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Sample records for non-axisymmetric magnetorotational instabilities

  1. Nonlocal magnetorotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Erokhin, N. N.; Lominadze, J. G.; Galvao, R. M. O.; Churikov, A. P.; Kharshiladze, O. A.; Amador, C. H. S.

    2008-05-15

    An analytical theory of the nonlocal magnetorotational instability (MRI) is developed for the simplest astrophysical plasma model. It is assumed that the rotation frequency profile has a steplike character, so that there are two regions in which it has constant different values, separated by a narrow transition layer. The surface wave approach is employed to investigate the MRI in this configuration. It is shown that the main regularities of the nonlocal MRI are similar to those of the local instability and that driving the nonaxisymmetric MRI is less effective than the axisymmetric one, also for the case of the nonlocal instability. The existence of nonlocal instabilities in nonmagnetized plasma is predicted.

  2. Non-axisymmetric instabilities in discs with imposed zonal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanon, R.; Ogilvie, G. I.

    2016-09-01

    We conduct a linear stability calculation of an ideal Keplerian flow on which a sinusoidal zonal flow is imposed. The analysis uses the shearing sheet model and is carried out both in isothermal and adiabatic conditions, with and without self-gravity (SG). In the non-SG regime a structure in the potential vorticity (PV) leads to a non-axisymmetric Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability; in the short-wavelength limit its growth rate agrees with the incompressible calculation by Lithwick (2007), which only considers perturbations elongated in the streamwise direction. The instability's strength is analysed as a function of the structure's properties, and zonal flows are found to be stable if their wavelength is ≳ 8H, where H is the disc's scale height, regardless of the value of the adiabatic index γ. The non-axisymmetric KH instability can operate in Rayleigh-stable conditions, and it therefore represents the limiting factor to the structure's properties. Introducing SG triggers a second non-axisymmetric instability, which is found to be located around a PV maximum, while the KH instability is linked to a PV minimum, as expected. In the adiabatic regime, the same gravitational instability is detected even when the structure is present only in the entropy (not in the PV) and the instability spreads to weaker SG conditions as the entropy structure's amplitude is increased. This eventually yields a non-axisymmetric instability in the non-SG regime, albeit of weak strength, localised around an entropy maximum.

  3. Non-axisymmetric instability of core-annular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Howard H.; Patankar, Neelesh

    1995-05-01

    Stability of core-annular flow of water and oil in a vertical circular pipe is studied with respect to non-axisymmetric disturbances. Results show that when the oil core is thin, the flow is most unstable to the asymmetric sinuous mode of disturbance, and the core moves in the form of corkscrew waves as observed in experiments. The asymmetric mode of disturbance is the most dangerous mode for quite a wide range of material and flow parameters. This asymmetric mode persists in vertical pipes with upward and downward flows and in horizontal pipes. The analysis also applies to the instability of freely rising axisymmetric cigarette smoke or a thermal plume. The study predicts a unique wavelength for the asymmetric meandering waves.

  4. Nonmodal growth and the magnetorotational dynamo instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jonathan; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2014-10-01

    Unravelling the important dynamo processes in magnetized rotating shear flows remains fundamental in understanding turbulent transport in astrophysical disks. We consider the dynamo of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in its simplest possible form, studying the unstratified shearing box without a mean magnetic field. Despite the lack of spectral instability, sustained turbulence and dynamo is possible in this system, with the non-normality of the linear operator playing an important role. An analysis of the MRI from this non-normal perspective has proved enlightening, illustrating that the fastest growing non-axisymmetric disturbances are very different from the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). With the goal of understanding the core dynamo process, we evolve an statistical ensemble of shear waves in a quasi-linear version of the shearing box system. Among the most interesting ideas resulting from this approach is the existence of a mean field dynamo instability of homogenous background turbulence. The instability saturates at levels consistent with fully nonlinear turbulence simulations and depends strongly on magnetic Prandtl number. This work was supported by Max Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics and U.S. DOE (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  5. A Plasma, Magnetorotational Instability Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, C.; Forest, C. B.; Kendrick, R.; Seltzman, A.

    2007-11-01

    A new experiment is underway at the University of Wisconsin to investigate the magnetorotational instability in a plasma. Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a likely mechanism that could account for the observed accretion rates in astrophysical objects. The instability occurs when a weak magnetic field is present, so that tension in perturbed field lines transfers angular momentum outward while mass moves towards the center. In the Plasma Dynamo Experiment Prototype, a cylindrical, axisymmetric, ring cusp confinement geometry is used to produce a large unmagnetized plasma, confined by a highly localized magnetic field at the plasma boundary. The plasma is stirred by a novel axisymmetric electrode set that can control the rotation (angular momentum profile). The feasibility of observing the MRI will be discussed and initial results from a protoype experiment will be presented.

  6. Magnetorotational decay instability in Keplerian disks.

    PubMed

    Shtemler, Yuri; Liverts, Edward; Mond, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The saturation of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in thin Keplerian disks through three-wave resonant interactions is introduced and discussed. That mechanism is a natural generalization of the fundamental decay instability discovered five decades ago for infinite, homogeneous, and immovable plasmas. The decay instability relies on the energy transfer from the MRI to stable slow Alfvén-Coriolis as well as magnetosonic waves. A second-order forced Duffing amplitude equation for the initially unstable MRI as well as two first-order equations for the other two waves are derived. The solutions of those equations exhibit bounded bursty nonlinear oscillations for the MRI as well as unbounded growth for the linearly stable slow Alfvén-Coriolis and magnetosonic perturbations, thus giving rise to the magnetorotational decay instability. PMID:24476249

  7. Magnetorotational instabilities and pulsar kick velocities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heras, Ricardo

    2016-02-01

    At the end of their birth process, neutron stars can be subject to a magnetorotational instability in which a conversion of kinetic energy of differential rotation into radiation and kinetic energies is expected to occur at the Alfvén timescale of a few ms. This birth energy conversion predicts the observed large velocity of neutron stars if during the evolving of this instability the periods are of a few ms and the magnetic fields reach values of 1016 G.

  8. Radiative heat conduction and the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya-Góchez, Rafael A.; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2004-12-01

    A photon or a neutrino gas, semicontained by a non-diffusive particle species through scattering, comprises a rather peculiar magnetohydrodynamic fluid where the magnetic field is truly frozen only to the comoving volume associated with the mass density. Although radiative diffusion precludes a formal adiabatic treatment of compressive perturbations, we cast the energy equation in quasi-adiabatic form by assuming a negligible rate of energy exchange among species on the time-scale of the perturbation. This leads to a simplified dispersion relation for toroidal, non-axisymmetric magnetorotational modes when the accretion disc has comparable stress contributions from diffusive and non-diffusive components. The properties of the modes of fastest growth are shown to depend strongly on the compressibility of the mode, with a reduction in growth rate consistent with the results of Blaes & Socrates for axisymmetric modes. A clumpy disc structure is anticipated on the basis of the polarization properties of the fastest-growing modes. This analysis is accurate in the near-hole region of locally cooled, hyper-accreting flows if the electron gas becomes moderately degenerate such that non-conductive, thermalizing processes with associated electron-positron release (i.e. neutrino annihilation and neutrino absorption on to nuclei) are effectively blocked by high occupation of the Fermi levels.

  9. Reduced modeling of the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, Ben F.

    2009-06-01

    Accretion describes the process by which matter in an astrophysical disk falls onto a central massive object. Accretion disks are present in many astrophysical situations including binary star systems, young stellar objects, and near black holes at the center of galaxies. Measurements from observations of these disks have shown that viscous processes are unable to transport the necessary levels of angular momentum needed for accretion. Therefore, accretion requires an efficient mechanism of angular momentum transport. Mixing by turbulent processes greatly enhances the level of angular momentum transport in a turbulent fluid. Thus, the generation of turbulence in these disks may provide the mechanism needed for accretion. A classical result of hydrodynamic theory is that typical accretion disks are hydrodynamically stable to shear instabilities, since the specific angular momentum increases outwards. Other processes of generating hydrodynamic turbulence (barotropic instability, baroclinic instability, sound wave, shock waves, finite amplitude instabilities) may be present in these disks, however, none of these mechanisms has been shown to produce the level of angular momentum transport needed for accretion. Hydrodynamical turbulence does not produce enough angular momentum transport to produce the level of accretion observed in astrophysical accretion disks. The leading candidate for the source of turbulence leading to the transport of angular momentum is the magnetorotational instability, a linear axisymmetric instability of electrically conducting fluid in the presence of an imposed magnetic field and shear (or differential rotation). This instability is an efficient mechanism of angular momentum transport generating the level of transport needed for accretion. The level of effective angular momentum transport is determined by the saturated state of sustained turbulence generated by the instability. The mechanism of nonlinear saturation of this instability is not

  10. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtemler, Yu.; Liverts, E.; Mond, M.

    2016-06-01

    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén-Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  11. Upgrade of the Magnetorotational Instability Experiment Apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartman, E.; Gilson, E. P.; Edlund, E.; Goodman, J.; Ji, H.; Sloboda, P.; Wei, X.

    2014-10-01

    The Princeton MagnetoRotational Instability (MRI) Experiment was designed to investigate the MRI in a liquid gallium alloy Taylor-Couette flow generated between concentric spinning cylinders. To achieve magnetic Reynolds numbers sufficiently large to excite the MRI, flow velocities of order 20 m/s are required. Experimental operation at such velocities has been hampered by mechanical limitations of the apparatus. Dynamic pressures generated by the alloy cause distortion and binding, which is laborious to correct. High surface speeds lead to excessive seal wear. Modifications to the apparatus were implemented to enable extended operation at full design speed. The inner cylinder was also modified to carry diagnostics such as Doppler ultrasound, torque and magnetic field sensors. Details of the modifications will be presented. This work is supported by U.S. DOE, NASA and NSF.

  12. On the magnetorotational instability and elastic buckling

    PubMed Central

    Vasil, Geoffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an equivalence between rotating magnetized shear flows and a stressed elastic beam. This results from finding the same form of dynamical equations after an asymptotic reduction of the axis-symmetric magnetorotational instability (MRI) under the assumption of almost-critical driving. The analysis considers the MRI dynamics in a non-dissipative near-equilibrium regime. Both the magnetic and elastic systems reduce to a simple one-dimensional wave equation with a non-local nonlinear feedback. Under transformation, the equation comprises a large number of mean-field interacting Duffing oscillators. This system was the first proven example of a strange attractor in a partial differential equation. Finding the same reduced equation in two natural applications suggests the model might result from other applications and could fall into a universal class based on symmetry. PMID:27547088

  13. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as an anolog of Magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier

    2014-11-01

    Our investigation of the viscoelastic instability (VEI) in the corotating Couette-Taylor system is motivated by the prediction of Ogilvie et. al that such an instability is analogous to the MRI (magneto-rotational instability) which is believed to play a key role in the angular momentum transport in accretion disks. This analogy is supported by stretched spring argument developed by Balbus and Hawley which is similar to that of the polymer stretching model in viscoelastic solutions. To our best knowledge, only one experiment by Boldyrev et al. has been reported for the search of the analogy VEI-MRI. We present both theoretical and experimental results obtained in the viscoelastic Couette-Taylor system when both the cylinders are constrained to rotate along the Keplerian and anti-Keplerian lines. The polymer solutions have a constant solution with respect to shear rate and can be described by the Odlroyd-B model. The control parameters are the aspect ratio Γ, the radius ratio η, the Reynolds number Re , the elastic number E = Wi / Re and the viscosity ratio S =μp / μ . After linear stability analysis, critical modes are oscillatory and non-axisymmetric. The observed modes are either stationary or oscillatory modes. A state diagram allows for a comparison to MRI Partial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR) through the program Investissements d'Avenir (ANR-10 LABX-09-01), LABEX EMC3.

  14. A Reduced Model for the Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, Ben; Julien, Keith; Knobloch, Edgar

    2008-11-01

    The magnetorotational instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation in the large Elsasser number regime. In this regime, which is of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory, shear is the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are weaker still. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived here from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from numerical simulations of the reduced pde model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these algebraic growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of the angular momentum transport. The inclusion of subdominant ohmic dissipation arrests the algebraic growth of the fluctuations on a longer, dissipative time scale.

  15. Magnetorotational Instability of Dissipative MHD Flows

    SciTech Connect

    HERRON, ISOM H

    2010-07-10

    Executive summary Two important general problems of interest in plasma physics that may be addressed successfully by Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are: (1) Find magnetic field configurations capable of confining a plasma in equilibrium. (2) Study the stability properties of each such an equilibrium. It is often found that the length scale of many instabilities and waves that are able to grow or propagate in a system, are comparable with plasma size, such as in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas or in astrophysical accretion disks. Thus MHD is able to provide a good description of such large-scale disturbances. The Magnetorotational instability (MRI) is one particular instance of a potential instability. The project involved theoretical work on fundamental aspects of plasma physics. Researchers at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) began to perform a series of liquid metal Couette flow experiments between rotating cylinders. Their purpose was to produce MRI, which they had predicted theoretically 2002, but was only observed in the laboratory since this project began. The personnel on the project consisted of three persons: (1) The PI, who was partially supported on the budget during each of four summers 2005-2008. (2) Two graduate research assistants, who worked consecutively on the project throughout the years 2005-2009. As a result, the first student, Fritzner Soliman, obtained an M.S. degree in 2006; the second student, Pablo Suarez obtained the Ph.D. degree in 2009. The work was in collaboration with scientists in Princeton, periodic trips were made by the PI as part of the project. There were 4 peer-reviewed publications and one book produced.

  16. Shear dynamo, turbulence, and the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squire, Jonathan

    The formation, evolution, and detailed structure of accretion disks remain poorly understood, with wide implications across a variety of astrophysical disciplines. While the most pressing question --- what causes the high angular momentum fluxes that are necessary to explain observations? --- is nicely answered by the idea that the disk is turbulent, a more complete grasp of the fundamental processes is necessary to capture the wide variety of behaviors observed in the night sky. This thesis studies the turbulence in ionized accretion disks from a theoretical standpoint, in particular focusing on the generation of magnetic fields in these processes, known as dynamo. Such fields are expected to be enormously important, both by enabling the magnetorotational instability (which evolves into virulent turbulence), and through large-scale structure formation, which may transport angular momentum in different ways and be fundamental for the formation of jets. The central result of this thesis is the suggestion of a new large-scale dynamo mechanism in shear flows --- the "magnetic shear-current effect" --- which relies on a positive feedback from small-scale magnetic fields. As well as being a very promising candidate for driving field generation in the central regions of accretion disks, this effect is interesting because small-scale magnetic fields have historically been considered to have a negative effect on the large-scale dynamo, damping growth and leading to dire predictions for final saturation amplitudes. Given that small-scale fields are ubiquitous in plasma turbulence above moderate Reynolds numbers, the finding that they could instead have a positive effect in some situations is interesting from a theoretical and practical standpoint. The effect is studied using direct numerical simulation, analytic techniques, and novel statistical simulation methods. In addition to the dynamo, much attention is given to the linear physics of disks and its relevance to

  17. High-frequency extensions of magnetorotational instability in astrophysical plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Churikov, A. P.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Erokhin, N. N.; Tsypin, V. S.; Galvao, R. M. O.

    2008-08-15

    High-frequency extensions of magnetorotational instability driven by the Velikhov effect beyond the standard magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) regime are studied. The existence of the well-known Hall regime and a new electron inertia regime is demonstrated. The electron inertia regime is realized for a lesser plasma magnetization of rotating plasma than that in the Hall regime. It includes the subregime of nonmagnetized electrons. It is shown that, in contrast to the standard MHD regime and the Hall regime, magnetorotational instability in this subregime can be driven only at positive values of dln{Omega}/dlnr, where {Omega} is the plasma rotation frequency and r is the radial coordinate. The permittivity of rotating plasma beyond the standard MHD regime, including both the Hall regime and the electron inertia regime, is calculated.

  18. Magnetorotational instability: nonmodal growth and the relationship of global modes to the shearing box

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2014-12-10

    We study magnetorotational instability (MRI) using nonmodal stability techniques. Despite the spectral instability of many forms of MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very different from the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely different region of space. These ideas lead—for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes—to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using nonmodal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite timescales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that nonmodal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence.

  19. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    SciTech Connect

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee

    2014-07-01

    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  20. Global Hall-MHD simulations of magnetorotational instability in a plasma Couette flow experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, F.; Lefebvre, B.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Forest, C. B.

    2011-06-15

    Global MHD and Hall-MHD numerical simulations relevant to the Madison plasma Couette flow experiment (MPCX) have been performed using the extended MHD code NIMROD. The MPCX has been constructed to study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a plasma. The two-fluid Hall effect, which is relevant to some astrophysical situations such as protostellar disks, is also expected to be important in the MPCX. Here, we first derive the local Hall dispersion relation including viscosity, extending earlier work by Balbus and Terquem [Astrophys. J. 552, 235 (2001)]. The predictions of the local analysis are then compared with nonlocal calculations of linear stability of the MRI for a parameter range relevant to the MPCX. It is found that the MHD stability limit and mode structure are altered by the Hall term, and nonlocal analysis is necessary to obtain quantitatively reliable predictions for MPCX. Two-fluid physics also significantly changes the nonlinear evolution and saturation of the axisymmetric MRI. Both the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses contribute significantly to momentum transport. In the Hall regime, when the magnetic field is parallel to the rotation axis, the Maxwell stress is larger than the Reynolds stress (similar to the MHD regime). However, when the magnetic field is antiparallel to the rotation axis in the Hall regime, the Reynolds stress is much larger than the Maxwell stress. To further study the role of non-axisymmetric modes, we have also carried out fully nonlinear MHD computations. Non-axisymmetric modes play an increasingly important role as the magnetic Reynolds number increases and grow to large amplitudes in a saturated turbulent state.

  1. Magnetorotational instability in plasmas with mobile dust grains

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Haijun; Cao Jintao; Li Ding; Chu, Paul K.

    2013-03-15

    The magnetorotational instability of dusty plasmas is investigated using the multi-fluid model and the general dispersion relation is derived based on local approximation. The dust grains are found to play an important role in the dispersion relation in the low-frequency mode and exhibit destabilizing effects on the plasma. Both the instability criterion and growth rate are affected significantly by the dust and when the dust is heavy enough to be unperturbed, the reduced dispersion relations are obtained. The instability criteria show that the dust grains have stabilizing effects on the instability when the rotation frequency decreases outwards and conversely lead to destabilizing effects when the rotation frequency increases outwards. The results are relevant to accession and protoplanetary disks.

  2. Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Annulus

    SciTech Connect

    Hantao Ji; Jeremy Goodman; Akira Kageyama

    2001-03-10

    Although the magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been widely accepted as a powerful accretion mechanism in magnetized accretion disks, it has not been realized in the laboratory. The possibility of studying MRI in a rotating liquid-metal annulus (Couette flow) is explored by local and global stability analysis and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Stability diagrams are drawn in dimensionless parameters, and also in terms of the angular velocities at the inner and outer cylinders. It is shown that MRI can be triggered in a moderately rapidly rotating table-top apparatus, using easy-to-handle metals such as gallium. Practical issues of this proposed experiment are discussed.

  3. PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN A COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-08-20

    Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of p > p{sub ||} induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.

  4. Analysis of Instabilities in Non-Axisymmetric Hypersonic Boundary Layers Over Cones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery A.

    2010-01-01

    Hypersonic flows over circular cones constitute one of the most important generic configurations for fundamental aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic studies. In this paper, numerical computations are carried out for Mach 6 flows over a 7-degree half-angle cone with two different flow incidence angles and a compression cone with a large concave curvature. Instability wave and transition-related flow physics are investigated using a series of advanced stability methods ranging from conventional linear stability theory (LST) and a higher-fidelity linear and nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSE), to the 2D eigenvalue analysis based on partial differential equations. Computed N factor distribution pertinent to various instability mechanisms over the cone surface provides initial assessments of possible transition fronts and a guide to corresponding disturbance characteristics such as frequency and azimuthal wave numbers. It is also shown that strong secondary instability that eventually leads to transition to turbulence can be simulated very efficiently using a combination of advanced stability methods described above.

  5. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN NASCENT PROTONEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Masada, Youhei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional model of a supernova core. To resolve MRI-unstable modes, a thin layer approximation considering only the radial global stratification is adopted. Our intriguing finding is that the convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere becomes fully turbulent due to the MRI and its nonlinear penetration into the strongly stratified MRI-stable region. The intensity of the MRI-driven turbulence increases with magnetic flux threading the core, but is limited by the free energy stored in the differential rotation. The turbulent neutrinosphere is a natural consequence of rotating core-collapse and could exert a positive impact on the supernova mechanism.

  6. Nondissipative saturation of the magnetorotational instability in thin disks.

    PubMed

    Liverts, Edward; Shtemler, Yuri; Mond, Michael; Umurhan, Orkan M; Bisikalo, Dmitry V

    2012-11-30

    A new nondissipative mechanism is proposed for the saturation of the axisymmetric magnetorotational (MRI) instability in thin Keplerian disks that are subject to an axial magnetic field. That mechanism relies on the energy transfer from the MRI to stable magnetosonic waves. Such mode interaction is enabled due to the vertical stratification of the disk that results in the discretization of its MRI spectrum, as well as by applying the appropriate boundary conditions. A second order Duffing-like amplitude equation for the initially unstable MRI modes is derived. The solutions of that equation exhibit bursty nonlinear oscillations with a constant amplitude that signifies the saturation level of the MRI. Those results are verified by a direct numerical solution of the full nonlinear reduced set of thin disk magnetohydrodynamics equations. PMID:23368127

  7. Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence Powered by Magnetorotational Instability in Nascent Protoneutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masada, Youhei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei

    2015-01-01

    Magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere is simulated by a three-dimensional model of a supernova core. To resolve MRI-unstable modes, a thin layer approximation considering only the radial global stratification is adopted. Our intriguing finding is that the convectively stable layer around the neutrinosphere becomes fully turbulent due to the MRI and its nonlinear penetration into the strongly stratified MRI-stable region. The intensity of the MRI-driven turbulence increases with magnetic flux threading the core, but is limited by the free energy stored in the differential rotation. The turbulent neutrinosphere is a natural consequence of rotating core-collapse and could exert a positive impact on the supernova mechanism.

  8. Helical magnetorotational instability in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Wei; Ji Hantao; Goodman, Jeremy; Herron, Isom

    2006-11-15

    Hollerbach and Ruediger have reported a new type of magnetorotational instability (MRI) in magnetized Taylor-Couette flow in the presence of combined axial and azimuthal magnetic fields. The salient advantage of this 'helical' MRI (HMRI) is that marginal instability occurs at arbitrarily low magnetic Reynolds and Lundquist numbers, suggesting that HMRI might be easier to realize than standard MRI (axial field only), and that it might be relevant to cooler astrophysical disks, especially those around protostars, which may be quite resistive. We confirm previous results for marginal stability and calculate HMRI growth rates. We show that in the resistive limit, HMRI is a weakly destabilized inertial oscillation propagating in a unique direction along the axis. But we report other features of HMRI that make it less attractive for experiments and for resistive astrophysical disks. Large axial currents are required. More fundamentally, instability of highly resistive flow is peculiar to infinitely long or periodic cylinders: finite cylinders with insulating endcaps are shown to be stable in this limit, at least if viscosity is neglected. Also, Keplerian rotation profiles are stable in the resistive limit regardless of axial boundary conditions. Nevertheless, the addition of a toroidal field lowers thresholds for instability even in finite cylinders.

  9. Axisymmetric magnetorotational instability in ideal and viscous laboratory plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailovskii, A. B.; Lominadze, J. G.; Churikov, A. P.; Erokhin, N. N.; Pustovitov, V. D.; Konovalov, S. V.

    2008-10-15

    The original analysis of the axisymmetric magnetorotational instability (MRI) by Velikhov (Sov. Phys. JETP 9, 995 (1959)) and Chandrasekhar (Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 46, 253 (1960)), applied to the ideally conducting magnetized medium in the laboratory conditions and restricted to the incompressible approximation, is extended by allowing for the compressibility. Thereby, two additional driving mechanisms of MRI are revealed in addition to the standard drive due to the negative medium rotation frequency gradient (the Velikhov effect). One is due to the squared medium pressure gradient and another is a combined effect of the pressure and density gradients. For laboratory applications, the expression for the MRI boundary with all the above driving mechanisms and the stabilizing magnetoacoustic effect is derived. The effects of parallel and perpendicular viscosities on the MRI in the laboratory plasma are investigated. It is shown that, for strong viscosity, there is a family of MRI driven for the same condition as the ideal one. It is also revealed that the presence of strong viscosity leads to additional family of instabilities called the viscosity-driven MRI. Then the parallel-viscositydriven MRI looks as an overstability (oscillatory instability) possessing both the growth rate and the real part of oscillation frequency, while the perpendicular-viscosity MRI is the aperiodical instability.

  10. The Role of the Magnetorotational Instability in Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Kagan, Daniel; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is key to physics in accretion disks and is widely considered to play some role in massive star core collapse. Models of rotating massive stars naturally develop very strong shear at composition boundaries, a necessary condition for MRI instability, and the MRI is subject to triply diffusive destabilizing effects in radiative regions. We have used the MESA stellar evolution code to compute magnetic effects due to the Spruit-Tayler (ST) mechanism and the MRI, separately and together, in a sample of massive star models. We find that the MRI can be active in the later stages of massive star evolution, leading to mixing effects that are not captured in models that neglect the MRI. The MRI and related magnetorotational effects can move models of given zero-age main sequence mass across "boundaries" from degenerate CO cores to degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores and from degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores to iron cores, thus affecting the final evolution and the physics of core collapse. The MRI acting alone can slow the rotation of the inner core in general agreement with the observed "initial" rotation rates of pulsars. The MRI analysis suggests that localized fields ~1012 G may exist at the boundary of the iron core. With both the ST and MRI mechanisms active in the 20 M ⊙ model, we find that the helium shell mixes entirely out into the envelope. Enhanced mixing could yield a population of yellow or even blue supergiant supernova progenitors that would not be standard SN IIP.

  11. THE ROLE OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Kagan, Daniel; Chatzopoulos, Emmanouil

    2015-01-20

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is key to physics in accretion disks and is widely considered to play some role in massive star core collapse. Models of rotating massive stars naturally develop very strong shear at composition boundaries, a necessary condition for MRI instability, and the MRI is subject to triply diffusive destabilizing effects in radiative regions. We have used the MESA stellar evolution code to compute magnetic effects due to the Spruit-Tayler (ST) mechanism and the MRI, separately and together, in a sample of massive star models. We find that the MRI can be active in the later stages of massive star evolution, leading to mixing effects that are not captured in models that neglect the MRI. The MRI and related magnetorotational effects can move models of given zero-age main sequence mass across ''boundaries'' from degenerate CO cores to degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores and from degenerate O/Ne/Mg cores to iron cores, thus affecting the final evolution and the physics of core collapse. The MRI acting alone can slow the rotation of the inner core in general agreement with the observed ''initial'' rotation rates of pulsars. The MRI analysis suggests that localized fields ∼10{sup 12} G may exist at the boundary of the iron core. With both the ST and MRI mechanisms active in the 20 M {sub ☉} model, we find that the helium shell mixes entirely out into the envelope. Enhanced mixing could yield a population of yellow or even blue supergiant supernova progenitors that would not be standard SN IIP.

  12. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability at large Elsasser number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamroz, B.; Julien, K.; Knobloch, E.

    2008-09-01

    The magnetorotational instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation in the large Elsasser number regime. In this regime, which is of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory, shear is the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are weaker still but not negligible. The regime explored retains the condition that (viscous and ohmic) dissipative forces do not play a role in the leading order linear instability mechanism. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived here from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from numerical simulations of the reduced pde model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these algebraic growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of the angular momentum transport. The inclusion of subdominant ohmic dissipation arrests the algebraic growth of the fluctuations on a longer, dissipative time scale.

  13. Study of Magnetorotational Instability in a Swirling Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hantao; Kremer, Kyle; Edlund, Eric; Spence, Erik

    2011-11-01

    Fast angular momentum transport in accretion disks has been an outstanding problem in astrophysics for more than three decades. The magnetorotational instability (MRI) has been identified as a powerful mechanism to transport angular momentum. Experiments using liquid metal are underway to study the MRI in incompressible MHD limit. A new frontier in accretion disk research is to explore physics beyond incompressible MHD. Possible new effects include compressibility, multiple-fluid effects, kinetic effects, ion-neutral collisions, radiation pressure, and dust grains. A swirling gas flow with quasi-Keplerian profiles, which are characterized by radially increasing angular momentum with decreasing angular velocity, is set up by an injection-pumping system. Spiral antennas are used to transmit RF power into the experiment through the helicon mode of discharge to ionize the gas with a desirable degree of ionization. A wide range of outstanding issues can be studied in such device, including: nonlinear hydrodynamic instability, baroclinic instability with axial or azimuthal temperature gradient, MRI in weakly ionized plasmas with Hall effect and ambipolar diffusion. Theoretical analyses and experimental explorations will be presented.

  14. Viscoelastic Taylor-Couette instability as analog of the magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Mutabazi, Innocent

    2015-09-01

    A linear stability analysis and an experimental study of a viscoelastic Taylor-Couette flow corotating in the Keplerian ratio allow us to elucidate the analogy between the viscoelastic instability and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). A generalized Rayleigh criterion allows us to determine the potentially unstable zone to pure-elasticity-driven perturbations. Experiments with a viscoelastic polymer solution yield four modes: one pure-elasticity mode and three elastorotational instability (ERI) modes that represent the MRI-analog modes. The destabilization by the polymer viscosity is evidenced for the ERI modes.

  15. The magnetorotational instability in debris-disc gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Quentin; Latter, Henrik

    2016-09-01

    Debris discs are commonly swathed in gas, which can be observed in UV, in fine structure lines in FIR, and in resolved maps of CO emission. Carbon and oxygen are overabundant in such gas, but it is severely depleted in hydrogen. As a consequence, its ionization fraction is remarkably high, suggesting that magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes could be important. In particular, the gas may be subject to the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and indeed, recent modelling of β Pictoris requires an anomalous viscosity to explain the gas's observed radial structure. In this paper, we explore the possibility that the MRI is active in debris-disc gas and responsible for the observed mass transport. We find that non-ideal MHD and dust-gas interactions play a subdominant role, and that linear instability is viable at certain radii. However, owing to low gas densities, the outer parts of the disc could be stabilized by a weak ambient magnetic field, though it is difficult to constrain such a field. Even if the MRI is stabilized by too strong a field, a magnetocentrifugal wind may be launched in its place, and this could lead to equivalent (non-turbulent) transport. Numerical simulations of the vertically stratified MRI in conditions appropriate to the debris-disc gas should be able to determine the nature of the characteristic behaviour at different radii, and decide on the importance of the MRI (and MHD more generally) on the evolution of these discs.

  16. Magnetorotational instability, current relaxation, and current-vortex sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Silveira, F. E. M.; Galvão, R. M. O.

    2013-08-15

    The conjugate effect of current relaxation and of current-vortex sheet formation on the magnetorotational instability is explored in a conducting fluid. It is found that the relative amplification of the magnetic viscosity from marginal stability to the instability determined by the maximum growth rate is around 924% when resistive effects dominate, while the corresponding quantity is around 220% in the ideal limit. This shows that the conjugate influence is much more efficient to amplify the magnetic viscosity than just the effect due to the standard magnetic tension. It is also found that the magnitude of the magnetic viscosity is effectively enhanced by the conjugate influence. The results presented here may contribute to the understanding of the various processes that play a significant role in the mechanism of anomalous viscosity observed in Keplerian disks. It is argued that the new effect shall be relevant in thin accretion disks. It is also mentioned that the proposed formulation may be of interest for some theories of magnetic reconnection. Possible extensions of this work are suggested.

  17. The role of the magnetorotational instability in the sun

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, Daniel; Wheeler, J. Craig E-mail: wheel@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2014-05-20

    We calculate growth rates for nonaxisymmetric instabilities including the magnetorotational instability (MRI) throughout the Sun. We first derive a dispersion relation for nonaxisymmetric instability including the effects of shear, convective buoyancy, and three diffusivities (thermal conductivity, resistivity, and viscosity). We then use a solar model evolved with the stellar evolution code MESA and angular velocity profiles determined by Global Oscillations Network Group helioseismology to determine the unstable modes present at each location in the Sun and the associated growth rates. The overall instability has unstable modes throughout the convection zone and also slightly below it at middle and high latitudes. It contains three classes of modes: large-scale hydrodynamic convective modes, large-scale hydrodynamic shear modes, and small-scale magnetohydrodynamic shear modes, which may be properly called MRI modes. While large-scale convective modes are the most rapidly growing modes in most of the convective zone, MRI modes are important in both stably stratified and convectively unstable locations near the tachocline at colatitudes θ < 53°. Nonaxisymmetric MRI modes grow faster than the corresponding axisymmetric modes; for some poloidal magnetic fields, the nonaxisymmetric MRI growth rates are similar to the angular rotation frequency Ω, while axisymmetric modes are stabilized. We briefly discuss the saturation of the field produced by MRI modes, finding that the implied field at the base of the convective zone in the Sun is comparable to that derived based on dynamos active in the tachocline and that the saturation of field resulting from the MRI may be of importance even in the upper convection zone.

  18. Modeling Layered Accretion and the Magnetorotational Instability in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V., III

    2012-05-01

    Understanding the temperature structure of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) is paramount to modeling disk evolution and future planet formation. PPDs around T Tauri stars have two primary heating sources, protostellar irradiation, which depends on the flaring of the disk, and accretional heating as viscous coupling between annuli dissipate energy. I have written a "1.5-D" radiative transfer code to calculate disk temperatures assuming hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium. The model solves for the temperature at all locations simultaneously using Rybicki's method, converges rapidly at high optical depth, and retains full frequency dependence. The likely cause of accretional heating in PPDs is the magnetorotational instability (MRI), which acts where gas ionization is sufficiently high for gas to couple to the magnetic field. This will occur in surface layers of the disk, leaving the interior portions of the disk inactive ("dead zone"). I calculate temperatures in PPDs undergoing such "layered accretion." Since the accretional heating is concentrated far from the midplane, temperatures in the disk's interior are lower than in PPDs modeled with vertically uniform accretion. The method is used to study for the first time disks evolving via the magnetorotational instability, which operates primarily in surface layers. I find that temperatures in layered accretion disks do not significantly differ from those of "passive disks," where no accretional heating exists. Emergent spectra are insensitive to active layer thickness, making it difficult to observationally identify disks undergoing layered vs. uniform accretion. I also calculate the ionization chemistry in PPDs, using an ionization network including multiple charge states of dust grains. Combined with a criterion for the onset of the MRI, I calculate where the MRI can be initiated and the extent of dead zones in PPDs. After accounting for feedback between temperature and active layer thickness, I find the surface

  19. On the viability of the magnetorotational instability in circumplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Yuri I.; Okuzumi, Satoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Tanigawa, Takayuki

    2014-04-20

    We examine whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can serve as a mechanism of angular momentum transport in circumplanetary disks. For the MRI to operate the ionization degree must be sufficiently high and the magnetic pressure must be sufficiently lower than the gas pressure. We calculate the spatial distribution of the ionization degree and search for the MRI-active region where the two criteria are met. We find that there can be thin active layers at the disk surface depending on the model parameters, however, we find hardly any region which can sustain well-developed MRI turbulence; when the magnetic field is enhanced by MRI turbulence at the disk surface layer, a magnetically dominated atmosphere encroaches on a lower altitude and a region of well-developed MRI turbulence becomes smaller. We conclude that if there are no angular momentum transfer mechanisms other than MRI in gravitationally stable circumplanetary disks, gas is likely to pile up until disks become gravitationally unstable, and massive disks may survive for a long time.

  20. Temperature fluctuations driven by magnetorotational instability in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, Colin P.; Hubbard, Alexander; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; Yang, Chao-Chin E-mail: ahubbard@amnh.org E-mail: ccyang@astro.lu.se

    2014-08-10

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives magnetized turbulence in sufficiently ionized regions of protoplanetary disks, leading to mass accretion. The dissipation of the potential energy associated with this accretion determines the thermal structure of accreting regions. Until recently, the heating from the turbulence has only been treated in an azimuthally averaged sense, neglecting local fluctuations. However, magnetized turbulence dissipates its energy intermittently in current sheet structures. We study this intermittent energy dissipation using high resolution numerical models including a treatment of radiative thermal diffusion in an optically thick regime. Our models predict that these turbulent current sheets drive order-unity temperature variations even where the MRI is damped strongly by Ohmic resistivity. This implies that the current sheet structures where energy dissipation occurs must be well-resolved to correctly capture the flow structure in numerical models. Higher resolutions are required to resolve energy dissipation than to resolve the magnetic field strength or accretion stresses. The temperature variations are large enough to have major consequences for mineral formation in disks, including melting chondrules, remelting calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, and annealing silicates; and may drive hysteresis: current sheets in MRI active regions could be significantly more conductive than the remainder of the disk.

  1. A generalized energy principle for a magnetorotational instability model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tassi, Emanuele; Morrison, Phil; Tronko, Natalia

    2012-03-01

    We study the equilibria of the Magnetorotational Instability system by using the noncanonical Hamiltonian approach [1], since it provides variational principles for equilibria that can be used to assess stability. We show that a reduced system of equations derived in [2] is an infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian system. The noncanonical Poisson bracket is identified and shown to obey the Jacobi identity, and families of Casimir invariants are obtained. Explicit sufficient conditions for the energy stability of two classes of equilibria are identified by means of the Energy-Casimir method. Comparison between the stability conditions obtained in the two cases indicates that the presence of an equilibirum magnetic field along the direction of the ignorable coordinate does not introduce destabilizing effects. An analogy is found and physically interpreted between terms of the MRI perturbation energy and terms appearing in the energy principle stability analysis of CRMHD for tokamaks [3].[4pt] [1] P. J. Morrison, Rev. Mod. Phys., 70, 467 (1998).[0pt] [2] K. Julien and E. Knobloch, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., 386A,1607 (2010).[0pt] [3] R.D. Hazeltine, et. al, Phys. Fluids 28, 2466 (1985).

  2. Generalised quasilinear approximation of the helical magnetorotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, Adam; Hollerbach, Rainer; Marston, Brad; Tobias, Steven

    2016-06-01

    > Motivated by recent advances in direct statistical simulation (DSS) of astrophysical phenomena such as out-of-equilibrium jets, we perform a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI) under the generalised quasilinear approximation (GQL). This approximation generalises the quasilinear approximation (QL) to include the self-consistent interaction of large-scale modes, interpolating between fully nonlinear DNS and QL DNS whilst still remaining formally linear in the small scales. In this paper we address whether GQL can more accurately describe low-order statistics of axisymmetric HMRI when compared with QL by performing DNS under various degrees of GQL approximation. We utilise various diagnostics, such as energy spectra in addition to first and second cumulants, for calculations performed for a range of Reynolds and Hartmann numbers (describing rotation and imposed magnetic field strength respectively). We find that GQL performs significantly better than QL in describing the statistics of the HMRI even when relatively few large-scale modes are kept in the formalism. We conclude that DSS based on GQL (GCE2) will be significantly more accurate than that based on QL (CE2).

  3. Stochastic Particle Acceleration in Turbulence Generated by Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shigeo S.; Toma, Kenji; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We investigate stochastic particle acceleration in accretion flows. It is believed that magnetorotational instability (MRI) generates turbulence inside accretion flows and that cosmic rays (CRs) are accelerated by the turbulence. We calculate equations of motion for CRs in the turbulent fields generated by MRI with the shearing box approximation and without back reaction to the field. Our results show that the CRs randomly gain or lose their energy through interaction with the turbulent fields. The CRs diffuse in the configuration space anisotropically: the diffusion coefficient in the direction of the unperturbed flow is about 20 times higher than the Bohm coefficient, while those in the other directions are only a few times higher than the Bohm. The momentum distribution is isotropic and its evolution can be described by the diffusion equation in momentum space where the diffusion coefficient is a power-law function of the CR momentum. We show that the shear acceleration works efficiently for energetic particles. We also cautiously note that in the shearing box approximation, particles that cross the simulation box many times along the radial direction undergo unphysical runaway acceleration by the Lorentz transformation, which needs to be taken into account with special care.

  4. Magnetic flux concentration and zonal flows in magnetorotational instability turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2014-11-20

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.

  5. Magnetic Flux Concentration and Zonal Flows in Magnetorotational Instability Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xue-Ning; Stone, James M.

    2014-11-01

    Accretion disks are likely threaded by external vertical magnetic flux, which enhances the level of turbulence via the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Using shearing-box simulations, we find that such external magnetic flux also strongly enhances the amplitude of banded radial density variations known as zonal flows. Moreover, we report that vertical magnetic flux is strongly concentrated toward low-density regions of the zonal flow. Mean vertical magnetic field can be more than doubled in low-density regions, and reduced to nearly zero in high-density regions in some cases. In ideal MHD, the scale on which magnetic flux concentrates can reach a few disk scale heights. In the non-ideal MHD regime with strong ambipolar diffusion, magnetic flux is concentrated into thin axisymmetric shells at some enhanced level, whose size is typically less than half a scale height. We show that magnetic flux concentration is closely related to the fact that the turbulent diffusivity of the MRI turbulence is anisotropic. In addition to a conventional Ohmic-like turbulent resistivity, we find that there is a correlation between the vertical velocity and horizontal magnetic field fluctuations that produces a mean electric field that acts to anti-diffuse the vertical magnetic flux. The anisotropic turbulent diffusivity has analogies to the Hall effect, and may have important implications for magnetic flux transport in accretion disks. The physical origin of magnetic flux concentration may be related to the development of channel flows followed by magnetic reconnection, which acts to decrease the mass-to-flux ratio in localized regions. The association of enhanced zonal flows with magnetic flux concentration may lead to global pressure bumps in protoplanetary disks that helps trap dust particles and facilitates planet formation.

  6. Magneto-rotational instability in the protolunar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballido, Augusto; Desch, Steven J.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2016-04-01

    We perform the first study of magnetohydrodynamic processes in the protolunar disk (PLD). With the use of published data on the chemical composition of the PLD, along with existing analytical models of the disk structure, we show that the high temperatures that were prevalent in the disk would have led to ionization of Na, K, SiO, Zn and, to a lesser extent, O2. For simplicity, we assume that the disk has a vapor structure. The resulting ionization fractions, together with a relatively weak magnetic field, possibly of planetary origin, would have been sufficient to trigger the magneto-rotational instability, or MRI, as demonstrated by the fact that the Elsasser criterion was met in the PLD: a magnetic field embedded in the flow would have diffused more slowly than the growth rate of the linear perturbations. We calculate the intensity of the resulting magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, as parameterized by the dimensionless ratio α of turbulent stresses to gas pressure, and obtain maximum values α ∼10-2 along most of the vertical extent of the disk, and at different orbital radii. This indicates that, under these conditions, turbulent mixing within the PLD due to the MRI was likely capable of transporting isotopic and chemical species efficiently. To test these results in a conservative manner, we carry out a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a small, rectangular patch of the PLD, located at 4 Earth radii (rE) from the center of the Earth, and assuming once again that the disk is completely gaseous. We use a polytrope-like equation of state. The rectangular patch is threaded initially by a vertical magnetic field with zero net magnetic flux. This field configuration is known to produce relatively weak MRI turbulence in studies of astrophysical accretion disks. We accordingly obtain turbulence with an average intensity α ∼ 7 ×10-6 over the course of 280 orbital periods (133 days at 4rE). Despite this relatively low value of α , the effective turbulent

  7. Thermal and magnetorotational instability in the insterstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, Robert Andrew

    We have performed three sets of numerical experiments designed to study turbulence in the interstellar medium (ISM) driven by the magnetorotational instability. Our models are local, account for galactic rotation and shear, include magnetic fields, and a cooling function which permits two stable phases of gas in pressure equilibrium. The first set of simulations was performed in two dimensions, in the radial- vertical plane. These simulations laid the groundwork for the future 3D models to come. The numerical method for including the cooling function, as well as conduction, was developed and implemented. These simulations gave us a glimpse into the workings of the MRI in the presence of a two-phase medium. In our second set of simulations we extend our models to three dimensions. This allowed us to study the saturated state of the MRI in the presence of a two- phase medium. The scaling of velocity dispersion with density was found to be steeper than that of single phase models, so that at low densities larger turbulent amplitudes were found. The interaction between MRI driven turbulence and the phase structure of the gas was examined in detail. We concluded that turbulence can drive gas into a thermally unstable state, but a two phase model of the ISM was still a fairly good approximation. Finally, we added vertical gravity to our third set of models. Now, rather than specify the mean density, the vertical distribution of gas in the simulation domain is determined self-consistently. In these models cold dense clouds form due to TI and sink to the mid-plane. Turbulence driven by the MRI thickens the disk compared to non-turbulent models by as much as 100%. Turbulent amplitudes in the cold medium are relatively low, however, as the increased concentration of cold clouds near the mid-plane keep them relatively isolated from the more turbulent warm medium. Whether or not the MRI is a significant source of turbulence in the ISM is still a question without a definitive

  8. Investigating the Magnetorotational Instability with Dedalus, and Open-Souce Hydrodynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Keaton J; /UC, Berkeley, aff SLAC

    2012-08-31

    The magnetorotational instability is a fluid instability that causes the onset of turbulence in discs with poloidal magnetic fields. It is believed to be an important mechanism in the physics of accretion discs, namely in its ability to transport angular momentum outward. A similar instability arising in systems with a helical magnetic field may be easier to produce in laboratory experiments using liquid sodium, but the applicability of this phenomenon to astrophysical discs is unclear. To explore and compare the properties of these standard and helical magnetorotational instabilities (MRI and HRMI, respectively), magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) capabilities were added to Dedalus, an open-source hydrodynamics simulator. Dedalus is a Python-based pseudospectral code that uses external libraries and parallelization with the goal of achieving speeds competitive with codes implemented in lower-level languages. This paper will outline the MHD equations as implemented in Dedalus, the steps taken to improve the performance of the code, and the status of MRI investigations using Dedalus.

  9. Termination of the magnetorotational instability via parasitic instabilities in core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembiasz, T.; Obergaulinger, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Müller, E.; Aloy, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) can be a powerful mechanism amplifying the magnetic field in core-collapse supernovae. Whether initially weak magnetic fields can be amplified by this instability to dynamically relevant strengths is still a matter of debate. One of the main uncertainties concerns the process that terminates the growth of the instability. Parasitic instabilities of both Kelvin-Helmholtz and tearing-mode type have been suggested to play a crucial role in this process, disrupting MRI channel flows and quenching magnetic field amplification. We perform two-dimensional and three-dimensional sheering-disc simulations of a differentially rotating protoneutron star layer in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics with unprecedented high numerical accuracy, finding that Kelvin-Helmholtz parasitic modes dominate tearing modes in the regime of large hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers, as encountered close to the surface of protoneutron stars. They also determine the maximum magnetic field stress achievable during the exponential growth of the MRI. Our results are consistent with the theory of parasitic instabilities based on a local stability analysis. To simulate the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities properly, a very high numerical resolution is necessary. Using ninth-order spatial reconstruction schemes, we find that at least eight grid zones per MRI channel are necessary to simulate the growth phase of the MRI and reach an accuracy of ˜10 per cent in the growth rate, while more than ˜60 zones per channel are required to achieve convergent results for the value of the magnetic stress at MRI termination.

  10. Laboratory Study of Magnetorotational Instability and Hydrodynamic Stability at Large Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ji, H.; Burin, M.; Schartman, E.; Goodman, J.; Liu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Two plausible mechanisms have been proposed to explain rapid angular momentum transport during accretion processes in astrophysical disks: nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities and magnetorotational instability (MRI). A laboratory experiment in a short Taylor-Couette flow geometry has been constructed in Princeton to study both mechanisms, with novel features for better controls of the boundary-driven secondary flows (Ekman circulation). Initial results on hydrodynamic stability have shown negligible angular momentum transport in Keplerian-like flows with Reynolds numbers approaching one million, casting strong doubt on the viability of nonlinear hydrodynamic instability as a source for accretion disk turbulence.

  11. Saturation of the Magnetorotational Instability at Large Elssaser Number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Julien, Keith; Jamroz, Benjamin; Knobloch, Edgar

    2009-11-01

    The MRI is believed to play an important role in accretion disk physics in extracting angular momentum from the disk and allowing accretion to take place. The instability is investigated within the shearing box approximation under conditions of fundamental importance to astrophysical accretion disk theory. The shear is taken to be the dominant source of energy, but the instability itself requires the presence of a weaker vertical magnetic field. Dissipative effects are suffiently weak that the Elsasser number is large. Thus dissipative forces do not play a role in the leading order linear instability mechanism. However, they are sufficiently large to permit a nonlinear feedback mechanism whereby the turbulent stresses generated by the MRI act on and modify the local background shear in the angular velocity profile. To date this response has been omitted in shearing box simulations and is captured by a reduced pde model derived from the global MHD fluid equations using multiscale asymptotic perturbation theory. Results from simulations of the model indicate a linear phase of exponential growth followed by a nonlinear adjustment to algebraic growth and decay in the fluctuating quantities. Remarkably, the velocity and magnetic field correlations associated with these growth and decay laws conspire to achieve saturation of angular momentum transport.

  12. Helical magnetorotational instability in a Taylor-Couette flow with strongly reduced Ekman pumping.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter; Gundrum, Thomas; Hollerbach, Rainer; Priede, Jānis; Rüdiger, Günther; Szklarski, Jacek

    2009-12-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to play a key role in the formation of stars and black holes by sustaining the turbulence in hydrodynamically stable Keplerian accretion disks. In previous experiments the MRI was observed in a liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow at moderate Reynolds numbers by applying a helical magnetic field. The observation of this helical MRI (HMRI) was interfered with a significant Ekman pumping driven by solid end caps that confined the instability only to a part of the Taylor-Couette cell. This paper describes the observation of the HMRI in an improved Taylor-Couette setup with the Ekman pumping significantly reduced by using split end caps. The HMRI, which now spreads over the whole height of the cell, appears much sharper and in better agreement with numerical predictions. By analyzing various parameter dependencies we conclude that the observed HMRI represents a self-sustained global instability rather than a noise-sustained convective one. PMID:20365263

  13. Metamorphosis of helical magnetorotational instability in the presence of axial electric current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priede, Jānis

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents numerical linear stability analysis of a cylindrical Taylor-Couette flow of liquid metal carrying axial electric current in a generally helical external magnetic field. Axially symmetric disturbances are considered in the inductionless approximation corresponding to zero magnetic Prandtl number. Axial symmetry allows us to reveal an entirely new electromagnetic instability. First, we show that the electric current passing through the liquid can extend the range of helical magnetorotational instability (HMRI) indefinitely by transforming it into a purely electromagnetic instability. Two different electromagnetic instability mechanisms are identified. The first is an internal pinch-type instability, which is due to the interaction of the electric current with its own magnetic field. Axisymmetric mode of this instability requires a free-space component of the azimuthal magnetic field. When the azimuthal component of the magnetic field is purely rotational and the axial component is nonzero, a new kind of electromagnetic instability emerges. The latter, driven by the interaction of electric current with a weak collinear magnetic field in a quiescent fluid, gives rise to a steady meridional circulation coupled with azimuthal rotation.

  14. VERTICAL STRUCTURE AND CORONAL POWER OF ACCRETION DISKS POWERED BY MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. We then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well.

  15. Vertical Structure and Coronal Power of Accretion Disks Powered by Magnetorotational-instability Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we consider two outstanding intertwined problems in modern high-energy astrophysics: (1) the vertical-thermal structure of an optically thick accretion disk heated by the dissipation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI), and (2) determining the fraction of the accretion power released in the corona above the disk. For simplicity, we consider a gas-pressure-dominated disk and assume a constant opacity. We argue that the local turbulent dissipation rate due to the disruption of the MRI channel flows by secondary parasitic instabilities should be uniform across most of the disk, almost up to the disk photosphere. We then obtain a self-consistent analytical solution for the vertical thermal structure of the disk, governed by the balance between the heating by MRI turbulence and the cooling by radiative diffusion. Next, we argue that the coronal power fraction is determined by the competition between the Parker instability, viewed as a parasitic instability feeding off of MRI channel flows, and other parasitic instabilities. We show that the Parker instability inevitably becomes important near the disk surface, leading to a certain lower limit on the coronal power. While most of the analysis in this paper focuses on the case of a disk threaded by an externally imposed vertical magnetic field, we also discuss the zero net flux case, in which the magnetic field is produced by the MRI dynamo itself, and show that most of our arguments and conclusions should be valid in this case as well.

  16. Stability of compressible reduced magnetohydrodynamic equilibria-Analogy with magnetorotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, P. J.; Tassi, E.; Tronko, N.

    2013-04-15

    Stability analyses for equilibria of the compressible reduced magnetohydrodynamics (CRMHD) model are carried out by means of the Energy-Casimir (EC) method. Stability results are compared with those obtained for ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) from the classical {delta}W criterion. An identification of the terms in the second variation of the free energy functional for CRMHD with those of {delta}W is made: two destabilizing effects present for CRMHD turn out to correspond to the kink and interchange instabilities in usual MHD, while the stabilizing roles of field line bending and compressibility are also identified in the reduced model. Also, using the EC method, stability conditions in the presence of toroidal flow are obtained. A formal analogy between CRMHD and a reduced incompressible model for magnetized rotating disks, due to Julien and Knobloch [EAS Pub. Series, 21, 81 (2006)], is discovered. In light of this analogy, energy stability analysis shows that the condition for magnetorotational instability (MRI) for the latter model corresponds to the condition for interchange instability in CRMHD, with the Coriolis term and shear velocity playing the roles of the curvature term and pressure gradient, respectively. Using the EC method, stability conditions for the rotating disk model, for a large class of equilibria with possible non-uniform magnetic fields, are obtained. In particular, this shows it is possible for the MRI system to undergo, in addition to the MRI, another instability that is analogous to the kink instability. For vanishing magnetic field, the Rayleigh hydrodynamical stability condition is recovered.

  17. Experimental Evidence for Nonaxisymmetric Magnetorotational Instability in a Rotating Liquid Metal Exposed to an Azimuthal Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seilmayer, Martin; Galindo, Vladimir; Gerbeth, Gunter; Gundrum, Thomas; Stefani, Frank; Gellert, Marcus; Rüdiger, Günther; Schultz, Manfred; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The azimuthal version of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is a nonaxisymmetric instability of a hydrodynamically stable differentially rotating flow under the influence of a purely or predominantly azimuthal magnetic field. It may be of considerable importance for destabilizing accretion disks, and plays a central role in the concept of the MRI dynamo. We report the results of a liquid metal Taylor-Couette experiment that shows the occurrence of an azimuthal MRI in the expected range of Hartmann numbers.

  18. Distinguishing the Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) from Magnetized Ekman Flows in the PPPL MRI Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilson, Erik; Caspary, Kyle; Goodman, Jeremy; Ji, Hantao; Schartman, Ethan; Wei, Xing

    2015-11-01

    Results are presented from initial experiments on the upgraded Magnetorotational Instability (MRI) experiment that uses GaInSn as the working fluid and now operates with conductive end caps to improve the coupling of angular momentum to the fluid to increase the saturation amplitude of the MRI signal. Measurements of the fluid velocity field and perturbed magnetic field over a range of magnetic Reynolds numbers, Rm , and Lundquist numbers, S, are compared with results from the SFEMaNS code in order to separate the effects of MRI on the system from effects such as Ekman flows and Shercliff layer instabilities. The MRI can be identified by observing its growth rate, noting the relative magnitudes and spatial distributions of the perturbed radial flow velocity ur and radial magnetic field Br, and measuring the scaling of ur and Br with Rm . The clear identification of the onset of MRI in the apparatus is complicated by the geometry and boundary conditions creating an imperfect supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. Nevertheless, a stability diagram can be created that shows that MRI is a weak-field instability that occurs only below a certain value of the normalized magnetic field S / Rm but above a threshold where viscous effects damps the growth of the instability.

  19. Local Axisymmetric Simulations of Magnetorotational Instability in Radiation-dominated Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, N. J.; Stone, J. M.; Sano, T.

    2002-02-01

    We perform numerical simulations of magnetorotational instability in a local patch of accretion disk in which radiation pressure exceeds gas pressure. Such conditions may occur in the central regions of disks surrounding compact objects in active galactic nuclei and Galactic X-ray sources. We assume axisymmetry and neglect vertical stratification. The growth rates of the instability on initially uniform magnetic fields are consistent with the linear analysis of Blaes & Socrates (2001). As is the case when radiation effects are neglected, the nonlinear development of the instability leads to transitory turbulence when the initial magnetic field has no net vertical flux. During the turbulent phase, angular momentum is transported outward. The Maxwell stress is a few times the Reynolds stress, and their sum is about 4 times the mean pressure in the vertical component of the magnetic field. For magnetic pressure exceeding gas pressure, turbulent fluctuations in the field produce density contrasts about equal to the ratio of magnetic to gas pressure. These are many times larger than in the corresponding gas pressure-dominated situation and may have profound implications for the steady state vertical structure of radiation-dominated disks. Diffusion of radiation from compressed regions damps turbulent motions, converting kinetic energy into photon energy.

  20. Study of Magnetorotational Instability and MHD Surface Waves in Liquid Gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, H.; Chen, F.; Kageyama, A.; Goodman, J.; Shoshan, E.; Rappaport, H.; Borg, M.; Halcrow, J.

    2002-11-01

    Two liquid gallium experiments have been constructed in PPPL to study basic MHD physics related to astrophysics and fusion sciences. The first experiment focuses on laboratory studies of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a rotating gallium disk or a short Couette flow geometry. The MRI has been proposed as a dominant mechanism for fast angular momentum transport in electrically-conducting accretion disks ranging from quasars and X-ray binaries to cataclysmic variables and perhaps even protoplanetary disks. Experiments using a prototype water disk has revealed importance of Ekman circulation, consistent with 2D hydrodynamic simulations. A revised design using multiple rings at each end of the flow are being implemented. The second experiment focuses on MHD surface waves in a large liquid gallium pool. It has been found that the damping rates of driven 1D surface waves propogating along a magnetic field are consistent with linear theory. The parametric excitation of 2D surface waves is being studied to elucidate effects of a horizonally imposed magnetic field on the dynamics of pattern formation. Detailed results will be presented for both experiments and implications to astrophysics and to the liquid metal wall concept in fusion reactors will be discussed. This work is supported by DoE.

  1. Numerical simulations of the magnetorotational instability in protoneutron stars - I. Influence of buoyancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guilet, Jérôme; Müller, Ewald

    2015-06-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is considered to be a promising mechanism to amplify the magnetic field in fast-rotating protoneutron stars. In contrast to accretion discs, radial buoyancy driven by entropy and lepton fraction gradients is expected to have a dynamical role as important as rotation and shear. We investigate the poorly known impact of buoyancy on the non-linear phase of the MRI, by means of three-dimensional numerical simulations of a local model in the equatorial plane of a protoneutron star. The use of the Boussinesq approximation allows us to utilize a shearing box model with clean shearing periodic boundary conditions, while taking into account the buoyancy driven by radial entropy and composition gradients. We find significantly stronger turbulence and magnetic fields in buoyantly unstable flows. On the other hand, buoyancy has only a limited impact on the strength of turbulence and magnetic field amplification for buoyantly stable flows in the presence of a realistic thermal diffusion. The properties of the turbulence are, however, significantly affected in the latter case. In particular, the toroidal components of the magnetic field and of the velocity become even more dominant with respect to the poloidal ones. Furthermore, we observed in the regime of stable buoyancy the formation of long-lived coherent structures such as channel flows and zonal flows. Overall, our results support the ability of the MRI to amplify the magnetic field significantly even in stably stratified regions of protoneutron stars.

  2. Angular momentum transport and particle acceleration during magnetorotational instability in a kinetic accretion disk.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Masahiro

    2015-02-13

    Angular momentum transport and particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk are investigated using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. We show that the kinetic MRI can provide not only high-energy particle acceleration but also enhancement of angular momentum transport. We find that the plasma pressure anisotropy inside the channel flow with p(∥)>p(⊥) induced by active magnetic reconnection suppresses the onset of subsequent reconnection, which, in turn, leads to high-magnetic-field saturation and enhancement of the Maxwell stress tensor of angular momentum transport. Meanwhile, during the quiescent stage of reconnection, the plasma isotropization progresses in the channel flow and the anisotropic plasma with p(⊥)>p(∥) due to the dynamo action of MRI outside the channel flow contribute to rapid reconnection and strong particle acceleration. This efficient particle acceleration and enhanced angular momentum transport in a collisionless accretion disk may explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes. PMID:25723200

  3. Electron Heating in Magnetorotational Instability: Implications for Turbulence Strength in the Outer Regions of Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuzumi, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) drives vigorous turbulence in a region of protoplanetary disks where the ionization fraction is sufficiently high. It has recently been shown that the electric field induced by the MRI can heat up electrons and thereby affect the ionization balance in the gas. In particular, in a disk where abundant dust grains are present, the electron heating causes a reduction of the electron abundance, thereby preventing further growth of the MRI. By using the nonlinear Ohm's law that takes into account electron heating, we investigate where in protoplanetary disks this negative feedback between the MRI and ionization chemistry becomes important. We find that the “e-heating zone,” the region where the electron heating limits the saturation of the MRI, extends out up to 80 AU in the minimum-mass solar nebula with abundant submicron-sized grains. This region is considerably larger than the conventional dead zone whose radial extent is ∼20 AU in the same disk model. Scaling arguments show that the MRI turbulence in the e-heating zone should have a significantly lower saturation level. Submicron-sized grains in the e-heating zone are so negatively charged that their collisional growth is unlikely to occur. Our present model neglects ambipolar and Hall diffusion, but our estimate shows that ambipolar diffusion would also affect the MRI in the e-heating zone.

  4. ANALYSIS OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY WITH THE EFFECT OF COSMIC-RAY DIFFUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwabara, Takuhito; Ko, Chung-Ming E-mail: cmko@astro.ncu.edu.tw

    2015-01-10

    We present the results obtained from the linear stability analysis and 2.5 dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetorotational instability (MRI), including the effects of cosmic rays (CRs). We took into account the CR diffusion along the magnetic field but neglected the cross-field-line diffusion. Two models are considered in this paper: the shearing box model and differentially rotating cylinder model. We studied how MRI is affected by the initial CR pressure (i.e., energy) distribution. In the shearing box model, the initial state is uniform distribution. Linear analysis shows that the growth rate of MRI does not depend on the value of the CR diffusion coefficient. In the differentially rotating cylinder model, the initial state is a constant angular momentum polytropic disk threaded by a weak uniform vertical magnetic field. Linear analysis shows that the growth rate of MRI becomes larger if the CR diffusion coefficient is larger. Both results are confirmed by MHD simulations. The MHD simulation results show that the outward movement of matter by the growth of MRI is not impeded by the CR pressure gradient, and the centrifugal force that acts on the concentrated matter becomes larger. Consequently, the growth rate of MRI is increased. On the other hand, if the initial CR pressure is uniform, then the growth rate of the MRI barely depends on the value of the CR diffusion coefficient.

  5. Linear Vlasov theory in the shearing sheet approximation with application to the magneto-rotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heinemann, Tobias; Quataert, Eliot E-mail: eliot@berkeley.edu

    2014-09-01

    We derive the conductivity tensor for axisymmetric perturbations of a hot, collisionless, and charge-neutral plasma in the shearing sheet approximation. Our results generalize the well-known linear Vlasov theory for uniform plasmas to differentially rotating plasmas and can be used for wide range of kinetic stability calculations. We apply these results to the linear theory of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in collisionless plasmas. We show analytically and numerically how the general kinetic theory results derived here reduce in appropriate limits to previous results in the literature, including the low-frequency guiding center (or 'kinetic MHD') approximation, Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and the gyro-viscous approximation. We revisit the cold plasma model of the MRI and show that, contrary to previous results, an initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma is linearly stable to axisymmetric perturbations in the cold plasma approximation. In addition to their application to astrophysical plasmas, our results provide a useful framework for assessing the linear stability of differentially rotating plasmas in laboratory experiments.

  6. Global Simulations of Dynamo and Magnetorotational Instability in Madison Plasma Experiments and Astrophysical Disks

    SciTech Connect

    Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2014-07-31

    Large-scale magnetic fields have been observed in widely different types of astrophysical objects. These magnetic fields are believed to be caused by the so-called dynamo effect. Could a large-scale magnetic field grow out of turbulence (i.e. the alpha dynamo effect)? How could the topological properties and the complexity of magnetic field as a global quantity, the so called magnetic helicity, be important in the dynamo effect? In addition to understanding the dynamo mechanism in astrophysical accretion disks, anomalous angular momentum transport has also been a longstanding problem in accretion disks and laboratory plasmas. To investigate both dynamo and momentum transport, we have performed both numerical modeling of laboratory experiments that are intended to simulate nature and modeling of configurations with direct relevance to astrophysical disks. Our simulations use fluid approximations (Magnetohydrodynamics - MHD model), where plasma is treated as a single fluid, or two fluids, in the presence of electromagnetic forces. Our major physics objective is to study the possibility of magnetic field generation (so called MRI small-scale and large-scale dynamos) and its role in Magneto-rotational Instability (MRI) saturation through nonlinear simulations in both MHD and Hall regimes.

  7. On the maximum magnetic field amplification by the magnetorotational instability in core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembiasz, T.; Guilet, J.; Obergaulinger, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.

    2016-08-01

    Whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can amplify initially weak magnetic fields to dynamically relevant strengths in core collapse supernovae is still a matter of active scientific debate. Recent numerical studies have shown that the first phase of MRI growth dominated by channel flows is terminated by parasitic instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type that disrupt MRI channel flows and quench further magnetic field growth. However, it remains to be prop- erly assessed by what factor the initial magnetic field can be amplified and how it depends on the initial field strength and the amplitude of the perturbations. Different termination criteria leading to different estimates of the amplification factor were proposed within the parasitic model. To determine the amplification factor and test which criterion is a better predictor of the MRI termination, we perform three-dimensional shearing-disc and shearing-box simula- tions of a region close to the surface of a differentially rotating proto-neutron star in non-ideal MHD with two different numerical codes. We find that independently of the initial magnetic field strength, the MRI channel modes can amplify the magnetic field by, at most, a factor of 100. Under the conditions found in proto-neutron stars a more realistic value for the mag- netic field amplification is of the order of 10. This severely limits the role of the MRI channel modes as an agent amplifying the magnetic field in proto-neutron stars starting from small seed fields. A further amplification should therefore rely on other physical processes, such as for example an MRI-driven turbulent dynamo.

  8. On the maximum magnetic field amplification by the magnetorotational instability in core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembiasz, T.; Guilet, J.; Obergaulinger, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.

    2016-05-01

    Whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can amplify initially weak magnetic fields to dynamically relevant strengths in core collapse supernovae is still a matter of active scientific debate. Recent numerical studies have shown that the first phase of MRI growth dominated by channel flows is terminated by parasitic instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type that disrupt MRI channel flows and quench further magnetic field growth. However, it remains to be properly assessed by what factor the initial magnetic field can be amplified and how it depends on the initial field strength and the amplitude of the perturbations. Different termination criteria leading to different estimates of the amplification factor were proposed within the parasitic model. To determine the amplification factor and test which criterion is a better predictor of the MRI termination, we perform three-dimensional shearing-disc and shearing-box simulations of a region close to the surface of a differentially rotating proto-neutron star in non-ideal MHD with two different numerical codes. We find that independently of the initial magnetic field strength, the MRI channel modes can amplify the magnetic field by, at most, a factor of 100. Under the conditions found in proto-neutron stars a more realistic value for the magnetic field amplification is of the order of 10. This severely limits the role of the MRI channel modes as an agent amplifying the magnetic field in proto-neutron stars starting from small seed fields. A further amplification should therefore rely on other physical processes, such as for example an MRI-driven turbulent dynamo.

  9. On the maximum magnetic field amplification by the magnetorotational instability in core-collapse supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembiasz, T.; Guilet, J.; Obergaulinger, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. A.; Müller, E.

    2016-08-01

    Whether the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can amplify initially weak magnetic fields to dynamically relevant strengths in core-collapse supernovae is still a matter of active scientific debate. Recent numerical studies have shown that the first phase of MRI growth dominated by channel flows is terminated by parasitic instabilities of the Kelvin-Helmholtz type that disrupt MRI channel flows and quench further magnetic field growth. However, it remains to be properly assessed by what factor the initial magnetic field can be amplified and how it depends on the initial field strength and the amplitude of the perturbations. Different termination criteria leading to different estimates of the amplification factor were proposed within the parasitic model. To determine the amplification factor and test which criterion is a better predictor of the MRI termination, we perform three-dimensional shearing-disc and shearing-box simulations of a region close to the surface of a differentially rotating protoneutron star in non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics with two different numerical codes. We find that independently of the initial magnetic field strength, the MRI channel modes can amplify the magnetic field by, at most, a factor of 100. Under the conditions found in protoneutron stars, a more realistic value for the magnetic field amplification is of the order of 10. This severely limits the role of the MRI channel modes as an agent amplifying the magnetic field in protoneutron stars starting from small seed fields. A further amplification should therefore rely on other physical processes, such as for example an MRI-driven turbulent dynamo.

  10. SATURATION OF THE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN STRONGLY RADIATION-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Yanfei; Stone, James M.; Davis, Shane W.

    2013-04-20

    The saturation level of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in a strongly radiation-dominated accretion disk is studied using a new Godunov radiation MHD code in the unstratified shearing box approximation. Since vertical gravity is neglected in this work, our focus is on how the MRI saturates in the optically thick mid-plane of the disk. We confirm that turbulence generated by the MRI is very compressible in the radiation-dominated regime, as found by previous calculations using the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We also find little difference in the saturation properties in calculations that use a larger horizontal domain (up to four times the vertical scale height in the radial direction). However, in strongly radiation pressure dominated disks (one in which the radiation energy density reaches {approx}1% of the rest mass energy density of the gas), we find that Maxwell stress from the MRI turbulence is larger than the value produced when radiation pressure is replaced with the same amount of gas pressure. At the same time, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress is increased by almost a factor of eight compared with the gas pressure dominated case. We suggest that this effect is caused by radiation drag, which acts like bulk viscosity and changes the effective magnetic Prandtl number of the fluid. Radiation viscosity significantly exceeds both the microscopic plasma viscosity and resistivity, ensuring that radiation-dominated systems occupy the high magnetic Prandtl number regime. Nevertheless, we find that radiative shear viscosity is negligible compared to the Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress in the flow. This may have important implications for the structure of radiation-dominated accretion disks.

  11. Thermal and Magnetorotational Instability in the Interstellar Medium: Two-dimensional Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piontek, Robert A.; Ostriker, Eve C.

    2004-02-01

    The structure and dynamics of diffuse gas in the Milky Way and other disk galaxies may be strongly influenced by thermal and magnetorotational instabilities (TI and MRI, respectively) on scales ~1-100 pc. We initiate a study of these processes, using two-dimensional numerical hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic simulations with conditions appropriate for the atomic interstellar medium (ISM). Our simulations incorporate thermal conduction and adopt local ``shearing-periodic'' equations of motion and boundary conditions to study dynamics of a (100 pc) 2 radial-vertical section of the disk. We demonstrate, consistent with previous work, that nonlinear development of ``pure TI'' produces a network of filaments that condense into cold clouds at their intersections, yielding a distinct two-phase warm/cold medium within ~20 Myr. TI-driven turbulent motions of the clouds and warm intercloud medium are present but saturate at quite subsonic amplitudes for uniform initial P/k=2000 K cm -3. MRI has previously been studied in near-uniform media; our simulations include both TI+MRI models, which begin from uniform-density conditions, and cloud+MRI models, which begin with a two-phase cloudy medium. Both the TI+MRI and cloud+MRI models show that MRI develops within a few galactic orbital times, just as for a uniform medium. The mean separation between clouds can affect which MRI mode dominates the evolution. Provided intercloud separations do not exceed half the MRI wavelength, we find the MRI growth rates are similar to those for the corresponding uniform medium. This opens the possibility that if low cloud volume filling factors increase MRI dissipation times compared to those in a uniform medium, then MRI-driven motions in the ISM could reach amplitudes comparable to observed H I turbulent line widths.

  12. Local Simulations of the Magnetorotational Instability in Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masada, Youhei; Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Sano, Takayoshi

    2012-11-01

    Bearing in mind the application of core-collapse supernovae, we study the nonlinear properties of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) by means of three-dimensional simulations in the framework of a local shearing box approximation. By systematically changing the shear rates that symbolize the degree of differential rotation in nascent proto-neutron stars (PNSs), we derive a scaling relation between the turbulent stress sustained by the MRI and the shear-vorticity ratio. Our parametric survey shows a power-law scaling between the turbulent stress (langlangw totrangrang) and the shear-vorticity ratio (gq ) as langlangw totrangrangvpropg δ q with an index of δ ~ 0.5. The MRI-amplified magnetic energy has a similar scaling relative to the turbulent stress, while the Maxwell stress has a slightly smaller power-law index (~0.36). By modeling the effect of viscous heating rates from MRI turbulence, we show that the stronger magnetic fields, or the larger shear rates initially imposed, lead to higher dissipation rates. For a rapidly rotating PNS with a spin period in milliseconds and with strong magnetic fields of 1015 G, the energy dissipation rate is estimated to exceed 1051 erg s-1. Our results suggest that the conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) mechanism of core-collapse supernovae is likely to be affected by MRI-driven turbulence, which we speculate, on the one hand, could harm the MHD-driven explosions due to the dissipation of the shear rotational energy at the PNS surface; or, on the other hand, its energy deposition might be potentially favorable for the working of the neutrino-heating mechanism.

  13. The Evolution and Impacts of Magnetorotational Instability in Magnetized Core-collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Hidetomo; Yamada, Shoichi

    2016-02-01

    We carried out two-dimensional axisymmetric MHD simulations of core-collapse supernovae for rapidly rotating magnetized progenitors. By changing both the strength of the magnetic field and the spatial resolution, the evolution of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and its impacts upon the dynamics are investigated. We found that the MRI greatly amplifies the seed magnetic fields in the regime where the buoyant mode, not the Alfvén mode, plays a primary role in the exponential growth phase. The MRI indeed has a powerful impact on the supernova dynamics. It makes the shock expansion faster and the explosion more energetic, with some models being accompanied by the collimated jet formations. These effects, however, are not made by the magnetic pressure except for the collimated jet formations. The angular momentum transfer induced by the MRI causes the expansion of the heating region, by which the accreting matter gain additional time to be heated by neutrinos. The MRI also drifts low-Yp matter from deep inside of the core to the heating region, which makes the net neutrino heating rate larger by the reduction of the cooling due to the electron capture. These two effects enhance the efficiency of the neutrino heating, which is found to be the key to boosting the explosion. Indeed, we found that our models explode far more weakly when the net neutrino heating is switched off. The contribution of the neutrino heating to the explosion energy could reach 60% even in the case of strongest magnetic field in the current simulations.

  14. Axisymmetric numerical and analytical studies of the magnetorotational instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    2007-08-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is probably the main cause of turbulence and accretion in sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks. However, despite much theoretical and computational work, the nonlinear saturation of MRI is imperfectly understood. In Chap. 2 and Chap. 3 of this thesis we present non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the Princeton MRI experiment. In vertically infinite or periodic cylinders, MRI saturates in a resistive current-sheet with a significant reduction of the mean shear, and with poloidal circulation scaling as the square root of resistivity. Angular momentum transport scales as the reciprocal square root of viscosity but only weakly depends on resistivity. For finite cylinders with insulating end caps, a method for implementing the fully insulating boundary condition is introduced. MRI grows with a clear linear phase from small amplitudes at rates in good agreement with linear analysis. In the final state one inflowing "jet" opposite to the usual Ekman "jet" is found near the inner cylinder. The MRI enhances the angular momentum transport at saturation. Under proper conditions, our experimental facility is a good platform to show that MRI could be suppressed by a strong magnetic field. Recently, Hollerbach and Rüdiger have reported that MRI modes may grow at much reduced magnetic Reynolds number ( Re m ) and Lundquist number S in the presence of a helical background field, a current-free combination of axial and toroidal field. We have investigated these helical MRI modes in Chap. 4 and Chap. 5. In vertically infinite or periodic cylinders, resistive HMRI is a weakly destabilized hydrodynamic inertial oscillation propagating axially along the background Poynting flux. Growth rates are small, however, and require large axial currents. Furthermore, finite cylinders with insulating endcaps were shown to reduce the growth rate and to stabilize highly resistive, inviscid flows entirely, and the new mode is stable in Keplerian

  15. INFLUENCE OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY ON NEUTRINO HEATING: A NEW MECHANISM FOR WEAKLY MAGNETIZED CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Sawai, Hidetomo; Yamada, Shoichi

    2014-03-20

    We investigated the impact of magnetorotational instability (MRI) on the dynamics of weakly magnetized, rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae by conducting high-resolution axisymmetric MHD simulations with simplified neutrino transfer. We found that an initially sub-magnetar-class magnetic field is drastically amplified by MRI and substantially affects the dynamics thereafter. Although the magnetic pressure is not strong enough to eject matter, the amplified magnetic field efficiently transfers angular momentum from small to large radii and from higher to lower latitudes, which causes the expansion of the heating region due to the extra centrifugal force. This then enhances the efficiency of neutrino heating and eventually leads to neutrino-driven explosion. This is a new scenario of core-collapse supernovae that has never been demonstrated by past numerical simulations.

  16. Non-axisymmetric annular curtain stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zahir U.; Khayat, Roger E.; Maissa, Philippe; Mathis, Christian

    2013-08-01

    A stability analysis of non-axisymmetric annular curtain is carried out for an axially moving viscous jet subject in surrounding viscous gas media. The effect of inertia, surface tension, gas-to-liquid density ratio, inner-to-outer radius ratio, and gas-to-liquid viscosity ratio on the stability of the jet is studied. In general, the axisymmetric disturbance is found to be the dominant mode. However, for small wavenumber, the non-axisymmetric mode is the most unstable mode and the one likely observed in reality. Inertia and the viscosity ratio for non-axisymmetric disturbances show a similar stability influence as observed for axisymmetric disturbances. The maximum growth rate in non-axisymmetric flow, interestingly, appears at very small wavenumber for all inertia levels. The dominant wavenumber increases (decreases) with inertia for non-axisymmetric (axisymmetric) flow. Gas-to-liquid density ratio, curvature effect, and surface tension, however, exhibit an opposite influence on growth rate compared to axisymmetric disturbances. Surface tension tends to stabilize the flow with reductions of the unstable wavenumber range and the maximum growth rate as well as the dominant wavenumber. The dominant wavenumber remains independent of viscosity ratio indicating the viscosity ratio increases the breakup length of the sheet with very little influence on the size of the drops. The range of unstable wavenumbers is affected only by curvature in axisymmetric flow, whereas all the stability parameters control the range of unstable wavenumbers in non-axisymmetric flow. Inertia and gas density increase the unstable wavenumber range, whereas the radius ratio, surface tension, and the viscosity ratio decrease the unstable wavenumber range. Neutral curves are plotted to separate the stable and unstable domains. Critical radius ratio decreases linearly and nonlinearly with the wavenumber for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances, respectively. At smaller Weber numbers, a

  17. Saturation of the magnetorotational instability in the unstratified shearing box with zero net flux: convergence in taller boxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji-Ming; Stone, James M.; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies of the non-linear regime of the magnetorotational instability in one particular type of shearing box model - unstratified with no net magnetic flux - find that without explicit dissipation (viscosity and resistivity) the saturation amplitude decreases with increasing numerical resolution. We show that this result is strongly dependent on the vertical aspect ratio of the computational domain Lz/Lx. When Lz/Lx ≲ 1, we recover previous results. However, when the vertical domain is extended Lz/Lx ≳ 2.5, we find the saturation level of the stress is greatly increased (giving a ratio of stress to pressure α ≳ 0.1), and moreover the results are independent of numerical resolution. Consistent with previous results, we find that saturation of the magnetorotational (MRI) in this regime is controlled by a cyclic dynamo which generates patches of strong toroidal field that switches sign on scales of Lx in the vertical direction. We speculate that when Lz/Lx ≲ 1, the dynamo is inhibited by the small size of the vertical domain, leading to the puzzling dependence of saturation amplitude on resolution. We show that previous toy models developed to explain the MRI dynamo are consistent with our results, and that the cyclic pattern of toroidal fields observed in stratified shearing box simulations (leading to the so-called butterfly diagram) may also be related. In tall boxes the saturation amplitude is insensitive to whether or not explicit dissipation is included in the calculations, at least for large magnetic Reynolds and Prandtl number. Finally, we show MRI turbulence in tall domains has a smaller critical Pmc, and an extended lifetime compared to Lz/Lx ≲ 1 boxes.

  18. PROTOPLANETARY DISK WINDS VIA MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY: FORMATION OF AN INNER HOLE AND A CRUCIAL ASSIST FOR PLANET FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Muto, Takayuki

    2010-08-01

    By constructing a global model based on three-dimensional local magnetohydrodynamical simulations, we show that the disk wind driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) plays a significant role in the dispersal of the gas component of protoplanetary disks. Because the mass loss timescale of the MRI-driven disk winds is proportional to the local Keplerian rotation period, a gas disk dynamically evaporates from the inner region, possibly creating a gradually expanding inner hole, while a sizable amount of the gas remains in the outer region. The disk wind is highly time dependent with a quasi-periodicity of several times the Keplerian rotation period at each radius, which will be observed as the time variability of protostar-protoplanetary disk systems. These features persistently hold even if a dead zone exists because the disk winds are driven from the surface regions where ionizing cosmic rays and high energy photons can penetrate. Moreover, the predicted inside-out clearing significantly suppresses the infall of boulders to a central star and the type I migration of proto-planets, which are favorable for the formation and survival of planets.

  19. WIND-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS. I. SUPPRESSION OF THE MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY AND LAUNCHING OF THE MAGNETOCENTRIFUGAL WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Bai Xuening; Stone, James M.

    2013-05-20

    We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD). The magnetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated self-consistently from a look-up table based on equilibrium chemistry. We first show that the inclusion of AD dramatically changes the conventional picture of layered accretion. Without net vertical magnetic field, the system evolves into a toroidal field dominated configuration with extremely weak turbulence in the far-UV ionization layer that is far too inefficient to drive rapid accretion. In the presence of a weak net vertical field (plasma {beta} {approx} 10{sup 5} at midplane), we find that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed, resulting in a fully laminar flow throughout the vertical extent of the disk. A strong magnetocentrifugal wind is launched that efficiently carries away disk angular momentum and easily accounts for the observed accretion rate in PPDs. Moreover, under a physical disk wind geometry, all the accretion flow proceeds through a strong current layer with a thickness of {approx}0.3H that is offset from disk midplane with radial velocity of up to 0.4 times the sound speed. Both Ohmic resistivity and AD are essential for the suppression of the MRI and wind launching. The efficiency of wind transport increases with increasing net vertical magnetic flux and the penetration depth of the FUV ionization. Our laminar wind solution has important implications on planet formation and global evolution of PPDs.

  20. Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks. From simulations to ALMA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, M.; Ruge, J. P.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.; Wolf, S.

    2015-02-01

    Aims: Recent observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of disks around young stars revealed distinct asymmetries in the dust continuum emission. In this work we wish to study axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric structures that are generated by the magneto-rotational instability in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks. We combine the results of state-of-the-art numerical simulations with post-processing radiative transfer (RT) to generate synthetic maps and predictions for ALMA. Methods: We performed non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stratified simulations of the dead-zone outer edge using the FARGO MHD code PLUTO. The stellar and disk parameters were taken from a parameterized disk model applied for fitting high-angular resolution multi-wavelength observations of various circumstellar disks. We considered a stellar mass of M∗ = 0.5 M⊙ and a total disk mass of about 0.085 M∗. The 2D initial temperature and density profiles were calculated consistently from a given surface density profile and Monte Carlo radiative transfer. The 2D Ohmic resistivity profile was calculated using a dust chemistry model. We considered two values for the dust-to-gas mass ratio, 10-2 and 10-4, which resulted in two different levels of magnetic coupling. The initial magnetic field was a vertical net flux field. The radiative transfer simulations were performed with the Monte Carlo-based 3D continuum RT code MC3D. The resulting dust reemission provided the basis for the simulation of observations with ALMA. Results: All models quickly turned into a turbulent state. The fiducial model with a dust-to-gas mass ratio of 10-2 developed a large gap followed by a jump in surface density located at the dead-zone outer edge. The jump in density and pressure was strong enough to stop the radial drift of particles at this location. In addition, we observed the generation of vortices by the Rossby wave instability at the jump location close to 60 AU

  1. PLANETESIMAL FORMATION AT THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN STEADY SUPER/SUB-KEPLERIAN FLOW CREATED BY INHOMOGENEOUS GROWTH OF MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M. T.; Ida, S.; Fujimoto, M.

    2012-03-01

    We have studied formation of planetesimals at a radial pressure bump in a protoplanetary disk created by radially inhomogeneous magnetorotational instability (MRI), through three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations including dust particles. In our previous papers, we showed that the inhomogeneous MRI developing in non-uniform structure of magnetic field or magnetic resistivity can transform the local gas flow in the disk to a quasi-steady state with local rigid rotation that is no longer unstable against the MRI. Since the outer part of the rigid rotation is super-Keplerian flow, a quasi-static pressure bump is created and dust concentration is expected there. In this paper, we perform simulations of the same systems, adding dust particles that suffer gas drag and modulate gas flow via the back-reaction of the gas drag (dust drag). We use {approx}O(10{sup 7}) super-particles, each of which represents {approx}O(10{sup 6})-O(10{sup 7}) dust particles with sizes of centimeter to meter. We have found that the dust drag suppresses turbulent motion to decrease the velocity dispersion of the dust particles while it broadens the dust concentrated regions to limit peaky dust concentration, compared with the simulation without the dust drag. We found that the positive effect for the gravitational instability (GI), reduction in the velocity dispersion, dominates over the negative one, suppression in particle concentration. For meter-size particles with the friction time {tau}{sub f} {approx_equal} 1/{Omega}, where {Omega} is Keplerian frequency, the GI of the dust particles that may lead to planetesimal formation is expected. For such a situation, we further introduced the self-gravity of dust particles to the simulation to demonstrate that several gravitationally bound clumps are actually formed. Through analytical arguments, we found that planetesimal formation from meter-sized dust particles is possible at {approx}5 AU, if dust spatial density is a few times larger than

  2. High-order Godunov schemes for global 3D MHD simulations of accretion disks. I. Testing the linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flock, M.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Klahr, H.; Mignone, A.

    2010-06-01

    We assess the suitability of various numerical MHD algorithms for astrophysical accretion disk simulations with the PLUTO code. The well-studied linear growth of the magneto-rotational instability is used as the benchmark test for a comparison between the implementations within PLUTO and against the ZeusMP code. The results demonstrate the importance of using an upwind reconstruction of the electro-motive force (EMF) in the context of a constrained transport scheme, which is consistent with plane-parallel, grid-aligned flows. In contrast, constructing the EMF from the simple average of the Godunov fluxes leads to a numerical instability and the unphysical growth of the magnetic energy. We compare the results from 3D global calculations using different MHD methods against the analytical solution for the linear growth of the MRI, and discuss the effect of numerical dissipation. The comparison identifies a robust and accurate code configuration that is vital for realistic modeling of accretion disk processes.

  3. Non-Axisymmetric Wave Focusing in Pipe Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zongqi; Rose, Joseph L.; Song, Won-Joon; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2003-03-01

    Non-axisymmetric guided waves have been applied to pipe inspection recently. Due to the non-axisymmetric characteristics of the waves, the circumferential displacement distribution is non-axisymmetric. It shows a natural focusing phenomenon. With the aid of a circumferential transducer array, we developed an algorithm to focus wave energy at arbitrary locations. The algorithm is based on applying different amplitude and time delay to each of the excitation elements. A series of experiments were carried out to show the focusing effect.

  4. Non-axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves for tubing inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeon Jae

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the physical phenomena of wave propagation in hollow cylinders and also to investigate the utility of ultrasonic guided waves in hollow cylinders for nondestructive evaluation purposes. In this document, a theoretical and experimental study of axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric ultrasonic guided wave modes is carried out. Guided wave modes in hollow cylinders are calculated and are represented in phase and group velocity dispersion diagrams based on wave mechanics and the theory of elasticity. Guided wave propagation characteristics and proper mode selection concepts are discussed by analyzing the acoustic fields. Excellent inspection results of using axisymmetric modes for programmed flaws are given. Designs of a bore probe and specifications of a high power tone burst system are given for practical implementation. The work also focuses on an experimental study on the utilization of non-axisymmetric guided waves generated by a non-axisymmetric oblique incident partial loading transducer setup. For complete coverage in tubing inspection with non-axisymmetric guided waves, three dimensional tuning concepts are developed. An experimental study on the relationship between the circumferential loading angle and the generated guided waves was carried out. It is found that a 180 degree partial loading comb transducer set up could generate strong axisymmetric modes. The expected non-axisymmetric guided wave fields are studied by normal mode expansion. The non-axisymmetric source design parameters are discussed for partial uniform pressure loading on the outer boundary of a sample tube.

  5. Magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma with heat flux vector and an isotropic plasma with self-gravitational effect

    SciTech Connect

    Ren Haijun; Wu Zhengwei; Cao Jintao; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-09-15

    The linear stability of a differential rotating magnetized plasma is analyzed in the collisionless approximation along with heat flux vector. The dispersion relation is derived and simplified cases are discussed with instability criteria presented. Anisotropic pressures are shown to not only alter the classical instability criterion but also induce new unstable regions. The shear rotating instability in a collisional magnetized plasma with a scalar kinetic pressure in the presence of self-gravitational effect is then considered. Three cases are discussed specifically according to the general dispersion relation. The effects of Jeans term and compressibility on the local shear instability induced by differential rotation are examined and the analytic instability criteria are presented.

  6. Magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma with heat flux vector and an isotropic plasma with self-gravitational effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Haijun; Cao, Jintao; Wu, Zhengwei; Chu, Paul K.

    2011-09-01

    The linear stability of a differential rotating magnetized plasma is analyzed in the collisionless approximation along with heat flux vector. The dispersion relation is derived and simplified cases are discussed with instability criteria presented. Anisotropic pressures are shown to not only alter the classical instability criterion but also induce new unstable regions. The shear rotating instability in a collisional magnetized plasma with a scalar kinetic pressure in the presence of self-gravitational effect is then considered. Three cases are discussed specifically according to the general dispersion relation. The effects of Jeans term and compressibility on the local shear instability induced by differential rotation are examined and the analytic instability criteria are presented.

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE: Control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    2010-10-01

    The control of non-axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, stellarators, has a different character than the control of tokamaks for two reasons. Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields (1) can provide an arbitrarily large fraction of the poloidal magnetic field and (2) can strongly center the plasma in the chamber making it impossible to lose position control. The focus of stellarator design is on plasmas that are stable without feedback, need little or no change in the external magnetic field as the plasma evolves, and require no external power to maintain the desired magnetic configuration. The physics of non-axisymmetric fields is the same whether in a tokamak or a stellarator and whether introduced intentionally or accidentally. Fundamental physics indicates that plasma shape, which is controlled by the distribution of the external magnetic field that is normal to the plasma surface, is the primary control for fusion plasmas. The importance of non-axisymmetric control is set by the importance of toroidal plasma physics. Informed decisions on the development strategy of tokamaks, as well as magnetic fusion in general, require an understanding of the capabilities and difficulties of plasma control at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping.

  8. Stabilization of the vertical instability by non-axisymmetric coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Reiman, A. H.; Lao, L. L.; Cooper, W. A.; Ferraro, N. M.; Buttery, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    In a published Physical Review Letter (Reiman 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 135007), it was shown that axisymmetric (or vertical) stability can be improved by placing a set of parallelogram coils above and below the plasma oriented at an angle to the constant toroidal planes. The physics of this stabilization can be understood as providing an effective additional positive stability index. The original work was based on a simplified model of a straight tokamak and is not straightforwardly applicable to a finite aspect ratio, strongly shaped plasma such as in DIII-D. Numerical calculations were performed in a real DIII-D -like configuration to provide a proof of principal that 3-D fields can, in fact raise the elongation limits as predicted. A four field period trapezioid-shaped coil set was developed in toroidal geometry and 3D equilibria were computed using trapezium coil currents of 10 kA , 100 kA , and 500 kA . The ideal magnetohydrodynamics growth rates were computed as a function of the conformal wall position for the n = 0 symmetry-preserving family. The results show an insignificant relative improvement in the stabilizing wall location for the two lower coil current cases, of the order of 10‑3 and less. In contrast, the marginal wall position is increased by 7% as the coil current is increased to 500 kA , confirming the main prediction from the original study in a real geometry case. In DIII-D the shift in marginal wall position of 7% would correspond to being able to move the existing wall outward by 5 to 10 cm. While the predicted effect on the axisymmetric stability is real, it appears to require higher coil currents than could be provided in an upgrade to existing facilities. Additional optimization over the pitch of the coils, the number of field periods and the coil positions, as well as plasma parameters, such as the internal inductivity {{\\ell}\\text{i}} , β , and {{q}95} would mitigate this but seem unlikely to change the conclusion.

  9. DUST CONCENTRATION AT THE BOUNDARY BETWEEN STEADY SUPER/SUB-KEPLERIAN FLOW CREATED BY INHOMOGENEOUS GROWTH OF MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, M. T.; Ida, S.; Fujimoto, M.

    2010-05-10

    How planetesimals are created from tiny dust particles in a proto-planetary disk before the dust particles spiral to the central star is one of the most challenging problems in the theory of planetary system formation. In our previous paper, we have shown that a steady angular velocity profile that consists of both super- and sub-Keplerian regions is created in the disk through non-uniform excitation of magneto-rotational instability (MRI). Such non-uniform MRI excitation is reasonably expected in a part of disks with relatively low ionization degree. In this paper, we show through three-dimensional resistive MHD simulations with test particles that this radial structure of the angular velocity indeed leads to the prevention of spiral-in of dust particles and furthermore to their accumulation at the boundary of super-Keplerian and sub-Keplerian regions. Treating dust particles as test particles, their motions under the influence of the non-uniform MRI through gas drag are simulated. In the most favorable cases (meter-size dust particles in the disk region with a relatively large fraction of MRI-stable region), we found that the dust concentration is peaked around the super/sub-Keplerian flow boundary and the peak dust density is 10,000 times as high as the initial value. The peak density is high enough for the subsequent gravitational instability to set in, suggesting a possible route to planetesimal formation via non-uniformly excited MRI in weakly ionized regions of a disk.

  10. Non-axisymmetric flow characteristics in centrifugal compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Leilei; Lao, Dazhong; Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Ce

    2015-06-01

    The flow field distribution in centrifugal compressor is significantly affected by the non-axisymmetric geometry structure of the volute. The experimental and numerical simulation methods were adopted in this work to study the compressor flow field distribution with different flow conditions. The results show that the pressure distributionin volute is characterized by the circumferential non-uniform phenomenon and the pressure fluctuation on the high static pressure zone propagates reversely to upstream, which results in the non-axisymmetric flow inside the compressor. The non-uniform level of pressure distribution in large flow condition is higher than that in small flow condition, its effect on the upstream flow field is also stronger. Additionally, the non-uniform circumferential pressure distribution in volute brings the non-axisymmetric flow at impeller outlet. In different flow conditions,the circumferential variation of the absolute flow angle at impeller outlet is also different. Meanwhile, the non-axisymmetric flow characteristics in internal impeller can be also reflected by the distribution of the mass flow. The high static pressure region of the volute corresponds to the decrease of mass flow in upstream blade channel, while the low static pressure zone of the volute corresponds to the increase of the mass flow. In small flow condition, the mass flow difference in the blade channel is bigger than that in the large flow condition.

  11. External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula. II. Effects on Disk Structure and Evolution with Non-uniform Turbulent Viscosity due to the Magnetorotational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalyaan, A.; Desch, S. J.; Monga, N.

    2015-12-01

    The structure and evolution of protoplanetary disks, especially the radial flows of gas through them, are sensitive to a number of factors. One that has been considered only occasionally in the literature is external photoevaporation by far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby, massive stars, despite the fact that nearly half of disks will experience photoevaporation. Another effect apparently not considered in the literature is a spatially and temporally varying value of α in the disk (where the turbulent viscosity ν is α times the sound speed C times the disk scale height H). Here we use the formulation of Bai & Stone to relate α to the ionization fraction in the disk, assuming turbulent transport of angular momentum is due to the magnetorotational instability. We calculate the ionization fraction of the disk gas under various assumptions about ionization sources and dust grain properties. Disk evolution is most sensitive to the surface area of dust. We find that typically α ≲ 10-5 in the inner disk (<2 AU), rising to ˜10-1 beyond 20 AU. This drastically alters the structure of the disk and the flow of mass through it: while the outer disk rapidly viscously spreads, the inner disk hardly evolves; this leads to a steep surface density profile ({{Σ }}\\propto {r}-< p> with < p> ≈ 2-5 in the 5-30 AU region) that is made steeper by external photoevaporation. We also find that the combination of variable α and external photoevaporation eventually causes gas as close as 3 AU, previously accreting inward, to be drawn outward to the photoevaporated outer edge of the disk. These effects have drastic consequences for planet formation and volatile transport in protoplanetary disks.

  12. Toroidal angular momentum transport with non-axisymmetric magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seol, J.; Park, B. H.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we calculate the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields. It is shown that the radial transport of the toroidal angular momentum, R 2 ∇ ζ . V , is proportional to the first order of gyro-radius. This implies that the neoclassical toroidal viscosity caused by asymmetric magnetic fields can change the toroidal rotation significantly.

  13. Non-Axisymmetric Shaping of Tokamaks Preserving Quasi-Axisymmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Long-Poe Ku and Allen H. Boozer

    2009-06-05

    If quasi-axisymmetry is preserved, non-axisymmetric shaping can be used to design tokamaks that do not require current drive, are resilient to disruptions, and have robust plasma stability without feedback. Suggestions for addressing the critical issues of tokamaks can only be validated when presented with sufficient specificity that validating experiments can be designed. The purpose of this paper is provide that specificity for non-axisymmetric shaping. To our knowledge, no other suggestions for the solution of a number of tokamak issues, such as disruptions, have reached this level of specificity. Sequences of three-field-period quasi-axisymmetric plasmas are studied. These sequences address the questions: (1) What can be achieved at various levels of non-axisymmetric shaping? (2) What simplifications to the coils can be achieved by going to a larger aspect ratio? (3) What range of shaping can be achieved in a single experimental facility? The sequences of plasmas found in this study provide a set of interesting and potentially important configurations.

  14. Generation and Properties of Large-Scale Non-axisymmetric Magnetic Fields by Solar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, Valery; Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    Large-scale non-axisymmetric magnetic fields generated by the solar dynamo, and presumably responsible for the phenomenon of "active longitudes", play an important role in the distribution of solar activity and flares. By calculating 3D mean-field dynamo models, we show that nonlinear coupling between axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes, e.g. due to the magnetic feedback on the alpha-effect (see, e.g., [1]), can maintain a large-scale non-axisymmetric dynamo process. Non-axisymmetric random fluctuations of dynamo parameters can be another source for the non-axisymmetric magnetic fields on the Sun. Such fluctuations can provide a mechanism of the magnetic energy transfer from the global field to the non-axisymmetric modes. It is shown that the rotational periods of the non-axisymmetric field correspond to the dynamo process operating in the subsurface shear layer which is located in the range of depths 0.85-0.95R. We find that the magnetic helicity conservation quenches generation of the non-axisymmetric dynamo modes as well as it does for the axisymmetric dynamo. It is concluded that the 3D mean-field non-axisymmetric dynamo models can potentially explain the observed distribution of the solar magnetic activity.1. Moss, D.,Non-axisymmetric solar magnetic fields, 1999, MNRAS, 306, 300On 3/18/2015 2:29 PM, Valery Pipin wrote:

  15. Modeling of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Y.; Liang, Y.; Qian, J.; Shen, B.; Wan, B.

    2015-04-01

    A numerical model to evaluate the effects of the non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations on magnetic topology and magnetic field ripple in tokamaks is presented in this paper. It is illustrated by using an example magnetic field perturbation induced by a coil system on the EAST tokamak. The influence of the choice of the coordinates on the spectrum is presented. The amplitude of resonant components of the spectrum are found to be independent of the coordinates system, while that of the non-resonant components are not. A better way to describe the edge topology by using the Chirikov parameter profile is proposed and checked by the numerical Poincaré plot results. The contribution of the magnetic perturbation on local toroidal field ripple can be significant. One approximate method to model the helical ripple on the perturbed flux surface induced by a given non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbation is presented. All of the spectrum analysis is applicable in case the plasma response is taken into account in the input of perturbed magnetic field.

  16. Resolving the uncertainties of non-axisymmetric fields in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in, Yongkyoon; Seol, J.; Ko, W. H.; Lee, S. G.; Yoon, S. W.; Lee, H. H.; Jeon, Y. M.; Kim, J.; Bak, J. G.; Park, H.; Park, J. K.; Yun, G. S.; 3D Physics Task Force Team

    2015-11-01

    Recent study suggests that KSTAR could be a benefactor of the extremely low level of intrinsic error field in n =1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) driven edge localized modes (ELM) control. Specifically, when the n = 1 RMP currents increases in order to suppress/mitigate ELMs, a kink-resonant mode-locking is not usually invoked in KSTAR, unlike in other devices. Besides we have discovered that the mid-plane RMP appeared much more effective than the off-midplane RMPs in affecting the ELMs with strong density pump-outs and enhanced ELM frequency. Presently, the enhanced understanding of non-axisymmetric field in tokamaks has been in great need, in particular, for the ITER RMP requirements. As the prevailing design of in-vessel RMP coils in ITER is similar to that in KSTAR, we are keen to resolve the uncertainties of the non-axisymmetric fields on transport and stability, and their limits, contributing directly to ITER and beyond.

  17. Non-axisymmetrical freeform design for short LED street lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Ching-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lu, Ming-Jun

    2011-10-01

    Based on energy savings trend, LED has been developing as the main force of the future lighting, especially the road lighting. For controlling the intensity distribution of LED, the concept of freeform design has been proposed in many articles with transmission or reflection components but mainly focus on axial symmetrical types or dual axial symmetrical types. We, in this paper, design a non-axisymmetrical freeform system applying in a short LED street lamp whose dimension is 10cm (W) x 10cm (L) x 7cm (H) that has an advantage, easy maintaining. For coordinate transformation and simplifying the non- axisymmetrical system, we create two virtual surfaces and design the slope of each discrete point on the freeform surface to control the light path between the two virtual surfaces and avoid the total internal reflection. The short street lamp has four LEDs to light 3m square and each LED light a triangle area. According to the simulation results, the uniformity of illumination is 1:3 and the optical efficiency is more than 80% that meet the legal requirements of street lamp. In short, to reduce manufacturing and maintenance costs, the proposed design is appropriate to use in the actual lighting on the road and to replace the traditional street lamps.

  18. A dynamo model for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric solar magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Wang, J. X.

    2007-05-01

    More and more observations are showing a relatively weak, but persistent, non-axisymmetric magnetic field co-existing with the dominant axisymmetric field on the Sun. Its existence indicates that the non-axisymmetric magnetic field plays an important role in the origin of solar activity. A linear non-axisymmetric α2-Ω dynamo model is derived to explore the characteristics of the axisymmetric (m = 0) and the first non-axisymmetric (m = 1) modes and to provide a theoretical basis with which to explain the `active longitude', `flip-flop' and other non-axisymmetric phenomena. The model consists of an updated solar internal differential rotation, a turbulent diffusivity varying with depth, and an α-effect working at the tachocline in a rotating spherical system. The difference between the α2-Ω and the α-Ω models and the conditions that favour the non-axisymmetric modes under solar-like parameters are also presented.

  19. Origin of Non-axisymmetric Features of dEs in the Virgo Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, SungWon; Kim, Woong-Tae; Rey, Soo-Chang; Kim, Suk

    2016-06-01

    A fraction of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster have a disk component and even possess disk features such as bar, lens, and spiral arms. Using N-body simulations, we propose formation scenarios of these non-axisymmetric features in the disky dwarf galaxies. By adopting VCC 856 as our progenitor, a bulgeless dwarf disk galaxy with embedded faint spiral arms, we construct 11 initial conditions with slight dynamical variations based on observational error range. After 10 Gyrs of evolution in isolation, our standard model slowly forms a bar at ~3 Gyr and then undergoes buckling instability that temporarily weakens the bar, although the bar strength continues to grow afterward. Nine of our isolated models are also unstable to bar formation and undergo buckling instability. This suggests that the disky dwarf galaxies are intrinsically unstable to form bars, accounting for a population of barred dwarf galaxies in the outskirts of the Virgo cluster. We also find that both the concentration of dark matter halo and the degree of random motions within stellar disk affect the vigor of buckling instability. To understand the origin of the faint grand-design spiral arms, we additionally construct 6 sets of tidal models by differing pericenter distances. We reveal that its formation mechanism is rather more complicated: the faint spiral arms consistent with the observations could develop on marginally unstable disk by relatively weak tidal force. We discuss our results in light of dynamical evolution of disky dwarf galaxies including mergers.

  20. Statistical simulation of the magnetorotational dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2014-08-01

    We analyze turbulence and dynamo induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) using quasi-linear statistical simulation methods. We find that homogenous turbulence is unstable to a large scale dynamo instability, which saturates to an inhomogenous equilibrium with a very strong dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number (Pm). Despite its enormously reduced nonlinearity, the quasi-linear model exhibits the same qualitative scaling of angular momentum transport with Pm as fully nonlinear turbulence. This demonstrates the relationship of recent convergence problems to the large scale dynamo and suggests possible methods for studying astrophysically relevant regimes at very low or high Pm.

  1. MHD Simulations of Plasma Dynamics with Non-Axisymmetric Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Chris; Levesque, Jeffrey; Morgan, Kyle; Jarboe, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The arbitrary geometry, 3D extended MHD code PSI-TET is applied to linear and non-linear simulations of MCF plasmas with non-axisymmetric boundaries. Progress and results from simulations on two experiments will be presented: 1) Detailed validation studies of the HIT-SI experiment with self-consistent modeling of plasma dynamics in the helicity injectors. Results will be compared to experimental data and NIMROD simulations that model the effect of the helicity injectors through boundary conditions on an axisymmetric domain. 2) Linear studies of HBT-EP with different wall configurations focusing on toroidal asymmetries in the adjustable conducting wall. HBT-EP studies the effect of active/passive stabilization with an adjustable ferritic wall. Results from linear verification and benchmark studies of ideal mode growth with and without toroidal asymmetries will be presented and compared to DCON predictions. Simulations of detailed experimental geometries are enabled by use of the PSI-TET code, which employs a high order finite element method on unstructured tetrahedral grids that are generated directly from CAD models. Further development of PSI-TET will also be presented including work to support resistive wall regions within extended MHD simulations. Work supported by DoE.

  2. Refraction and Shielding of Noise in Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khavaran, Abbas

    1996-01-01

    This paper examines the shielding effect of the mean flow and refraction of sound in non-axisymmetric jets. A general three-dimensional ray-acoustic approach is applied. The methodology is independent of the exit geometry and may account for jet spreading and transverse as well as streamwise flow gradients. We assume that noise is dominated by small-scale turbulence. The source correlation terms, as described by the acoustic analogy approach, are simplified and a model is proposed that relates the source strength to 7/2 power of turbulence kinetic energy. Local characteristics of the source such as its strength, time- or length-scale, convection velocity and characteristic frequency are inferred from the mean flow considerations. Compressible Navier Stokes equations are solved with a k-e turbulence model. Numerical predictions are presented for a Mach 1.5, aspect ratio 2:1 elliptic jet. The predicted sound pressure level directivity demonstrates favorable agreement with reported data, indicating a relative quiet zone on the side of the major axis of the elliptic jet.

  3. Non-axisymmetric Field Effects on Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, S.; Hutchinson, I.; Granetz, R.; Rice, J.; Hubbard, A.; Irby, J.; Vieira, R.; Cochran, W.; Gwinn, D.; Rosati, J.; Lynn, A.

    2003-10-01

    A set of coils capable of producing non-axisymmetric, predominantly n=1, fields with different toroidal phase and a range of poloidal mode (m) spectra has been installed on Alcator C-Mod. This coilset has been used to suppress locked modes during low density or high current operation and also to induce locked modes in normally stable configurations in order to study error field effects. Locked modes are observed to result in braking of core toroidal rotation, modification of sawtooth activity, and significant reduction in energy and particle confinement. The inferred value of the threshold perturbation for producing a locked mode is of order B_21/B_T ˜ 10-4, where B_21 is the helically resonant m/n=2/1 field evaluated at the q=2 surface. This value is comparable to extrapolations based on experiments on JET and DIII-D, but is inconsistent with stronger BT and size scaling inferred from Compass-D results(R. J. Buttery, et al., 17th Fusion Energy Conference, Oct. 1998, Yokohama (IAEA-CN-69) EX8/5). The C-Mod result therefore has favorable implications for the locked mode threshold in ITER.

  4. Intense Flows Driven by Mechanical Forcing in Non-axisymmetric Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grannan, A. M.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present laboratory experimental results that simulate two geophysically relevant mechanical forcings that can drive intense fluid motions in the interior fluid layer of non-axisymmetric containers; libration and tidal distortions. Longitudinal libration refers to the small periodic oscillations of a satellite's mean rotation rate as it orbits a primary body and is replicated using an oscillating hard acrylic ellipsoid. Tidal forcing refers to the rotating gravitational distortion of a body in orbit and is replicated using a deformable silicone sphere. We use a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique to measure the 2D velocity field in the nearly equatorial plane over hundreds of librational and tidal cycles. First, while the theoretical base flow for each mechanism is nearly identical, we verify the base flow induced by the tidal distortion and a time-averaged zonal flow that scales as the square of the tidal forcing and is expected to be small in planets. Additionally, for a fixed tidal distortion, a polar vortex first identified by Suess (1970) is re-examined that may drive an intense vortex at planetary settings. Second, we investigate the characteristics of turbulence in the bulk fluid layer generated via an elliptical instability of librational and tidal forcing. An elliptic instability is the triadic resonance of two inertial modes whose non-dimensional frequencies are between [-2-2] with the mechanically induced base flow. This is called libration driven elliptical instability (LDEI) and tidal driven elliptical instability (TDEI) respectively. We characterize the evolution of the turbulent flow that displays either intermittent large cycles of growth and decay or smaller cycles of saturation while also investigating the cascade of energy inside the inertial mode frequency regime. The existence of these types of intense flows may play an important in understanding the thermal evolution and magnetic field generation in bodies subject to mechanical

  5. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction for stellarators, reversed field pinches and tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, J. D.; Anderson, D. T.; Cianciosa, M.; Franz, P.; Harris, J. H.; Hartwell, G. H.; Hirshman, S. P.; Knowlton, S. F.; Lao, L. L.; Lazarus, E. A.; Marrelli, L.; Maurer, D. A.; Schmitt, J. C.; Sontag, A. C.; Stevenson, B. A.; Terranova, D.

    2013-08-01

    Axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction using magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation has long been an important tool for interpreting tokamak experiments. This paper describes recent results in non-axisymmetric (three-dimensional) equilibrium reconstruction of nominally axisymmetric plasmas (tokamaks and reversed field pinches (RFPs)), and fully non-axisymmetric plasmas (stellarators). Results from applying the V3FIT code to CTH and HSX stellarator plasmas, RFX-mod RFP plasmas and the DIII-D tokamak are presented.

  6. Effects of Large-scale Non-axisymmetric Perturbations in the Mean-field Solar Dynamo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    We explore the response of a nonlinear non-axisymmetric mean-field solar dynamo model to shallow non-axisymmetric perturbations. After a relaxation period, the amplitude of the non-axisymmetric field depends on the initial condition, helicity conservation, and the depth of perturbation. It is found that a perturbation that is anchored at 0.9 R⊙ has a profound effect on the dynamo process, producing a transient magnetic cycle of the axisymmetric magnetic field, if it is initiated at the growing phase of the cycle. The non-symmetric, with respect to the equator, perturbation results in a hemispheric asymmetry of the magnetic activity. The evolution of the axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric fields depends on the turbulent magnetic Reynolds number Rm. In the range of Rm = 104-106 the evolution returns to the normal course in the next cycle, in which the non-axisymmetric field is generated due to a nonlinear α-effect and magnetic buoyancy. In the stationary state, the large-scale magnetic field demonstrates a phenomenon of “active longitudes” with cyclic 180° “flip-flop” changes of the large-scale magnetic field orientation. The flip-flop effect is known from observations of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. However, this effect disappears in the model, which includes the meridional circulation pattern determined by helioseismology. The rotation rate of the non-axisymmetric field components varies during the relaxation period and carries important information about the dynamo process.

  7. Measurements of non-axisymmetric halo currents with and without ``killer`` pellets during disruptions in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, T.E.; Kellman, A.G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Taylor, P.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Lee, R.L.; Whyte, D.G.; Jerniggan, T.C.

    1996-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric halo currents are always observed during disruptive instabilities in DIII-D. These halo currents appear to have a helical structure which rotates toroidally in the electron current drift direction with frequencies ranging between 200 and 400 Hz prior to and during the initial plasma current quench phase of the disruption. Sometimes the halo. current rotation locks at random toroidal phase angles during the plasma current quench. The total halo current rarely exceeds 30% of the pre-disruptive plasma current (I{sub po}) and peak-to-average toroidal peaking factors (TPF) are usually less than 3 during most disruptions. Neon ``killer`` pellets have proven very effective in reducing both the total halo current amplitude, often by as much as 50%, and the TPF from {approximately}3 to {approximately}1. 2.

  8. Computer Aided Process Planning for Non-Axisymmetric Deep Drawing Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Dong Hwan; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.

    2004-06-01

    In general, deep drawing products have various cross-section shapes such as cylindrical, rectangular and non-axisymmetric shapes. The application of the surface area calculation to non-axisymmetric deep drawing process has not been published yet. In this research, a surface area calculation for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed for a design of blank shape of deep drawing products by using an AutoLISP function of AutoCAD software. A computer-aided process planning (CAPP) system for rotationally symmetric deep drawing products has been developed. However, the application of the system to non-axisymmetric components has not been reported yet. Thus, the CAPP system for non-axisymmetric deep drawing products with elliptical shape was constructed by using process sequence design. The system developed in this work consists of four modules. The first is recognition of shape module to recognize non-axisymmetric products. The second is a three-dimensional (3-D) modeling module to calculate the surface area for non-axisymmetric products. The third is a blank design module to create an oval-shaped blank with the identical surface area. The forth is a process planning module based on the production rules that play the best important role in an expert system for manufacturing. The production rules are generated and upgraded by interviewing field engineers. Especially, the drawing coefficient, the punch and die radii for elliptical shape products are considered as main design parameters. The suitability of this system was verified by applying to a real deep drawing product. This CAPP system constructed would be very useful to reduce lead-time for manufacturing and improve an accuracy of products.

  9. MODELING MID-INFRARED VARIABILITY OF CIRCUMSTELLAR DISKS WITH NON-AXISYMMETRIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, K. M.; Muzerolle, J.

    2010-08-20

    Recent mid-infrared observations of young stellar objects have found significant variations possibly indicative of changes in the structure of the circumstellar disk. Previous models of this variability have been restricted to axisymmetric perturbations in the disk. We consider simple models of a non-axisymmetric variation in the inner disk, such as a warp or a spiral wave. We find that the precession of these non-axisymmetric structures produces negligible flux variations but a change in the height of these structures can lead to significant changes in the mid-infrared flux. Applying these models to observations of the young stellar object LRLL 31 suggests that the observed variability could be explained by a warped inner disk with variable scale height. This suggests that some of the variability observed in young stellar objects could be explained by non-axisymmetric disturbances in the inner disk and this variability would be easily observable in future studies.

  10. Electomagnetic field due to a non-axisymmetric current loop around Kerr blackhole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, U. S.; Dubey, G. S.

    1983-12-01

    The authors derive expressions for the electromagnetic field of a non-axisymmetric current loop around a Kerr blackhole. Complete solution for the "inside" as well as the "outside" regions of the current loop are determined using vacuum solutions of King (1977). A particular solution, the electromagnetic field of an equatorial current loop, is explicitly derived.

  11. Dwarf Nova Outbursts with Magnetorotational Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, M. S. B.; Kotko, I.; Blaes, O.; Lasota, J.-P.; Hirose, S.

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenological Disc Instability Model has been successful in reproducing the observed light curves of dwarf nova outbursts by invoking an enhanced Shakura-Sunyaev α parameter ˜0.1 - 0.2 in outburst compared to a low value ˜0.01 in quiescence. Recent thermodynamically consistent simulations of magnetorotational (MRI) turbulence with appropriate opacities and equation of state for dwarf nova accretion discs have found that thermal convection enhances α in discs in outburst, but only near the hydrogen ionization transition. At higher temperatures, convection no longer exists and α returns to the low value comparable to that in quiescence. In order to check whether this enhancement near the hydrogen ionization transition is sufficient to reproduce observed light curves, we incorporate this MRI-based variation in α into the Disc Instability Model, as well as simulation-based models of turbulent dissipation and convective transport. These MRI-based models can successfully reproduce observed outburst and quiescence durations, as well as outburst amplitudes, albeit with different parameters from the standard Disc Instability Models. The MRI-based model lightcurves exhibit reflares in the decay from outburst, which are not generally observed in dwarf novae. However, we highlight the problematic aspects of the quiescence physics in the Disc Instability Model and MRI simulations that are responsible for this behavior.

  12. Non-axisymmetric Flows and Transport in the Edge of MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew Charles

    measuring it directly as < neur>. The flux increases dramatically during a crash and is non-axisymmetric. Between crashes, the transport from tearing is small, which agrees with previous measurements that identified electrostatic transport as dominant at that time.

  13. A multi-machine analysis of non-axisymmetric and rotating halo currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Clayton E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Eidietis, N. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Pautasso, G.; ITPA Working Group on Non-Axisymmetric Halo Currents Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    Halo currents measured during tokamak disruptions exhibit non-axisymmetric and rotating features in several machines including Alcator C-Mod, ASDEX Upgrade, and NSTX. Such non-axisymmetries are of great interest to ITER because they can increase mechanical stresses during a disruption, especially if the rotation resonates with the natural frequencies of the vessel. This paper presents an ITPA-initiated multi-machine analysis of these phenomena. The ITPA non-axisymmetric halo current database presently includes data from NSTX, DIII-D, AUG, and C-Mod. These data are analyzed here within a common numerical framework. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of the n = 1 component of the halo current over the course of the disruption, as well as on how the non-axisymmetries and rotation depend on the equilibrium plasma parameters at the start of the disruption. This research is supported by DoE Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  14. Three-dimensional simulations of rapidly rotating core-collapse supernovae: finding a neutrino-powered explosion aided by non-axisymmetric flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takiwaki, Tomoya; Kotake, Kei; Suwa, Yudai

    2016-09-01

    We report results from a series of three-dimensional (3D) rotational core-collapse simulations for 11.2 and 27 M⊙ stars employing neutrino transport scheme by the isotropic diffusion source approximation. By changing the initial strength of rotation systematically, we find a rotation-assisted explosion for the 27 M⊙ progenitor , which fails in the absence of rotation. The unique feature was not captured in previous two-dimensional (2D) self-consistent rotating models because the growing non-axisymmetric instabilities play a key role. In the rapidly rotating case, strong spiral flows generated by the so-called low T/|W| instability enhance the energy transport from the proto-neutron star (PNS) to the gain region, which makes the shock expansion more energetic. The explosion occurs more strongly in the direction perpendicular to the rotational axis, which is different from previous 2D predictions.

  15. Instability of Non-uniform Toroidal Magnetic Fields in Accretion Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2016-05-01

    We present a new type of instability that is expected to drive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence from a purely toroidal magnetic field in an accretion disk. It is already known that in a differentially rotating system, the uniform toroidal magnetic field is unstable due to magnetorotational instability (MRI) under a non-axisymmetric and vertical perturbation, while it is stable under a purely vertical perturbation. Contrary to the previous study, this paper proposes an unstable mode completely confined to the equatorial plane, driven by the expansive nature of the magnetic pressure gradient force under a non-uniform toroidal field. The basic nature of this growing eigenmode, which we name “magneto-gradient driven instability,” is studied using linear analysis, and the corresponding nonlinear evolution is then investigated using two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations. Although a single localized magnetic field channel alone cannot provide sufficient Maxwell stress to contribute significantly to the angular momentum transport, we find that the mode coupling between neighboring toroidal fields under multiple localized magnetic field channels drastically generates a highly turbulent state and leads to the enhanced transport of angular momentum, which is comparable to the efficiency seen in previous studies on MRIs. This horizontally confined mode may play an important role in the saturation of an MRI through complementray growth with the toroidal MRIs and coupling with magnetic reconnection.

  16. On the dynamics of magnetorotational turbulent stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, G. I.

    2003-04-01

    The turbulent stresses that lead to angular momentum transport in accretion discs have often been treated as resulting from an isotropic effective viscosity, related to the pressure through the alpha parametrization of Shakura and Sunyaev. This simple approach may be adequate for the simplest aspects of accretion disc theory, and was necessitated historically by an incomplete understanding of the origin of the turbulence. More recently, Balbus and Hawley have shown that the magnetorotational instability provides a robust mechanism of generating turbulent Reynolds and Maxwell stresses in sufficiently ionized discs. The alpha viscosity model fails to describe numerous aspects of this process. The present paper introduces a new analytical model that aims to represent more faithfully the dynamics of magnetorotational turbulent stresses and bridge the gap between analytical studies and numerical simulations. Covariant evolutionary equations for the mean Reynolds and Maxwell tensors are presented, which correctly include the linear interaction with the mean flow. Non-linear and dissipative effects, in the absence of an imposed magnetic flux and in the limit of large Reynolds number and magnetic Reynolds number, are modelled through five non-linear terms that represent known physical processes and are strongly constrained by symmetry properties and dimensional considerations. The resulting model explains the development of statistically steady, anisotropic turbulent stresses in the shearing sheet, a local representation of a differentially rotating disc, in agreement with numerical simulations. It also predicts that purely hydrodynamic turbulence is not sustained in a flow that adequately satisfies Rayleigh's stability criterion. The model is usually formally hyperbolic and therefore `causal', and guarantees the realizability of the stress tensors. It should be particularly useful in understanding the dynamics of warped, eccentric and tidally distorted discs, non

  17. On the flow of non-axisymmetric perturbations of cylinders via surface diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeCrone, Jeremy; Simonett, Gieri

    2016-03-01

    We study the surface diffusion flow acting on a class of general (non-axisymmetric) perturbations of cylinders Cr in IR3. Using tools from parabolic theory on uniformly regular manifolds, and maximal regularity, we establish existence and uniqueness of solutions to surface diffusion flow starting from (spatially-unbounded) surfaces defined over Cr via scalar height functions which are uniformly bounded away from the central cylindrical axis. Additionally, we show that Cr is normally stable with respect to 2π-axially-periodic perturbations if the radius r > 1, and unstable if 0 < r < 1. Stability is also shown to hold in settings with axial Neumann boundary conditions.

  18. The effect of damping on the stability of a finite element model of a flexible non-axisymmetric rotor on tilting pad bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Anthony G.; Craggs, Anthony

    1995-09-01

    A finite element model of a rotor-bearing system with non-axisymmetric stiffness and mass properties was analyzed in a previous study. In this paper the model is extended to include the effects of external damping due to symmetrical tilting-pad bearings. The same instability mechanisms, due to the lack of axisymmetry and shear deflection occurred in the damped case as for the undamped case, but within the normal operating speed of typical industrial rotor systems, a quite high degree of asymmetry is necessary. A ratio of the difference in a diametral second moments of area to mean diametral second moment of area, greater than 0.3 is necessary for instability for the configuration modelled. The instabilities involving antisymmetric modes in the undamped case are not present in the damped case. The first backward mode is involved in the instabilities of most practical interest. The effect of internal damping is also examined for an axisymmetric rotor and the behaviour, involving instability of the first forward mode, compares well with purely analytical methods for simple rotors.

  19. Quantify Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric (3D) Magnetic Fields in Tokamaks, Final Report for FES (Fusion Energy Sciences) FY2014 Joint Research Target

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, E. J.; Park, J. -K.; Marmar, E. S.; Ahn, J. -W.; Berkery, J. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Canik, J. M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Ferraro, N. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Gates, D. A.; Greenwald, M.; Kim, K.; King, J. D.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S. A.; Liu, Y. Q.; Lore, J. D.; Menard, J. E.; Nazikian, R.; Shafer, M. W.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Reiman, A. H.; Rice, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sugiyama, L.; Turnbull, A. D.; Volpe, F.; Wang, Z. R.; Wolfe, S. M.

    2014-09-30

    The goal of the 2014 Joint Research Target (JRT) has been to conduct experiments and analysis to investigate and quantify the response of tokamak plasmas to non-axisymmetric (3D) magnetic fields. Although tokamaks are conceptually axisymmetric devices, small asymmetries often result from inaccuracies in the manufacture and assembly of the magnet coils, or from nearby magnetized objects. In addition, non-axisymmetric fields may be deliberately applied for various purposes. Even at small amplitudes of order 10-4 of the main axisymmetric field, such “3D” fields can have profound impacts on the plasma performance. The effects are often detrimental (reduction of stabilizing plasma rotation, degradation of energy confinement, localized heat flux to the divertor, or excitation of instabilities) but may in some case be beneficial (maintenance of rotation, or suppression of instabilities). In general, the magnetic response of the plasma alters the 3D field, so that the magnetic field configuration within the plasma is not simply the sum of the external 3D field and the original axisymmetric field. Typically the plasma response consists of a mixture of local screening of the external field by currents induced at resonant surfaces in the plasma, and amplification of the external field by stable kink modes. Thus, validated magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models of the plasma response to 3D fields are crucial to the interpretation of existing experiments and the prediction of plasma performance in future devices. The non-axisymmetric coil sets available at each facility allow well-controlled studies of the response to external 3D fields. The work performed in support of the 2014 Joint Research Target has included joint modeling and analysis of existing experimental data, and collaboration on new experiments designed to address the goals of the JRT. A major focus of the work was validation of numerical models through quantitative comparison to experimental data, in

  20. Extremely low intrinsic non-axisymmetric field in KSTAR and its implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In, Y.; Park, J. K.; Jeon, J. M.; Kim, J.; Okabayashi, M.

    2015-04-01

    A surprisingly low level of intrinsic non-axisymmetric field (called ‘error field’) has been measured in KSTAR, suggesting at least an order of magnitude lower than in other major tokamaks. Specifically, the KSTAR was found to have an extremely low level of pitch resonant intrinsic error field at the m/n = 2/1 surface in the order of 10-5 of the magnetic field at the geometric centre, instead of 10-4 typically observed in other devices. Using a single array of in-vessel control coils (IVCCs) at the outboard midplane, the n = 1 intrinsic error field was diagnosed. Such a low level of intrinsic non-axisymmetric field as measured in KSTAR is less than or comparable to the Earth's magnetic field or a remanent field in the KSTAR plasma chamber. Considering that a very low level of n = 1 intrinsic error field (mostly associated with kink-resonance) helps the plasma to be less vulnerable to mode-locking, this might have allowed the n = 1 resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) currents (configured to be dominantly pitch-resonant for edge localized mode (ELM) suppression) to increase without invoking a kink-resonant mode-locking, consistent with experimental observation and poloidal mode spectra calculations in KSTAR. Further clarification of the influence of the intrinsic error field in terms of a 3D structure is expected to provide a solid foundation to understand the n = 1 RMP-driven ELM suppression uniquely observed in KSTAR.

  1. Perturbed particle orbits and kinetic plasma response in non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kimin; Park, J.-K.; Boozer, A. H.; Logan, N. C.; Wang, Z. R.; Menard, J. E.

    2014-10-01

    Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields interact with the drift trajectories of ions and electrons to create an anisotropic plasma pressure. The force produced by the gradient of this anisotropic pressure produces a torque, the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV), which tends to relax the plasma rotation to a specific offset rotation, and modifies the energy required to perturb the plasma. Complexities, such as resonances of the ExB drift with particle bounce frequencies, finite orbit width, and full collisional effects, require full numerical simulation to determine the NTV and the perturbation energy. The POCA delta-f drift kinetic particle code has been used to: (1) demonstrate the existence of the bounce resonances with the ExB drift and show that they often dominate the magnitude of the NTV, (2) show the NTV of perturbations with different toroidal mode numbers are generally decoupled, and (3) verify a quadratic NTV dependence on the asymmetric magnetic field. Such results imply the pressure anisotropy is linear in the magnetic perturbation and can produce a significant change in the applied non-axisymmetric field. Progress on integrating this pressure anisotropy into a perturbed equilibrium solver to obtain self-consistent solutions is presented. This work was supported by US DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  2. Potential of the Galaxy from the Besançon galaxy model including non-axisymmetric components: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Robin, A. C.; Bienaymé, O.; Reylé, C.; Valenzuela, O.; Pichardo, B.

    2014-07-01

    In this contributed poster we present a preliminary attempt to compute a non-axisymmetric potential together with previous axisymmetric potential of the Besançon galaxy model. The contribution by non-axisymmetric components are modeled by the superposition of inhomogeneous ellipsoids to approximate the triaxial bar and superposition of homogeneous oblate spheroids for a stellar halo, possibly triaxial. Finally, we have computed the potential and force field for these non-axisymmetric components in order to constraint the total mass of the Milky Way. We present preliminary results for the rotation curve and the contribution of the bar to it. This approach will allow future studies of dynamical constraints from comparisons of kinematical simulations with upcoming surveys such as RAVE, BRAVA, APOGEE, and GAIA in the near future. More details, are presented in https://gaia.ub.edu/Twiki/pub/GREATITNFC/ProgramFinalconference/Poster_JG.Fern%e1ndez.pdf.

  3. Extension of the flow-rate-of-strain tensor formulation of plasma rotation theory to non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacey, W. M.; Bae, C.

    2015-06-01

    A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ω τ -ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric "neoclassical toroidal viscosity" mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.

  4. Extension of the flow-rate-of-strain tensor formulation of plasma rotation theory to non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, W. M.; Bae, C.

    2015-06-15

    A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.

  5. Non-Ideal ELM Stability and Non-Axisymmetric Field Penetration Calculations with M3D-C1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Chu, M. S.; Snyder, P. B.; Jardin, S. C.; Luo, X.

    2009-11-01

    Numerical studies of ELM stability and non-axisymmetric field penetration in diverted DIII-D and NSTX equilibria are presented, with resistive and finite Larmor radius effects included. These results are obtained with the nonlinear two-fluid code M3D-C1, which has recently been extended to allow linear non-axisymmetric calculations. Benchmarks of M3D-C1 with ideal codes ELITE and GATO show good agreement for the linear stability of peeling-ballooning modes in the ideal limit. New calculations of the resistive stability of ideally stable DIII-D equilibria are presented. M3D-C1 has also been used to calculate the linear response to non-axisymmetric external fields; these calculations are benchmarked with Surfmn and MARS-F. New numerical methods implemented in M3D-C1 are presented, including the treatment of boundary conditions with C^1 elements in a non-rectangular mesh.

  6. Full Toroidal Imaging of Non-axisymmetric Plasma Material Interaction in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    SciTech Connect

    Filippo Scotti, A.L. Roquemore, and V. A. Soukhanovskii

    2012-07-11

    A pair of two dimensional fast cameras with a wide angle view (allowing a full radial and toroidal coverage of the lower divertor) was installed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment in order to monitor non-axisymmetric effects. A custom polar remapping procedure and an absolute photometric calibration enabled the easier visualization and quantitative analysis of non-axisymmetric plasma material interaction (e.g., strike point splitting due to application of 3D fields and effects of toroidally asymmetric plasma facing components).

  7. Computational Analysis for Secondary Vorticity and Non-Axisymmetric Features in the Shock-Bubble Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederhaus, John; Ranjan, Devesh; Motl, Bradley; Oakley, Jason; Anderson, Mark; Bonazza, Riccardo; Greenough, Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    Computations for the shock-bubble interaction are performed using the 3D Eulerian AMR code Raptor. In the simulations, performed in 3D at a fine-grid resolution of 128 grid points per bubble radius, a planar shock wave of specified strength accelerates a spherical gas bubble embedded in an otherwise uniform air or nitrogen medium. The computed solutions clearly resolve the development of distinctive features observed in previous experiments (Haas and Sturtevant, J. Fluid. Mech., 1987) and simulations (Zabusky and Zeng, J. Fluid. Mech., 1998), including jets, secondary shocks, vortex rings, and turbulent mixing. Using both flow visualizations and quantitative diagnostics, the non-axisymmetric and turbulent features developing in the flow are characterized. Local fluctuating quantities are defined with respect to an azimuthal mean, and mechanisms are identified for the post-shock origin and growth of secondary vortices and turbulent features.

  8. Non Axisymmetric Three-Dimensional Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chung-Sang

    2013-10-01

    The theory of three-dimensional (3D) magnetic Magnetic Bernstein-Greene-Kruskal (BGK) modes has been generalized to the non axisymmetric case. While the shape of the electrostatic structure is usually elongated along the direction of the strong large-scale magnetic field, a limiting case with the elongated direction along one of the perpendicular direction is also possible. Essentially this makes the solution 2D with the magnetic field on the 2D plane. Note that such 2D BGK modes are very different from those described by another theory, of which the magnetic field is perpendicular to the 2D plane. This theory might explain 2D BGK modes observed in some numerical simulations. This work is supported by a National Science Foundation grant PHY-1004357 and by the National Science Foundation of China NSFC under Grant No. 41128004.

  9. Versatile controllability of non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations in KSTAR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Hyunsun; Jeon, Y. M.; in, Y.; Kim, J.; Yoon, S. W.; Hahn, S. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Woo, M. H.; Park, B. H.; Bak, J. G.; Kstar Team

    2015-11-01

    A newly upgraded IVCC (In-Vessel Control Coil) system equipped with four broadband power supplies, along with current connection patch panel, will be presented and discussed in terms of its capability on various KSTAR experiments. Until the last run-campaign, there were impressive experimental results on ELM(Edge Localized Mode) control experiments using the 3D magnetic field, but the non-axisymmetric field configuration could not be changed in a shot, let alone the limited number of accessible configurations. Introducing the new power supplies, such restrictions have been greatly reduced. Based on the preliminary commissioning results for 2015 KSTAR run-campaign, this new system has been confirmed to easily cope with various dynamic demands for toroidal and poloidal phases of 3D magnetic field in a shot. This enables us to diagnose the plasma response in more detail and to address the 3-D field impacts on the ELM behaviors better than ever.

  10. Ideal plasma response to vacuum magnetic fields with resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kimin; Ahn, J-W; Scotti, F.; Park, J-K; Menard, J. E.

    2015-09-03

    Ideal plasma shielding and amplification of resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamak is presented by field line tracing simulation with full ideal plasma response, compared to measurements of divertor lobe structures. Magnetic field line tracing simulations in NSTX with toroidal non-axisymmetry indicate the ideal plasma response can significantly shield/amplify and phase shift the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations. Ideal plasma shielding for n = 3 mode is found to prevent magnetic islands from opening as consistently shown in the field line connection length profile and magnetic footprints on the divertor target. It is also found that the ideal plasma shielding modifies the degree of stochasticity but does not change the overall helical lobe structures of the vacuum field for n = 3. Amplification of vacuum fields by the ideal plasma response is predicted for low toroidal mode n = 1, better reproducing measurements of strong striation of the field lines on the divertor plate in NSTX.

  11. Towards Simulating Non-Axisymmetric Influences on Aircraft Plumes for Signature Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenzakowski, D. C.; Shipman, J. D.; Dash, S. M.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology for efficiently including three-dimensional effects on aircraft plume signature is presented. First, exploratory work on the use of passive mixing enhancement devices, namely chevrons and tabs, in IR signature reduction for external turbofan plumes is demonstrated numerically and experimentally. Such small attachments, when properly designed, cause an otherwise axisymmetric plume to have significant 3D structures, affecting signature prediction. Second, an approach for including non-axisymmetric and installation effects in plume signature prediction is discussed using unstructured methodology. Unstructured flow solvers, using advanced turbulence modeling and plume thermochemistry, facilitate the modeling of aircraft effects on plume structure that previously have been neglected due to gridding complexities. The capabilities of the CRUNCH unstructured Navier-Stokes solver for plume modeling is demonstrated for a passively mixed turbofan nozzle, a generic fighter nozzle, and a complete aircraft.

  12. Ideal plasma response to vacuum magnetic fields with resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kimin; Ahn, J. -W.; Scotti, F.; Park, J. -K.; Menard, J. E.

    2015-09-03

    Ideal plasma shielding and amplification of resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamak is presented by field line tracing simulation with full ideal plasma response, compared to measurements of divertor lobe structures. Magnetic field line tracing simulations in NSTX with toroidal non-axisymmetry indicate the ideal plasma response can significantly shield/amplify and phase shift the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations. Ideal plasma shielding for n = 3 mode is found to prevent magnetic islands from opening as consistently shown in the field line connection length profile and magnetic footprints on the divertor target. It is also found that the ideal plasma shielding modifies the degree of stochasticity but does not change the overall helical lobe structures of the vacuum field for n = 3. Furthermore, amplification of vacuum fields by the ideal plasma response is predicted for low toroidal mode n = 1, better reproducing measurements of strong striation of the field lines on the divertor plate in NSTX.

  13. Comparisons of linear and nonlinear plasma response models for non-axisymmetric perturbationsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Ferraro, N. M.; Izzo, V. A.; Lazarus, E. A.; Park, J.-K.; Cooper, W. A.; Hirshman, S. P.; Lao, L. L.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lazerson, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Reiman, A.; Turco, F.

    2013-05-01

    With the installation of non-axisymmetric coil systems on major tokamaks for the purpose of studying the prospects of ELM-free operation, understanding the plasma response to the applied fields is a crucial issue. Application of different response models, using standard tools, to DIII-D discharges with applied non-axisymmetric fields from internal coils, is shown to yield qualitatively different results. The plasma response can be treated as an initial value problem, following the system dynamically from an initial unperturbed state, or from a nearby perturbed equilibrium approach, and using both linear and nonlinear models [A. D. Turnbull, Nucl. Fusion 52, 054016 (2012)]. Criteria are discussed under which each of the approaches can yield a valid response. In the DIII-D cases studied, these criteria show a breakdown in the linear theory despite the small 10-3 relative magnitude of the applied magnetic field perturbations in this case. For nonlinear dynamical evolution simulations to reach a saturated nonlinear steady state, appropriate damping mechanisms need to be provided for each normal mode comprising the response. Other issues arise in the technical construction of perturbed flux surfaces from a displacement and from the presence of near nullspace normal modes. For the nearby equilibrium approach, in the absence of a full 3D equilibrium reconstruction with a controlled comparison, constraints relating the 2D system profiles to the final profiles in the 3D system also need to be imposed to assure accessibility. The magnetic helicity profile has been proposed as an appropriate input to a 3D equilibrium calculation and tests of this show the anticipated qualitative behavior.

  14. Design, simulation, and measurement of LED reading lamp with non-axisymmetrical reflector and freeform lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei-Yang; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei; Lu, Ming-Jun

    2011-10-01

    With the rapid development of various types of digi-readers, such as i-Pad, Kindle, and so on, non-self-luminous type has an advantage, low power consumption. This type of digi-reader reflects the surrounding light to display so it is no good at all to read under dim environment. In this paper, we design a LED lamp for a square lighted range with low power consumption. The e-book is about 12cm x 9cm, the total flux of LED is 3 Lm, and the LED lamp is put on the upper brink of the panel with 6cm height and 45 degree tilted angle. For redistributing the energy, the LED lamp has a freeform lens to control the light of small view angle and a non-axisymmetrical reflector to control the light of large view angle and create a rectangular-like spot. In accordance with the measurement data, the proposed optical structure achieves that the power consumption of LED light source is only 90mW, the average illumination is about 200 Lux, the uniformity of illumination is over 0.7, and the spot is rectangular-like with precise light/dark cutting-off line. Our designed optical structure significantly increases the efficiency of light using and meets the environmental goal of low energy consumption.

  15. Non-axisymmetric flows on hot Jupiters with oblique magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stanley, Sabine

    2014-10-10

    Giant planets that reside in close proximity to their host stars are subject to extreme irradiation, which gives rise to thermal ionization of trace alkali metals in their atmospheres. On objects where the atmospheric electrical conductivity is substantial, the global circulation couples to the background magnetic field, inducing supplementary fields and altering the nature of the flow. To date, a number of authors have considered the influence of a spin-pole aligned dipole magnetic field on the dynamical state of a weakly ionized atmosphere and found that magnetic breaking may lead to significantly slower winds than predicted within a purely hydrodynamical framework. Here, we consider the effect of a tilted dipole magnetic field on the circulation and demonstrate that in addition to regulating wind velocities, an oblique field generates stationary non-axisymmetric structures that adhere to the geometry of the magnetic pole. Using a kinematic perturbative approach, we derive a closed-form solution for the perturbed circulation and show that the fractional distortion of zonal jets scales as the product of the field obliquity and the Elsässer number. The results obtained herein suggest that on planets with oblique magnetic fields, advective shifts of dayside hotspots may have substantial latitudinal components. This prediction may be tested observationally using the eclipse mapping technique.

  16. Ideal plasma response to vacuum magnetic fields with resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kimin; Ahn, J.-W.; Scotti, F.; Park, J.-K.; Menard, J. E.

    2015-10-01

    Ideal plasma shielding and amplification of resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamak is presented by field line tracing simulation with full ideal plasma response, compared to measurements of divertor lobe structures. Magnetic field line tracing simulations in NSTX with toroidal non-axisymmetry indicate the ideal plasma response can significantly shield/amplify and phase shift the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations. Ideal plasma shielding for n   =   3 mode is found to prevent magnetic islands from opening as consistently shown in the field line connection length profile and magnetic footprints on the divertor target. It is also found that the ideal plasma shielding modifies the degree of stochasticity but does not change the overall helical lobe structures of the vacuum field for n   =   3. Amplification of vacuum fields by the ideal plasma response is predicted for low toroidal mode n   =   1, better reproducing measurements of strong striation of the field lines on the divertor plate in NSTX.

  17. Local heat transfer measurement with liquid crystals on rotating surfaces including non-axisymmetric cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, D. E.; Kim, Y. K.

    1993-01-01

    An overview and summary of test methods and results are given for the problem of measuring local heat transfer on rotating surfaces that model gas turbine engine disks. Disk cavity situations generically similar to those encountered in the high pressure stage disk cooling are considered, with cooling air supplied both at or near the wheel centerline as well as through single or multiple jets impinging outboard on the wheel near the blade attachment region. In some situations provision has been made for ingestion into the disk-cavity from the gas path region radially outboard of the disk. Local heat transfer rates in all cases are determined from the color display from a thin coating of encapsulated liquid crystals sprayed onto the disk, in conjunction with use of a video camera and computer vision system. For cases with axisymmetric disk surfaces, the coated surfaces are illuminated and viewed continuously, and detailed radial distributions of local Nusselt number are obtained. For non-axisymmetric disk surfaces, such as encountered in the vicinity of bolt heads, the disk is illuminated with stroboscopic light, and a method has been developed and used to synchronize the computer frame grabber with the illumination.

  18. Ideal plasma response to vacuum magnetic fields with resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamaks

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kim, Kimin; Ahn, J. -W.; Scotti, F.; Park, J. -K.; Menard, J. E.

    2015-09-03

    Ideal plasma shielding and amplification of resonant magnetic perturbations in non-axisymmetric tokamak is presented by field line tracing simulation with full ideal plasma response, compared to measurements of divertor lobe structures. Magnetic field line tracing simulations in NSTX with toroidal non-axisymmetry indicate the ideal plasma response can significantly shield/amplify and phase shift the vacuum resonant magnetic perturbations. Ideal plasma shielding for n = 3 mode is found to prevent magnetic islands from opening as consistently shown in the field line connection length profile and magnetic footprints on the divertor target. It is also found that the ideal plasma shielding modifiesmore » the degree of stochasticity but does not change the overall helical lobe structures of the vacuum field for n = 3. Furthermore, amplification of vacuum fields by the ideal plasma response is predicted for low toroidal mode n = 1, better reproducing measurements of strong striation of the field lines on the divertor plate in NSTX.« less

  19. Non-axisymmetric Flows on Hot Jupiters with Oblique Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Stanley, Sabine

    2014-10-01

    Giant planets that reside in close proximity to their host stars are subject to extreme irradiation, which gives rise to thermal ionization of trace alkali metals in their atmospheres. On objects where the atmospheric electrical conductivity is substantial, the global circulation couples to the background magnetic field, inducing supplementary fields and altering the nature of the flow. To date, a number of authors have considered the influence of a spin-pole aligned dipole magnetic field on the dynamical state of a weakly ionized atmosphere and found that magnetic breaking may lead to significantly slower winds than predicted within a purely hydrodynamical framework. Here, we consider the effect of a tilted dipole magnetic field on the circulation and demonstrate that in addition to regulating wind velocities, an oblique field generates stationary non-axisymmetric structures that adhere to the geometry of the magnetic pole. Using a kinematic perturbative approach, we derive a closed-form solution for the perturbed circulation and show that the fractional distortion of zonal jets scales as the product of the field obliquity and the Elsässer number. The results obtained herein suggest that on planets with oblique magnetic fields, advective shifts of dayside hotspots may have substantial latitudinal components. This prediction may be tested observationally using the eclipse mapping technique.

  20. Importance of Plasma Response to Non-axisymmetric Perturbations in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Jong-kyu Park, Allen H. Boozer, Jonathan E. Menard, Andrea M. Garofalo, Michael J. Schaffer, Richard J. Hawryluk, Stanley M. Kaye, Stefan P. Gerhardt, Steve A. Sabbagh, and the NSTX Team

    2009-04-22

    Tokamaks are sensitive to deviations from axisymmetry as small as δB=B0 ~ 10-4. These non-axisymmetric perturbations greatly modify plasma confinement and performance by either destroying magnetic surfaces with subsequent locking or deforming magnetic surfaces with associated non-ambipolar transport. The Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC) calculates ideal perturbed equilibria and provides important basis for understanding the sensitivity of tokamak plasmas to perturbations. IPEC calculations indicate that the ideal plasma response, or equiva- lently the effect by ideally perturbed plasma currents, is essential to explain locking experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) and DIII-D. The ideal plasma response is also important for Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) in non-ambipolar transport. The consistency between NTV theory and magnetic braking experiments on NSTX and DIII-D can be improved when the variation in the field strength in IPEC is coupled with generalized NTV theory. These plasma response effects will be compared with the previous vacuum superpositions to illustrate the importance. However, plasma response based on ideal perturbed equilibria is still not suffciently accurate to predict the details of NTV transport, and can be inconsistent when currents associated with a toroidal torque become comparable to ideal perturbed currents.

  1. A Method for Optimizing Non-Axisymmetric Liners for Multimodal Sound Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Jones, M. G.; Parrott, T. L.; Sobieski, J.

    2002-01-01

    Central processor unit times and memory requirements for a commonly used solver are compared to that of a state-of-the-art, parallel, sparse solver. The sparse solver is then used in conjunction with three constrained optimization methodologies to assess the relative merits of non-axisymmetric versus axisymmetric liner concepts for improving liner acoustic suppression. This assessment is performed with a multimodal noise source (with equal mode amplitudes and phases) in a finite-length rectangular duct without flow. The sparse solver is found to reduce memory requirements by a factor of five and central processing time by a factor of eleven when compared with the commonly used solver. Results show that the optimum impedance of the uniform liner is dominated by the least attenuated mode, whose attenuation is maximized by the Cremer optimum impedance. An optimized, four-segmented liner with impedance segments in a checkerboard arrangement is found to be inferior to an optimized spanwise segmented liner. This optimized spanwise segmented liner is shown to attenuate substantially more sound than the optimized uniform liner and tends to be more effective at the higher frequencies. The most important result of this study is the discovery that when optimized, a spanwise segmented liner with two segments gives attenuations equal to or substantially greater than an optimized axially segmented liner with the same number of segments.

  2. Non-axisymmetric Perturbations of the LDX Laboratory Magnetosphere by Lithium Pellet Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.; Kesner, J.

    2014-10-01

    In most toroidal magnetic plasma confinement systems, transport within helical flux surfaces serve to symmetrize the plasma temperature and density. In contrast, a plasma torus confined by a dipole field lacks a rotational transform and therefore the confined plasma is not necessarily axisymmetric. The plasma, however, self organizes into a time-averaged symmetric state through particle drifts and turbulent transport. Recent experiments in the LDX laboratory magnetosphere have been conducted to study large non axisymmetric perturbations of the dipole confined plasma. A high speed gas gun was used to inject lithium pellets tangentially through the peak of the plasma density profile. High speed video shows the pellet ablating as it traverses the bulk plasma. As the pellets approach the mid plane they encounter the deeply trapped energetic electron ring (formed during ECH) and absorb energy deeply into pellet. This causes a rapid ablation fracturing of the pellet into multiple droplets; the exploding pellets will vaporize and then ionize leading to a tripling of the line integrated density. Similar processes occur when objects enter the Van Allen belts. The high density plasma presents an improved target for ICRF heating. We will present recent experimental results. Supported by the NSF-DOE Partnership in Plasma Science Grants DE-FG02-00ER54585 and PHY-1201896.

  3. Spreading of non-planar non-axisymmetric gravity and turbidity currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgheib, Nadim; Bonometti, Thomas; Balachandar, S.

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of non-axisymmetric turbidity currents is considered here. The study comprises a series of experiments for which a finite volume of particle-laden solution is released into fresh water. A mixture of water and polystyrene particles of diameter 280

  4. Effects of magnetic drift tangential to magnetic surfaces on neoclassical transport in non-axisymmetric plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuoka, Seikichi; Satake, Shinsuke; Kanno, Ryutaro; Sugama, Hideo

    2015-07-15

    In evaluating neoclassical transport by radially local simulations, the magnetic drift tangential to a flux surface is usually ignored in order to keep the phase-space volume conservation. In this paper, effect of the tangential magnetic drift on the local neoclassical transport is investigated. To retain the effect of the tangential magnetic drift in the local treatment of neoclassical transport, a new local formulation for the drift kinetic simulation is developed. The compressibility of the phase-space volume caused by the tangential magnetic drift is regarded as a source term for the drift kinetic equation, which is solved by using a two-weight δf Monte Carlo method for non-Hamiltonian system [G. Hu and J. A. Krommes, Phys. Plasmas 1, 863 (1994)]. It is demonstrated that the effect of the drift is negligible for the neoclassical transport in tokamaks. In non-axisymmetric systems, however, the tangential magnetic drift substantially changes the dependence of the neoclassical transport on the radial electric field E{sub r}. The peaked behavior of the neoclassical radial fluxes around E{sub r }={sub  }0 observed in conventional local neoclassical transport simulations is removed by taking the tangential magnetic drift into account.

  5. The study of non-axisymmetric control coil applications in NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.-K.; Menard, J. E.; Kim, K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Maingi, R.; Bialek, J. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Boozer, A. H.; Canik, J. M.; Evans, T. E.

    2013-10-01

    As expanded 3D field capability is essential to meet NSTX-U programmatic goals and support ITER, non-axisymmetric control coil (NCC) configurations have been proposed and studied to assess potential physics applications. IPEC-NTV, POCA, and TRIP-3D code analysis show that NCC can provide a range of non-resonant error field control while minimizing resonant error field, and enhance NTV variability to better control rotation and shear, and also largely vary stochastic layers in the edge while maintaining similar plasma response characteristics. VALEN-3D analysis shows that RWM control performance increases with NCC and indicates even the possibility of operation near the ideal-wall limit. In addition, 3D analysis using stellarator codes such as COBRA indicates that NCC can directly broaden ballooning unstable region across radius and thus can be used to improve ELM pacing in NSTX-U. Relevant figures-of-merit are defined and used to quantify these NCC physics capabilities, as will be presented with future analysis plans. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  6. Neoclassical plasma viscosity and transport processes in non-axisymmetric tori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaing, K. C.; Ida, K.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2015-11-01

    Neoclassical transport processes are important to the understanding of plasma confinement physics in doubly periodic magnetized toroidal plasmas, especially, after the impact of the momentum confinement on the particle and energy confinement is recognized. Real doubly periodic tori in general are non-axisymmetric, with symmetric tori as a special case. An eight-moment approach to transport theory with plasma density N, plasma pressure p, mass flow velocity V and heat flow q as independent variables is adopted. Transport processes are dictated by the solutions of the momentum and heat flux balance equations. For toroidal plasma confinement devices, the first order (in the gyro-radius ordering) plasma flows are on the magnetic surface to guarantee good plasma confinement and are thus two-dimensional. Two linearly independent components of the momentum equation are required to determine the flows completely. Once this two-dimensional flow is relaxed, i.e. the momentum equation reaches a steady state, plasmas become ambipolar, and all the transport fluxes are determined through the flux-force relation. The flux-force relation is derived both from the kinetic definitions for the transport fluxes and from the manipulation of the momentum and heat flux balance equations to illustrate the nature of the transport fluxes by examining their corresponding driven forces and their roles in the momentum and heat flux balance equations. Steady-state plasma flows are determined by the components of the stress and heat stress tensors in the momentum and heat flux balance equations. This approach emphasizes the pivotal role of the momentum equation in the transport processes and is particularly useful in modelling plasma flows in experiments. The methodology for neoclassical transport theory is applied to fluctuation-driven transport fluxes in the quasilinear theory to unify these two theories. Experimental observations in tokamaks and stellarators for the physics discussed are

  7. On the scattering of elastic waves from a non-axisymmetric defect in a coated pipe.

    PubMed

    Duan, Wenbo; Kirby, Ray; Mudge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Viscoelastic coatings are often used to protect pipelines in the oil and gas industry. However, over time defects and areas of corrosion often form in these pipelines and so it is desirable to monitor the structural integrity of these coated pipes using techniques similar to those used on uncoated pipelines. A common approach is to use ultrasonic guided waves that work on the pulse-echo principle; however, the energy in the guided waves can be heavily attenuated by the coating and so significantly reduce the effective range of these techniques. Accordingly, it is desirable to develop a better understanding of how these waves propagate in coated pipes with a view to optimising test methodologies, and so this article uses a hybrid SAFE-finite element approach to model scattering from non-axisymmetric defects in coated pipes. Predictions are generated in the time and frequency domain and it is shown that the longitudinal family of modes is likely to have a longer range in coated pipes when compared to torsional modes. Moreover, it is observed that the energy velocity of modes in a coated pipe is very similar to the group velocity of equivalent modes in uncoated pipes. It is also observed that the coating does not induce any additional mode conversion over and above that seen for an uncoated pipe when an incident wave is scattered by a defect. Accordingly, it is shown that when studying coated pipes one need account only for the attenuation imparted by the coating so that one may normally neglect the effect of coating on modal dispersion and scattering. PMID:26455949

  8. MAGNETOROTATIONAL CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE IN THREE DIMENSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mösta, Philipp; Richers, Sherwood; Ott, Christian D.; Haas, Roland; Piro, Anthony L.; Boydstun, Kristen; Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Reisswig, Christian; Schnetter, Erik

    2014-04-20

    We present results of new three-dimensional (3D) general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations of rapidly rotating strongly magnetized core collapse. These simulations are the first of their kind and include a microphysical finite-temperature equation of state and a leakage scheme that captures the overall energetics and lepton number exchange due to postbounce neutrino emission. Our results show that the 3D dynamics of magnetorotational core-collapse supernovae are fundamentally different from what was anticipated on the basis of previous simulations in axisymmetry (2D). A strong bipolar jet that develops in a simulation constrained to 2D is crippled by a spiral instability and fizzles in full 3D. While multiple (magneto-)hydrodynamic instabilities may be present, our analysis suggests that the jet is disrupted by an m = 1 kink instability of the ultra-strong toroidal field near the rotation axis. Instead of an axially symmetric jet, a completely new, previously unreported flow structure develops. Highly magnetized spiral plasma funnels expelled from the core push out the shock in polar regions, creating wide secularly expanding lobes. We observe no runaway explosion by the end of the full 3D simulation 185 ms after bounce. At this time, the lobes have reached maximum radii of ∼900 km.

  9. Non-axisymmetric ideal equilibrium and stability of ITER plasmas with rotating RMPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.; Cramp, R. G. J.; Gibson, S.; Lazerson, S. A.; Chapman, I. T.; Kirk, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magnetic perturbations produced by the resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) coils will be rotated in ITER so that the spiral patterns due to strike point splitting which are locked to the RMP also rotate. This is to ensure even power deposition on the divertor plates. VMEC equilibria are calculated for different phases of the RMP rotation. It is demonstrated that the off harmonics rotate in the opposite direction to the main harmonic. This is an important topic for future research to control and optimize ITER appropriately. High confinement mode (H-mode) is favourable for the economics of a potential fusion power plant and its use is planned in ITER. However, the high pressure gradient at the edge of the plasma can trigger periodic eruptions called edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs have the potential to shorten the life of the divertor in ITER (Loarte et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 1549) and so methods for mitigating or suppressing ELMs in ITER will be important. Non-axisymmetric RMP coils will be installed in ITER for ELM control. Sampling theory is used to show that there will be significant a {{n}\\text{coils}}-{{n}\\text{rmp}} harmonic sideband. There are nine coils toroidally in ITER so {{n}\\text{coils}}=9 . This results in a significant n  =  6 component to the {{n}\\text{rmp}}=3 applied field and a significant n  =  5 component to the {{n}\\text{rmp}}=4 applied field. Although the vacuum field has similar amplitudes of these harmonics the plasma response to the various harmonics dictates the final equilibrium. Magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n  =  3 and n  =  4 are applied to a 15 MA, {{q}95}≈ 3 burning ITER plasma. We use a three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic model (VMEC) to calculate ITER equilibria with applied RMPs and to determine growth rates of infinite n ballooning modes (COBRA). The {{n}\\text{rmp}}=4 case shows little change in ballooning mode growth rate as the RMP is

  10. Emergency Entry with One Control Torque: Non-Axisymmetric Diagonal Inertia Matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llama, Eduardo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    In another work, a method was presented, primarily conceived as an emergency backup system, that addressed the problem of a space capsule that needed to execute a safe atmospheric entry from an arbitrary initial attitude and angular rate in the absence of nominal control capability. The proposed concept permits the arrest of a tumbling motion, orientation to the heat shield forward position and the attainment of a ballistic roll rate of a rigid spacecraft with the use of control in one axis only. To show the feasibility of such concept, the technique of single input single output (SISO) feedback linearization using the Lie derivative method was employed and the problem was solved for different number of jets and for different configurations of the inertia matrix: the axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)), a partially complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz), I(sub xz) not = 0 and a realistic complete inertia matrix with I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I)sub zz), I(sub ij) not= 0. The closed loop stability of the proposed non-linear control on the total angle of attack, Theta, was analyzed through the zero dynamics of the internal dynamics for the case where the inertia matrix is axisymmetric (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) = I(sub zz)). This note focuses on the problem of the diagonal non-axisymmetric inertia matrix (I(sub xx) > I(sub yy) > I(sub zz)), which is half way between the axisymmetric and the partially complete inertia matrices. In this note, the control law for this type of inertia matrix will be determined and its closed-loop stability will be analyzed using the same methods that were used in the other work. In particular, it will be proven that the control system is stable in closed-loop when the actuators only provide a roll torque.

  11. An upgrade of the magnetic diagnostic system of the DIII-D tokamak for non-axisymmetric measurements.

    PubMed

    King, J D; Strait, E J; Boivin, R L; Taussig, D; Watkins, M G; Hanson, J M; Logan, N C; Paz-Soldan, C; Pace, D C; Shiraki, D; Lanctot, M J; La Haye, R J; Lao, L L; Battaglia, D J; Sontag, A C; Haskey, S R; Bak, J G

    2014-08-01

    The DIII-D tokamak magnetic diagnostic system [E. J. Strait, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023502 (2006)] has been upgraded to significantly expand the measurement of the plasma response to intrinsic and applied non-axisymmetric "3D" fields. The placement and design of 101 additional sensors allow resolution of toroidal mode numbers 1 ≤ n ≤ 3, and poloidal wavelengths smaller than MARS-F, IPEC, and VMEC magnetohydrodynamic model predictions. Small 3D perturbations, relative to the equilibrium field (10(-5) < δB/B0 < 10(-4)), require sub-millimeter fabrication and installation tolerances. This high precision is achieved using electrical discharge machined components, and alignment techniques employing rotary laser levels and a coordinate measurement machine. A 16-bit data acquisition system is used in conjunction with analog signal-processing to recover non-axisymmetric perturbations. Co-located radial and poloidal field measurements allow up to 14.2 cm spatial resolution of poloidal structures (plasma poloidal circumference is ~500 cm). The function of the new system is verified by comparing the rotating tearing mode structure, measured by 14 BP fluctuation sensors, with that measured by the upgraded B(R) saddle loop sensors after the mode locks to the vessel wall. The result is a nearly identical 2/1 helical eigenstructure in both cases. PMID:25173265

  12. An upgrade of the magnetic diagnostic system of the DIII-D tokamak for non-axisymmetric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. D.; Strait, E. J.; Boivin, R. L.; Taussig, D.; Watkins, M. G.; Hanson, J. M.; Logan, N. C.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Pace, D. C.; Shiraki, D.; Lanctot, M. J.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L. L.; Battaglia, D. J.; Sontag, A. C.; Haskey, S. R.; Bak, J. G.

    2014-08-01

    The DIII-D tokamak magnetic diagnostic system [E. J. Strait, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 023502 (2006)] has been upgraded to significantly expand the measurement of the plasma response to intrinsic and applied non-axisymmetric "3D" fields. The placement and design of 101 additional sensors allow resolution of toroidal mode numbers 1 ≤ n ≤ 3, and poloidal wavelengths smaller than MARS-F, IPEC, and VMEC magnetohydrodynamic model predictions. Small 3D perturbations, relative to the equilibrium field (10-5 < δB/B0 < 10-4), require sub-millimeter fabrication and installation tolerances. This high precision is achieved using electrical discharge machined components, and alignment techniques employing rotary laser levels and a coordinate measurement machine. A 16-bit data acquisition system is used in conjunction with analog signal-processing to recover non-axisymmetric perturbations. Co-located radial and poloidal field measurements allow up to 14.2 cm spatial resolution of poloidal structures (plasma poloidal circumference is ˜500 cm). The function of the new system is verified by comparing the rotating tearing mode structure, measured by 14 BP fluctuation sensors, with that measured by the upgraded BR saddle loop sensors after the mode locks to the vessel wall. The result is a nearly identical 2/1 helical eigenstructure in both cases.

  13. Modeling and Prediction of the Noise from Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    mean flows which were meant to represent noise reduction concepts being considered by NASA. Testing (Ref. 5) showed that the method was feasible for the types of mean flows of interest in jet noise applications. Subsequently, this method was further developed to allow use of mean flow profiles obtained from a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution of the flow. Preliminary testing of the generalized code was among the last tasks completed under this contract. The stringent noise-reduction goals of NASA's Fundamental Aeronautics Program suggest that, in addition to potentially complex exhaust nozzle geometries, next generation aircraft will also involve tighter integration of the engine with the airframe. Therefore, noise generated and propagated by jet flows in the vicinity of solid surfaces is expected to be quite significant, and reduced-order noise prediction tools will be needed that can deal with such geometries. One important source of noise is that generated by the interaction of a turbulent jet with the edge of a solid surface (edge noise). Such noise is generated, for example, by the passing of the engine exhaust over a shielding surface, such as a wing. Work under this task supported an effort to develop a RANS-based prediction code for edge noise based on an extension of the classical Rapid Distortion Theory (RDT) to transversely sheared base flows (Refs. 6 and 7). The RDT-based theoretical analysis was applied to the generic problem of a turbulent jet interacting with the trailing edge of a flat plate. A code was written to evaluate the formula derived for the spectrum of the noise produced by this interaction and results were compared with data taken at NASA Glenn for a variety of jet/plate configurations and flow conditions (Ref. 8). A longer-term goal of this task was to work toward the development of a high-fidelity model of sound propagation in spatially developing non-axisymmetric jets using direct numerical methods for solving the relevant

  14. Non-axisymmetric viscous lower-branch modes in axisymmetric supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duck, Peter W.; Hall, Philip

    1990-01-01

    A previous paper by Duck and Hall (1989) considered the weakly nonlinear interaction of a pair of axisymmetric lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting instabilities in cylindrical supersonic flows. Here, the possibility that nonaxisymmetric modes might also exist is investigated. In fact, it is found that such modes do exist and, on the basis of linear theory, it appears that these modes are the most important. The nonaxisymmetric modes are found to exist for flows around cylinders with nondimensional radius a less than some critical value a(c). This critical value a(c) is found to increase monotonically with the azimuthal wavenumber n of the disturbance, and it is found that unstable modes always occur in pairs. It is shown that, in general, instability in the form of lower-branch Tollmien-Schlichting waves will occur first for nonaxisymmetric modes and that, in the unstable regime, the largest growth rates correspond to the latter modes.

  15. Performance improvements of a subsonic axial-flow compressor by means of a non-axisymmetric stator hub end-wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Lu, Xingen; Zhu, Junqiang

    2013-12-01

    This paper deals with the application of a non-axisymmetric hub end-wall on the stator of a single stage high subsonic axial-flow compressor. In order to obtain a state-of-the-art stator non-axisymmetric hub end-wall configuration fulfilling the requirements for higher efficiency and total pressure ratio, an automated multi-objective optimizer was used, in conjunction with 3D-RANS-flow simulations. For the purpose of quantifying the effect of the optimal stator non axis-symmetric hub contouring on the compressor performance and its effects on the subsonic axial-flow compressor stator end-wall flow field structure, the coupled flow of the compressor stage with the baseline, axisymmetric and the non-axisymmetric stator hub end-wall was simulated with a state-of-theart multi-block flow 3D CFD solver. Based on the CFD simulations, the optimal compressor hub end-wall configuration is expected to increase the peak efficiency by approximately 2.04 points and a slight increase of the total pressure ratio. Detailed analyses of the numerical flow visualization at the hub have uncovered the different hub flow topologies between the cases with axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric hub end-walls. It was found that that the primary performance enhancement afforded by the non-axisymmetric hub end-wall is a result of the end-wall flow structure modification. Compared to the smooth wall case, the non-axisymmetric hub end-wall can reduce the formation and development of in-passage secondary flow by aerodynamic loading redistribution.

  16. Transport characteristics of a Glaser magnet for an axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric space charge dominated beam

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-12-15

    This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.

  17. Transport characteristics of a Glaser magnet for an axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric space charge dominated beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Sing Babu, P.; Pandit, V. S.

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes the dynamics of space charge dominated beam through a Glaser magnet which is often used to focus charged particle beams in the low energy section of accelerators and in many other devices. Various beam optical properties of the magnet and emittance evolution that results from the coupling between the two transverse planes are studied. We have derived ten independent first order differential equations for the beam sigma matrix elements assuming the linear space-charge force consistent with the assumption of the canonically transformed KV like distribution. In addition, the feasibility of using a Glaser magnet doublet in a low energy beam injection line to match an initial non-axisymmetric high intensity beam with net angular momentum to an axisymmetric system to suppress effective emittance growth after transition back to an uncoupled system, has also been studied.

  18. A Three-Dimensional Numerical Study into Non-Axisymmetric Perturbations of the Hole-Tone Feedback Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langthjem, M. A.; Nakano, M.

    This paper is concerned with the hole-tone feedback cycle problem, also known as Rayleigh's bird-call. A simulation method for analyzing the influence of non-axisymmetric perturbations of the jet on the sound generation is described. In planned experiments these perturbations will be applied at the jet nozzle via piezoelectric or electro-mechanical actuators, placed circumferentially inside the nozzle at its exit. The mathematical model is based on a three-dimensional vortex method. The nozzle and the holed end-plate are represented by quadrilateral vortex panels, while the shear layer of the jet is represented by vortex rings, composed of vortex filaments. The sound generation is described mathematically using the Powell-Howe theory of vortex sound. The aim of the work is to understand the effects of a variety of flow perturbations, in order to control the flow and the accompanying sound generation.

  19. Magnetorotationally driven wind cycles in local disc models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Latter, H.; Ross, J. P.

    2016-09-01

    Jets, from the protostellar to the AGN context, have been extensively studied but their connection to the turbulent dynamics of the underlying accretion disc is poorly understood. Following a similar approach to Lesur et al. (2013), we examine the role of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the production and acceleration of outflows from discs. Via a suite of one-dimensional shearing-box simulations of stratified discs we show that magneto-centrifugal winds exhibit cyclic activity with a period of 10 - 20 Ω-1, a few times the orbital period. The cycle seems to be more vigorous for strong vertical field; it is robust to the variation of relevant parameters and independent of numerical details. The convergence of these solutions (in particular the mass loss rate) with vertical box size is also studied. By considering a sequence of magnetohydrostatic equilibria and their stability, the periodic activity may be understood as the succession of the following phases: (a) a dominant MRI channel mode, (b) strong magnetic field generation, (c) consequent wind launching, and ultimately (d) vertical expulsion of the excess magnetic field by the expanding and accelerating gas associated with the wind. We discuss potential connections between this behaviour and observed time-variability in disk-jet systems.

  20. MODELING MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH DEAD ZONES

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu

    2011-12-01

    Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) crucially affects the evolution of solid bodies in protoplanetary disks. On the other hand, small dust particles stabilize MRI by capturing ionized gas particles needed for the coupling of the gas and magnetic fields. To provide an empirical basis for modeling the coevolution of dust and MRI, we perform three-dimensional, ohmic-resistive MHD simulations of a vertically stratified shearing box with an MRI-inactive 'dead zone' of various sizes and with a net vertical magnetic flux of various strengths. We find that the vertical structure of turbulence is well characterized by the vertical magnetic flux and three critical heights derived from the linear analysis of MRI in a stratified disk. In particular, the turbulent structure depends on the resistivity profile only through the critical heights and is insensitive to the details of the resistivity profile. We discover scaling relations between the amplitudes of various turbulent quantities (velocity dispersion, density fluctuation, vertical diffusion coefficient, and outflow mass flux) and vertically integrated accretion stresses. We also obtain empirical formulae for the integrated accretion stresses as a function of the vertical magnetic flux and the critical heights. These empirical relations allow us to predict the vertical turbulent structure of a protoplanetary disk for a given strength of the magnetic flux and a given resistivity profile.

  1. Magnetic control of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Strait, E. J.

    2015-02-15

    Externally applied, non-axisymmetric magnetic fields form the basis of several relatively simple and direct methods to control magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a tokamak, and most present and planned tokamaks now include a set of non-axisymmetric control coils for application of fields with low toroidal mode numbers. Non-axisymmetric applied fields are routinely used to compensate small asymmetries (δB/B∼10{sup −3} to 10{sup −4}) of the nominally axisymmetric field, which otherwise can lead to instabilities through braking of plasma rotation and through direct stimulus of tearing modes or kink modes. This compensation may be feedback-controlled, based on the magnetic response of the plasma to the external fields. Non-axisymmetric fields are used for direct magnetic stabilization of the resistive wall mode—a kink instability with a growth rate slow enough that feedback control is practical. Saturated magnetic islands are also manipulated directly with non-axisymmetric fields, in order to unlock them from the wall and spin them to aid stabilization, or position them for suppression by localized current drive. Several recent scientific advances form the foundation of these developments in the control of instabilities. Most fundamental is the understanding that stable kink modes play a crucial role in the coupling of non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma, determining which field configurations couple most strongly, how the coupling depends on plasma conditions, and whether external asymmetries are amplified by the plasma. A major advance for the physics of high-beta plasmas (β = plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) has been the understanding that drift-kinetic resonances can stabilize the resistive wall mode at pressures well above the ideal-MHD stability limit, but also that such discharges can be very sensitive to external asymmetries. The common physics of stable kink modes has brought significant unification to the topics of static error

  2. Magnetic control of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strait, E. J.

    2015-02-01

    Externally applied, non-axisymmetric magnetic fields form the basis of several relatively simple and direct methods to control magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities in a tokamak, and most present and planned tokamaks now include a set of non-axisymmetric control coils for application of fields with low toroidal mode numbers. Non-axisymmetric applied fields are routinely used to compensate small asymmetries ( δB /B ˜10-3 to 10-4 ) of the nominally axisymmetric field, which otherwise can lead to instabilities through braking of plasma rotation and through direct stimulus of tearing modes or kink modes. This compensation may be feedback-controlled, based on the magnetic response of the plasma to the external fields. Non-axisymmetric fields are used for direct magnetic stabilization of the resistive wall mode—a kink instability with a growth rate slow enough that feedback control is practical. Saturated magnetic islands are also manipulated directly with non-axisymmetric fields, in order to unlock them from the wall and spin them to aid stabilization, or position them for suppression by localized current drive. Several recent scientific advances form the foundation of these developments in the control of instabilities. Most fundamental is the understanding that stable kink modes play a crucial role in the coupling of non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma, determining which field configurations couple most strongly, how the coupling depends on plasma conditions, and whether external asymmetries are amplified by the plasma. A major advance for the physics of high-beta plasmas ( β = plasma pressure/magnetic field pressure) has been the understanding that drift-kinetic resonances can stabilize the resistive wall mode at pressures well above the ideal-MHD stability limit, but also that such discharges can be very sensitive to external asymmetries. The common physics of stable kink modes has brought significant unification to the topics of static error fields at low

  3. Tokamak equilibria and edge stability when non-axisymmetric fields are applied

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ham, C. J.; Chapman, I. T.; Simpson, J.; Suzuki, Y.

    2015-05-01

    Tokamaks are traditionally viewed as axisymmetric devices. However this is not always true, for example in the presence of saturated instabilities, error fields, or resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) applied for edge localized mode (ELM) control. We use the VMEC code (Hirshman and Whitson 1983 Phys. Fluids 26 3553) to calculate three dimensional equilibria by energy minimization for tokamak plasmas. MAST free boundary equilibria have been calculated with profiles for plasma pressure and current derived from two dimensional reconstruction. It is well known that ELMs will need to be controlled in ITER to prevent damage that may limit the lifetime of the machine (Loarte et al 2003 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 45 1549). ELM control has been demonstrated on several tokamaks including MAST (Kirk et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 043007). However the application of RMPs causes the plasma to gain a displacement or corrugation (Liu et al 2011 Nucl. Fusion 51 083002). Previous work has shown that the phase and size of these corrugations is in agreement with experiment (Chapman et al 2012 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 54 105013). The interaction of these corrugations with the plasma control system (PCS) may cause high heat loads at certain toroidal locations if care is not taken (Chapman et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075004). VMEC assumes nested flux surfaces but this assumption has been relaxed in other stellarator codes. These codes allow equilibria where magnetic islands and stochastic regions can form. We show some initial results using the HINT2 code (Suzuki et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 L19). The Mercier stability of VMEC equilibria with RMPs applied is calculated. The geodesic curvature contribution can be strongly influenced by helical Pfirsch-Schlüter currents driven by the applied RMPs. ELM mitigation is not fully understood but one of the factors that influences peeling-ballooning stability, which is linked to ELMs, is a three dimensional corrugation of the

  4. Non-axisymmetric magneto- hydrodynamic equilibrium in the presence of internal magnetic islands and external magnetic perturbation coils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, B. J.; Austin, M. E.; Classen, I. G. J.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, J.-K.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Turnbull, A. D.; Yu, L.; the DIII-D Team

    2013-12-01

    Non-axisymmetric equilibria arise in DIII-D discharges that are subjected to magnetic perturbation by 3D magnetic coils. But, 3D shaping of the entire plasma, including the boundary, also occurs in the rotating fluid frame of saturated internal magnetic islands (Tobias et al 2013 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 55 095006). This is advantageous since internal islands and kink responses that rotate near the fluid velocity of the plasma are easily diagnosed, while static perturbations in the laboratory frame are not. The helicity of the perturbed shape is the same in both rotational frames of reference, making one mode a diagnostic proxy for the other and allowing internal modes to be used as a source of data for comparison to models typically applied to understanding the effect of static perturbations. Discrepancies with ideal magneto-hydrodynamic equilibrium obtained by the IPEC (Park et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 052110) method brings attention to the treatment of plasma displacements near rational surfaces and their relationship to the accessibility of equilibrium states.

  5. A numerical study of the hole-tone phenomenon subjected to non-axisymmetric shape perturbations of the jet nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langthjem, Mikael A.; Nakano, Masami

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the hole-tone phenomenon (Rayleigh's bird-call), based on a three-dimensional discrete vortex method. Evaluation of the sound generated by the self-sustained flow oscillations is based on the Powell-Howe theory of vortex sound and a boundary integral/element method. While the fundamental problem can be modeled well under the assumption of axial symmetry, the purpose of employing a full three-dimensional model is to investigate the influence of non-axisymmetric perturbations of the jet on the sound generation (with a view to flow control). Experimentally, such perturbations can be applied at the jet nozzle via piezoelectric or electro-mechanical actuators, placed circumferentially inside the nozzle at its exit. In the mathematical/numerical model, this is simulated by wave motions of a deformable nozzle. Both standing and traveling (rotating) waves are considered. It is shown that a considerable reduction of the sound generation is possible.

  6. Evaluation of the toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations in a tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.; Maassberg, Henning; Heyn, Martin F.

    2014-09-01

    The toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant magnetic perturbations (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) is an important momentum source affecting the toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. The well-known force-flux relation directly links this torque to the non-ambipolar neoclassical particle fluxes arising due to the violation of the toroidal symmetry of the magnetic field. Here, a quasilinear approach for the numerical computation of these fluxes is described, which reduces the dimension of a standard neoclassical transport problem by one without model simplifications of the linearized drift kinetic equation. The only limiting condition is that the non-axisymmetric perturbation field is small enough such that the effect of the perturbation field on particle motion within the flux surface is negligible. Therefore, in addition to most of the transport regimes described by the banana (bounce averaged) kinetic equation also such regimes as, e.g., ripple-plateau and resonant diffusion regimes are naturally included in this approach. Based on this approach, a quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 [W. Kernbichler et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 3, S1061 (2008).] has been developed and benchmarked against a few analytical and numerical models. Results from NEO-2 stay in good agreement with results from these models in their pertinent range of validity.

  7. Evaluation of the toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant non-axisymmetric magnetic field perturbations in a tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Kasilov, Sergei V.; Kernbichler, Winfried; Martitsch, Andreas F.; Heyn, Martin F.; Maassberg, Henning

    2014-09-15

    The toroidal torque driven by external non-resonant magnetic perturbations (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) is an important momentum source affecting the toroidal plasma rotation in tokamaks. The well-known force-flux relation directly links this torque to the non-ambipolar neoclassical particle fluxes arising due to the violation of the toroidal symmetry of the magnetic field. Here, a quasilinear approach for the numerical computation of these fluxes is described, which reduces the dimension of a standard neoclassical transport problem by one without model simplifications of the linearized drift kinetic equation. The only limiting condition is that the non-axisymmetric perturbation field is small enough such that the effect of the perturbation field on particle motion within the flux surface is negligible. Therefore, in addition to most of the transport regimes described by the banana (bounce averaged) kinetic equation also such regimes as, e.g., ripple-plateau and resonant diffusion regimes are naturally included in this approach. Based on this approach, a quasilinear version of the code NEO-2 [W. Kernbichler et al., Plasma Fusion Res. 3, S1061 (2008).] has been developed and benchmarked against a few analytical and numerical models. Results from NEO-2 stay in good agreement with results from these models in their pertinent range of validity.

  8. Effects of non-axisymmetric endwall contouring and film cooling on the passage flowfield in a linear turbine cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mensch, Amy E.; Thole, Karen A.

    2016-01-01

    The time-resolved flowfield is measured in the passage of a linear turbine cascade to show the effects of endwall film cooling and non-axisymmetric endwall contouring on the passage secondary flows. A particle image velocimetry system is used in three measurement planes: the plane at the exit of the passage and two streamwise planes along the blade suction side. In the downstream half of the passage, the passage vortex moves away from the endwall toward the midspan, but closely follows the profile of the blade suction side. The secondary velocity vectors and vorticity fields in the passage exit plane indicate the large size of the passage vortex. The measured velocities in the streamwise measurement planes reveal the trajectory of the passage vortex as well as steep gradients in the direction normal to the blade surface. The passage vortex can also be identified by elevated flow unsteadiness as reported by turbulent kinetic energy levels. When passage film cooling is added, the size of the passage vortex, secondary velocities, and exit plane turbulent kinetic energy are all increased. Endwall contouring has the opposite effect, reducing the passage vortex size, the secondary velocities, and exit plane turbulent kinetic energy.

  9. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction of a current-carrying stellarator using external magnetic and soft x-ray inversion radius measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X. Maurer, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Pandya, M. D.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2015-12-15

    Non-axisymmetric free-boundary equilibrium reconstructions of stellarator plasmas are performed for discharges in which the magnetic configuration is strongly modified by ohmically driven plasma current. These studies were performed on the compact toroidal hybrid device using the V3FIT reconstruction code with a set of 50 magnetic diagnostics external to the plasma. With the assumption of closed magnetic flux surfaces, the reconstructions using external magnetic measurements allow accurate estimates of the net toroidal flux within the last closed flux surface, the edge safety factor, and the plasma shape of these highly non-axisymmetric plasmas. The inversion radius of standard sawteeth is used to infer the current profile near the magnetic axis; with external magnetic diagnostics alone, the current density profile is imprecisely reconstructed.

  10. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction of a current-carrying stellarator using external magnetic and soft x-ray inversion radius measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Knowlton, S. F.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Pandya, M. D.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Non-axisymmetric free-boundary equilibrium reconstructions of stellarator plasmas are performed for discharges in which the magnetic configuration is strongly modified by ohmically driven plasma current. These studies were performed on the compact toroidal hybrid device using the V3FIT reconstruction code with a set of 50 magnetic diagnostics external to the plasma. With the assumption of closed magnetic flux surfaces, the reconstructions using external magnetic measurements allow accurate estimates of the net toroidal flux within the last closed flux surface, the edge safety factor, and the plasma shape of these highly non-axisymmetric plasmas. The inversion radius of standard sawteeth is used to infer the current profile near the magnetic axis; with external magnetic diagnostics alone, the current density profile is imprecisely reconstructed.

  11. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction of a current-carrying stellarator using external magnetic and soft x-ray inversion radius measurements

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Knowlton, Stephen F.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Pandya, M. D.; et al

    2015-12-22

    Non-axisymmetric free-boundary equilibrium reconstructions of stellarator plasmas are performed for discharges in which the magnetic configuration is strongly modified by ohmically driven plasma current. These studies were performed on the compact toroidal hybrid device using the V3FIT reconstruction code with a set of 50 magnetic diagnostics external to the plasma. With the assumption of closed magnetic flux surfaces, the reconstructions using external magnetic measurements allow accurate estimates of the net toroidal flux within the last closed flux surface, the edge safety factor, and the plasma shape of these highly non-axisymmetric plasmas. Lastly, the inversion radius of standard saw-teeth is usedmore » to infer the current profile near the magnetic axis; with external magnetic diagnostics alone, the current density profile is imprecisely reconstructed.« less

  12. Non-axisymmetric equilibrium reconstruction of a current-carrying stellarator using external magnetic and soft x-ray inversion radius measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Knowlton, Stephen F.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Pandya, M. D.; Roberts, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.; Cianciosa, M. R.

    2015-12-22

    Non-axisymmetric free-boundary equilibrium reconstructions of stellarator plasmas are performed for discharges in which the magnetic configuration is strongly modified by ohmically driven plasma current. These studies were performed on the compact toroidal hybrid device using the V3FIT reconstruction code with a set of 50 magnetic diagnostics external to the plasma. With the assumption of closed magnetic flux surfaces, the reconstructions using external magnetic measurements allow accurate estimates of the net toroidal flux within the last closed flux surface, the edge safety factor, and the plasma shape of these highly non-axisymmetric plasmas. Lastly, the inversion radius of standard saw-teeth is used to infer the current profile near the magnetic axis; with external magnetic diagnostics alone, the current density profile is imprecisely reconstructed.

  13. Reactor-relevant quiescent H-mode operation using torque from non-axisymmetric, non-resonant magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Burrell, K. H.; Garofalo, A. M; Osborne, T. H.; Schaffer, M. J.; Snyder, P. B.; Solomon, W. M.; Park, J.-K.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    2012-05-15

    Results from recent experiments demonstrate that quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) sustained by magnetic torque from non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is a promising operating mode for future burning plasmas. Using magnetic torque from n=3 fields to replace counter-I{sub p} torque from neutral beam injection (NBI), we have achieved long duration, counter-rotating QH-mode operation with NBI torque ranging from counter-I{sub p} to up to co-I{sub p} values of 1-1.3 Nm. This co-I{sub p} torque is 3 to 4 times the scaled torque that ITER will have. These experiments utilized an ITER-relevant lower single-null plasma shape and were done with ITER-relevant values of {nu}{sub ped}{sup *} and {beta}{sub N}{sup ped}. These discharges exhibited confinement quality H{sub 98y2}=1.3, in the range required for ITER. In preliminary experiments using n=3 fields only from a coil outside the toroidal coil, QH-mode plasmas with low q{sub 95}=3.4 have reached fusion gain values of G={beta}{sub N}H{sub 89}/q{sub 95}{sup 2}=0.4, which is the desired value for ITER. Shots with the same coil configuration also operated with net zero NBI torque. The limits on G and co-I{sub p} torque have not yet been established for this coil configuration. QH-mode work to has made significant contact with theory. The importance of edge rotational shear is consistent with peeling-ballooning mode theory. Qualitative and quantitative agreements with the predicted neoclassical toroidal viscosity torque is seen.

  14. Effects of resistivity and rotation on the linear plasma response to non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Lanctot, M. J.; Liu, Y. Q.; Paz-Soldan, C.; King, J. D.; Blackwell, B. D.; Schmitz, O.

    2015-02-01

    Parameter scans show the strong dependence of the plasma response on the poloidal structure of the applied field highlighting the importance of being able to control this parameter using non-axisymmetric coil sets. An extensive examination of the linear single fluid plasma response to n = 3 magnetic perturbations in L-mode DIII-D lower single null plasmas is presented. The effects of plasma resistivity, toroidal rotation and applied field structure are calculated using the linear single fluid MHD code, MARS-F (Liu et al 2000 Phys. Plasmas 7 3681). Measures which separate the response into a pitch-resonant and resonant field amplification (RFA) component are used to demonstrate the extent to which resonant screening and RFA occurs. The ability to control the ratio of pitch-resonant fields to RFA by varying the phasing between upper and lower resonant magnetic perturbations coils sets is shown. The predicted magnetic probe outputs and displacement at the x-point are also calculated for comparison with experiments. Additionally, modelling of the linear plasma response using experimental toroidal rotation profiles and Spitzer like resistivity profiles are compared with results which provide experimental evidence of a direct link between the decay of the resonant screening response and the formation of a 3D boundary (Schmitz et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 012001). Good agreement is found during the initial application of the MP, however, later in the shot a sudden drop in the poloidal magnetic probe output occurs which is not captured in the linear single fluid modelling.

  15. Nonlinear saturation of non-resonant internal instabilities in a straight spheromak

    SciTech Connect

    Park, W.; Jardin, S.C.

    1982-04-01

    An initial value numerical solution of the time dependent nonlinear ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations demonstrates that spheromak equilibria which are linearly unstable to nonresonant helical internal perturbations saturate at low amplitude without developing singularities. These instabilities thus represent the transition from an axisymmetric to a non-axisymmetric equilibrium state, caused by a peaking of the current density.

  16. The r-process in Magnetorotational Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimoto, Takuji; Nishimura, Nobuya

    2015-09-01

    One of the hottest open issues involving the chemical evolution of r-process elements is fast enrichment in the early universe. Clear evidence for the chemical enrichement of r-process elements is seen in the stellar abundances of extremely metal poor stars in the Galactic halo. However, small-mass galaxies are the ideal testbed for studying the evolutionary features of r-process enrichment given the potential rarity of production events yielding heavy r-process elements. Their occurrences become countable and thus an enrichment path due to each event can be found in the stellar abundances. We examine the chemical feature of Eu abundance at an early stage of [Fe/H] ≲ -2 in the Draco and Sculptor dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. Accordingly, we constrain the properties of Eu production in the early dSphs. We find that the Draco dSph experienced a few Eu production events, whereas Eu enrichment took place more continuously in the Sculptor dSph due to its larger stellar mass. The event rate of Eu production is estimated to be about one per 100-200 core-collapse supernovae, and a Eu mass of ˜ (1-2) × 10-5M⊙ per single event is deduced by associating this frequency with the observed plateau value of [Eu/H] ˜ -1.3 for [Fe/H] ≳ -2. The observed plateau implies that early Eu enrichment ceases at [Fe/H] ≈ -2. Such a selective operation only in low-metallicity stars supports magnetorotational supernovae, which require very fast rotation, as the site of early Eu production. We show that the Eu yields deduced from chemical evolution agree well with the nucleosynthesis results from corresponding supernovae models.

  17. Prediction of the vibroacoustic behavior of a submerged shell with non-axisymmetric internal substructures by a condensed transfer function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, V.; Maxit, L.; Guyader, J.-L.; Leissing, T.

    2016-01-01

    The vibroacoustic behavior of axisymmetric stiffened shells immersed in water has been intensively studied in the past. On the contrary, little attention has been paid to the modeling of these shells coupled to non-axisymmetric internal frames. Indeed, breaking the axisymmetry couples the circumferential orders of the Fourier series and considerably increases the computational costs. In order to tackle this issue, we propose a sub-structuring approach called the Condensed Transfer Function (CTF) method that will allow assembling a model of axisymmetric stiffened shell with models of non-axisymmetric internal frames. The CTF method is developed in the general case of mechanical subsystems coupled along curves. A set of orthonormal functions called condensation functions, which depend on the curvilinear abscissa along the coupling line, is considered. This set is then used as a basis for approximating and decomposing the displacements and the applied forces at the line junctions. Thanks to the definition and calculation of condensed transfer functions for each uncoupled subsystem and by using the superposition principle for passive linear systems, the behavior of the coupled subsystems can be deduced. A plane plate is considered as a test case to study the convergence of the method with respect to the type and the number of condensation functions taken into account. The CTF method is then applied to couple a submerged non-periodically stiffened shell described using the Circumferential Admittance Approach (CAA) with internal substructures described by Finite Element Method (FEM). The influence of non-axisymmetric internal substructures can finally be studied and it is shown that it tends to increase the radiation efficiency of the shell and can modify the vibrational and acoustic energy distribution.

  18. Transition to magnetorotational turbulence in Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guseva, A.; Willis, A. P.; Hollerbach, R.; Avila, M.

    2015-09-01

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence and momentum transport in astrophysical accretion discs, but obtaining observational evidence of its operation is challenging. Recently, laboratory experiments of Taylor-Couette flow with externally imposed axial and azimuthal magnetic fields have revealed the kinematic and dynamic properties of the MRI close to the instability onset. While good agreement was found with linear stability analyses, little is known about the transition to turbulence and transport properties of the MRI. We here report on a numerical investigation of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal magnetic field. We show that the laminar Taylor-Couette flow becomes unstable to a wave rotating in the azimuthal direction and standing in the axial direction via a supercritical Hopf bifurcation. Subsequently, the flow features a catastrophic transition to spatio-temporal defects which is mediated by a subcritical subharmonic Hopf bifurcation. Our results are in qualitative agreement with the PROMISE experiment and dramatically extend their realizable parameter range. We find that as the Reynolds number increases defects accumulate and grow into turbulence, yet the momentum transport scales weakly.

  19. PLANETESIMAL FORMATION IN MAGNETOROTATIONALLY DEAD ZONES: CRITICAL DEPENDENCE ON THE NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect

    Okuzumi, Satoshi; Hirose, Shigenobu

    2012-07-01

    Turbulence driven by magnetorotational instability (MRI) affects planetesimal formation by inducing diffusion and collisional fragmentation of dust particles. We examine conditions preferred for planetesimal formation in MRI-inactive 'dead zones' using an analytic dead-zone model based on our recent resistive MHD simulations. We argue that successful planetesimal formation requires not only a sufficiently large dead zone (which can be produced by tiny dust grains) but also a sufficiently small net vertical magnetic flux (NVF). Although often ignored, the latter condition is indeed important since the NVF strength determines the saturation level of turbulence in MRI-active layers. We show that direct collisional formation of icy planetesimal across the fragmentation barrier is possible when the NVF strength is lower than 10 mG (for the minimum-mass solar nebula model). Formation of rocky planetesimals via the secular gravitational instability is also possible within a similar range of the NVF strength. Our results indicate that the fate of planet formation largely depends on how the NVF is radially transported in the initial disk formation and subsequent disk accretion processes.

  20. Impurity ion flow and temperature measured in a detached divertor with externally applied non-axisymmetric fields on DIII-D

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Briesemeister, A. R.; Isler, R. C.; Allen, S. L.; Ahn, J. -W.; McLean, A. G.; Unterberg, E. A.; Hillis, D. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Meyer, W. H.

    2014-11-15

    Externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are shown to have little effect on the impurity ion flow velocity and temperature as measured by the multichord divertor spectrometer in the DIII-D divertor for both attached and detached conditions. These experiments were performed in H-mode plasmas with the grad-B drift toward the target plates, with and without n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). The flow velocity in the divertor is shown to change by as much as 30% when deuterium gas puffing is used to create detachment of the divertor plasma. No measurable changes in the C III flow were observed inmore » response to the RMP fields for the conditions used in this work. Images of the C III emission are used along with divertor Thomson scattering to show that the local electron and C III temperatures are equilibrated for the conditions shown.« less

  1. Impurity ion flow and temperature measured in a detached divertor with externally applied non-axisymmetric fields on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briesemeister, A. R.; Isler, R. C.; Allen, S. L.; Ahn, J.-W.; McLean, A. G.; Unterberg, E. A.; Hillis, D. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Meyer, W. H.

    2015-08-01

    Externally applied non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are shown to have little effect on the impurity ion flow velocity and temperature as measured by the multichord divertor spectrometer in the DIII-D divertor for both attached and detached conditions. These experiments were performed in H-mode plasmas with the grad-B drift toward the target plates, with and without n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs). The flow velocity in the divertor is shown to change by as much as 30% when deuterium gas puffing is used to create detachment of the divertor plasma. No measurable changes in the C III flow were observed in response to the RMP fields for the conditions used in this work. Images of the C III emission are used along with divertor Thomson scattering to show that the local electron and C III temperatures are equilibrated for the conditions shown.

  2. Use of a twisted 3D Cauchy condition surface to reconstruct the last closed magnetic surface in a non-axisymmetric fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itagaki, Masafumi; Okubo, Gaku; Akazawa, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Yutaka; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Seki, Ryosuke; Suzuki, Yasuhiro

    2012-12-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) Cauchy condition surface (CCS) method code, ‘CCS3D’, is now under development to reconstruct the 3D magnetic field profile outside a non-axisymmetric fusion plasma using only magnetic sensor signals. A new ‘twisted CCS’ is introduced, whose elliptic cross-section rotates with the variation in plasma geometry in the toroidal direction of a helical-type device. Independent of the toroidal angle, this CCS can be placed at a certain distance from the last closed magnetic surface (LCMS). With this new CCS, it is found through test calculations for the Large Helical Device that the numerical accuracy in the reconstructed field is improved. Furthermore, the magnetic field line tracing indicates the LCMS more precisely than with the use of the axisymmetric CCS. A new idea to determine the LCMS numerically is also proposed.

  3. An approximate theoretical method for modeling the static thrust performance of non-axisymmetric two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Craig A.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical/numerical method has been developed to predict the static thrust performance of non-axisymmetric, two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles. Thermodynamic nozzle performance effects due to over- and underexpansion are modeled using one-dimensional compressible flow theory. Boundary layer development and skin friction losses are calculated using an approximate integral momentum method based on the classic karman-Polhausen solution. Angularity effects are included with these two models in a computational Nozzle Performance Analysis Code, NPAC. In four different case studies, results from NPAC are compared to experimental data obtained from subscale nozzle testing to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of the NPAC method. In several cases, the NPAC prediction matched experimental gross thrust efficiency data to within 0.1 percent at a design NPR, and to within 0.5 percent at off-design conditions.

  4. Study of non-axisymmetric divertor footprints using 2-D IR and visible cameras and a 3-D heat conduction solver in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, J.-W.; Gan, K. F.; Scotti, F.; Lore, J. D.; Maingi, R.; Canik, J. M.; Gray, T. K.; McLean, A. G.; Roquemore, A. L.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Toroidally non-axisymmetric divertor profiles during the 3-D field application and for ELMs are studied with simultaneous observation by a new wide angle visible camera and a high speed IR camera. A newly implemented 3-D heat conduction code, TACO, is used to obtain divertor heat flux. The wide angle camera data confirmed the previously reported result on the validity of vacuum field line tracing on the prediction of split strike point pattern by 3-D fields as well as the phase locking of ELM heat flux to the 3-D fields. TACO calculates the 2-D heat flux distribution allowing assessment of toroidal asymmetry of peak heat flux and heat flux width. The degree of asymmetry (ɛDA) is defined to quantify the asymmetric heat deposition on the divertor surface and is found to have a strong positive dependence on peak heat flux.

  5. Rossby Wave Instability in Astrophysical Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Richard; Li, Hui

    2014-10-01

    A brief review is given of the Rossby wave instability in astrophysical disks. In non-self-gravitating discs, around for example a newly forming stars, the instability can be triggered by an axisymmetric bump at some radius r0 in the disk surface mass-density. It gives rise to exponentially growing non-axisymmetric perturbation (proportional to Exp[im ϕ], m = 1,2,...) in the vicinity of r0 consisting of anticyclonic vortices. These vortices are regions of high pressure and consequently act to trap dust particles which in turn can facilitate planetesimal growth in protoplanetary disks. The Rossby vortices in the disks around stars and black holes may cause the observed quasi-periodic modulations of the disk's thermal emission. Stirling Colgate's long standing interest in all types of vortices - particularly tornados - had an important part in stimulating the research on the Rossby wave instability.

  6. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes by non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high {beta}{sub pol} in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    Sesnic, S.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M.S.; Hatcher, R.E.; Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Sauthoff, N.R.; Holland, A.; Asakura, N.; Duperrex, P.A.; Fonck, R.J.; Gammel, G.M.; Greene, G.J.; Jiang, T.W.; Levinton, F.M.; Powell, E.T.; Roberts, D.W.; Qin, Y.

    1993-06-01

    High-frequency pressure-driven modes have been observed in high-poloidal-{beta} discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q=1 surface, and have mode numbers with either m{sub h}=n{sub h} or (less probably) m{sub h}/n{sub h}=m{sub h}/(m{sub h}-1), with m{sub h} varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally, these modes are, simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the m{sub 1}=2/n{sub 1}=1 island. The high frequency modes near the q=1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large m{sub 1}=1/n{sub 1}=1 island is present the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the x-point of the island. The modes, which occur exclusively in high-{beta} discharges, appear to be driven by the plasma pressure or pressure gradient. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q=(2m{sub h}+ 1)/2n{sub h}, a kinetic ballooning mode (KBM), or some other type of pressure-driven mode. Theory predicts that the TAE mode is a gap mode, but the high frequency modes in PBX-M are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighborhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers.

  7. Mosaic tile model to compute gravitational field for infinitely thin non axisymmetric objects and its application to preliminary analysis of gravitational field of M74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-04-01

    Using the analytical expressions of the Newtonian gravitational potential and the associated acceleration vector for an infinitely thin uniform rectangular plate, we developed a method to compute the gravitational field of a general infinitely thin object without assuming its axial symmetry when its surface mass density is known at evenly spaced rectangular grid points. We utilized the method in evaluating the gravitational field of the HI gas, dust, red stars, and blue stars components of M74 from its THINGS, 2MASS, PDSS1, and GALEX data. The non axisymmetric feature of M74 including an asymmetric spiral structure is seen from (i) the contour maps of the determined gravitational potential, (ii) the vector maps of the associated acceleration vector, and (iii) the cross section views of the gravitational field and the surface mass density along different directions. An x-mark pattern in the gravitational field is detected at the core of M74 from the analysis of its dust and red stars components. Meanwhile, along the east-west direction in the central region of the angular size of 1', the rotation curve derived from the radial component of the acceleration vector caused by the red stars component matches well with that observed by the VENGA project. Thus the method will be useful in studying the dynamics of particles and fluids near and inside spiral galaxies with known photometry data. Electronically available are the table of the determined gravitational fields of M74 on its galactic plane as well as the Fortran 90 programs to produce them.

  8. Mosaic tile model to compute gravitational field for infinitely thin non-axisymmetric objects and its application to preliminary analysis of gravitational field of M74

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Using the analytical expressions of the Newtonian gravitational potential and the associated acceleration vector for an infinitely thin uniform rectangular plate, we developed a method to compute the gravitational field of a general infinitely thin object without assuming its axial symmetry when its surface mass density is known at evenly spaced rectangular grid points. We utilized the method in evaluating the gravitational field of the H I gas, dust, red stars, and blue stars components of M74 from its THINGS, 2MASS, PDSS1, and GALEX data. The non-axisymmetric feature of M74 including an asymmetric spiral structure is seen from (i) the contour maps of the determined gravitational potential, (ii) the vector maps of the associated acceleration vector, and (iii) the cross-section views of the gravitational field and the surface mass density along different directions. An x-mark pattern in the gravitational field is detected at the core of M74 from the analysis of its dust and red stars components. Meanwhile, along the east-west direction in the central region of the angular size of 1 arcmin, the rotation curve derived from the radial component of the acceleration vector caused by the red stars component matches well with that observed by the VENGA project. Thus the method will be useful in studying the dynamics of particles and fluids near and inside spiral galaxies with known photometry data. Electronically available are the table of the determined gravitational fields of M74 on its galactic plane as well as the FORTRAN 90 programs to produce them.

  9. Solar Dynamo and Toroidal Field Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2013-10-01

    The possibility of non-axisymmetric (kink) instabilities of a toroidal field seated in the tachocline is much discussed in the literature. In this work, the basic properties of kink and quasi-interchange instabilities, produced by mixed toroidal and poloidal configuration, will be briefly reviewed. In particular, it will be shown that the unstable modes are strongly localized near the Equator and not near the Poles as often claimed in the literature. Based on the results of recent numerical simulations, it is argued that a non-zero helicity can already be produced at a non-linear level. A mean-field solar dynamo is then constructed with a positive α-effect in the overshoot layer localized near the Equator, and a meridional circulation with deep return flow. Finally, the possibility that the solar cycle is driven by an αΩ dynamo generated by the negative subsurface shear in the supergranulation layer will also be discussed.

  10. Instabilities of wrinkled membranes with pressure loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Amit; Nordmark, Arne; Eriksson, Anders

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkling can affect the functionality of thin membranes subjected to various loadings or boundary conditions. The concept of relaxed strain energy was studied for isotropic, hyperelastic, axisymmetric membranes pressurized by gas or fluid. Non-intuitive instabilities were observed when axisymmetric wrinkled membranes were perturbed with angle dependent displacement fields. A linearized theory showed that static equilibrium states of pressurized membranes, modelled by a relaxed strain energy formulation, are unstable, when the wrinkled surface is subjected to pressure loadings. The theory is extended to the non-axisymmetric membranes and it is shown that these instabilities are local phenomena. Simulations for the pressurized cylindrical membranes with non-uniform thickness and hemispherical membranes support the claims in both theoretical and numerical contexts including finite element simulations.

  11. Simulations of Magnetorotational Turbulence with a Higher-Order Godunov Scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Jacob B.; Hawley, John F.; Beckwith, Kris

    2009-01-01

    We apply a new, second-order Godunov code, Athena, to studies of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) using unstratified shearing box simulations with a uniform net vertical field and a sinusoidally varying zero net vertical field. The Athena results agree well with similar studies that used different numerical algorithms, including the observation that the turbulent energy decreases with increasing resolution in the zero net field model. We conduct analyses to study the flow of energy from differential rotation to turbulent fluctuations to thermalization. A study of the time correlation between the rates of change of different volume-averaged energy components shows that energy injected into turbulent fluctuations dissipates on a timescale of Ω-1, where Ω is the orbital frequency of the local domain. Magnetic dissipation dominates over kinetic dissipation, although not by as great a factor as the ratio of magnetic to kinetic energy. We Fourier-transform the magnetic and kinetic energy evolution equations and, using the assumption that the time-averaged energies are constant, determine the level of numerical dissipation as a function of length scale and resolution. By modeling numerical dissipation as if it were physical in origin, we characterize numerical resistivity and viscosity in terms of effective Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. The resulting effective magnetic Prandtl number is ~2, independent of resolution or initial field geometry. MRI simulations with effective Reynolds and Prandtl numbers determined by numerical dissipation are not equivalent to those where these numbers are set by physical resistivity and viscosity. These results serve, then, as a baseline for future shearing box studies where dissipation is controlled by the inclusion of explicit viscosity and resistivity.

  12. Magnetorotational collapse of massive stellar cores to neutron stars: Simulations in full general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Liu, Yuk Tung; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Stephens, Branson C.

    2006-11-01

    We study magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effects arising in the collapse of magnetized, rotating, massive stellar cores to proto-neutron stars (PNSs). We perform axisymmetric numerical simulations in full general relativity with a hybrid equation of state. The formation and early evolution of a PNS are followed with a grid of 2500×2500 zones, which provides better resolution than in previous (Newtonian) studies. We confirm that significant differential rotation results even when the rotation of the progenitor is initially uniform. Consequently, the magnetic field is amplified both by magnetic winding and the magnetorotational instability (MRI). Even if the magnetic energy EEM is much smaller than the rotational kinetic energy Trot at the time of PNS formation, the ratio EEM/Trot increases to 0.1 0.2 by the magnetic winding. Following PNS formation, MHD outflows lead to losses of rest mass, energy, and angular momentum from the system. The earliest outflow is produced primarily by the increasing magnetic stress caused by magnetic winding. The MRI amplifies the poloidal field and increases the magnetic stress, causing further angular momentum transport and helping to drive the outflow. After the magnetic field saturates, a nearly stationary, collimated magnetic field forms near the rotation axis and a Blandford-Payne type outflow develops along the field lines. These outflows remove angular momentum from the PNS at a rate given by J˙˜ηEEMCB, where η is a constant of order ˜0.1 and CB is a typical ratio of poloidal to toroidal field strength. As a result, the rotation period quickly increases for a strongly magnetized PNS until the degree of differential rotation decreases. Our simulations suggest that rapidly rotating, magnetized PNSs may not give rise to rapidly rotating neutron stars.

  13. Experimental verification of a non-axisymmetric displacement field predicted by finite element analysis of a composite disk subjected to an axisymmetric loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Stanley T.

    -processor provides a simple process for establishing contact regions. Finally, a test is conducted to experimentally measure the displacement profile of a disk subjected to the pre-stressed condition using speckle metrology and digital image correlation. A comparison between the experimental and analytical results shows a good agreement, thereby validating the finite element models and confirming the original observation made regarding the non-axisymmetric out-of-plane displacement.

  14. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, Octavio; Hernandez-Toledo, Hector; Cano, Mariana; Pichardo, Bárbara; Puerari, Ivanio; Buta, Ronald; Groess, Robert

    2014-02-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  15. Bead Assembly Magnetorotation as a Signal Transduction Method for Protein Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Ariel; Commiskey, Patrick; Shah, Nicholas; Kopelman, Raoul

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a proof-of-principle for a new signal transduction method for protein detection called Bead Assembly Magnetorotation (BAM). In this paper, we chose to focus on the protein thrombin, a popular choice for proof-of-principle work in this field. BAM is based on using the protein target to mediate the formation of aptamer-coated 1 μm magnetic beads into a bead assembly, formed at the bottom of a 1 μL hanging droplet. The size, shape and fractal dimension of this bead assembly all depend on the protein concentration. The protein concentration can be measured in two ways: by magnetorotation, in which the rotational period of the assembly correlates with the protein concentration, or by fractal analysis. Additionally, a microscope-free magnetorotation detection method is introduced, based on a simple laser apparatus built from standard laboratory components. PMID:23639345

  16. Nonaxisymmetric linear instability of cylindrical magnetohydrodynamic Taylor-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Child, Adam; Kersalé, Evy; Hollerbach, Rainer

    2015-09-01

    We consider the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability present in Taylor-Couette flow under the application of helical magnetic fields, mainly for magnetic Prandtl numbers close to the inductionless limit, and conduct a full examination of marginal stability in the resulting parameter space. We allow for the azimuthal magnetic field to be generated by a combination of currents in the inner cylinder and fluid itself and introduce a parameter governing the relation between the strength of these currents. A set of governing eigenvalue equations for the nonaxisymmetric modes of instability are derived and solved by spectral collocation with Chebyshev polynomials over the relevant parameter space, with the resulting instabilities examined in detail. We find that by altering the azimuthal magnetic field profiles the azimuthal magnetorotational instability, nonaxisymmetric helical magnetorotational instability, and Tayler instability yield interesting dynamics, such as different preferred mode types and modes with azimuthal wave number m >1 . Finally, a comparison is given to the recent WKB analysis performed by Kirillov et al. [Kirillov, Stefani, and Fukumoto, J. Fluid Mech. 760, 591 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.614] and its validity in the linear regime.

  17. Temperature effects on capillary instabilities in a thin nematic liquid crystalline fiber embedded in a viscous matrix.

    PubMed

    Cheong, A-G; Rey, A D

    2002-10-01

    Linear stability analysis of capillary instabilities in a thin nematic liquid crystalline cylindrical fiber embedded in an immiscible viscous matrix is performed by formulating and solving the governing nemato-capillary equations, that include the effect of temperature on the nematic ordering as well as the effect of the nematic orientation. A representative axial nematic orientation texture with the planar easy axis at the fiber surface is studied. The surface disturbance is expressed in normal modes, which include the azimuthal wave number m to take into account non-axisymmetric modes. Capillary instabilities in nematic fibers reflect the anisotropic nature of liquid crystals, such as the ordering and orientation contributions to the surface elasticity and surface normal and bending stresses. Surface gradients of normal and bending stresses provide additional anisotropic contributions to the capillary pressure that may renormalize the classical displacement and curvature forces that exist in any fluid fiber. The exact nature (stabilizing and destabilizing) and magnitude of the renormalization of the displacement and curvature forces depend on the nematic ordering and orientation, i.e. the anisotropic contribution to the surface energy, and accordingly capillary instabilities may be axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric. In addition, when the interface curvature effects are accounted for as contributions of the work of interfacial bending and torsion to the total energy of the system, the higher-order bending moment contribution to the surface stress tensor is critical in stabilizing the fiber instabilities. For the planar easy axis, the nematic ordering contribution to the surface energy, which renormalizes the effect of the fiber shape, plays a crucial role to determine the instability mechanisms. Moreover, the unstable modes, which are most likely observed, can be driven by the dependence of surface energy on the surface area. Low-ordering fibers display the

  18. Temperature effects on capillary instabilities in a thin nematic liquid crystalline fiber embedded in a viscous matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, A.-G.; Rey, A. D.

    2002-10-01

    Linear stability analysis of capillary instabilities in a thin nematic liquid crystalline cylindrical fiber embedded in an immiscible viscous matrix is performed by formulating and solving the governing nemato-capillary equations, that include the effect of temperature on the nematic ordering as well as the effect of the nematic orientation. A representative axial nematic orientation texture with the planar easy axis at the fiber surface is studied. The surface disturbance is expressed in normal modes, which include the azimuthal wave number m to take into account non-axisymmetric modes. Capillary instabilities in nematic fibers reflect the anisotropic nature of liquid crystals, such as the ordering and orientation contributions to the surface elasticity and surface normal and bending stresses. Surface gradients of normal and bending stresses provide additional anisotropic contributions to the capillary pressure that may renormalize the classical displacement and curvature forces that exist in any fluid fiber. The exact nature (stabilizing and destabilizing) and magnitude of the renormalization of the displacement and curvature forces depend on the nematic ordering and orientation, i.e. the anisotropic contribution to the surface energy, and accordingly capillary instabilities may be axisymmetric or non-axisymmetric. In addition, when the interface curvature effects are accounted for as contributions of the work of interfacial bending and torsion to the total energy of the system, the higher-order bending moment contribution to the surface stress tensor is critical in stabilizing the fiber instabilities. For the planar easy axis, the nematic ordering contribution to the surface energy, which renormalizes the effect of the fiber shape, plays a crucial role to determine the instability mechanisms. Moreover, the unstable modes, which are most likely observed, can be driven by the dependence of surface energy on the surface area. Low-ordering fibers display the

  19. Analysis and suppression of instabilities in viscoelastic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Karkala Arun

    2001-10-01

    The viscoelastic character of polymer solutions and melts gives rise to instabilities not seen in the flows of Newtonian liquids. In this thesis, we computationally study four such instabilities. The first instability we discuss is melt fracture, which takes the form of gross distortions of the polymer surface during extrusion. This instability is linked to multiplicity in the slip curve. We show here that when the dependence of slip velocity on pressure is taken into account, multiplicity in the slip law does not necessarily imply a multi-valued flow curve or melt fracture. Next, we study the ``filament-stretching'' instability, which takes the form of non-axisymmetric deviations of the free surface of a polymeric liquid bridge being extended between two parallel plates. We model the portion of the filament near the endplates as an elastic membrane enclosing an incompressible fluid and show that this is unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances. The third instability we discuss is the purely elastic instability in Dean flow. This instability is linked to elastic instabilities in more complicated and industrially important coating flows with curved streamlines. We show how the addition of a small secondary axial flow in a steady or periodic fashion can significantly delay the onset of the instability. Recent experimental observations by Groisman and Steinberg ( Phys. Rev. Lett. 78(8), 1460-1463, 1997) and Baumert and Muller (Phys. Fluids, 9(3), 566-586, 1999) have shown the formation of spatially isolated, stationary, axisymmetric patterns in the nonlinear regime of circular Couette flow, termed ``diwhirls'' or ``flame patterns.'' Modeling these patterns is complicated by the absence of a stationary bifurcation in isothermal circular Couette flow. We show here how these solutions may be accessed by numerical continuation from stationary bifurcations in Couette-Dean flows. Although the solutions we compute are unstable, they show qualitative and quantitative

  20. Neutrino trigger of the magnetorotational mechanism of a natal-pulsar kick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. V.; Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-10-01

    A mechanism generating a natal-neutron-star kick and involving only standard neutrinos is discussed. In this mechanism, the neutrino effect on the plasma of the supernova-core envelope in a magnetorotational explosion accompanied by the generation of a strong toroidal magnetic field leads to a redistribution of the magnetic field B in the "upper" and "lower" hemispheres of the supernova-core envelope. The emerging asymmetry of the magnetic-field pressure may generate a natal-pulsar kick.

  1. Neutrino trigger of the magnetorotational mechanism of a natal-pulsar kick

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. V. Mikheev, N. V.

    2013-10-15

    A mechanism generating a natal-neutron-star kick and involving only standard neutrinos is discussed. In this mechanism, the neutrino effect on the plasma of the supernova-core envelope in a magnetorotational explosion accompanied by the generation of a strong toroidal magnetic field leads to a redistribution of the magnetic field B in the 'upper' and 'lower' hemispheres of the supernova-core envelope. The emerging asymmetry of the magnetic-field pressure may generate a natal-pulsar kick.

  2. Linear and non-linear theory of a parametric instability of hydrodynamic warps in Keplerian discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammie, Charles F.; Goodman, Jeremy; Ogilvie, Gordon I.

    2000-11-01

    We consider the stability of warping modes in Keplerian discs. We find them to be parametrically unstable using two lines of attack, one based on three-mode couplings and the other on Floquet theory. We confirm the existence of the instability and investigate its non-linear development in three dimensions, via numerical experiment. The most rapidly growing non-axisymmetric disturbances are the most nearly axisymmetric (low-m) ones. Finally, we offer a simple, somewhat speculative model for the interaction of the parametric instability with the warp. We apply this model to the masing disc in NGC 4258 and show that, provided the warp is not forced too strongly, parametric instability can fix the amplitude of the warp.

  3. Nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability with toroidal magnetic fields in structured disks

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Cong; Li, Hui

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the global nonaxisymmetric Rossby vortex instability (RVI) in a differentially rotating, compressible magnetized accretion disk with radial density structures. Equilibrium magnetic fields are assumed to have only the toroidal component. Using linear theory analysis, we show that the density structure can be unstable to nonaxisymmetric modes. We find that, for the magnetic field profiles we have studied, magnetic fields always provide a stabilizing effect to the unstable RVI modes. We discuss the physical mechanism of this stabilizing effect. The threshold and properties of the unstable modes are also discussed in detail. In addition, we present linear stability results for the global magnetorotational instability when the disk is compressible.

  4. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    SciTech Connect

    W. Liu

    2009-02-20

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  5. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wei

    2008-01-01

    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  6. Bulge Growth Through Disc Instabilities in High-Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bournaud, Frédéric

    The role of disc instabilities, such as bars and spiral arms, and the associated resonances, in growing bulges in the inner regions of disc galaxies have long been studied in the low-redshift nearby Universe. There it has long been probed observationally, in particular through peanut-shaped bulges (Chap. 14 10.1007/978-3-319-19378-6_14"). This secular growth of bulges in modern disc galaxies is driven by weak, non-axisymmetric instabilities: it mostly produces pseudobulges at slow rates and with long star-formation timescales. Disc instabilities at high redshift (z > 1) in moderate-mass to massive galaxies (1010 to a few 1011 M⊙ of stars) are very different from those found in modern spiral galaxies. High-redshift discs are globally unstable and fragment into giant clumps containing 108-9 M⊙ of gas and stars each, which results in highly irregular galaxy morphologies. The clumps and other features associated to the violent instability drive disc evolution and bulge growth through various mechanisms on short timescales. The giant clumps can migrate inward and coalesce into the bulge in a few 108 years. The instability in the very turbulent media drives intense gas inflows toward the bulge and nuclear region. Thick discs and supermassive black holes can grow concurrently as a result of the violent instability. This chapter reviews the properties of high-redshift disc instabilities, the evolution of giant clumps and other features associated to the instability, and the resulting growth of bulges and associated sub-galactic components.

  7. Shoulder Instability

    MedlinePlus

    ... Risk Factors Is shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation? No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you--weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...

  8. Thermo-galvanometric instabilities in magnetized plasma disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Alessio; Montani, Giovanni; Carlevaro, Nakia

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we present a linear stability analysis of fully-ionized rotating plasma disks with a temperature gradient and a sub-thermal background magnetic field (oriented towards the axial direction). We describe how the plasma reacts when galvanometric and thermo-magnetic phenomena, such as Hall and Nernst-Ettingshausen effects, are taken into account, and meridian perturbations of the plasma are considered. It is shown how, in the ideal case, this leads to a significant overlap of the Magneto-rotational Instability and the Thermo-magnetic one. Considering dissipative effects, an overall damping of the unstable modes, although not sufficient to fully suppress the instability, appears especially in the thermo-magnetic related branch of the curve.

  9. The Non-Axisymmetric Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spergel, David N.

    1996-01-01

    The Dwek et al. model represents the current state-of-the-art model for the stellar structure of our Galaxy. The improvements we have made to this model take a number of forms: (1) the construction of a more detailed dust model so that we can extend our modeling to the galactic plane; (2) simultaneous fits to the bulge and the disk; (3) the construction of the first self-consistent model for a galactic bar; and (4) the development and application of algorithms for constructing nonparametric bar models. The improved Galaxy model has enabled a number of exciting science projects. In Zhao et al., we show that the number and duration of microlensing events seen by the OGLE and MACHO collaborations towards the bulge were consistent with the predictions of our bar model. In Malhotra et al., we constructed an infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation for the local group. We found the tightest TF relation ever seen in any band and in any group of galaxies. The tightness of the correlation places strong constraints on galaxy formation models and provides a independent check of the Cepheid distance scale.

  10. On the nature of local instabilities in rotating galactic coronae and cool cores of galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing question is whether radiative cooling can lead to local condensation of cold gas in the hot atmospheres of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We address this problem by studying the nature of local instabilities in rotating, stratified, weakly magnetized, optically thin plasmas in the presence of radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. For both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric linear perturbations, we provide general equations which can be applied locally to specific systems to establish whether they are unstable and, in case of instability, to determine the kind of evolution (monotonically growing or overstable) and the growth rates of the unstable modes. We present results for models of rotating plasmas representative of Milky-Way-like galaxy coronae and cool-cores of galaxy clusters. We show that the unstable modes arise from a combination of thermal, magnetothermal, magnetorotational, and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. Local condensation of cold clouds tends to be hampered in cluster cool cores, while it is possible under certain conditions in rotating galactic coronae. If the magnetic field is sufficiently weak, then the magnetorotational instability is dominant even in these pressure-supported systems.

  11. On the Nature of Local Instabilities in Rotating Galactic Coronae and Cool Cores of Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nipoti, Carlo; Posti, Lorenzo

    2014-09-01

    A long-standing question is whether radiative cooling can lead to local condensation of cold gas in the hot atmospheres of galaxies and galaxy clusters. We address this problem by studying the nature of local instabilities in rotating, stratified, weakly magnetized, optically thin plasmas in the presence of radiative cooling and anisotropic thermal conduction. For both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric linear perturbations, we provide general equations which can be applied locally to specific systems to establish whether they are unstable and, in case of instability, to determine the kind of evolution (monotonically growing or overstable) and the growth rates of the unstable modes. We present results for models of rotating plasmas representative of Milky-Way-like galaxy coronae and cool-cores of galaxy clusters. We show that the unstable modes arise from a combination of thermal, magnetothermal, magnetorotational, and heat-flux-driven buoyancy instabilities. Local condensation of cold clouds tends to be hampered in cluster cool cores, while it is possible under certain conditions in rotating galactic coronae. If the magnetic field is sufficiently weak, then the magnetorotational instability is dominant even in these pressure-supported systems.

  12. Hip instability.

    PubMed

    Smith, Matthew V; Sekiya, Jon K

    2010-06-01

    Hip instability is becoming a more commonly recognized source of pain and disability in patients. Traumatic causes of hip instability are often clear. Appropriate treatment includes immediate reduction, early surgery for acetabular rim fractures greater than 25% or incarcerated fragments in the joint, and close follow-up to monitor for avascular necrosis. Late surgical intervention may be necessary for residual symptomatic hip instability. Atraumatic causes of hip instability include repetitive external rotation with axial loading, generalized ligamentous laxity, and collagen disorders like Ehlers-Danlos. Symptoms caused by atraumatic hip instability often have an insidious onset. Patients may have a wide array of hip symptoms while demonstrating only subtle findings suggestive of capsular laxity. Traction views of the affected hip can be helpful in diagnosing hip instability. Open and arthroscopic techniques can be used to treat capsular laxity. We describe an arthroscopic anterior hip capsular plication using a suture technique. PMID:20473129

  13. Collective instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    K.Y. Ng

    2003-08-25

    The lecture covers mainly Sections 2.VIII and 3.VII of the book ''Accelerator Physics'' by S.Y. Lee, plus mode-coupling instabilities and chromaticity-driven head-tail instability. Besides giving more detailed derivation of many equations, simple interpretations of many collective instabilities are included with the intention that the phenomena can be understood more easily without going into too much mathematics. The notations of Lee's book as well as the e{sup jwt} convention are followed.

  14. Long-term nonlinear behaviour of the magnetorotational instability in a localized model of an accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvers, L. J.

    2008-04-01

    For more than a decade, the so-called shearing-box model has been used to study the fundamental local dynamics of accretion discs. This approach has proved to be very useful because it allows high-resolution and long-term studies to be carried out, studies that would not be possible for a global disc. Localized disc studies have largely focused on examining the rate of enhanced transport of angular momentum, essentially a sum of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses. The dominant radial-azimuthal component of this stress tensor is, in the classic Shakura-Sunyaev model, expressed as a constant α times the pressure. Previous studies have estimated α based on a modest number of orbital times. Here we use much longer baselines, and perform a cumulative average for α. Great care must be exercised when trying to extract numerical α values from simulations: dissipation scales, computational box aspect ratio, and even numerical algorithms can all affect the result. This study suggests that estimating α becomes more, not less, difficult as computational power increases.

  15. Termination of the MRI via parasitic instabilities in core-collapse supernovae: influence of numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rembiasz, T.; Obergaulinger, M.; Cerdá-Durán, P.; Aloy, M. Á.; Müller, E.

    2016-05-01

    We study the influence of numerical methods and grid resolution on the termination of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) by means of parasitic instabilities in threedimensional shearing-disc simulations reproducing typical conditions found in core-collapse supernovae. Whether or not the MRI is able to amplify weak magnetic fields in this context strongly depends, among other factors, on the amplitude at which its growth terminates. The qualitative results of our study do not depend on the numerical scheme. In all our models, MRI termination is caused by Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, consistent with theoretical predictions. Quantitatively, however, there are differences, but numerical convergence can be achieved even at relatively low grid resolutions if high-order reconstruction methods are used.

  16. Magnetic Reconnection Onset via Disruption of a Forming Current Sheet by the Plasmoid Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loureiro, Nuno; Uzdensky, Dmitri

    The recent realization that Sweet-Parker reconnection current sheets are violently unstable to the secondary tearing (plasmoid) instability implies that such current sheets are unlikely to be realized in real systems. This suggests that, in order to understand the onset of magnetic reconnection, one needs to consider the growth of the tearing instability in a current layer as it is just being formed. We present such an analysis in the context of nonlinear resistive MHD for a generic time-dependent equilibrium representing a gradually forming current sheet. It is shown that, under most conditions, the longest-wavelength mode dominates, resulting in just one or two big plasmoids produced in the immediate aftermath of current sheet formation. Specific examples pertaining to solar flares and to parasitic modes of the magnetorotational instability are provided.

  17. Magnetorotational Turbulence Transports Angular Momentum in Stratified Disks with Low Magnetic Prandtl Number but Magnetic Reynolds Number above a Critical Value

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac; /Amer. Museum Natural Hist.

    2012-02-14

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) may dominate outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks, allowing material to fall onto the central object. Previous work has established that the MRI can drive a mean-field dynamo, possibly leading to a self-sustaining accretion system. Recently, however, simulations of the scaling of the angular momentum transport parameter {alpha}{sub SS} with the magnetic Prandtl number Pm have cast doubt on the ability of the MRI to transport astrophysically relevant amounts of angular momentum in real disk systems. Here, we use simulations including explicit physical viscosity and resistivity to show that when vertical stratification is included, mean field dynamo action operates, driving the system to a configuration in which the magnetic field is not fully helical. This relaxes the constraints on the generated field provided by magnetic helicity conservation, allowing the generation of a mean field on timescales independent of the resistivity. Our models demonstrate the existence of a critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub crit}, below which transport becomes strongly Pm-dependent and chaotic, but above which the transport is steady and Pm-independent. Prior simulations showing Pm-dependence had Rm < Rm{sub crit}. We conjecture that this steady regime is possible because the mean field dynamo is not helicity-limited and thus does not depend on the details of the helicity ejection process. Scaling to realistic astrophysical parameters suggests that disks around both protostars and stellar mass black holes have Rm >> Rm{sub crit}. Thus, we suggest that the strong Pm dependence seen in recent simulations does not occur in real systems.

  18. MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE TRANSPORTS ANGULAR MOMENTUM IN STRATIFIED DISKS WITH LOW MAGNETIC PRANDTL NUMBER BUT MAGNETIC REYNOLDS NUMBER ABOVE A CRITICAL VALUE

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, Jeffrey S.

    2011-10-10

    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) may dominate outward transport of angular momentum in accretion disks, allowing material to fall onto the central object. Previous work has established that the MRI can drive a mean-field dynamo, possibly leading to a self-sustaining accretion system. Recently, however, simulations of the scaling of the angular momentum transport parameter {alpha}{sub SS} with the magnetic Prandtl number Pm have cast doubt on the ability of the MRI to transport astrophysically relevant amounts of angular momentum in real disk systems. Here, we use simulations including explicit physical viscosity and resistivity to show that when vertical stratification is included, mean-field dynamo action operates, driving the system to a configuration in which the magnetic field is not fully helical. This relaxes the constraints on the generated field provided by magnetic helicity conservation, allowing the generation of a mean field on timescales independent of the resistivity. Our models demonstrate the existence of a critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm{sub crit}, below which transport becomes strongly Pm-dependent and chaotic, but above which the transport is steady and Pm-independent. Prior simulations showing Pm dependence had Rm < Rm{sub crit}. We conjecture that this steady regime is possible because the mean-field dynamo is not helicity-limited and thus does not depend on the details of the helicity ejection process. Scaling to realistic astrophysical parameters suggests that disks around both protostars and stellar mass black holes have Rm >> Rm{sub crit}. Thus, we suggest that the strong Pm dependence seen in recent simulations does not occur in real systems.

  19. Instabilities and pattern formation on the pore scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juel, Anne

    What links a baby's first breath to adhesive debonding, enhanced oil recovery, or even drop-on-demand devices? All these processes involve moving or expanding bubbles displacing fluid in a confined space, bounded by either rigid or elastic walls. In this talk, we show how spatial confinement may either induce or suppress interfacial instabilities and pattern formation in such flows. We demonstrate that a simple change in the bounding geometry can radically alter the behaviour of a fluid-displacing air finger both in rigid and elastic vessels. A rich array of propagation modes, including steady and oscillatory fingers, is uncovered when air displaces oil from axially uniform tubes that have local variations in flow resistance within their cross-sections. Moreover, we show that the experimentally observed states can all be captured by a two-dimensional depth-averaged model for bubble propagation through wide channels. Viscous fingering in Hele-Shaw cells is a classical and widely studied fluid-mechanical instability: when air is injected into the narrow, liquid-filled gap between parallel rigid plates, the axisymmetrically expanding air-liquid interface tends to be unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances. We show how the introduction of wall elasticity (via the replacement of the upper bounding plate by an elastic membrane) can weaken or even suppress the fingering instability by allowing changes in cell confinement through the flow-induced deflection of the boundary. The presence of a deformable boundary also makes the system prone to additional solid-mechanical instabilities, and these wrinkling instabilities can in turn enhance viscous fingering. The financial support of EPSRC and the Leverhulme Trust is gratefully acknowledged.

  20. The role of toroidal magnetic field on the Rossby wave instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholipour, Mahmoud; Nejad-Asghar, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    In the accretion discs, the toroidal magnetic fields and viscous stresses are directly connected to each other, because generation of the large-scale toroidal magnetic fields are produced by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. Gholipour & Nejad-Asghar have recently shown that the effect of high turbulent viscosity on the Rossby wave instability (RWI) is important, while the effect of low turbulent viscosity can be ignored. In this paper, in addition of turbulent viscosity, we investigate the role of toroidal magnetic field on the non-axisymmetric RWI in the self-gravitating accretion discs. We use a numerical method to investigate stable and unstable modes. The results show that the perturbations of Rossby waves will be damped by both the viscosity and toroidal magnetic field, while the magnetic diffusivity acts vice versa. Also, occurrence of RWI depends on the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number (i.e. ratio of the turbulent viscosity to the turbulent magnetic diffusivity).

  1. Nonlinear density excitations in a magnetorotating relativistic plasma with warm ions and non-Maxwellian electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Ali; Masood, W.

    2016-05-01

    Linear and nonlinear electrostatic ion acoustic waves in a weakly relativistic magnetorotating plasma in the presence of non-Maxwellian electrons and warm ions have been examined. The system under consideration has yielded two solutions, namely, the fast and slow acoustic modes which have been observed to depend on the streaming velocity, ion to electron temperature ratio, and the nonthermality parameter of the non-Maxwellian electrons. Using the multiple time scale analysis, we have derived the three dimensional nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation and also presented its solution. Both compressive and rarefactive solitary structures have been found in consonance with the satellite observations. It has been observed that although the linear dispersion relation gives both fast and slow ion acoustic waves, the solitary structures form only for the fast acoustic mode. The dependence of the characteristics of the solitary structures on several plasma parameters has also been explored. The present investigation may be beneficial to understanding the rotating plasma environments such as those found in the planetary magnetospheres of Saturn and Jupiter.

  2. ZONAL FLOWS AND LONG-LIVED AXISYMMETRIC PRESSURE BUMPS IN MAGNETOROTATIONAL TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Johansen, A.; Youdin, A.; Klahr, H. E-mail: youd@cita.utoronto.ca

    2009-06-01

    We study the behavior of magnetorotational turbulence in shearing box simulations with a radial and azimuthal extent up to 10 scale heights. Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are found to increase by more than a factor of 2 when increasing the box size beyond two scale heights in the radial direction. Further increase of the box size has little or no effect on the statistical properties of the turbulence. An inverse cascade excites magnetic field structures at the largest scales of the box. The corresponding 10% variation in the Maxwell stress launches a zonal flow of alternating sub- and super-Keplerian velocity. This, in turn, generates a banded density structure in geostrophic balance between pressure and Coriolis forces. We present a simplified model for the appearance of zonal flows, in which stochastic forcing by the magnetic tension on short timescales creates zonal flow structures with lifetimes of several tens of orbits. We experiment with various improved shearing box algorithms to reduce the numerical diffusivity introduced by the supersonic shear flow. While a standard finite difference advection scheme shows signs of a suppression of turbulent activity near the edges of the box, this problem is eliminated by a new method where the Keplerian shear advection is advanced in time by interpolation in Fourier space.

  3. Stability and instability of thermocapillary convection in models of the float-zone crystal-growth process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, G. P.

    1993-01-01

    This project was concerned with the determination of conditions of guaranteed stability and instability for thermocapillary convection in a model of the float-zone crystal-growth process. This model, referred to as the half-zone, was studied extensively, both experimentally and theoretically. Our own earlier research determined, using energy-stability theory, sufficient conditions for stability to axisymmetric disturbances. Nearly all results computed were for the case of a liquid with Prandtl Number Pr = 1. Attempts to compute cases for higher Prandtl numbers to allow comparison with the experimental results of other researchers were unsuccessful, but indicated that the condition guaranteeing stability against axisymmetric disturbances would be a value of the Marangoni number (Ma), significantly higher than that at which oscillatory convection was observed experimentally. Thus, additional results were needed to round out the stability picture for this model problem. The research performed under this grant consisted of the following: (1) computation of energy-stability limits for non-axisymmetric disturbances; (2) computation of linear-stability limits for axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric disturbances; (3) numerical simulation of the basic state for half- and full-zones with a deformable free surface; and (4) incorporation of radiation heat transfer into a model energy-stability problem. Each of these is summarized briefly below.

  4. The Current-driven Kink Instability of the Poynting Flux Dominated Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Meier, David L.

    2004-11-01

    The spatial stability properties are one of the most important problem in astrophysical jets dynamics. The non-relativistic 3-D MHD simulations of Poynting flux dominated (PFD) jets are presented. Our study focuses on the propagation of strongly magnetized hypersonic, but sub-Alfvénic flow and on the subsequent development of a current-driven (CD) kink instability. This instability may be responsible for the ``wiggled'' structures seen in sub-parsec scale (VLBI) AGN jets and pulsar jets. Our numerical results show that the PFD jets can develop CD distortions in the trans-Alfvénic flow case. An internal non axisymmetric body mode grows on time scales of order of the Alfvén crossing time and distorts the structure and magnetic configuration of the jet. The kink (m=1) mode of the CD instability, driven by the asymmetrically distribution of hoop-stress, grows faster than other higher order modes (m>1). This could be caused by a sudden loss of kinetic angular momentum to the magnetic field via the reverse slow-mode MHD shock wave. In the jet frame the mode grows locally and expands radially at each axial position where the jet is unstable: the instability, therefore, does not propagate as a wave along the jet length. The wiggled structures saturate and advect with the bulk flow and then, the local plasma flow follows a helical path along the kinked magnetic field backbone. M.N. is supported by a NRC RRA award.

  5. Morphological instability of whiskers, pores, and tubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirill, Dimitri Jay

    1999-11-01

    A thin, stressed solid cylinder, a whisker, is subject to mass transport by curvature and elastic-stress-driven surface diffusion. The stability of the cylindrical surface is examined using linear stability theory. It is found that the applied stress leads to a greater range of unstable wavenumbers, and hence is destabilizing. The presence of elastic strains can excite non-axisymmetric modes, which, under certain conditions, are preferred and can give rise to helical surfaces. In addition, asymptotic formulas for growth rate in the limit of long and short wavelengths are found. A possible experiment is proposed which, if undertaken, should reveal the helical instability. The linear stability analysis is then extended to the case of cylindrical pore channels and hollow cylindrical tubules. In both cases, results similar to the whisker are found---increased applied stress leads to a greater range of unstable wavenumbers. For both the pore and tubule geometries, the dominant modes are axisymmetric for any value of applied stress; this contrasts with the solid whisker results. Since the tubule geometry consists of an inner and outer surface, there is a phase relationship between the two surface perturbations. The most dangerous eigenmode can exhibit either in-phase (sinuous) or 180° out-of-phase (varicose) perturbations, depending on the value of applied stress. Furthermore, there is a critical value of applied stress below which the most dangerous mode is varicose, and above which it is sinuous. Lastly, asymptotic formulas for growth rate are obtained in the limit of a thin-walled tubule. These results compare favorably to work done on stressed lamellar composites.

  6. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  7. Hybrid rocket instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, B.; Frederick, R. A., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The paper provides a brief review of theoretical and experimental studies concerned with hybrid rocket instability. The instabilities discussed include atomization and mixing instabilities, chuffing instabilities, pressure coupled combustion instabilities, and vortex shedding. It is emphasized that the future use of hybrid motor systems as viable design alternatives will depend on a better understanding of hybrid instability.

  8. Global simulations of magnetorotational turbulence - III. Influence of field configuration and mass injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parkin, E. R.

    2014-07-01

    The stresses produced by magnetorotational turbulence can provide effective angular momentum transport in accretion discs. However, questions remain about the ability of simulated discs to reproduce observationally inferred stress-to-gas-pressure ratios. In this paper, we present a set of high-resolution global magnetohydrodynamic disc simulations which are initialized with different field configurations: purely toroidal, vertical field lines, and nested poloidal loops. A mass source term is included which allows the total disc mass to equilibrate in simulations with long run times, and also enables the impact of rapid mass injection to be explored. Notably different levels of angular momentum transport are observed during the early-time transient disc evolution. However, given sufficient time to relax, the different models evolve to a statistically similar quasi-steady state with a stress-to-gas-pressure ratio, <αP> ˜ 0.032-0.036. Such behaviour is anticipated based on consideration of mean magnetic field evolution subject to our adopted simulation boundary conditions. The indication from our results is that steady, isolated discs may be unable to maintain a large-scale magnetic field or produce values for the stress-to-gas-pressure ratio implied by some observations. Supplementary simulations exploring the influence of trapping magnetic field, injecting vertical field, and rapidly injecting additional mass into the disc show that large stresses can be induced by these mechanisms. In the first instance, a highly magnetized disc is produced with <αP> ˜ 0.21, whereas the latter cases lead to a transient burst of accretion with a peak <αP> ≃ 0.1-0.25. As a whole, the simulations highlight the common late-time evolution and characteristics of turbulent discs for which the magnetic field is allowed to evolve freely (i.e. without constraint/replenishment). In contrast, if the boundaries of the disc, the rate of injection of magnetic field, or the rate of mass

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.; Cargill, P.; Forbes, T. G.; Hood, A. W.; Steinolfson, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    There have been major advances in the theory of magnetic reconnection and of magnetic instability, with important implications for the observations, as follows: (1) Fast and slow magnetic shock waves are produced by the magnetohydrodynamics of reconnection and are potential particle accelerators. (2) The impulsive bursty regime of reconnection gives a rapid release of magnetic energy in a series of bursts. (3) The radiative tearing mode creates cool filamentary structures in the reconnection process. (4) The stability analyses imply that an arcade can become unstable when either its height or twist of plasma pressure become too great.

  10. Evidence of Active MHD Instability in EULAG-MHD Simulations of Solar Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Nicolas; Strugarek, Antoine; Charbonneau, Paul

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the possible development of magnetohydrodynamical instabilities in the EULAG-MHD “millennium simulation” of Passos & Charbonneau. This simulation sustains a large-scale magnetic cycle characterized by solar-like polarity reversals taking place on a regular multidecadal cadence, and in which zonally oriented bands of strong magnetic fields accumulate below the convective layers, in response to turbulent pumping from above in successive magnetic half-cycles. Key aspects of this simulation include low numerical dissipation and a strongly sub-adiabatic fluid layer underlying the convectively unstable layers corresponding to the modeled solar convection zone. These properties are conducive to the growth and development of two-dimensional instabilities that are otherwise suppressed by stronger dissipation. We find evidence for the action of a non-axisymmetric magnetoshear instability operating in the upper portions of the stably stratified fluid layers. We also investigate the possibility that the Tayler instability may be contributing to the destabilization of the large-scale axisymmetric magnetic component at high latitudes. On the basis of our analyses, we propose a global dynamo scenario whereby the magnetic cycle is driven primarily by turbulent dynamo action in the convecting layers, but MHD instabilities accelerate the dissipation of the magnetic field pumped down into the overshoot and stable layers, thus perhaps significantly influencing the magnetic cycle period. Support for this scenario is found in the distinct global dynamo behaviors observed in an otherwise identical EULAG-MHD simulations, using a different degree of sub-adiabaticity in the stable fluid layers underlying the convection zone.

  11. Linear growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with an adiabatic cosmic-ray gas

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Akihiro; Takahashi, Hiroyuki R.; Kudoh, Takahiro

    2014-06-01

    We investigate effects of cosmic rays on the linear growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Cosmic rays are treated as an adiabatic gas and allowed to diffuse along magnetic field lines. We calculated the dispersion relation of the instability for various sets of two free parameters, the ratio of the cosmic-ray pressure to the thermal gas pressure, and the diffusion coefficient. Including cosmic-ray effects, a shear layer is more destabilized and the growth rates can be enhanced in comparison with the ideal magnetohydrodynamical case. Whether the growth rate is effectively enhanced or not depends on the diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays. We obtain the criterion for effective enhancement by comparing the growing timescale of the instability with the diffusion timescale of cosmic rays. These results can be applied to various astrophysical phenomena where a velocity shear is present, such as outflows from star-forming galaxies, active galactic nucleus jet, channel flows resulting from the nonlinear development of the magnetorotational instability, and galactic disks.

  12. Dust Dynamics in Protoplanetary Disk Winds Driven by Magnetorotational Turbulence: A Mechanism for Floating Dust Grains with Characteristic Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, Tomoya; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the dynamics of dust grains of various sizes in protoplanetary disk winds driven by magnetorotational turbulence, by simulating the time evolution of the dust grain distribution in the vertical direction. Small dust grains, which are well-coupled to the gas, are dragged upward with the upflowing gas, while large grains remain near the midplane of a disk. Intermediate-size grains float near the sonic point of the disk wind located at several scale heights from the midplane, where the grains are loosely coupled to the background gas. For the minimum mass solar nebula at 1 au, dust grains with size of 25-45 μm float around 4 scale heights from the midplane. Considering the dependence on the distance from the central star, smaller-size grains remain only in an outer region of the disk, while larger-size grains are distributed in a broader region. We also discuss the implications of our result for observations of dusty material around young stellar objects.

  13. Nanoparticle Induced Cell Magneto-Rotation: Monitoring Morphology, Stress and Drug Sensitivity of a Suspended Single Cancer Cell

    PubMed Central

    Elbez, Remy; McNaughton, Brandon H.; Patel, Lalit; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Kopelman, Raoul

    2011-01-01

    Single cell analysis has allowed critical discoveries in drug testing, immunobiology and stem cell research. In addition, a change from two to three dimensional growth conditions radically affects cell behavior. This already resulted in new observations on gene expression and communication networks and in better predictions of cell responses to their environment. However, it is still difficult to study the size and shape of single cells that are freely suspended, where morphological changes are highly significant. Described here is a new method for quantitative real time monitoring of cell size and morphology, on single live suspended cancer cells, unconfined in three dimensions. The precision is comparable to that of the best optical microscopes, but, in contrast, there is no need for confining the cell to the imaging plane. The here first introduced cell magnetorotation (CM) method is made possible by nanoparticle induced cell magnetization. By using a rotating magnetic field, the magnetically labeled cell is actively rotated, and the rotational period is measured in real-time. A change in morphology induces a change in the rotational period of the suspended cell (e.g. when the cell gets bigger it rotates slower). The ability to monitor, in real time, cell swelling or death, at the single cell level, is demonstrated. This method could thus be used for multiplexed real time single cell morphology analysis, with implications for drug testing, drug discovery, genomics and three-dimensional culturing. PMID:22180784

  14. TRANSVERSE INSTABILITIES IN RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    Blaskiewicz, M; Cameron, P; Catalan-Lasheras, N; Dawson, C; Degen, C; Drees, K; Fischer, W; Koropsak, E; Michnoff, R; Montag, C; Roser, T

    2003-05-12

    The beam quality in RHIC can be significantly impacted by a transverse instability which can occur just after transition [1]. Data characterizing the instability are presented and analyzed. Techniques for ameliorating the situation are considered.

  15. Turbine instabilities: Case histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, C. W.

    1985-01-01

    Several possible causes of turbine rotor instability are discussed and the related design features of a wide range of turbomachinery types and sizes are considered. The instrumentation options available for detecting rotor instability and assessing its severity are also discussed.

  16. Modeling Sound Propagation Through Non-Axisymmetric Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leib, Stewart J.

    2014-01-01

    A method for computing the far-field adjoint Green's function of the generalized acoustic analogy equations under a locally parallel mean flow approximation is presented. The method is based on expanding the mean-flow-dependent coefficients in the governing equation and the scalar Green's function in truncated Fourier series in the azimuthal direction and a finite difference approximation in the radial direction in circular cylindrical coordinates. The combined spectral/finite difference method yields a highly banded system of algebraic equations that can be efficiently solved using a standard sparse system solver. The method is applied to test cases, with mean flow specified by analytical functions, corresponding to two noise reduction concepts of current interest: the offset jet and the fluid shield. Sample results for the Green's function are given for these two test cases and recommendations made as to the use of the method as part of a RANS-based jet noise prediction code.

  17. An Analysis of Saturn's Non-Axisymmetric Planetary Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Burton, M. E.; Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    Planetary magnetic field models based on Pioneer and Voyager data [Davis and Smith, 1990], [Connerney et al., 1984], [Giampieri and Dougherty, 2004] as well as initial models based on Cassini data [Dougherty et al., 2005] were necessarily axisymmetric since they were based on a rotation period now thought to be incorrect by several minutes [Galopeau and Lecacheux, 2000]. Subsequent models were constrained to be strictly axisymmetric because of this lack of knowledge [Burton et al., 2009], yet the periodic character of the magnetic field in Saturn's inner magetosphere is evident [Southwood and Kivelson, 2007], [Andrews et al., 2008]. For Jupiter, the substantial contribution by the non-axial field, a direct method of determining the rate of rotation, is possible by examining the periodic variation in the tilt of the magnetic dipole axis. Saturn's magnetic field with a negligible dipole tilt, makes this direct determination difficult. Attempts to quantify the degree of non-axisymmetry based on Cassini data obtained on thrity-seven orbits during the prime mission were inconclusive [Burton et al., 2010]. Without accurate knowledge of Saturn's rotation rate, it is not possible to derive an internal magnetic field model that includes non-axial terms. Given the high degree of symmetry, less direct methods have been used to estimate Saturn's rotation rate [Anderson and Schubert, 2007] and[ Read et al., 2009]. Since the beginning of the Cassini mission in July 2004 until the present, the spacecraft has completed more than 194 orbits in a wide variety of geometries in Saturn's magnetosphere. Seventy-four of those orbits have come closer than the L-shell of Enceladus at 3.95 Rs. In this analysis we use magnetic field measurements obtained on more then seventy orbits to attempt to quantify the degree of non-axisymmetry of Saturn's magnetic field. Because of the significant effect of Enceladus on Saturn's magnetosphere [Kivelson, 2006], only data obtained on orbits well inside the L-shell of Enceladus were used. Although an accurate determination of the degree of non-axisymmetry of Saturn's magnetic field may have to wait until data is obtained on the twenty-two unique "Proximal Orbits" planned to occur in 2017. During this mission phase, Cassini will orbit just above Saturn's cloud tops near 1 Saturn radii. One of the key, high priority science objectives during this phase is determination of the higher order moments of the magnetic field, the degree on non-axisymmetry of the magnetic field and ultimately the rotation rate of the planet.

  18. Shape Parameter for a Non-Axisymmetric Isothermal Dendrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, G. B.; Coriell, S. R.; Sekerka, R. F.

    1999-01-01

    In previous work, we found approximate solutions for paraboloids having perturbations with four-fold axial symmetry in order to model dendritic growth in cubic materials. These solutions provide self-consistent corrections through second order in a shape parameter e to the Peclet number-supercooling relation of the Ivantsov solution. The parameter e is proportional to the amplitude of the four-fold correction to the dendrite shape, as measured from the Ivantsov paraboloid of revolution. We calculate e by comparing the dendrite tip shape to the portion of the equilibrium shape near the growth direction, (001), for anisotropic surface free energy, where the ni are components of the unit normal of the crystal surface. This comparison results in epsilon = -2(epsilon 4), independent of the Peclet number. From the experimental value of epsilon 4, we find epsilon approximately 0.011, in good agreement with the measured value epsilon approximately 0.008 of LaCombe et al.

  19. Non-linear violent disc instability with high Toomre's Q in high-redshift clumpy disc galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shigeki; Dekel, Avishai; Mandelker, Nir; Ceverino, Daniel; Bournaud, Frédéric; Primack, Joel

    2016-02-01

    We utilize zoom-in cosmological simulations to study the nature of violent disc instability in clumpy galaxies at high redshift, z = 1-5. Our simulated galaxies are not in the ideal state assumed in Toomre instability, of linear fluctuations in an isolated, uniform, rotating disc. There, instability is characterized by a Q parameter below unity, and lower when the disc is thick. Instead, the high-redshift discs are highly perturbed. Over long periods they consist of non-linear perturbations, compact massive clumps and extended structures, with new clumps forming in interclump regions. This is while the galaxy is subject to frequent external perturbances. We compute the local, two-component Q parameter for gas and stars, smoothed on a ˜1 kpc scale to capture clumps of 108-9 M⊙. The Q < 1 regions are confined to collapsed clumps due to the high surface density there, while the interclump regions show Q significantly higher than unity. Tracing the clumps back to their relatively smooth Lagrangian patches, we find that Q prior to clump formation typically ranges from unity to a few. This is unlike the expectations from standard Toomre instability. We discuss possible mechanisms for high-Q clump formation, e.g. rapid turbulence decay leading to small clumps that grow by mergers, non-axisymmetric instability, or clump formation induced by non-linear perturbations in the disc. Alternatively, the high-Q non-linear VDI may be stimulated by the external perturbations such as mergers and counter-rotating streams. The high Q may represent excessive compressive modes of turbulence, possibly induced by tidal interactions.

  20. Gravitational instabilities in a protosolar-like disc - I. Dynamics and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. G.; Ilee, J. D.; Boley, A. C.; Caselli, P.; Durisen, R. H.; Hartquist, T. W.; Rawlings, J. M. C.

    2015-10-01

    To date, most simulations of the chemistry in protoplanetary discs have used 1 + 1D or 2D axisymmetric α-disc models to determine chemical compositions within young systems. This assumption is inappropriate for non-axisymmetric, gravitationally unstable discs, which may be a significant stage in early protoplanetary disc evolution. Using 3D radiative hydrodynamics, we have modelled the physical and chemical evolution of a 0.17 M⊙ self-gravitating disc over a period of 2000 yr. The 0.8 M⊙ central protostar is likely to evolve into a solar-like star, and hence this Class 0 or early Class I young stellar object may be analogous to our early Solar system. Shocks driven by gravitational instabilities enhance the desorption rates, which dominate the changes in gas-phase fractional abundances for most species. We find that at the end of the simulation, a number of species distinctly trace the spiral structure of our relatively low-mass disc, particularly CN. We compare our simulation to that of a more massive disc, and conclude that mass differences between gravitationally unstable discs may not have a strong impact on the chemical composition. We find that over the duration of our simulation, successive shock heating has a permanent effect on the abundances of HNO, CN and NH3, which may have significant implications for both simulations and observations. We also find that HCO+ may be a useful tracer of disc mass. We conclude that gravitational instabilities induced in lower mass discs can significantly, and permanently, affect the chemical evolution, and that observations with high-resolution instruments such as Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) offer a promising means of characterizing gravitational instabilities in protosolar discs.

  1. Radially dependent large-scale dynamos in global cylindrical shear flows and the local cartesian limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, F.; Blackman, E. G.

    2016-06-01

    For cylindrical differentially rotating plasmas, we study large-scale magnetic field generation from finite amplitude non-axisymmetric perturbations by comparing numerical simulations with quasi-linear analytic theory. When initiated with a vertical magnetic field of either zero or finite net flux, our global cylindrical simulations exhibit the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and large-scale dynamo growth of radially alternating mean fields, averaged over height and azimuth. This dynamo growth is explained by our analytic calculations of a non-axisymmetric fluctuation-induced electromotive force that is sustained by azimuthal shear of the fluctuating fields. The standard `Ω effect' (shear of the mean field by differential rotation) is unimportant. For the MRI case, we express the large-scale dynamo field as a function of differential rotation. The resulting radially alternating large-scale fields may have implications for angular momentum transport in discs and corona. To connect with previous work on large-scale dynamos with local linear shear and identify the minimum conditions needed for large-scale field growth, we also solve our equations in local Cartesian coordinates. We find that large-scale dynamo growth in a linear shear flow without rotation can be sustained by shear plus non-axisymmetric fluctuations - even if not helical, a seemingly previously unidentified distinction. The linear shear flow dynamo emerges as a more restricted version of our more general new global cylindrical calculations.

  2. Viscous Instability Triggered by Layered Accretion in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Taku

    2015-12-01

    Layered accretion is one of the inevitable ingredients in protoplanetary disks when disk turbulence is excited by magnetorotational instabilities (MRIs). In the accretion, disk surfaces where MRIs fully operate have a high value of disk accretion rate (\\dot{M}), while the disk midplane where MRIs are generally quenched ends up with a low value of \\dot{M}. Significant progress on understanding MRIs has recently been made by a number of dedicated MHD simulations, which requires improvement of the classical treatment of α in 1D disk models. To this end, we obtain a new expression of α by utilizing an empirical formula that is derived from recent MHD simulations of stratified disks with ohmic diffusion. It is interesting that this new formulation can be regarded as a general extension of the classical α. Armed with the new α, we perform a linear stability analysis of protoplanetary disks that undergo layered accretion, and we find that a viscous instability can occur around the outer edge of dead zones. Disks become stable in using the classical α. We identify that the difference arises from Σ-dependence of \\dot{M}; whereas Σ is uniquely determined for a given value of \\dot{M} in the classical approach, the new approach leads to \\dot{M} that is a multivalued function of Σ. We confirm our finding both by exploring a parameter space and by performing the 1D, viscous evolution of disks. We finally discuss other nonideal MHD effects that are not included in our analysis but may affect our results.

  3. Numerical 3D Hydrodynamics Study of Gravitational Instabilities in a Circumbinary Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Karna Mahadev; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Michael, Scott; Cai, Kai; Durisen, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 3D hydrodynamical study of gravitational instabilities (GIs) in a circumbinary protoplanetary disk around a Solar mass star and a brown dwarf companion (0.02 M⊙). GIs can play an important, and at times dominant, role in driving the structural evolution of protoplanetary disks. The reported simulations were performed employing CHYMERA, a radiative 3D hydrodynamics code developed by the Indiana University Hydrodynamics Group. The simulations include disk self-gravity and radiative cooling governed by realistic dust opacities. We examine the role of GIs in modulating the thermodynamic state of the disks, and determine the strengths of GI-induced density waves, non-axisymmetric density structures, radial mass transport, and gravitational torques. The principal goal of this study is to determine how the presence of the companion affects the nature and strength of GIs. Results are compared with a parallel simulation of a protoplanetary disk without the presence of the brown dwarf binary companion. We detect no fragmentation in either disk. A persistent vortex forms in the inner region of both disks. The vortex seems to be stabilized by the presence of the binary companion.

  4. Joint instability and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  5. Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi

    2015-01-01

    Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA. PMID:25741184

  6. Instability in Rotating Machinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The proceedings contain 45 papers on a wide range of subjects including flow generated instabilities in fluid flow machines, cracked shaft detection, case histories of instability phenomena in compressors, turbines, and pumps, vibration control in turbomachinery (including antiswirl techniques), and the simulation and estimation of destabilizing forces in rotating machines. The symposium was held to serve as an update on the understanding and control of rotating machinery instability problems.

  7. Bacterial Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Elise

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  8. Chiral plasma instabilities.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yukinao; Yamamoto, Naoki

    2013-08-01

    We study the collective modes in relativistic electromagnetic or quark-gluon plasmas with an asymmetry between left- and right-handed chiral fermions, based on the recently formulated kinetic theory with Berry curvature corrections. We find that there exists an unstable mode, signaling the presence of a plasma instability. We argue the fate of this "chiral plasma instability" including the effect of collisions, and briefly discuss its relevance in heavy ion collisions and compact stars. PMID:23952387

  9. Rotor internal friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bently, D. E.; Muszynska, A.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of internal friction affecting stability of rotating machines are discussed. The first role of internal friction consists of decreasing the level of effective damping during rotor subsynchronous and backward precessional vibrations caused by some other instability mechanisms. The second role of internal frication consists of creating rotor instability, i.e., causing self-excited subsynchronous vibrations. Experimental test results document both of these aspects.

  10. Equilibrium Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubinstein, I.; Zaltzman, B.

    2015-03-01

    Since its prediction 15 years ago, hydrodynamic instability in concentration polarization at a charge-selective interface has been attributed to nonequilibrium electro-osmosis related to the extended space charge which develops at the limiting current. This attribution had a double basis. On the one hand, it has been recognized that neither equilibrium electro-osmosis nor bulk electroconvection can yield instability for a perfectly charge-selective solid. On the other hand, it has been shown that nonequilibrium electro-osmosis can. The first theoretical studies in which electro-osmotic instability was predicted and analyzed employed the assumption of perfect charge selectivity for the sake of simplicity and so did the subsequent studies of various time-dependent and nonlinear features of electro-osmotic instability. In this Letter, we show that relaxing the assumption of perfect charge selectivity (tantamount to fixing the electrochemical potential of counterions in the solid) allows for the equilibrium electroconvective instability. In addition, we suggest a simple experimental test for determining the true, either equilibrium or nonequilibrium, origin of instability in concentration polarization.

  11. Multi-region approach to free-boundary three-dimensional tokamak equilibria and resistive wall instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.; Lao, L. L.; Shephard, M. S.; Zhang, F.

    2016-05-01

    Free-boundary 3D tokamak equilibria and resistive wall instabilities are calculated using a new resistive wall model in the two-fluid M3D-C1 code. In this model, the resistive wall and surrounding vacuum region are included within the computational domain. This implementation contrasts with the method typically used in fluid codes in which the resistive wall is treated as a boundary condition on the computational domain boundary and has the advantage of maintaining purely local coupling of mesh elements. This new capability is used to simulate perturbed, free-boundary non-axisymmetric equilibria; the linear evolution of resistive wall modes; and the linear and nonlinear evolution of axisymmetric vertical displacement events (VDEs). Calculated growth rates for a resistive wall mode with arbitrary wall thickness are shown to agree well with the analytic theory. Equilibrium and VDE calculations are performed in diverted tokamak geometry, at physically realistic values of dissipation, and with resistive walls of finite width. Simulations of a VDE disruption extend into the current-quench phase, in which the plasma becomes limited by the first wall, and strong currents are observed to flow in the wall, in the SOL, and from the plasma to the wall.

  12. Effect of a finite external heat transfer coefficient on the Darcy-Bénard instability in a vertical porous cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barletta, A.; Storesletten, L.

    2013-04-01

    The onset of thermal convection in a vertical porous cylinder is studied by considering the heating from below and the cooling from above as caused by external forced convection processes. These processes are parametrised through a finite Biot number, and hence through third-kind, or Robin, temperature conditions imposed on the lower and upper boundaries of the cylinder. Both the horizontal plane boundaries and the cylindrical sidewall are assumed to be impermeable; the sidewall is modelled as a thermally insulated boundary. The linear stability analysis is carried out by studying separable normal modes, and the principle of exchange of stabilities is proved. It is shown that the Biot number does not affect the ordering of the instability modes that, when the radius-to-height aspect ratio increases, are displayed in sequence at the onset of convection. On the other hand, the Biot number plays a central role in determining the transition aspect ratios from one mode to its follower. In the limit of a vanishingly small Biot number, just the first (non-axisymmetric) mode is displayed at the onset of convection, for every value of the aspect ratio.

  13. Magnetorotational iron core collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Symbalisty, E. M. D.

    1984-01-01

    During its final evolutionary stages, a massive star, as considered in current astrophysical theory, undergoes rapid collapse, thereby triggering a sequence of a catastrophic event which results in a Type II supernova explosion. A remnant neutron star or a black hole is left after the explosion. Stellar collapse occurs, when thermonuclear fusion has consumed the lighter elements present. At this stage, the core consists of iron. Difficulties arise regarding an appropriate model with respect to the core collapse. The present investigation is concerned with the evolution of a Type II supernova core including the effects of rotation and magnetic fields. A simple neutrino model is developed which reproduced the spherically symmetric results of Bowers and Wilson (1982). Several two-dimensional computational models of stellar collapse are studied, taking into account a case in which a 15 solar masses iron core was artificially given rotational and magnetic energy.

  14. Buckling instability in arteries.

    PubMed

    Vandiver, Rebecca M

    2015-04-21

    Arteries can become tortuous in response to abnormal growth stimuli, genetic defects and aging. It is suggested that a buckling instability is a mechanism that might lead to artery tortuosity. Here, the buckling instability in arteries is studied by examining asymmetric modes of bifurcation of two-layer cylindrical structures that are residually stressed. These structures are loaded by an axial force, internal pressure and have nonlinear, anisotropic, hyperelastic responses to stresses. Strain-softening and reduced opening angle are shown to lower the critical internal pressure leading to buckling. In addition, the ratio of the media thickness to the adventitia thickness is shown to have a dramatic impact on arterial instability. PMID:25661070

  15. Electrokinetic instability in microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffbauer, Jarrod; Demekhin, Evgeny A.; Ganchenko, Georgy

    2012-05-01

    The effect of geometric confinement on electroconvective instability due to nonequilibrium electro-osmotic slip at the interface of an electrolytic fluid and charge-selective solid is studied. It is shown that the topology of the marginal stability curves and the behavior of the critical parameters depend strongly on both channel geometry and dimensionless Debye length at low voltages for sufficiently deep channels, corresponding to the Rubinstein-Zaltzman instability mechanism, but that stability is governed almost entirely by channel depth for narrow channels at higher voltages. For shallow channels, it is shown that above a transition threshold, determined by both channel depth and Debye length, the low-voltage instability is completely suppressed.

  16. Ringed Accretion Disks: Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z.

    2016-04-01

    We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.

  17. Dislocation motion and instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yichao; Chapman, Stephen Jonathan; Acharya, Amit

    2013-08-01

    The Peach-Koehler expression for the stress generated by a single (non-planar) curvilinear dislocation is evaluated to calculate the dislocation self stress. This is combined with a law of motion to give the self-induced motion of a general dislocation curve. A stability analysis of a rectilinear, uniformly translating dislocation is then performed. The dislocation is found to be susceptible to a helical instability, with the maximum growth rate occurring when the dislocation is almost, but not exactly, pure screw. The non-linear evolution of the instability is determined numerically, and implications for slip band formation and non-Schmid behavior in yielding are discussed.

  18. Varus Posteromedial Instability.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Stein, Jason A; Murthi, Anand M

    2015-11-01

    Varus posteromedial instability of the elbow is a result of traumatic injury to the medial facet of the coronoid and usually the lateral collateral ligament. Treatment of these fractures is usually surgical; poor outcomes have been described with nonoperative treatment. Surgical management consists of coronoid fracture fixation with plates, screws, or sutures and radial collateral ligament repair. Outcomes of these injuries are mixed, but most series report fair to good objective scores. The purpose of this article is to describe the pathophysiology of varus posteromedial instability, discuss the management of this injury, and report the outcomes of treatment. PMID:26498545

  19. Destabilization of hydrodynamically stable rotation laws by azimuthal magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüdiger, Günther; Hollerbach, Rainer; Schultz, Manfred; Elstner, Detlef

    2007-06-01

    We consider the effect of toroidal magnetic fields on hydrodynamically stable Taylor-Couette differential rotation flows. For current-free magnetic fields a non-axisymmetric m = 1 magnetorotational instability arises when the magnetic Reynolds number exceeds O(100). We then consider how this `azimuthal magnetorotational instability' (AMRI) is modified if the magnetic field is not current-free, but also has an associated electric current throughout the fluid. This gives rise to current-driven Tayler instabilities (TIs) that exist even without any differential rotation at all. The interaction of the AMRI and the TI is then considered when both electric currents and differential rotation are present simultaneously. The magnetic Prandtl number Pm turns out to be crucial in this case. Large Pm have a destabilizing influence, and lead to a smooth transition between the AMRI and the TI. In contrast, small Pm have a stabilizing influence, with a broad stable zone separating the AMRI and the TI. In this region the differential rotation is acting to stabilize the TIs, with possible astrophysical applications (Ap stars). The growth rates of both the AMRI and the TI are largely independent of Pm, with the TI acting on the time-scale of a single rotation period, and the AMRI slightly slower, but still on the basic rotational time-scale. The azimuthal drift time-scale is ~20 rotations, and may thus be a (flip-flop) time-scale of stellar activity between the rotation period and the diffusion time.

  20. INSTABILITIES IN THE SNS.

    SciTech Connect

    BLASKIEWICZ,M.

    1999-03-29

    The 2MW Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will have a D.C. beam current of 40 A at extraction, making it one of the worlds most intense accelerators. Coherent instabilities are a major concern and efforts to predict beam behavior are described.

  1. Two-fluid instability

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of interpenetrating flow models to represent multidimensional instabilities is probed by numerical experiments with an L-shaped two-fluid jet. Periodic and nonperiodic oscillations of various types are observed, and a partial phase portrait is constructed. The numerical experiments suggest new approaches to verifying transient interpenetrating flow models. 18 references.

  2. Electrostatic heat flux instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, P. J.; Ionson, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The electrostatic cyclotron and ion acoustic instabilities in a plasma driven by a combined heat flux and current were investigated. The minimum critical heat conduction speed (above which the plasma is unstable) is given as a function of the ratio of electron to ion temperatures.

  3. Global Linear Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theofilis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews linear instability analysis of flows over or through complex two-dimensional (2D) and 3D geometries. In the three decades since it first appeared in the literature, global instability analysis, based on the solution of the multidimensional eigenvalue and/or initial value problem, is continuously broadening both in scope and in depth. To date it has dealt successfully with a wide range of applications arising in aerospace engineering, physiological flows, food processing, and nuclear-reactor safety. In recent years, nonmodal analysis has complemented the more traditional modal approach and increased knowledge of flow instability physics. Recent highlights delivered by the application of either modal or nonmodal global analysis are briefly discussed. A conscious effort is made to demystify both the tools currently utilized and the jargon employed to describe them, demonstrating the simplicity of the analysis. Hopefully this will provide new impulses for the creation of next-generation algorithms capable of coping with the main open research areas in which step-change progress can be expected by the application of the theory: instability analysis of fully inhomogeneous, 3D flows and control thereof.

  4. Tracking Code for Microwave Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Heifets, S.; /SLAC

    2006-09-21

    To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability.

  5. CONVERGENCE STUDIES OF MASS TRANSPORT IN DISKS WITH GRAVITATIONAL INSTABILITIES. I. THE CONSTANT COOLING TIME CASE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael, Scott; Steiman-Cameron, Thomas Y.; Durisen, Richard H.; Boley, Aaron C. E-mail: tomsc@astro.indiana.edu E-mail: aaron.boley@gmail.com

    2012-02-10

    We conduct a convergence study of a protostellar disk, subject to a constant global cooling time and susceptible to gravitational instabilities (GIs), at a time when heating and cooling are roughly balanced. Our goal is to determine the gravitational torques produced by GIs, the level to which transport can be represented by a simple {alpha}-disk formulation, and to examine fragmentation criteria. Four simulations are conducted, identical except for the number of azimuthal computational grid points used. A Fourier decomposition of non-axisymmetric density structures in cos (m{phi}), sin (m{phi}) is performed to evaluate the amplitudes A{sub m} of these structures. The A{sub m} , gravitational torques, and the effective Shakura and Sunyaev {alpha} arising from gravitational stresses are determined for each resolution. We find nonzero A{sub m} for all m-values and that A{sub m} summed over all m is essentially independent of resolution. Because the number of measurable m-values is limited to half the number of azimuthal grid points, higher-resolution simulations have a larger fraction of their total amplitude in higher-order structures. These structures act more locally than lower-order structures. Therefore, as the resolution increases the total gravitational stress decreases as well, leading higher-resolution simulations to experience weaker average gravitational torques than lower-resolution simulations. The effective {alpha} also depends upon the magnitude of the stresses, thus {alpha}{sub eff} also decreases with increasing resolution. Our converged {alpha}{sub eff} is consistent with predictions from an analytic local theory for thin disks by Gammie, but only over many dynamic times when averaged over a substantial volume of the disk.

  6. High resolution polarimeter-interferometer system for fast equilibrium dynamics and MHD instability studies on Joint-TEXT tokamak (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Zhuang, G. Li, Q.; Liu, Y.; Gao, L.; Zhou, Y. N.; Jian, X.; Xiong, C. Y.; Wang, Z. J.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.

    2014-11-15

    A high-performance Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system has been developed for the J-TEXT tokamak. This system has time response up to 1 μs, phase resolution < 0.1° and minimum spatial resolution ∼15 mm. High resolution permits investigation of fast equilibrium dynamics as well as magnetic and density perturbations associated with intrinsic Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) instabilities and external coil-induced Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMP). The 3-wave technique, in which the line-integrated Faraday angle and electron density are measured simultaneously by three laser beams with specific polarizations and frequency offsets, is used. In order to achieve optimum resolution, three frequency-stabilized HCOOH lasers (694 GHz, >35 mW per cavity) and sensitive Planar Schottky Diode mixers are used, providing stable intermediate-frequency signals (0.5–3 MHz) with S/N > 50. The collinear R- and L-wave probe beams, which propagate through the plasma poloidal cross section (a = 0.25–0.27 m) vertically, are expanded using parabolic mirrors to cover the entire plasma column. Sources of systematic errors, e.g., stemming from mechanical vibration, beam non-collinearity, and beam polarization distortion are individually examined and minimized to ensure measurement accuracy. Simultaneous density and Faraday measurements have been successfully achieved for 14 chords. Based on measurements, temporal evolution of safety factor profile, current density profile, and electron density profile are resolved. Core magnetic and density perturbations associated with MHD tearing instabilities are clearly detected. Effects of non-axisymmetric 3D RMP in ohmically heated plasmas are directly observed by polarimetry for the first time.

  7. Genomic Instability and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yixin; Dai, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Genomic instability is a characteristic of most cancer cells. It is an increased tendency of genome alteration during cell division. Cancer frequently results from damage to multiple genes controlling cell division and tumor suppressors. It is known that genomic integrity is closely monitored by several surveillance mechanisms, DNA damage checkpoint, DNA repair machinery and mitotic checkpoint. A defect in the regulation of any of these mechanisms often results in genomic instability, which predisposes the cell to malignant transformation. Posttranslational modifications of the histone tails are closely associated with regulation of the cell cycle as well as chromatin structure. Nevertheless, DNA methylation status is also related to genomic integrity. We attempt to summarize recent developments in this field and discuss the debate of driving force of tumor initiation and progression. PMID:25541596

  8. Open field lines instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Pozzoli, R. |

    1995-09-01

    The results of some recent theoretical papers dealing with flute-like instabilities in the scrape-off layer of a tokamak with limiter configuration, where the magnetic field intersects conducting walls, are briefly recalled. Attention is then paid to the instability driven by the electron temperature gradient across the field in conjunction with the formation of the Debye sheath at the boundary, and to the effects due to the inclination of the end walls with respect to the magnetic field. When a divertor configuration is considered, important modifications are found owing to the strong deformations of the flux tubes passing near the {ital x}-point, which contrast the onset of flute-like perturbations, and to the stochasticity of field lines that can be excited by magnetic field perturbations. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Beam-beam instability

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, A.W.

    1983-08-01

    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  10. Whistler modulational instability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinca, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of the modulational instability characteristics of whistlers in cold and hot plasmas. The cold-plasma analysis considers both ion motion and relativistic effects; the unstable band, with a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero)squared, is contiguous to Omega sub e/4 and, depending on the plasma density, lies above or below that frequency (Omega sub e is the electron cyclotron frequency of the static magnetic field; B and B sub zero are the whistler and static magnetic fields). In hot plasmas, stability occurs between Omega sub e/4 and Omega prime (less than Omega sub e), with Omega prime depending mainly on the mean energy and anisotropy of the energetic electron population; the complementary unstable band has a growth rate proportional to (B/B sub zero) to the 1/2 power. The relevance of the instability to whistlers in the magnetosphere is discussed.

  11. Robust dynamic mitigation of instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, S.; Karino, T.

    2015-04-15

    A dynamic mitigation mechanism for instability growth was proposed and discussed in the paper [S. Kawata, Phys. Plasmas 19, 024503 (2012)]. In the present paper, the robustness of the dynamic instability mitigation mechanism is discussed further. The results presented here show that the mechanism of the dynamic instability mitigation is rather robust against changes in the phase, the amplitude, and the wavelength of the wobbling perturbation applied. Generally, instability would emerge from the perturbation of the physical quantity. Normally, the perturbation phase is unknown so that the instability growth rate is discussed. However, if the perturbation phase is known, the instability growth can be controlled by a superposition of perturbations imposed actively: If the perturbation is induced by, for example, a driving beam axis oscillation or wobbling, the perturbation phase could be controlled, and the instability growth is mitigated by the superposition of the growing perturbations.

  12. Combustion instability analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    A theory and computer program for combustion instability analysis are presented. The basic theoretical foundation resides in the concept of entropy-controlled energy growth or decay. Third order perturbation expansion is performed on the entropy-controlled acoustic energy equation to obtain the first order integrodifferential equation for the energy growth factor in terms of the linear, second, and third order energy growth parameters. These parameters are calculated from Navier-Stokes solutions with time averages performed on as many Navier-Stokes time steps as required to cover at least one peak wave period. Applications are made for a 1-D Navier-Stokes solution for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) thrust chamber with cross section area variations taken into account. It is shown that instability occurs when the mean pressure is set at 2000 psi with 30 percent disturbances. Instability also arises when the mean pressure is set at 2935 psi with 20 percent disturbances. The system with mean pressures and disturbances more adverse that these cases were shown to be unstable.

  13. The transport of angular momentum by gravitational instabilities and Rossby vortices in accretion disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currier, Nathaniel W.

    We propose a model for the birth of spiral galaxies and the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at their centers. It all starts when a galaxy-mass gas condensation collapses to ~ 200 × the background density. It experiences weak tidal torques from similar condensations, which establish its spin parameter l. It forms a Lyman-a (Lya) cloud, then undergoes an inviscid, angular-momentum- preserving collapse to a Mestel disk with a flat rotation curve (FRCD). A FRCD has v ~ const, M instability (SGI) and the Rossby vortex instability (RVI). Both mechanisms transport angular momentum coherently, so they easily dominate turbulent mechanisms wherever the disk is thin. The popular magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is semi-coherent, but it's not required for our model, so we leave it for further study. We use a 2-D Eulerian hydro code to simulate the SGI and RVI in both FRCDs and Keplerian disks. We explore the triggers of these instabilities, namely, the Toomre parameter Q in SGI-unstable FRCDs and pressure jumps in RVI-unstable Keplerian disks. We confirm that Q [Special characters omitted.] 1 triggers the SGI in FRCDs and that D P/P [Special characters omitted.] 5 generates robust Rossby vortices in Keplerian disks. We also find that these instabilities interact in the transition region between these two types of disks. We relate all this to our self-consistent model

  14. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, William F.

    2011-03-01

    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  15. Genome instability and aging.

    PubMed

    Vijg, Jan; Suh, Yousin

    2013-01-01

    Genome instability has long been implicated as the main causal factor in aging. Somatic cells are continuously exposed to various sources of DNA damage, from reactive oxygen species to UV radiation to environmental mutagens. To cope with the tens of thousands of chemical lesions introduced into the genome of a typical cell each day, a complex network of genome maintenance systems acts to remove damage and restore the correct base pair sequence. Occasionally, however, repair is erroneous, and such errors, as well as the occasional failure to correctly replicate the genome during cell division, are the basis for mutations and epimutations. There is now ample evidence that mutations accumulate in various organs and tissues of higher animals, including humans, mice, and flies. What is not known, however, is whether the frequency of these random changes is sufficient to cause the phenotypic effects generally associated with aging. The exception is cancer, an age-related disease caused by the accumulation of mutations and epimutations. Here, we first review current concepts regarding the relationship between DNA damage, repair, and mutation, as well as the data regarding genome alterations as a function of age. We then describe a model for how randomly induced DNA sequence and epigenomic variants in the somatic genomes of animals can result in functional decline and disease in old age. Finally, we discuss the genetics of genome instability in relation to longevity to address the importance of alterations in the somatic genome as a causal factor in aging and to underscore the opportunities provided by genetic approaches to develop interventions that attenuate genome instability, reduce disease risk, and increase life span. PMID:23398157

  16. Gas turbine combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.A.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-09-01

    Combustion oscillations are a common problem in development of LPM (lean premix) combustors. Unlike earlier, diffusion style combustors, LPM combustors are especially susceptible to oscillations because acoustic losses are smaller and operation near lean blowoff produces a greater combustion response to disturbances in reactant supply, mixing, etc. In ongoing tests at METC, five instability mechanisms have been identified in subscale and commercial scale nozzle tests. Changes to fuel nozzle geometry showed that it is possible to stabilize combustion by altering the timing of the feedback between acoustic waves and the variation in heat release.

  17. Surface instabilities and nuclear multifragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Moretto, L.G.; Tso, K.; Colonna, N.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1992-03-01

    Central heavy-ion collisions, as described by a Boltzman-Nordheim-Vlasov calculation, form nuclear disks that break up into several fragments due to surface instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor kind. We demonstrate that a sheet of liquid, nuclear or otherwise, stable in the limit of infinitely sharp surfaces, becomes unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. The relevance of these instabilities to nuclear multifragmentation is discussed.

  18. Study of cavitating inducer instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, W. E.; Murphy, R.; Reddecliff, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An analytic and experimental investigation into the causes and mechanisms of cavitating inducer instabilities was conducted. Hydrofoil cascade tests were performed, during which cavity sizes were measured. The measured data were used, along with inducer data and potential flow predictions, to refine an analysis for the prediction of inducer blade suction surface cavitation cavity volume. Cavity volume predictions were incorporated into a linearized system model, and instability predictions for an inducer water test loop were generated. Inducer tests were conducted and instability predictions correlated favorably with measured instability data.

  19. Editorial Commentary: Multidirectional Shoulder Instability.

    PubMed

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-12-01

    Multidirectional shoulder instability responds to physical therapy and rehabilitation. For patients who fail rehabilitation, arthroscopic capsular plication seems the treatment of choice. PMID:26652151

  20. PARTIAL TORUS INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Olmedo, Oscar; Zhang Jie

    2010-07-20

    Flux ropes are now generally accepted to be the magnetic configuration of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which may be formed prior to or during solar eruptions. In this study, we model the flux rope as a current-carrying partial torus loop with its two footpoints anchored in the photosphere, and investigate its stability in the context of the torus instability (TI). Previous studies on TI have focused on the configuration of a circular torus and revealed the existence of a critical decay index of the overlying constraining magnetic field. Our study reveals that the critical index is a function of the fractional number of the partial torus, defined by the ratio between the arc length of the partial torus above the photosphere and the circumference of a circular torus of equal radius. We refer to this finding as the partial torus instability (PTI). It is found that a partial torus with a smaller fractional number has a smaller critical index, thus requiring a more gradually decreasing magnetic field to stabilize the flux rope. On the other hand, a partial torus with a larger fractional number has a larger critical index. In the limit of a circular torus when the fractional number approaches 1, the critical index goes to a maximum value. We demonstrate that the PTI helps us to understand the confinement, growth, and eventual eruption of a flux-rope CME.

  1. Instability characteristics of fluidelastic instability of tube rows in crossflow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.S.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    An experimental study is reported to investigate the jump phenomenon in critical flow velocities for tube rows with different pitch-to-diameter ratios and the excited and intrinsic instabilities for a tube row with a pitch-to-diameter ratio of 1.75. The experimental data provide additional insights into the instability phenomena of tube arrays in crossflow. 9 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Instability vaccination: A structural design to reduce Rayleigh Taylor instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Amin

    2013-10-01

    Instability vaccination can be defined as designing a structure to stimulate the system in order to develop immunity against its instability. In this work we have tried to do this stabilization by a new technique. Previously some suppression of R-M instability was done by insertion of magnetic field, but in this work we have tried to do this suppression by proposing a configuration similar to the shape of instability, we call it instability vaccination. This design will reduce the rotations (mostly rotations of Rayleigh Taylor instability) in the fluids that cause more mixing and instabilities. In this paper, we consider the evolution of the interface between two ideal semi-infinite fluid surfaces, using two-dimensional Riemann solver, to solve the Euler equations. First, we performed evolution of a rectangular disorder between the 2 surfaces using two-dimensional Riemann problem for the equations of Euler. Next, the interface was replaced with a perturbation that was part rectangular and part semi-circular (like a mushroom). The simulation was continued till some time steps using the HLL method. We have seen that the rotations of Rayleigh Taylor (R-T) instability were decreased in the second case. Email: amin@cavelab.cs.tsukuba.ac.jp

  3. Cohabitation and Children's Family Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly Raley, R.; Wildsmith, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    This study estimates how much children's family instability is missed when we do not count transitions into and out of cohabitation, and examines early life course trajectories of children to see whether children who experience maternal cohabitation face more family instability than children who do not. Using data from the 1995 National Survey of…

  4. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrje, D. T.

    1972-01-01

    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  5. Instability of liquid crystal elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Ning; Li, Meie; Zhou, Jinxiong

    2016-01-01

    Nematic liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) contract in the director direction but expand in other directions, perpendicular to the director, when heated. If the expansion of an LCE is constrained, compressive stress builds up in the LCE, and it wrinkles or buckles to release the stored elastic energy. Although the instability of soft materials is ubiquitous, the mechanism and programmable modulation of LCE instability has not yet been fully explored. We describe a finite element method (FEM) scheme to model the inhomogeneous deformation and instability of LCEs. A constrained LCE beam working as a valve for microfluidic flow, and a piece of LCE laminated with a nanoscale poly(styrene) (PS) film are analyzed in detail. The former uses the buckling of the LCE beam to occlude the microfluidic channel, while the latter utilizes wrinkling or buckling to measure the mechanical properties of hard film or to realize self-folding. Through rigorous instability analysis, we predict the critical conditions for the onset of instability, the wavelength and amplitude evolution of instability, and the instability patterns. The FEM results are found to correlate well with analytical results and reported experiments. These efforts shed light on the understanding and exploitation of the instabilities of LCEs.

  6. Research on aviation fuel instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, C. E.; Bittker, D. A.; Cohen, S. M.; Seng, G. T.

    1983-01-01

    The underlying causes of fuel thermal degradation are discussed. Topics covered include: nature of fuel instability and its temperature dependence, methods of measuring the instability, chemical mechanisms involved in deposit formation, and instrumental methods for characterizing fuel deposits. Finally, some preliminary thoughts on design approaches for minimizing the effects of lowered thermal stability are briefly discussed.

  7. Neurocardiovascular Instability and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    O’Callaghan, Susan; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2016-01-01

    Neurocardiovascular instability (NCVI) refers to abnormal neural control of the cardiovascular system affecting blood pressure and heart rate behavior. Autonomic dysfunction and impaired cerebral autoregulation in aging contribute to this phenomenon characterized by hypotension and bradyarrhythmia. Ultimately, this increases the risk of falls and syncope in older people. NCVI is common in patients with neurodegenerative disorders including dementia. This review discusses the various syndromes that characterize NCVI icluding hypotension, carotid sinus hypersensitivity, postprandial hypotension and vasovagal syncope and how they may contribute to the aetiology of cognitive decline. Conversely, they may also be a consequence of a common neurodegenerative process. Regardless, recognition of their association is paramount in optimizing management of these patients. PMID:27505017

  8. Plateau Rayleigh instability simulation.

    PubMed

    Mead-Hunter, Ryan; King, Andrew J C; Mullins, Benjamin J

    2012-05-01

    The well-known phenomena of Plateau-Rayleigh instability has been simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The breakup of a liquid film into an array of droplets on a cylindrical element was simulated using a volume-of-fluid (VOF) solver and compared to experimental observations and existing theory. It is demonstrated that the VOF method can correctly predict the breakup of thins films into an array of either axisymmetric droplets or clam-shell droplets, depending on the surface energy. The existence of unrealistically large films is precluded. Droplet spacing was found to show reasonable agreement with theory. Droplet motion and displacement under fluid flow was also examined and compared to that in previous studies. It was found that the presence of air flow around the droplet does not influence the stable film thickness; however, it reduces the time required for droplet formation. Novel relationships for droplet displacement were derived from the results. PMID:22512475

  9. Combustion Instabilities Modeled

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paxson, Daniel E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center's Advanced Controls and Dynamics Technology Branch is investigating active control strategies to mitigate or eliminate the combustion instabilities prevalent in lean-burning, low-emission combustors. These instabilities result from coupling between the heat-release mechanisms of the burning process and the acoustic flow field of the combustor. Control design and implementation require a simulation capability that is both fast and accurate. It must capture the essential physics of the system, yet be as simple as possible. A quasi-one-dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based simulation has been developed which may meet these requirements. The Euler equations of mass, momentum, and energy have been used, along with a single reactive species transport equation to simulate coupled thermoacoustic oscillations. A very simple numerical integration scheme was chosen to reduce computing time. Robust boundary condition procedures were incorporated to simulate various flow conditions (e.g., valves, open ends, and choked inflow) as well as to accommodate flow reversals that may arise during large flow-field oscillations. The accompanying figure shows a sample simulation result. A combustor with an open inlet, a choked outlet, and a large constriction approximately two thirds of the way down the length is shown. The middle plot shows normalized, time-averaged distributions of the relevant flow quantities, and the bottom plot illustrates the acoustic mode shape of the resulting thermoacoustic oscillation. For this simulation, the limit cycle peak-to-peak pressure fluctuations were 13 percent of the mean. The simulation used 100 numerical cells. The total normalized simulation time was 50 units (approximately 15 oscillations), which took 26 sec on a Sun Ultra2.

  10. Internal rotor friction instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, J.; Artiles, A.; Lund, J.; Dill, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1990-01-01

    The analytical developments and experimental investigations performed in assessing the effect of internal friction on rotor systems dynamic performance are documented. Analytical component models for axial splines, Curvic splines, and interference fit joints commonly found in modern high speed turbomachinery were developed. Rotor systems operating above a bending critical speed were shown to exhibit unstable subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. The effect of speed, bearing stiffness, joint stiffness, external damping, torque, and coefficient of friction, was evaluated. Testing included material coefficient of friction evaluations, component joint quantity and form of damping determinations, and rotordynamic stability assessments. Under conditions similar to those in the SSME turbopumps, material interfaces experienced a coefficient of friction of approx. 0.2 for lubricated and 0.8 for unlubricated conditions. The damping observed in the component joints displayed nearly linear behavior with increasing amplitude. Thus, the measured damping, as a function of amplitude, is not represented by either linear or Coulomb friction damper models. Rotordynamic testing of an axial spline joint under 5000 in.-lb of static torque, demonstrated the presence of an extremely severe instability when the rotor was operated above its first flexible natural frequency. The presence of this instability was predicted by nonlinear rotordynamic time-transient analysis using the nonlinear component model developed under this program. Corresponding rotordynamic testing of a shaft with an interference fit joint demonstrated the presence of subsynchronous vibrations at the first natural frequency. While subsynchronous vibrations were observed, they were bounded and significantly lower in amplitude than the synchronous vibrations.

  11. Temperature anisotropy and beam type whistler instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    1976-01-01

    Whistler instabilities have been investigated for two different types; i.e., a temperature-anisotropy type instability and a beam-type instability. A comparison between the two types of whistler instabilities is made within the framework of linear theory. A transition from one type to the other is also discussed, which is an extension of the work on electrostatic beam and Landau instabilities performed by O'Neil and Malmberg (1968) for electromagnetic whistler instabilities. It is clarified that the essential source of the whistler instability is not beam kinetic energy but a temperature anisotropy, even for the beam-type whistler instability.

  12. ROTATIONAL INSTABILITIES AND CENTRIFUGAL HANGUP

    SciTech Connect

    K. NEW; J. CENTRELLA

    2000-12-01

    One interesting class of gravitational radiation sources includes rapidly rotating astrophysical objects that encounter dynamical instabilities. We have carried out a set of simulations of rotationally induced instabilities in differentially rotating polytropes. An n=1.5 polytrope with the Maclaurin rotation law will encounter the m=2 bar instability at T/{vert_bar}W{vert_bar} {ge} 0.27. Our results indicate that the remnant of this in-stability is a persistent bar-like structure that emits a long-lived gravitational radiation signal. Furthermore, dynamical instability is shown to occur in n=3.33 polytropes with the j-constant rotation law at T/{vert_bar}W{vert_bar} {ge} 0:14. In this case, the dominant mode of instability is m=1. Such instability may allow a centrifugally-hung core to begin collapsing to neutron star densities on a dynamical timescale. If it occurs in a supermassive star, it may produce gravitational radiation detectable by LISA.

  13. Yet another instability in glasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Shoichiro; Iida, Hideaki; Kunihiro, Teiji; Ohnishi, Akira

    2014-09-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions (HIC), hydrodynamic models can describe many experimental data and suggest that the quark-gluon plasma formed at RHIC and LHC is almost perfect fluid. We need very short thermalization time and far-from-equilibrium dynamics may be important in thermalization processes of HIC. In the earliest stages of HIC, classical gluon dynamics is dominant and many types of instabilities emerge there. These instabilities may strongly affect the later stages of dynamics; realization of chaoticity and field-particle conversions. We investigate instabilities of classical gluon fields under the homogeneous, but time dependent background color magnetic fields. The background field become periodic function of time and we can analyze the stability of fluctuations based on the Floquet theory which consists the basis of the Bloch theory. As a result, we get the complete structure of instability bands for physical degrees of freedom appearing from parametric resonance. We also find that the parametric instabilities considered here have different natures from the several known instabilities; Weibel and Nielsen-Olesen instabilities. We also discuss some implications of parametric resonance to the particle productions in HIC.

  14. New instability of Saturn's ring

    SciTech Connect

    Goertz, C.K.; Morfill, G.

    1988-05-01

    Perturbations in the Saturn ring's mass density are noted to be prone to instabilities through the sporadic elevation of submicron-size dust particles above the rings, which furnishes an effective angular momentum exchange between the rings and Saturn. The dust thus elevated from the ring settles back onto it at a different radial distance. The range of wavelength instability is determinable in light of the dust charge, the average radial displacement of the dust, and the fluctuation of these quantities. It is suggested that at least some of the B-ring's ringlets may arise from the instability.

  15. Microbunching Instability in Velocity Bunching

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, D; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2009-05-26

    Microbunching instability is one of the most challenging threats to FEL performances. The most effective ways to cure the microbunching instability include suppression of the density modulation sources and suppression of the amplification process. In this paper we study the microbunching instability in velocity bunching. Our simulations show that the initial current and energy modulations are suppressed in velocity bunching process, which may be attributed to the strong plasma oscillation and Landau damping from the relatively low beam energy and large relative slice energy spread. A heating effect that may be present in a long solenoid is also preliminarily analyzed.

  16. Shock-induced crystalline instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravelo, Ramon; Holian, Brad Lee; Germann, Timothy C.

    2007-03-01

    Uniaxial deformations of single crystals such as those produced under planar shock loading can produce structural instabilities which compete with defect nucleation mechanisms. In fcc single crystals under (110) shock loading, the resulting body-centered orthorhombic crystal structure develops a long-wavelength dynamical instability associated with tetragonal shear distortions, which occurs at lower strains (pressures) than those predicted by the vanishing of the elastic constants at finite pressure (stiffness coefficients). The criterion for these instabilities is derived and verified by equilibrium and non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations [2]J. Wang, S. Yip, S.R. Phillpot, D. Wolf, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 4182 (1993)

  17. Resistive instabilities in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, P.H.

    1985-10-01

    Low-m tearing modes constitute the dominant instability problem in present-day tokamaks. In this lecture, the stability criteria for representative current profiles with q(0)-values slightly less than unit are reviewed; ''sawtooth'' reconnection to q(0)-values just at, or slightly exceeding, unity is generally destabilizing to the m = 2, n = 1 and m = 3, n = 2 modes, and severely limits the range of stable profile shapes. Feedback stabilization of m greater than or equal to 2 modes by rf heating or current drive, applied locally at the magnetic islands, appears feasible; feedback by island current drive is much more efficient, in terms of the radio-frequency power required, then feedback by island heating. Feedback stabilization of the m = 1 mode - although yielding particularly beneficial effects for resistive-tearing and high-beta stability by allowing q(0)-values substantially below unity - is more problematical, unless the m = 1 ideal-MHD mode can be made positively stable by strong triangular shaping of the central flux surfaces. Feedback techniques require a detectable, rotating MHD-like signal; the slowing of mode rotation - or the excitation of non-rotating modes - by an imperfectly conducting wall is also discussed.

  18. Sheared Electroconvective Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-11-01

    Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.

  19. Instabilities in the aether

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Sean M.; Dulaney, Timothy R.; Gresham, Moira I.; Tam, Heywood

    2009-03-15

    We investigate the stability of theories in which Lorentz invariance is spontaneously broken by fixed-norm vector 'aether' fields. Models with generic kinetic terms are plagued either by ghosts or by tachyons, and are therefore physically unacceptable. There are precisely three kinetic terms that are not manifestly unstable: a sigma model ({partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}A{sub {nu}}){sup 2}, the Maxwell Lagrangian F{sub {mu}}{sub {nu}}F{sup {mu}}{sup {nu}}, and a scalar Lagrangian ({partial_derivative}{sub {mu}}A{sup {mu}}){sup 2}. The timelike sigma-model case is well defined and stable when the vector norm is fixed by a constraint; however, when it is determined by minimizing a potential there is necessarily a tachyonic ghost, and therefore an instability. In the Maxwell and scalar cases, the Hamiltonian is unbounded below, but at the level of perturbation theory there are fewer degrees of freedom and the models are stable. However, in these two theories there are obstacles to smooth evolution for certain choices of initial data.

  20. Instability mechanisms in swirling flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallaire, F.; Chomaz, J.-M.

    2003-09-01

    We investigate the stability of the screened Rankine vortex with added plug flow where the azimuthal velocity decreases abruptly outside the core of the vortex. The jump in circulation is known to induce centrifugal and azimuthal Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their effect on the stability of the different azimuthal wave number m is discussed using physical considerations associated with asymptotic expansions and numerical computations of the dispersion relation. It is shown that the axial shear and centrifugal instability are active for all m, and that modes with |m|⩾2 are also destabilized by azimuthal shear. In contrast, the bending modes m=±1 are stabilized by a coupling with Kelvin waves in the core. Effects of rotation on the absolute/convective transition are also discussed. The absolute instability of positive helical modes is seen to be promoted by centrifugal instability and azimuthal shear.

  1. Microwave instability near transition energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.; Lee, S.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation for the microwave instability agrees with analytic calculation solving the Vlasov equation, provided that bunch shape distortion due to coupling is taken into account. 9 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Waves and instabilities in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Plasma as a Dielectric Medium; Nyquist Technique; Absolute and Convective Instabilities; Landau Damping and Phase Mixing; Particle Trapping and Breakdown of Linear Theory; Solution of Viasov Equation via Guilding-Center Transformation; Kinetic Theory of Magnetohydrodynamic Waves; Geometric Optics; Wave-Kinetic Equation; Cutoff and Resonance; Resonant Absorption; Mode Conversion; Gyrokinetic Equation; Drift Waves; Quasi-Linear Theory; Ponderomotive Force; Parametric Instabilities; Problem Sets for Homework, Midterm and Final Examinations.

  3. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  4. Flare instability and driving mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raychaudhuri, Probhas

    A mechanism is described for the generation of solar flares in which a Buneman instability is produced by electrons moving faster than thermal speed. A trapped population of particles accelerates in the magnetic field of active solar regions causing a streaming of ions relative to electrons which moves and heats the electrons. The theoretical argument also concludes that instability at the inner solar core directly bears on solar activities at the outer heliosphere.

  5. Stability and instability in evolution.

    PubMed

    Benci, V; Galleni, L

    1998-10-21

    In this paper we propose a mechanism which tries to explain the presence of periods of stability and instability which occur during the evolution of living forms. According to the Gaia hypothesis there are feedback mechanisms which stabilise the biosphere. Adding the presence of parameters which are out of control of the biosphere and of different time-scales, we propose a model which might explain the periods of instability. PMID:9790828

  6. Aerodynamic instability: A case history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenmann, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    The identification, diagnosis, and final correction of complex machinery malfunctions typically require the correlation of many parameters such as mechanical construction, process influence, maintenance history, and vibration response characteristics. The progression is reviewed of field testing, diagnosis, and final correction of a specific machinery instability problem. The case history presented addresses a unique low frequency instability problem on a high pressure barrel compressor. The malfunction was eventually diagnosed as a fluidic mechanism that manifested as an aerodynamic disturbance to the rotor assembly.

  7. Shoulder instability surgery in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose In January 2008, we established the Norwegian Register for Shoulder Instability Surgery. We report on the establishment, the baseline data, and the results at 1-year follow-up. Methods Primary and revision shoulder stabilization is reported by the surgeon on a 1-page paper form containing the patient's history of shoulder injury, clinical findings, and perioperative findings. The WOSI questionnaire for self-assessment of shoulder function is completed at baseline and at follow-up after 1, 2, and 5 years. To evaluate the completeness of registration, we compared our data with those in the Norwegian Patient Registry (NPR). Results The NPR reported 39 hospitals performing shoulder stabilizations. 20 of these started to report to our register during 2009, and 464 procedures (404 primary, 59 revisions) were included up to December 31, 2009, which represented 54% of the procedures reported to NPR. Of the 404 primary procedures, 83% were operations due to anterior instability, 10% were operations due to posterior instability, and 7% were operations due to multidirectional instability. Arthroscopic soft tissue techniques were used in 88% of the patients treated for primary anterior instability and open coracoid transfer was used in 10% of such patients. At 1-year follow-up of 213 patients, we found a statistically significantly improved WOSI score in all types of instability. 10% of the patients treated with arthroscopic anterior labral repair and 16% treated with arthroscopic posterior labral repair reported recurrent instability. No statistically significant difference in functional improvement or rate of recurrence was found between these groups. Interpretation The functional results are in accordance with those in previous studies. However, the incidence of recurrent instability 1 year after arthroscopic labral repair is higher than expected. PMID:22112155

  8. Vertical Instability at IPNS RCS.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.; Brumwell, F. R.; Dooling, J. C.; Harkay, K. C.; Kustom, R.; McMichael, G. E.; Middendorf, M. E.; Nassiri, A.; Accelerator Systems Division

    2008-01-01

    The rapid cycling synchrotron (RCS) of the intense pulsed neutron source (IPNS) at ANL accelerates > 3.0 times 10{sup 12} protons from 50 MeV to 450 MeV with 30-Hz repetition frequency. During the acceleration cycle, the rf frequency varies from 2.21 MHz to 5.14 MHz. Presently, the beam current is limited by a vertical instability. By analyzing turn-by-turn beam position monitor (BPM) data, large- amplitude mode 0 and mode 1 vertical beam centroid oscillations were observed in the later part of the acceleration cycle. The oscillations start in the tail of the bunch, build up, and remain localized in the tail half of the bunch. This vertical instability was compared with a head-tail instability that was intentionally induced in the RCS by adjusting the trim sextupoles. It appears that our vertical instability is not a classical head-tail instability [1]. More data analysis and experiments were performed to characterize the instability.

  9. Pattern Formation in Convective Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.

    The present article reviews recent progress in the study of pattern formation in convective instabilities. After a brief discussion of the relevant basic hydrodynamic equations as well as a short outline of the mathematical treatment of pattern formation in complex systems the self-organization of spatial and spatio-temporal structures due to convective instabilities is considered. The formation of various forms of convective patterns arising in the Bénard experiment, i.e. in a horizontal fluid layer heated from below, is discussed. Then the review considers pattern formation in the Bénard instability in spherical geometries. In that case it can be demonstrated how the interaction among several convective cells may lead to time dependent as well as chaotic evolution of the spatial structures. Finally, the convective instability in a binary fluid mixture is discussed. In contrast to the instability in a single component fluid the instability may be oscillatory. In that case convection sets in in the form of travelling wave patterns which in addition to a complicated and chaotic temporal behaviour exhibit more or less spatial irregularity already close to threshold.

  10. Elastic instabilities in rubber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gent, Alan

    2009-03-01

    Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.

  11. Instability of enclosed horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, Bernard S.

    2015-03-01

    We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.

  12. An analytical description of hydrodynamic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulanov, S. V.; Sasorov, P. V.

    The proper approach to the investigation of the nonlinear stage of hydrodynamic instabilities in a plasma has been discussed. Both the Buneman instability and the beam instability have been considered. A similarity between the nonlinear stage of the beam plasma instability and the process of self-modulation and self-focusing of nonlinear waves is revealed.

  13. ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY AT DEAD ZONE BOUNDARIES IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL RESISTIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICAL GLOBAL MODELS OF PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Lyra, Wladimir; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark E-mail: mordecai@amnh.org

    2012-09-01

    It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulate the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.

  14. Fermi liquids near Pomeranchuk instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidy, Kelly Elizabeth

    We explore features of a Fermi liquid near generalized Pomeranchuk instabilities (PIs) starting from both ordered and disordered phases. These PIs can be viewed as quantum critical points in parameter space, and thus provide an alternate viewpoint on quantum criticality. We employ the tractable crossing symmetric equation method, which is a non-perturbative diagrammatic many-particle method used to calculate the Fermi liquid interaction functions and scattering amplitudes. We consider both repulsive and attractive underlying interactions of arbitrary strength. Starting from a ferromagnetically ordered ground state, we find that upon approach to an s-wave instability in one critical channel, the system simultaneously approaches instabilities in non-critical channels. We study origins and implications of this "quantum multicriticality". We also find that a nematic (non-s-wave) instability precedes and is driven by Pomeranchuk instabilities in both the s-wave spin and density channels. Finally, we discuss potential applications of our results to physical systems, such as ferromagnetic superconductors.

  15. The Energetics of Centrifugal Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, W. K.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A recent study has argued that the California Undercurrent, and poleward eastern boundary currents in general, generate mixing events through centrifugal instability (CI). Conditions favorable for CI are created by the strong horizontal shears developed in turbulent bottom layers of currents flowing in the direction of topographic waves. At points of abrupt topographic change, like promontories and capes, the coastal current separates from the boundary and injects gravitationally stable but dynamically unstable flow into the interior. The resulting finite amplitude development of the instability involves overturnings and diabatic mixing. The purpose of this study is to examine the energetics of CI in order to characterize it as has been done for other instabilities and develop a framework in which to estimate its regional and global impacts. We argue that CI is roughly twice as efficient at mixing as is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and that roughly 10% of the initial energy in a CUC-like current is lost to either local mixing or the generation of unbalanced flows. The latter probably leads to non-local mixing. Thus centrifugal instability is an effective process by which energy is lost from the balanced flow and spent in mixing neighboring water masses. We argue the importance of the mixing is regional in nature, but of less importance to the global budgets given its regional specificity.

  16. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.

  17. Interfacial instabilities and Kapitsa pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krieger, Madison

    2015-11-01

    Determining the critera for onset and amplitude growth of instabilities is one of the central problems of fluid mechanics. We develop a parallel between the Kapitsa effect, in which a pendulum subject to high-frequency low-amplitude vibrations becomes stable in the inverted position, and interfaces separating fluids of different density. It has long been known that such interfaces can be stabilized by vibrations, even when the denser fluid is on top. We demonstrate that the stability diagram for these fluid interfaces is identical to the stability diagram for an appopriate Kapitsa pendulum. We expand the robust, ``dictionary''-type relationship between Kapitsa pendula and interfacial instabilities by considering the classical Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz and Plateau instabilities, as well as less-canonical examples ranging in scale from the micron to the width of a galaxy.

  18. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-12

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results. PMID:26919014

  19. Instability of EDS maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Y.; Chen, S.S.

    1993-09-01

    Instabilities of an EDS maglev suspension system with 3 D.O.F. and 5 D.O.F. vehicles traveling on a double L-shaped set of guideway conductors have been investigated with various experimentally measured magnetical force data incorporated into the theoretical models. Divergence and flutter are obtained from both analytical and numerical solutions for coupled vibration of the 3 D.O.F. maglev vehicle model. Instabilities of five direction motions (heave, slip, rill, pitch and yaw) are observed for the 4 D.O.F. vehicle model. It demonstrates that system parameters, such as, system damping, vehicle geometry and coupling effects among five different motions play very important roles in the occurrence of dynamic instabilities of maglev vehicles.

  20. Faraday instability in deformable domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Giuseppe; Ben Amar, Martine; Couder, Yves

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the Faraday instability in floating liquid lenses, as an example of hydrodynamic instability that develops in a domain with flexible boundaries. We show that a mutual adaptation of the instability pattern and the domain shape occurs, as a result of the competition between the wave radiation pressure and the capillary response of the lens border. Two archetypes of behaviour are observed. In the first, stable shapes are obtained experimentally and predicted theoretically as the exact solutions of a Riccati equation, and they result from the equilibrium between wave radiation pressure and capillarity. In the second, the radiation pressure exceeds the capillary response of the lens border and leads to non-equilibrium behaviours, with breaking into smaller domains that have a complex dynamics including spontaneous propagation. The authors are grateful to Université Franco-Italienne (UFI) for financial support.

  1. Longitudinal instability in HIF beams

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1991-04-01

    In contrast to an electron induction accelerator, in which the particle velocity is virtually constant, the resistive and inductive components of accelerating module impedances can cause instability for an intense non-relativistic heavy ion beam accelerated in a similar structure. Since focusing requirements at the fusion pellet imply a momentum spread {approx lt}3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} at the end of the accelerator, it is essential to understand and suppress this instability. There is also an economic issue involved for this application; selection of parameters to control the instability must not unduly affect the efficiency and cost of the accelerator. This paper will present the results of analytic and computational work on module impedances, growth rates and feed back (forward) systems. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Hydrodynamick instabilities on ICF capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, S.W.

    1991-06-07

    This article summarizes our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities as relevant to ICF. First we discuss classical, single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, and nonlinear effects in the evolution of a single mode. Then we discuss multimode systems, considering: (1) the onset of nonlinearity; (2) a second order mode coupling theory for weakly nonlinear effects, and (3) the fully nonlinear regime. Two stabilization mechanisms relevant to ICF are described next: gradient scale length and convective stabilization. Then we describe a model which is meant to estimate the weakly nonlinear evolution of multi-mode systems as relevant to ICF, given the short-wavelength stabilization. Finally, we discuss the relevant code simulation capability, and experiments. At this time we are quite optimistic about our ability to estimate instability growth on ICF capsules, but further experiments and simulations are needed to verify the modeling. 52 refs.

  3. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  4. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K; Tsai, Y C; Spruck, C H; Miyao, N; Nichols, P W; Hermann, G G; Horn, T; Steven, K

    1993-12-01

    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chromosome for three tumors. Single locus alterations were detected in three tumors, while three other tumors revealed changes in two or more loci. In one tumor we found microsatellite instability in all five loci analyzed on chromosome 9. The alterations detected were either minor 2-base pair changes or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis. PMID:8242615

  5. SURGICAL TREATMENT OF PATELLOFEMORAL INSTABILITY

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Marco Antônio Percope; de Abreu e Silva, Guilherme Moreira; Freire, Marcelo Machado; Teixeira, Luiz Eduardo Moreira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe functional outcomes following surgical treatment of patients with patellofemoral instability submitted to patellar realignment. Methods: This was a retrospective study evaluating 34 operated knees for patellofemoral instability between 1989 and 2004. The patients were evaluated in the late postoperative period when a functional questionnaire was applied. Results: After a mean follow-up time of 6 years and 5 months, the mean score was 82.94 in the surgical group (p=0.00037). The results of this investigation showed pain relief in 97.05% and low rate of recurrent dislocation (5.88%), although lower scores were seen in intense articular activities (squatting, running and jumping). No patient developed osteoarthritis while being followed up. Conclusion: The procedure for joint described in this paper was shown to be effective for treating patients with recurrent patellofemoral instability. PMID:27077065

  6. Chondral Injury in Patellofemoral Instability

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Sébastien; Servien, Elvire; Neyret, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Patellofemoral instability is common and affects a predominantly young age group. Chondral injury occurs in up to 95%, and includes osteochondral fractures and loose bodies acutely and secondary degenerative changes in recurrent cases. Biomechanical abnormalities, such as trochlear dysplasia, patella alta, and increased tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance, predispose to both recurrent dislocations and patellofemoral arthrosis. Design: In this article, we review the mechanisms of chondral injury in patellofemoral instability, diagnostic modalities, the distribution of lesions seen in acute and episodic dislocation, and treatments for articular cartilage lesions of the patellofemoral joint. Results: Little specific evidence exists for cartilage treatments in patellofemoral instability. In general, the results of reparative and restorative procedures in the patellofemoral joint are inferior to those observed in other compartments of the knee. Conclusion: Given the increased severity of chondral lesions and progression to osteoarthritis seen with recurrent dislocations, careful consideration should be given to early stabilisation in patients with predisposing factors. PMID:26069693

  7. Stellar explosions, instabilities, and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Miles, A. R.; Muthsam, H. J.; Plewa, T.

    2009-04-15

    It has become very clear that the evolution of structure during supernovae is centrally dependent on the pre-existing structure in the star. Modeling of the pre-existing structure has advanced significantly, leading to improved understanding and to a physically based assessment of the structure that will be present when a star explodes. It remains an open question whether low-mode asymmetries in the explosion process can produce the observed effects or whether the explosion mechanism somehow produces jets of material. In any event, the workhorse processes that produce structure in an exploding star are blast-wave driven instabilities. Laboratory experiments have explored these blast-wave-driven instabilities and specifically their dependence on initial conditions. Theoretical work has shown that the relative importance of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities varies with the initial conditions and does so in ways that can make sense of a range of astrophysical observations.

  8. Beam instabilities in hadron synchrotrons

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Metral, E.; T. Argyropoulos; Bartosik, H.; Biancacci, N.; Buffat, X.; Esteban Muller, J. F.; Herr, W.; Iadarola, G.; Lasheen, A.; Li, K.; et al

    2016-04-01

    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. Furthermore, the aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  9. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; Joanny, Jean-François

    2012-07-01

    We study theoretically the morphologies of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated: varicose, dilated, sinuous, or sausagelike. They are all found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes, or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues: Young’s modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  10. Active suppression of compressor instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, A. H.; Ffowcs Williams, J. E.; Greitzer, E. M.

    1986-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for controlling aerodynamic instabilities which limit the useful range of both axial and centrifugal turbomachines. Both local and global instabilities (incipient rotating stall and surge) are analyzed. A theory is developed which shows how an additional disturbance, driven from real time data measured within the machine, can be generated so as to realize a device with characteristics fundamentally different from those of the turbomachine without control; for the particular compressor analyzed, the control led to a 20 percent increase in the extent of the stable operating range. The use of structural dynamics to enhance stability is also discussed.

  11. Magnetic dipole discharges. III. Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.; Ionita, C.; Schrittwieser, R.

    2013-08-15

    Instabilities in a cross-field discharge around a permanent magnet have been investigated. The permanent magnet serves as a cold cathode and the chamber wall as an anode. The magnet is biased strongly negative and emits secondary electrons due to impact of energetic ions. The electrons outside the sheath are confined by the strong dipolar magnetic field and by the ion-rich sheath surrounding the magnet. The electron energy peaks in the equatorial plane where most ionization occurs and the ions are trapped in a negative potential well. The discharge mechanism is the same as that of cylindrical and planar magnetrons, but here extended to a 3-D cathode geometry using a single dipole magnet. While the basic properties of the discharge are presented in a companion paper, the present focus is on various observed instabilities. The first is an ion sheath instability which oscillates the plasma potential outside the sheath below the ion plasma frequency. It arises in ion-rich sheaths with low electron supply, which is the case for low secondary emission yields. Sheath oscillations modulate the discharge current creating oscillating magnetic fields. The second instability is current-driven ion sound turbulence due to counter-streaming electrons and ions. The fluctuations have a broad spectrum and short correlation lengths in all directions. The third type of fluctuations is spiky potential and current oscillations in high density discharges. These appear to be due to unstable emission properties of the magnetron cathode.

  12. Selected instability indices in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siedlecki, Mariusz

    2009-04-01

    A climatology of various parameters associated with severe weather and convective storms has been created for Europe that involves using radiosounding data collected at the University of Wyoming for the period from 1991 to 2005. The analysis is based on monthly means, frequency distributions of such parameters as convective available potential energy (CAPE), convective inhibition energy (CIN), KI - index, total totals index (TTI), and the severe weather threat index (SWEAT). Monthly average CAPE values exceeding 300 Jkg-1 are observed over the west Mediterranean Sea and the neighboring coastal countries. The similar seasonal cycle and spatial distributions exhibit CIN fields with summer monthly means above 100 Jkg-1 observed on the south part of the researched domain. The KI, TTI, and SWEAT indices, which assess both the lapse ratio between 850 and 500 hPa and low level humidity, show the privileged region (the Alpine area and the Carpathian Basin) with the highest instability conditions. Orography clearly plays an important role in this structure. Farther from this area, the monthly average decreases to the east, west, north, and south of the research domain. Ward’s procedure was applied to create objective regionalization according to instability conditions. This method tends to produce two regions with relatively different instability conditions and few subregions with similar conditions. The first region, covering the Alpine area, the west Mediterranean Sea, west Turkey and the southern Ukraine, is characterized by the highest instability. The rest of the investigated area is the second region with a more stable atmosphere.

  13. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-01-01

    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  14. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.

    2016-05-01

    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  15. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2011-11-01

    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  16. Large-Larmor-radius interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ripin, B.H.; McLean, E.A.; Manka, C.K.; Pawley, C.; Stamper, J.A.; Peyser, T.A.; Mostovych, A.N.; Grun, J.; Hassam, A.B.; Huba, J.

    1987-11-16

    We observe linear and nonlinear features of a strong plasma/magnetic field interchange Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the limit of large ion Larmor radius. The instability undergoes rapid linear growth culminating in free-streaming flute tips.

  17. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-21

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  18. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-01

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree-Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree-Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund's rule, a singlet instability in Jahn-Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  19. Singlet and triplet instability theorems.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So

    2015-09-21

    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree-Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree-Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund's rule, a singlet instability in Jahn-Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions. PMID:26395692

  20. Midcarpal Instability: A Comprehensive Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Niacaris, Timothy; Ming, Bryan W; Lichtman, David M

    2015-08-01

    Midcarpal instability has been well described as a clinical entity but the pathokinematics and pathologic anatomy continue to be poorly understood. This article presents a comprehensive review of the existing knowledge and literature-based evidence for the diagnosis and management of the various entities comprising midcarpal instability. It discusses the limitations of the current understanding of midcarpal instability and proposes new directions for furthering knowledge of the causes and treatment of midcarpal instability and wrist pathomechanics in general. PMID:26205710

  1. Measurements of fast transition instability in RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyn, V.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.; Lee, R.; Zhang, S.Y.

    2010-05-23

    A fast transition instability presents a limiting factor for ion beam intensity in RHIC. Several pieces of evidence show that electron clouds play an important role in establishing the threshold of this instability. In RHIC Runs8 the measurements of the instability, using a button BPM, were done in order to observe details of the instability development on the scale over hundreds and thousands turns. The paper presents and discusses the results of those measurements in time and frequency domains.

  2. Dynamic ultrasound of peroneal tendon instability.

    PubMed

    Pesquer, Lionel; Guillo, Stéphane; Poussange, Nicolas; Pele, Eric; Meyer, Philippe; Dallaudière, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    Ankle snapping may be caused by peroneal tendon instability. Anterior instability occurs after traumatic superior peroneal retinaculum injury, whereas peroneal tendon intrasheath subluxation is atraumatic. Whereas subluxation is mainly dynamic, ultrasound allows for the diagnosis and classification of peroneal instability because it allows for real-time exploration. The purpose of this review is to describe the anatomic and physiologic bases for peroneal instability and to heighten the role of dynamic ultrasound in the diagnosis of snapping. PMID:26943704

  3. Particular Threshold Behavior of Dusty Plasma Instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mikikian, M.; Cavarroc, M.; Coueedel, L.; Tessier, Y.; Boufendi, L.

    2008-09-07

    We show that some experimentally observed instabilities, concerning the void region of a dust cloud, are similar to oscillations obtained in chemical systems or neuronal dynamics. The time evolution of these instabilities follows a well-defined process particularly visible in the instability shape and frequency.

  4. Basic instabilities of collisionless gravitating systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyachenko, V. L.

    1995-05-01

    The paper presents a short summary of basic instabilities in stellar systems, namely: the Jeans, bar-mode and fire-hose (bending) instabilities. A classification of bar-mode instabilities according to a ratio of the bar pattern angular velocity and the maximal precession speed of nearly-circular stellar orbits is proposed.

  5. Transverse instability at the recycler ring

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab

    2004-10-01

    Sporadic transverse instabilities have been observed at the Fermilab Recycler Ring leading to increase in transverse emittances and beam loss. The driving source of these instabilities has been attributed to the resistive-wall impedance with space-charge playing an important role in suppressing Landau damping. Growth rates of the instabilities are computed. Remaining problems are discussed.

  6. Solitons versus parametric instabilities during ionospheric heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, D. R.; Payne, G. L.; Downie, R. M.; Sheerin, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    Various effects associated with ionospheric heating are investigated by numerically solving the modified Zakharov (1972) equations. It is shown that, for typical ionospheric parameters, the modulational instability is more important than the parametric decay instability in the spatial region of strongest heater electric field. It is concluded that the modulational instability leads to the formation of solitons, as originally predicted by Petviashvili (1976).

  7. Control of laser plasma instabilities in hohlraums

    SciTech Connect

    Kruer, W.L.

    1996-12-01

    Laser plasma instabilities are an important constraint on the operating regime for inertial fusion. Many techniques have been developed to control the various laser-driven instabilities. Experiments with long scale length plasmas are testing these instability levels, the nonlinear regimes, and the control mechanisms.

  8. Generalized laser filamentation instability coupled to cooling instability

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, E.P.; Wong, J.; Garrison, J.

    1984-04-24

    We consider the propagation of laser light in an initially slightly nonuniform plasma. The classical dispersion relation for the laser filamentation growth rate (see e.g., B. Langdon, in the 1980 Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Laser Program Annual Report, pp. 3-56, UCRL-50021-80, 1981) can be generalized to include other acoustical effects. For example, we find that the inclusion of potential imbalances in the heating and cooling rates of the ambient medium due to density and temperature perturbations can cause the laser filamentation mode to bifurcate into a cooling instability mode at long acoustic wavelengths. We also attempt to study semi-analytically the nonlinear evolution of this and related instabilities. These results have wide applications to a variety of chemical gas lasers and phenomena related to laser-target interactions (e.g., jet-like behavior).

  9. Interface instability modes in freezing colloidal suspensions: revealed from onset of planar instability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lilin; You, Jiaxue; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Lin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Freezing colloidal suspensions widely exists in nature and industry. Interface instability has attracted much attention for the understandings of the pattern formation in freezing colloidal suspensions. However, the interface instability modes, the origin of the ice banding or ice lamellae, are still unclear. In-situ experimental observation of the onset of interface instability remains absent up to now. Here, by directly imaging the initial transient stage of planar interface instability in directional freezing colloidal suspensions, we proposed three interface instability modes, Mullins-Sekerka instability, global split instability and local split instability. The intrinsic mechanism of the instability modes comes from the competition of the solute boundary layer and the particle boundary layer, which only can be revealed from the initial transient stage of planar instability in directional freezing. PMID:26996630

  10. Interface instability modes in freezing colloidal suspensions: revealed from onset of planar instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lilin; You, Jiaxue; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Lin, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Freezing colloidal suspensions widely exists in nature and industry. Interface instability has attracted much attention for the understandings of the pattern formation in freezing colloidal suspensions. However, the interface instability modes, the origin of the ice banding or ice lamellae, are still unclear. In-situ experimental observation of the onset of interface instability remains absent up to now. Here, by directly imaging the initial transient stage of planar interface instability in directional freezing colloidal suspensions, we proposed three interface instability modes, Mullins-Sekerka instability, global split instability and local split instability. The intrinsic mechanism of the instability modes comes from the competition of the solute boundary layer and the particle boundary layer, which only can be revealed from the initial transient stage of planar instability in directional freezing.

  11. A Numerical Study of Feathering Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Wing-Kit; Wang, Hsiang-Hsu

    2016-06-01

    The stability of a spiral shock of self-gravitating, magnetized interstellar medium is studied by performing two-dimensional numerical simulations of a local patch of tight-winding spiral arm. As previously suggested by the linear studies, two types of instabilities are identified, namely, wiggle instability and feathering instability. The former instability occurs in the hydrodynamics limit and results in short wavelength perturbations. On the other hand, the feathering instability requires both self-gravitating and magnetic fields and results in wider structures.

  12. New Instabilities in Line Driven Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, P. C. H.

    1985-01-01

    The physical mechanisms which potentially lead to instabilities in line driven winds, the drift instability and the line shape instability, are discussed. A general three dimensional treatment of the stability problem of line driven winds which leads to the general dispersion equation is proposed. From this dispersion equation automatically a third physical mechanism driving instability in stellar winds is deduced; the thermal drift instability which is related to changes in absorption of radiation caused by temperature perturbations. This mechanism results in growing inwardly propagating sound waves.

  13. Developmental instability of gynodioecious Teucrium lusitanicum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Navarro, T.; Cabezudo, B.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, C.

    1998-01-01

    Developmental instability was assessed in two geographical races of Teucrium lusitanicum using morphometric measures of vegetative and reproductive structures. T. lusitanicum is a gynodioecious species. Male sterile (female) individuals showed greater developmental instability at all sites. Plants located inland had higher developmental instability of vegetative characters and lower developmental instability of reproductive characters than coastal plants. These results support the contentions that (1) developmental instability is affected more by the disruption of co-adapted gene complexes than by lower heterozygosity, and (2) different habitat characteristics result in the differential response of vegetative and reproductive structures.

  14. Granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Oistein; Flekkoey, Eirik G.; Maaloey, Knut Joergen; Toussaint, Renaud

    2009-06-18

    A granular instability driven by gravity is studied experimentally and numerically. The instability arises as grains fall in a closed Hele-Shaw cell where a layer of dense granular material is positioned above a layer of air. The initially flat front defined by the grains subsequently develops into a pattern of falling granular fingers separated by rising bubbles of air. A transient coarsening of the front is observed right from the start by a finger merging process. The coarsening is later stabilized by new fingers growing from the center of the rising bubbles. The structures are quantified by means of Fourier analysis and quantitative agreement between experiment and computation is shown. This analysis also reveals scale invariance of the flow structures under overall change of spatial scale.

  15. MHD Instabilities at the Heliopause

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, B.; Florinski, V.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Zank, G. P.

    2006-09-26

    The heliopause (HP) is the outer edge of the heliosphere which separates the tenuous and hot heliosheath plasma on one side and the relatively dense and cool magnetized interstellar plasma on the other side. As a surface of tangential discontinuity, the HP is subjected to both Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. The coupling between plasma ions and neutral atoms through the process of charge exchange provides an ''effective gravity'' at the HP, while a shear flow exists across it. We derive analytically the linearized dispersion relation for waves propagating along the surface of this discontinuity, which represents a combined RT/KH analysis. We investigate both the purely hydrodynamic, as well as magnetohydrodynamic, cases, and find that interstellar and heliospheric magnetic fields can help stabilize the HP for RT and KH-type instabilities.

  16. Nonlinear evolution of Buneman instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, O.; Hirose, A.; Langdon, A. B.

    1981-03-01

    The nonlinear evolution of one-dimensional electron-ion two-stream instability in a field-free plasma is investigated analytically and by computer simulation. The instability is dominated by the fastest growing mode and its harmonics, provided that the initial fluctuation level is sufficiently small. A nonlinear dispersion relation is obtained and solved numerically, with allowance for the frequency and growth rate modulation, the electric field up to a specified order, and the renormalized particle distribution functions. It is shown that the model can explain computer simulation results, including the presence of an algebraic growth stage following the breakdown of the exponential linear growth, the appearance of harmonics, and the final saturation level.

  17. Feedback control of resistive instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Rutherford, P.H.; Furth, H.P.; Park, W.; Chen, L.

    1985-12-01

    Resistive instabilities are responsible for much of the global behavior and the determination of the possible domains of operation of tokamaks. Their successful control could have definite advantages, even making available new regimes of operation. Elimination of sawtoothing might allow operation with higher currents and more peaked current profiles, with q on axis well below unity. In this work different feedback schemes are explored. Simple analytical derivations of the effects of local heating and current drive feedback are presented. Although control of modes with m greater than or equal to 2 is fairly straightforward, the control of the m = 1 mode is more difficult because of its proximity to ideal instability. The most promising scheme utilizes high energy trapped particles. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Numerical analysis of engine instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habiballah, M.; Dubois, I.

    Following a literature review on numerical analyses of combustion instability, to give the state of the art in the area, the paper describes the ONERA methodology used to analyze the combustion instability in liquid propellant engines. Attention is also given to a model (named Phedre) which describes the unsteady turbulent two-phase reacting flow in a liquid rocket engine combustion chamber. The model formulation includes axial or radial propellant injection, baffles, and acoustic resonators modeling, and makes it possible to treat different engine types. A numerical analysis of a cryogenic engine stability is presented, and the results of the analysis are compared with results of tests of the Viking engine and the gas generator of the Vulcain engine, showing good qualitative agreement and some general trends between experiments and numerical analysis.

  19. A cosmic ray driven instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.

    1985-01-01

    The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homogeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves.

  20. Polygonal instabilities on interfacial vorticities.

    PubMed

    Labousse, M; Bush, J W M

    2015-10-01

    We report the results of a theoretical investigation of the stability of a toroidal vortex bound by an interface. Two distinct instability mechanisms are identified that rely on, respectively, surface tension and fluid inertia, either of which may prompt the transformation from a circular to a polygonal torus. Our results are discussed in the context of three experiments, a toroidal vortex ring, the hydraulic jump, and the hydraulic bump. PMID:26537726

  1. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.; Sheppard, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.

  2. Pattern Generation by Dissipative Parametric Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perego, A. M.; Tarasov, N.; Churkin, D. V.; Turitsyn, S. K.; Staliunas, K.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear instabilities are responsible for spontaneous pattern formation in a vast number of natural and engineered systems, ranging from biology to galaxy buildup. We propose a new instability mechanism leading to pattern formation in spatially extended nonlinear systems, which is based on a periodic antiphase modulation of spectrally dependent losses arranged in a zigzag way: an effective filtering is imposed at symmetrically located wave numbers k and -k in alternating order. The properties of the dissipative parametric instability differ from the features of both key classical concepts of modulation instabilities, i.e., the Benjamin-Feir instability and the Faraday instabiltyity. We demonstrate how the dissipative parametric instability can lead to the formation of stable patterns in one- and two-dimensional systems. The proposed instability mechanism is generic and can naturally occur or can be implemented in various physical systems.

  3. Pattern Generation by Dissipative Parametric Instability.

    PubMed

    Perego, A M; Tarasov, N; Churkin, D V; Turitsyn, S K; Staliunas, K

    2016-01-15

    Nonlinear instabilities are responsible for spontaneous pattern formation in a vast number of natural and engineered systems, ranging from biology to galaxy buildup. We propose a new instability mechanism leading to pattern formation in spatially extended nonlinear systems, which is based on a periodic antiphase modulation of spectrally dependent losses arranged in a zigzag way: an effective filtering is imposed at symmetrically located wave numbers k and -k in alternating order. The properties of the dissipative parametric instability differ from the features of both key classical concepts of modulation instabilities, i.e., the Benjamin-Feir instability and the Faraday instabiltyity. We demonstrate how the dissipative parametric instability can lead to the formation of stable patterns in one- and two-dimensional systems. The proposed instability mechanism is generic and can naturally occur or can be implemented in various physical systems. PMID:26824573

  4. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    2013-10-01

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  5. Microphysics of Cosmic Ray Driven Plasma Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Brandenburg, A.; Malkov, M. A.; Osipov, S. M.

    Energetic nonthermal particles (cosmic rays, CRs) are accelerated in supernova remnants, relativistic jets and other astrophysical objects. The CR energy density is typically comparable with that of the thermal components and magnetic fields. In this review we discuss mechanisms of magnetic field amplification due to instabilities induced by CRs. We derive CR kinetic and magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern cosmic plasma systems comprising the thermal background plasma, comic rays and fluctuating magnetic fields to study CR-driven instabilities. Both resonant and non-resonant instabilities are reviewed, including the Bell short-wavelength instability, and the firehose instability. Special attention is paid to the longwavelength instabilities driven by the CR current and pressure gradient. The helicity production by the CR current-driven instabilities is discussed in connection with the dynamo mechanisms of cosmic magnetic field amplification.

  6. Migrational Instabilities in Particle Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goddard, Joe D.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with an instability arising from the shear-induced migration of particles in dense suspensions coupled with a dependence of viscosity on particle concentration. The analysis summarized here treats the inertialess (Re = O) linear stability of homogeneous simple shear flows for a Stokesian suspension model of the type proposed by Leighton and Acrivos (1987). Depending on the importance of shear-induced migration relative to concentration-driven diffusion, this model admits short-wave instability arising from wave-vector stretching by the base flow and evolving into particle-depleted shear bands. Moreover, this instability in the time-dependent problem corresponds to loss of ellipticity in the associated static problem (Re = O, Pe = O). While the isotropic version of the Leighton-Acrivos model is found to be stable with their experimentally determined parameters for simple shear, it is known that the stable model does not give a good quantitative description of particle clustering in the core of pipe flow (Nott and Brady 1994). This leads to the conjecture that an appropriate variant on the above model could explain such clustering as a two-phase bifurcation in the base flow.

  7. Gas Generator Feedline Orifice Sizing Methodology: Effects of Unsteadiness and Non-Axisymmetric Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; West, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    Engine LH2 and LO2 gas generator feed assemblies were modeled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods at 100% rated power level, using on-center square- and round-edge orifices. The purpose of the orifices is to regulate the flow of fuel and oxidizer to the gas generator, enabling optimal power supply to the turbine and pump assemblies. The unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved on unstructured grids at second-order spatial and temporal accuracy. The LO2 model was validated against published experimental data and semi-empirical relationships for thin-plate orifices over a range of Reynolds numbers. Predictions for the LO2 square- and round-edge orifices precisely match experiment and semi-empirical formulas, despite complex feedline geometry whereby a portion of the flow from the engine main feedlines travels at a right-angle through a smaller-diameter pipe containing the orifice. Predictions for LH2 square- and round-edge orifice designs match experiment and semi-empirical formulas to varying degrees depending on the semi-empirical formula being evaluated. LO2 mass flow rate through the square-edge orifice is predicted to be 25 percent less than the flow rate budgeted in the original engine balance, which was subsequently modified. LH2 mass flow rate through the square-edge orifice is predicted to be 5 percent greater than the flow rate budgeted in the engine balance. Since CFD predictions for LO2 and LH2 square-edge orifice pressure loss coefficients, K, both agree with published data, the equation for K has been used to define a procedure for orifice sizing.

  8. A non-axisymmetric linearized supersonic wave drag analysis: Mathematical theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnhart, Paul J.

    1996-01-01

    A Mathematical theory is developed to perform the calculations necessary to determine the wave drag for slender bodies of non-circular cross section. The derivations presented in this report are based on extensions to supersonic linearized small perturbation theory. A numerical scheme is presented utilizing Fourier decomposition to compute the pressure coefficient on and about a slender body of arbitrary cross section.

  9. Non-axisymmetric relativistic wind accretion with velocity gradients on to a rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Osorio, A.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.

    2016-08-01

    We model, for the first time, the Bondi-Hoyle accretion of a fluid with velocity gradients on to a Kerr black hole, by numerically solving the fully relativistic hydrodynamics equations. Specifically, we consider a supersonic ideal gas, which has velocity gradients perpendicular to the relative motion. We measure the mass and specific angular accretion rates to illustrate whether the fluid presents unstable patterns or not. The initial parameters, we consider in this work, are the velocity gradient ɛv, the black hole spin a, the asymptotic Mach number M_{∞} and adiabatic index Γ. We show that the flow accretion reaches a fairly stationary regime, unlike in the Newtonian case, where significant fluctuations of the mass and angular momentum accretion rates are found. On the other hand, we consider a special case where both density and velocity gradients of the fluid are taken into account. The spin of the black hole and the asymptotic Newtonian Mach number, for this case, are a = 0.98 and M_{∞}=1, respectively. A kind of flip-flop behaviour is found at the early times; nevertheless, the system also reaches a steady state.

  10. Gaps, rings, and non-axisymmetric structures in protoplanetary disks: Emission from large grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruge, J. P.; Flock, M.; Wolf, S.; Dzyurkevich, N.; Fromang, S.; Henning, Th.; Klahr, H.; Meheut, H.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: Dust grains with sizes around (sub)mm are expected to couple only weakly to the gas motion in regions beyond 10 au of circumstellar disks. In this work, we investigate the influence of the spatial distribution of these grains on the (sub)mm appearance of magnetized protoplanetary disks. Methods: We perform non-ideal global 3D magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) stratified disk simulations, including particles of different sizes (50 μm to 1 cm), using a Lagrangian particle solver. Subsequently, we calculate the spatial dust temperature distribution, including the dynamically coupled submicron-sized dust grains, and derive ideal continuum re-emission maps of the disk through radiative transfer simulations. Finally, we investigate the feasibility of observing specific structures in the thermal re-emission maps with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Results: Depending on the level of turbulence, the radial pressure gradient of the gas, and the grain size, particles settle to the midplane and/or drift radially inward. The pressure bump close to the outer edge of the dead-zone leads to particle-trapping in ring structures. More specifically, vortices in the disk concentrate the dust and create an inhomogeneous distribution of solid material in the azimuthal direction. The large-scale disk perturbations are preserved in the (sub)mm re-emission maps. The observable structures are very similar to those expected from planet-disk interaction. Additionally, the larger dust particles increase the brightness contrast between the gap and ring structures. We find that rings, gaps, and the dust accumulation in the vortex could be traced with ALMA down to a scale of a few astronomical units in circumstellar disks located in nearby star-forming regions. Finally, we present a brief comparison of these structures with those recently found with ALMA in the young circumstellar disks of HL Tau and Oph IRS 48.

  11. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma. Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; Braun, S.; Helander, P.

    2015-11-20

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/nu-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at lowmore » collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Zeff of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.« less

  12. Discrete Sources Method for light scattering analysis of non-axisymmetric features of a substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Yuri; Wriedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Discrete Sources Method (DSM) has been extended to analyze polarized light scattering by non-axial symmetric nano-sized features on a plane substrate. A detailed description of the corresponding numerical scheme is provided. Using a "fictitious" particle approach the new DSM model enables to consider scattering from such substrate defects as a line bump and a line pit. The developed computer model has been employed for demonstrating the ability to perform a comparative analysis of light scattering from such line features. Simulation results corresponding to the Differential Scattering Cross-Section (DSC) and the integral response for P/S polarized light are presented. It was found that the integral response can change by an order of magnitude depending on the orientation of the linear defect with respect to the direction of the incident laser light. In addition, it was shown that some defects can turn out to be "invisible" if an oblique angle of incidence is chosen.

  13. Trapped-Particle-Mediated Collisional Damping of Non-Axisymmetric Plasma Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Kabantsev, Andrey A.; Driscoll, C. Fred

    2006-10-18

    Weak axial ripples in magnetic or electric confinement fields in pure electron plasmas cause slow electrons to be trapped locally, and collisional diffusion across the trapping separatrix then causes surprisingly large trapped-particle-mediated (TPM) damping and transport effects. Here, we characterize TPM damping of m{theta} {ne} 0, mz = {+-}1 Trivelpiece-Gould (TG) plasma modes in large amplitude long-lived BGK states. The TPM damping gives {gamma}BGK/{omega} {approx} 10-4, and seems to dominate in regimes of weak collisions.

  14. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    SciTech Connect

    Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; Helander, P.; Braun, S.

    2015-11-15

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.

  15. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma. Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    SciTech Connect

    Mollén, A.; Landreman, M.; Smith, H. M.; Braun, S.; Helander, P.

    2015-11-20

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/nu-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Zeff of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.

  16. Merging of unequal mass binary black holes in non-axisymmetric galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berczik, Peter; Wang, Long; Nitadori, Keigo; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-02-01

    In this work we study the stellar-dynamical hardening of unequal mass massive black hole (MBH) binaries in the central regions of galactic nuclei. We present a comprehensive set of direct N-body simulations of the problem, varying both the total mass and the mass ratio of the MBH binary. Our initial model starts as an axisymmetric, rotating galactic nucleus, to describe the situation right after the galaxies have merged, but the black holes are still unbound to each other. We confirm that results presented in earlier works (Berczik et al. 2006; Khan et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014) about the solution of the ``last parsec problem'' (sufficiently fast black hole coalescence for black hole growth in cosmological context) are robust for both for the case of unequal black hole masses and large particle numbers. The MBH binary hardening rate depends on the reduced mass ratio through a single parameter function, which quantitatively quite well agrees with standard 3 body scattering theory (see e.g., Hills 1983). Based on our results we conclude that MBH binaries at high redshifts are expected to merge with a factor of ~ 2 more efficiently, which is important to determine the possible overall gravitational wave signals. However, we have not yet fully covered all the possible parameter space, in particular with respect to the preceding of the galaxy mergers, which may lead to a wider variety of initial models, such as initially more oblate and / or even significantly triaxial galactic nuclei. Our N-body simulations were carried out on a new special supercomputers using the hardware acceleration with graphic processing units (GPUs).

  17. Non-Axisymmetric Perpendicular Diffusion of Charged Particles and their Transport Across Tangential Magnetic Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, R. D.; le Roux, J. A.; Engelbrecht, N. E.; Ruffolo, D.; Dunzlaff, P.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the transport of charged particles across magnetic discontinuities, focusing specifically on stream interfaces associated with co-rotating interaction regions in the solar wind. We argue that the magnetic field fluctuations perpendicular to the magnetic discontinuity, and usually also perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, are strongly damped in the vicinity of such a magnetic structure, leading to anisotropic perpendicular diffusion. Assuming that perpendicular diffusion arises from drifts in a turbulent magnetic field, we adopt a simplified approach to derive the relevant perpendicular diffusion coefficient. This approach, which we believe gives the correct principal dependences as expected from more elaborate calculations, allows us to investigate transport in different turbulent geometries, such as longitudinal compressional turbulence that may be present near the heliopause. Although highly dependent on the (possibly anisotropic) perpendicular length scales and turbulence levels, we generally find perpendicular diffusion to be strongly damped at magnetic discontinuities, which may in turn provide an explanation for the large particle gradients associated with these structures.

  18. Non-axisymmetric relativistic wind accretion with velocity gradients on to a rotating black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Osorio, A.; Lora-Clavijo, F. D.

    2016-08-01

    We model, for the first time, the Bondi-Hoyle accretion of a fluid with velocity gradients onto a Kerr black hole, by numerically solving the fully relativistic hydrodynamics equations. Specifically, we consider a supersonic ideal gas, which has velocity gradients perpendicular to the relative motion. We measure the mass and specific angular accretion rates to illustrate whether the fluid presents unstable patterns or not. The initial parameters, we consider in this work, are the velocity gradient $\\epsilon_{v}$, the black hole spin $a$, the asymptotic Mach number ${\\cal M}_{\\infty}$ and adiabatic index $\\Gamma$. We show that the flow accretion reaches a fairly stationary regime, unlike in the Newtonian case, where significant fluctuations of the mass and angular momentum accretion rates are found. On the other hand, we consider a special case where both density and velocity gradients of the fluid are taken into account. The spin of the black hole and the asymptotic Newtonian Mach number, for this case, are $a=0.98$ and ${\\cal M}_{\\infty}=1$, respectively. A kind of flip-flop behavior is found at the early times; nevertheless, the system also reaches a steady state.

  19. Field line reconstruction for edge transport modeling in non-axisymmetric tokamaks configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frerichs, Heinke; Schmitz, Oliver; Waters, Ian; Evans, Todd; Feng, Yuhe; Soukhanovskii, Vlad

    2015-11-01

    Symmetry breaking effects such as resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) present a challenge for the numerical analysis of divertor operation, because they require three dimensional models. One such model is provided by the EMC3-EIRENE code, which is based on a finite flux tube grid for field line reconstruction that allows to account for realistic, three dimensional configurations. We present the Field Line Analysis and Reconstruction Environment (FLARE) - a collection of tools for the analysis of the magnetic field structure. It includes a flexible grid generator which allows to set up plasma transport simulations for single and double null configurations (both disconnected and connected). This includes the ``snowflake minus'' topology, and we present an application for a ``near-exact snowflake'' configuration at NSTX-U. Recent edge plasma simulations for DIII-D and ITER include plasma response effects as calculated by the M3D-C1 code, and it is found that these configurations require a local adjustment of radial/poloidal resolution in order to maintain a reasonable level of magnetic flux conservation. This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy under DE-SC0012315 and DE-FC02-04ER54698, and by Start-Up Funds of the University of Wisconsin - Madison.

  20. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.M.

    1986-12-01

    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  1. Microscale instabilities in stream interaction regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eviatar, A.; Goldstein, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The microstructure of solar wind stream interaction regions is considered theoretically with emphasis on the role of several electrostatic kinetic instabilities which may be important within the stream interface and the compression region. Inside of 1 AU, the interface is likely to be stable against the electrostatic streaming instabilities considered. Between 1 and 2 AU, the interface will excite the magnetized ion-ion instability. The compression region is also found to be unstable beyond 1 AU where the modified two-stream instability, beam-cyclotron instability, and ion-acoustic instability are important in determining the structure of the compressive pulses as they evolve into forward and reverse shocks. It is concluded that the modified two-stream instability and beam-cyclotron instability predominately play a role in heating the electrons to the threshold for the ion-acoustic instability. Various electrostatic plasma waves, ranging in frequency from the lower-hybrid to harmonics of the electron cyclotron frequency, would be produced by these instabilities. Their signature should also be seen by high time resolution measurements of the temperature of the various plasma species.

  2. Fingering Instabilities in Dewetting Nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauliac-Vaujour, E.; Stannard, A.; Martin, C. P.; Blunt, M. O.; Notingher, I.; Moriarty, P. J.; Vancea, I.; Thiele, U.

    2008-05-01

    The growth of fingering patterns in dewetting nanofluids (colloidal solutions of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles) has been followed in real time using contrast-enhanced video microscopy. The fingering instability on which we focus here arises from evaporatively driven nucleation and growth in a nanoscopically thin precursor solvent film behind the macroscopic contact line. We find that well-developed isotropic fingering structures only form for a narrow range of experimental parameters. Numerical simulations, based on a modification of the Monte Carlo approach introduced by Rabani et al. [Nature (London)NATUAS0028-0836 426, 271 (2003)10.1038/nature02087], reproduce the patterns we observe experimentally.

  3. Fingering instabilities in dewetting nanofluids.

    PubMed

    Pauliac-Vaujour, E; Stannard, A; Martin, C P; Blunt, M O; Notingher, I; Moriarty, P J; Vancea, I; Thiele, U

    2008-05-01

    The growth of fingering patterns in dewetting nanofluids (colloidal solutions of thiol-passivated gold nanoparticles) has been followed in real time using contrast-enhanced video microscopy. The fingering instability on which we focus here arises from evaporatively driven nucleation and growth in a nanoscopically thin precursor solvent film behind the macroscopic contact line. We find that well-developed isotropic fingering structures only form for a narrow range of experimental parameters. Numerical simulations, based on a modification of the Monte Carlo approach introduced by Rabani et al. [Nature (London) 426, 271 (2003)10.1038/nature02087], reproduce the patterns we observe experimentally. PMID:18518311

  4. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bane, K.L.F.; Jensen, A.; Li, Z.; Stupakov, G.; Adolphsen, C.; /SLAC

    2009-05-08

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly.

  5. Carpal instability of the wrist.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Nicholas; Matullo, Kristofer S

    2014-01-01

    The scaphoid is stabilized by the scapholunate ligament (directly) and lunotriquetral ligament (indirectly). Disruption of either of these ligaments leads to a pattern of instability that, left untreated, leads to altered mechanics of the wrist and ultimately debilitating arthritis and collapse. Although arthroscopy remains the gold standard for diagnosis of these injuries, plain films and advanced imaging are useful adjuncts. In the acute setting, conservative treatment may be attempted, but recalcitrant cases require surgical stabilization. Salvage procedures are also available for those patients who fail initial stabilization or present with late degeneration. PMID:24267214

  6. Convective Instabilities in Liquid Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veretennikov, Igor; Glazier, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to better understand foam behavior both on the Earth and in microgravity conditions and to determine the relation between a foam's structure and wetness and its rheological properties. Our experiments focused on the effects of the bubble size distribution (BSD) on the foam behavior under gradual or stepwise in the liquid flow rate and on the onset of the convective instability. We were able to show experimentally, that the BSD affects foam rheology very strongly so any theory must take foam texture into account.

  7. Passive mitigation of mode instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, C.; Otto, H.-J.; Stutzki, F.; Jansen, F.; Limpert, J.; Tünnermann, A.

    2014-03-01

    The phenomenon of mode instabilities has quickly become the most limiting effect for a further scaling of the average power of fiber laser systems. Consequently it is of great importance to find solutions for this problem. In this work we propose two concrete possible passive mitigation strategies: the first one is based on the reduction of the heat load in the fiber, whereas the second one is based on the reduction of the pump absorption. In both cases a significant increase of the threshold is expected.

  8. Elastocapillary Instability in Mitochondrial Fission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Sart, Sébastien; Babataheri, Avin; Tareste, David; Barakat, Abdul I.; Clanet, Christophe; Husson, Julien

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic cell organelles that constantly undergo fission and fusion events. These dynamical processes, which tightly regulate mitochondrial morphology, are essential for cell physiology. Here we propose an elastocapillary mechanical instability as a mechanism for mitochondrial fission. We experimentally induce mitochondrial fission by rupturing the cell's plasma membrane. We present a stability analysis that successfully explains the observed fission wavelength and the role of mitochondrial morphology in the occurrence of fission events. Our results show that the laws of fluid mechanics can describe mitochondrial morphology and dynamics.

  9. Surface instability in windblown sand.

    PubMed

    Kurtze, D A; Both, J A; Hong, D C

    2000-06-01

    We investigate the formation of ripples on the surface of windblown sand based on the one-dimensional model of Nishimori and Ouchi [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 197 (1993)], which contains the processes of saltation and grain relaxation. We carry out a nonlinear analysis to determine the propagation speed of the restabilized ripple patterns, and the amplitudes and phases of their first, second, and third harmonics. The agreement between the theory and our numerical simulations is excellent near the onset of the instability. We also determine the Eckhaus boundary, outside which the steady ripple patterns are unstable. PMID:11088369

  10. Bathtub vortex induced by instability.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic. PMID:25375427

  11. Arthroscopic Repair of Ankle Instability.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Matthew D; Baca, John; Arbuckle, Keith

    2016-10-01

    Arthroscopic lateral ankle stabilization procedures have been described for many years. New technological advances and a deeper understanding of the pathobiomechanics involved in chronic lateral ankle instability have allowed an expansion of arthroscopic approaches to this common pathology. As experience is gained and outcomes within the patient profile are understood, the authors feel that the arthroscopic approach to lateral ankle stabilization may prove superior to traditional methods secondary to the risk and traditional complications that are mitigated within minimally invasive arthroscopic approaches. Additionally, the arthroscopic approach may allow a quicker return to ballistic sport and decrease time for rehabilitation. PMID:27599440

  12. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-07-01

    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  13. Absolute Instability in Coupled-Cavity TWTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, D. M. H.; Rittersdorf, I. M.; Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Simon, D. H.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Chernin, D.; Antonsen, T. M., Jr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper will present results of our analysis of absolute instability in a coupled-cavity traveling wave tube (TWT). The structure mode at the lower and upper band edges are respectively approximated by a hyperbola in the (omega, k) plane. When the Briggs-Bers criterion is applied, a threshold current for onset of absolute instability is observed at the upper band edge, but not the lower band edge. The nonexistence of absolute instability at the lower band edge is mathematically similar to the nonexistence of absolute instability that we recently demonstrated for a dielectric TWT. The existence of absolute instability at the upper band edge is mathematically similar to the existence of absolute instability in a gyroton traveling wave amplifier. These interesting observations will be discussed, and the practical implications will be explored. This work was supported by AFOSR, ONR, and L-3 Communications Electron Devices.

  14. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability

    PubMed Central

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin–Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system—spectrally dependent losses—achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin–Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering. PMID:27503708

  15. Absolute instability of the Gaussian wake profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hultgren, Lennart S.; Aggarwal, Arun K.

    1987-01-01

    Linear parallel-flow stability theory has been used to investigate the effect of viscosity on the local absolute instability of a family of wake profiles with a Gaussian velocity distribution. The type of local instability, i.e., convective or absolute, is determined by the location of a branch-point singularity with zero group velocity of the complex dispersion relation for the instability waves. The effects of viscosity were found to be weak for values of the wake Reynolds number, based on the center-line velocity defect and the wake half-width, larger than about 400. Absolute instability occurs only for sufficiently large values of the center-line wake defect. The critical value of this parameter increases with decreasing wake Reynolds number, thereby indicating a shrinking region of absolute instability with decreasing wake Reynolds number. If backflow is not allowed, absolute instability does not occur for wake Reynolds numbers smaller than about 38.

  16. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K

    2016-01-01

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering. PMID:27503708

  17. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M.; Churkin, Dmitry V.; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    2016-08-01

    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system--spectrally dependent losses--achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  18. Instability of time-periodic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.

    1985-01-01

    The instabilities of some spatially and/or time-periodic flows are discussed, in particular, flows with curved streamlines which can support Taylor-Gortler vortices are described in detail. The simplest flow where this type of instability can occur is that due to the torsional oscillations of an infinitely long circular cylinder. For more complicated spatially varying time-periodic flows, a similar type of instability can occur and is spatially localized near the most unstable positions. When nonlinear effects are considered it is found that the instability modifies the steady streaming boundary layer induced by the oscillatory motion. It is shown that a rapidly rotating cylinder in a uniform flow is susceptible to a related type of instability; the appropriate stability equations are shown to be identical to those which govern the instability of a boussinesq fluid of Prandtl number unity heated time periodically from below.

  19. A new parameter for predicting crossflow instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohama, Y.; Davis, S.

    1991-01-01

    Instability of boundary-layer over a concave wall and a rotating disk which were thought to be essentially different in instability sources, are compared in order to investigate whether or not a single crossflow parameter can be defined. Using a newly defined crossflow parameter, prediction was attempted on a yawed cylinder boundary-layer transition. By comparing the calculation with experiment, it was found out that this parameter can document fairly well the onset condition of the crossflow instability.

  20. Observation of Parametric Instability in Advanced LIGO.

    PubMed

    Evans, Matthew; Gras, Slawek; Fritschel, Peter; Miller, John; Barsotti, Lisa; Martynov, Denis; Brooks, Aidan; Coyne, Dennis; Abbott, Rich; Adhikari, Rana X; Arai, Koji; Bork, Rolf; Kells, Bill; Rollins, Jameson; Smith-Lefebvre, Nicolas; Vajente, Gabriele; Yamamoto, Hiroaki; Adams, Carl; Aston, Stuart; Betzweiser, Joseph; Frolov, Valera; Mullavey, Adam; Pele, Arnaud; Romie, Janeen; Thomas, Michael; Thorne, Keith; Dwyer, Sheila; Izumi, Kiwamu; Kawabe, Keita; Sigg, Daniel; Derosa, Ryan; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Ballmer, Stefan; Massinger, Thomas J; Staley, Alexa; Heinze, Matthew; Mueller, Chris; Grote, Hartmut; Ward, Robert; King, Eleanor; Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, Chunnong

    2015-04-24

    Parametric instabilities have long been studied as a potentially limiting effect in high-power interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Until now, however, these instabilities have never been observed in a kilometer-scale interferometer. In this Letter, we describe the first observation of parametric instability in a gravitational wave detector, and the means by which it has been removed as a barrier to progress. PMID:25955042

  1. Modulational instabilities in relativistic pair plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. T.

    2016-05-01

    We study the modulational instability of an intense photon beam in a relativistic pair plasma. We use the wave-kinetic description of the photon field and relativistic fluid equations for electrons and positrons. This allows us to consider the influence of the photon spectral distribution and photon recoil effects on the instability threshold and growth rates. The case of very low frequencies modulations, well below plasma frequency, is compared to that of high-frequency modulations corresponding to the plasmon decay instability.

  2. Observations of the PSR transverse instability

    SciTech Connect

    Colton, E. ); Fitzgerald, D.; Hardek, T.; Macek, R.J.; Plum, M.A.; Thiessen, H.A.; Wang, T.S. ); Neuffer, D. )

    1991-01-01

    A fast instability with beam loss is observed in the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR) when the injected beam current exceeds thresholds, with both bunched and unbunched beams. Large coherent transverse oscillations occur before and during beam loss. Recent observations of the instability indicate that it is an e-p''-type instability, driven by coupled oscillations due to electrons trapped within the proton beam. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Experimental study of low frequency drift instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ioffe, M.S.; Kanaev, B.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.

    1994-05-01

    Experimental studies of nondissipative low frequency drift instability are reported; the plasma of a long mirror trap with edge casp anchors was investigated. The instability growth was found to take place only in a limited number of operation modes even in the case of all the growth requirements being satisfied. Furthermore, the instability development is rather moderate, and the associated anomalous losses appear to be small compared to the classical Coulomb losses. Possible factors accounting for the {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} instability evolution are discussed. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Two-Beam Instability in Electron Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Burov, Alexey V.; /Fermilab

    2006-04-01

    The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

  5. Higgs instability in gapless superfluidity/superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we explore the Higgs instability in the gapless superfluid/superconducting phase. This is in addition to the (chromo)magnetic instability that is related to the fluctuations of the Nambu-Goldstone bosonic fields. While the latter may induce a single-plane-wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state, the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity. In the case of the 2-flavor color superconductivity state the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. But this does not exclude the possibility that it can be completely removed in other exotic states such as the gapless color-flavor locked state.

  6. Nonlinear longitudinal combustion instability in rocket motors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lores, M. E.; Zinn, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    A new analytical technique for the solution of nonlinear longitudinal combustion instability problems in rocket combustors is developed. Using relatively little computation time, this technique is capable of predicting the transient and limit cycle behavior of the combustion instability oscillations as well as the disturbance amplitude required to trigger an instability in a linearly stable motor. The limit cycle waveforms are found to exhibit shock wave characteristics for most unstable engine operating conditions. It is shown that the characteristics of the resulting instability are independent of the nature of the initial disturbance and they depend solely upon the engine operating conditions and the characteristics of the unsteady combustion process.

  7. Two-Fluid Interface Instability Being Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niederhaus, Charles E.

    2003-01-01

    The interface between two fluids of different density can experience instability when gravity acts normal to the surface. The relatively well known Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability results when the gravity is constant with a heavy fluid over a light fluid. An impulsive acceleration applied to the fluids results in the Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability. The RM instability occurs regardless of the relative orientation of the heavy and light fluids. In many systems, the passing of a shock wave through the interface provides the impulsive acceleration. Both the RT and RM instabilities result in mixing at the interface. These instabilities arise in a diverse array of circumstances, including supernovas, oceans, supersonic combustion, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The area with the greatest current interest in RT and RM instabilities is ICF, which is an attempt to produce fusion energy for nuclear reactors from BB-sized pellets of deuterium and tritium. In the ICF experiments conducted so far, RM and RT instabilities have prevented the generation of net-positive energy. The $4 billion National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being constructed to study these instabilities and to attempt to achieve net-positive yield in an ICF experiment.

  8. Instability of a penetrating blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigoni, D.; Bosi, F.; Dal Corso, F.; Misseroni, D.

    2014-03-01

    Application of a dead compressive load at the free end of an elastic rod (the ‘blade') induces its penetration into a sliding sleeve ending with a linear elastic spring. Bifurcation and stability analysis of this simple elastic system shows a variety of unexpected behaviors: (i) an increase of buckling load at decreasing of elastic stiffness; (ii) a finite number of buckling loads for a system with infinite degrees of freedom (leading to a non-standard Sturm-Liouville problem); (iii) more than one bifurcation load associated to each bifurcation mode; (iv) a restabilization of the straight configuration after the second bifurcation load associated to the first instability mode; (v) the presence of an Eshelby-like (or configurational) force, deeply influencing stability. Only the first of these behaviors was previously known, the second and third ones disprove common beliefs, the fourth highlights a sort of ‘island of instability', and the last one shows surprising phenomena and effects on stability.

  9. The Chemistry of Beer Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Graham G.

    2004-07-01

    Compared to most other alcoholic beverages, beer is unique because it is unstable when in the final package. This instability can be divided into biological and nonbiological instability. Nonbiological stability of beer involves a wide range of chemical processes and can be considered in a number of categories: physical, flavor, light, foam, and gushing. It is the balance between flavanoid polyphenols (tannoids) and sensitive proteins that specifically combine with polyphenols to form haze that largely dictates physical stability. The flavor stability of beer primarily depends on the oxygen concentration of packaged beer but is influenced by all stages of the brewing process. Foam stability in a glass of beer reflects the quality of the beverage. The backbone of foam is hydrophobic polypeptides. Novel brewing processes such as high-gravity brewing result in a disproportionate loss of these polypeptides and have a negative effect on the foam stability of the resulting beer. Beer is light sensitive, especially in the 350 500 nm range. Beer exposed to this wavelength range in clear or green glass containers quickly develop nauseous skunky-like off-flavors resulting from the formation of 3-methyl-2-butene-1-thiol. Methods of enhancing all of these types of beer stability are discussed.

  10. Adhesional instabilities and gecko locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Geckos possess a remarkable ability to run rapidly on both walls and ceilings and in recent years the mechanisms that underlie this facility have come under close scrutiny. It is now generally agreed that one of the principal mechanisms of adhesion relies on the action of van der Waal forces acting between the final extremely fine structure of the gecko toe and the underlying substrate. High speed video analysis shows that adhesive contact is both made and broken in intervals of less than 20 ms and this suggests that the mechanism of detachment is one of adhesive instability rather than steady-state peeling. By considering the gecko seta/spatula as a Euler-Bernoulli cantilever it is possible to model this instability in non-dimensional terms and thus to test the analysis at a much larger scale with more conventional engineering materials. When applied to the scale and material combination appropriate to a gecko spatula, the predicted critical load, of around 10 nN, is close to values that have been observed using and AFM cantilever and a single detached spatula.

  11. Radiation-induced genomic instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of the heritable somatic effects of ionizing radiation exposures has relied upon the assumption that radiation-induced lesions were 'fixed' in the DNA prior to the first postirradiation mitosis. Lesion conversion was thought to occur during the initial round of DNA replication or as a consequence of error-prone enzymatic processing of lesions. The standard experimental protocols for the assessment of a variety of radiation-induced endpoints (cell death, specific locus mutations, neoplastic transformation and chromosome aberrations) evaluate these various endpoints at a single snapshot in time. In contrast with the aforementioned approaches, some studies have specifically assessed radiation effects as a function of time following exposure. Evidence has accumulated in support of the hypothesis that radiation exposure induces a persistent destabilization of the genome. This instability has been observed as a delayed expression of lethal mutations, as an enhanced rate of accumulation of non-lethal heritable alterations, and as a progressive intraclonal chromosomal heterogeneity. The genetic controls and biochemical mechanisms underlying radiation-induced genomic instability have not yet been delineated. The aim is to integrate the accumulated evidence that suggests that radiation exposure has a persistent effect on the stability of the mammalian genome.

  12. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-Lun; Onuki, Akira

    1996-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, nonpolar, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In zero gravity, the interface is unstable at all long wavelengths in the presence of a field applied across it. It is conjectured that this will cause the binary fluid to break up into domains small enough to be outside the instability condition. The resulting pattern formation, and the effects on the critical properties as the domains approach the correlation length are of acute interest. With direct observation, laser light scattering, and interferometry, the phenomena can be probed to gain further understanding of interfacial instabilities and the pattern formation which results, and dimensional crossover in critical systems as the critical fluctuations in a particular direction are suppressed by external forces.

  13. Genome instability, cancer and aging

    PubMed Central

    Maslov, Alexander Y.; Vijg, Jan

    2015-01-01

    DNA damage-driven genome instability underlies the diversity of life forms generated by the evolutionary process but is detrimental to the somatic cells of individual organisms. The cellular response to DNA damage can be roughly divided in two parts. First, when damage is severe, programmed cell death may occur or, alternatively, temporary or permanent cell cycle arrest. This protects against cancer but can have negative effects on the long term, e.g., by depleting stem cell reservoirs. Second, damage can be repaired through one or more of the many sophisticated genome maintenance pathways. However, erroneous DNA repair and incomplete restoration of chromatin after damage is resolved, produce mutations and epimutations, respectively, both of which have been shown to accumulate with age. An increased burden of mutations and/or epimutations in aged tissues increases cancer risk and adversely affects gene transcriptional regulation, leading to progressive decline in organ function. Cellular degeneration and uncontrolled cell proliferation are both major hallmarks of aging. Despite the fact that one seems to exclude the other, they both may be driven by a common mechanism. Here, we review age related changes in the mammalian genome and their possible functional consequences, with special emphasis on genome instability in stem/progenitor cells. PMID:19344750

  14. Rogue Waves and Modulational Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, V. E.; Dyachenko, A.

    2015-12-01

    The most plausible cause of rogue wave formation in a deep ocean is development of modulational instability of quasimonochromatic wave trains. An adequate model for study of this phenomenon is the Euler equation for potential flow of incompressible fluid with free surface in 2-D geometry. Numerical integration of these equations confirms completely the conjecture of rogue wave formation from modulational instability but the procedure is time consuming for determination of rogue wave appearance probability for a given shape of wave energy spectrum. This program can be realized in framework of simpler model using replacement of the exact interaction Hamiltonian by more compact Hamiltonian. There is a family of such models. The popular one is the Nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE). This model is completely integrable and suitable for numerical simulation but we consider that it is oversimplified. It misses such important phenomenon as wave breaking. Recently, we elaborated much more reliable model that describes wave breaking but is as suitable as NLSE from the point of numerical modeling. This model allows to perform massive numerical experiments and study statistics of rogue wave formation in details.

  15. Prospects of ITER Instability Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolemen, Egemen

    2015-11-01

    Prospects for real-time MHD stability analysis, plasma response calculations, and their use in ELM, NTM, RWM control and EFC will be discussed. ITER will need various controls to work together in order to achieve the stated goal of Q >= 10 for multiple minutes. These systems will allow operating at high beta while avoiding disruptions that may lead to damage to the reactor. However, it has not yet been demonstrated whether the combined real-time feedback control aim is feasible given the spectrum of plasma instabilities, the quality of the real-time diagnostic measurement/analysis, and the actuator set at ITER. We will explain challenges of instability control for ITER based on experimental and simulation results. We will demonstrate that it will not be possible to parameterize all possible disruption avoidance and ramp down scenarios that ITER may encounter. An alternative approach based on real-time MHD stability analysis and plasma response calculations, and its use in ELM, NTM, RWM control and EFC, will be demonstrated. Supported by the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  16. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  17. Electrokinetic instability of isotachophoresis shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Giancarlo; Santiago, Juan; Mani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    Isotachophoresis (ITP) is an electrokinetic focusing technique used in a variety of life science and analytical chemistry applications. In ITP, an electrokinetic shock wave forms at the interface between leading and trailing electrolytes with relatively high and low conductivities. The ITP interface is self-sharpening, as restoring electromigration fluxes counteract molecular diffusion. However, the large electric field gradient at the shock interface also gives rise to free charge and strong electrostatic body forces. At large applied currents, electrostatic forces cause recirculating flows which destabilize the ITP interface. We performed stability analysis and direct simulation of ITP shocks through numerical solutions to the coupled Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations using a quasi-electroneutral approximation. In both experiments and numerical simulations, we observe two modes of instability: 1) a distorted ITP interface which is steady in time, and 2) an oscillating perturbation which persists. In addition, at the highest simulated electric fields, we observe transition towards more chaotic oscillatory modes. We use our stability analysis and numerical simulations to characterize instability of ITP shocks using two dimensionless parameters.

  18. Instabilities in fluorocarbon ICP plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Jean-Paul; Abada, Hana

    2000-10-01

    Several recent studies (Lieberman and al(M. A. Lieberman, A. J. Lichtenberg and A. M. Marakhtanov, App. Phys. Vol75,3617 (1999)), Tuszewski(M. Tuszewski, J. Appl. Phys. 79, 8967 (1996))) have shown the presence of instabilities in low pressure inductively coupled discharges with electronegative gases (O_2, Ar/SF_6). Lieberman and al^1 have proposed an explanation for this effect in terms of electon attachment processes causing an oscillation between capacitive and inductive coupling modes. We have observed similar instabilities in ICP fluorocarbon plasmas (CF_4, C_2F_6, CHF_3) by observing the optical emission from the plasma. In CF4 plasmas, the optical emission is modulated by up to 90% at frequencies 200-1 kHz at 1-20 mtorr with rf powers of 300 W and 500W. We have also observed an interesting phenomenon whereby inductive/capacitive oscillations occur during several hundreds of ms, in between periods of stable capactive operation lasting several hudreds of ms.

  19. Coriolis instability of pulsed flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aouidef, A.; Normand, C.; Wesfreid, J. E.

    1995-09-01

    The linear stability of a time-periodic flow is considered. The fluid motion is taking place in a Hele-Shaw cell made of two vertical rectangular parallel plates separated by a gap of small extent compared to the dimensions of the plates. The flow is generated by oscillating the cell about its vertical symmetry axis. Our stability analysis was motivated by the experimental results reported some years ago by Bolton and Maurer [Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 32, 2097 (1987)] who observed the onset of longitudinal rolls in this configuration. The inviscid stability criterion for steady flow subjected to Coriolis force is applied at different times to assess the instability mechanism in the two opposite regimes of respectively low and high frequency of oscillation. For moderate values of the frequency, implementation of Floquet theory is used to find the critical values of the instability parameters. Finally a connection is established between the present results and those we obtained recently for a pulsed flow in a Taylor-Couette geometry.

  20. Active control of combustion instability

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, W.; Poinsot, T.; Candel, S.

    1987-12-01

    The principle of 'antisound' is used to construct a method for the suppression of combustion instabilities. This active instability control (AIC) method uses external acoustic excitation by a loudspeaker to suppress the oscillations of a flame. The excitation signal is provided by a microphone located upstream of the flame. This signal is filtered, processed, amplified, and sent to the loudspeaker. The AIC method is validated on a laboratory combustor. It allows the suppression of all unstable modes of the burner for any operating ratio. The influence of the microphone and loudspeaker locations on the performance of the AIC system is described. For a given configuration, domains of stability, i.e., domains where the AIC system parameters provide suppression of the oscillation, are investigated. Measurements of the electric input of the loudspeaker show that the energy consumption of the AIC system is almost negligible and suggest that this method could be used for industrial combustor stabilization. Finally, a simple model describing the effects of the AIC system is developed and its results compared to the experiment.

  1. Rotation and Magnetic Fields in Supernovae and Gamma-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    2005-10-01

    Spectropolarimetry of core collapse supernovae has shown that they are asymmetric and often, but not universally, bi-polar; in some the dominant axes associated with hydrogen, oxygen, and calcium are oriented substantially differently. Jet-induced supernova models give a typical jet/torus structure that is reminiscent of some objects like the Crab nebula, SN 1987A and perhaps Cas A. Jets, in turn, may arise from the intrinsic rotation and magnetic fields that are expected to accompany core collapse. We summarize the potential importance of the magneto-rotational instability for the core collapse problem, stress the non- monotonic response of the final rotation and magnetic field to the initial iron core rotation, and the potential role of non-axisymmetric instabilities in the new-born neutron star. We sketch some of the effects that large magnetic fields, ˜10^15 - 10^17 G, may have on the physics at core bounce and in the subsequent cooling, de-leptonization phase. Production and dissipation of MHD waves in this strongly differentially rotating environment may affect the success of the supernova explosion, the nature of the compact remnant -- neutron star or black hole, pulsar or magnetar -- and whether the outcome is a normal supernova or a gamma-ray burst. In collaboration with Shizuka Akiyama, University of Texas at Austin.

  2. On Vertically Global, Horizontally Local Models for Astrophysical Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, Colin P.; Pessah, Martin E.

    2015-10-01

    Disks with a barotropic equilibrium structure, for which the pressure is only a function of the density, rotate on cylinders in the presence of a gravitational potential, so that the angular frequency of such a disk is independent of height. Such disks with barotropic equilibria can be approximately modeled using the shearing box framework, representing a small disk volume with height-independent angular frequency. If the disk is in baroclinic equilibrium, the angular frequency does generally depend on height, and it is thus necessary to go beyond the standard shearing box approach. In this paper, we show that given a global disk model, it is possible to develop approximate models that are local in horizontal planes without an expansion in height with shearing-periodic boundary conditions. We refer to the resulting framework as the vertically global shearing box (VGSB). These models can be non-axisymmetric for globally barotropic equilibria but should be axisymmetric for globally baroclinic equilibria. We provide explicit equations for this VGSB which can be implemented in standard magnetohydrodynamic codes by generalizing the shearing-periodic boundary conditions to allow for a height-dependent angular frequency and shear rate. We also discuss the limitations that result from the radial approximations that are needed in order to impose height-dependent shearing periodic boundary conditions. We illustrate the potential of this framework by studying a vertical shear instability and examining the modes associated with the magnetorotational instability.

  3. Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier

    2016-07-01

    Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced

  4. Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests

  5. Laboratory blast wave driven instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuranz, Carolyn

    2008-04-01

    This presentation discusses experiments well-scaled to the blast wave driven instabilities during the explosion phase of SN1987A. Blast waves occur following a sudden, finite release of energy, and consist of a shock front followed by a rarefaction wave. When a blast wave crosses an interface with a decrease in density, hydrodynamic instabilities will develop. These experiments include target materials scaled in density to the He/H layer in SN1987A. About 5 kJ of laser energy from the Omega Laser facility irradiates a 150 μm plastic layer that is followed by a low density foam layer. A blast wave structure similar to those in supernovae, is created in the plastic layer. The blast wave crosses a perturbed interface, which produces nonlinear, unstable growth dominated by the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. Recent experiments have been performed using complex initial conditions featuring a three-dimensional interface structure with a wavelength of 71 μm in two orthogonal directions, at times supplemented by an additional sinusoidal mode of 212 μm or 424 μm. We have detected the interface structure under these conditions, using dual orthogonal radiographs on some shots, and will show some of the resulting data. Recent advancements in our x-ray backlighting techniques have greatly improved the resolution of our x-ray radiographic images. Under certain conditions, the improved images show some mass extending beyond the RT spike and penetrating further than previously observed. Current simulations do not show this phenomenon. This presentation will discuss the amount of mass in these spike extensions as well as the error analysis of this calculation. Future experiments will also be discussed. They will be focusing on realistic initial conditions based on 3D stellar evolution models. This research was sponsored by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  6. Electric Field Induced Interfacial Instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusner, Robert E.; Min, Kyung Yang; Wu, Xiao-lun; Onuki, Akira

    1999-01-01

    The study of the interface in a charge-free, critical and near-critical binary fluid in the presence of an externally applied electric field is presented. At sufficiently large fields, the interface between the two phases of the binary fluid should become unstable and exhibit an undulation with a predefined wavelength on the order of the capillary length. As the critical point is approached, this wavelength is reduced, potentially approaching length-scales such as the correlation length or critical nucleation radius. At this point the critical properties of the system may be affected. In this paper, the flat interface of a marginally polar binary fluid mixture is stressed by a perpendicular alternating electric field and the resulting instability is characterized by the critical electric field E(sub c) and the pattern observed. The character of the surface dynamics at the onset of instability is found to be strongly dependent on the frequency f of the field applied. The plot of E(sub c) vs. f for a fixed temperature shows a sigmoidal shape, whose low and high frequency limits are well described by a power-law relationship, E(sub c) = epsilon(exp zeta) with zeta = 0.35 and zeta = 0.08, respectively. The low-limit exponent compares well with the value zeta = 4 for a system of conducting and non-conducting fluids. On the other hand, the high-limit exponent coincides with what was first predicted by Onuki. The instability manifests itself as the conducting phase penetrates the non-conducting phase. As the frequency increases, the shape of the pattern changes from an array of bifurcating strings to an array of column-like (or rod-like) protrusions, each of which spans the space between the plane interface and one of the electrodes. For an extremely high frequency, the disturbance quickly grows into a parabolic cone pointing toward the upper plate. As a result, the interface itself changes its shape from that of a plane to that of a high sloping pyramid.

  7. Beam Dynamics and Instabilities in MEIC Design

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, G.A. Krafft, B.C. Yunn

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the narrow and broadband impedance calculations and various instabilities generated by single and multiple bunches. We study the physical phenomena such as intra-beam scattering, touschek scattering, beam-gas scattering, ion trapping and fast beam-ion instability, etc. Details will be discussed in the paper.

  8. Multiscale instabilities in soft heterogeneous dielectric elastomers

    PubMed Central

    Rudykh, S.; Bhattacharya, K.; deBotton, G.

    2014-01-01

    The development of instabilities in soft heterogeneous dielectric elastomers is investigated. Motivated by experiments and possible applications, we use in our analysis the physically relevant referential electric field instead of electric displacement. In terms of this variable, a closed form solution is derived for the class of layered neo-Hookean dielectrics. A criterion for the onset of electromechanical multiscale instabilities for the layered composites with anisotropic phases is formulated. A general condition for the onset of the macroscopic instability in soft multiphase dielectrics is introduced. In the example of the layered dielectrics, the essential influence of the microstructure on the onset of instabilities is revealed. We found that: (i) macroscopic instabilities dominate at moderate volume fractions of the stiffer phase, (ii) interface instabilities appear at small volume fractions of the stiffer phase and (iii) instabilities of a finite scale, comparable to the microstructure size, occur at large volume fractions of the stiffer phase. The latest new type of instabilities does not appear in the purely mechanical case and dominates in the region of large volume fractions of the stiff phase. PMID:24511258

  9. Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, L.D.

    1987-02-02

    This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits. (JDH)

  10. Single bunch instabilities of the RHIC booster

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper, we try to estimate the stability limits and impedances of the Brookhaven RHIC booster. Some important data on the booster are shown. From the stability limits and impedances, it is clear that the booster is safe against either fast microwave instabilities or slow mode-colliding single bunch instabilities. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nettle, D.; Grace, J.B.; Choisy, M.; Cornell, H.V.; Guegan, J.-F.; Hochberg, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation on ?? diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or ?? diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on ?? and ?? cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different type and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic ?? diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For ?? diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious ?? diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Conclusions. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between, neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  12. Instability of a constrained pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Prashanth; Krishna, Srinivas Gopal; Ram, Y. M.

    2011-04-01

    Linear perturbation analysis is used to determine the natural frequency of two pendulums connected by a rod. The analysis indicates a zone of instability in what looks like a stable system. The paradoxical phenomenon is explained, and a simple experiment confirms the instability.

  13. Superresonant instability of a compressible hydrodynamic vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leandro A.; Cardoso, Vitor; Crispino, Luís C. B.

    2016-06-01

    We show that a purely circulating and compressible system, in an adiabatic regime of acoustic propagation, presents superresonant instabilities. To show the existence these instabilities, we compute the quasinormal mode frequencies of this system numerically using two different frequency domain methods.

  14. Estimating the instability of a composite clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    A composite clock created from a local clock ensemble is known by its time offsets from the ensemble clocks. By a geometrical argument, estimate for the instability of the composite clock are calculated from the instabilities of the ensemble clocks, individually and against the composite clock. The method is illustrated by examples using simulated and real ensembles.

  15. Shear Instabilities in Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinbrot, Troy

    2003-03-01

    Unstable waves have long been studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans as well as slipstream stability behind ships, planes, and heat transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not previously been documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. We report here that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains downstream of a splitter plate. These waves appear abruptly in flow down an inclined plane as either shear rate or angle of incline is changed, and we analyze a granular flow model that qualitatively agrees with our experimental data. The waves appear from the model to be a manifestation of a competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed, and we propose a dimensionless group to govern the transition between steady and wavy flows.

  16. Shear instabilities in granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, David J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Shinbrot, Troy

    2002-01-01

    Unstable waves have been long studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans, in addition to slipstream stability behind ships, aeroplanes and heat-transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not been previously documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. Here we report that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains flowing on an inclined plane downstream of a splitter plate. Changes in either the shear rate or the angle of incline cause such waves to appear abruptly. We analyse a granular flow model that agrees qualitatively with our experimental data; the model suggests that the waves result from competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed. We propose a dimensionless shear number that governs the transition between steady and wavy flows.

  17. Shear instabilities in granular flows.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, David J; Glasser, Benjamin J; Shinbrot, Troy

    2002-01-17

    Unstable waves have been long studied in fluid shear layers. These waves affect transport in the atmosphere and oceans, in addition to slipstream stability behind ships, aeroplanes and heat-transfer devices. Corresponding instabilities in granular flows have not been previously documented, despite the importance of these flows in geophysical and industrial systems. Here we report that breaking waves can form at the interface between two streams of identical grains flowing on an inclined plane downstream of a splitter plate. Changes in either the shear rate or the angle of incline cause such waves to appear abruptly. We analyse a granular flow model that agrees qualitatively with our experimental data; the model suggests that the waves result from competition between shear and extensional strains in the flowing granular bed. We propose a dimensionless shear number that governs the transition between steady and wavy flows. PMID:11797003

  18. Evolution of genetic instability in heterogeneous tumors.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Ani D; Komarova, Natalia L

    2016-05-01

    Genetic instability is an important characteristic of cancer. While most cancers develop genetic instability at some stage of their progression, sometimes a temporary rise of instability is followed by the return to a relatively stable genome. Neither the reasons for these dynamics, nor, more generally, the role of instability in tumor progression, are well understood. In this paper we develop a class of mathematical models to study the evolutionary competition dynamics among different sub-populations in a heterogeneous tumor. We observe that despite the complexity of this multi-component and multi-process system, there is only a small number of scenarios expected in the context of the evolution of instability. If the penalty incurred by unstable cells (the decrease in the growth due to deleterious mutations) is high compared with the gain (the production rate of advantageous mutations), then instability does not evolve. In the opposite case, instability evolves and comes to dominate the system. In the intermediate parameter regime, instability is generated but later gives way to stable clones. Moreover, the model also informs us of the patterns of instability for cancer lineages corresponding to different stages of progression. It is predicted that mutations causing instability are merely "passengers" in tumors that have undergone only a small number of malignant mutations. Further down the path of carcinogenesis, however, unstable cells are more likely to give rise to the winning clonal wave that takes over the tumor and carries the evolution forward, thus conferring a causal role of the instability in such cases. Further, each individual clonal wave (i.e. cells harboring a fixed number of malignant driver mutations) experiences its own evolutionary history. It can fall under one of three types of temporal behavior: stable throughout, unstable to stable, or unstable throughout. Which scenario is realized depends on the subtle (but predictable) interplay among

  19. Visco-resistive plasmoid instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comisso, Luca; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    The plasmoid instability in visco-resistive current sheets is analyzed in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The linear growth rate and the wavenumber are found to scale as S1 /4(1+Pm ) -5 /8 and S3 /8(1+Pm ) -3 /16 with respect to the Lundquist number S and the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. Furthermore, the linear layer width is shown to scale as S-1 /8(1+Pm ) 1 /16 . The growth of the plasmoids slows down from an exponential growth to an algebraic growth when they enter into the nonlinear regime. In particular, the time-scale of the nonlinear growth of the plasmoids is found to be τNL˜S-3 /16(1+Pm) 19 /32τA,L . The nonlinear growth of the plasmoids is radically different from the linear one, and it is shown to be essential to understand the global current sheet disruption. It is also discussed how the plasmoid instability enables fast magnetic reconnection in visco-resistive plasmas. In particular, it is shown that the recursive plasmoid formation can trigger a collisionless reconnection regime if S ≳Lc s(ɛclk) -1(1+Pm) 1 /2 , where Lcs is the half-length of the global current sheet and lk is the relevant kinetic length scale. On the other hand, if the current sheet remains in the collisional regime, the global (time-averaged) reconnection rate is shown to be ≈ɛcvA ,uBu(1+Pm) -1 /2 , where ɛc is the critical inverse aspect ratio of the current sheet, while vA,u and Bu are the Alfvén speed and the magnetic field upstream of the global reconnection layer.

  20. Thermal instability during an electrical wire explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.

    2008-09-01

    The development of thermal instabilities during an electrical wire explosion is analyzed in the present work based on the methods of small perturbation theory. For two cases, with and without allowance for motion, the dispersion equations are derived that describe a relationship between the instantaneous buildup increment and the axial wave vector component. It is demonstrated that the thermal instabilities are always formed during electrical explosion, irrespective of the explosion mode. There are three destabilizing factors leading to the development of the thermal instabilities: a temperature rise, an increase in the specific resistance with increasing temperature, and an increase in the specific resistance with decreasing density. The critical value of current density below which the sausage instabilities grow faster than the thermal ones and above which, on the contrary, the thermal instabilities are dominant can be found for each metal.

  1. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cébron, D.; Moutou, C.; Le Bars, M.; Le Gal, P.; Farès, R.

    2011-02-01

    A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical) instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly) elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  2. Submesoscale baroclinic instability and the Balance Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian

    2015-11-01

    Ocean submesoscale baroclinic instability is studied in the framework of the Balance Equations. The Balance Equations are an intermediate model that includes balanced ageostrophic effects with higher accuracy than the quasigeostrophic approximation, but rules out unbalanced wave motions; as such, they are particularly suited to the study of baroclinic instability in submesoscale ocean dynamics. The linear baroclinic instability problem is developed in generality and then specialized to the case of constant vertical shear. The primary finding is that at low Richardson numbers the growth rate of some instability modes is increased compared to larger-scale quasigeostrophic dynamics, and that the increase can be attributed to both ageostrophic baroclinic production and shear production of perturbation energy. This suggests that the nonlinear development of submesoscale baroclinic instability will proceed more vigorously than mesoscale/quasigeostrophic, and may include a downscale/forward transfer of kinetic energy.

  3. Parametric instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, K.; Uchiyama, T.; Miyoki, S.; Ohashi, M.; Kuroda, K.; Numata, K.

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated the parametric instabilities of LCGT (Japanese interferometric gravitational wave detector project) arm cavity. The number of unstable modes of LCGT is 10-times smaller than that of Advanced LIGO (USA). Since the strength of the instabilities of LCGT depends on the mirror curvature more weakly than that of Advanced LIGO, the requirement of the mirror curvature accuracy is easier to be achieved. The difference in the parametric instabilities between LCGT and Advanced LIGO is because of the thermal noise reduction methods (LCGT, cooling sapphire mirrors; Advanced LIGO, fused silica mirrors with larger laser beams), which are the main strategies of the projects. Elastic Q reduction by the barrel surface (0.2 mm thickness Ta2O5) coating is effective to suppress instabilities in the LCGT arm cavity. Therefore, the cryogenic interferometer is a smart solution for the parametric instabilities in addition to thermal noise and thermal lensing.

  4. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between shoulder instability and labral tears is well known, however, the association of shoulder instability with a paralabral cyst is rare. Shoulder instability may cause labral injury or labral injury may cause shoulder instability, and then injured tear develops paralabral cyst. In our patient, the inferior paralabral cyst may be associated with inferior labral tears and instability MRI. PMID:20514270

  5. Control of interfacial instabilities using flow geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Housseiny, Talal T.; Tsai, Peichun A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2012-10-01

    The displacement of one fluid by another is one of the most common processes involving interfacial instabilities. It is universally accepted that, in a uniform medium, flow displacement is unstable when a low-viscosity fluid invades a fluid of higher viscosity: the classical viscous fingering instability. Consequently, once fluid properties are specified, opportunities for control become very limited. However, real systems where displacement instabilities occur, such as porous structures, lung airways and printing devices, are rarely uniform. We find that the simplest heterogeneity--a gradient in the flow passage--can lead to fundamentally different displacement behaviours. We use this finding to either inhibit or trigger an instability and, hence, to devise a strategy to manipulate instabilities in fluid-fluid systems. The control setting we identify has a wide spectrum of applications ranging from small-scale technologies such as microfluidics to large-scale operations such as enhanced oil recovery.

  6. Taming contact line instability for pattern formation.

    PubMed

    Deblais, A; Harich, R; Colin, A; Kellay, H

    2016-01-01

    Coating surfaces with different fluids is prone to instability producing inhomogeneous films and patterns. The contact line between the coating fluid and the surface to be coated is host to different instabilities, limiting the use of a variety of coating techniques. Here we take advantage of the instability of a receding contact line towards cusp and droplet formation to produce linear patterns of variable spacings. We stabilize the instability of the cusps towards droplet formation by using polymer solutions that inhibit this secondary instability and give rise to long slender cylindrical filaments. We vary the speed of deposition to change the spacing between these filaments. The combination of the two gives rise to linear patterns into which different colloidal particles can be embedded, long DNA molecules can be stretched and particles filtered by size. The technique is therefore suitable to prepare anisotropic structures with variable properties. PMID:27506626

  7. Tensile Instability in a Thick Elastic Body.

    PubMed

    Overvelde, Johannes T B; Dykstra, David M J; de Rooij, Rijk; Weaver, James; Bertoldi, Katia

    2016-08-26

    A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in elastic bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality. PMID:27610857

  8. Taming contact line instability for pattern formation

    PubMed Central

    Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.

    2016-01-01

    Coating surfaces with different fluids is prone to instability producing inhomogeneous films and patterns. The contact line between the coating fluid and the surface to be coated is host to different instabilities, limiting the use of a variety of coating techniques. Here we take advantage of the instability of a receding contact line towards cusp and droplet formation to produce linear patterns of variable spacings. We stabilize the instability of the cusps towards droplet formation by using polymer solutions that inhibit this secondary instability and give rise to long slender cylindrical filaments. We vary the speed of deposition to change the spacing between these filaments. The combination of the two gives rise to linear patterns into which different colloidal particles can be embedded, long DNA molecules can be stretched and particles filtered by size. The technique is therefore suitable to prepare anisotropic structures with variable properties. PMID:27506626

  9. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic solids.

    PubMed

    Piriz, A R; Cela, J J López; Cortázar, O D; Tahir, N A; Hoffmann, D H H

    2005-11-01

    We present an analytical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that allows for an approximate but still very accurate and appealing description of the instability physics in the linear regime. The model is based on the second law of Newton and it has been developed with the aim of dealing with the instability of accelerated elastic solids. It yields the asymptotic instability growth rate but also describes the initial transient phase determined by the initial conditions. We have applied the model to solid/solid and solid/fluid interfaces with arbitrary Atwood numbers. The results are in excellent agreement with previous models that yield exact solutions but which are of more limited validity. Our model allows for including more complex physics. In particular, the present approach is expected to lead to a more general theory of the instability that would allow for describing the transition to the plastic regime. PMID:16383751

  10. Magnetothermal instability with generalized Ohm's law

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, M.P.; Talwar, S.P. )

    1993-03-01

    The problem of thermal instability, having bearing on the formation of astrophysical condensations, is investigated for a hydromagnetic fluid obeying generalized Ohm's law, both for self-gravitating and nongravitating configurations. Effects of finite Larmor frequency, resistivity, and finite plasma frequency on the stability of the system are studied and the condition of instabilities are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function. It is found that the condition of instability for propagation parallel to the ambient magnetic field is independent of finite resistivity, Hall current, and electron inertia effects and also of the magnetic field strength. For transverse propagation, however, the instability criterion involves the field strength, resistivity, and electron inertia terms. The Hall current is found to modify the growth rates for generally inclined propagation only. Both monotonically unstable and overstable modes of instability arise in the system depending on the dependence of the heat-loss function on the local density and temperature.

  11. The electromagnetic ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peter Gary, S.; Schriver, David

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic instabilities driven by an anisotropic, relatively cool ion beam are studied for the case in which both the beam and the instabilities propagate parallel or antiparallel to a uniform magnetic field. At modest beam-core relative drift speeds, sufficiently large perpendicular-to-parallel beam temperature ratios and sufficiently large plasma beta, the mode of fastest growth rate is the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability. Because the right-hand polarized waves observed upstream of slow shocks in the earth's magnetotail can lead to the appropriate beam anisotropy, the ion cyclotron instability may be present and account for the left-hand polarized magnetic waves observed there. Also, because of its relatively low phase speed, the ion cyclotron beam anisotropy instability may provide the scattering necessary for ion Fermi acceleration at slow shocks of sufficiently high plasma beta.

  12. Analysis of nuclear reactor instability phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The phenomena known as density-wave instability often occurs in phase change systems, such as boiling water nuclear reactors (BWRS). Our current understanding of density-wave oscillations is in fairly good shape for linear phenomena (eg, the onset of instabilities) but is not very advanced for non-linear phenomena [Lahey and Podowski, 1989]. In particular, limit cycle and chaotic instability modes are not well understood in boiling systems such as current and advanced generation BWRs (eg, SBWR). In particular, the SBWR relies on natural circulation and is thus inherently prone to problems with density-wave instabilities. The purpose of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of nonlinear nuclear-coupled density-wave instability phenomena in BWRS. This research builds on the work of Achard et al [1985] and Clausse et al [1991] who showed, respectively, that Hopf bifurcations and chaotic oscillations may occur in boiling systems.

  13. Taming contact line instability for pattern formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.

    2016-08-01

    Coating surfaces with different fluids is prone to instability producing inhomogeneous films and patterns. The contact line between the coating fluid and the surface to be coated is host to different instabilities, limiting the use of a variety of coating techniques. Here we take advantage of the instability of a receding contact line towards cusp and droplet formation to produce linear patterns of variable spacings. We stabilize the instability of the cusps towards droplet formation by using polymer solutions that inhibit this secondary instability and give rise to long slender cylindrical filaments. We vary the speed of deposition to change the spacing between these filaments. The combination of the two gives rise to linear patterns into which different colloidal particles can be embedded, long DNA molecules can be stretched and particles filtered by size. The technique is therefore suitable to prepare anisotropic structures with variable properties.

  14. Taylor instability in rhyolite lava flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, B. A.; Krantz, W. B.; Fink, J. H.; Dickinson, R. E.

    1989-01-01

    A refined Taylor instability model is developed to describe the surface morphology of rhyolite lava flows. The effect of the downslope flow of the lava on the structures resulting from the Taylor instability mechanism is considered. Squire's (1933) transformation is developed for this flow in order to extend the results to three-dimensional modes. This permits assessing why ridges thought to arise from the Taylor instability mechanism are preferentially oriented transverse to the direction of lava flow. Measured diapir and ridge spacings for the Little and Big Glass Mountain rhyolite flows in northern California are used in conjunction with the model in order to explore the implications of the Taylor instability for flow emplacement. The model suggests additional lava flow features that can be measured in order to test whether the Taylor instability mechanism has influenced the flows surface morphology.

  15. Rotordynamic Instability Problems in High-Performance Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Rotor dynamic instability problems in high performance turbomachinery are reviewed. Mechanical instability mechanisms are discussed. Seal forces and working fluid forces in turbomachinery are discussed. Control of rotor instability is also investigated.

  16. Predictors for Surgery in Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Lebus, George F.; Raynor, Martin B.; Nwosu, Samuel K.; Wagstrom, Emily; Jani, Sunil S.; Carey, James L.; Hettrich, Carolyn M.; Cox, Charles L.; Kuhn, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Shoulder instability is a common cause of pain and dysfunction in young, active patients. While studies have analyzed risk factors for recurrent instability and failure after instability surgery, few have examined which variables are associated with initial surgery in this patient population. Purpose: To identify variables that may be associated with surgical intervention in patients with shoulder instability in the context of the FEDS (frequency, etiology, direction, severity) classification, a system that may be useful in the surgical treatment of shoulder instability patients. Study Design: Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: A database of patients treated for shoulder instability from 3 separate institutions from 2005 to 2010 was generated using International Classification of Diseases–9th Revision data. Data were collected via retrospective review. Injury data were categorized according to the FEDS system. Data were analyzed for significance, with the primary outcome of surgical intervention. Summary statistics were used to assess which variables were associated with eventual surgery. To test the unadjusted bivariate associations between shoulder surgery and each data point, Pearson chi-square tests were used for categorical variables and Wilcoxon tests were used for continuous variables. Results: Over the study time period, 377 patients were treated for shoulder instability. Patients who had surgery were more likely younger, had recurrent instability, and had their initial injury while playing a sport. Most patients had anterior instability; however, there was a greater proportion of posterior instability patients in the operative group. Severity of dislocation, measured by whether the patient required help to relocate the shoulder, was not significantly associated with eventual surgery. While imaging was not available for all patients, surgical patients were more likely to have magnetic resonance imaging findings of

  17. Delayed chromosomal instability induced by DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Marder, B A; Morgan, W F

    1993-01-01

    DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation can result in gene mutation, gene amplification, chromosome rearrangements, cellular transformation, and cell death. Although many of these changes may be induced directly by the radiation, there is accumulating evidence for delayed genomic instability following X-ray exposure. We have investigated this phenomenon by studying delayed chromosomal instability in a hamster-human hybrid cell line by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization. We examined populations of metaphase cells several generations after expanding single-cell colonies that had survived 5 or 10 Gy of X rays. Delayed chromosomal instability, manifested as multiple rearrangements of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes, was observed in 29% of colonies surviving 5 Gy and in 62% of colonies surviving 10 Gy. A correlation of delayed chromosomal instability with delayed reproductive cell death, manifested as reduced plating efficiency in surviving clones, suggests a role for chromosome rearrangements in cytotoxicity. There were small differences in chromosome destabilization and plating efficiencies between cells irradiated with 5 or 10 Gy of X rays after a previous exposure to 10 Gy and cells irradiated only once. Cell clones showing delayed chromosomal instability had normal frequencies of sister chromatid exchange formation, indicating that at this cytogenetic endpoint the chromosomal instability was not apparent. The types of chromosomal rearrangements observed suggest that chromosome fusion, followed by bridge breakage and refusion, contributes to the observed delayed chromosomal instability. Images PMID:8413263

  18. Baroclinic instability in stellar radiation zones

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchatinov, L. L.

    2014-03-20

    Surfaces of constant pressure and constant density do not coincide in differentially rotating stars. Stellar radiation zones with baroclinic stratification can be unstable. Instabilities in radiation zones are of crucial importance for angular momentum transport, mixing of chemical species, and, possibly, for magnetic field generation. This paper performs linear analysis of baroclinic instability in differentially rotating stars. Linear stability equations are formulated for differential rotation of arbitrary shape and then solved numerically for rotation nonuniform in radius. As the differential rotation increases, r- and g-modes of initially stable global oscillations transform smoothly into growing modes of baroclinic instability. The instability can therefore be interpreted as stability loss to r- and g-modes excitation. Regions of stellar parameters where r- or g-modes are preferentially excited are defined. Baroclinic instability onsets at a very small differential rotation of below 1%. The characteristic time of instability growth is about 1000 rotation periods. Growing disturbances possess kinetic helicity. Magnetic field generation by the turbulence resulting from baroclinic instability in differentially rotating radiation zones is therefore possible.

  19. Understanding Multidirectional Instability of the Shoulder

    PubMed Central

    Cordasco, Frank A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the evaluation and treatment of the patient with multidirectional shoulder instability. Data Sources: I searched MEDLINE for the years from 1980 to 2000 using the key words “shoulder joint,” “instability,” “dislocation,” “multidirectional shoulder instability,” and “inferior capsular shift.” Data Synthesis: Multidirectional instability is symptomatic glenohumeral subluxation or dislocation in more than 1 direction: anterior, inferior, or posterior. The primary pathology is a loose and patulous capsule, and the entity is more common than previously recognized. Multidirectional instability affects young, sedentary patients with generalized ligamentous laxity, often with bilateral symptoms and an atraumatic history, but it also affects athletes, many of whom have sustained injuries. Patients with multidirectional instability may also have Bankart lesions and humeral head impression defects. Conclusions/Recommendations: Patients with multidirectional instability must be identified before appropriate treatment can be initiated. If a course of rehabilitation fails to improve the patient's symptoms, an inferior capsular shift procedure has been demonstrated to be an effective surgical option. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7.Figure 8.Figure 9.Figure 10. PMID:16558641

  20. Radiative heat transport instability in ICF plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozmus, W.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A laser produced high-Z plasma in which an energy balance is achieved due to radiation losses and radiative heat transfer supports ion acoustic wave instability. A linear dispersion relation is derived and instability is compared to the radiation cooling instability. This instability develops in the wide range of angles and wavenumbers with the typical growth rate on the order of cs/LT (cs is the sound speed, LT is the temperature scale length). In addition to radiation dominated systems, a similar thermal transport driven ion acoustic instability was found before in plasmas where the thermal transport coefficient depends on electron density. However, under conditions of indirect drive ICF experiments the driving term for the instability is the radiative heat flux and in particular, the density dependence of the radiative heat conductivity. A specific example of thermal Bremsstrahlung radiation source has been considered corresponding to a thermal conductivity coefficient that is inversely proportional to the square of local particle density. In the nonlinear regime this instability may lead to plasma jet formation and anisotropic x-ray generation.

  1. Tidal instability in a rotating heated core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Maubert, P.; Le Bars, M.

    2011-12-01

    The tidal (or elliptical) instability comes from a triadic parametric resonance between two inertial waves of a rotating fluid and an imposed elliptic deformation. Previous studies of this instability have been conducted with an isothermal fluid. Nevertheless, in all natural systems, temperature differences are also present, which lead to stratification or to convection. The previous studies need then to be reinvestigated in order to quantify the impact of a temperature field on the elliptical instability. Conversely, from a thermal point of view, many studies have been performed regarding the convective flow of an incompressible homogeneous fluid in a rotating spherical shell. However, since most astrophysical bodies are tidally deformed, these studies have to be reinvestigated to account for the potential presence of an elliptical instability. Note that this is different from the direct resonance of a forced gravito-inertial wave considered by Kumazawa et al. (1994). The guideline of our study is given by the following questions: (i) how is the growth rate of the tidal instability modified by an imposed temperature difference in an ellipsoidal geometry? (ii) Does the tidal instability grow over an established convective flow? (iii) Is the heat flux modified by the instability, and what are the scaling laws involved? In this work, we tackle these questions using a systematic numerical study of the thermo-elliptical rotating flow in a fixed triaxial ellipsoidal shell. In particular, we validate general physical processes of direct relevance for planetary dynamics. We demonstrate also that the tidal instability can grow on a convective flow, and may disrupt the famous Busse columns in planetary cores. Finally, we show that the heat flux at planetary scales may be controlled by the forced convection due to this tidal instability, which in any case plays a fundamental role in the organization of fluid motions. Kumazawa, M., Yoshida, S., Ito, T., Yoshioka, H., 1994

  2. Widnall instabilities in vortex pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipp, Denis; Jacquin, Laurent

    2003-07-01

    In this article we analyze the cooperative three-dimensional short-wave instabilities developing on concentrated vortex dipoles that have been obtained by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations. These dipoles are characterized by their aspect ratio a/b where a is the radius of the vortices based on the polar moments of vorticity and b is the separation between the vortex centroids. In the inviscid case, we show that the selection of the antisymmetric eigenmode smoothly increases with a/b: for a/b=0.208, the amplification rate of the antisymmetric eigenmode is only 1.4% larger than the amplification rate of the symmetric eigenmode. When a/b=0.288, this difference increases up to 7%. The results of the normal mode analysis may be compared to those of an asymptotic stability analysis of a Lamb-Oseen vortex subjected to a weak straining field, following Moore and Saffman [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 346, 413 (1975)]. This theory shows that the instability may occur whenever two Kelvin waves exist with the same frequency ω, the same axial wavenumber k and with azimuthal wavenumbers m and m+2. Contrary to the case of a Rankine vortex [Tsai and Widnall, J. Fluid Mech. 73, 721 (1976)], the presence of critical layers in a Lamb-Oseen vortex prevents a large number of possible resonances. For example, resonances between m=-2 and m=0 modes lead to damped modes. The only resonances that occur are related to the stationary (ω=0) bending waves (m=±1) obtained for specific values of the axial wavenumber. All these predictions are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the stability analysis of the considered vortex pairs. At last, we present a nonautonomous amplitude equation which takes into account all effects of viscosity, i.e., the viscous damping of the amplification rate of the perturbation but also the increase of the dipole aspect ratio a/b due to the viscous diffusion of the basic flowfield. The low-Reynolds number experiment of

  3. A drift model of interchange instability

    SciTech Connect

    Benilov, E. S.; Power, O. A.

    2007-08-15

    A set of asymptotic equations is derived, describing the dynamics of the flute mode in a magnetized plasma with cold ions, under a 'local' approximation (i.e., near a particular point). The asymptotic set is then used to calculate the growth rate of interchange instability in the slab model. It is shown that, unlike the magnetohydrodynamic ordering, the drift one allows instability to occur for either sign of the pressure gradient (i.e., for both 'bad' and 'good' curvature of the magnetic field). It is also demonstrated that finite beta gives rise to an extra instability that does not exist in the small-beta limit.

  4. A new instability of Saturn's ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goertz, C. K.; Morfill, G.

    1988-01-01

    Perturbations in the Saturn ring's mass density are noted to be prone to instabilities through the sporadic elevation of submicron-size dust particles above the rings, which furnishes an effective angular momentum exchange between the rings and Saturn. The dust thus elevated from the ring settles back onto it at a different radial distance. The range of wavelength instability is determinable in light of the dust charge, the average radial displacement of the dust, and the fluctuation of these quantities. It is suggested that at least some of the B-ring's ringlets may arise from the instability.

  5. Inviscid instability of streamwise corner flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandar, S.; Malik, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    Linear stability of the incompressible flow along a stream wise corner is studied by solving the two-dimensional eigenvalue problem governed by partial differential equations. It is found that this fully three-dimensional flow is subject to inviscid instability due to the inflectional nature of the stream wise velocity profile. The higher growth rates for the inviscid instability mode, which is symmetric about the corner bisector, as compared to the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability operative away from the corner is consistent with the experimental findings that the corner flow transitions to turbulence earlier than the two-dimensional Blasius flow away from the corner.

  6. Understanding carpal instability: a radiographic perspective.

    PubMed

    Kani, Kimia Khalatbari; Mulcahy, Hyojeong; Chew, Felix S

    2016-08-01

    The wrist is disposed to a variety of instability patterns owing to its complex anatomical and biomechanical properties. Various classification schemes have been proposed to describe the different patterns of carpal instability, of which the Mayo classification is the most commonly used. Understanding the concepts and pertinent terminology of this classification scheme is important for the correct interpretation of images and optimal communication with referring physicians. Standard wrist radiographs are the first line of imaging in carpal instability. Additional information may be obtained with the use of stress radiographs and other imaging modalities. PMID:27085694

  7. Three-dimensional instability of elliptical flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayly, B. J.

    1986-10-01

    A clarification of the physical and mathematical nature of Pierrhumbert's (1986) three-dimensional short-wave inviscid instability of simple two-dimensional elliptical flow is presented. The instabilities found are independent of length scale, extending Pierrhumbert's conclusion that the structures of the instabilities are independent of length scale in the limit of large wave number. The fundamental modes are exact solutions of the nonlinear equations, and they are plane waves whose wave vector rotates elliptically around the z axis with a period of 2(pi)/Omega. The growth rates are shown to be the exponents of a matrix Floquet problem, and good agreement is found with previous results.

  8. Mode instabilities: physical origin and mitigation strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jauregui, Cesar; Otto, Hans-Jürgen; Jansen, Florian; Stutzki, Fabian; Eidam, Tino; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-03-01

    The phenomenon of mode instabilities has quickly become the most limiting effect for a further scaling of the average power of fiber laser systems. It is important to get a detailed understanding of its physical origin in order to develop efficient mitigation strategies. In this work we present an analysis of the different physical processes that give rise to mode instabilities and reveal that thermally-induced non-adiabatic waveguide changes play a key role. With this insight in the physical processes underlying mode instabilities a semi-analytic formula is obtained and several mitigation guidelines will be presented and discussed.

  9. Rational instability in the natural coalition forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Galina; Galam, Serge

    2013-12-01

    The work aims to investigate a paradigm of instability in coalition forming among countries, using a model inspired from Statistical Physics. The instability is a consequence of decentralized maximization of the individual benefits where contradictory associations into coalitions occur due to independent evolution of pairwise propensity bonds. In contrast to the existing literature we analyze the phenomena within a long horizon rationality of actors. This allows to explore the complex behaviors and phenomena such as instability, infinite cycling and non-optimal stability. Along with the formal implementation, we illustrate the phenomena in a multi-thread simulation created for this aim, and provide analysis of several real cases including the Eurozone.

  10. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in binary condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, S.; Angom, D.

    2010-05-15

    We propose a well-controlled experimental scheme to initiate and examine the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates. We identify the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture as an excellent candidate to observe experimentally. The instability is initiated by tuning the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 85}Rb interaction through a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that the observable signature of the instability is the damping of the radial oscillations. We also propose a semianalytic scheme to determine the stationary state of binary condensates with the Thomas-Fermi approximation for axisymmetric traps.

  11. Polygonal instability of Marangoni flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roché, Matthieu; Labousse, Matthieu; El Hadj Maiga, Baba; Nya, Loïc; Le Roux, Sébastien; Cantat, Isabelle; Saint-Jalmes, Arnaud

    2015-11-01

    The transport of pepper grains floating at the surface of a bowl of water after the release of a drop of dishwashing liquid is a classical experiment to demonstrate the Marangoni effect, i.e. the flow of a liquid layer induced by interfacial tension gradients at its surface. In this case, the interfacial tension gradient results from a surfactant interfacial concentration gradient. Recently, we showed that continuous injection of an aqueous solution of hydrosoluble surfactants at the surface of a cm-thick pure water layer induced finite-size Marangoni flows surrounded by a region characterized by the presence of several pairs of interfacial vortices arranged along the the vertices of polygons. During this talk, I will show that we can understand the flow structure induced by these Marangoni flows, in particular their tendency to have polygonal shapes. I will describe how flow features such as the number of interfacial vortices or bulk recirculation flows depend on flow geometry. Finally, I will compare these results to a model that explains similar polygonal instabilities in other flows such as the hydraulic jump.

  12. Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.

    1955-11-01

    A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.

  13. Instability of floating extensional flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayag, Roiy; Worster, Grae

    2015-11-01

    We study the propagation of a viscous fluid over a thin layer of a denser and inviscid fluid. The viscous fluid is released axisymmetrially at constant flux, and is driven by gravity. Near the origin, where the viscous layer is thick, the flow is dominated by vertical shear. In the outer region where the viscous layer is thinner, it floats over the inviscid layer and the dominant stress is extensional. The floating region of such flows remains axisymmetric when the viscous fluid is Newtonian. In contrast, when the viscous fluid is non Newtonian, the floating region can be distributed in an array of extensional tongues. We use experimental and theoretical analysis to study the symmetry breaking of the extensional region. Experiments using polymeric fluids show that the characteristic wavelength of the tongues increases with flux. Theoretically, we model the symmetry breaking as flow instability of a power-law fluid that becomes Newtonian at low strain rates. Our model predicts unstable modes at the strongly non-Newtonian limit, and stable, axisymmetric mode in the Newtonian limit.

  14. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response

    PubMed Central

    Swanton, Charles; Nicke, Barbara; Schuett, Marion; Eklund, Aron C.; Ng, Charlotte; Li, Qiyuan; Hardcastle, Thomas; Lee, Alvin; Roy, Rajat; East, Philip; Kschischo, Maik; Endesfelder, David; Wylie, Paul; Kim, Se Nyun; Chen, Jie-Guang; Howell, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Habermann, Jens K.; Auer, Gert; Brenton, James D.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Downward, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Microtubule-stabilizing (MTS) agents, such as taxanes, are important chemotherapeutics with a poorly understood mechanism of action. We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these “CIN-survival” genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane resistance but carboplatin sensitivity, indicating that CIN may determine MTS response in vivo. Thus, pretherapeutic assessment of CIN may optimize treatment stratification and clinical trial design using these agents. PMID:19458043

  15. Chromosomal instability determines taxane response.

    PubMed

    Swanton, Charles; Nicke, Barbara; Schuett, Marion; Eklund, Aron C; Ng, Charlotte; Li, Qiyuan; Hardcastle, Thomas; Lee, Alvin; Roy, Rajat; East, Philip; Kschischo, Maik; Endesfelder, David; Wylie, Paul; Kim, Se Nyun; Chen, Jie-Guang; Howell, Michael; Ried, Thomas; Habermann, Jens K; Auer, Gert; Brenton, James D; Szallasi, Zoltan; Downward, Julian

    2009-05-26

    Microtubule-stabilizing (MTS) agents, such as taxanes, are important chemotherapeutics with a poorly understood mechanism of action. We identified a set of genes repressed in multiple cell lines in response to MTS agents and observed that these genes are overexpressed in tumors exhibiting chromosomal instability (CIN). Silencing 22/50 of these genes, many of which are involved in DNA repair, caused cancer cell death, suggesting that these genes are involved in the survival of aneuploid cells. Overexpression of these "CIN-survival" genes is associated with poor outcome in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer and occurs frequently in basal-like and Her2-positive cases. In diploid cells, but not in chromosomally unstable cells, paclitaxel causes repression of CIN-survival genes, followed by cell death. In the OV01 ovarian cancer clinical trial, a high level of CIN was associated with taxane resistance but carboplatin sensitivity, indicating that CIN may determine MTS response in vivo. Thus, pretherapeutic assessment of CIN may optimize treatment stratification and clinical trial design using these agents. PMID:19458043

  16. Transient spirals as superposed instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sellwood, J. A.; Carlberg, R. G. E-mail: carlberg@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-20

    We present evidence that recurrent spiral activity, long manifested in simulations of disk galaxies, results from the superposition of a few transient spiral modes. Each mode lasts between 5 and 10 rotations at its corotation radius where its amplitude is greatest. The scattering of stars as each wave decays takes place over narrow ranges of angular momentum, causing abrupt changes to the impedance of the disk to subsequent traveling waves. Partial reflections of waves at these newly created features allows new standing-wave instabilities to appear that saturate and decay in their turn, scattering particles at new locations, creating a recurring cycle. The spiral activity causes the general level of random motion to rise, gradually decreasing the ability of the disk to support further activity unless the disk contains a dissipative gas component from which stars form on near-circular orbits. We also show that this interpretation is consistent with the behavior reported in other recent simulations with low-mass disks.

  17. Gravitational Instability in Planetesimal Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolin, Bryce T.; Lithwick, Yoram; Pan, Margaret; Rein, Hanno; Wu, Yanqin

    2014-11-01

    Gravitational instability (GI) has been proposed as a method of forming giant gas planets enhanced by disk thermodynamics in a protoplanetary disk (Boss, 1997, Science 276; Durisen et al., 2007, Protostars and Planets V) and as a method of forming planetesimals through the focusing of boulders by the interaction between solids and gases in a turbulent circumstellar disk (Johansen et al., 2007, Nature 448; Youdin & Goodman, 2005, Astrophys. J. 620). GI is mediated through a gaseous circumstellar disk in each each of these scenarios. We explore the possibility of GI occurring in a planetesimal disk devoid of gas. In this regime, mutual collisions between planetesimals are required to dissipate their orbital shear and velocity dispersion enough for collapse to occur as described by the Toomre stability criterion (Toomre, 1964, Astrophys. J. 139; Toomre, 1981, Structure and Evolution of Normal Galaxies). How frequent must collisions be between planetesimals in a gravitationally stable planetesimal disk for GI to occur? Are there collisional rates where GI is postponed indefinitely in an equilibrium state between gravitational stirring and collisional cooling? We present 3D shearing sheet simulations using the REBOUND N-body code with the symplectic epicyclic integrator (Rein & Liu, 2011, A&A 537; Rein & Tremaine, 2011, MNRAS 415) in which the candidate collision rates are within a few orders of magnitude of the disk dynamical lifetime. Our simulations suggest that collisions rate directly controls disk cooling. The shape of the disk cooling curve is independent of the collision rate when scaled to the collision time.

  18. Instability of viscoelastic compound jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.

  19. THE MAGNETOVISCOUS-THERMAL INSTABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Islam, Tanim

    2012-02-10

    Accretion flows onto underluminous black holes, such as Sagittarius A* at the center of our galaxy, are dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless), optically thin, and radiatively inefficient. Therefore, the accretion properties of such dilute flows are expected to be modified by their large viscosities and thermal conductivities. Second, turbulence within these systems needs to transport angular momentum as well as thermal energy generated through gravitational infall outward in order to allow accretion to occur. This is in contrast to classical accretion flows, in which the energy generated through accretion down a gravitational well is locally radiated. In this paper, using an incompressible fluid treatment of an ionized gas, we expand on previous research by considering the stability properties of a magnetized rotating plasma wherein the thermal conductivity and viscosity are not negligible and may be dynamically important. We find a class of MHD instabilities that can transport angular momentum and thermal energy outward. They are plausible candidates to describe accretion in radiatively inefficient accretion flows. We finish by discussing the implications for analytic models and numerical MHD simulations of mildly dilute or collisionless astrophysical plasmas, and immediate directions for further research.

  20. Instabilities in MPD thruster flows: 1. Space charge instabilities in unbounded and inhomogeneous plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, H. P.; Kaeppeler, H. J.; Auweter-Kurtz, M.

    1998-03-01

    For a few years, the study of magnetoplasmadynamic instabilities has received increased attention because they may explain the so-called `onset' phenomena which limit the efficiency and, thus, the use of coaxial plasma accelerators in space propulsion and other applications. A systematic investigation of instabilities in magnetoplasmadynamic flows was initiated at the Institut für Raumfahrtsysteme in 1987. Among other instabilities, a particular one with the characteristics of the space charge instability was found. This instability had until then been known to occur only in finite gas discharge geometries. It will be shown in this paper that, in the presence of gradients of the flow variables, space charge instabilities can also appear in unbounded plasmas. The conditions for their development and growth are determined and discussed.

  1. Instabilities of geared couplings: Theory and practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Mondy, R. E.; Murphy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The use of couplings for high speed turbocompressors or pumps is essential to transmit power from the driver. Typical couplings are either of the lubricated gear or dry diaphragm type design. Gear couplings have been the standard design for many years and recent advances in power and speed requirements have pushed the standard design criteria to the limit. Recent test stand and field data on continuous lube gear type couplings have forced a closer examination of design tolerances and concepts to avoid operational instabilities. Two types of mechanical instabilities are reviewed in this paper: (1) entrapped fluid, and (2) gear mesh instability resulting in spacer throw-out onset. Test stand results of these types of instabilities and other directly related problems are presented together with criteria for proper coupling design to avoid these conditions. An additional test case discussed shows the importance of proper material selection and processing and what can happen to an otherwise good design.

  2. INSTABILITY ISSUES AT THE SNS STORAGE RING

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,S.Y.

    1999-06-28

    The impedance and beam instability issues of the SNS storage ring is reviewed, and the effort toward solutions at the BNL is reported. Some unsettled issues are raised, indicating the direction of planned works.

  3. Experimental Replication of an Aeroengine Combustion Instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. M.; Hibshman, J. R.; Proscia, W.; Rosfjord, T. J.; Wake, B. E.; McVey, J. B.; Lovett, J.; Ondas, M.; DeLaat, J.; Breisacher, K.

    2000-01-01

    Combustion instabilities in gas turbine engines are most frequently encountered during the late phases of engine development, at which point they are difficult and expensive to fix. The ability to replicate an engine-traceable combustion instability in a laboratory-scale experiment offers the opportunity to economically diagnose the problem (to determine the root cause), and to investigate solutions to the problem, such as active control. The development and validation of active combustion instability control requires that the causal dynamic processes be reproduced in experimental test facilities which can be used as a test bed for control system evaluation. This paper discusses the process through which a laboratory-scale experiment was designed to replicate an instability observed in a developmental engine. The scaling process used physically-based analyses to preserve the relevant geometric, acoustic and thermo-fluid features. The process increases the probability that results achieved in the single-nozzle experiment will be scalable to the engine.

  4. Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.

  5. The universal instability in general geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Helander, P.; Plunk, G. G.

    2015-09-15

    The “universal” instability has recently been revived by Landreman et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 095003 (2015)], who showed that it indeed exists in plasma geometries with straight (but sheared) magnetic field lines. Here, it is demonstrated analytically that this instability can be presented in more general sheared and toroidal geometries. In a torus, the universal instability is shown to be closely related to the trapped-electron mode, although the trapped-electron drive is usually dominant. However, this drive can be weakened or eliminated, as in the case in stellarators with the maximum-J property, leaving the parallel Landau resonance to drive a residual mode, which is identified as the universal instability.

  6. Electrostatic ion cyclotron velocity shear instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemons, D. S.; Winske, D.; Gary, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    A local electrostatic dispersion equation is derived for a shear flow perpendicular to an ambient magnetic field, which includes all kinetic effects and involves only one important parameter. The dispersion equation is cast in the form of Gordeyev integrals and is solved numerically. Numerical solutions indicate that an ion cyclotron instability is excited. The instability occurs roughly at multiples of the ion cyclotron frequency (modified by the shear), with the growth rate or the individual harmonics overlapping in the wavenumber. At large values of the shear parameter, the instability is confined to long wavelengths, but at smaller shear, a second distinct branch at shorter wavelengths also appears. The properties of the instability obtained are compared with those obtained in the nonlocal limit by Ganguli et al. (1985, 1988).

  7. Instability in hydraulic machines demonstration rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muszynska, A.; Braun, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    In fluid flow machines, the working fluid involved in rotative motion due to shaft rotation significantly modifies the rotor synchronous response. This can result in the rotor maintaining the high vibration amplitude that occurs at resonance over an extended rotative speed range. The phase changes in this range are typically very small. The fluid may also create rotor instability, i.e., subsynchronous self-excited vibrations, when the rotative speed is sufficiently high. This rotor instability is often related and increases with higher rotor unbalance (Opposite to other types of instability such as oil whirl/whip, internal friction, etc.). The rotor rig demonstrates typical dynamic behavior of hydraulic machines. At lower speeds the effect of amplitude/phase mentioned above is noticeable; at higher speeds the subsynchronous instability occurs.

  8. Dynamic instability of ducts conveying fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. Y.

    1975-01-01

    A finite element analysis was used to study dynamic instability in ducts conveying high speed fluids. Ducts examined include cantilevered curved, flexibly supported, arbitrarily shaped, and composite duct systems. Partial differential equations were used to study the duct systems.

  9. The nature of symmetric instability and its similarity to convective and inertial instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Q.; Clark, J. H. E.

    1985-01-01

    It is shown that there exists a local similarity among SI (Symmetric Instability), BI (Buoyancy or Convective Instability), and II (Inertial Instability) even for fully nonlinear viscous motion. The most unstable slope angles for SI and Moist SI motions are analyzed based on parcel energetics. These considerations also suggest qualitatively that CSI (Conditional SI) circulations will be slantwise and lie between the moist most unstable slope and dry least stable slope of the basic state.

  10. High-pressure mechanical instability in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byerlee, J.D.; Brace, W.F.

    1969-01-01

    At a confining pressure of a few kilobars, deformation of many sedimentary rocks, altered mafic rocks, porous volcanic rocks, and sand is ductile, in that instabilities leading to audible elastic shocks are absent. At pressures of 7 to 10 kilobars, however, unstable faulting and stick-slip in certain of these rocks was observed. This high pressure-low temperature instability might be responsible for earthquakes in deeply buried sedimentary or volcanic sequences.

  11. Jeans instability in a quantum dusty magnetoplasma

    SciTech Connect

    Salimullah, M.; Jamil, M.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2009-01-15

    Jeans instability in a homogeneous cold quantum dusty plasma in the presence of the ambient magnetic field and the quantum effect arising through the Bohm potential has been examined using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic model. It is found that the Jeans instability is significantly reduced by the presence of the dust-lower-hybrid wave and the ion quantum effect. The minimum wavenumber for Jeans stability depends clearly on ion quantum effect and the dust-lower-hybrid frequency also.

  12. Flow instabilities in transonic small disturbance theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. H.; Bland, S. R.; Edwards, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamics of unsteady transonic small disturbance flows about two-dimensional airfoils is examined, with emphasis on the behavior in the region where the steady state flow is nonunique. It is shown that nonuniqueness results from an extremely long time scale instability which occurs in a finite Mach number and angle of attack range. The similarity scaling rules for the instability are presented and the possibility of similar behavior in the Euler equations is discussed.

  13. A new inclination instability in planetary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madigan, Ann-Marie

    2015-08-01

    I describe a new instability in Keplerian disks of massive particles on eccentric orbits. Gravitational torques between the orbits align their angles of pericenter and drive exponential growth in orbital inclination. This instability implies specific ratios for Kepler elements of the orbits, similar to what is seen in the inner Oort Cloud of our solar system. I also discuss implications for extra-solar planetary systems and for nuclear star clusters in the centers of galaxies.

  14. Computational methods for probability of instability calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of a dynamic system than can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the roots of the characteristics equation or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on system reliability analysis methods and importance sampling concepts are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the methods.

  15. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I. G. J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  16. Instabilities In The Flow Between Rotating Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisy, F.; Gauthier, G.; Gondret, P.; Rabaud, M.

    Instabilities in the flow between two close rotating disks enclosed by a cylinder are investigated experimentally. This flow undergoes a large gallery of instability patterns, presented in the plane of parameters (Reb, Ret) of the Reynolds numbers based on the velocity of each disk and the distance between them. The corotation case and the counter-rotation case with low counter-rotation ratio are very similar to the rotor-stator case: instabilities of the Bödewadt type boundary layer leads to axisymmetric vortices and positive spirals. The counter-rotation case with higher counter-rotation ratio is more complex: above a given rotation ratio, the radial recirculation flow gets organized in a two-cell structure with the apparition of a stagnation circle on the slower disk. A new kind of instability pattern is observed, called negative spirals, that may coexist with the positive spirals (Gauthier et al, subm. J. Fluid Mech. 2001). This new spiral pattern seems to arise from an azimuthal shear layer instability, rather than a boundary layer instability as for the two other patterns. Negative spirals are characterized for different aspect ratios (azimuthal mode, phase velocity), allowing comparisons with recent numerical simulations (Lopez et al, to appear in J. Fluid Mech. 2002).

  17. On the chiral imbalance and Weibel instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avdhesh; Bhatt, Jitesh R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2016-06-01

    We study the chiral-imbalance and the Weibel instabilities in presence of the quantum anomaly using the Berry-curvature modified kinetic equation. We argue that in many realistic situations, e.g. relativistic heavy-ion collisions, both the instabilities can occur simultaneously. The Weibel instability depends on the momentum anisotropy parameter ξ and the angle (θn) between the propagation vector and the anisotropy direction. It has maximum growth rate at θn = 0 while θn = π / 2 corresponds to a damping. On the other hand the pure chiral-imbalance instability occurs in an isotropic plasma and depends on difference between the chiral chemical potentials of right and left-handed particles. It is shown that when θn = 0, only for a very small values of the anisotropic parameter ξ ∼ξc, growth rates of the both instabilities are comparable. For the cases ξc < ξ ≪ 1 or ξ ≳ 1 at θn = 0, the Weibel modes dominate over the chiral-imbalance instability if μ5 / T ≤ 1. However, when μ5 / T ≥ 1, it is possible to have dominance of the chiral-imbalance modes at certain values of θn for an arbitrary ξ.

  18. SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS

    SciTech Connect

    Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2012-06-20

    Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.

  19. Two-stream instability model with electrons trapped in quadrupoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Channell, P. J.

    2009-08-01

    We formulate the theory of the two-stream instability (e-cloud instability) with electrons trapped in quadrupole magnets. We show that a linear instability theory can be sensibly formulated and analyzed. The growth rates are considerably smaller than the linear growth rates for the two-stream instability in drift spaces and are close to those actually observed.

  20. Plasma instabilities in electronegative inductive discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marakhtanov, Alexei Mikhail

    Plasma instabilities have been observed in low-pressure inductive discharges, in the transition between low density capacitive mode and high density inductive mode of the discharge when attaching gases such as SF6 and Ar/SF 6 mixtures are used. Oscillations of charged particles, plasma potential and light emitted from the plasma with the frequencies from a few hertz to tens of kilohertz are seen for gas pressures between 1 and 100 mTorr and the discharge power in the range of 75--1200 W. The region of instability increases as the plasma becomes more electronegative and the frequency of plasma oscillations increases as the power, pressure, and gas flow rate increase. The instability frequencies may also depend on the settings of a matching network. A volume-averaged (global) model of the instability has been developed, for a discharge containing time varying densities of electrons, positive ions, and negative ions, and time invariant excited states and neutral densities. The particle and energy balance equations are integrated to produce the dynamical behavior. As pressure or power is varied to cross a threshold, the instability goes through a series of oscillatory states to large scale relaxation oscillations between higher and lower density states. The model qualitatively agrees with experimental observations, and also shows a significant influence of the matching network. A stability analysis of an electronegative discharge has been performed, using a Hurwitz criterion, for a system of linearized particle and power balance differential equations. Capacitive coupling plays a crucial role in the instability process. A variable electrostatic (Faraday) shield has been used to control the capacitive coupling from the excitation coil to the plasma. The plasma instability disappears when the shielded area exceeds 65% of the total area of the coil. The global model of instability gives a slightly higher value of 85% for instability suppression with the same discharge