most common other anomalies. Prenatal diagnosis was obtained in 18.7% of the pregnancies. In conclusion the overall prevalence of associated anomalies, which was one in four infants, emphasizes the need for a thorough investigation of cases with CHD. A routine screening for other anomalies may be considered in infants and in fetuses with CHD. One should be aware that the anomalies associated with CHD can be classified into a recognizable anomaly, syndrome or pattern in one out of nine cases with CHD. PMID:25497206

  11. Congenital anomalies of kidney and hand: a review.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Jeyachandran, Dhanapriya; Subramaniyan, Bala; Thanigachalam, Dineshkumar; Rajagopalan, Arul

    2013-04-01

    'Acro-renal syndrome' refers to co-occurrence of congenital renal and limb anomalies. The term acro-renal syndrome was coined by Curran et al. in 1972 though Dieker and Opitz were the first to report this phenomenon in three male patients in 1969. The common limb defects include oligodactyly, ectrodactyly, syndactyly or brachydactyly anomalies of the carpal and tarsal bones and the common renal anomalies observed are unilateral renal agenesis (URA), bilateral renal hypoplasia, ureteric hypoplasia, hydroureteronephrosis and duplication abnormalities. The acro-renal syndrome as originally described is rare, reported only in ∼20 patients in the international literature. We report a 23-year-old male patient with renal anomalies in the form of absent right kidney, left-sided vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and skeletal anomalies viz short radius, absent first metacarpal ray in left hand and left undescended testis, consistent with Dieker's type acro-renal syndrome. Apart from the classical acro-renal syndrome, several anomalies of acro-renal patterns and the abnormal gene loci involved are described in the literature. This article is a comprehensive review of the development of kidneys, types of acro-renal syndromes, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), syndromes associated with combined limb and renal anomalies, and anomalies associated with URA. PMID:26019842

  12. Marine magnetic anomalies - The origin of the stripes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of recent observational and theoretical investigations of lineated magnetic anomalies on the ocean floor are summarized in tables, graphs, and diagrams and analyzed. Topics addressed include early lineation models, inversions of magnetic anomalies to obtain source functions, deep-tow studies of magnetic anomalies, evidence from the long-wavelength component of the magnetic field (including Magsat observations), and direct measurements of the magnetic properties of oceanic rocks. It is concluded that the source of the lineated anomalies must reside in most of the oceanic crust, not just in the pillow lavas of layer 2A.

  13. Surgical management of complete penile duplication accompanied by multiple anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, Irfan; Turk, Erdal; Ucan, A. Basak; Yayla, Derya; Itirli, Gulcin; Ercal, Derya

    2014-01-01

    Diphallus (penile duplication) is very rare and seen once every 5.5 million births. It can be isolated, but is usually accompanied by other congenital anomalies. Previous studies have reported many concurrent anomalies, such as bladder extrophy, cloacal extrophy, duplicated bladder, scrotal abnormalities, hypospadias, separated symphysis pubis, intestinal anomalies and imperforate anus; no penile duplication case accompanied by omphalocele has been reported. We present the surgical management of a patient with multiple anomalies, including complete penile duplication, hypo-gastric omphalocele and extrophic rectal duplication. PMID:25408817

  14. Orbital Anomalies in Goddard Spacecraft for Calendar Year 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Walter B.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes and updates the annual on-orbit performance between January I and December 31, 1994, for spacecraft built by or managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). During 1994, GSFC had 27 active orbiting satellites and I Shuttle-launched and retrieved 'free flyer.' There were 310 reported anomalies among 21 satellites and one GSFC instrument (TOMS). GOES-8 accounted for 66 anomalies, and SAMPES reported 155 'anomalies'. Of the 155 anomalies reported for all but SAMPEX, only 4 affected the spacecraft missions 'substantially' or greater, that is, presented a loss of more than 33% of the total missions. The most frequent subsystem anomalies were Instrument/Payload(44), Timing Command and Control(40), and Attitude Control Systems(33). Of the non-SAMPEX anomalies, 29% had no effect on the missions and 28% caused subsystem or instrument degradation and, for another 28%, no anomaly effect on the mission could be determined. Fifty-three percent of non-SAMPEX anomalies could not be classified according to 'type'; the other most common types were 'systemic'(35), 'random'(19), and 'normal or expected operation'(15). Forty percent of the anomalies were not classified according to failure category; the remaining most frequent occurrences were 'design problems'(50) and 'other known problems'(35).

  15. Global structure of ionospheric TEC anomalies driven by geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancheva, D.; Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines the structure and variability of the ionospheric TEC anomalies driven by geomagnetic storms. For this purpose the CODE global ionospheric TEC data from four geomagnetically disturbed periods (29 October-1 November 2003, 7-10 November 2004, 14-15 December 2006, and 5-6 August 2011) have been considered. By applying the tidal analysis to the geomagnetically forced TEC anomalies we made an attempt to identify the tidal or stationary planetary wave (SPW) signatures that may contribute to the generation of these anomalies. It has been found that three types of positive anomalies with different origin and different latitudinal appearance are observed. These are: (i) anomalies located near latitudes of ±40° and related to the enhancement and poleward moving of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crests; (ii) anomalies located near latitudes of ±60° and seen predominantly in the night-side ionosphere, and (iii) very high latitude anomalies having mainly zonally symmetric structure and related to the auroral heating and thermospheric expansion. The decomposition analysis revealed that these anomalies can be reconstructed as a result of superposition of the following components: zonal mean (ZM), diurnal migrating (DW1), zonally symmetric diurnal (D0), and stationary planetary wave 1 (SPW1).

  16. Distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies in Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Behrendt, John C.

    1964-01-01

    Data for aeromagnetic profiles obtained in Antarctica during the 1963-64 austral summer were used together with earlier results to construct a map showing the areal distribution of narrow-width magnetic anomalies. Numerous anomalies are associated with known volcanic mountains in western Antarctica. A large area of few anomalies is probably a result of an extension of the thick metasedimentary section observed in the Ellsworth Mountains. Portions of the Trans-Antarctic Mountains have associated anomalies which are probably caused by late Cenozoic volcanic rocks.

  17. Congenital anomalies of kidney and hand: a review

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Jeyachandran, Dhanapriya; Subramaniyan, Bala; Thanigachalam, Dineshkumar; Rajagopalan, Arul

    2013-01-01

    ‘Acro-renal syndrome’ refers to co-occurrence of congenital renal and limb anomalies. The term acro-renal syndrome was coined by Curran et al. in 1972 though Dieker and Opitz were the first to report this phenomenon in three male patients in 1969. The common limb defects include oligodactyly, ectrodactyly, syndactyly or brachydactyly anomalies of the carpal and tarsal bones and the common renal anomalies observed are unilateral renal agenesis (URA), bilateral renal hypoplasia, ureteric hypoplasia, hydroureteronephrosis and duplication abnormalities. The acro-renal syndrome as originally described is rare, reported only in ∼20 patients in the international literature. We report a 23-year-old male patient with renal anomalies in the form of absent right kidney, left-sided vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and skeletal anomalies viz short radius, absent first metacarpal ray in left hand and left undescended testis, consistent with Dieker's type acro-renal syndrome. Apart from the classical acro-renal syndrome, several anomalies of acro-renal patterns and the abnormal gene loci involved are described in the literature. This article is a comprehensive review of the development of kidneys, types of acro-renal syndromes, congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), syndromes associated with combined limb and renal anomalies, and anomalies associated with URA. PMID:26019842

  18. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frawley, James J.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor's magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed paleo-poles that were nearly equally divided between north, south and mid-latitudes. These results suggest that during the existence of the martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals and excursions.

  19. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Frawley, James J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor s magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed four North and 3 South poles with two at approximately 60 degrees north latitude. These results suggest that during the existence of the Martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals.

  20. Isotopic anomalies from neutron reactions during explosive carbon burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T.; Schramm, D. N.; Wefel, J. P.; Blake, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The heavy isotopic anomalies observed recently in the fractionation and unknown nuclear inclusions from the Allende meteorite are explained by neutron reactions during the explosive carbon burning (ECB). This model produces heavy anomalies in the same zone where Al-26 and O-16 are produced, thus reducing the number of source zones required for the isotopic anomalies. Unlike the classical r-process, the ECB n-process avoids the problem with the Sr anomaly and may resolve the problem of conflicting time scales between Al-26 and the r-process isotopes I-129 and Pu-244. Experimental studies of Zr and Ce isotopic composition are proposed to test this model.

  1. Medical Therapy for Pediatric Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Judith F.; Soni, Heather Mills; Pimpalwar, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies (VAs) comprise a large variety of individual diagnoses that in different phases of treatment require a diverse number of medical specialists to provide optimal care. Medical therapies include agents usually associated with cancer chemotherapy, such as vincristine, as well more immunomodulatory types of drugs, such as glucocorticoids and sirolimus. These immunomodulating drugs are being successfully applied in cases that are typically categorized as vascular tumors, including kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) and tufted angioma (TA), as well as some of the more invasive types of vascular malformations (i.e., microcystic lymphatic malformations and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome (BRBNS). These therapies need to be combined with good supportive care, which often involves anticoagulation, antimicrobial prophylaxis, and comprehensive pain and symptom-relief strategies, as well as appropriate drug monitoring and management of side effects of medical treatment. The optimal care of these patients frequently involves close collaboration between surgeons, interventional and conventional radiologists, medical subspecialists, and nurses. PMID:25045333

  2. Jamming anomaly in PT-symmetric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barashenkov, I. V.; Zezyulin, D. A.; Konotop, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    The Schrödinger equation with a { P }{ T }-symmetric potential is used to model an optical structure consisting of an element with gain coupled to an element with loss. At low gain–loss amplitudes γ, raising the amplitude results in the energy flux from the active to the leaky element being boosted. We study the anomalous behaviour occurring for larger γ, where the increase of the amplitude produces a drop of the flux across the gain–loss interface. We show that this jamming anomaly is either a precursor of the exceptional point, where two real eigenvalues coalesce and acquire imaginary parts, or precedes the eigenvalue's immersion in the continuous spectrum.

  3. Obstructed Hemivagina with Ipsilateral Renal Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Santos, Xiomara M; Dietrich, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    The association of obstructed hemivagina with ipisilateral renal anomaly (OHVIRA) is a well-described entity. While there has been an increased familiarity with this disorder, the exact incidence of OHVIRA is unknown. Our aim was to review the available literature on this topic, look at common presentations, and uncommon presentations. This condition is a well-described entity but requires careful evaluation, because unique presentations do occur. Diagnostic challenges include time of presentation and symptoms associated with presentation. Surgical challenges include microperforation of the hemivaginal septum, pelvic inflammatory disease, thick septum, or high septum. Each of these must be managed carefully. Although a solitary kidney is frequently thought to be associated with OHVIRA, dysplastic kidneys, pelvic kidneys, or ectopic ureters can occur. Prompt and accurate diagnosis is essential for relief of symptoms and prevention of complications. To minimize problems associated with delayed diagnosis, magnetic resonance imaging evaluation is recommended along with referral to a center with expertise in these conditions. PMID:26165909

  4. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing predictive abilities to evaluate the potential stabilities of magnetic minerals in the Earth crust and mantle by: (1) computing oxidation state profiling as a function of temperature and pressure; (2) compiling data on basalts to establish validity of the oxidation state profiles; (3) determining Fe-Ni alloys in association with magnetitie as a function of temperature and oxidation state; and (4) acquiring large chemical data banks on the mineral ilmenite which decomposes to mineral spinel in the presence of high sulfur or carbonate environments in the lower crust upper mantle. In addition to acquiring these data which are related to constraining Curie isotherm depths, an excellent correlation was found between MAGSAT anomaly data and the geology of West Africa.

  5. Viable Supersymmetry and Leptogenesis with Anomaly Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Kitano, Ryuichiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu

    2005-01-13

    The seesaw mechanism that explains the small neutrino masses comes naturally with supersymmetric (SUSY) grand unification and leptogenesis. However, the framework suffers from the SUSY flavor and CP problems, and has a severe cosmological gravitino problem. We propose anomaly mediation as a simple solution to all these problems, which is viable once supplemented by the D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_B-L. Even though the right-handed neutrino mass explicitly breaks U(1)_B-L and hence reintroduces the flavor problem, we show that it lacks the logarithmic enhancement and poses no threat to the framework. The thermal leptogenesis is then made easily consistent with the gravitino constraint.

  6. Anomalies, equivalence and renormalization of cosmological frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Valea, Mario

    2016-05-01

    We study the question of whether two frames of a given physical theory are equivalent or not in the presence of quantum corrections. By using field theory arguments, we claim that equivalence is broken in the presence of anomalous symmetries in one of the frames. This is particularized to the case of the relation between the Einstein and Jordan frames in scalar-tensor theories used to describe early Universe dynamics. Although in this case a regularization that cancels the anomaly exists, the renormalized theory always develops a nonvanishing contribution to the S matrix that is present only in the Jordan frame, promoting the different frames to different physical theories that must be UV completed in a different way.

  7. Field Theory Model of the Flyby Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, R. A

    2009-03-16

    Precision tracking of spacecraft on interplanetary missions has turned up several anomalous deviations from predictions of general relativity. The Flyby Anomaly, wherein spacecraft gain or lose energy in an earth-centric frame after an encounter with earth, is clearly associated with the rotation of the earth. The possibility that the missing ingredient is a new type of potential field surrounding the earth is assessed in this write-up. A scalar field with the kinetic energy distribution of the earth as a source is evaluated numerically, with an amplitude parameter adjusted to match the data of Anderson et al.(2008). The new field can be interpreted as a coupling between kinetic energies of objects, a field analogous to fluid mechanics, or a field coupled to acceleration. The potential field violates various aspects of standard physics, such as energy non-conservation.

  8. Conductance Anomalies for Normal- Insulator- Superconductor Contacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Sungkit

    1996-03-01

    I shall present a theoretical study of the conductance through a dirty junction between a normal conductor and a superconductor with an insulating barrier. It is shown that for large barrier resistances there is a relative enhancement of the conductance near zero voltage, whereas for low barrier resistance this anomaly appears at finite voltage. (S. K. Yip, Phys. Rev. B, to appear) The results here, obtained by numerical solution of the Usadel equations, will be compared with those obtained via the transmission matrix approaches reported by the others in the literature. (e.g. ( I. K. Marmorkos , C. W. J. Beenakker and R. A. Jalabert, Phys. Rev.) B 48, 2811 (1993); Y. Takane and H. Ebisawa, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn 62, 1844 (1993). )

  9. Anomalies, U(1)' and the MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racioppi, Antonio

    2009-07-01

    This Thesis reviews an extension of the MSSM by the addition of an anomalous abelian vector multiplet and contains some original results concerning the phenomenology of an anomalous Z'. The review part covers an introduction of the MSSM focusing on its main features, a discussion on the chiral anomalies and how to cancel them in the Standard Model and by the Green-Schwarz mechanism. Then, the original results are presented. We build the Lagrangian for the Minimal Anomalous U(1)' Extension of the MSSM where the anomalies are cancelled by the Green-Schwarz mechanism and the addition of Chern-Simons terms, stressing the main differences between our model and the MSSM. The advantage of this choice over the standard one is that it allows for arbitrary values of the quantum numbers of the extra U(1). As a first step towards the study of hadron annihilations producing four leptons in the final state (a clean signal which might be studied at LHC) we then compute the decays Z'to Z_0 g and Z'to Z_0 Z_0. We find that the largest values of the decay rate are sim 10^{-4} GeV, while the expected number of events per year at LHC is at most of the order of 10. Then we compute the relic density predicted by our model with a new dark matter candidate, the axino, which is the LSP of the theory. We find agreement with experimental data admitting a bino-higgsino NLSP or a wino-like NLSP, almost degenerate in mass to the axino.

  10. The initial flight anomalies of Skylab 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    At approximately 63 seconds into the flight of Skylab 1 on May 14, 1973, an anomaly occurred which resulted in the complete loss of the meteoroid shield around the orbital workshop. This was followed by the loss of one of the two solar array systems on the workshop and a failure of the inter stage adapter to separate from the S-II stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The investigation reported herein identified the most probable cause of this flight anomaly to be the breakup and loss of the meteoroid shield due to aerodynamic loads that were not accounted for in its design. The breakup of the meteoroid shield, in turn, broke the tie downs that secured one of the solar array systems to the workshop. Complete loss of this solar array system occurred at 593 seconds when the exhaust plume of the S-II stage retro-rockets impacted the partially deployed solar array system. Falling debris from the meteoroid shield also damaged the S-II inter stage adapter ordnance system in such a manner as to preclude separation. Of several possible failure modes of the meteoroid shield that were identified, the most probable in this particular flight was internal pressurization of its auxiliary tunnel which acted to force the forward end of the meteoroid shield away from the shell of the workshop and into the supersonic air stream. The pressurization of the auxiliary tunnel was due to the existence of several openings in the aft region of the tunnel. Another possible failure mode was the separation of the leading edge of the meteoroid shield from the shell of the workshop (particularly in the region of the folded ordnance panel) of sufficient extent to admit ram air pressures under the shield.

  11. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint Anomaly: The Materials and Processes Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basta, Erin A.; Dasgupta, Rijib; Figert, John; Jerman, Greg; Wright, Clara; Petrakis, Dennis; Golden, Johnny L.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the anomaly discovered on the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ). This anomaly was discovered when the SARJ mechanism produced anomalous telemetry and noticeable vibrations. Metallic debris was discovered throughout the vicinity of the mechanism. Samples were taken from the SARJ, and the findings of the analysis are discussed.

  12. Heat kernel for Newton-Cartan trace anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzzi, Roberto; Nardelli, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    We compute the leading part of the trace anomaly for a free non-relativistic scalar in 2 + 1 dimensions coupled to a background Newton-Cartan metric. The anomaly is proportional to 1 /m, where m is the mass of the scalar. We comment on the implications of a conjectured a-theorem for non-relativistic theories with boost invariance.

  13. Turtle Carapace Anomalies: The Roles of Genetic Diversity and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Becker, C. Guilherme; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations. PMID:21533278

  14. Statistical Anomaly Detection for Monitoring of Human Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiya, K.; Fuse, T.

    2015-05-01

    Understanding of human dynamics has drawn attention to various areas. Due to the wide spread of positioning technologies that use GPS or public Wi-Fi, location information can be obtained with high spatial-temporal resolution as well as at low cost. By collecting set of individual location information in real time, monitoring of human dynamics is recently considered possible and is expected to lead to dynamic traffic control in the future. Although this monitoring focuses on detecting anomalous states of human dynamics, anomaly detection methods are developed ad hoc and not fully systematized. This research aims to define an anomaly detection problem of the human dynamics monitoring with gridded population data and develop an anomaly detection method based on the definition. According to the result of a review we have comprehensively conducted, we discussed the characteristics of the anomaly detection of human dynamics monitoring and categorized our problem to a semi-supervised anomaly detection problem that detects contextual anomalies behind time-series data. We developed an anomaly detection method based on a sticky HDP-HMM, which is able to estimate the number of hidden states according to input data. Results of the experiment with synthetic data showed that our proposed method has good fundamental performance with respect to the detection rate. Through the experiment with real gridded population data, an anomaly was detected when and where an actual social event had occurred.

  15. A Review of Vascular Anomalies: Genetics and Common Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Killion, Elizabeth; Mohan, Kriti; Lee, Edward I.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular tumors and malformations are unique in that affected cells exhibit disrupted angiogenesis. The current treatment options often yield suboptimal results. New insight into the genetics and molecular basis of vascular anomalies may pave the way for potential development of targeted therapy. The authors review the genetic and molecular basis of vascular anomalies and common associated syndromes. PMID:25045331

  16. Multicriteria Similarity-Based Anomaly Detection Using Pareto Depth Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ko-Jen; Xu, Kevin S; Calder, Jeff; Hero, Alfred O

    2016-06-01

    We consider the problem of identifying patterns in a data set that exhibits anomalous behavior, often referred to as anomaly detection. Similarity-based anomaly detection algorithms detect abnormally large amounts of similarity or dissimilarity, e.g., as measured by the nearest neighbor Euclidean distances between a test sample and the training samples. In many application domains, there may not exist a single dissimilarity measure that captures all possible anomalous patterns. In such cases, multiple dissimilarity measures can be defined, including nonmetric measures, and one can test for anomalies by scalarizing using a nonnegative linear combination of them. If the relative importance of the different dissimilarity measures are not known in advance, as in many anomaly detection applications, the anomaly detection algorithm may need to be executed multiple times with different choices of weights in the linear combination. In this paper, we propose a method for similarity-based anomaly detection using a novel multicriteria dissimilarity measure, the Pareto depth. The proposed Pareto depth analysis (PDA) anomaly detection algorithm uses the concept of Pareto optimality to detect anomalies under multiple criteria without having to run an algorithm multiple times with different choices of weights. The proposed PDA approach is provably better than using linear combinations of the criteria, and shows superior performance on experiments with synthetic and real data sets. PMID:26336154

  17. Automated Network Anomaly Detection with Learning, Control and Mitigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ippoliti, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Anomaly detection is a challenging problem that has been researched within a variety of application domains. In network intrusion detection, anomaly based techniques are particularly attractive because of their ability to identify previously unknown attacks without the need to be programmed with the specific signatures of every possible attack.…

  18. Infrared medical image visualization and anomalies analysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jing; Chen, Zhong; Fan, Jing; Yan, Liang

    2015-12-01

    Infrared medical examination finds the diseases through scanning the overall human body temperature and obtaining the temperature anomalies of the corresponding parts with the infrared thermal equipment. In order to obtain the temperature anomalies and disease parts, Infrared Medical Image Visualization and Anomalies Analysis Method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, visualize the original data into a single channel gray image: secondly, turn the normalized gray image into a pseudo color image; thirdly, a method of background segmentation is taken to filter out background noise; fourthly, cluster those special pixels with the breadth-first search algorithm; lastly, mark the regions of the temperature anomalies or disease parts. The test is shown that it's an efficient and accurate way to intuitively analyze and diagnose body disease parts through the temperature anomalies.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies. PMID:27229506

  20. Modeling of self-potential anomalies near vertical dikes.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The self-potential (SP) Green's function for an outcropping vertical dike is derived from solutions for the dc resistivity problem for the same geometry. The Green's functions are numerically integrated over rectangular source regions on the contacts between the dike and the surrounding material to obtain the SP anomaly. The analysis is valid for thermoelectrical source mechanisms. Two types of anomalies can be produced by this geometry. When the two source planes are polarized in opposite directions, a monopolar anomaly is produced. This corresponds to the thermoelectrical properties of the dike being in contrast with the surrounding material. When the thermoelectric coefficients change monotonically across the dike, a dipolar anomaly is produced. In either case positive and negative anomalies are possible, and the greatest variation in potential will occur in the most resistive regions. -Author

  1. Frequency of Foetal Anomalies in a Tertiary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Rameswarapu Suman; Pasula, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to explore the incidence of congenital foetal anomalies and the advantages of ultrasonography in detecting the foetal anomalies during the antenatal period. Method: We focused our study on 1000 consecutive pregnancies that came for check up in the second and third trimesters, with major or minor clinically relevant malformations which were detectable by ultrasonography. Results: The analysis revealed that they were 38 foetal anomalies in 37 foetuses. One had multiple anomalies, with the highest incidence of neural tube defects. There was also significant correlation with consanguinity. Conclusion: The overall incidence of congenital foetal anomalies in the present study was 3.8%.This might be probably due to environmental pollution, radiation, exposure to different chemicals and teratogenic drugs. PMID:23998044

  2. Do Satellite Magnetic Anomaly Data Accurately Portray the Crustal Component?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Scalar aeromagnetic data obtained during the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (NOO)-Vector Magnetic Survey of the conterminous United States were upward continued by equivalent point source inversion and compared with POGO satellite magnetic anomaly and preliminary scalar MAGSAT data. Initial comparisons indicate that the upward continued NOO data is dominated by long wavelength (approximately equal to 1000 to 3000 km) anomalies which are not present in the satellite anomaly data. Thus, the comparison of the data sets is poor. Several possible sources for these differences are present in the data analysis chain. However, upon removal of these long wavelengths from the upward continued NOO data, a close comparison observed between the anomalies verifies that satellite magnetic anomaly data do portray the crustal component within a range of wavelengths from roughly 1000 km down to the resolution limit of the observations.

  3. Magsat magnetic anomaly contrast across Labrador Sea passive margins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Lauren M.; Frey, Herbert

    1991-01-01

    Many passive margins not complicated by nearby anomalous crustal structure have satellite elevation crustal magnetic anomaly contrasts across them that are recognizable in reduced-to-pole versions of the Magsat and POGO data. In the Labrador Sea region this contrast is particularly well developed with strong positive anomalies overlying the continental crust of Greenland and eastern Canada and prominent negative anomalies situated over the Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. In this work, forward modeling of the large-scale crustal bodies in this region (continental, oceanic, passive margin, several anomalous structures) was used to show that the Magsat anomaly contrast is due simply to the change in crustal susceptibility and thickness at the continental/oceanic crustal transition. Because the thickness varies more than the average susceptibility from continental to oceanic crust, the strong anomaly contrast is essentially an edge effect due mostly to the change in crustal structure.

  4. A model for anomaly classification in intrusion detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, V. O.; Galhardi, V. V.; Gonçalves, L. B. L.; Silva, R. C.; Cansian, A. M.

    2015-09-01

    Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) are traditionally divided into two types according to the detection methods they employ, namely (i) misuse detection and (ii) anomaly detection. Anomaly detection has been widely used and its main advantage is the ability to detect new attacks. However, the analysis of anomalies generated can become expensive, since they often have no clear information about the malicious events they represent. In this context, this paper presents a model for automated classification of alerts generated by an anomaly based IDS. The main goal is either the classification of the detected anomalies in well-defined taxonomies of attacks or to identify whether it is a false positive misclassified by the IDS. Some common attacks to computer networks were considered and we achieved important results that can equip security analysts with best resources for their analyses.

  5. Z2 anomaly and boundaries of topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringel, Zohar; Stern, Ady

    2013-09-01

    We study the edge and surface theories of topological insulators from the perspective of anomalies and identify a Z2 anomaly associated with charge conservation. The anomaly is manifested through a two-point correlation function involving creation and annihilation operators on two decoupled boundaries. Although charge conservation on each boundary requires this quantity to vanish, we find that it diverges. A corollary result is that under an insertion of a flux quantum, the ground state evolves to an exactly orthogonal state independent of the rate at which the flux is inserted. The anomaly persists in the presence of disorder and imposes sharp restrictions on possible low-energy theories. Being formulated in a many-body, field-theoretical language, the anomaly allows one to test the robustness of topological insulators to interactions in a concise way.

  6. Common Dental Anomalies in Cleft Lip and Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    HAQUE, Sanjida; ALAM, Mohammad Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cleft lip and palate (CLP) is the most common orofacial congenital malformation in live births. CLP can occur individually or in combination with other congenital deformities. Affected patients experience a number of dental, aesthetic, speech, hearing, and psychological complications and have a higher incidence of severe dental conditions. The purpose of this study is to characterise the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with CLP patients based on a literature survey. Methods: By literature survey, this study characterises the different types of dental anomalies that are frequently associated with cleft lip and palate patients. Results: Common dental anomalies associated with CLP are supernumerary tooth, congenitally missing tooth, delayed tooth development, morphological anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentition, delayed eruption of permanent maxillary incisors, microdontia, and abnormal tooth number. Conclusion: The incidence of certain dental anomalies is strongly correlated with Cleft lip and palate, a finding that is consistent with previous studies. PMID:26023296

  7. Quantum Anomalies for Generalized Euclidean Taub-Newman Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visinescu, Mihai; Visinescu, Anca

    2008-09-01

    We investigate the gravitational and axial anomalies with regard to quadratic constants of motion for the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (Taub-NUT) space and its generalizations as was done by Iwai and Katayama. The generalized Taub-NUT metrics exhibit in general gravitational anomalies. This is in contrast with the fact that the standard Taub-NUT metric does not exhibit gravitational anomalies, which is a consequence of the fact that it admits Killing-Yano tensors forming Stäckel-Killing tensors as products. For the axial anomaly, interpreted as the index of the Dirac operator, the role of Killing-Yano tensors is irrelevant. We compute the index of the Dirac operator for the generalized Taub-NUT metrics with the APS boundary conditions and find these metrics do not contribute to the axial anomaly for not too large deformations of the standard Taub-NUT metric.

  8. Prevalence of minor musculoskeletal anomalies in children with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    El Kholy, Mohamed; Fahmi, Marwa E; Nassar, Ayman E; Selim, Samia; Elsedfy, Heba H

    2007-01-01

    In the last decade a high frequency of extrathyroidal congenital anomalies has been reported in infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) detected by neonatal screening. In the present study the occurrence of additional congenital malformations (CM) in a cohort of children with confirmed primary CH due to thyroid dysgenesis was investigated. A high prevalence of extrathyroidal major congenital anomalies (15.9%), more than 5-fold higher than that reported in the Egyptian population (2.7%), was found. The cardiac and musculoskeletal systems were the most commonly involved, comprising 9.09 and 47.72% of all anomalies, respectively. The high prevalence of musculoskeletal anomalies in this study was mostly due to minor anomalies as brachydactyly and digitalization of thumbs. The type of dysgenesis (i.e. aplastic, ectopic or hypoplastic) as well as the severity of hypothyroidism, as assessed by TSH and T(4) levels at diagnosis, had no relation with the occurrence of extrathyroidal abnormalities. PMID:17587855

  9. Weather anomalies affect Climate Change microblogging intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.

    2012-12-01

    There is a huge gap between the scientific consensus and public understanding of climate change. Climate change has become a political issue and a "hot" topic in mass media that only adds the complexity to forming the public opinion. Scientists operate in scientific terms, not necessarily understandable by general public, while it is common for people to perceive the latest weather anomaly as an evidence of climate change. In 1998 Hansen et al. introduced a concept of an objectively measured subjective climate change indicator, which can relate public feeling that the climate is changing to the observed meteorological parameters. We tested this concept in a simple example of a temperature-based index, which we related to microblogging activity. Microblogging is a new form of communication in which the users describe their current status in short Internet messages. Twitter (http://twitter.com), is currently the most popular microblogging platform. There are multiple reasons, why this data is particularly valuable to the researches interested in social dynamics: microblogging is widely used to publicize one's opinion with the public; has broad, diverse audience, represented by users from many countries speaking different languages; finally, Twitter contains an enormous number of data, e.g., there were 1,284,579 messages related to climate change from 585,168 users in the January-May data collection. We collected the textual data entries, containing words "climate change" or "global warming" from the 1st of January, 2012. The data was retrieved from the Internet every 20 minutes using a specially developed Python code. Using geolocational information, blog entries originating from the New York urbanized area were selected. These entries, used as a source of public opinion on climate change, were related to the surface temperature, obtained from La Guardia airport meteorological station. We defined the "significant change" in the temperature index as deviation of the

  10. A first look at Weyl anomalies in shape dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Gomes, Henrique

    2013-11-15

    One of the more popular objections towards shape dynamics is the suspicion that anomalies in the spatial Weyl symmetry will arise upon quantization. The purpose of this short paper is to establish the tools required for an investigation of the sort of anomalies that can possibly arise. The first step is to adapt to our setting Barnich and Henneaux's formulation of gauge cohomology in the Hamiltonian setting, which serve to decompose the anomaly into a spatial component and time component. The spatial part of the anomaly, i.e., the anomaly in the symmetry algebra itself ([Ω, Ω] ∝ ℏ instead of vanishing) is given by a projection of the second ghost cohomology of the Hamiltonian BRST differential associated to Ω, modulo spatial derivatives. The temporal part, [Ω, H] ∝ ℏ is given by a different projection of the first ghost cohomology and an extra piece arising from a solution to a functional differential equation. Assuming locality of the gauge cohomology groups involved, this part is always local. Assuming locality for the gauge cohomology groups, using Barnich and Henneaux's results, the classification of Weyl cohomology for higher ghost numbers performed by Boulanger, and following the descent equations, we find a complete characterizations of anomalies in 3+1 dimensions. The spatial part of the anomaly and the first component of the temporal anomaly are always local given these assumptions even in shape dynamics. The part emerging from the solution of the functional differential equations explicitly involves the shape dynamics Hamiltonian, and thus might be non-local. If one restricts this extra piece of the temporal anomaly to be also local, then overall no Weyl anomalies, either temporal or spatial, emerge in the 3+1 case.

  11. Remotely Sensed Thermal Anomalies in western Colorado

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Publication Date: 2012 Title: Landsat Thermal Anomalies Western Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science (CIRES), University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the areas identified as areas of anomalous surface temperature from Landsat satellite imagery in Western Colorado. Data was obtained for two different dates. The digital numbers of each Landsat scene were converted to radiance and the temperature was calculated in degrees Kelvin and then converted to degrees Celsius for each land cover type using the emissivity of that cover type. And this process was repeated for each of the land cover types (open water, barren, deciduous forest and evergreen forest, mixed forest, shrub/scrub, grassland/herbaceous, pasture hay, and cultivated crops). The temperature of each pixel within each scene was calculated using the thermal band. In order to calculate the temperature an average emissivity value was used for each land cover type within each scene. The NLCD 2001 land cover classification raster data of the zones that cover Colorado were downloaded from USGS site and used to identify the land cover types within each scene. Areas that had temperature residual greater than 2σ, and areas with temperature equal to 1σ to 2σ, were considered Landsat modeled very warm and warm surface exposures (thermal anomalies), respectively Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4546381.234113 m Left: 140556.857021 m Right: 573390.000000 m Bottom: 4094583.641581 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth

  12. Multiple congenital ocular anomalies in Icelandic horses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple congenital ocular anomalies (MCOA) syndrome is a hereditary congenital eye defect that was first described in Silver colored Rocky Mountain horses. The mutation causing this disease is located within a defined chromosomal interval, which also contains the gene and mutation that is associated with the Silver coat color (PMEL17, exon 11). Horses that are homozygous for the disease-causing allele have multiple defects (MCOA-phenotype), whilst the heterozygous horses predominantly have cysts of the iris, ciliary body or retina (Cyst-phenotype). It has been argued that these ocular defects are caused by a recent mutation that is restricted to horses that are related to the Rocky Mountain Horse breed. For that reason we have examined another horse breed, the Icelandic horse, which is historically quite divergent from Rocky Mountain horses. Results We examined 24 Icelandic horses and established that the MCOA syndrome is present in this breed. Four of these horses were categorised as having the MCOA-phenotype and were genotyped as being homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation. The most common clinical signs included megaloglobus, iris stromal hypoplasia, abnormal pectinate ligaments, iridociliary cysts occasionally extending into the peripheral retina and cataracts. The cysts and pectinate ligament abnormalities were observed in the temporal quadrant of the eyes. Fourteen horses were heterozygous for the PMEL17 mutation and were characterized as having the Cyst-phenotype with cysts and occasionally curvilinear streaks in the peripheral retina. Three additional horses were genotyped as PMEL17 heterozygotes, but in these horses we were unable to detect cysts or other forms of anomalies. One eye of a severely vision-impaired 18 month-old stallion, homozygous for the PMEL17 mutation was examined by light microscopy. Redundant duplication of non-pigmented ciliary body epithelium, sometimes forming cysts bulging into the posterior chamber and localized areas of

  13. Space Telescope Fine Guidance Sensor Bearing Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S.; Esper, J.; Pan, J.; Decker, J.

    1996-01-01

    Early in 1993, a servo motor within one of three Fine Guidance Sensors (FGS) aboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) reached stall torque levels on several occasions. Little time was left to plan replacement during the first servicing mission, scheduled at the end of '93. Accelerated bearing life tests confirmed that a small angle rocking motion, known as Coarse Track (CT), accelerated bearing degradation. Saturation torque levels were reached after approximately 20 million test cycles, similar to the flight bearings. Reduction in CT operation, implemented in flight software, extended FGS life well beyond the first servicing mission. However in recent years, bearing torques have resumed upward trends and together with a second, recent bearing torque anomaly has necessitated a scheduled FGS replacement during the upcoming second servicing mission in '97. The results from two series of life tests to quantify FGS bearing remaining life, discussion of bearing on-orbit performance, and future plans to service the FGS servos are presented in this paper.

  14. Current thinking about Jupiter's magnetic anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodent, D.; Gerard, J.-C.; Gustin, J.; Clarke, J. T.; Connerney, J. E.

    Repeated imaging of Jupiter's aurora has shown that the northern main oval has a distorted 'kidney bean' shape in the general range of 90-150o System III longitude, which appears unchanged since 1994. While it is more difficult to observe the conjugate regions in the southern aurora, no corresponding distortion appears in the south. Recent improved accuracy in locating the auroral footprint emission of Io has provided new information about the geometry of Jupiter's magnetic field in this and other areas. The persistent pattern of the main oval implies a disturbance of the local magnetic field, and the increased latitudinal separation of the locus of the Io footprint from the main oval implies a locally weaker field strength. The most recent images obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope Advance Camera for Surveys (ACS) allow us to complement previous observations with the location of the auroral footprints of Io, Europa, and Ganymede in the region of interest. Their footpaths vary in parallel and form a kink in the 90-150° S3 sector which strongly suggests the presence of a magnetic anomaly in this region.

  15. Visual anomalies and display night vision goggles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Donald N.; Ineson, Judith; Cheetham, Mark

    2003-09-01

    A brief study has been conducted to investigate several visual anomalies reported by test pilots using a Display Night Vision Goggle (DNVG) that superimposed symbols onto the intensified image seen by the right eye. A survey of relevant research suggests that one oddity, an apparent focus mis-match between the scene image and the injected symbols, is an irremovable facet of the perception of bright, contrasting, overlaid symbols. A second oddity, an uncomfortable and distracting blurring of the under-stimulated left eye during periods of flight in cloud, was eventually experienced by several people in a laboratory simulation, the effect being more noticeable if the under-stimulated eye was the dominant eye. A subsequent apparent enlargement of the HUD symbols and a post-flight focussing delay by the left eye seemed to be after-effects of whatever caused the ocular discomfort. As about 30% of the population are left eye dominant, the disturbing discomfort and aftermath could affect this proportion of pilots using a right-eye DNVG. Although further work is needed to understand the phenomena, it would be wise to warn aircrew and enable the symbol injection unit to be fitted to either channel of the DNVG.

  16. Intracerebral hemorrhage due to developmental venous anomalies.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaodi; Wang, Yuzhou; Chen, Wenming; Wang, Wensheng; Chen, Kaizhe; Liao, Huayin; Lu, Jianjun; Li, Zhigang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental venous anomalies (DVA) and cavernous malformations (CM) are a common form of mixed vascular malformation. The relationship between DVA, CM and hemorrhage is complicated. It is important to differentiate hemorrhagic CM and hemorrhagic DVA. A retrospective review of all patients with acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH) between 1 May 2008 and 1 May 2013 was performed. ICH due to DVA or CM were identified and compared for demographic features, clinical symptoms, neurological deficits, and radiological findings. A total of 1706 patients with acute spontaneous ICH were admitted to our hospital during the study period. Among these, 10 (0.59%) were caused by DVA and 42 (2.47%) were caused by CM. No significant differences were found in age (p=0.252) or sex ratio (p=1.000) between the two groups. Compared with CM-induced ICH, DVA-induced ICH were characterized by cerebellar predominance (p=0.000) and less severe neurological deficits (p=0.008). Infratentorial hemorrhagic DVA are characterized by cerebellar predominance and benign clinical course. Infratentorial hemorrhagic CM are mainly located in the brainstem. DVA should be given suspected rather than CM when considering the etiology of a cerebellar hemorrhage, especially in young adults. PMID:26803466

  17. Pitfalls in repair of conotruncal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Raisky, Olivier; Vouhé, Pascal R

    2013-01-01

    Despite a wide anatomic diversity, the complete repair of all conotruncal anomalies includes two surgical steps. 1) An intracardiac tunnel is created to connect the left ventricle to one of the arterial orifices (usually the aortic, sometimes the pulmonary), through the conoventricular ventricular septal defect. Any conal septum should be resected to create a short, large, and straight tunnel. Abnormal insertions of the atrioventricular valves (tricuspid and mitral) on the conal septum should be preserved. "Intramural" residual ventricular septal defects must be avoided by anchoring the intracardiac patch directly to the arterial annulus. 2) To connect the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery, either an intracardiac or an extracardiac reconstruction is carried out, according to the distance between the tricuspid valve and the pulmonary orifice. When extracardiac reconstruction is indicated, it is usually performed without prosthetic conduit (with or without French maneuver, eventually using the left atrial appendage). In most patients, complete repair can be performed as a primary operation during infancy. PMID:23561812

  18. Solving geologic problems resolving relevant anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiappini, M.

    2012-12-01

    Remotely sensed data such as high resolution aeromagnetics can shed new light on the setting of tectonic and volcanic areas. This technique is, in fact, particularly suitable to study these areas due to the potential magnetic contrasts linked to volcanic structures. Furthermore, surveying poorly accessible sites with airborne geophysics can be expeditious and effective. The addition of new sensors on airborne platforms improves the efficiency of surveys and provides multi-source imaging. Also it is an aid to better resolving geophysical anomalies and/or surface features relevant to an effective geologic interpretation. The INGV Airborne Geophysics Science Team has investigated a large variety of active volcanoes and tectonic areas in different types of environment. One investigation revealed an unknown buried volcano in the Mediterranean Sea, developed along seismically active faults. Airborne magnetic data collected over Tenerife, Canary Islands, provided new evidence about the structure and growth of ocean island volcanoes. Other data sets delineate hidden tectonic and volcanic structures in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy. These examples and other newly acquired aeromagnetic data, integrated with additional airborne observations will be presented and discussed.

  19. Computational simulation of liquid rocket injector anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekwas, A. J.; Singhal, A. K.; Tam, L. T.; Davidian, K.

    1986-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to analyze the three-dimensional two-phase reactive flows in liquid fueled rocket combustors. The model is designed to study the influence of liquid propellant injection nonuniformities on the flow pattern, combustion and heat transfer within the combustor. The Eulerian-Lagrangian approach for simulating polidisperse spray flow, evaporation and combustion has been used. Full coupling between the phases is accounted for. A nonorthogonal, body fitted coordinate system along with a conservative control volume formulation is employed. The physical models built into the model include a kappa-epsilon turbulence model, a two-step chemical reaction, and the six-flux radiation model. Semiempirical models are used to describe all interphase coupling terms as well as chemical reaction rates. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate an analytical capability to predict the effects of reactant injection nonuniformities (injection anomalies) on combustion and heat transfer within the rocket combustion chamber. The results show promising application of the model to comprehensive modeling of liquid propellant rocket engines.

  20. THE CORONAL ABUNDANCE ANOMALIES OF M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an 'inverse FIP effect' is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  1. The Coronal Abundance Anomalies of M Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Laming, J. Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2012-07-01

    We analyze Chandra X-ray spectra of the M0 V+M0 V binary GJ 338. As quantified by X-ray surface flux, these are the most inactive M dwarfs ever observed with X-ray grating spectroscopy. We focus on measuring coronal abundances, in particular searching for evidence of abundance anomalies related to first ionization potential (FIP). In the solar corona and wind, low-FIP elements are overabundant, which is the so-called FIP effect. For other stars, particularly very active ones, an "inverse FIP effect" is often observed, with low-FIP elements being underabundant. For both members of the GJ 338 binary, we find evidence for a modest inverse FIP effect, consistent with expectations from a previously reported correlation between spectral type and FIP bias. This amounts to strong evidence that all M dwarfs should exhibit the inverse FIP effect phenomenon, not just the active ones. We take the first step toward modeling the inverse FIP phenomenon in M dwarfs, building on past work that has demonstrated that MHD waves coursing through coronal loops can lead to a ponderomotive force that fractionates elements in a manner consistent with the FIP effect. We demonstrate that in certain circumstances this model can also lead to an inverse FIP effect, pointing the way to more detailed modeling of M dwarf coronal abundances in the future.

  2. A hot flow anomaly at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collinson, Glyn; Halekas, Jasper; Grebowsky, Joseph; Connerney, Jack; Mitchell, David; Espley, Jared; DiBraccio, Gina; Mazelle, Christian; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Fedorov, Andrei; Jakosky, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    One of the most important modes of planet/solar wind interaction are "foreshock transients" such as hot flow anomalies (HFAs). Here we present early observations by the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft, confirming their presence at Mars and for the first time at an unmagnetized planet revealing the underlying ion perturbations that drive the phenomenon, finding them to be weaker than at magnetized planets. Analysis revealed the HFA to be virtually microscopic: the smallest on record at ˜2200 km across and commensurate with the local proton gyroradius, resulting in a much stronger perturbation in solar wind protons than alpha particles. As at Venus, despite being physically diminutive, the HFA is still large (0.66 RM) when compared to the relative size of the induced magnetosphere. Given the associated order of magnitude decrease in solar wind dynamic pressure (411 pPa ⇒ 70 pPa), we find that HFAs at Mars have the potential to directly impact the topside ionosphere. We thus hypothesize that the loss of a planetary magnetic dynamo left Mars far more vulnerable to the pressure pulses resulting from HFAs and related foreshock transients.

  3. Anomaly cancelling terms from the elliptic genus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerche, W.; Nilsson, B. E. W.; Schellekens, A. N.; Warner, N. P.

    1988-03-01

    We calculate the heterotic string one-loop diagram in 2n + 2 dimensions with one external Bμν and n external gravitons and/or gauge bosons. The result is a modular integral over the weight zero terms of the character valued partition function (or elliptic genus) of the theory, and can be directly expressed in terms of the factor which multiplies TrF2 - TrR2 in the field theory anomaly. The integrands have a non-trivial dependence on the modular parameter τ, reflecting contributions not only from the physical massless states but also from an infinity of ``unphysical'' modes. Some of them are identical to integrands which have been discussed recently in relation with Atkin-Lehner symmetry and the cosmological constant. As a corollary we find a method to compute these integrals without using Atkin-Lehner transformations. On leave of absence from: Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge MA 02139, USA. Work supported in part by National Science Foundation Grant #84-07109.

  4. Optic disc anomalies and frontonasal dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Hodgkins, P; Lees, M; Lawson, J; Reardon, W; Leitch, J; Thorogood, P; Winter, R; Taylor, D

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To document the optic disc abnormalities in patients with frontonasal dysplasia in association with basal encephalocele.
METHODS—Names and hospital numbers of patients with midline clefts were obtained from the ophthalmology and genetics database. Six patients were identified who had the following common findings: midline facial cleft with midline cleft lip and palate; hypertelorism; absent corpus callosum; basal (sphenoethmoidal) encephalocele; and pituitary deficiency (five out of six cases). Ophthalmic examination was performed with fundal photography where possible.
RESULTS—Two patients had unilateral and one a bilateral peripapillary staphyloma. Two patients had bilateral optic disc hypoplasia and one appeared to have a peripapillary staphyloma in one eye and a morning glory disc in the other.
CONCLUSION—Optic disc abnormalities were found in all patients with this constellation of clinical findings. This association appears to represent a distinct subgroup within the spectrum of frontonasal dysplasia. The presence of midline facial anomalies and any dysplastic disc should alert the physician as to the presence of an encephalocele.

 Keywords: frontonasal dysplasia; optic disc; encephalocele PMID:9602627

  5. Pathology of cloaca anomalies with case correlation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita; Bischoff, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    During the fourth week of human embryo development, a transient common channel known as a cloaca is formed from which three cavities with three external orifices arises. Cloaca anomalies occur when there is failure of separation of the rectum, vagina, and urethra channel resulting in a single drain into the perineum. In our previous institutional studies, Runck et al. compared human and mouse cloaca development and found early mis-patterning of the embryonic cloaca deranged hedgehog and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) signaling. Also, our group reported the embryological correlation of the epithelial and stromal histology found in step sections of the common channel in 14 cloaca malformations in humans. In this review, we present the pathology of a 4-year-old female with a cloaca and VACTERL complex, and summarize our current knowledge of cloaca pathology. Furthermore, we suggest that careful pathological examination of cloaca specimens in conjunction with surgical orientation may result in a better understanding of the etiology of this condition. PMID:26969228

  6. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δ w in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e. the same Practical Salinity (SP=7.766). The average δ w amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to one order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  7. The sound speed anomaly of Baltic seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Rohden, C.; Weinreben, S.; Fehres, F.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the anomalous chemical composition of Baltic seawater on the speed of sound relative to seawater with quasi-standard composition was quantified at atmospheric pressure and temperatures of 1 to 46 °C. Three modern oceanographic time-of-flight sensors were applied in a laboratory setup for measuring the speed-of-sound difference δw in a pure water diluted sample of North Atlantic seawater and a sample of Baltic seawater of the same conductivity, i.e., the same practical salinity (SP = 7.766). The average δw amounts to 0.069 ± 0.014 m s-1, which is significantly larger than the resolution and reproducibility of the sensors and independent of temperature. This magnitude for the anomaly effect was verified with offshore measurements conducted at different sites in the Baltic Sea using one of the sensors. The results from both measurements show values up to 1 order of magnitude smaller than existing predictions based on chemical models.

  8. Recent Development in Hot Flow Anomaly Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, S.; Zong, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near the bow shock that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection from the Sun-Earth direction, with duration of a few minutes and scale size of the order of a few Re. HFAs are thought to be produced by the interaction of some very special interplanetary current sheets that satisfy several strict conditions with planetary bow shocks. When the current sheet (discontinuity) is connected to the bow shock and the motional electric fields point towards the discontinuity, ions reflected from the bow shock are trapped in the current sheet. The relative streaming energy of the original solar wind beam and the reflected beam is converted to the thermal energy. However, we found recently that HFAs can be generated spontaneously (in the absence of any current sheets) at quasi-parallel bow shocks where the interplanetary magnetic field lies nearly parallel to the shock normal. Statistical studies show that 60% of the HFAs are not associated with clear discontinuities. In addition, there are 13% of the HFAs with the motional electric fields on neither leading nor trailing edge pointing towards the discontinuity. These new results indicate that this phenomenon is still not well understood although it was discovered almost 30 years ago.

  9. Recent Development in Hot Flow Anomaly Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, S.; Zong, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near the bow shock that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection from the Sun-Earth direction, with duration of a few minutes and scale size of the order of a few RE. HFAs are thought to be produced by the interaction of some very special interplanetary current sheets that satisfy several strict conditions with planetary bow shocks. When the current sheet (discontinuity) is connected to the bow shock and the motional electric fields point towards the discontinuity, ions reflected from the bow shock are trapped in the current sheet. The relative streaming energy of the original solar wind beam and the reflected beam is converted to the thermal energy. However, we found recently that HFAs can be generated spontaneously (in the absence of any current sheets) at quasi-parallel bow shocks where the interplanetary magnetic field lies nearly parallel to the shock normal. Statistical studies show that 60% of the HFAs are not associated with clear discontinuities. In addition, there are 13% of the HFAs with the motional electric fields on neither leading nor trailing edge pointing towards the discontinuity. These new results indicate that this phenomenon is still not well understood although it was discovered almost 30 years ago.

  10. Identifying, characterizing, and classifying congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Shriki, Jabi E; Shinbane, Jerold S; Rashid, Mollie A; Hindoyan, Antereas; Withey, James G; DeFrance, Anthony; Cunningham, Mark; Oliveira, George R; Warren, Bill H; Wilcox, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of coronary artery anomalies vary in severity, with some anomalies causing severe symptoms and cardiovascular sequelae and others being benign. Cardiovascular computed tomography (CT) has emerged as the standard of reference for identification and characterization of coronary artery anomalies. Therefore, it is important for the reader of cardiovascular CT images to be thoroughly familiar with the spectrum of coronary artery anomalies. Hemodynamically significant anomalies include atresia, origin from the pulmonary artery, interarterial course, and congenital fistula. Non-hemodynamically significant anomalies include duplication; high origin; a prepulmonic, transseptal, or retroaortic course; shepherd's crook right coronary artery; and systemic termination. In general, coronary arteries with an interarterial course are associated with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Coronary artery anomalies that result in shunting, including congenital fistula and origin from the pulmonary artery, are also commonly symptomatic and may cause steal of blood from the myocardium. Radiologists should be familiar with each specific variant and its specific constellation of potential implications. PMID:22411942

  11. Discovering System Health Anomalies Using Data Mining Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sriastava, Ashok, N.

    2005-01-01

    We present a data mining framework for the analysis and discovery of anomalies in high-dimensional time series of sensor measurements that would be found in an Integrated System Health Monitoring system. We specifically treat the problem of discovering anomalous features in the time series that may be indicative of a system anomaly, or in the case of a manned system, an anomaly due to the human. Identification of these anomalies is crucial to building stable, reusable, and cost-efficient systems. The framework consists of an analysis platform and new algorithms that can scale to thousands of sensor streams to discovers temporal anomalies. We discuss the mathematical framework that underlies the system and also describe in detail how this framework is general enough to encompass both discrete and continuous sensor measurements. We also describe a new set of data mining algorithms based on kernel methods and hidden Markov models that allow for the rapid assimilation, analysis, and discovery of system anomalies. We then describe the performance of the system on a real-world problem in the aircraft domain where we analyze the cockpit data from aircraft as well as data from the aircraft propulsion, control, and guidance systems. These data are discrete and continuous sensor measurements and are dealt with seamlessly in order to discover anomalous flights. We conclude with recommendations that describe the tradeoffs in building an integrated scalable platform for robust anomaly detection in ISHM applications.

  12. Hyperspectral anomaly detection method based on auto-encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bati, Emrecan; ćalışkan, Akın.; Koz, Alper; Alatan, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    A major drawback of most of the existing hyperspectral anomaly detection methods is the lack of an efficient background representation, which can successfully adapt to the varying complexity of hyperspectral images. In this paper, we propose a novel anomaly detection method which represents the hyperspectral scenes of different complexity with the state-of-the-art representation learning method, namely auto-encoder. The proposed method first encodes the spectral image into a sparse code, then decodes the coded image, and finally, assesses the coding error at each pixel as a measure of anomaly. Predictive Sparse Decomposition Auto-encoder is utilized in the proposed anomaly method due to its efficient joint learning for the encoding and decoding functions. The performance of the proposed anomaly detection method is both tested on visible-near infrared (VNIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral images and compared with the conventional anomaly detection method, namely Reed-Xiaoli (RX) detector.1 The experiments has verified the superiority of the proposed anomaly detection method in terms of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) performance.

  13. Barium and neodymium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculloch, M. T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of Ba and Nd isotopic anomalies in two inclusions from the Allende meteorite is reported. The inclusions are Ca-Al-rich objects typical of the type considered as high-temperature condensation products in the solar nebula and contain distinctive Mg and O isotopic anomalies of the FUN (mass Fractionation, Unknown Nuclear processes) type. Mass-spectrometry results are discussed which show that inclusion C1 has anomalies in Ba at masses 134 and 136, while inclusion EK1-4-1 exhibits large marked negative anomalies at 130, 132, 134, and 136, as well as a positive anomaly at 137. It is also found that inclusion EK1-4-1 shows marked negative anomalies in Nd at masses 142, 146, 148, and 150, in addition to a positive anomaly at 145. These isotopic shifts are attributed to addition of r-process nuclei rather than mass fractionation. It is suggested that an onion-shell supernova explosion followed by injection into the solar nebula is the most likely generic model that may explain the observations.

  14. Visual analytics of anomaly detection in large data streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Ming C.; Dayal, Umeshwar; Keim, Daniel A.; Sharma, Ratnesh K.; Mehta, Abhay

    2009-01-01

    Most data streams usually are multi-dimensional, high-speed, and contain massive volumes of continuous information. They are seen in daily applications, such as telephone calls, retail sales, data center performance, and oil production operations. Many analysts want insight into the behavior of this data. They want to catch the exceptions in flight to reveal the causes of the anomalies and to take immediate action. To guide the user in finding the anomalies in the large data stream quickly, we derive a new automated neighborhood threshold marking technique, called AnomalyMarker. This technique is built on cell-based data streams and user-defined thresholds. We extend the scope of the data points around the threshold to include the surrounding areas. The idea is to define a focus area (marked area) which enables users to (1) visually group the interesting data points related to the anomalies (i.e., problems that occur persistently or occasionally) for observing their behavior; (2) discover the factors related to the anomaly by visualizing the correlations between the problem attribute with the attributes of the nearby data items from the entire multi-dimensional data stream. Mining results are quickly presented in graphical representations (i.e., tooltip) for the user to zoom into the problem regions. Different algorithms are introduced which try to optimize the size and extent of the anomaly markers. We have successfully applied this technique to detect data stream anomalies in large real-world enterprise server performance and data center energy management.

  15. Minimally conjoined omphalopagi: a consistent spectrum of anomalies.

    PubMed

    Poenaru, D; Uroz-Tristan, J; Leclerc, S; Murphy, S; St-Vil, D; Youssef, S; Blanchard, H

    1994-09-01

    Omphalapagus twins constitute less than one third of all siamese twins. Most omphalopagi are attached by a skin bridge that often contains hepatic tissue. Only four cases of omphalopagi attached by an intestinal bridge have been reported. The authors present two additional cases of conjoined twins minimally attached by a small bowel and bladder bridge. In both instances, the spectrum of anomalies included a ruptured omphalocele and imperforate anus with cloacal anomalies. The attachment consisted of an open urachal remnant joining the two bladders, and the short small bowel of twin A attached to the terminal ileum of twin B. Separation was uneventful. For one set of twins, the case part of the proximal colon of twin B was used to lengthen the bowel of twin A. Three of the twins survived and underwent additional procedures for repair of the cloacal anomalies. All four previously reported cases of minimally conjoined omphalopagi presented with a remarkably similar spectrum of anomalies. All had ruptured omphaloceles, imperforate anus with cloacal anomalies, and urachal anomalies. Intestinal connection was consistently at a point corresponding to the Meckel diverticulum site of twin B, with blood supply to the small bowel of twin A, probably via the vitelline artery. The consistent spectrum of anomalies encountered with minimally conjoined omphalopagi allows planning of separation. Caution is required to avoid overlooking the patent urachus, and intestinal lengthening procedures based on the vitelline artery become an important consideration. PMID:7807355

  16. Post-processing for improving hyperspectral anomaly detection accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jee-Cheng; Jiang, Chi-Ming; Huang, Chen-Liang

    2015-10-01

    Anomaly detection is an important topic in the exploitation of hyperspectral data. Based on the Reed-Xiaoli (RX) detector and a morphology operator, this research proposes a novel technique for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral anomaly detection. Firstly, the RX-based detector is used to process a given input scene. Then, a post-processing scheme using morphology operator is employed to detect those pixels around high-scoring anomaly pixels. Tests were conducted using two real hyperspectral images with ground truth information and the results based on receiver operating characteristic curves, illustrated that the proposed method reduced the false alarm rates of the RXbased detector.

  17. Statistical magnetic anomalies from satellite measurements for geologic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, H. K.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    The errors of numerically averaging satellite magnetic anomaly data for geologic analysis are investigated using orbital anomaly simulations of crustal magnetic sources by Gauss-Legendre quadrature integration. These simulations suggest that numerical averaging errors constitute small and relatively minor contributions to the total error-budget of higher orbital estimates (approx. 400 km), whereas for lower orbital estimates the error of averaging may increase substantially. Least-squares collocation is also investigated as an alternative to numerical averaging and found to produce substantially more accurate anomaly estimates as the elevation of prediction is decreased towards the crustal sources.

  18. Ebstein's Anomaly, Left Ventricular Noncompaction, and Sudden Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    McGee, Michael; Warner, Luke; Collins, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a congenital disorder characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. Ebstein's anomaly may be seen in association with other cardiac conditions, including patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). LVNC is characterized by increased trabeculation within the left ventricular apex. Echocardiography is often used to diagnose LVNC; however, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers superior characterization of the myocardium. We report a case of sudden cardiac death in a patient with Ebstein's anomaly with unrecognized LVNC noted on post mortem examination with screening documenting the presence of LVNC in one of the patient's twin sons. PMID:26240764

  19. Prenatal Diagnosis of Uhl Anomaly with Autopsy Correlation.

    PubMed

    Philip, Saji; Bharati, Sarasa; Cherian, Kottureth Mammen; Bharati, Saroja

    2016-03-01

    Uhl anomaly is a rare form of congenital hypoplasia of the right ventricular myocardium. Here, we report, a rare finding in fetal cardiac ultrasound in a 33-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks' of gestation. A diagnosis of Uhl anomaly was made. An autopsy was performed at 23weeks gestation after obtaining permission for medicolegal termination of pregnancy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Diagnosing Uhl anomaly in fetal life is essential since mortality and survival mainly depend on the severity of right ventricle dysfunction related to, the either partial or complete absence of the myocardium. Hence, surviving cases need to be followed up carefully and counselled accordingly. PMID:26929879

  20. Prenatal Diagnosis of Uhl Anomaly with Autopsy Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Philip, Saji; Bharati, Sarasa; Cherian, Kottureth Mammen; Bharati, Saroja

    2015-01-01

    Uhl anomaly is a rare form of congenital hypoplasia of the right ventricular myocardium. Here, we report, a rare finding in fetal cardiac ultrasound in a 33-year-old woman who presented at 20 weeks' of gestation. A diagnosis of Uhl anomaly was made. An autopsy was performed at 23weeks gestation after obtaining permission for medicolegal termination of pregnancy. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis. Diagnosing Uhl anomaly in fetal life is essential since mortality and survival mainly depend on the severity of right ventricle dysfunction related to, the either partial or complete absence of the myocardium. Hence, surviving cases need to be followed up carefully and counselled accordingly. PMID:26929879

  1. Adapting ODC for Empirical Evaluation of Pre-Launch Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Mikulski, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concept of using Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) to identify pre-launch anomalies in software. The goals of this work are: (1) To characterize pre-launch software anomalies, using data from multiple spacecraft projects, by means of a defect-analysis technology, Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC). (2) To support transfer of ODC to NASA projects through applications and demonstrations. Approach: Analyzed anomaly data using adaptation of Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC) method. This project has adapted ODC for NASA use and applied to NASA projects.

  2. Determination of mean gravity anomalies in the Taiwan Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Ruey-Gang

    1989-01-01

    The fitting and proper regression coefficients were made of one hundred seventeen 10 x 10' blocks with observed gravity data and corresponding elevation in the Taiwan Island. To compare five different predicted models, and the proper one for the mean gravity anomalies were determined. The predicted gravity anomalies of the non-observed gravity blocks were decided when the coefficients obtained through the model with the weighted mean method. It was suggested that the mean gravity anomalies of 10 x 10' blocks should be made when comprehensive the observed and predicted data.

  3. Anomalies of neutron field of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Natalia

    anomalies coincide with the coordinates of the subequatorial and subtropical climatic zones. This anomalous increase Fn happens above, with an increase in phytoplankton biomass, the value of Fn is growing. Abnormal outbreak of Fn in biocenoses and over fields of phytoplankton can be associated with a well-known effect of «neutron trap» in heterogeneous environments, and the thermalization of the epithermal neutrons. Presence of the biological answer to weak streams thermal neutrons allow to assume, that these corpuscular streams are one of the "intermediaries" allowing alive organisms to feel a lot of astrogeophysical events, in addition to known climatic factors. In addition, the thermal neutron flux density is the integral characteristic,which allows to make a"neutron portrait " of the resort or the countryside. Thus, speaking about the anomalies of the natural radioactive background , special attention should be paid to the level Fn and its variations, and the potential impact on biological objects and human. The data obtained interaction of neutron flux and biological objects may be important for their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Our data suggest that even in the lower layers of troposphere value thermal neutron flux (Fn) can be quite high, confirm the need for further studies to human security at the high altitude and transcontinental air flights.

  4. Theory of Magnetotransport Anomalies in Alkali Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaodong

    The galvanomagnetic properties of alkali metals, especially those of potassium, are studied taking into account the existence of an incommensurate change-density wave (CDW) structure. Occurrence of the CDW broken symmetry truncates the Fermi surface with a large number of energy gaps. Furthermore, any macroscopic crystal is likely divided into CDW (')Q-domains. An orientational (')Q-texture leads to a preferred direction in the crystal. For such an exotic system the effective magnetoresistivity tensor is anomalous and is derived for various magnetic fields. The residual (zero-field) resistance is also anisotropic. For fields 0.5 - 3T, Hall coefficients are found to be anisotropic, and a longitudinal-transverse mixing effect is discovered. The diagonal elements of the magnetoresistivity tensor are found to have a linear magnetoresistance. When the field is increased above 4T sharp open-orbit magnetoresistance spectrum develops. From the theoretical magnetoresistivity tensor, the induced-torque amplitude and phase patterns for potassium spheres are calculated. The theory quantitatively explains all of the induced-torque anomalies found experimentally in the last fourteen years. An interacting electron system, which is free of the CDW instabilities, is also studied by considering its spin response to a weak sinusoidal magnetic field. The many-body correction G(,-)((')q,(omega)) caused by exchange and correlation is introduced to describe the correct wave -vector- and frequency-dependent spin susceptibility. The exact behavior of G(,-)((')q,(omega)) in the large-q limit is shown to be related to the pair distribution function g((')r) at r = 0. G(,-)((')q,(omega)) (--->) 4g(0)-1 /3, as q (--->) (INFIN).At metallic densities this value is negative, opposite in sign to the limit at small wave vectors. Thus the spin susceptibility for large wave vectors is suppressed, rather than enhanced, by many-body effects.

  5. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes. PMID:22255538

  6. Zero modes and anomalies in superconducting strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widrow, Lawrence M.

    1988-09-01

    Superconductivity in cosmic strings occurs when electrically charged fermions are trapped as massless particles (Jackiw-Rossi zero modes) in the core of a string. Currents are generated when an electric field is applied along the string, or more realistically, when the string moves through a cosmic magnetic field. In realistic models (e.g., those inspired by grand unified theories), the fermion-vortex systems that arise can be quite complicated and the question of whether or not superconductivity occurs is very model dependent. For example, in certain models, mixing between right- and left-moving zero modes gives rise to an effective mass for the fermions on the string. The currents in this case, at least for reasonable values for cosmic magnetic fields, are uninterestingly small. In this paper, we present a simple method for determining the number of true zero modes in a special class of fermion-vortex systems. These results are then applied to a particular particle-physics model based on the gauge group E6. We also consider the possibility that ∑left moversq2≠∑right moversq2 where q is the electromagnetic charge of a zero mode. In this situation, which occurs in ``frustrated'' as well as global strings, there is a gauge anomaly (and therefore charge nonconservation) in the effective (1+1)-dimensional theory for the fermion-string system. In the presence of an electric field, the string acquires both charge and current. Charge nonconservation on the string is accounted for by an inflow of charge from the world outside the string. However, both charge and current can be screened, either by polarization of the vacuum or by the surrounding plasma.

  7. Anomaly depth detection in trans-admittance mammography: a formula independent of anomaly size or admittivity contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Jin Keun

    2014-04-01

    Trans-admittance mammography (TAM) is a bioimpedance technique for breast cancer detection. It is based on the comparison of tissue conductivity: cancerous tissue is identified by its higher conductivity in comparison with the surrounding normal tissue. In TAM, the breast is compressed between two electrical plates (in a similar architecture to x-ray mammography). The bottom plate has many sensing point electrodes that provide two-dimensional images (trans-admittance maps) that are induced by voltage differences between the two plates. Multi-frequency admittance data (Neumann data) are measured over the range 50 Hz-500 kHz. TAM aims to determine the location and size of any anomaly from the multi-frequency admittance data. Various anomaly detection algorithms can be used to process TAM data to determine the transverse positions of anomalies. However, existing methods cannot reliably determine the depth or size of an anomaly. Breast cancer detection using TAM would be improved if the depth or size of an anomaly could also be estimated, properties that are independent of the admittivity contrast. A formula is proposed here that can estimate the depth of an anomaly independent of its size and the admittivity contrast. This depth estimation can also be used to derive an estimation of the size of the anomaly. The proposed estimations are verified rigorously under a simplified model. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed method also works well in general settings.

  8. The resolution of a magnetic anomaly map expected from GRM data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Arkani-Hamed, J.; Teskey, D. J.; Hood, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    Data from the MAGSAT mission were used to derive a global scalar magnetic anomaly map at an average altitude of about 400 km. It was possible to work with 2 data sets corresponding to dawn and dusk. The anomalies which were repeatable at dawn and at dusk was identified and the error limits of these anomalies were estimated. The repeatable anomalies were downward continued to about 10 km altitude. The anomalies over Canada were correlated quantitatively with bandpass filtered magnetic anomalies derived from aeromagnetic surveys. The close correlation indicates that the repeatable anomalies detected from orbit are due to geological causes. This correlation supports the geological significance of the global anomaly map.

  9. Extracardiac anomalies in the heterotaxy syndromes with focus on anomalies of midline-associated structures.

    PubMed

    Ticho, B S; Goldstein, A M; Van Praagh, R

    2000-03-15

    The extracardiac defects in patients with heterotaxy have not been examined as extensively as cardiac defects. We found a high incidence of midline-associated defects in 160 autopsied cases of heterotaxy (asplenia, polysplenia, or single right-sided spleen). Fifty-two percent of patients with left-sided polysplenia had a midline-associated defect, as did 45% of those with asplenia. Most common were musculoskeletal or genitourinary anomalies, as well as cleft palate. Fused adrenal glands and anal stenosis or atresia occurred exclusively among patients with asplenia. A midline anomaly was twice as likely to be detected on complete autopsy than from clinical findings alone. Linkage studies should take into account that affected subjects may have isolated subclinical midline defects. The high incidence of midline-associated defects supports the theory that the midline plays a critical role in establishing left-right asymmetry in the body. Comparison of these defects with mouse models of laterality defects suggests that mutations that disrupt the transforming growth factor beta pathway may result in heterotaxy. PMID:12000048

  10. Estimation of soil humidity anomalies influence on summer precipitation anomalies for Western Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynova, Y.; Krupchatnikov, V.

    2009-04-01

    A study of influence degree of soil humidity anomalies on summer precipitation anomalies against the background of СО2 concentration increase is presented. The study is based on method described in [1]. A global model of intermediate complexity "Planet Simulator" [2] was used in this study. Two scenarios were taken into account: "Control scenario", with constant СО2 concentration at 360 ppm, and standard IPCC scenario A2. For each scenario 10 model runs with different soil humidity perturbations were performed for 90 model years. The analysis of the results showed that for convective precipitations the influence degree of soil humidity for the A2 scenario is less than for "Control scenario". At the same time for the large scale precipitations an increase of the influence degree of soil humidity was discovered. This study could be useful not only for understanding of the process physics but also for long-term precipitations forecasts. This work is partially supported by RFBR Project #05-05-64989 and Project #08-05-000457. Referenses. 1.Randal D. Koster et. al. Regions of Strong Coupling Between Soil Moisture and Precipitation // Science, Vol. 305, 2004, pp. 1138 - 1140. 2.Fraedrich K., Jansen H. et al. The Planet Simulator: Towards a user friendly model // Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 2005, Vol.14, No 3, pp. 299 - 304.

  11. Safety and Efficacy Study of Sirolimus in Complicated Vascular Anomalies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-02-03

    Kaposiform Hemangioendotheliomas; Tufted Angioma; Capillary Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Venous Lymphatic Malformation; Microcystic Lymphatic Malformation; Mucocutaneous Lymphangiomatosis and Thrombocytopenia; Capillary Lymphatic Arterial Venous Malformations; PTEN Overgrowth Syndrome With Vascular Anomaly; Lymphangiectasia Syndromes

  12. Magnetic anomalies over the Andaman Islands and their geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subba Rao, P. B. V.; Radhakrishna, M.; Haripriya, K.; Rao, B. Someswara; Chandrasekharam, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Andaman Islands form part of the outer-arc accretionary sedimentary complex belonging to the Andaman-Sumatra active subduction zone. The islands are characterized by thick cover of Neogene sediments along with exposed ophiolite rocks at few places. A regional magnetic survey was carried out for the first time over the Andaman Islands with a view to understand the correlation of anomaly signatures with surface geology of the islands. The residual total field magnetic anomaly maps have revealed distinct magnetic anomalies having intermediate to high amplitude magnetic signatures and correlate with the areas over/close to the exposed ophiolite rocks along the east coast of north, middle and the south Andaman Islands. The 2D modelling of magnetic anomalies along selected E-W profiles across the islands indicate that the ophiolite bodies extend to a depth of about 5-8 km and spatially correlate with the mapped fault/thrust zones.

  13. Titanium isotopic anomalies in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemeyer, S.

    1988-02-01

    Isotopic analyses of Ti from a suite of eight Allende chondrules were conducted to determine whether any relationship exists between the composition and structure of a chondrule and the Ti isotopic patterns. Four of the eight chondrules displayed well-resolved anomalies with respect to Ti-50/Ti-46 ratio, which ranged from a Ti-50 deficit of two epsilon-units to a T-50 excess of nine epsilon-units. No clear link was found between the structure of the chondrules and the Ti anomalies (although the chondrule with by far the largest Ti isotopic anomaly was also Al-rich, suggesting that there might exist a complicated relationship between the degree of refractory enrichment and the magnitude of Ti isotopic anomalies.

  14. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the Lost River, West Virginia NASA/Geosat Test Case Site, an extensive soil gas survey of the site was conducted during the summer of 1983. This soil gas survey has identified an order of magnitude methane, ethane, propane, and butane anomaly that is precisely coincident with the linear maple anomaly reported previously. This and other maple anomalies were previously suggested to be indicative of anaerobic soil conditions associated with hydrocarbon microseepage. In vitro studies support the view that anomalous distributions of native tree species tolerant of anaerobic soil conditions may be useful indicators of methane microseepage in heavily vegetated areas of the United States characterized by deciduous forest cover. Remote sensing systems which allow discrimination and mapping of native tree species and/or species associations will provide the exploration community with a means of identifying vegetation distributional anomalies indicative of microseepage.

  15. Study of gravity and magnetic anomalies using MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results of modeling satellite-elevation magnetic and gravity data using the constraints imposed by near surface data and seismic evidence shows that the magnetic minimum can be accounted for by either an intracrustal lithologic variation or by an upwarp of the Curie point isotherm. The long wavelength anomalies of the NOO's-vector magnetic survey of the conterminous U.S. were contoured and processed by various frequency filters to enhance particular characteristics. A preliminary inversion of the data was completed and the anomaly field calculated at 450 km from the equivalent magnet sources to compare with the POGO satellite data. Considerable progress was made in studing the satellite magnetic data of South America and adjacent marine areas. Preliminary versions of the 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly map (20 m gal contour interval) and the high cut (lambda approximately 8 deg) filtered anomaly maps are included.

  16. Summer Temperature Anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere, 1955-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a flat map of the Earth with summertime temperature anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere. This analysis compares observed seasonal mean temperatures (June-July-August) to ...

  17. Hysteroscopic treatment of Müllerian duct anomalies.

    PubMed

    DI Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Spinelli, Marialuigia; DA Cunha Vieira, Mariana; Zizolfi, Brunella; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Müllerian duct anomalies are a broad and complex spectrum of abnormalities that are often associated with infertility, obstetric complications as well as gynecological disorders among women of reproductive age. Operative hysteroscopy is the gold standard in the treatment of most of those anomalies amenable to surgical correction. The evidence to date shows an ongoing increase in the release of recommendations in favour of operative hysteroscopic treatment, in concert with the progressive refinement of hysteroscopic technologies and techniques. The aim of this paper was to describe and critically evaluate the role of the currently available hysteroscopic techniques for treating Müllerian duct anomalies, taking into account their indications, feasibility and efficacy as well as their impact on the reproductive outcome. Special attention will be paid to the most recently developed minimally invasive treatments for uterine and vaginal anomalies. PMID:26889788

  18. Network Anomaly Detection System with Optimized DS Evidence Theory

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network—complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each senor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. PMID:25254258

  19. Pauli-Villars regulatization of supergravity and field theory anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1995-06-01

    A procedure for Pauli-Villars regularization of locally and globally supersymmetric theories is described. Implications for specific theories, especially those obtained from superstrings, are discussed with emphasis on the role of field theory anomalies.

  20. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Starich, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced to pole and derivative maps provide constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  1. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free-air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced-to-pole and derivative maps provide additional constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  2. Network anomaly detection system with optimized DS evidence theory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Kaiyu

    2014-01-01

    Network anomaly detection has been focused on by more people with the fast development of computer network. Some researchers utilized fusion method and DS evidence theory to do network anomaly detection but with low performance, and they did not consider features of network-complicated and varied. To achieve high detection rate, we present a novel network anomaly detection system with optimized Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (ODS) and regression basic probability assignment (RBPA) function. In this model, we add weights for each sensor to optimize DS evidence theory according to its previous predict accuracy. And RBPA employs sensor's regression ability to address complex network. By four kinds of experiments, we find that our novel network anomaly detection model has a better detection rate, and RBPA as well as ODS optimization methods can improve system performance significantly. PMID:25254258

  3. Detailed gravity anomalies from GEOS-3 satellite altimetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalapillai, G. S.; Mourad, A. G.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for deriving mean gravity anomalies from dense altimetry data was developed. A combination of both deterministic and statistical techniques was used. The basic mathematical model was based on the Stokes' equation which describes the analytical relationship between mean gravity anomalies and geoid undulations at a point; this undulation is a linear function of the altimetry data at that point. The overdetermined problem resulting from the excessive altimetry data available was solved using Least-Squares principles. These principles enable the simultaneous estimation of the associated standard deviations reflecting the internal consistency based on the accuracy estimates provided for the altimetry data as well as for the terrestrial anomaly data. Several test computations were made of the anomalies and their accuracy estimates using GOES-3 data.

  4. Brain anomalies in velo-cardio-facial syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mitnick, R.J.; Bello, J.A.; Shprintzen, R.J.

    1994-06-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in 11 consecutively referred patients with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (VCF) showed anomalies in nine cases including small vermis, cysts adjacent to the frontal horns, and small posterior fossa. Focal signal hyperintensities in the white matter on long TR images were also noted. The nine patients showed a variety of behavioral abnormalities including mild development delay, learning disabilities, and characteristic personality traits typical of this common multiple anomaly syndrome which has been related to a microdeletion at 22q11. Analysis of the behavorial findings showed no specific pattern related to the brain anomalies, and the patients with VCF who did not have detectable brain lesions also had behavioral abnormalities consistent with VCF. The significance of the lesions is not yet known, but the high prevalence of anomalies in this sample suggests that structural brain abnormalities are probably common in VCF. 25 refs.

  5. Load characterization and anomaly detection for voice over IP traffic.

    PubMed

    Mandjes, Michel; Saniee, Iraj; Stolyar, Alexander L

    2005-09-01

    We consider the problem of traffic anomaly detection in IP networks. Traffic anomalies typically arise when there is focused overload or when a network element fails and it is desired to infer these purely from the measured traffic. We derive new general formulae for the variance of the cumulative traffic over a fixed time interval and show how the derived analytical expression simplifies for the case of voice over IP traffic, the focus of this paper. To detect load anomalies, we show it is sufficient to consider cumulative traffic over relatively long intervals such as 5 min. We also propose simple anomaly detection tests including detection of over/underload. This approach substantially extends the current practice in IP network management where only the first-order statistics and fixed thresholds are used to identify abnormal behavior. We conclude with the application of the scheme to field data from an operational network. PMID:16252813

  6. Monitoring volcanic thermal anomalies from space: Size matters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Samuel William; Filho, Carlos Roberto de Souza; Oppenheimer, Clive

    2011-06-01

    Measuring temperatures on volcanoes from space provides important constraints on the transfer of mass and heat to the Earth's surface. Time series of multispectral infrared images, acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) between 2000 and 2009, were inspected to investigate fluctuations in thermal anomalies at both Mount Erebus (Antarctica) and Láscar volcano (Chile). Several thermal metrics were explored: i) maximum pixel temperatures above background, ii) the spatial extent of low, moderate and high temperature anomalies, and iii) the spatial extent of short-wave infrared anomalies. The maximum pixel temperature metric correlated to eruptive events at Láscar volcano yet displayed significant scatter at Erebus. The spatial extent of both temperature and short-wave infrared anomalies correlates well with eruptive activity at both volcanoes. Limited variation in the size of thermal anomalies was observed at Erebus throughout the time series due to the stability of a long-lived lava lake, with the exception of a seasonal expansion in low temperature anomalies associated with localized snow-melt at the peak. This finding has implications for the interpretation of low temperature anomalies at other volcanoes. At least two different types of precursory signals are identified at Láscar: i) a gradual increase and ii) a dip, in the size and intensity of thermal anomalies. These thermal precursors appear to be associated with different eruptive styles. The former precedes a relatively shallow, short lived eruption; the later a prolonged eruptive period. Such thermal precursors could therefore help to constrain not only the timing but also the style and duration of an imminent eruptive episode.

  7. Relic vector field and CMB large scale anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xingang; Wang, Yi E-mail: yw366@cam.ac.uk

    2014-10-01

    We study the most general effects of relic vector fields on the inflationary background and density perturbations. Such effects are observable if the number of inflationary e-folds is close to the minimum requirement to solve the horizon problem. We show that this can potentially explain two CMB large scale anomalies: the quadrupole-octopole alignment and the quadrupole power suppression. We discuss its effect on the parity anomaly. We also provide analytical template for more detailed data comparison.

  8. Analysis of spacecraft on-orbit anomalies and lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C.; Graham, W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyses of the on-orbit performance of forty-four unmanned NASA spacecraft are presented. Included are detailed descriptions and classifications of over 600 anomalies; each anomalous incident represents one reported deviation from expected spacecraft performance. Charts depicting satellite lifetimes and the performance of their major subsystems are included. Engineering analyses to further investigate the kinds and frequencies of various classes of anomalies have been conducted. An improved method for charting spacecraft capability as a function of time on orbit is explored.

  9. Parity anomalies in gauge theories in 2 + 1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, S.; Yahalom, R.

    1986-01-01

    We show that the introduction of massless fermions in an abelian gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions does not lead to any parity anomaly despite a non-commutativity of limits in the structure function of the odd part of the vacuum polarization tensor. However, parity anomaly does exist in non-abelian theories due to a conflict between gauge invariance under large gauge transformations and the parity symmetry. 6 refs.

  10. Linear Anomaly in Welded 2219-T87 Aluminum Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jemian, Wartan A.

    1987-01-01

    Study of causes and significance of two types of linear anomalies sometimes appearing in radiographs of welds described in preliminary report. Manifested as light or dark linear features parallel to weld line in radiograph of weld. Contains diagrams and descriptions of phenomena occurring during welding process. Includes microdensitometer traces from x-radiographs of actual welds and from computer simulations based calculation of x-ray transmission through assumed weld structures. Concludes anomalies not unique to 2219-T87 aluminum alloy.

  11. A major geothermal anomaly in the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawver, L.A.; Williams, D.L.; Von Herzen, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    We have mapped a 3-km wide, high heat flow anomaly with a maximum value of 30 ??calorie cm -2 s-1 within a zone of seafloor extension in the central Gulf of California. From seismic reflection data and thermal modelling we suggest that the anomaly is caused by a 1-km wide basaltic intrusion which is roughly 100 m deep and less than 18,000 yr old. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  12. Light-front view of the axial anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong |; Rey, Soo-Jong

    1995-07-01

    Motivated by an apparent puzzle of the light-front vacua incompatible with the axial anomaly, we have considered the two-dimensional massless Schwinger model for an arbitrary interpolating angle of the quantization surface. By examining spectral deformation of the Dirac sea under an external electric field semiclassically, we have found that the axial anomaly is quantization angle independent. This indicates an intricate nontrivial vacuum structure present even in the light-front limit.

  13. S Matrix Proof of Consistency Condition Derived from Mixed Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhansali, Vineer

    For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the and anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. We present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.

  14. Interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Dale E.; Hall, Stuart A.; Casey, John F.; Millegan, Patrick S.

    1993-10-01

    The Grenada Basin is a back arc basin located near the eastern border of the Caribbean Plate. The basin is bounded on the west by the north-south trending Aves Ridge (a remnant island arc) and on the east by the active Lesser Antilles island arc. Although this physiography suggests that east-west extension formed the basin, magnetic anomalies over the basin exhibit predominantly east-west trends. If the observed magnetic anomalies over the basin are produced by seafloor spreading, then the orientation of extension is complex. Extension in back arc basins is roughly normal to the trench, although some basins exhibit oblique extension. Present models for the formation of the Grenada Basin vary from north-south extension through northeast-southwest extension to east-west extension. An interpretation of magnetic anomalies over the Grenada Basin supports basin development by nearly east-west extension. Low amplitude magnetic anomaly trends subparallel to the island arc magnetic anomaly trends over the southern part of the basin and the results of forward three-dimensional (3-D) magnetic modeling are consistent with this conclusion. Late Cenozoic tectonic movements may have been responsible for disrupting the magnetic signature over the northern part of the basin. On the basis of our 3-D analysis, we attribute the prominent east-west trending anomalies of the Grenada Basin to fracture zones formed during seafloor spreading at low latitude. This east-west trend is not interpreted as indicating north-south extension of the basin.

  15. Marine Magnetic Anomalies and the Reconstruction of the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heirtzler, James R.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Until the middle of the 20th century little was known about magnetic anomalies in the oceans. Then it was discovered that there are relatively large anomalies in most of the oceans and they were unrelated to any geological structure known at that time. In the early 1950's large anomalies had been found over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and linear anomalies over the eastern continental shelf of North America and, shortly after that, off the west coast. A survey of the ridge south of Iceland showed that the anomalies were linear, parallel to the ridge axis, and symmetrical about the axis. Using the theory that the anomalies were caused by geomagnetic field reversals and seafloor spreading it was possible to greatly extend the time scale of geomagnetic reversals, to determine the velocity of seafloor spreading and estimate the time of opening of the North Atlantic. Lamont had a world-wide collection of marine magnetic profiles. These were used, systematically, to determine the positions of most of the land masses of the world since the beginnings of the world's present oceans.

  16. Ant colony optimization-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine.

    PubMed

    Penmatsa, Ravi Kiran Varma; Vatsavayi, Valli Kumari; Samayamantula, Srinivas Kumar

    2016-01-01

    A firewall is the most essential component of network perimeter security. Due to human error and the involvement of multiple administrators in configuring firewall rules, there exist common anomalies in firewall rulesets such as Shadowing, Generalization, Correlation, and Redundancy. There is a need for research on efficient ways of resolving such anomalies. The challenge is also to see that the reordered or resolved ruleset conforms to the organization's framed security policy. This study proposes an ant colony optimization (ACO)-based anomaly resolution and reordering of firewall rules called ACO-based firewall anomaly mitigation engine. Modified strategies are also introduced to automatically detect these anomalies and to minimize manual intervention of the administrator. Furthermore, an adaptive reordering strategy is proposed to aid faster reordering when a new rule is appended. The proposed approach was tested with different firewall policy sets. The results were found to be promising in terms of the number of conflicts resolved, with minimal availability loss and marginal security risk. This work demonstrated the application of a metaheuristic search technique, ACO, in improving the performance of a packet-filter firewall with respect to mitigating anomalies in the rules, and at the same time demonstrated conformance to the security policy. PMID:27441151

  17. Spectral Correlation of Antarctic Satellite Magnetic and Gravity Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. B.; von Frese, R. R.; Kim, H.; Potts, L.; Kim, J.; Gaya-Pique, L. R.

    2005-05-01

    Large areas of the Antarctic continent lack terrestrial or airborne magnetic and gravity survey coverage due to the harsh climate and extended distances involved. Satellite missions therefore play an important role, often being the only source of information for the study of remote regions. NASA's GRACE satellite mission provides global-scale gravity measurements with a much higher spatial resolution than previous missions. The free-air gravity anomalies in Antarctica from GRACE offer new insights on the poorly understood Antarctic crust. New interpretations and candidates for further investigation are presented from spectral correlation analysis between the new GRACE free-air gravity anomalies and magnetic anomalies measured by the CHAMP and Ørsted satellites. We quantify the anomaly correlations using correlation filters based on Poisson's relation. Favorability indices are derived that highlight the positive and negative correlations between the satellite observed geopotential anomalies. Several positively and negatively correlated regional anomalies yield new insights on the enigmatic crustal tectonics of Queen Maud Land, Enderby Land and other regions of East Antarctica, and the West Antarctic Peninsula.

  18. Improved determination of vector lithospheric magnetic anomalies from MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, Dhananjay

    1993-01-01

    Scientific contributions made in developing new methods to isolate and map vector magnetic anomalies from measurements made by Magsat are described. In addition to the objective of the proposal, the isolation and mapping of equatorial vector lithospheric Magsat anomalies, isolation of polar ionospheric fields during the period were also studied. Significant progress was also made in isolation of polar delta(Z) component and scalar anomalies as well as integration and synthesis of various techniques of removing equatorial and polar ionospheric effects. The significant contributions of this research are: (1) development of empirical/analytical techniques in modeling ionospheric fields in Magsat data and their removal from uncorrected anomalies to obtain better estimates of lithospheric anomalies (this task was accomplished for equatorial delta(X), delta(Z), and delta(B) component and polar delta(Z) and delta(B) component measurements; (2) integration of important processing techniques developed during the last decade with the newly developed technologies of ionospheric field modeling into an optimum processing scheme; and (3) implementation of the above processing scheme to map the most robust magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere (components as well as scalar).

  19. A New Methodology for Early Anomaly Detection of BWR Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, K. N.

    2005-11-27

    The objective of the performed research is to develop an early anomaly detection methodology so as to enhance safety, availability, and operational flexibility of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) nuclear power plants. The technical approach relies on suppression of potential power oscillations in BWRs by detecting small anomalies at an early stage and taking appropriate prognostic actions based on an anticipated operation schedule. The research utilizes a model of coupled (two-phase) thermal-hydraulic and neutron flux dynamics, which is used as a generator of time series data for anomaly detection at an early stage. The model captures critical nonlinear features of coupled thermal-hydraulic and nuclear reactor dynamics and (slow time-scale) evolution of the anomalies as non-stationary parameters. The time series data derived from this nonlinear non-stationary model serves as the source of information for generating the symbolic dynamics for characterization of model parameter changes that quantitatively represent small anomalies. The major focus of the presented research activity was on developing and qualifying algorithms of pattern recognition for power instability based on anomaly detection from time series data, which later can be used to formulate real-time decision and control algorithms for suppression of power oscillations for a variety of anticipated operating conditions. The research being performed in the framework of this project is essential to make significant improvement in the capability of thermal instability analyses for enhancing safety, availability, and operational flexibility of currently operating and next generation BWRs.

  20. Multiple-Instance Learning for Anomaly Detection in Digital Mammography.

    PubMed

    Quellec, Gwenole; Lamard, Mathieu; Cozic, Michel; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Cazuguel, Guy

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes a computer-aided detection and diagnosis system for breast cancer, the most common form of cancer among women, using mammography. The system relies on the Multiple-Instance Learning (MIL) paradigm, which has proven useful for medical decision support in previous works from our team. In the proposed framework, breasts are first partitioned adaptively into regions. Then, features derived from the detection of lesions (masses and microcalcifications) as well as textural features, are extracted from each region and combined in order to classify mammography examinations as "normal" or "abnormal". Whenever an abnormal examination record is detected, the regions that induced that automated diagnosis can be highlighted. Two strategies are evaluated to define this anomaly detector. In a first scenario, manual segmentations of lesions are used to train an SVM that assigns an anomaly index to each region; local anomaly indices are then combined into a global anomaly index. In a second scenario, the local and global anomaly detectors are trained simultaneously, without manual segmentations, using various MIL algorithms (DD, APR, mi-SVM, MI-SVM and MILBoost). Experiments on the DDSM dataset show that the second approach, which is only weakly-supervised, surprisingly outperforms the first approach, even though it is strongly-supervised. This suggests that anomaly detectors can be advantageously trained on large medical image archives, without the need for manual segmentation. PMID:26829783

  1. Effect of anomalies on data compression onboard a hyperspectral satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shen-En; Bergeron, Martin; Levesque, Josee; Hollinger, Allan

    2005-08-01

    The Canadian Space Agency (CSA) is developing a pre-operational spaceborne Hyperspectral Environment and Resource Observer (HERO). HERO will be a Canadian optical Earth observation mission that will address the stewardship of natural resources for sustainable development within Canada and globally. To deal with the challenge of extremely high data rate and the huge data volume generated onboard, CSA has developed two near lossless data compression techniques for use onboard a satellite. CSA is planning to place a data compressor onboard HERO using these techniques to reduce the requirement for onboard storage and to better match the available downlink capacity. Anomalies in the raw hyperspectral data can be caused by detector and instrument defects. This work focuses on anomalies that are caused by dead detector elements, frozen detector elements, overresponsive detector elements and saturation. This paper addresses the effect of these anomalies in raw hyperspectral imagery on data compression. The outcome of this work will help to decide whether or not an onboard data preprocessing to remove these anomalies is required before compression. Hyperspectral datacubes acquired using two hyperspectral sensors were tested. Statistical measures were used to evaluate the data compression performance with or without removing the anomalies. The effect of anomalies on compressed data was also evaluated using a remote sensing application.

  2. Conformal anomaly c-coefficients of superconformal 6d theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beccaria, Matteo; Tseytlin, Arkady A.

    2016-01-01

    We propose general relations between the conformal anomaly and the chiral (R-symmetry and gravitational) anomaly coefficients in 6d (1, 0) superconformal theories. The suggested expressions for the three type B conformal anomaly c i -coefficients complement the expression for the type A anomaly a-coefficient found in arXiv:1506.03807. We check them on several examples — the standard (1, 0) hyper and tensor multiplets as well as some higher derivative short multiplets containing vector fields that generalize the super-conformal 6d vector multiplet discussed in arXiv:1506.08727. We also consider a family of higher derivative superconformal (2, 0) 6d multiplets associated to 7d multiplets in the KK spectrum of 11d supergravity compactified on S 4. In particular, we prove that (2,0) 6d conformal supergravity coupled to 26 tensor multiplets is free of all chiral and conformal anomalies. We discuss some interacting (1, 0) superconformal theories, predicting the c i -coefficients for the "E-string" theory on multiple M5-branes at E 8 9-brane and for the theory describing M5-branes at an orbifold singularity {C}^2/Γ . Finally, we elaborate on holographic computation of subleading corrections to conformal anomaly coefficients coming from R 2 + R 3 terms in 7d effective action, revisiting, in particular, the (2,0) theory case.

  3. The Ionospheric Mid-Latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.; Chen, C.; Hsu, M.; Liu, C. H.; Liu, J. G.; Burns, A. G.; Wang, W.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents monthly variations of the mid-latitude summer nighttime anomaly (MSNA) of the ionosphere for the first time by using global observations of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (F3/C), NASA TIMED-GUVI, ground-based radars and GPS receiver network. The MSNA is characterized by greater nighttime (19:00 LT - 24:00 LT, or period of larger solar zenith angles) ionospheric electron density than that during daytime (08:00 - 18:00 LT, or period of smaller solar zenith angles) at middle latitudes during solstices. The anomaly shown in the southern hemisphere during December solstice was previously known as the Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) occurring around the Antarctica and the nearby Pacific Ocean, while a WSA-like electron density structure also occurs in the northern hemisphere around June solstice. This study demonstrates that the anomalies occurred in both the northern and southern hemispheres share similar character of greater nighttime density. Moreover, the latitude-altitude cross-section plots of the electron density structure show very similar time-varying electron density evolutions of the MSNA. In both hemispheres, the anomalies with similar electron density characteristics and variations caused by the similar mechanism prompts us to name this phenomenon the mid-latitude summer nighttime anomaly.

  4. Recognition of geochemical anomalies using a deep autoencoder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we train an autoencoder network to encode and reconstruct a geochemical sample population with unknown complex multivariate probability distributions. During the training, small probability samples contribute little to the autoencoder network. These samples can be recognized by the trained model as anomalous samples due to their comparatively higher reconstructed errors. The southwestern Fujian district (China) is chosen as a case study area. A variety of learning rates, iterations, and the size of each hidden layer are constructing and training the deep autoencoder networks on all the geochemical samples. The reconstruction error (or, anomaly score) of each training sample is used to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies associated with Fe polymetallic mineralization. By comparing the results obtained with a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine, we conclude that the autoencoder network can be trained to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies. Most of the known skarn-type Fe deposits are located in areas with high reconstruction errors or anomaly scores in the anomaly map, indicating that these anomalies may be related to Fe mineralization.

  5. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starich, P. J.; Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    A positive magnetic anomaly, which dominates the MAGSAT scalar field over the south-central United States, results from the superposition of magnetic effects from several geologic sources and tectonic structures in the crust. The highly magnetic basement rocks of this region show good correlation with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity and predominantly negative free-air gravity anomalies, all of which are useful constraints for modeling the magnetic sources. The positive anomaly is composed of two primary elements. The western-most segment is related to middle Proterozoic granite intrusions, rhyolite flows and interspersed metamorphic basement rocks in the Texas panhandle and eastern New Mexico. The anomaly and the magnetic crust are bounded to the west by the north-south striking Rio Grande Rift. The anomaly extends eastward over the Grenville age basement rocks of central Texas, and is terminated to the south and east by the buried extension of the Ouachita System. The northern segment of the anomaly extends eastward across Oklahoma and Arkansas to the Mississippi Embayment. It corresponds to a general positive magnetic region associated with the Wichita Mountains igneous complex in south-central Oklahoma and 1.2 to 1.5 Ga. felsic terrane to the north.

  6. Nucleosynthetic strontium isotope anomalies in carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuya; Fukami, Yusuke; Okui, Wataru; Ito, Nobuaki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-04-01

    Precise Sr isotopic compositions in samples from sequential acid leaching experiments have been determined for three carbonaceous chondrites, Allende, Murchison, and Tagish Lake, together with those in the bulk aliquots of these meteorites. The chondritic acid leachates and residues were characterized by Sr isotope anomalies with variable μ84Sr values (106 relative deviation from a standard material) ranging from +120 to - 4700 ppm, documenting multiple nucleosynthetic sources within a single meteorite. In addition, the μ84Sr patterns across leaching samples for individual chondrites differed from one another. The highest μ84Sr values were observed for leaching Step 3 (HCl+H2O, 75 °C) for Allende and Murchison likely because of the incorporation of calcium and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs). In contrast, extremely low μ84Sr values were observed in the later fractions (Steps 6 and 7) for Murchison and Tagish Lake, suggesting the existence of s-process-enriched presolar SiC grains derived from AGB stars. A μ84Sr-ɛ54Cr diagram was prepared with the CAIs and bulk aliquots of carbonaceous chondrites and other meteorites (noncarbonaceous) that were plotted separately; however, they still formed a global positive correlation. CAIs presented the highest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, whereas carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites had intermediate and the lowest μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values, respectively. The positive trend was interpreted as resulting from global thermal processing in which sublimation of high μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr carriers generated the excess μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr signatures in CAIs, while noncarbonaceous planetesimals accreted from materials that underwent significant thermal processing and thus had relatively low μ84Sr and ɛ54Cr values. Apart from the global trend, the carbonaceous chondrites and noncarbonaceous meteorites both exhibited intrinsic variations that highlight an isotopic dichotomy similar to that observed in other isotope

  7. An OLR perspective on ENSO impacts on seasonal weather anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiodi, Andrew; Harrison, Ed

    2014-05-01

    El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) impacts on seasonal weather anomalies form a basis for skillful statistical seasonal weather prediction in the regions around the globe where the statistical links between ENSO and seasonal weather anomalies are strong. Tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure (SLP) and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) all provide measures of the coupled ENSO anomaly state, but of these OLR is most closely connected to the tropical Pacific atmospheric heating anomalies that allow ENSO to influence seasonal atmospheric circulation and weather anomalies elsewhere. OLR shows a different sort of behavior over the tropical Pacific than SST or SLP (Chiodi and Harrison, 2010). A unique warm-ENSO (El Niño) index based on outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) conditions in the tropical Pacific has been shown to have an especially close statistical linkage to seasonal weather anomalies over North America (Chiodi and Harrison, 2013). A complimentary OLR-based cool-ENSO (La Niña) index has also been proposed and this pair of OLR-based ENSO indices is evaluated for their respective connections to interannual seasonal weather and atmospheric circulation anomalies around the globe using composite analysis. We find that since 1974, when satellite-based OLR observation became available, most of the useful (statistically significant and consistent from event to event) ENSO impacts on seasonal precipitation are due to the years distinguished by the OLR-based ENSO indices. The 4 "OLR El Niño" and 6 "OLR La Niña" events identified in the 1974-2012 period are a subset of those identified by the commonly used Niño 3.4-based ENSO definitions (roughly half). The other "non-OLR ENSO years" yield global seasonal weather anomaly composites that, in terms of amounts of locally statistically significant anomaly, are not much different than should be expected from the effects of chance alone. The OLR El Niño and OLR La Niña years are typically (9

  8. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  9. Shallow Drilling In The Salton Sea Region, The Thermal Anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R. L.; Kasameyer, P. W.; Younker, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    During two shallow thermal drilling programs, thermal measurements were obtained in 56 shallow (76.2 m) and one intermediate (457.3 m) depth holes located both onshore and offshore along the southern margin of the Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley, California. These data complete the surficial coverage of the thermal anomaly, revealing the shape and lateral extent of the hydrothermal system. The thermal data show the region of high thermal gradients to extend only a short distance offshore to the north of the Quaternary volcanic domes which are exposed along the southern shore of the Salton Sea. The thermal anomaly has an arcuate shape, about 4 km wide and 12 km long. Across the center of the anomaly, the transition zone between locations exhibiting high thermal gradients and those exhibiting regional thermal gradients is quite narrow. Thermal gradients rise from near regional (0.09 C/m) to extreme (0.83 C/m) in only 2.4 km. The heat flow in the central part of the anomaly is >600 mW/m{sup 2} and in some areas exceeds 1200 mW/m{sup 2}. The shape of the thermal anomaly is asymmetric with respect to the line of volcanoes previously thought to represent the center of the field, with its center line offset south of the volcanic buttes. There is no broad thermal anomaly associated with the magnetic high that extends offshore to the northeast from the volcanic domes. These observations of the thermal anomaly provide important constraints for models of the circulation of the hydrothermal system. Thermal budgets based on a simple model for this hydrothermal system indicate that the heat influx rate for local ''hot spots'' in the region may be large enough to account for the rate of heat flux from the entire Salton Trough.

  10. Neural Mechanisms of Rapid Sensitivity to Syntactic Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert E.; Gilley, Phillip M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent psycholinguistic models hypothesize that anticipatory processing can speed the response to linguistic input during language comprehension by pre-activating representations necessary for word recognition. We investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms of anticipatory processing by recording event-related potentials (ERPs) to syntactically anomalous (The thief was caught by for police) and well-formed (e.g., The thief was caught by the police) sentences. One group of participants saw anomalies elicited by the same word in every instance (e.g., for; low-variability stimuli), providing high affordances for predictions about the word-form appearing in the critical position. A second group saw anomalies elicited by seven different prepositions (at, of, on, for, from, over, with; high-variability stimuli) across the study, creating a more difficult prediction task. Syntactic category anomalies enhanced the occipital-temporal N170 component of the ERP, indicating rapid sensitivity – within 200 ms of word-onset – to syntactic anomaly. For low-variability but not the high-variability stimuli, syntactic anomaly also enhanced the earlier occipital-temporal P1 component, around 130 ms after word-onset, indicating that affordances for prediction engendered earlier sensitivity to syntactic anomaly. Independent components analysis revealed three sources within the ERP signal whose functional dynamics were consistent with predictive processing and early responses to syntactic anomaly. Distributed neural source modeling (sLORETA) of these early active sources produced a candidate network for early responses to words during reading in the right posterior occipital, left occipital-temporal, and medial parietal cortex. PMID:23515395

  11. Analysis and interpretation of MAGSAT anomalies over north Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal anomaly detection with MAGSAT data is frustrated by inherent resolving power of the data and by contamination from external and core fields. Quality of the data might be tested by modeling specific tectonic features which produce anomalies that fall within proposed resolution and crustal amplitude capabilities of MAGSAT fields. To test this hypothesis, north African hotspots associated with Ahaggar, Tibesti and Darfur were modeled as magnetic induction anomalies. MAGSAT data were reduced by subtracting external and core fields to isolate scalar and vertical component crustal signals. Of the three volcanic areas, only the Ahaggar region had an associated anomaly of magnitude above error limits of the data. Hotspot hypothesis was tested for Ahaggar by seeing if predicted magnetic signal matched MAGSAT anomaly. Predicted model magnetic signal arising from surface topography of the uplift and the Curie isothermal surface was calculated at MAGSAT altitudes by Fourier transform technique modified to allow for variable magnetization. Curie isotherm surface was calculated using a method for temperature distribution in a moving plate above a fixed hotspot. Magnetic signal was calculated for a fixed plate as well as a number of plate velocities and directions.

  12. Coronary artery anomalies overview: The normal and the abnormal.

    PubMed

    Villa, Adriana Dm; Sammut, Eva; Nair, Arjun; Rajani, Ronak; Bonamini, Rodolfo; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2016-06-28

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary anatomy, describe common variants of normal and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy. Extensive iconography supports the text, with particular attention to images obtained in vivo using non-invasive imaging. We have divided this article into three groups, according to their frequency in the general population: Normal, normal variant and anomaly. Although congenital coronary artery anomalies are relatively uncommon, they are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes and therefore warrant detailed review. Based on the functional relevance of each abnormality, coronary artery anomalies can be classified as anomalies with obligatory ischemia, without ischemia or with exceptional ischemia. The clinical symptoms may include chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, syncope, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Moreover, it is important to also identify variants and anomalies without clinical relevance in their own right as complications during surgery or angioplasty can occur. PMID:27358682

  13. Microwave radiometric signatures of temperature anomalies in tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Patrick; Sobers, Tamara; St. Peter, Benjamin; Siqueira, Paul; Capraro, Geoffrey

    2012-03-01

    Because of its ability to measure the temperature-dependent power of electromagnetic radiation emitted from tissue down to several centimeters beneath the skin, microwave radiometry has long been of interest as a means for identifying the internal tissue temperature anomalies that arise from abnormalities in physiological parameters such as metabolic and blood perfusion rates. However, the inherent lack of specificity and resolution in microwave radiometer measurements has limited the clinical usefulness of the technique. The idea underlying this work is to make use of information (assumed to be available from some other modality) about the tissue configuration in the volume of interest to study and improve the accuracy of anomaly detection and estimation from radiometric data. In particular, knowledge of the specific anatomy and the properties of the overall measurement system enable determination of the signatures of localized physiological abnormalities in the radiometry data. These signatures are used to investigate the accuracy with which the location of an anomaly can be determined from radiometric measurements. Algorithms based on matches to entries in a signature dictionary are developed for anomaly detection and estimation. The accuracy of anomaly identification is improved when the coupling of power from the body to the sensor is optimized. We describe the design of a radiometer waveguide having dielectric properties appropriate for biomedical applications.

  14. Lidar detection algorithm for time and range anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E.; Vanderbeek, Richard G.

    2007-10-01

    A new detection algorithm for lidar applications has been developed. The detection is based on hyperspectral anomaly detection that is implemented for time anomaly where the question "is a target (aerosol cloud) present at range R within time t1 to t2" is addressed, and for range anomaly where the question "is a target present at time t within ranges R1 and R2" is addressed. A detection score significantly different in magnitude from the detection scores for background measurements suggests that an anomaly (interpreted as the presence of a target signal in space/time) exists. The algorithm employs an option for a preprocessing stage where undesired oscillations and artifacts are filtered out with a low-rank orthogonal projection technique. The filtering technique adaptively removes the one over range-squared dependence of the background contribution of the lidar signal and also aids visualization of features in the data when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A Gaussian-mixture probability model for two hypotheses (anomaly present or absent) is computed with an expectation-maximization algorithm to produce a detection threshold and probabilities of detection and false alarm. Results of the algorithm for CO2 lidar measurements of bioaerosol clouds Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis niger, BG) and Pantoea agglomerans, Pa (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola, Eh) are shown and discussed.

  15. Lidar detection algorithm for time and range anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Avishai; Davidson, Charles E; Vanderbeek, Richard G

    2007-10-10

    A new detection algorithm for lidar applications has been developed. The detection is based on hyperspectral anomaly detection that is implemented for time anomaly where the question "is a target (aerosol cloud) present at range R within time t(1) to t(2)" is addressed, and for range anomaly where the question "is a target present at time t within ranges R(1) and R(2)" is addressed. A detection score significantly different in magnitude from the detection scores for background measurements suggests that an anomaly (interpreted as the presence of a target signal in space/time) exists. The algorithm employs an option for a preprocessing stage where undesired oscillations and artifacts are filtered out with a low-rank orthogonal projection technique. The filtering technique adaptively removes the one over range-squared dependence of the background contribution of the lidar signal and also aids visualization of features in the data when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. A Gaussian-mixture probability model for two hypotheses (anomaly present or absent) is computed with an expectation-maximization algorithm to produce a detection threshold and probabilities of detection and false alarm. Results of the algorithm for CO(2) lidar measurements of bioaerosol clouds Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly known as Bacillus subtilis niger, BG) and Pantoea agglomerans, Pa (formerly known as Erwinia herbicola, Eh) are shown and discussed. PMID:17932542

  16. Planetary boundary layer response to surface temperature anomalies forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Xavier; Lapeyre, Guillaume; Plougonven, Riwal

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies showed that strong sea surface temperature (SST) fronts, on the scale of the western boundary currents, strongly affect the planetary boundary layer (PBL) but also all the troposphere. This renewed the interest of air-sea interactions at oceanic meso-scales. Mainly two mechanisms are proposed in the literature, the first one (due to Wallace et al 1989) is based on the destabilization of the PBL above SST anomalies, the second one (Lindzen and Nigam 1987) is based on the pressure anomalies linked to the atmosphere temperature adjustment to the SST. These two mechanisms predict different responses of the PBL to the SST. We did numerical simulations with a meso-scale atmospheric model (WRF) with the same configuration as the one described in Lambert et al 2013. The model is forced by a SST anomaly which is first a zonally or meridionally constant field and secondly a field of meso-scale structures. Firstly we studied the influence of the initial wind strength on the PBL response for the two different types of SST anomalies. We showed that the dominant mechanism can change according to weak or strong wind and to the orientation of the SST anomaly. Secondly after considering a dry atmosphere we switched on the humidity in our configuration. We studied how it influences the PBL response and whether the mechanism driving the PBL response is still the same as in the dry case.

  17. Waterlike structural and excess entropy anomalies in liquid beryllium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manish; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2007-11-22

    The relationship between structural order metrics and the excess entropy is studied using the transferable rigid ion model (TRIM) of beryllium fluoride melt, which is known to display waterlike thermodynamic anomalies. The order map for liquid BeF2, plotted between translational and tetrahedral order metrics, shows a structurally anomalous regime, similar to that seen in water and silica melt, corresponding to a band of state points for which average tetrahedral (q(tet)) and translational (tau) order are strongly correlated. The tetrahedral order parameter distributions further substantiate the analogous structural properties of BeF2, SiO2, and H2O. A region of excess entropy anomaly can be defined within which the pair correlation contribution to the excess entropy (S2) shows an anomalous rise with isothermal compression. Within this region of anomalous entropy behavior, q(tet) and S2 display a strong negative correlation, indicating the connection between the thermodynamic and the structural anomalies. The existence of this region of excess entropy anomaly must play an important role in determining the existence of diffusional and mobility anomalies, given the excess entropy scaling of transport properties observed in many liquids. PMID:17963376

  18. Preliminary Analyses of Beidou Signal-In Anomaly Since 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Ren, J.; Liu, W.

    2016-06-01

    As BeiDou navigation system has been operational since December 2012. There is an increasing desire to use multiple constellation to improve positioning performance. The signal-in-space (SIS) anomaly caused by the ground control and the space vehicle is one of the major threats to affect the integrity. For a young Global Navigation Satellite System, knowledge about SIS anomalies in history is very important for not only assessing the SIS integrity performance of a constellation but also providing the assumption for ARAIM (Advanced Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring). In this paper, the broadcast ephemerides and the precise ones are pre-processed for avoiding the false anomaly identification. The SIS errors over the period of Mar. 2013-Feb. 2016 are computed by comparing the broadcast ephemerides with the precise ones. The time offsets between GPST (GPS time) and BDT (BeiDou time) are estimated and removed by an improved estimation algorithm. SIS worst-UREs are computed and a RMS criteria are investigated to identify the SIS anomalies. The results show that the probability of BeiDou SIS anomalies is in 10-3 level in last three years. Even though BeiDou SIS integrity performance currently cannot match the GPS integrity performances, the result indicates that BeiDou has a tendency to improve its integrity performance.

  19. Automatic Construction of Anomaly Detectors from Graphical Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, Erik M; Darmon, David M; Shue, Craig A; Kelley, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Detection of rare or previously unseen attacks in cyber security presents a central challenge: how does one search for a sufficiently wide variety of types of anomalies and yet allow the process to scale to increasingly complex data? In particular, creating each anomaly detector manually and training each one separately presents untenable strains on both human and computer resources. In this paper we propose a systematic method for constructing a potentially very large number of complementary anomaly detectors from a single probabilistic model of the data. Only one model needs to be trained, but numerous detectors can then be implemented. This approach promises to scale better than manual methods to the complex heterogeneity of real-life data. As an example, we develop a Latent Dirichlet Allocation probability model of TCP connections entering Oak Ridge National Laboratory. We show that several detectors can be automatically constructed from the model and will provide anomaly detection at flow, sub-flow, and host (both server and client) levels. This demonstrates how the fundamental connection between anomaly detection and probabilistic modeling can be exploited to develop more robust operational solutions.

  20. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  1. Euro-african MAGSAT Anomaly-tectonic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  2. Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

  3. Eu Anomalies Constrain Recycling of Lower Continental Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, M.; Rudnick, R. L.; McDonough, W. F.; Gaschnig, R. M.; Huang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Europium is fractionated from Sm and Gd during intra-crustal differentiation since Eu (II) strongly partitions into feldspar. Statistical analysis of Sm-Eu-Gd concentrations in over 2000 samples from the continental crust reveal that the bulk continental crust has a negative Eu anomaly. Samples include (1) shales, loess, and tillites which represent upper continental crust (n = 415); (2) amphibolite facies rocks, which represent the middle continental crust (n = 1325) and (3) granulite facies rocks (n = 845), which represent the lower continental crust. The upper and middle continental crust have a significant negative Eu anomaly, while the lower continental crust has a significant positive Eu anomaly. The Eu deficit in the upper and middle continental crust, however, cannot be compensated by the Eu excess in the lower continental crust, leaving the bulk continental crust with a negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.81 ± 0.04, 95% conf.). Since the building blocks of the continental crust (mantle-derived basalts or tonalitic slab melts) do not possess a negative Eu anomaly, removal of lower continental crust, which is the only crustal reservoir enriched in Eu, is required during crustal evolution. A mass balance model of the continents, based on Sm-Eu-Gd systematics, indicates that at least 2.2-3.0 crustal masses may have been added back to the mantle over Earth history via lower crustal recycling.

  4. Coronary artery anomalies overview: The normal and the abnormal

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Adriana DM; Sammut, Eva; Nair, Arjun; Rajani, Ronak; Bonamini, Rodolfo; Chiribiri, Amedeo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to give a comprehensive and concise overview of coronary embryology and normal coronary anatomy, describe common variants of normal and summarize typical patterns of anomalous coronary artery anatomy. Extensive iconography supports the text, with particular attention to images obtained in vivo using non-invasive imaging. We have divided this article into three groups, according to their frequency in the general population: Normal, normal variant and anomaly. Although congenital coronary artery anomalies are relatively uncommon, they are the second most common cause of sudden cardiac death among young athletes and therefore warrant detailed review. Based on the functional relevance of each abnormality, coronary artery anomalies can be classified as anomalies with obligatory ischemia, without ischemia or with exceptional ischemia. The clinical symptoms may include chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, syncope, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death. Moreover, it is important to also identify variants and anomalies without clinical relevance in their own right as complications during surgery or angioplasty can occur. PMID:27358682

  5. Probabilistic anomaly detector for remotely sensed hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lianru; Guo, Qiandong; Plaza, Antonio; Li, Jun; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important technique for remotely sensed hyperspectral data exploitation. In the last decades, several algorithms have been developed for detecting anomalies in hyperspectral images. The Reed-Xiaoli detector (RXD) is one of the most widely used approaches for this purpose. Since the RXD assumes that the distribution of the background is Gaussian, it generally suffers from a high false alarm rate. In order to address this issue, we introduce an unsupervised probabilistic anomaly detector (PAD) based on estimating the difference between the probabilities of the anomalies and the background. The proposed PAD takes advantage of the results provided by the RXD to estimate statistical information for the targets and background, respectively, and then uses an automatic strategy to find the most suitable threshold for the separation of targets from the background. The proposed technique is validated using a synthetic data set and two real hyperspectral data sets with ground-truth information. Our experimental results indicate that the proposed method achieves good detection ratios with adequate computational complexity as compared with other widely used anomaly detectors.

  6. Anomaly induced domain formation of disoriented chiral condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, M. |; Minakata, H.; Mueller, B.

    1998-11-01

    We discuss the effect of the chiral anomaly as a possible mechanism for triggering the formation of domains of disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) in relativistic heavy ion collisions. The anomalous {pi}{sup 0}{r_arrow}2{gamma} coupling and the strong, Lorentz contracted electromagnetic fields of the heavy ions combine to produce the {open_quotes}anomaly kick{close_quotes} to the field configuration of the neutral pion field. We implement the effect of the anomaly kick in our numerical simulation of the linear sigma model in a schematic way which preserves its characteristic features: the effect is coherent over a large region of space but is opposite in sign above and below the ion scattering plane. We demonstrate by detailed simulations with longitudinal expansion that the DCC domain formation is dramatically enhanced by the anomaly kick in spite of its small absolute magnitude. We examine the behavior of various physical quantities such as pion fields, the axial vector currents, and their correlation functions. Our results also provide useful insight into the mechanism and properties of DCC domain formation, in general. Finally, we discuss some experimental observables which can signal the anomaly induced formation of DCC. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Evaluation schemes for video and image anomaly detection algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswaran, Shibin; Harguess, Josh; Barngrover, Christopher; Shafer, Scott; Reese, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Video anomaly detection is a critical research area in computer vision. It is a natural first step before applying object recognition algorithms. There are many algorithms that detect anomalies (outliers) in videos and images that have been introduced in recent years. However, these algorithms behave and perform differently based on differences in domains and tasks to which they are subjected. In order to better understand the strengths and weaknesses of outlier algorithms and their applicability in a particular domain/task of interest, it is important to measure and quantify their performance using appropriate evaluation metrics. There are many evaluation metrics that have been used in the literature such as precision curves, precision-recall curves, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. In order to construct these different metrics, it is also important to choose an appropriate evaluation scheme that decides when a proposed detection is considered a true or a false detection. Choosing the right evaluation metric and the right scheme is very critical since the choice can introduce positive or negative bias in the measuring criterion and may favor (or work against) a particular algorithm or task. In this paper, we review evaluation metrics and popular evaluation schemes that are used to measure the performance of anomaly detection algorithms on videos and imagery with one or more anomalies. We analyze the biases introduced by these by measuring the performance of an existing anomaly detection algorithm.

  8. An Extreme-Value Approach to Anomaly Vulnerability Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everett, Chris; Maggio, Gaspare; Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a method for importance analysis in parametric probabilistic modeling where the result of interest is the identification of potential engineering vulnerabilities associated with postulated anomalies in system behavior. In the context of Accident Precursor Analysis (APA), under which this method has been developed, these vulnerabilities, designated as anomaly vulnerabilities, are conditions that produce high risk in the presence of anomalous system behavior. The method defines a parameter-specific Parameter Vulnerability Importance measure (PVI), which identifies anomaly risk-model parameter values that indicate the potential presence of anomaly vulnerabilities, and allows them to be prioritized for further investigation. This entails analyzing each uncertain risk-model parameter over its credible range of values to determine where it produces the maximum risk. A parameter that produces high system risk for a particular range of values suggests that the system is vulnerable to the modeled anomalous conditions, if indeed the true parameter value lies in that range. Thus, PVI analysis provides a means of identifying and prioritizing anomaly-related engineering issues that at the very least warrant improved understanding to reduce uncertainty, such that true vulnerabilities may be identified and proper corrective actions taken.

  9. Geoid anomalies and fracture zones in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The high degree and order geoid field in the Pacific is a superposition of fracture zone anomalies and hot-spot swell anomalies. A two-dimensional spectral analysis of this field reveals a very strong north-south wavenumber contribution with a dominant wavelength of about 2000 km, a much smaller contribution from east-west wavenumbers, and negligible contributions from other directions. One dimensional profiles were taken in order to appreciate the magnitudes of the north-south and east-west components. A calculated geoid anomaly using an idealized fracture zone model contains just about the same amount of power in the 2350 km band wavelength as does the north-south profile of the SEASAT geoid field. In an attempt to correlate plate age with geoid anomalies, a digitized age map of the Pacific was used to generate a synthetic geoid, which was subtracted from SEASAT. This procedure produces a residual geoid in which the fracture zone anomalies appear to be diminished, if not removed.

  10. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K. V.; Raj, Neetha

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent-ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna-Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understanding the nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of the anomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acoustic basement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K-G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology (charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K-G basin.

  11. Genetics of kidney development: pathogenesis of renal anomalies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) account for more than 50% of abdominal masses found in neonates and involve about 0.5% of all pregnancies. CAKUT has a major role in renal failure, and increasing evidence suggests that certain abnormalities predispose to the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. To understand the pathogenesis of human renal anomalies, understanding the development of kidney is important. Diverse anomalies of the kidney corresponding to defects at a particular stage of development have been documented recently; however, more research is required to understand the molecular networks underlying kidney development, and such an investigation will provide a clue to the therapeutic intervention for CAKUT. PMID:21189947

  12. The 55 K specific heat anomaly in palladium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Vaughan, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    A specific heat anomaly in PdH and PdD has been observed by Aston et al. (1957) close to 55 K. Its position was found to be independent of hydrogen concentration and its magnitude to be linear in hydrogen concentration. Ferguson's (1965) and Brodowsky's (1972) explanations of the anomaly are shown to be unsatisfactory. This is true also for the detailed mechanical statistical model proposed by Staford and McLellan (1974) for interstitial solid solutions of hydrogen in transition metals. It is shown that Gopal's (1966) simple Schottky model of specific heat anomaly, which considers a system of several levels with Boltzmann statistics, provides much better agreement with experiment than the more elaborate models, both in magnitude and in predicting a linear dependence on hydrogen concentration.

  13. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  14. Firefly Algorithm in detection of TEC seismo-ionospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Anomaly detection in time series of different earthquake precursors is an essential introduction to create an early warning system with an allowable uncertainty. Since these time series are more often non linear, complex and massive, therefore the applied predictor method should be able to detect the discord patterns from a large data in a short time. This study acknowledges Firefly Algorithm (FA) as a simple and robust predictor to detect the TEC (Total Electron Content) seismo-ionospheric anomalies around the time of the some powerful earthquakes including Chile (27 February 2010), Varzeghan (11 August 2012) and Saravan (16 April 2013). Outstanding anomalies were observed 7 and 5 days before the Chile and Varzeghan earthquakes, respectively and also 3 and 8 days prior to the Saravan earthquake.

  15. Anomaly-free constraints in neutrino seesaw models

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Franco, Edison T.; Felipe, R. Gonzalez

    2009-06-01

    The implementation of seesaw mechanisms to give mass to neutrinos in the presence of an anomaly-free U(1){sub X} gauge symmetry is discussed in the context of minimal extensions of the standard model. It is shown that type-I and type-III seesaw mechanisms cannot be simultaneously implemented with an anomaly-free local U(1){sub X}, unless the symmetry is a replica of the well-known hypercharge. For combined type-I/II or type-III/II seesaw models it is always possible to find nontrivial anomaly-free charge assignments, which are however tightly constrained, if the new neutral gauge boson is kinematically accessible at LHC. The discovery of the latter and the measurement of its decays into third-generation quarks, as well as its mixing with the standard Z boson, would allow one to discriminate among different seesaw realizations.

  16. Anomaly Detection in Power Quality at Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grichine, Art; Solano, Wanda M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal during my internship at the National Center for Critical Information Processing and Storage (NCCIPS) is to implement an anomaly detection method through the StruxureWare SCADA Power Monitoring system. The benefit of the anomaly detection mechanism is to provide the capability to detect and anticipate equipment degradation by monitoring power quality prior to equipment failure. First, a study is conducted that examines the existing techniques of power quality management. Based on these findings, and the capabilities of the existing SCADA resources, recommendations are presented for implementing effective anomaly detection. Since voltage, current, and total harmonic distortion demonstrate Gaussian distributions, effective set-points are computed using this model, while maintaining a low false positive count.

  17. Rare bilateral presentation of morning glory disc anomaly.

    PubMed

    Dedhia, Chintan Jethalal; Gogri, Pratik Yeshwant; Rani, Padmaja Kumari

    2016-01-01

    A 4-year-old girl presented with a history of poor vision and oscillation of both eyes since infancy. Ocular examination revealed the best corrected visual acuity of 2/60 in right eye and 3/60 in left eye. Horizontal pendular nystagmus was present in both eyes. Fundus examination revealed morning glory disc anomaly (MGDA) bilaterally. Radiographic imaging of the brain revealed central nervous system anomalies. The guarded visual prognosis was explained and the patient referred for low vision rehabilitation and advised yearly follow-up. MGDA is very rarely bilateral. We aim to highlight the distinguishing features of bilateral MGDA from other excavated optic nerve head anomalies which could also present bilaterally but vary in their associations, management and prognosis. PMID:27571914

  18. How the Martian Magnetic Anomalies Reduce the Planetary Ion Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A.; Sauvaud, J.; Barabash, S.

    2012-12-01

    The present paper uses the Mars Express Ion spectrometer IMA data to check the spatial distribution of the planetary origin ions populating the induced magnetosphere of Mars. It was shown that there are two main planetary ions sources located: 1) in the region of the magnetosphere current sheet, 2) in the ring-shape region contouring the planet ionosphere. The planetary ions in the current sheet (source 1) are quickly accelerated up to several keV energy by JxB force, while ring shape (source 2) distributed ions reach just several tens eV. A statistical study of the planetary ion distribution taking into account location of Martian magnetic anomalies shows that planetary ions fill the magnetosphere in the regions free of the magnetic anomalies only. We can see that magnetic anomalies create small magnetospheres that protect ionospheric ions from the escape. This mechanism works well for both ion sources.

  19. Locality-constrained anomaly detection for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiabin; Li, Wei; Du, Qian; Liu, Kui

    2015-12-01

    Detecting a target with low-occurrence-probability from unknown background in a hyperspectral image, namely anomaly detection, is of practical significance. Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm is considered as a classic anomaly detector, which calculates the Mahalanobis distance between local background and the pixel under test. Local RX, as an adaptive RX detector, employs a dual-window strategy to consider pixels within the frame between inner and outer windows as local background. However, the detector is sensitive if such a local region contains anomalous pixels (i.e., outliers). In this paper, a locality-constrained anomaly detector is proposed to remove outliers in the local background region before employing the RX algorithm. Specifically, a local linear representation is designed to exploit the internal relationship between linearly correlated pixels in the local background region and the pixel under test and its neighbors. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed detector improves the original local RX algorithm.

  20. Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

  1. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  2. Limitations of Aneuploidy and Anomaly Detection in the Obese Patient.

    PubMed

    Zozzaro-Smith, Paula; Gray, Lisa M; Bacak, Stephen J; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and can have a profound effect on pregnancy risks. Obese patients tend to be older and are at increased risk for structural fetal anomalies and aneuploidy, making screening options critically important for these women. Failure rates for first-trimester nuchal translucency (NT) screening increase with obesity, while the ability to detect soft-markers declines, limiting ultrasound-based screening options. Obesity also decreases the chances of completing the anatomy survey and increases the residual risk of undetected anomalies. Additionally, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is less likely to provide an informative result in obese patients. Understanding the limitations and diagnostic accuracy of aneuploidy and anomaly screening in obese patients can help guide clinicians in counseling patients on the screening options. PMID:26237478

  3. Iridium anomaly approximately synchronous with terminal eocene extinctions

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.; Alvarez, L.W.

    1982-05-21

    An iridium anomaly has been found in coincidence with the known microtektite level in cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 149 in the Caribbean Sea. The iridium was probably not in the microtektites but deposited simultaneously with them; this could occur if the iridium was deposited from a dust cloud resulting from a bolide impact, as suggested for the anomaly associated with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Other workers have deduced that the microtektites are part of the North American strewn tektite field, which is dated at about 34 million years before present, and that the microtektite horizon in deep-sea cores is synchronous with the extinction of five radiolarian species. Mass extinctions also occur in terrestrial mammals within 4 million years of this time. The iridium anomaly and the tektites and microtektites are supportive of a major bolide impact about 34 million years ago.

  4. Iridium anomaly approximately synchronous with terminal eocene extinctions.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, W; Asaro, F; Michel, H V; Alvarez, L W

    1982-05-21

    An iridium anomaly has been found in coincidence with the known microtektite level in cores from Deep Sea Drilling Project site 149 in the Caribbean Sea. The iridium was probably not in the microtektites but deposited simultaneously with them; this could occur if the iridium was deposited from a dust cloud resulting from a bolide impact, as suggested for the anomaly associated with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Other workers have deduced that the microtektites are part of the North American strewn tektite field, which is dated at about 34 million years before present, and that the microtektite horizon in deep-sea cores is synchronous with the extinction of five radiolarian species. Mass extinctions also occur in terrestrial mammals within 4 million years of this time. The iridium anomaly and the tektites and microtektites are supportive of a major bolide impact about 34 million years ago. PMID:17819180

  5. Effects of surface anomalies on certain model generated meteorological histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spar, J.

    1972-01-01

    The Mintz-Arakawa 2-level general circulation model has been used in a series of experiments to compute the response of the model atmosphere to: (1) a positive sea surface temperature anomaly in the North Pacific Ocean in summer and in winter, (2) an identical anomaly in the South Pacific Ocean in the Southern Hemisphere winter, and (3) anomalous northward and southward displacements of the Northern Hemisphere snow line over the continents. In each case computations were carried out for 90 forecast days. Results are shown in terms of the differences between anomaly and control histories. Time series of certain regional response indices, including area-average sea level pressure and 600 mb circulation indices, as well as 30-day mean sea level pressure maps are used in the analysis. Of particular interest is the evidence of significant interhemisphere influence.

  6. The identification of meteorite inclusions with isotope anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Brigham, C. A.

    1989-03-01

    Ca-Al refractory inclusions with characteristic chemical and mineralogical compositions show an enhanced occurrence of 20 pct of isotope anomalies reflecting unknown nucleosynthetic effects for O and Mg. The anomalies are characterized by large isotope fractionation in Mg, apparent deficits in Mg-26/Mg-24, and large correlated effects for isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr. These isotope patterns define exotic components depleted in the most neutron-rich isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr, or components depleted in isotopes produced in explosive O and Si burning. An opaque assemblage within one of the inclusions yields isotope anomalies in Cr similar to the bulk inclusion and must be intrinsically part of the inclusion and not a trapped, foreign grain aggregate.

  7. On isotopic anomalies in samarium. [in Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    The solar isotopic composition of Sm is decomposed into s, r, and p components. The anomaly pattern discovered by Lugmair et al. (1978) in EK1-04 Allende inclusion can be presented as a fractionation of the average s-pattern from the average r-pattern. This representation requires a fractionation of 0.029%/(amu) and either (1) a 0.42% deficiency of s relative to r and a 0.15% deficiency of p relative to r, or (2) a 0.42% excess of r relative to s and a 0.27% excess of p relative to s. The nature of this anomaly suggest a systematic physical fractionation of r, s, and p nuclei from each other in the initial condition leading to EK1-04. A neighboring supernova injection would not be expected to produce this anomaly.

  8. Intermediate-wavelength magnetic anomalies over the central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labrecque, J. L.; Cande, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    A technique to extract the intermediate wavelength anomaly field from random ship tracks has been developed and is applied to extract the field from marine survey data of the central Pacific in the band pass of 4000-400 km. The technique minimizes the effects of external field sources, secular variation, and strike aliasing. The derived data field is compared to the equivalent MAGSAT data set, and it is shown that anomalies observed in both fields are correlatable to geologic features within the oceanic lithosphere but differ in amplitude by a factor of two. Likely sources for this discrepancy are identified. It is also shown that remanent magnetization of the central Pacific seamounts produces negative magnetic anomalies which are observed at satellite altitude.

  9. Magnetic anomalies along the contact between sedimentary and igneous rocks:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kletetschka, G.; Speer, A. J.; Wasilewski, P. J.

    2002-05-01

    Intrusion of the Liberty Hill granite (South Carolina) into the surrounding shale causes a distinct aureole along the metamorphic contact. The aureole is divided by five isograds, which are the result of a sequence of continuous reactions. One consequence of the continuous reactions is production of contrasting proportion of magnetite and exsolved titanohematite. The continuous change in the relative amounts of these two minerals, controls the magnetic properties of the hornfelses. This causes magnetic anomaly changes associated with the aureole with inflexions occurring at the isograds. The maximum intensity of the magnetic anomaly coincides with the maximum abundance of titanohematite. The anomaly sharply drops when stable remanence of titanohematite is replaced by unstable remanence of magnetite. Magnetic properties of the aureole, which is the contact between igneous and sedimentary rocks, demonstrate an example of magnetic remanence acquisition in petrological environment that is likely to occur on planet Mars.

  10. Z' models for the LHCb and g -2 muon anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allanach, Ben; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Strumia, Alessandro; Sun, Sichun

    2016-03-01

    We revisit a class of Z' explanations of the anomalies found by the LHCb collaboration in B decays, and show that the scenario is tightly constrained by a combination of constraints: (i) LHC searches for dimuon resonances, (ii) perturbativity of the Z' couplings; (iii) the Bs mass difference, and (iv) electroweak precision data. Solutions are found by suppressing the Z' coupling to electrons and to light quarks and/or by allowing for a Z' decay width into dark matter. We also present a simplified framework where a TeV-scale Z' gauge boson that couples to standard leptons as well as to new heavy vectorlike leptons, can simultaneously accommodate the LHCb anomalies and the muon g -2 anomaly.

  11. Some key issues in isotopic anomalies - Astrophysical history and aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Astrophysical history, particularly that period extending from stellar nucleosynthesis events to the formation of meteorites, is discussed as the key element for the understanding of isotopic anomalies in meteorites. The bulk homogeneity of the interstellar medium is considered, and it is argued that, despite the presence of spatial inhomogeneities due to different nucleosynthesis rates in different parts of the galaxy and supernova ejecta, a cosmic chemical memory of nucleosynthesis patterns, rather than an inhomogeneous injection, is the source of isotopic anomalies. According to this view, volatility patterns and some isotopic patterns are mapped onto a grain-size spectrum, and the FUN systematics may be explained by interstellar sputtering. Furthermore, meteoritic He and Ne abundances are inferred to be presolar, and the ubiquitous titanium isotopic anomalies are explained by processes of chemical fixation and condensation in varying environments.

  12. Anomaly cancellation in M-theory on orbifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Krzysztof A.; Olechowski, Marek

    2000-12-01

    We present calculation of the anomaly cancellation in M-theory on orbifolds S 1/ Z2 and T 5/ Z2 in the upstairs approach. The main requirement that allows one to uniquely define solutions to the modified Bianchi identities in this case is that the field strength G be globally defined on S 1 or T 5 and properly transforming under Z2. We solve for general G that satisfies these requirements and explicitly construct anomaly-free theories in the upstairs approach. We also obtain the solutions in the presence of five-branes. All these constructions show equivalence of the downstairs and upstairs approaches. For example in the S 1/ Z2 case the ten-dimensional gauge coupling and the anomaly cancellation at each wall are the same as in the downstairs approach.

  13. [Anomaly Detection of Multivariate Time Series Based on Riemannian Manifolds].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yonghong; Hou, Xiaoying; Li Shuting; Cui, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Multivariate time series problems widely exist in production and life in the society. Anomaly detection has provided people with a lot of valuable information in financial, hydrological, meteorological fields, and the research areas of earthquake, video surveillance, medicine and others. In order to quickly and efficiently find exceptions in time sequence so that it can be presented in front of people in an intuitive way, we in this study combined the Riemannian manifold with statistical process control charts, based on sliding window, with a description of the covariance matrix as the time sequence, to achieve the multivariate time series of anomaly detection and its visualization. We made MA analog data flow and abnormal electrocardiogram data from MIT-BIH as experimental objects, and verified the anomaly detection method. The results showed that the method was reasonable and effective. PMID:26485975

  14. A hybrid approach for efficient anomaly detection using metaheuristic methods.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Tamer F; Elkilani, Wail S; Abdul-Kader, Hatem M

    2015-07-01

    Network intrusion detection based on anomaly detection techniques has a significant role in protecting networks and systems against harmful activities. Different metaheuristic techniques have been used for anomaly detector generation. Yet, reported literature has not studied the use of the multi-start metaheuristic method for detector generation. This paper proposes a hybrid approach for anomaly detection in large scale datasets using detectors generated based on multi-start metaheuristic method and genetic algorithms. The proposed approach has taken some inspiration of negative selection-based detector generation. The evaluation of this approach is performed using NSL-KDD dataset which is a modified version of the widely used KDD CUP 99 dataset. The results show its effectiveness in generating a suitable number of detectors with an accuracy of 96.1% compared to other competitors of machine learning algorithms. PMID:26199752

  15. Prenatal pharmacotherapy for fetal anomalies: a 2011 update.

    PubMed

    Hui, Lisa; Bianchi, Diana W

    2011-07-01

    Fetal therapy can be defined as any prenatal treatment administered to the mother with the primary indication to improve perinatal or long-term outcomes for the fetus or newborn. This review provides an update of the pharmacological therapies that are solely directed at the fetus with anomalies and outlines a future transcriptomic approach. Fetal anomalies targeted with prenatal pharmacotherapy are a heterogeneous group of structural, endocrine, and metabolic conditions, including congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM), congenital adrenal hyperplasia, congenital heart block, fetal tachyarrhythmias, inborn errors of metabolism, fetal thyroid disorders, and polyhydramnios. To date, the majority of pharmacotherapies for fetal anomalies have been evaluated only in retrospective, uncontrolled studies. The way forward will be with an evidence-based approach to prenatal pharmacological interventions. PMID:21638296

  16. Thermal anomaly on Mimas surface: Implications on its regolith structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, C.; Lucas, A.

    2015-10-01

    Thanks to the Cassini CIRS infrared spectrometer,Howett et al. [1] have discovered a large scale thermal anomaly on the surface of Saturn satellite Mimas. This anomaly translates into a dichotomy in thermal inertia between leading and trailing faces of this synchronous icy satellite: the leading face (region R2) exhibits a high thermal inertia,Γ =66 ± 23 J/m 2/K/s 1/2, compared to the trailing one(region R1), where Γ < 16 J/m2/K/s1/2. The pattern appears to be well correlated with a color anomaly (Schenk et al. [2]) in visible light, also observed on other Saturn moons. It maybe due to the alter ation of their leading face by a focused bombardment of highly energetic electrons.This is thought to increase the contact between regolith grains by gluing them, improving thus the thermal conductivity or decrea sing porosity.

  17. Information geometry and phase transitions of fluids with global anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surowka, Piotr

    2015-11-01

    Fluid helicity is an important observable that captures topological properties of hydrodynamics. It naturally emerges in the context of parity-breaking fluids with knotted vortex lines. If the fluid constituents exhibit quantum anomalies the topological nature of fluid helicity can be elucidated using microscopic physics. In this case the helicity is given by a polynomial function of temperature and chiral chemical potential and completely fixed by the anomalies. We explain this relation and address the question of phase structure of such fluids using methods of information geometry. We introduce the metric on a parameter space and show that a non-zero vorticity leads to a curvature on the statistical manifold. We calculate the curvature invariant and analyze its divergences, which contain the information about phase transitions of the system. The transition points are universal and expressed in terms of ratios of anomaly coefficients.

  18. SEISMIC DISCRIMINATION OF THERMAL AND MAGNETIC ANOMALIES IN SUNSPOT UMBRAE

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.; Cally, P. S.; Rempel, M.

    2010-08-20

    Efforts to model sunspots based on helioseismic signatures need to discriminate between the effects of (1) a strong magnetic field that introduces time-irreversible, vantage-dependent phase shifts, apparently connected to fast- and slow-mode coupling and wave absorption and (2) a thermal anomaly that includes cool gas extending an indefinite depth beneath the photosphere. Helioseismic observations of sunspots show travel times considerably reduced with respect to equivalent quiet-Sun signatures. Simulations by Moradi and Cally of waves skipping across sunspots with photospheric magnetic fields of order 3 kG show travel times that respond strongly to the magnetic field and relatively weakly to the thermal anomaly by itself. We note that waves propagating vertically in a vertical magnetic field are relatively insensitive to the magnetic field, while remaining highly responsive to the attendant thermal anomaly. Travel-time measurements for waves with large skip distances into the centers of axially symmetric sunspots are therefore a crucial resource for discrimination of the thermal anomaly beneath sunspot umbrae from the magnetic anomaly. One-dimensional models of sunspot umbrae based on compressible-radiative-magnetic-convective simulations such as by Rempel et al. can be fashioned to fit observed helioseismic travel-time spectra in the centers of sunspot umbrae. These models are based on cooling of the upper 2-4 Mm of the umbral subphotosphere with no significant anomaly beneath 4.5 Mm. The travel-time reductions characteristic of these models are primarily a consequence of a Wilson depression resulting from a strong downward buoyancy of the cooled umbral medium.

  19. Extending TOPS: Ontology-driven Anomaly Detection and Analysis System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2010-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include a capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. In order to best capture the knowledge about data hierarchies, Earth science models and implied dependencies between anomalies and occurrences of observable events such as urbanization, deforestation, or fires, we have developed an ontology to serve as a knowledge base. We can query the knowledge base and answer questions about dataset compatibilities, similarities and dependencies so that we can, for example, automatically analyze similar datasets in order to verify a given anomaly occurrence in multiple data sources. We are further extending the system to go beyond anomaly detection towards reasoning about possible causes of anomalies that are also encoded in the knowledge base as either learned or implied knowledge. This enables us to scale up the analysis by eliminating a large number of anomalies early on during the processing by either failure to verify them from other sources, or matching them directly with other observable events without having to perform an extensive and time-consuming exploration and analysis. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema that is later extended by including specific instances of datasets and models. The information is stored using Sesame server and is accessible through both Java API and web services using SeRQL and SPARQL query languages. Inference is provided using OWLIM component integrated with Sesame.

  20. Extending TOPS: Knowledge Management System for Anomaly Detection and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, P.; Nemani, R. R.; Michaelis, A.

    2009-12-01

    Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) is a flexible modeling software system that integrates ecosystem models with frequent satellite and surface weather observations to produce ecosystem nowcasts (assessments of current conditions) and forecasts useful in natural resources management, public health and disaster management. We have been extending the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to include capability for automated anomaly detection and analysis of both on-line (streaming) and off-line data. While there are large numbers of anomaly detection algorithms for multivariate datasets, we are extending this capability beyond the anomaly detection itself and towards an automated analysis that would discover the possible causes of the anomalies. There are often indirect connections between datasets that manifest themselves during occurrence of external events and rather than searching exhaustively throughout all the datasets, our goal is to capture this knowledge and provide it to the system during automated analysis. This results in more efficient processing. Since we don’t need to process all the datasets using the original anomaly detection algorithms, which is often compute intensive; we achieve data reduction as we don’t need to store all the datasets in order to search for possible connections but we can download selected data on-demand based on our analysis. For example, an anomaly observed in vegetation Net Primary Production (NPP) can relate to an anomaly in vegetation Leaf Area Index (LAI), which is a fairly direct connection, as LAI is one of the inputs for NPP, however the change in LAI could be caused by a fire event, which is not directly connected with NPP. Because we are able to capture this knowledge we can analyze fire datasets and if there is a match with the NPP anomaly, we can infer that a fire is a likely cause. The knowledge is captured using OWL ontology language, where connections are defined in a schema

  1. Method for Real-Time Model Based Structural Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy A. (Inventor); Urnes, James M., Sr. (Inventor); Reichenbach, Eric Y. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system and methods for real-time model based vehicle structural anomaly detection are disclosed. A real-time measurement corresponding to a location on a vehicle structure during an operation of the vehicle is received, and the real-time measurement is compared to expected operation data for the location to provide a modeling error signal. A statistical significance of the modeling error signal to provide an error significance is calculated, and a persistence of the error significance is determined. A structural anomaly is indicated, if the persistence exceeds a persistence threshold value.

  2. Anomalies in fermionic UV completions of little Higgs models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krohn, David; Yavin, Itay

    2008-06-01

    We consider fermionic UV completions of little Higgs models and their associated T-parity-violating anomalous vertices. In particular, we investigate strategies to avoid such parity-violating anomalies. We show that it is unlikely a QCD-like UV completion could be used to implement a model with anomaly-free global symmetry groups. This is because the vacuum state is unlikely to achieve the necessary alignment. However, we will see that certain multi-link moose models, although anomalous, possess a modified form of T-parity that leads to a stable particle. Finally, we briefly discuss a discriminant for detecting anomalous decays at colliders.

  3. Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Xiaoning; Huang Chaoguang; Sun Jiarui

    2008-06-15

    Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.

  4. Gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation near a weakly isolated horizon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaoning; Huang, Chao-Guang; Sun, Jia-Rui

    2008-06-01

    Based on the idea of the work by Wilczek and his collaborators, we consider the gravitational anomaly near a weakly isolated horizon. We find that there exists a universal choice of tortoise coordinate for any weakly isolated horizon. Under this coordinate, the leading behavior of a quite arbitrary scalar field near a horizon is a 2-dimensional chiral scalar field. This means we can extend the idea of Wilczek and his collaborators to more general cases and show the relation between gravitational anomaly and Hawking radiation is a universal property of a black hole horizon.

  5. Certainty factors of earthquake precursory anomaly evidences CF(E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zhao-Bi

    1994-08-01

    In this paper, we propose the principle, methods and calculating formulas for determining the certainty factors of earthquake precursory anomaly evidences CF(E). Based on the guidebooks for earthquake prediction, we give the methods of determining the CF values of 22 evidences (including seismic gap, belt, b-value, c-value, velocity ratio, strengthen of anomalous activities, quiet of anomalous activities, seismic window, earthquake swarm, earthquake sequence, coda wave, initial motion of P wave, stress drop, geoelectricity, geomagnetism, stress, ground tilt, ground water level, radon and hydrochemistry, gravity, space environment and macroscopic anomalies), and show three examples. The purposes are to use the Expert System for Earthquake Prediction (ESEP) further.

  6. Assessment of precursor signature of TEC anomalies over Japan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Han, P.

    2015-12-01

    To reduce the effect of strong geomagnetic activities, the TEC data of 2 days after Dst index exceed -60 nT were excluded in previous statistical studies of earthquake related TEC anomalies. Actually, the influences of a magnetic storm on TEC variations depend on the intensity and onset time of the storm. In this study, to clarify such dependences, we applied classification analysis to the storm data (Dst) and discussed the response of TEC variation to each type of storm. We picked out all the 294 geomagnetic storms during 1998-2013, and classified them into 3 types in magnitude and 4 types in onset time (local time). We checked the TEC data from 2 days before till 5 days after the onset of each geomagnetic storm. A bootstrap method is used to calculate the average variation of the TEC for each type of storm. The average variation can be regarded as an average response of TEC to the related type of storm. If the average value of TEC exceeds the mean±2σ threshold, we consider it being affected by the storm. By this mean, we could find the accurate period affected by each type of storm. We employed the results obtained above to remove the TEC data associated with geomagnetic storms. Next we performed statistical analysis of the TEC anomalies possibly associated with large earthquakes in Japan area during 1998/05-2013/12. There are statistical significance of TEC anomalies 1-5 days before and 16-20 days after M>=6.0 earthquakes. The significance of pre-earthquake anomalies is consistent with the results reported by Kon et al., 2011. The significance of 16-20 days after earthquakes may be due to aftershock effects of the Tohoku earthquake. To remove the influences of any per- and after- shock effects, we proposed a new method which considers 'isolate EQs' only. 'Isolate EQs' are earthquakes which is unique in a 61 days window centered by the day of the EQ. The result shows there are clear high possibilities of TEC anomalies 1-5 days prior to M>=6 earthquakes. Finally

  7. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) scanner instrument anomaly investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, N. D.; Miller, J. B.; Taylor, L. V.; Lovell, J. B.; Cox, J. W.; Fedors, J. C.; Kopia, L. P.; Holloway, R. M.; Bradley, O. H.

    1985-01-01

    The results of an ad-hoc committee investigation of in-Earth orbit operational anomalies noted on two identical Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Scanner instruments on two different spacecraft busses is presented. The anomalies are attributed to the bearings and the lubrication scheme for the bearings. A detailed discussion of the pertinent instrument operations, the approach of the investigation team and the current status of the instruments now in Earth orbit is included. The team considered operational changes for these instruments, rework possibilities for the one instrument which is waiting to be launched, and preferable lubrication considerations for specific space operational requirements similar to those for the ERBE scanner bearings.

  8. Discovering Recurring Anomalies in Text Reports Regarding Complex Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zane-Ulman, Brett; Srivastava, Ashok N.

    2005-01-01

    Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. For some platforms, these reports may be encoded as scanned images rather than even searchable text. The problem that we address in this paper is the discovery of recurring anomalies and relationships between different problem reports that may indicate larger systemic problems. We will illustrate our techniques on data from discrepancy reports regarding software anomalies in the Space Shuttle. These free text reports are written by a number of different penp!e, thus the emphasis and wording varies considerably.

  9. Familial Polythelia associated with dental anomalies: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Polythelia has been defined as the presence of supernumerary nipples without accessory glandular tissue. Usually, these growths follow imaginary mammary lines running from the armpits to the groin. Although the presence of dental anomalies may occasion only a simple cosmetic problem with specific clinical considerations, the association with familial polythelia has been scarcely reported. This paper reports on a case of polythelia that is associated with dental anomalies in an Argentine family and discusses suggestions for a thorough dental history and medical consultation to prevent possible pathological conditions or potential malignant transformation of mammary tissues. PMID:24970959

  10. Stringy explanation of b → sℓ + ℓ - anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celis, Alejandro; Feng, Wan-Zhe; Lüst, Dieter

    2016-02-01

    We show that the recent anomalies in b → sℓ + ℓ - transitions observed by the LHCb collaboration can be accommodated within string motivated models with a low mass Z' gauge boson. Such Z' gauge boson can be obtained in compactifications with a low string scale. We consider a class of intersecting D-brane models in which different families of quarks and leptons are simultaneously realized at different D-brane intersections. The explanation of b → sℓ + ℓ - anomalies via a stringy Z' sets important restrictions on these viable D-brane constructions.

  11. N=1 Euler anomaly flow from dilaton effective action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prochazka, Vladimir; Zwicky, Roman

    2016-01-01

    We consider N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories in the conformal window. The running of the gauge coupling is absorbed into the metric by applying a suitable matter superfield- and Weyl-transformation. The computation becomes equivalent to one of a free theory in a curved background carrying the information of the renormalisation group flow. We use the techniques of conformal anomaly matching and dilaton effective action, by Komargodski and Schwimmer, to rederive the difference of the Euler anomaly coefficient Δ a ≡ a UV - a IR for the N=1 theory. The structure of Δ a is therefore in one-to-one correspondence with the Wess-Zumino dilaton action.

  12. SCARES: A Spacecraft Control Anomaly Resolution Expert System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Marc

    1988-01-01

    The current pace of technological development is reflected in the increased mission lifetime of each new generation of satellite. Coupled with this has come a reduced availability of experts to provide technical assistance in satellite operation on a day to day basis. Given such an environment, an expert system is discussed based on architecture for spacecraft anomaly resolution. By capturing deep knowledge about a spacecraft, the system is able to detect and diagnose fault better than previous conventional approaches. A prototype expert system named SCARES (applied only to spacecraft attitude control system) is discussed. Extension of the prototype to handle anomalies in other systems of the satellite is also discussed.

  13. S matrix proof of consistency condition derived from mixed anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Bhansali, V. . Lyman Lab. of Physics)

    1990-06-20

    For a confining quantum field theory with conserved current J and stress tensor T, the {l angle}JJJ{r angle} and {l angle}JTT{r angle} anomalies computed in terms of elementary quanta must be precisely equal to the same anomalies computed in terms of the exact physical spectrum if the conservation law corresponding to J is unbroken. These strongly constrain the allowed representations of the low energy spectrum. The authors present a proof of the latter consistency condition based on the proof by Coleman and Grossman of the former consistency condition.

  14. Familial polythelia associated with dental anomalies: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Gabriel M; Cantín, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Polythelia has been defined as the presence of supernumerary nipples without accessory glandular tissue. Usually, these growths follow imaginary mammary lines running from the armpits to the groin. Although the presence of dental anomalies may occasion only a simple cosmetic problem with specific clinical considerations, the association with familial polythelia has been scarcely reported. This paper reports on a case of polythelia that is associated with dental anomalies in an Argentine family and discusses suggestions for a thorough dental history and medical consultation to prevent possible pathological conditions or potential malignant transformation of mammary tissues. PMID:24970959

  15. The quest for the perfect gravity anomaly: Part 2 - Mass effects and anomaly inversion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Gordon R.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Hinze, W. J.; Li, X.; Ravat, D.; Webring, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gravity anomalies have become an important tool for geologic studies since the widespread use of high-precision gravimeters after the Second World War. More recently the development of instrumentation for airborne gravity observations, procedures for acquiring data from satellite platforms, the readily available Global Positioning System for precise vertical and horizontal control, improved global data bases, and enhancement of computational hardware and software have accelerated the use of the gravity method. As a result, efforts are being made to improve the gravity databases that are made available to the geoscience community by broadening their observational holdings and increasing the accuracy and precision of the included data. Currently the North American Gravity Database as well as the individual databases of Canada, Mexico, and the United States of America are being revised using new formats and standards. The objective of this paper is to describe the use of the revised standards for gravity data processing and modeling and there impact on geological interpretations. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Relationship between monthly temperature anomalies and drought frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, E.; Naumann, G.

    2012-04-01

    Meteorological droughts are extreme climate events characterized by a period, of months or years, with below-normal precipitation. The economical and ecological impacts of such events can be catastrophic, having profound effects for agricultural production, water resources, biodiversity, tourism and many other aspects. It is recognized that the cause of meteorological droughts are largely associated with fluctuations on sea surface temperature and atmospheric dynamic processes. Nevertheless, the influence of surface air temperature on the frequency of meteorological droughts is still unclear. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between temperature anomalies and drought frequency. Records from 50 stations from the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN) were analyzed at monthly time scale. The criterion used to select the stations was solely the length of the time series recorded in the stations. Namely, only stations with more than 100 years records, for both precipitation and temperature, were used in this study. In general, the selected stations were distributed along Australia, European countries, Unites States and Canada. Standardized temperature anomalies were calculated taking as baseline the entire dataset recorded at the station. The precipitation anomalies for each month were assessed through the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) according to the empirical cumulative distribution at each location. Therefore, both temperature anomalies and precipitation deficits were normalized, allowing a direct comparison of the entire dataset in each station, independent of the season of the year. Next, the monthly SPI were associated with the respective monthly temperatures anomalies. The SPI values were binned based on the temperature anomaly values. The used bin width was 0.5 degC. Finally, for each temperature anomaly bin, the average SPI and the frequency of months with SPI lower than -1 (moderated drought) were calculated. In order

  17. Teleseismic wave front anomalies at a Continental Rift: no mantle anomaly below the central Upper Rhine Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschner, Stephanie; Ritter, Joachim; Wawerzinek, Britta

    2011-08-01

    The deep structure of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG), a continental rift in SW Germany and E France, is still poorly known. This deficit impedes a full understanding of the geodynamic evolution of this prominent rift. We study the lithosphere-asthenosphere structure using teleseismic waveforms obtained from the passive broad-band TIMO project across the central URG. The recovered, crust-corrected traveltime residuals relative to the iasp91 earth model are tiny (mostly less than 0.2-0.3 s). The average measured slowness (<1 s deg-1) and backazimuth (<5°) deviations are also very small and do not show any systematic wave front anomalies. These observed perturbation values are smaller than expected ones from synthetic 3-D ray tracing modelling with anomalies exceeding 2-3 per cent seismic velocity in the mantle. Thus there is no significant hint for any deep-seated anomaly such as a mantle cushion, etc. This result means that the rifting process did not leave behind a lower lithospheric signature, which could be clearly verified with high-resolution teleseismic experiments. The only significant traveltime perturbation at the central URG is located at its western side in the upper crust around a known geothermal anomaly. The upper crustal seismic anomaly with traveltime delays of 0.2-0.3 s cannot be explained with increased temperature alone. It is possibly related to a zone of highly altered granite. In the west of our network a traveltime anomaly (0.6-0.7 s delay) related with the Eifel plume is confirmed by the TIMO data set.

  18. Prevalence of Associated Anomalies in Cleft Lip and/or Palate Patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi Fakhim, Shahin; Shahidi, Nikzad; Lotfi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Orofacial clefts are among the most common congenital anomalies. Patients presenting with orofacial clefts often require surgery or other complex procedures. A cleft lip or palate can be a single anomaly or a part of multiple congenital anomalies. The reported prevalence of cleft disease and associated anomalies varies widely across the literature, and is dependent on the diagnostic procedure used. In this study we determined the prevalence of associated anomalies in patients with a cleft lip and/or palate, with a specific focus on cardiac anomalies. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 526 patients with a cleft lip and /or palate admitted to the children’s referral hospital between 2006 and 2011 were evaluated. All associated anomalies were detected and recorded. Patient information collected included age, gender, type and side of cleft, craniofacial anomalies and presence of other anomalies, including cardiac anomalies. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: Of the 526 patients enrolled in the study, 58% (305) were male and 42% (221) were female. In total, 75% of patients (396) were aged between 4 and 8 years and 25% (130) were aged less than 4 years. The most common cleft type in our study was bilateral cleft palate. The most commonly associated anomaly among cleft patients, in 12% of cleft patients, was a cardiac anomaly. The most common cardiac anomaly was atrial septal defect (ASD). Conclusion: The prevalence of associated anomalies among orofacial cleft patients is high. The most common associated anomaly is cardiac anomaly, with ASD being the most common cardiac anomaly. There are no significant relationships between type of cleft and associated cardiac anomalies. PMID:27280100

  19. An expert system for diagnosing anomalies of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauriente, Michael; Durand, Rick; Vampola, AL; Koons, Harry C.; Gorney, David

    1994-01-01

    Although the analysis of anomalous behavior of satellites is difficult because it is a very complex process, it is important to be able to make an accurate assessment in a timely manner when the anomaly is observed. Spacecraft operators may have to take corrective action or to 'safe' the spacecraft; space-environment forecasters may have to assess the environmental situation and issue warnings and alerts regarding hazardous conditions, and scientists and engineers may want to gain knowledge for future designs to mitigate the problems. Anomalies can be hardware problems, software errors, environmentally induced, or even the cause of workmanship. Spacecraft anomalies attributable to electrostatic discharges have been known to cause command errors. A goal is to develop an automated system based on this concept to reduce the number of personnel required to operate large programs or missions such as Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE). Although expert systems to detect anomalous behavior of satellites during operations are established, diagnosis of the anomaly is a complex procedure and is a new development.

  20. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking via UV Insensitive Anomaly Mediation

    SciTech Connect

    Kitano, Ryuichiro; Kribs, Graham D.; Murayama, Hitoshi

    2004-02-19

    Anomaly mediation solves the supersymmetric flavor and CP problems. This is because the superconformal anomaly dictates that supersymmetry breaking is transmitted through nearly flavor-blind infrared physics that is highly predictive and UV insensitive. Slepton mass squareds, however, are predicted to be negative. This can be solved by adding D-terms for U(1)_Y and U(1)_{B-L} while retaining the UV insensitivity. In this paper we consider electroweak symmetry breaking via UV insensitive anomaly mediation in several models. For the MSSM we find a stable vacuum when tanbeta< 1, but in this region the top Yukawa coupling blows up only slightly above the supersymmetry breaking scale. For the NMSSM, we find a stable electroweak breaking vacuum but with a chargino that is too light. Replacing the cubic singlet term in the NMSSM superpotential with a term linear in the singlet wefind a stable vacuum and viable spectrum. Most of the parameter region with correct vacua requires a large superpotential coupling, precisely what is expected in the"Fat Higgs'" model in which the superpotential is generated dynamically. We have therefore found the first viable UV complete, UV insensitive supersymmetry breaking model that solves the flavor and CP problems automatically: the Fat Higgs model with UV insensitive anomaly mediation. Moreover, the cosmological gravitino problem is naturally solved, opening up the possibility of realistic thermal leptogenesis.

  1. Robust and efficient anomaly detection using heterogeneous representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xing; Hu, Shiqiang; Xie, Jinhua; Zheng, Shiyou

    2015-05-01

    Various approaches have been proposed for video anomaly detection. Yet these approaches typically suffer from one or more limitations: they often characterize the pattern using its internal information, but ignore its external relationship which is important for local anomaly detection. Moreover, the high-dimensionality and the lack of robustness of pattern representation may lead to problems, including overfitting, increased computational cost and memory requirements, and high false alarm rate. We propose a video anomaly detection framework which relies on a heterogeneous representation to account for both the pattern's internal information and external relationship. The internal information is characterized by slow features learned by slow feature analysis from low-level representations, and the external relationship is characterized by the spatial contextual distances. The heterogeneous representation is compact, robust, efficient, and discriminative for anomaly detection. Moreover, both the pattern's internal information and external relationship can be taken into account in the proposed framework. Extensive experiments demonstrate the robustness and efficiency of our approach by comparison with the state-of-the-art approaches on the widely used benchmark datasets.

  2. Congenital anomalies and childhood cancer in Great Britain

    SciTech Connect

    Narod, S.A.; Hawkins, M.M.; Robertson, C.M.; Stiller, C.A.

    1997-03-01

    The presence of cancer and a congenital anomaly in the same child may be explained in certain cases by an underlying genetic abnormality. The study of these associations may lead to the identification of genes that are important in both processes. We have examined the records of 20,304 children with cancer in Britain, who were entered into the National Registry of Childhood Tumors (NRCT) during 1971-86, for the presence of congenital anomalies. The frequency of anomalies was much higher among children with solid tumors (4.4%) than among those with leukemia or lymphoma (2.6%; P < .0001). The types of cancer with the highest rates of anomalies were Wilms tumor (8.1 %), Ewing sarcoma (5.8%), hepatoblastoma (6.4%), and gonadal and germ-cell tumors (6.4%). Cases of spina bifida and abnormalities of the eye, ribs, and spine were more common in children with cancer than among population-based controls. Future studies may be directed toward identifying the developmental pathways and the relevant genes that are involved in the overlap between pediatric cancer and malformation. 46 refs., 12 tabs.

  3. BRASILSAT A2: Ground and in-orbit anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azevedoferreira, Sergio Ricardo

    1987-01-01

    A description of the anomalies encountered during ground preparation for launch and in-orbit operation of Brasilsat A2 batteries is given. Processes used during recovery of these batteries and the improvement on main parameters are discussed, covering many cycles of reconditionings and behavior during September/86 eclipse charge/discharge cycles.

  4. Aortic arch vessel anomalies associated with persistent trigeminal artery.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Mehrzad; Nabavizadeh, Seyed Ali; Foroughi, Amin Abolhasani

    2012-01-01

    Developmental anomalies of the aortic arch vessels and persistent trigeminal artery that is the most common of the four anomalous carotid-basilar anastomoses are repeatedly reported in the literature as separate entities. Herein we report a previously undescribed variant including the coexistence of persistent trigeminal artery, truncus bicaroticus and direct origin of left vertebral artery from aortic arch. PMID:22542381

  5. Automated anomaly detection for Orbiter High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Eric G.; Jones, Sharon M.; Goode, Plesent W.; Vazquez, Sixto L.

    1992-11-01

    The description, analysis, and experimental results of a method for identifying possible defects on High Temperature Reusable Surface Insulation (HRSI) of the Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) is presented. Currently, a visual postflight inspection of Orbiter TPS is conducted to detect and classify defects as part of the Orbiter maintenance flow. The objective of the method is to automate the detection of defects by identifying anomalies between preflight and postflight images of TPS components. The initial version is intended to detect and label gross (greater than 0.1 inches in the smallest dimension) anomalies on HRSI components for subsequent classification by a human inspector. The approach is a modified Golden Template technique where the preflight image of a tile serves as the template against which the postflight image of the tile is compared. Candidate anomalies are selected as a result of the comparison and processed to identify true anomalies. The processing methods are developed and discussed, and the results of testing on actual and simulated tile images are presented. Solutions to the problems of brightness and spatial normalization, timely execution, and minimization of false positives are also discussed.

  6. Anomalies in non-polynomial closed string field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaku, Michio

    1990-11-01

    The complete classical action for the non-polynomial closed string field theory was written down last year by the author and the Kyoto group. It successfully reproduces all closed string tree diagrams, but fails to reproduce modular invariant loop amplitudes. In this paper we show that the classical action is also riddled with gauge anomalies. Thus, the classical action is not really gauge invariant and fails as a quantum theory. The presence of gauge anomalies and the violation of modular invariance appear to be a disaster for the theory. Actually, this is a blessing in disguise. We show that by adding new non-polynomial terms to the action, we can simultaneously eliminate both the gauge anomalies and the modular-violating loop diagrams. We show this explicitly at the one loop level and also for an infinite class of p-puncture, genus- g amplitudes, making use of a series of non-trivial identities. The theory is thus an acceptable quantum theory. We comment on the origin of this strange link between local gauge anomalies and global modular invariance.

  7. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  8. Gravity anomalies and deep structure of eastern Hudson bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Manoj; Gibb, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts of Lower Proterozoic (Aphebian) rocks form parts of the proposed Circum-Superior suture which separates the Superior and Churchill structural provinces of the Canadian Shield. Recent marine gravity surveys in eastern Hudson Bay (1976-1979) show that the distinctive linear gravity pattern of paired positive and negative anomalies along the Cape Smith foldbelt of northern Ungava extends southwards into Hudson Bay to the Belcher Islands. Interpretation of five gravity profiles across the Cape Smith and Belcher foldbelts suggests that the Churchill crust is thicker and denser than the Superior. The boundary between the two contrasting crustal blocks is interpreted as a collisional suture. The rocks of the foldbelts which are progressively more volcanic northwards are the source of a residual positive anomaly associated with the Cape Smith foldbelt and a series of discontinuous positive residual anomalies in the Bay. To the north the thicknesses of the foldbelt rocks are estimated to be between 4 and 9 km with a local maximum of 13 km in the northernmost profile. To the south in the Belcher Islands, where geological estimates of formation thickness and measured rock densities provide more constraints on the interpretation of the residual anomalies, the foldbelt rocks are generally 6-7 km thick with a local maximum thickness of about 9 km. One possible interpretation of paleomagnetic results for Belcher Islands rocks in terms of a two-plate model lends support to the collision hypothesis.

  9. Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.

    PubMed

    Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies. PMID:26026722

  10. The Effect of Ocean Currents on Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef; Leeuwenburgh, Olwijn

    2000-01-01

    We investigate regional and global-scale correlations between observed anomalies in sea surface temperature and height. A strong agreement between the two fields is found over a broad range of latitudes for different ocean basins. Both time-longitude plots and wavenumber-frequency spectra suggest an advective forcing of SST anomalies by a first-mode baroclinic wave field on spatial scales down to 400 km and time scales as short as 1 month. Even though the magnitude of the mean background temperature gradient is determining for the effectiveness of the forcing, there is no obvious seasonality that can be detected in the amplitudes of SST anomalies. Instead, individual wave signatures in the SST can in some cases be followed over periods of two years. The phase relationship between SST and SSH anomalies is dependent upon frequency and wavenumber and displays a clear decrease of the phase lag toward higher latitudes where the two fields come into phase at low frequencies. Estimates of the damping coefficient are larger than generally obtained for a purely atmospheric feedback. From a global frequency spectrum a damping time scale of 2-3 month was found. Regionally results are very variable and range from 1 month near strong currents to 10 month at low latitudes and in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Strong agreement is found between the first global EOF modes of 10 day averaged and spatially smoothed SST and SSH grids. The accompanying time series display low frequency oscillations in both fields.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive Müllerian anomalies.

    PubMed

    Sen, Kamal Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Dhivya; Kanagaraj, Vikrant

    2013-04-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures. It is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic modality for demonstrating anatomic variation and associated complications. PMID:24082660

  12. Diffusivity anomaly in modified Stillinger-Weber liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Vasisht, Vishwas V.; Sastry, Srikanth

    2014-01-28

    By modifying the tetrahedrality (the strength of the three body interactions) in the well-known Stillinger-Weber model for silicon, we study the diffusivity of a series of model liquids as a function of tetrahedrality and temperature at fixed pressure. Previous work has shown that at constant temperature, the diffusivity exhibits a maximum as a function of tetrahedrality, which we refer to as the diffusivity anomaly, in analogy with the well-known anomaly in water upon variation of pressure at constant temperature. We explore to what extent the structural and thermodynamic changes accompanying changes in the interaction potential can help rationalize the diffusivity anomaly, by employing the Rosenfeld relation between diffusivity and the excess entropy (over the ideal gas reference value), and the pair correlation entropy, which provides an approximation to the excess entropy in terms of the pair correlation function. We find that in the modified Stillinger-Weber liquids, the Rosenfeld relation works well above the melting temperatures but exhibits deviations below, with the deviations becoming smaller for smaller tetrahedrality. Further we find that both the excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy at constant temperature go through maxima as a function of the tetrahedrality, thus demonstrating the close relationship between structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical anomalies in the modified Stillinger-Weber liquids.

  13. Anomaly driven signatures of extra U(1)'s

    SciTech Connect

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2010-02-10

    Anomaly cancellation between different sectors of a theory may mediate new interactions between gauge bosons. Such interactions lead to observable effects both at precision laboratory experiments and at accelerators. Such experiments may reveal the presence of hidden sectors or hidden extra dimensions.

  14. The magnetic anomalies significantrly reduce the Martian ionospheric escape rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, A.; Barabash, S.; Sauvaud, J.-A.

    2012-09-01

    Looking forward to the MAVEN mission, it seems very useful to return to Mars Express data to refresh an important problem of Martian atmosphere escape: what role the crustal magnetic field may play in this process? There are several publications on this topic with completely opposite conclusions. The last hybrid simulations show that the magnetic anomalies significantly reduce the ion loss rate during solar minimum. We are trying to use a new approach to Mars Express IMA data analysis to check how it is possible. On the base of a statistical study of the ion distributions in the Martian magnetotail we show that the characteristic accelerated ions are not associated with the magnetic anomalies but only with interplanetary magnetic field clock angle. Moreover the magnetic anomalies screen and deviate the escaping flow leading to reducing of the total loss rate. We have calculated a "quasiexperimental" escaping rate in an assumption of the total absence of the magnetic anomalies. We are comparing this value with a real measured escape rate.

  15. MAGSAT anomaly field inversion and interpretation for the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Long wavelength anomalies in the total magnetic field measured by MAGSAT over the United States and adjacent areas are inverted to an equivalent layer crustal magnetization distribution. The model is based on an equal area dipole grid at the Earth's surface. Model resolution, defined as the closest dipole spacing giving a solution having physical significance, is about 220 km for MAGSAT data in the elevation range 300-500 km. The magnetization contours correlate well with large scale tectonic provinces. A higher resolution (200 km) model based on relatively noise free synthetic "pseudodata" is also presented. Magnetic anomaly component data measured by MAGSAT is compared with synthetic anomaly component fields arising from an equivalent source dipole array at the Earth's surface generated from total field anomaly data alone. An excellent inverse correlation between apparent magnetization and heat flow in the western U.S. is demonstrated. A regional heat flow map which is presented and compared with published maps, predicts high heat flow in Nebraska and the Dakotas, suggesting the presence of a "blind" geothermal area of regional extent.

  16. Trace anomaly of dilaton-coupled scalars in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Hawking, Stephen

    1997-12-01

    Conformal scalar fields coupled to the dilaton appear naturally in two-dimensional models of black hole evaporation. We show that their trace anomaly is (1/24π)[R-6(∇φ)2-2□φ]. It follows that a Russo-Susskind-Thorlacius-type counterterm appears naturally in the one-loop effective action.

  17. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  18. Anomaly Monitoring Method for Key Components of Satellite

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Linjun; Xiao, Weidong; Tang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presented a fault diagnosis method for key components of satellite, called Anomaly Monitoring Method (AMM), which is made up of state estimation based on Multivariate State Estimation Techniques (MSET) and anomaly detection based on Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT). On the basis of analysis failure of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), we divided the failure of LIBs into internal failure, external failure, and thermal runaway and selected electrolyte resistance (R e) and the charge transfer resistance (R ct) as the key parameters of state estimation. Then, through the actual in-orbit telemetry data of the key parameters of LIBs, we obtained the actual residual value (R X) and healthy residual value (R L) of LIBs based on the state estimation of MSET, and then, through the residual values (R X and R L) of LIBs, we detected the anomaly states based on the anomaly detection of SPRT. Lastly, we conducted an example of AMM for LIBs, and, according to the results of AMM, we validated the feasibility and effectiveness of AMM by comparing it with the results of threshold detective method (TDM). PMID:24587703

  19. Fluid Pressure Anomalies in Shallow Intraplate Argillaceous Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuzil, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fluid transport in shales and other argillaceous formations is difficult to study because these materials often have extremely low permeability. However, recent investigations have revealed a number of instances of apparently isolated highs or lows in pore fluid potential in shallow (< ~ 1 km depth) argillaceous formations in intraplate settings. The presence (or absence) of such pressure anomalies may provide clues to fluid flow. Formations with the pressure anomalies are distinguished by (1) smaller ratios of hydraulic conductivity to formation thickness and (2) smaller hydraulic (or pressure) diffusivities than those without anomalies. This is consistent with water-saturated transient Darcian flow caused by strain at rates of ~ 10-17 to 10-16 s-1, by significant perturbing events in the past 104 to 106 years or by some combination of the two. Plausible causes include erosional downwasting, tectonic strain, and glaciation. In this conceptualization the anomalies constrain formation-scale flow properties, flow history, and local geological forcing in the last 106 years and in particular indicate zones of low permeability (10-19 - 10-22 m2) that could be useful for isolation of nuclear waste.

  20. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo subsatellite magnetometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.; Wilhelms, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate available magnetic anomaly maps, one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near side map and the surface geology is more complex; individual anomaly sources have therefore not yet been identified. The mechanism of magnetization and the origin of the magnetizing field remain unresolved, but the uniformity with which the Reiner Gamma deposit is apparently magnetized, and the north-south depletion of magnetization intensity across a substantial portion of the far side, seem to require the existence of an ambient field, perhaps of global or larger extent.

  1. Macquarie island and the cause of oceanic linear magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Varne, R; Gee, R D; Quilty, P G

    1969-10-10

    Macquarie Islands is formed of probably Pliocene oceanic crust. Intruded into pillow lavas is a belt of harzburgite and layered gabbro mnasses cut by dike swarms. Similar belt-like structures may cause the linear magnetic anomalies of the ocean. PMID:17731490

  2. Minor Physical Anomalies in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angkustsiri, Kathleen; Krakowiak, Paula; Moghaddam, Billur; Wardinsky, Terrance; Gardner, Jerald; Kalamkarian, Nareg; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Hansen, Robin L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is clinical heterogeneity among the autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The presence of dysmorphology (minor physical anomalies; MPAs) is one possible tool for defining a clinically relevant subset in ASD. This study employs an adaptation of Miles and Hillman's (2000) classifications by using photographs to identify a subgroup with…

  3. Anomaly detection for machine learning redshifts applied to SDSS galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Rau, Markus Michael; Paech, Kerstin; Bonnett, Christopher; Seitz, Stella; Weller, Jochen

    2015-10-01

    We present an analysis of anomaly detection for machine learning redshift estimation. Anomaly detection allows the removal of poor training examples, which can adversely influence redshift estimates. Anomalous training examples may be photometric galaxies with incorrect spectroscopic redshifts, or galaxies with one or more poorly measured photometric quantity. We select 2.5 million `clean' SDSS DR12 galaxies with reliable spectroscopic redshifts, and 6730 `anomalous' galaxies with spectroscopic redshift measurements which are flagged as unreliable. We contaminate the clean base galaxy sample with galaxies with unreliable redshifts and attempt to recover the contaminating galaxies using the Elliptical Envelope technique. We then train four machine learning architectures for redshift analysis on both the contaminated sample and on the preprocessed `anomaly-removed' sample and measure redshift statistics on a clean validation sample generated without any preprocessing. We find an improvement on all measured statistics of up to 80 per cent when training on the anomaly removed sample as compared with training on the contaminated sample for each of the machine learning routines explored. We further describe a method to estimate the contamination fraction of a base data sample.

  4. The surface latent heat flux anomalies related to major earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Feng; Shen, Xuhui; Kang, Chunli; Xiong, Pan; Hong, Shunying

    2011-12-01

    SLHF (Surface Latent Heat Flux) is an atmospheric parameter, which can describe the heat released by phase changes and dependent on meteorological parameters such as surface temperature, relative humidity, wind speed etc. There is a sharp difference between the ocean surface and the land surface. Recently, many studies related to the SLHF anomalies prior to earthquakes have been developed. It has been shown that the energy exchange enhanced between coastal surface and atmosphere prior to earthquakes can increase the rate of the water-heat exchange, which will lead to an obviously increases in SLHF. In this paper, two earthquakes in 2010 (Haiti earthquake and southwest of Sumatra in Indonesia earthquake) have been analyzed using SLHF data by STD (standard deviation) threshold method. It is shows that the SLHF anomaly may occur in interpolate earthquakes or intraplate earthquakes and coastal earthquakes or island earthquakes. And the SLHF anomalies usually appear 5-6 days prior to an earthquake, then disappear quickly after the event. The process of anomaly evolution to a certain extent reflects a dynamic energy change process about earthquake preparation, that is, weak-strong-weak-disappeared.

  5. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating scale…

  6. Boiling Experiment Facility (BXF): Post Flight Assessment Anomaly Investigation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Wendell H.

    2012-01-01

    This document serves as the report for presenting the results and conclusions of investigation activities that were performed to determine the root causes of the anomaly, camera misalignment, and dissolved gas concentration issues and to verify the calibration and accuracy of the pressure and temperature measurements.

  7. Anomalies in medical decision making: the preception of risk

    SciTech Connect

    Travis, C.; Tonn, B.

    1985-03-28

    This paper discusses risk perception in medical decision making. Biases in risk perception by physicians and patients could result in undue loss of life and unwarranted medical expenses. Possible biases include availability of information, framing of choices, and the fundamental attribution error. An example of an anomaly in medical decision making possibly related to biased decision making is elective hysterectomy. 25 refs.

  8. Constancy in Functional Space across a Species Richness Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Nathan G; Weiser, Michael D; Mao, Lingfeng; Normand, Signe; Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Lin, Luxiang; Cao, Min; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between large-scale gradients in species richness and functional diversity provides important information regarding the mechanisms driving patterns of biodiversity. A classic hypothesis in ecology is that strong interspecific interactions should result in an increase in the functional volume of assemblages as the species richness increases, whereas climatic constraints may result in no change in functional volume. Most research of this kind examines latitudinal gradients in species richness, but the results are likely confounded by underlying gradients in climate and phylogenetic composition. We take an alternative approach that examines functional richness across a tree species richness anomaly where species richness doubles from Europe to eastern North America. The results demonstrate that the functional richness on both continents saturates at a similar point as species richness increases and that the packing of functional space becomes tighter. Further, the species richness anomaly is driven primarily by genera unique to North America, but those genera contribute less than expected functional richness to the region, indicating a high level of redundancy with genera shared between the continents. Taken together, the results indicate that the species richness anomaly is associated with diversification within a climatically constrained trait space. More generally, the work demonstrates the power of utilizing species richness anomalies in biodiversity research, particularly when they are coupled with information regarding organismal function. PMID:27028083

  9. MAGSAT anomaly field data of the crustal properties of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.

  10. Gaussian Process for Activity Modeling and Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, W.; Rosenhahn, B.; Yang, M. Ying

    2015-08-01

    Complex activity modeling and identification of anomaly is one of the most interesting and desired capabilities for automated video behavior analysis. A number of different approaches have been proposed in the past to tackle this problem. There are two main challenges for activity modeling and anomaly detection: 1) most existing approaches require sufficient data and supervision for learning; 2) the most interesting abnormal activities arise rarely and are ambiguous among typical activities, i.e. hard to be precisely defined. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to model complex activities and detect anomalies by using non-parametric Gaussian Process (GP) models in a crowded and complicated traffic scene. In comparison with parametric models such as HMM, GP models are nonparametric and have their advantages. Our GP models exploit implicit spatial-temporal dependence among local activity patterns. The learned GP regression models give a probabilistic prediction of regional activities at next time interval based on observations at present. An anomaly will be detected by comparing the actual observations with the prediction at real time. We verify the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed model on the QMUL Junction Dataset. Furthermore, we provide a publicly available manually labeled ground truth of this data set.

  11. Diffusivity anomaly in modified Stillinger-Weber liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Shiladitya; Vasisht, Vishwas V.; Sastry, Srikanth

    2014-01-01

    By modifying the tetrahedrality (the strength of the three body interactions) in the well-known Stillinger-Weber model for silicon, we study the diffusivity of a series of model liquids as a function of tetrahedrality and temperature at fixed pressure. Previous work has shown that at constant temperature, the diffusivity exhibits a maximum as a function of tetrahedrality, which we refer to as the diffusivity anomaly, in analogy with the well-known anomaly in water upon variation of pressure at constant temperature. We explore to what extent the structural and thermodynamic changes accompanying changes in the interaction potential can help rationalize the diffusivity anomaly, by employing the Rosenfeld relation between diffusivity and the excess entropy (over the ideal gas reference value), and the pair correlation entropy, which provides an approximation to the excess entropy in terms of the pair correlation function. We find that in the modified Stillinger-Weber liquids, the Rosenfeld relation works well above the melting temperatures but exhibits deviations below, with the deviations becoming smaller for smaller tetrahedrality. Further we find that both the excess entropy and the pair correlation entropy at constant temperature go through maxima as a function of the tetrahedrality, thus demonstrating the close relationship between structural, thermodynamic, and dynamical anomalies in the modified Stillinger-Weber liquids.

  12. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  13. A RE-INTRODUCTION TO ANOMALIES OF CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    PUIGH RJ

    2009-09-09

    In 1974, a small innocuous document was submitted to the American Nuclear Society's Criticality Safety Division for publication that would have lasting impacts on this nuclear field The author was Duane Clayton, manager of the Battelle Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Critical Mass Lab, the world's preeminent reactor critical experimenter with plutonium solutions. The document was entitled, 'Anomalies of Criticality'. 'Anomalies...' was a compilation of more than thirty separate and distinct examples of departures from what might be commonly expected in the field of nuclear criticality. Mr. Clayton's publication was the derivative of more than ten thousand experiments and countless analytical studies conducted world-wide on every conceivable reactor system imaginable: from fissile bearing solutions to solids, blocks to arrays of fuel rods, low-enriched uranium oxide systems to pure plutonium and highly enriched uranium systems. After publication, the document was commonly used within the nuclear fuel cycle and reactor community to train potential criticality/reactor analysts, experimenters and fuel handlers on important things for consideration when designing systems with critically 'safe' parameters in mind The purpose of this paper is to re-introduce 'Anomalies of Criticality' to the current Criticality Safety community and to add new 'anomalies' to the existing compendium. By so doing, it is the authors' hope that a new generation of nuclear workers and criticality engineers will benefit from its content and might continue to build upon this work in support of the nuclear renaissance that is about to occur.

  14. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-06-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  15. Potential Mars 2001 Sites Coincident with Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmore, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Of the areas that meet the engineering criteria for MSP 01, only two are coincident with magnetic anomalies measured by the MAG/ER instrument on MGS. Area A is centered on about 10 deg S, 202 deg W and extends from about 7.5 deg S to 15 S. This area is associated with three bands of magnetic anomalies, two with positive values surrounding an area with negative values. Area B corresponds with a circular high positive magnetic anomaly and is centered at 13.5 deg S, 166 deg W. In addition to magnetic anomalies, the proposed sites have other attributes that make then attractive from of standpoint of meeting the objectives of the Mars Program. The landing site candidates meet the engineering requirements outlined on the Mars '01 landing site page htip://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/2001/landingsite. These are (source of data in parentheses): latitude between 3 deg N and 12 deg S, rock abundance between 5-10% (IRTM), fine-component thermal inertia > 4 cgs units (IRTM), topography < 2.5 km (MOLA). There are three exceptions: 1) Area B contains sites that lie up to about 15 deg S, 2) some sites are considered that have rock abundance values of 3-13%. 3) High resolution Viking coverage may not be available. These exceptions will be noted.

  16. Interpretation of the high conductive anomaly of the Society hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Noriko; Tarits, Pascal; Baba, Kiyoshi; Utada, Hisashi; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2016-04-01

    The mantle upwellings are one of the most important features for understanding the mantle dynamics. A large-scale mantle upwelling beneath the French Polynesia region in the South Pacific has been suggested from seismic studies, which is called the South Pacific superplume, and a slow velocity anomaly continues from the core mantle boundary to the upper mantle just beneath the Society hotspot (e.g., Suetsugu et al., 2009). However, the previous studies are not enough to understand the geometry, temperature, and composition of the Society hotspot. Then, we carried out the TIARES project that composed of multi-sensor stations that include broadband ocean bottom seismometers, ocean bottom electromagnetometers (OBEMs), and differential pressure gauges from 2009 to 2010 (Suetsugu et al., 2012). We have analyzed marine magnetotelluric data obtained totally 20 sites around the Society hotspot, and revealed a three-dimensional shaped high conductive anomaly, like a thumb, beneath the Society hotspot (see detail in session GD8.3/EMRP4.9/SM7.6). In order to clarify the cause of the high conductivity, water content, melt fraction, and H2O and CO2 contents in the upper mantle were estimated by adopting results of rock experiments at high temperatures and pressures. As a result, the upper mantle in the high conductive anomaly involves more water, melt, H2O, and CO2 rather than that in the surrounding area. Furthermore, temperature of high conductive anomaly might be higher than the surrounding area.

  17. An Apparent Paradox: Catt's Anomaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieraccini, M.; Selleri, S.

    2013-01-01

    Catt's anomaly is a sort of "thought experiment" (a "gedankenexperiment") where electrons seem to travel at the speed of light. Although its author argued with conviction for many years, it has a clear and satisfactory solution and it can be considered indubitably just an apparent paradox. Nevertheless, it is curious and…

  18. Anomaly detection based on the statistics of hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catterall, Stephen P.

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new anomaly detection algorithm for application to hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data. The algorithm uses characterisations of the joint (among wavebands) probability density function (pdf) of HSI data. Traditionally, the pdf has been assumed to be multivariate Gaussian or a mixture of multivariate Gaussians. Other distributions have been considered by previous authors, in particular Elliptically Contoured Distributions (ECDs). In this paper we focus on another distribution, which has only recently been defined and studied. This distribution has a more flexible and extensive set of parameters than the multivariate Gaussian does, yet the pdf takes on a relatively simple mathematical form. The result of all this is a model for the pdf of a hyperspectral image, consisting of a mixture of these distributions. Once a model for the pdf of a hyperspectral image has been obtained, it can be incorporated into an anomaly detector. The new anomaly detector is implemented and applied to some medium wave infra-red (MWIR) hyperspectral imagery. Comparison is made with a well-known anomaly detector, and it will be seen that the results are promising.

  19. Gender, Bourdieu, and the Anomaly of Women's Achievement Redux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin

    2003-01-01

    Argues that focusing on gender differences in educational outcomes without considering race and social class obscures gender achievement relationships. Draws on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice for its insights into the ways that structure and human agency generate social behavior. Presents hypotheses to explain the anomaly of women's…

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in obstructive Müllerian anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Kamal Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Dhivya; Kanagaraj, Vikrant

    2013-01-01

    Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich (HWW) syndrome is a very rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract involving Müllerian ducts and Wolffian structures. It is characterized by the triad of didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina, and ipsilateral renal agenesis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a sensitive, non-invasive diagnostic modality for demonstrating anatomic variation and associated complications. PMID:24082660

  1. Spatial and diurnal features of the Jovian equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines a time-dependent model of the Jovian ionosphere with electrodynamic drift to study the spatial and temporal features of the Jovian equatorial anomaly. Two sinusoidal drift velocity models are considered, model 1, akin to that in the terrestrial ionosphere and model 2, having opposite phase. The drift velocity amplitude is taken to be 100 m/s. In either model, an equatorial anomaly which persists throughout the day unlike its terrestrial counterpart, and disappears after midnight is obtained. The crest of ionization is centered around 7-8 degrees latitude in either model as compared with about 15 degrees for the terrestrial anomaly. The Rm index attains a maximum value of 2.6 in the afternoon in model 2. The peak electron density at the equator minimizes before midnight in model 1, but after sunrise in model 2. There is no 'noon biteout' like that found in the terrestrial equatorial ionosphere. The height of the peak electron density roughly follows the drift velocity pattern. Comparison with experimental data indicates that drift velocity amplitudes far exceeding 100 m/s would be required to produce the observed Jovian equatorial anomaly.

  2. Geopotential Field Anomaly Continuation with Multi-Altitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Hyung Rae; von Frese, Ralph; Taylor, Patrick; Rangelova, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Conventional gravity and magnetic anomaly continuation invokes the standard Poisson boundary condition of a zero anomaly at an infinite vertical distance from the observation surface. This simple continuation is limited, however, where multiple altitude slices of the anomaly field have been observed. Increasingly, areas are becoming available constrained by multiple boundary conditions from surface, airborne, and satellite surveys. This paper describes the implementation of continuation with multi-altitude boundary conditions in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and investigates the advantages and limitations of these applications. Continuations by EPS (Equivalent Point Source) inversion and the FT (Fourier Transform), as well as by SCHA (Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis) are considered. These methods were selected because they are especially well suited for analyzing multi-altitude data over finite patches of the earth such as covered by the ADMAP database. In general, continuations constrained by multi-altitude data surfaces are invariably superior to those constrained by a single altitude data surface due to anomaly measurement errors and the non-uniqueness of continuation.

  3. Geopotential Field Anomaly Continuation with Multi-Altitude Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Hyung Rae; vonFrese, Ralph; Taylor, Patrick; Rangelova, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Conventional gravity and magnetic anomaly continuation invokes the standard Poisson boundary condition of a zero anomaly at an infinite vertical distance from the observation surface. This simple continuation is limited, however, where multiple altitude slices of the anomaly field have been observed. Increasingly, areas are becoming available constrained by multiple boundary conditions from surface, airborne, and satellite surveys. This paper describes the implementation of continuation with multi-altitude boundary conditions in Cartesian and spherical coordinates and investigates the advantages and limitations of these applications. Continuations by EPS (Equivalent Point Source) inversion and the FT (Fourier Transform), as well as by SCHA (Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis) are considered. These methods were selected because they are especially well suited for analyzing multi-altitude data over finite patches of the earth such as covered by the ADMAP database. In general, continuations constrained by multi-altitude data surfaces are invariably superior to those constrained by a single altitude data surface due to anomaly measurement errors and the non-uniqueness of continuation.

  4. The Mars Climate Sounder In-Flight Positioning Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jau, Bruno M.; Kass, David

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses the Mars Climate Sounder (MCS) instrument s in-flight positioning errors and presents background material about it. A short overview of the instrument s science objectives and data acquisition techniques is provided. The brief mechanical description familiarizes the reader with the MCS instrument. Several key items of the flight qualification program, which had a rigorous joint drive test program but some limitations in overall system testing, are discussed. Implications this might have had for the flight anomaly, which began after several months of flawless space operation, are mentioned. The detection, interpretation, and instrument response to the errors is discussed. The anomaly prompted engineering reviews, renewed ground, and some in-flight testing. A summary of these events, including a timeline, is included. Several items of concern were uncovered during the anomaly investigation, the root cause, however, was never found. The instrument is now used with two operational constraints that work around the anomaly. It continues science gathering at an only slightly diminished pace that will yield approximately 90% of the originally intended science.

  5. Marrow hypoplasia associated with congenital neurologic anomalies in two siblings.

    PubMed

    Drachtman, R; Weinblatt, M; Sitarz, A; Gold, A; Kochen, J

    1990-10-01

    Two siblings with congenital neurologic structural anomalies and delayed-onset selective bone marrow hypoplasia in a previously undescribed constellation of symptoms are presented. Differences between these cases and other well known syndromes are discussed. The importance of this association is the implication that children with congenital neurologic abnormalities may be at increased risk for the development of hypoplastic hematopoietic conditions. PMID:2264478

  6. On the origin of the Bangui magnetic anomaly, central African empire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, B. D.

    1977-01-01

    A large magnetic anomaly was recognized in satellite magnetometer data over the Central African Empire in central Africa. They named this anomaly the Bangui magnetic anomaly due to its location near the capital city of Bangui, C.A.E. Because large crustal magnetic anomalies are uncommon, the origin of this anomaly has provoked some interest. The area of the anomaly was visited to make ground magnetic measurements, geologic observations, and in-situ magnetic susceptibility measurements. Some rock samples were also collected and chemically analyzed. The results of these investigations are presented.

  7. Neonate with VACTERL Association and a Branchial Arch Anomaly without Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Velazquez, Danitza; Pereira, Elaine; Havranek, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    VACTERL (vertebral anomalies, anal atresia, cardiac defect, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal anomaly, limb anomalies) is an association of anomalies with a wide spectrum of phenotypic expression. While the majority of cases are sporadic, there is evidence of an inherited component in a small number of patients as well as the potential influence of nongenetic risk factors (maternal diabetes mellitus). Presence of hydrocephalus has been reported in VACTERL patients (VACTERL-H) in the past, with some displaying branchial arch anomalies. We report the unique case of an infant of diabetic mother with VACTERL association and a branchial arch anomaly-in the absence of hydrocephalus. PMID:26929876

  8. Magnetic Anomaly Lineations in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Y.; Nakanishi, M.; Tamaki, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Huchon, P.; Leroy, S. D.; Styles, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the magnetic anomaly lineations in the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden has slow spreading ridges between the Arabia Plate and Somalia Plate. The Arabian plate moves away from Somalia Plate in an NE direction, at a rate of about 2 cm/yr. Previous works indicates that seafloor spreading started about 20 Ma in the eastern part of the Gulf of Aden and propagated westward. The spreading axis has a E-W trend west of 46 E and that east of 46 E has a N60 W trend. We examined magnetic data acquired in the cruises by R/V L'Atalante in 1995, R/V Hakuho-maru from 2000 to 2001, R/V Maurice Ewing in 2001, and Shackleton in 1975 and 1979. We also used data obtained from National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. We calculated magnetic anomalies using the latest Internation Geomagnetic Reference Field. Elongated negative magnetic anomalies, which amplitude are more than 500 nT, observed over the spreading centers. Most of the elongated anomalies are parallel with the spreading centers. The elongated magnetic anomalies west of 46 30'E have an E-W trend around the spreading centers. Several discontinuities in the magnetic anomaly contour map illustrate the position of the fracture zones concealed by sediments. We identified magnetic lineations from 43 E to 52 E. Most of magnetic lineations west and east of 46 30'E have N-E and N60-65 W strikes, respectively. The oldest lineations are C3r (5.48~5.74 Ma) between 43 10'E and 44 E and C5Ar (12.4~12.7 Ma) east of 44 E. Our identification of magnetic anomaly lineations indicates a symmetric seafloor spreading with a spreading rate of about 1.0 cm/yr, although Leroy et al. (2004) showed an asymmetric seafloor spreading of the Sheba Ridge, east of our study area. The kinematics of the Arabia plate changed about 5 Ma, but our results did not show any coeval change in spreading rates of the spreading system in the Gulf of Aden.

  9. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  10. Seasonal sea surface temperature anomaly prediction for coastal ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, Charles A.; Pegion, Kathy; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Alexander, Michael A.; Tommasi, Desiree; Bond, Nicholas A.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Gudgel, Richard G.; Kristiansen, Trond; O'Brien, Todd D.; Xue, Yan; Yang, Xiasong

    2015-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies are often both leading indicators and important drivers of marine resource fluctuations. Assessment of the skill of SST anomaly forecasts within coastal ecosystems accounting for the majority of global fish yields, however, has been minimal. This reflects coarse global forecast system resolution and past emphasis on the predictability of ocean basin-scale SST variations. This paper assesses monthly to inter-annual SST anomaly predictions in coastal "Large Marine Ecosystems" (LMEs). We begin with an analysis of 7 well-observed LMEs adjacent to the United States and then examine how mechanisms responsible for prediction skill in these systems are reflected in predictions for LMEs globally. Historical SST anomaly estimates from the 1/4° daily Optimal Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature reanalysis (OISST.v2) were first found to be highly consistent with in-situ measurements for 6 of the 7 U.S. LMEs. Thirty years of retrospective forecasts from climate forecast systems developed at NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (CM2.5-FLOR) and the National Center for Environmental Prediction (CFSv2) were then assessed against OISST.v2. Forecast skill varied widely by LME, initialization month, and lead but there were many cases of high skill that also exceeded that of a persistence forecast, some at leads greater than 6 months. Mechanisms underlying skill above persistence included accurate simulation of (a) seasonal transitions between less predictable locally generated and more predictable basin-scale SST variability; (b) seasonal transitions between different basin-scale influences; (c) propagation of SST anomalies across seasons through sea ice; and (d) re-emergence of previous anomalies upon the breakdown of summer stratification. Globally, significant skill above persistence across many tropical systems arises via mechanisms (a) and (b). Combinations of all four mechanisms contribute to less prevalent but nonetheless

  11. Probabilistic rainfall anomalies over Amazonia associated with ENSO events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sansigolo, clovis

    2014-05-01

    ENSO extreme events are associated with climatic extremes over many regions of the globe. Over Amazonia, El Niño and La Niña events are respectively associated with below and above normal rainfall anomalies in the wet season (Sept - May). Correlations and regressions are the methods commonly used for composite analyses. They assume linear interactions between SST anomalies and the expected climatic anomalies, no inter-events differences, symmetries between El Niño and La Niña climatic impacts, and normality of rainfall anomalies, assumptions not found in some regions. A simple and robust alternative method uses contingency tables to assess the influence of an independent variable (El Niño/La Niña) on the probability of a predefined climatic event (e.g. rainfall anomaly tercil). Monthly rainfall data in 30 stations distributed over the region (1950/51 - 2000/01) were used in this work. Seasonal rainfall anomalies were sorted and allocated in tercils corresponding to below, near and above normal categories. Standardized seasonal averages of Niño 3.4 indices were used to assess the phase impact of the 11 strongest El Niño and La Niña events observed in the period. The significance of the number of times that simultaneous and 1 to 3 months lagged rainfall anomalies during ENSO extreme events were in each considered tercil was calculated using 3x2 contingency tables. The significance of the results was assessed using a hypothesis test based on the hypergeometric distribution. Simultaneous and 1 to 3 months lagged below normal rainfall in the northern and central part of the region were significant associated with El Niño in the austral summer (mature phase). In their typical development (SON) phase they were significant associated with below normal rainfall in central Amazonia, simultaneously and 3 months lagged. La Niñas in their development phases (SON) were significantly associated with above normal rainfall in the beginning of the rainy season in eastern

  12. The Russian contribution in WDMAM-2011 magnetic anomalies and anomalies of satellite Champ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livinova, Tamara; Glebovsky, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    In VSEGEI is created the renovated digital cartographical model of an anomalous magnetic field (AMF) of territory of Russia and adjacent aquatory of scale 1:2 500000 on the basis of the available base summary digital materials prepared at various times by two organizations: VSEGEI and VNIIOkeangeologia. For this purpose uniform technological rules which have provided satisfactory synthesis of digital data files of an anomalous magnetic field in scale 1:2 500000 have been developed and realized. As a result of processing digital data file AMF the divergences reached 200 нТл, have been eliminated. For inclusion in WDMAM-2011 the Russian side the digital model counted on height 1 km on a grid 5х5км is offered. Anomalous values are designed from normal field VSEGEI of an epoch of 1965. The magnetic grid (5x5 km) within the Russian continental shelf compiled in VNIIOkeangeologia was leveled, adjusted and merged with those created in VSEGEI on shore of Russian Federation. Data processing is made by software Geosoft. Russian magnetic database in the Arctic Ocean was created as a result of adjusting of all historical and recent magnetic data sets, collected several organizations during the period about 40 years. Within the deep part of the Arctic Ocean this information was leveled, adjusted and combined with all available US magnetic data sets under cooperative project between and US Naval Research Laboratory. A result of this compilation is presented by grid of magnetic anomalies (5x5 km) that was used in the CAMP-GM project.

  13. The residual frictional thermal anomaly measurement in WFSD-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Peng, H.; Ma, X.; Jiang, J.

    2012-12-01

    The earthquakes research shows the frictional heat generated during earthquake faulting is thought to be the largest part of the total seismic energy budget, and most of the frictional resistance is dissipated as heat. So temperature anomaly measurement is the most direct way to quantify co-seismic friction. Therefore, temperature measurement was taken in the borehole WFSD-1 rapidly following the WenChuan earthquake. To obtain the slight temperature anomaly of 10-2, the resolution of the thermometer should be better than 0.003°C if the temperature change within 0.1m could be distinguished with the mean temperature gradient 0.02 ~ 0.03°C/m. Finally, we developed a high precision temperature measuring probe, BBT-01 with resolution of 0.001°C. Gathered with the probe lifting control system, data acquisition module, power supply and communication module, the temperature measuring system BBT-01 is composed. In order to understand the lifting speed influence on the measured temperature, we had temperature probe heat balance test at 970m in WFSD-1. It shows the thermal equilibrium time should be at least 1500 s and the BBT-01 temperature thermometer resolution are better than the 0.001°C/m. We found three temperature anomalies in 400-500m, 580-610m and 620-750m in the borehole WFSD-1, respectively. Comparing the temperature anomaly curve with the layered structure profile. we found that the temperature anomaly of 390-550m, 620-750m should be caused by formation changes.Using the Byerlees law for computation, the depth in the fault plane should be below 1000m to produce a temperature anomaly of 0.2°C. In addition, the frictional heat temperature anomaly measured in many Continental Scientific Drilling Projects are in 10-2 magnitude, and anomalies width are tens of meters. It also can be verified that the 390-550m and 620-750m anomaly are not caused by friction. It can be seen in figure4 that the average geothermal gradient in 80-590m is 19.77°C/km, and 21.31°C/km in

  14. Response of African humid tropical forests to recent rainfall anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Saatchi, Sassan

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade, strong negative rainfall anomalies resulting from increased sea surface temperature in the tropical Atlantic have caused extensive droughts in rainforests of western Amazonia, exerting persistent effects on the forest canopy. In contrast, there have been no significant impacts on rainforests of West and Central Africa during the same period, despite large-scale droughts and rainfall anomalies during the same period. Using a combination of rainfall observations from meteorological stations from the Climate Research Unit (CRU; 1950–2009) and satellite observations of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM; 1998–2010), we show that West and Central Africa experienced strong negative water deficit (WD) anomalies over the last decade, particularly in 2005, 2006 and 2007. These anomalies were a continuation of an increasing drying trend in the region that started in the 1970s. We monitored the response of forests to extreme rainfall anomalies of the past decade by analysing the microwave scatterometer data from QuickSCAT (1999–2009) sensitive to variations in canopy water content and structure. Unlike in Amazonia, we found no significant impacts of extreme WD events on forests of Central Africa, suggesting potential adaptability of these forests to short-term severe droughts. Only forests near the savanna boundary in West Africa and in fragmented landscapes of the northern Congo Basin responded to extreme droughts with widespread canopy disturbance that lasted only during the period of WD. Time-series analyses of CRU and TRMM data show most regions in Central and West Africa experience seasonal or decadal extreme WDs (less than −600 mm). We hypothesize that the long-term historical extreme WDs with gradual drying trends in the 1970s have increased the adaptability of humid tropical forests in Africa to droughts. PMID:23878335

  15. How Hydrate Saturation Anomalies are Diffusively Constructed and Advectively Smoothed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, A. W.; Irizarry, J. T.; VanderBeek, B. P.; Handwerger, A. L.

    2015-12-01

    The physical processes that control the bulk characteristics of hydrate reservoirs are captured reasonably well by long-established model formulations that are rooted in laboratory-verified phase equilibrium parameterizations and field-based estimates of in situ conditions. More detailed assessments of hydrate distribution, especially involving the occurrence of high-saturation hydrate anomalies have been more difficult to obtain. Spatial variations in sediment properties are of central importance for modifying the phase behavior and promoting focussed fluid flow. However, quantitative predictions of hydrate anomaly development cannot be made rigorously without also addressing the changes in phase behavior and mechanical balances that accompany changes in hydrate saturation level. We demonstrate how pore-scale geometrical controls on hydrate phase stability can be parameterized for incorporation in simulations of hydrate anomaly development along dipping coarse-grained layers embedded in a more fine-grained background that is less amenable to fluid transport. Model simulations demonstrate how hydrate anomaly growth along coarse-layer boundaries is promoted by diffusive gas transport from the adjacent fine-grained matrix, while advective transport favors more distributed growth within the coarse-grained material and so effectively limits the difference between saturation peaks and background levels. Further analysis demonstrates how sediment contacts are unloaded once hydrate saturation reaches sufficient levels to form a load-bearing skeleton that can evolve to produce segregated nodules and lenses. Decomposition of such growth forms poses a significant geohazard that is expected to be particularly sensitive to perturbations induced by gas extraction. The figure illustrates the predicted evolution of hydrate saturation Sh in a coarse-grained dipping layer showing how prominent bounding hydrate anomalies (spikes) supplied by diffusive gas transport at early times

  16. Northern east Pacific rise: Magnetic anomaly and bathymetric framework

    SciTech Connect

    Klitgord, K.D.; Mammerickx, J.

    1982-08-10

    The oceanic crust in the eastern Pacific between 7/sup 0/N and 30/sup 0/N and east of 127/sup 0/W contains a fairly complete history of the spreading centers associated with the East Pacific Rise since 25 m.y. B.P. (late Oligocene). In this paper, we have summarized the seafloor spreading magnetic-anomaly data and the bathymetric data that reflect the record of this technique history. The well-defined magnetic lineations north of the Clarion fracture zone, in the mouth of the Gulf of California, and on the east flank of the East Pacific Rise (EPR) are carefully examined and used to provide a guide for interpreting the spreading pattern between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones, southward of the Rivera fracture zone over the Mathematician Ridge, and over the entire EPR east of the Mathematician Ridge between the Rivera and Siqueiros fracture zones. The bathymetric data provide a trace of the fracture zone pattern in each of the above mentioned areas. The fracture zone bathymetry and the seafloor spreading magnetc lineations on the EPR south of the Rivera fracture zone have a distinctive fanning pattern caused by close poles of rotation and plate boundary reorganizations. All these data provide a good record of the plate reorganizations in the middle Miocene at magnetic anomaly 5A time (12.5 to 11 m.y. B.P.), in the late Miocene at a magnetic anomaly 3'--4 time (6.5 m.y. B.P.), and in the Pliocene at magnetic anomaly 2'--3 time (3.5 m.y.B.P.). Several abandoned spreading centers, including the Mathematician Ridge, were left behind as a result of these reorganizations. The Mathematician Ridge is shown to be a set of ridges and trough whose origin is related to the tectonics activity associated with each of the above mentioned reorganizations since anomaly 5A.

  17. Hematite Versus Magnetite as the Signature for Planetary Magnetic Anomalies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kletetshka, Gunther; Taylor, Patrick T.; Wasilewski, Peter J.

    1999-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies are the result of adjacent geologic units having contrasting magnetization. This magnetization arises from induction and/or remanence. In a planetary context we now know that Mars has significant crustal magnetic anomalies due to remanent magnetization, while the Earth has some anomalies where remanence can be shown to be important. This picture, however, is less clear because of the nature and the magnitude of the geomagnetic field which is responsible for superimposed induced magnetization. Induced magnetization assumes a magnetite source, because of its much greater magnetic susceptibility when compared with other magnetic minerals. We investigated the TRM (thermoremanent magnetization) acquisition of hematite, in weak magnetic fields up to 1 mT, to determine if the remanent and induced magnetization of hematite could compete with magnetite. TRM acquisition curves of magnetite and hematite show that multi-domain hematite reaches TRM saturation (0.3 - 0.4 A sq m/kg) in fields as low as 100 microT. However, multi-domain magnetite reaches only a few percent of its TRM saturation in a field of 100 microT (0.02 - 0.06 A sq m/kg). These results suggest that a mineral such as hematite and, perhaps, other minerals with significant remanence and minor induced magnetization may play an important role in providing requisite magnetization contrast. Perhaps, and especially for the Mars case, we should reevaluate where hematite and other minerals, with efficient remanence acquisition, exist in significant concentration, allowing a more comprehensive explanation of Martian anomalies and better insight into the role of remanent magnetization in terrestrial crustal magnetic anomalies.

  18. Anomaly Detection Based on Sensor Data in Petroleum Industry Applications

    PubMed Central

    Martí, Luis; Sanchez-Pi, Nayat; Molina, José Manuel; Garcia, Ana Cristina Bicharra

    2015-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the problem of finding patterns in data that do not conform to an a priori expected behavior. This is related to the problem in which some samples are distant, in terms of a given metric, from the rest of the dataset, where these anomalous samples are indicated as outliers. Anomaly detection has recently attracted the attention of the research community, because of its relevance in real-world applications, like intrusion detection, fraud detection, fault detection and system health monitoring, among many others. Anomalies themselves can have a positive or negative nature, depending on their context and interpretation. However, in either case, it is important for decision makers to be able to detect them in order to take appropriate actions. The petroleum industry is one of the application contexts where these problems are present. The correct detection of such types of unusual information empowers the decision maker with the capacity to act on the system in order to correctly avoid, correct or react to the situations associated with them. In that application context, heavy extraction machines for pumping and generation operations, like turbomachines, are intensively monitored by hundreds of sensors each that send measurements with a high frequency for damage prevention. In this paper, we propose a combination of yet another segmentation algorithm (YASA), a novel fast and high quality segmentation algorithm, with a one-class support vector machine approach for efficient anomaly detection in turbomachines. The proposal is meant for dealing with the aforementioned task and to cope with the lack of labeled training data. As a result, we perform a series of empirical studies comparing our approach to other methods applied to benchmark problems and a real-life application related to oil platform turbomachinery anomaly detection. PMID:25633599

  19. Profile-based adaptive anomaly detection for network security.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengchu C. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Durgin, Nancy Ann

    2005-11-01

    As information systems become increasingly complex and pervasive, they become inextricably intertwined with the critical infrastructure of national, public, and private organizations. The problem of recognizing and evaluating threats against these complex, heterogeneous networks of cyber and physical components is a difficult one, yet a solution is vital to ensuring security. In this paper we investigate profile-based anomaly detection techniques that can be used to address this problem. We focus primarily on the area of network anomaly detection, but the approach could be extended to other problem domains. We investigate using several data analysis techniques to create profiles of network hosts and perform anomaly detection using those profiles. The ''profiles'' reduce multi-dimensional vectors representing ''normal behavior'' into fewer dimensions, thus allowing pattern and cluster discovery. New events are compared against the profiles, producing a quantitative measure of how ''anomalous'' the event is. Most network intrusion detection systems (IDSs) detect malicious behavior by searching for known patterns in the network traffic. This approach suffers from several weaknesses, including a lack of generalizability, an inability to detect stealthy or novel attacks, and lack of flexibility regarding alarm thresholds. Our research focuses on enhancing current IDS capabilities by addressing some of these shortcomings. We identify and evaluate promising techniques for data mining and machine-learning. The algorithms are ''trained'' by providing them with a series of data-points from ''normal'' network traffic. A successful algorithm can be trained automatically and efficiently, will have a low error rate (low false alarm and miss rates), and will be able to identify anomalies in ''pseudo real-time'' (i.e., while the intrusion is still in progress, rather than after the fact). We also build a prototype anomaly detection tool that demonstrates how the techniques might

  20. Disparities in Infant Mortality Due to Congenital Anomalies on Guam

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Sara; Haddock, Robert L

    2015-01-01

    In the 1970's and 1980's, there were large inter-village disparities in infant mortality due to congenital anomalies on Guam. A village-level analysis was conducted to determine if these disparities can be explained by behavioral (ie, median age of village females, village fertility ratio), structural (ie, population density, persons per household, single mother households per village, married females per village), and environmental (ie, living in a village where Agent Orange (AO) spraying was conducted) factors. Village-level data for live births and infant mortality due to congenital anomalies (1970–1989) was collected from Guam's Office of Vital Statistics. Data on median age of village females, village fertility ratio, population density, persons per household, single mother households, and married females were obtained from the 1980 US Census. Estimates of village-level AO use were provided through personal communications, and villages were dichotomized into AO and non-AO spray areas. Village location was classified by usual residence of the mother. Linear regression was used to determine associations between infant mortality due to congenital anomalies and the behavioral, structural, and environmental factors. The association between AO spray area and infant mortality due to congenital anomalies was statistically significant under univariable (B [95%CI] = 1.88 [0.64,3.11], P = .005) and multivariable conditions (B [95%CI] = 2.02 [0.08,3.96], P = .042). These results suggest that infants born to mothers whose usual residence was in an AO spray area on Guam are at an increased risk of mortality due to congenital anomalies. Further studies using individual-level data are needed to validate these results. PMID:26668770