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Sample records for non-destructive assay methods

  1. The Role of Mathematical Methods in Efficiency Calibration and Uncertainty Estimation in Gamma Based Non-Destructive Assay - 12311

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, R.; Nakazawa, D.

    2012-07-01

    Mathematical methods are being increasingly employed in the efficiency calibration of gamma based systems for non-destructive assay (NDA) of radioactive waste and for the estimation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU). Recently, ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) released a standard guide for use of modeling passive gamma measurements. This is a testimony to the common use and increasing acceptance of mathematical techniques in the calibration and characterization of NDA systems. Mathematical methods offer flexibility and cost savings in terms of rapidly incorporating calibrations for multiple container types, geometries, and matrix types in a new waste assay system or a system that may already be operational. Mathematical methods are also useful in modeling heterogeneous matrices and non-uniform activity distributions. In compliance with good practice, if a computational method is used in waste assay (or in any other radiological application), it must be validated or benchmarked using representative measurements. In this paper, applications involving mathematical methods in gamma based NDA systems are discussed with several examples. The application examples are from NDA systems that were recently calibrated and performance tested. Measurement based verification results are presented. Mathematical methods play an important role in the efficiency calibration of gamma based NDA systems. This is especially true when the measurement program involves a wide variety of complex item geometries and matrix combinations for which the development of physical standards may be impractical. Mathematical methods offer a cost effective means to perform TMU campaigns. Good practice demands that all mathematical estimates be benchmarked and validated using representative sets of measurements. (authors)

  2. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  3. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W.

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  4. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  5. Non-destructive Assay Measurements Using the RPI Lead Slowing Down Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Bjorn; Weltz, Adam; Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Thompson, J. T.; Thompson, N.; Danon, Yaron

    2013-10-01

    The use of a Lead Slowing-Down Spectrometer (LSDS) is consid- ered as a possible option for non-destructive assay of fissile material of used nuclear fuel. The primary objective is to quantify the 239Pu and 235U fissile content via a direct measurement, distinguishing them through their characteristic fission spectra in the LSDS. In this pa- per, we present several assay measurements performed at the Rensse- laer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) to demonstrate the feasibility of such a method and to provide benchmark experiments for Monte Carlo cal- culations of the assay system. A fresh UOX fuel rod from the RPI Criticality Research Facility, a 239PuBe source and several highly en- riched 235U discs were assayed in the LSDS. The characteristic fission spectra were measured with 238U and 232Th threshold fission cham- bers, which are only sensitive to fission neutron with energy above the threshold. Despite the constant neutron and gamma background from the PuBe source and the intense interrogation neutron flux, the LSDS system was able to measure the characteristic 235U and 239Pu responses. All measurements were compared to Monte Carlo simula- tions. It was shown that the available simulation tools and models are well suited to simulate the assay, and that it is possible to calculate the absolute count rate in all investigated cases.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  7. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  8. Method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion

    DOEpatents

    Fong, James T.

    1996-01-01

    A method of non-destructively inspecting a curved wall portion of a large and thick walled vessel for a defect by computed tomography is provided. A collimated source of radiation is placed adjacent one side of the wall portion and an array of detectors for the radiation is placed on the other side adjacent the source. The radiation from the source passing through the wall portion is then detected with the detectors over a limited angle, dependent upon the curvature of the wall of the vessel, to obtain a dataset. The source and array are then coordinately moved relative to the wall portion in steps and a further dataset is obtained at each step. The plurality of datasets obtained over the limited angle is then processed to produce a tomogram of the wall portion to determine the presence of a defect therein. In a preferred embodiment, the curved wall portion has a center of curvature so that the source and the array are positioned at each step along a respective arc curved about the center. If desired, the detector array and source can be reoriented relative to a new wall portion and an inspection of the new wall portion can be easily obtained. Further, the source and detector array can be indexed in a direction perpendicular to a plane including the limited angle in a plurality of steps so that by repeating the detecting and moving steps at each index step, a three dimensional image can be created of the wall portion.

  9. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  10. Geophysical Methods for Non-Destructive Testing in Civil Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niederleithinger, E.

    2013-12-01

    Many non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for civil engineering (e. g. ultrasonics, radar) are similar to geophysical techniques. They just differ in scale, material under investigation and vocabulary used. In spite of the fact that the same principles of physics and mathematics apply to both fields, exchange has been limited in the past. But since a few years more and more geophysical knowledge is used in civil engineering. One of the focal points in research is to improve ultrasonic testing of concrete to be able to image the inside even of large, complex structures and to detect any deterioration as early as possible. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of concrete, including aggregates, reinforcement, cracks and many other features. Our current research focuses on three points. One is the application of state of the art geophysical migration techniques as Reverse Time Migration (RTM) to image vertical faces or the backside of voids and ducts in thick concrete structures, which isn't possible with conventional techniques used in NDT. Second, we have started to use seismic interferometric techniques to interpolate ultrasonic traces, which can't be measured directly for technical reasons. Third, we are using coda wave interferometry to detect concrete degradation due to load, fatigue, temperature or other influences as early as possible. Practical examples of the application of these techniques are given and potential future research directions will be discussed. It will be shown, how a subset of these techniques can be used for innovative monitoring systems for civil infrastructure. Imaging the interior of a concrete body by ultrasonics and reverse time migration(simulated data).

  11. Passive Neutron Non-Destructive Assay for Remediation of Radiological Waste at Hanford Burial Grounds- 13189

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.; Pitts, M.; Ludowise, J.D.; Valentinelli, P.; Grando, C.J.; Haggard, D.L.

    2013-07-01

    The Hanford burial grounds contains a broad spectrum of low activity radioactive wastes, transuranic (TRU) wastes, and hazardous wastes including fission products, byproduct material (thorium and uranium), plutonium and laboratory chemicals. A passive neutron non-destructive assay technique has been developed for characterization of shielded concreted drums exhumed from the burial grounds. This method facilitates the separation of low activity radiological waste containers from TRU waste containers exhumed from the burial grounds. Two identical total neutron counting systems have been deployed, each consisting of He-3 detectors surrounded by a polyethylene moderator. The counts are processed through a statistical filter that removes outliers in order to suppress cosmic spallation events and electronic noise. Upon completion of processing, a 'GO / NO GO' signal is provided to the operator based on a threshold level equivalent to 0.5 grams of weapons grade plutonium in the container being evaluated. This approach allows instantaneous decisions to be made on how to proceed with the waste. The counting systems have been set up using initial on-site measurements (neutron emitting standards loaded into surrogate waste containers) combined with Monte Carlo modeling techniques. The benefit of this approach is to allow the systems to extend their measurement ranges, in terms of applicable matrix types and container sizes, with minimal interruption to the operations at the burial grounds. (authors)

  12. Design of ERL Spoke Cavity For Non-Destructive Assay Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, M.; Nagai, R.; Nishimori, N.; Hajima, R.

    2015-10-01

    We are proposing non-destructive assay system of nuclear materials with laser Compton scattering combined with an energy-recovery linac (ERL) and a laser. Since constructing accelerator system for nuclear safe guard and security requires small cavities, spoke cavities have many advantages such as shortening the distance between cavities, small frequency detune due to micro-phonics and easy adjustment of field distribution for strong cell coupling. Calculations of optimized cavity shape and HOM coupler shape have been performed and rf properties with aluminum spoke cavity model have been also measured. Considering refrigerator system required for superconducting accelerator, we are planning to develop 325MHz spoke cavity which can be practically operated with 4K liquid helium. We have started to fabricate the niobium one-spoke cavity.

  13. Non-destructive assay of fissile materials through active neutron interrogation technique using pulsed neutron (plasma focus) device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomar, B. S.; Kaushik, T. C.; Andola, Sanjay; Ramniranjan; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.; Sinha, R. K.

    2013-03-01

    Pulsed neutrons emitted from a plasma focus (PF) device have been used for the first time for the non-destructive assay of 235U content in different chemical forms (oxide and metal). The PF device generates (1.2±0.3)×109 D-D fusion neutrons per shot with a pulse width of 46±5 ns. The method involves the measurement of delayed neutrons from an irradiated sample 50 ms after exposure to the neutron pulse for a time of about 100 s in the multichannel scaling (MCS) mode. The calibration of the active interrogation delayed neutron counter (AIDNEC) system was carried out by irradiating U3O8 samples of varying amounts (0.1-40 g) containing enriched 235U (14.8%) in the device. The delayed neutrons were monitored using a bank of six 3He detectors. The sensitivity of the system was found to be about 100 counts/s/g over the accumulation time of 25 s per neutron pulse of ˜109. The detection limit of the system is estimated to be 18 mg of 235U. The system can be suitably modified for applications toward non-destructive assay of fissile content in waste packets.

  14. Cleaning up of a nuclear facility: Destocking of Pu radioactive waste and nuclear Non-Destructive Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P.-G.; Bernard, Ph.; Loridon, J.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.

    2012-07-01

    In view to clean up a nuclear facility located at the CEA, Cadarache, France, three Non Destructive Assay (NDA) methods have been combined to characterize 2714 old, 100 L radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. The results of X-ray radiography, passive neutron measurement and gamma-ray spectrometry are used together to extract both the βγ and α activities, and the Pu mass contained in each drum. Those drums will then be re-conditioned and cemented in 870 L containers, in order to be sent to the adequate disposal or interim storage. This paper presents the principle of the three NDA methods, the dedicated measurement setups, and it gives details about the setups, which have been especially designed and developed for that application. Uncertainties are dealt with in the last part of the paper.

  15. Development of a neutron measurement system in unified non-destructive assay for the PRIDE facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hee; Park, Se-Hwan; Won, Byung-Hee; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Shin, Hee-Sung; Na, Sang-Ho; Song, Dae-Yong; Kim, Ho-Dong; Lee, Seung Kyu

    2013-12-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has made an effort to develop pyroprocessing technology to resolve an on-going problem in Korea, i.e., the management of spent nuclear fuels. To this end, a test-bed facility for pyroprocessing, called PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration facility), is being constructed at KAERI. The main objective of PRIDE is to evaluate the performance of the unit processes, remote operation, maintenance, and proliferation resistance. In addition, integrating all unit processes into a one-step process is also one of the main goals. PRIDE can also provide a good opportunity to test safeguards instrumentations for a pyroprocessing facility such as nuclear material accounting devices, surveillance systems, radiation monitoring systems, and process monitoring systems. In the present study, a non-destructive assay (NDA) system for the testing of nuclear material accountancy of PRIDE was designed by integrating three different NDA techniques, i.e., neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurements. The developed neutron detection module consists of 56 3He tubes and 16 AMPTEK A111 signal processing circuits. The amplifiers were matched in terms of the gain and showed good uniformity after a gain-matching procedure (%RSD=0.37%). The axial and the radial efficiency distributions within the cavity were then measured using a 252Cf neutron source and were compared with the MCNPX calculation results. The measured efficiency distributions showed excellent agreement with the calculations, which confirmed the accuracy of the MCNPX model of the system.

  16. A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay with a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2010-08-04

    A new facility for non-destructive assay using a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 15x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays.

  17. Universal non-destructive testing method in the microwave range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasimov, R. Yu; Fadeev, G. N.; Gerasimov, Yu V.; Kondrakova, E. A.

    2016-07-01

    Considered in this paper, a new method of nondestructive control based on the spectra of radio wave radiation of the microwave range wideband scanning receiver. It is experimentally shown that this method has a high accuracy in the determination of the frequency spectrum. This allows the method considered to reach a sensitivity of 5-6 Hz/nm.

  18. Infrared non-destructive evaluation method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Baleine, Erwan; Erwan, James F; Lee, Ching-Pang; Stinelli, Stephanie

    2014-10-21

    A method of nondestructive evaluation and related system. The method includes arranging a test piece (14) having an internal passage (18) and an external surface (15) and a thermal calibrator (12) within a field of view (42) of an infrared sensor (44); generating a flow (16) of fluid characterized by a fluid temperature; exposing the test piece internal passage (18) and the thermal calibrator (12) to fluid from the flow (16); capturing infrared emission information of the test piece external surface (15) and of the thermal calibrator (12) simultaneously using the infrared sensor (44), wherein the test piece infrared emission information includes emission intensity information, and wherein the thermal calibrator infrared emission information includes a reference emission intensity associated with the fluid temperature; and normalizing the test piece emission intensity information against the reference emission intensity.

  19. NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD AND MEANS FOR FLAW DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Hochschild, R.

    1959-03-10

    BS>An improved method is presented for the nondestructive detection of flaws in olectrictilly conductivc articles using magnetic field. According to thc method a homogoneous mignetic field is established in the test article;it right angle" to the artyicle. A probe is aligned with its axis transverse to the translates so hat th4 probe scans the surface of the test article while the axis of the robe is transverse to the direction of translation of the article. In this manner any output current obtained in thc probe is an indication of the size and location of a flaw in the article under test, with a miiiimum of signal pick- up in the probe from the established magnetic field.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, Neil J. (Inventor); Washabaugh, Andrew P. (Inventor); Lyons, Robert (Inventor); Thomas, Zachary (Inventor); Jablonski, David A. (Inventor); Martin, Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for characterizing composite materials for manufacturing quality assurance (QA), periodic inspection during the useful life, or for forensic analysis/material testing. System are provided that relate eddy-current sensor responses to the fiber layup of a composite structure, the presence of impact damage on a composite structure with or without a metal liner, volumetric stress within the composite, fiber tow density, and other NDE inspection requirements. Also provided are systems that determine electromagnetic material properties and material dimensions of composite materials from capacitive sensor inspection measurements. These properties are related to the presence of buried defects in non-conductive composite materials, moisture ingress, aging of the material due to service or environmental/thermal exposure, or changes in manufacturing quality.

  1. A non-destructive dental method for age estimation.

    PubMed

    Kvaal, S; Solheim, T

    1994-06-01

    Dental radiographs have rarely been used in dental age estimation methods for adults and the aim of this investigation was to derive formulae for age calculation based on measurements of teeth and their radiographs. Age-related changes were studied in 452 extracted, unsectioned incisors, canines and premolars. The length of the apical translucent zone and extent of the periodontal retraction were measured on the teeth while the pulp length and width as well as root length and width were measured on the radiographs and the ratios between the root and pulp measurements calculated. For all types of teeth significant, negative Pearson's correlation coefficients were found between age and the ratios between the pulp and the root width. In this study also, the correlation between age and the length of the apical translucent zone was weaker than expected. The periodontal retraction was significantly correlated with age in maxillary premolars alone. Multiple regression analyses showed inclusion of the ratio between the measurements of the pulp and the root on the radiographs for all teeth; the length of the apical translucency in five types; and periodontal retraction in only three types of teeth. The correlation coefficients ranged from r = 0.48 to r = 0.90 between the chronological and the calculated age using the formulae from this multiple regression study. The strongest coefficients were for premolars. These formulae may be recommended for use in odontological age estimations in forensic and archaeological cases where teeth are loose or can be extracted and where it is important that the teeth are not sectioned. PMID:9227083

  2. Development of non-destructive inspection method for the performance of thermal barrier coating.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, M; Takahashi, T

    2001-05-01

    This paper shows that our proprietary non-destructive inspection method can be used to effectively measure the thermal barrier performance of the thermal barrier coating used to coat gas turbine hot parts by the results of numerical analysis and laboratory experiments. PMID:11460665

  3. Research on non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoons based on image processing technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Kong, Qing-hua; Wei, Li-fu

    2008-03-01

    The major studied in this dissertation is the non-destructive testing method of silkworm cocoon's quality, based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. Through the images collection and the data analysis, procession and calculation of the tested silkworm cocoons with the non-destructive testing technology, internet applications automatically reckon all items of the classification indexes. Finally we can conclude the classification result and the purchase price of the silkworm cocoons. According to the domestic classification standard of the silkworm cocoons, the author investigates various testing methods of silkworm cocoons which are used or have been explored at present, and devices a non-destructive testing scheme of the silkworm cocoons based on the digital image processing and photoelectricity technology. They are dissertated about the project design of the experiment. The precisions of all the implements are demonstrated. I establish Manifold mathematic models, compare them with each other and analyze the precision with technology of databank to get the best mathematic model to figure out the weight of the dried silkworm cocoon shells. The classification methods of all the complementary items are designed well and truly. The testing method has less error and reaches an advanced level of the present domestic non-destructive testing technology of the silkworm cocoons.

  4. Non-destructive method for inward leakage detection of a plate evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hribernik, Ales

    2007-05-01

    A new non-destructive method was developed for the detection of refrigerant leakage at an evaporator's inflow. Nitrogen and oxygen gas were successively blown through the evaporator. A gas analyser was applied at the outflow of the evaporator and the oxygen concentration measured. It was possible to detect any leakage by investigating the oxygen concentration-time history diagram.

  5. Non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel using passive neutron Albedo reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L G; Schear, M A; Croft, S; Tobin, S J; Swinhoe, M T; Menlove, H O

    2010-01-01

    Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity (PNAR) is one of fourteen techniques that has been researched and evaluated to form part of a comprehensive and integrated detection system for the non-destructive assay (NDA) of spent nuclear fuel. PNAR implemented with {sup 3}He tubes for neutron detection (PNAR-{sup 3}He) is the measurement of time correlated neutrons from a spent fuel assembly with and without a Cadmium (Cd) layer surrounding the assembly. PNAR utilizes the self-interrogation of the fuel via reflection of neutrons born in the fuel assembly back in to the fuel assembly. The neutrons originate primarily from spontaneous fission events within the fuel itself (Curium-244) but are amplified by multiplication. The presence and removal of the Cd provides two measurement conditions with different neutron energy spectra and therefore different interrogating neutron characteristics. Cd has a high cross-section of absorption for slow neutrons and therefore greatly reduces the low energy (thermal) neutron fluence rate returning. The ratios of the Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates obtained in each case are known as the Cd ratios, which are related to fissile content. A potential safeguards application for which PNAR-{sup 3}He is particularly suited is 'fingerprinting'. Fingerprinting could function as an alternative to plutonium (Pu) mass determination; providing confidence that material was not diverted during transport between sites. PNAR-{sup 3}He has six primary NDA signatures: Singles, Doubles and Triples count rates measured with two energy spectra at both shipping and receiving sites. This is to uniquely identify the fuel assembly, and confirm no changes have taken place during transport. Changes may indicate all attempt to divert material for example. Here, the physics of the PNAR-{sup 3}He concept will be explained, alongside a discussion on the development of a prototypical PNAR-{sup 3}He instrument using simulation. The capabilities and performance of the

  6. Advanced Non-Destructive Assay Systems and Special Instrumentation Requirements for Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycling Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, A.P.; Clapham, M.J.; Swinson, B.

    2008-07-01

    The safe and efficient operation of the next generation of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) recycling / reprocessing facilities is dependent upon the availability of high performance real time Non- Destructive Assay (NDA) systems at key in-line points. A diverse variety of such special instrument systems have been developed and commissioned at reprocessing plants worldwide over the past fifty years.. The measurement purpose, technique and plant performance for selected key systems have been reviewed. Obsolescence issues and areas for development are identified in the context of the measurements needs of future recycling facilities and their associated waste treatment plants. Areas of concern include (i) Materials Accountancy and Safeguards, (ii) Head End process control and feed envelope verification, (iii) Real-time monitoring at the Product Finishing Stages, (iv) Criticality safety and (v) Radioactive waste characterization. Common characteristics of the traditional NDA systems in historical recycling facilities are (i) In-house development of bespoke instruments resulting in equipment that if often unique to a given facility and generally not commercially available, (ii) Use of 'novel' techniques - not widely deployed in other applications, (iii) Design features that are tailored to the specific plant requirements of the facility operator, (iv) Systems and software implementation that was not always carried out to modern industry standards and (v) A tendency to be overly complex - refined by on-plant operational usage and experience. Although these systems were 'validated in use' and are generally fit for purpose, there are a number of potential problems in transferring technology that was developed ten or more years ago to the new build SNF recycling facilities of the future. These issues include (i) Obsolescence of components - particularly with respect to computer hardware and data acquisition electronics, (ii) Availability of Intellectual Property and design

  7. A New Facility For Non-Destructive Assay With A Time-Tagged {sup 252}Cf Source

    SciTech Connect

    Stevanato, L.; Caldogno, M.; Hao, Xin; Dima, R.; Fabris, D.; Nebbia, G.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Pesente, S.; Viesti, G.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2011-06-01

    A new facility for Non-Destructive Assay based on a time-tagged {sup 252}Cf spontaneous fission source is now in operation at the Padova University. The system is designed to analyze samples with dimensions on the order of 20x20 cm{sup 2}, the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously transmission of neutrons and gamma rays as a function of energy.

  8. Evaluation of Damage in Steels Subjected to Exploitation Loading - Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Mackiewicz, Sławomir; Szelążek, Jacek; Pietrzak, Krystyna; Augustyniak, Bolesław

    Damage due to creep and plastic flow is assessed using destructive and non-destructive methods in steels (40HNMA and P91). In the destructive methods the standard tension tests were carried out after prestraining and variations of the selected tension parameters were taken into account for damage identification. In order to assess a damage development during the creep and plastic deformation the tests for both steels were interrupted for a range of the selected strain magnitudes. The ultrasonic and magnetic techniques were used as the non-destructive methods for damage evaluation. The last step of the experimental programme contained microscopic observations. A very promising correlation between parameters of methods for damage development evaluation was achieved. It is well proved for the ultimate tensile stress and birefringence coefficient.

  9. Non-destructive optical methods for the study of soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Lona, Cynthia V.; Hernández-Montes, María. del Socorro; Mendoza Santoyo, F.; Muñoz, Silvino; Mendoza, Fernando

    2015-08-01

    In optical metrology, non-destructive methods allow studying some mechanical properties of the samples to investigate by using light, which leads to non-contact testing. This paper shows recent results of the application of non-destructive optical methods based on Digital Holographic Interferometry to the study biological tissues; particularly vocal folds and the tympanic membrane. The displacements data and its corresponding patterns found generates information on its characteristics that can be correlated with their physiological state. These methods prove to be an alternative viable and appropriate to characterize these soft tissues so important for the proper function of the human body. The result shows a potential impact on its possible uses in the field of otorhinolaryngology.

  10. Proficiency test for non-destructive assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums by gamma assay systems

    SciTech Connect

    Van Velzen, L.P.M.; Bruggeman, M.; Botte, J.

    2007-07-01

    The European Network of Testing Facilities for the Quality Checking of Radioactive Waste Packages (ENTRAP) initiated a feasibility study on how to organize in the most cost effective way an international proficiency tests for non-destructive, gamma-ray based, assay of 220 liter radioactive waste drums in the European Union at a regular time interval of 2 or 3 years. This feasibility study addresses all aspects of proficiency testing on radioactive waste packages including the design of a commonly accepted reference 220 liter drum. This design, based on the international response on a send out questionnaire, includes matrixes, radioactive sources; a solution to overcome the tedious and expensive international transport costs of real or even simulated waste packages, general cost estimation for the organization of, and the participation in the proficiency test. The proposed concept for the proficiency testing and the estimated costs are presented. The participation costs of the first proficiency test are mainly determined by the manufacturing of the non-radioactive 220 liter drum ({+-} 55%). Applied reference sources, transport of the drum and reference sources and participation costs in the proficiency test contribute each about {+-} 15%. (authors)

  11. Application of Non-destructive Methods of Stress-strain State at Hazardous Production Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shram, V.; Kravtsova, Ye; Selsky, A.; Bezborodov, Yu; Lysyannikova, N.; Lysyannikov, A.

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with the sources of accidents in distillation columns, on the basis of which the most dangerous defects are detected. The analysis of the currently existing methods of non-destructive testing of the stress-strain state is performed. It is proposed to apply strain and acoustic emission techniques to continuously monitor dangerous objects, which helps prevent the possibility of accidents, as well as reduce the work.

  12. A new facility for non-destructive assay using a 252Cf source.

    PubMed

    Stevanato, L; Caldogno, M; Dima, R; Fabris, D; Hao, Xin; Lunardon, M; Moretto, S; Nebbia, G; Pesente, S; Pino, F; Sajo-Bohus, L; Viesti, G

    2013-03-01

    A new laboratory facility for non-destructive analysis (NDA) using a time-tagged (252)Cf source is presented. The system is designed to analyze samples having maximum size of about 20 × 25 cm(2), the material recognition being obtained by measuring simultaneously total and energy dependent transmission of neutrons and gamma rays. The equipment technical characteristics and performances of the NDA system are presented, exploring also limits due to the sample thickness. Some recent applications in the field of cultural heritage are presented. PMID:23276691

  13. The use of non-destructive passive neutron measurement methods in dismantling and radioactive waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Jallu, F.; Allinei, P. G.; Bernard, P.; Loridon, J.; Soyer, P.; Pouyat, D.; Torreblanca, L.; Reneleau, A.

    2011-07-01

    The cleaning up and dismantling of nuclear facilities lead to a great volume of technological radioactive wastes which need to be characterized in order to be sent to the adequate final disposal or interim storage. The control and characterization can be performed with non-destructive nuclear measurements such as gamma-ray spectrometry. Passive neutron counting is an alternative when the alpha-gamma emitters cannot be detected due to the presence of a high gamma emission resulting from fission or activation products, or when the waste matrix is too absorbing for the gamma rays of interest (too dense and/or made of high atomic number elements). It can also be a complement to gamma-ray spectrometry when two measurement results must be confronted to improve the confidence in the activity assessment. Passive neutron assays involve the detection of spontaneous fission neutrons emitted by even nuclides ({sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 242}Pu, {sup 242}Cm, {sup 244}Cm...) and neutrons resulting from ({alpha}, n) reactions with light nuclides (O, F, Be...). The latter is conditioned by the presence of high {alpha}-activity radionuclides ({sup 234}U, {sup 238}Pu, {sup 240}Pu, {sup 241}Am...) and low-Z elements, which depends on the chemical form (metallic, oxide or fluorine) of the plutonium or uranium contaminant. This paper presents the recent application of passive neutron methods to the cleaning up of a nuclear facility located at CEA Cadarache (France), which concerns the Pu mass assessment of 2714 historic, 100 litre radioactive waste drums produced between 1980 and 1997. Another application is the dismantling and decommissioning of an uranium enrichment facility for military purposes, which involves the {sup 235}U and total uranium quantifications in about a thousand, large compressors employed in the gaseous diffusion enrichment process. (authors)

  14. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure and constituent concentrations of a body

    DOEpatents

    Gold, Raymond; McElroy, William N.

    1986-01-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure and constituent concentrations in an object, such as reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure or the spatial constituent concentration at regions of interest within the object.

  15. Non-Destructive Evaluation Method and Apparatus for Measuring Acoustic Material Nonlinearity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An acoustic non-linearity parameter (beta) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members obviates the need for electronic calibration of the measuring equipment. Unlike known substitutional measuring techniques requiring elaborate calibration procedures, the electrical outputs of the capacitive detector of a sample with known beta and the test sample of unknown beta are compared to determine the unknown beta. In order to provide the necessary stability of the present-inventive reference-based approach, the bandpass filters of the measurement system are maintained in a temperature-controlled environment, and the line voltage supplied to said amplifiers is well-regulated.

  16. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather

    2015-06-01

    High-­energy, beta-delayed gamma-­ray spectroscopy is a potential, non-­destructive assay techniques for the independent verification of declared quantities of special nuclear materials at key stages of the fuel cycle and for directly assaying nuclear material inventories for spent fuel handling, interim storage, reprocessing facilities, repository sites, and final disposal. Other potential applications include determination of MOX fuel composition, characterization of nuclear waste packages, and challenges in homeland security and arms control verification. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Experimental measurement campaigns were carried out at the IAC using a photo-­neutron source and at OSU using a thermal neutron beam from the TRIGA reactor to characterize the emission of high-­energy delayed gamma rays from 235U, 239Pu, and 241Pu targets following neutron induced fission. Data were collected for pure and combined targets for several irradiation/spectroscopy cycle times ranging from 10/10 seconds to 15/30 minutes.The delayed gamma-ray signature of 241Pu, a significant fissile constituent in spent fuel, was measured and compared to 239Pu. The 241Pu/239Pu ratios varied between 0.5 and 1.2 for ten prominent lines in the 2700-­3600 keV energy range. Such significant differences in relative peak intensities make it possible to determine relative fractions of these isotopes in a mixed sample. A method for determining fission product yields by fitting the energy and time dependence of the delayed gamma-­ray emission was developed and demonstrated on a limited 235U data set. De-­convolution methods for determining fissile fractions were developed and tested on the experimental data. The use of high count-­rate LaBr3 detectors

  17. A semi-automatic non-destructive method to quantify grapevine downy mildew sporulation.

    PubMed

    Peressotti, Elisa; Duchêne, Eric; Merdinoglu, Didier; Mestre, Pere

    2011-02-01

    The availability of fast, reliable and non-destructive methods for the analysis of pathogen development contributes to a better understanding of plant-pathogen interactions. This is particularly true for the genetic analysis of quantitative resistance to plant pathogens, where the availability of a method allowing a precise quantification of pathogen development allows the reliable detection of different genomic regions involved in the resistance. Grapevine downy mildew, caused by the biotrophic Oomycete Plasmopara viticola, is one of the most important diseases affecting viticulture. Here we report the development of a simple image analysis-based semi-automatic method for the quantification of grapevine downy mildew sporulation, requiring just a compact digital camera and the open source software ImageJ. We confirm the suitability of the method for the analysis of the interaction between grapevine and downy mildew by performing QTL analysis of resistance to downy mildew as well as analysis of the kinetics of downy mildew infection. The non-destructive nature of the method will enable comparison between the phenotypic and molecular data obtained from the very same sample, resulting in a more accurate description of the interaction, while its simplicity makes it easily adaptable to other plant-pathogen interactions, in particular those involving downy mildews. PMID:21167874

  18. Compressive strength evaluation of structural lightweight concrete by non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method.

    PubMed

    Bogas, J Alexandre; Gomes, M Glória; Gomes, Augusto

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the compressive strength of a wide range of structural lightweight aggregate concrete mixes is evaluated by the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity method. This study involves about 84 different compositions tested between 3 and 180 days for compressive strengths ranging from about 30 to 80 MPa. The influence of several factors on the relation between the ultrasonic pulse velocity and compressive strength is examined. These factors include the cement type and content, amount of water, type of admixture, initial wetting conditions, type and volume of aggregate and the partial replacement of normal weight coarse and fine aggregates by lightweight aggregates. It is found that lightweight and normal weight concretes are affected differently by mix design parameters. In addition, the prediction of the concrete's compressive strength by means of the non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity test is studied. Based on the dependence of the ultrasonic pulse velocity on the density and elasticity of concrete, a simplified expression is proposed to estimate the compressive strength, regardless the type of concrete and its composition. More than 200 results for different types of aggregates and concrete compositions were analyzed and high correlation coefficients were obtained. PMID:23351273

  19. Non-destructive assay of drum package radioactive wastes utilizing tomographic gamma scanning

    SciTech Connect

    Ausbrooks, K.L.

    1996-05-01

    A methodology for nondestructive assay of drum packaged radioactive waste materials is investigated using Emission Computed Tomography procedures. A requirement of this method is accurate gamma attenuation correction. This is accomplished by the use of a constant density distribution for the drum content, thereby requiring the need for a homogeneous medium. The current predominant NDA technique is the use of the Segmented Gamma Scanner. Tomographic Gamma Scanning improves upon this method by providing a low resolution three-dimensional image of the source distribution, yielding both spatial and activity information. Reconstruction of the source distribution is accomplished by utilization of algebraic techniques with a nine by six voxel model with detector information gathered over scanning intervals of ninety degrees. Construction of a linear system to describe the scenario was accomplished using a point-source response function methodology, where a 54 {times} 120 matrix contained the projected detector responses for each source-detector geometry. Entries in this matrix were calculated using the point-kernal shielding code QAD-CGGP. Validation was performed using the MCNP photon transport code. Solutions to the linear system were determined using the Non-Negative Least Squares (NNLS) algorithm and the LSMOD algorithm. A series of four scans were performed, each reconstructing the source distribution of a mock-up waste package containing a single 73 mCi {sup 137}Cs point source. For each scan, the source was located in a different location. Results of the reconstruction routines accurately predict the location and activity of the source. The range of activity calculated using the NNLS routine is 0.2681 mCi with an average value of 77.7995 mCi. The range of values calculated using LSMOD is 5.1843 mCi with an average of 72.8018 mCi.

  20. STATUS OF PORTABLE NON DESTRUCTIVE ASSAY (NDA) AT THE PLUTONIUM FINISHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    KEELE, B.D.

    2005-06-10

    Collimated portable gamma-ray detectors are used to quantify the plutonium holdup in support of facility deactivation and decommissioning. The Generalized Geometry Holdup model recently has been implemented for data reduction to support a new decontamination and decommissioning mission. An approach to assess the total measurement uncertainty (TMU) has been developed. The TMU is added to the assay value for compliance with safety based limits. Details of the measurement techniques and comparisons to assays of materials removed are described.

  1. Preliminary report of the comparison of multiple non-destructive assay techniques on LANL Plutonium Facility waste drums

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, C.; Schanfein, M.; Estep, R.

    1999-03-01

    Prior to disposal, nuclear waste must be accurately characterized to identify and quantify the radioactive content. The DOE Complex faces the daunting task of measuring nuclear material with both a wide range of masses and matrices. Similarly daunting can be the selection of a non-destructive assay (NDA) technique(s) to efficiently perform the quantitative assay over the entire waste population. In fulfilling its role of a DOE Defense Programs nuclear User Facility/Technology Development Center, the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility recently tested three commercially built and owned, mobile nondestructive assay (NDA) systems with special nuclear materials (SNM). Two independent commercial companies financed the testing of their three mobile NDA systems at the site. Contained within a single trailer is Canberra Industries segmented gamma scanner/waste assay system (SGS/WAS) and neutron waste drum assay system (WDAS). The third system is a BNFL Instruments Inc. (formerly known as Pajarito Scientific Corporation) differential die-away imaging passive/active neutron (IPAN) counter. In an effort to increase the value of this comparison, additional NDA techniques at LANL were also used to measure these same drums. These are comprised of three tomographic gamma scanners (one mobile unit and two stationary) and one developmental differential die-away system. Although not certified standards, the authors hope that such a comparison will provide valuable data for those considering these different NDA techniques to measure their waste as well as the developers of the techniques.

  2. Photonic non-destructive measurement methods for investigating the evolution of polar firn and ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Daniel James

    When snow falls on glaciers or ice sheets, it persists for many tens, hundreds and sometimes thousands of years before becoming ice. The granular material in between fresh snow and glacial ice is known as firn and is generally 50 to 100 m thick over polar ice sheets. The compaction mechanism of firn into ice (called densification) has important glaciological ramifications in determination of ice sheet stability and related sea level rise effects via remote sensing altimetry. Firn densification is also important for correctly interpreting ice core paleoclimate records, especially those analyzing gases trapped in air bubbles within the glacial ice. Densification is thought to depend strongly on microstructure: the sizes, shapes, orientations and inter-particle bonds of the ice grains that make up polar firn. Microstructure-dependent densification is poorly understood and occurs in the region where two-thirds of the overall densification takes place. This work focuses on developing non-destructive methods for simultaneously evaluating changes in both the bulk density and microstructure of polar firn to better understand structure- dependent densification processes. The first method is an automated density gauge which uses gamma-ray transmission methods to non-destructively produce high resolution (3.3 mm) and high precision (+/-4 kg m-3) density profiles of firn and ice cores. This instrument was used to collect a density profile for the first 160 m of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide WDCO6A deep ice core. The second method involves optical scattering measurements on firn and ice cores to determine the important microstructural parameters of ice grain and air bubble size and air-ice interface surface area. These measurements are modeled using both Monte Carlo radiative transfer and ray-tracing geometric optics methods, and are then tested against experiment using digital photography of the WDC06A core. Combining the results of both bulk density and optical

  3. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  4. A modified positron lifetime spectrometer as method of non-destructive testing in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Z. Q.; Shi, J. J.; Jiang, J.; Liu, X. B.; Wang, R. S.; Wu, Y. C.

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to develop a new non-destructive testing (NDT) method using positron annihilation spectroscopy, a powerful tool to detect vacancy-type defects and defect's chemical environment. A positron NDT system was designed and constructed by modifying the "sandwich" structure of sample-source-sample in the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer. The positron lifetime spectra of one single sample can be measured and analyzed by subtracting the contribution of a reference sample. The feasibility and reliability of the positron NDT system have been tested by analyzing nondestructively deformation damage caused by mechanical treatment in metals and steels. This system can be used for detecting defects and damage in thick or large-size samples without cutting off the sample materials, as well as for detecting two-dimensional distribution of defects.

  5. System and method for non-destructive evaluation of surface characteristics of a magnetic material

    DOEpatents

    Jiles, David C.; Sipahi, Levent B.

    1994-05-17

    A system and a related method for non-destructive evaluation of the surface characteristics of a magnetic material. The sample is excited by an alternating magnetic field. The field frequency, amplitude and offset are controlled according to a predetermined protocol. The Barkhausen response of the sample is detected for the various fields and offsets and is analyzed. The system produces information relating to the frequency content, the amplitude content, the average or RMS energy content, as well as count rate information, for each of the Barkhausen responses at each of the excitation levels applied during the protocol. That information provides a contiguous body of data, heretofore unavailable, which can be analyzed to deduce information about the surface characteristics of the material at various depths below the surface.

  6. Non-destructive research methods applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, I.; Slugeň, V.; Veterníková, J.; Sojak, S.; Petriska, M.; Bouhaddane, A.

    2014-06-01

    The paper is aimed on non-destructive experimental techniques applied on materials for the new generation of nuclear reactors (GEN IV). With the development of these reactors, also materials have to be developed in order to guarantee high standard properties needed for construction. These properties are high temperature resistance, radiation resistance and resistance to other negative effects. Nevertheless the changes in their mechanical properties should be only minimal. Materials, that fulfil these requirements, are analysed in this work. The ferritic-martensitic (FM) steels and ODS steels are studied in details. Microstructural defects, which can occur in structural materials and can be also accumulated during irradiation due to neutron flux or alpha, beta and gamma radiation, were analysed using different spectroscopic methods as positron annihilation spectroscopy and Barkhausen noise, which were applied for measurements of three different FM steels (T91, P91 and E97) as well as one ODS steel (ODS Eurofer).

  7. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TBC SPALLATION DETECTION BY A MICRO-INDENTATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Tannenbaum; B.S.-J. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2010-06-18

    In this research, a load-based depth-sensing micro-indentation method for spallation detection and damage assessment of thermal barrier coating (TBC) materials is presented. A non-destructive multiple loading/partial unloading testing methodology was developed where in stiffness responses of TBC coupons subjected to various thermal cyclic loading conditions were analyzed to predict the spallation site and assess TBC degradation state. The measured stiffness responses at various thermal loading cycles were used to generate time-series color maps for correlation with accumulation of TBC residual stress states. The regions with higher stiffness responses can be linked to a rise in out-of-plane residual stress located near or at the yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ)/thermally grown oxide (TGO) interface, which is ultimately responsible for initiating TBC spallation failure. A TBC thermal exposure testing plan was carried out where time-series cross-sectional microstructural analyses of damage accumulation and spallation failure associated with the evolution of bond coat/TGO/top coat composite (e.g. thickness, ratcheting, localized oxidations, etc.) of air plasma sprayed (APS) TBCs were evaluated and correlated to the measured stiffness responses at various thermal cycles. The results show that the load-based micro-indentation test methodology is capable of identifying the spallation site(s) before actual occurrence. This micro-indentation technique can be viewed as a viable non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique for determining as-manufactured and process-exposed TBCs. This technique also shows promise for the development of a portable instrument for on-line, in-situ spallation detection/prediction of industrial-size TBC turbine components.

  8. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Alan W. Hunt; Edward T. Reedy; Heather A. Seipel

    2015-06-01

    Modeling capabilities were added to an existing framework and codes were adapted as needed for analyzing experiments and assessing application-specific assay concepts including simulation of measurements over many short irradiation/spectroscopy cycles. The code package was benchmarked against the data collected at the IAC for small targets and assembly-scale data collected at LANL. A study of delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy for nuclear safeguards was performed for a variety of assemblies in the extensive NGSI spent fuel library. The modeling results indicate that delayed gamma-ray responses can be collected from spent fuel assemblies with statistical quality sufficient for analyzing their isotopic composition using a 1011 n/s neutron generator and COTS detector instrumentation.

  9. Delayed Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy for Non-Destructive Assay of Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard; Mozin, Vladimir; Campbell, Luke; Favalli, Andrea; Hunt, Alan W.; Reedy, Edward T.E.; Seipel, Heather A.

    2015-09-28

    This project has been a collaborative effort of researchers from four National Laboratories, Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Idaho State University’s (ISU) Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). Experimental measurements at the Oregon State University (OSU) were also supported. The research included two key components, a strong experimental campaign to characterize the delayed gamma-ray signatures of the isotopes of interests and of combined targets, and a closely linked modeling effort to assess system designs and applications. Experimental measurements were performed to evaluate fission fragment yields, to test methods for determining isotopic fractions, and to benchmark the modeling code package. Detailed signature knowledge is essential for analyzing the capabilities of the delayed gamma technique, optimizing measurement parameters, and specifying neutron source and gamma-ray detection system requirements. The research was divided into three tasks: experimental measurements, characterization of fission yields, and development of analysis methods (task 1), modeling in support of experiment design and analysis and for the assessment of applications (task 2), and high-rate gamma-ray detector studies (task 3).

  10. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefel, Denis E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Stoessel, Rainer E-mail: Rainer.Stoessel@airbus.com; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  11. X-ray based methods for non-destructive testing and material characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanke, Randolf; Fuchs, Theobald; Uhlmann, Norman

    2008-06-01

    The increasing complexity and miniaturization in the field of new materials as well as in micro-production requires in the same way improvements and technical advances in the field of micro-NDT to provide better quality data and more detailed knowledge about the internal structures of micro-components. Therefore, non-destructive methods like radioscopy, ultrasound, optical or thermal imaging increasingly gain in importance with respect to ongoing product and material development in the different phases like material characterization, production control or module reliability testing. Because of the manifold different application fields, i.e., certain physical NDT methods applied to material inspection, characterization or reliability testing, this contribution will focus on the radioscopic-based methods related to their most important applications. Today, in modern industrial quality control, X-ray transmission is used in two different ways: Two-dimensional radioscopic transmission imaging (projection technique), usually applied to inline inspection tasks in application fields like lightweight material production, electronic component soldering or food production. Computed tomography (CT) for generation of three-dimensional data, representing spatial information and density distribution of objects. CT application fields are on the one hand the understanding of production process failure or component and module inspection (completeness) and on the other hand the dimensional measuring of hidden geometrical outlines (metrology). This paper demonstrates the methods including technical set-ups (X-ray source and detector), imaging and reconstruction results and the methods for high speed and high-resolution volume data generation and evaluation.

  12. Quantitative impact characterization of aeronautical CFRP materials with non-destructive testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefel, Denis; Stoessel, Rainer; Grosse, Christian

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of safety-relevant structures are designed and manufactured from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) in order to reduce weight of airplanes by taking the advantage of their specific strength into account. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods for quantitative defect analysis of damages are liquid- or air-coupled ultrasonic testing (UT), phased array ultrasonic techniques, and active thermography (IR). The advantage of these testing methods is the applicability on large areas. However, their quantitative information is often limited on impact localization and size. In addition to these techniques, Airbus Group Innovations operates a micro x-ray computed tomography (μ-XCT) system, which was developed for CFRP characterization. It is an open system which allows different kinds of acquisition, reconstruction, and data evaluation. One main advantage of this μ-XCT system is its high resolution with 3-dimensional analysis and visualization opportunities, which enables to gain important quantitative information for composite part design and stress analysis. Within this study, different NDT methods will be compared at CFRP samples with specified artificial impact damages. The results can be used to select the most suitable NDT-method for specific application cases. Furthermore, novel evaluation and visualization methods for impact analyzes are developed and will be presented.

  13. The role of non-destructive assay in support of the exemption of solid waste from nuclear licensed sites

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Alan; Adsley, Ian; Green, Tommy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Nuclear Site License Holders within the United Kingdom are increasingly re-examining the options available for disposal of solid waste produced during routine operations and decommissioning activities. The incentives to do so include: 'Compliance with the requirement to minimise radioactive waste, as stipulated in Disposal Authorisations issued by the Environment Agency' Reducing the burden on the UK Low Level Waste Repository (LLWR)' Achieving cost savings on waste management, by avoiding expensive conditioning, transport and disposal costs for certain wastes. Wastes may be exempted from regulation under the Radioactive Substances Act, 1993 (RSA 93) provided they comply with the conditions laid out in the relevant Exemption Orders. In effect, they may be legally disposed as if they were non-radioactive waste. A national Code of Practice on Clearance and Exemption Principles, Processes and Practices was introduced in 2005 to clarify the requirements of these Exemption Orders and provide guidance on their practical application. In order to demonstrate compliance with these Exemption Orders, it is essential to have good knowledge of the items' history and their potential for contamination. Monitoring is frequently used as definitive evidence that the radioactivity content of waste items does not exceed limits proscribed in the relevant Exemption Orders. The practicalities of monitoring require careful consideration in order to achieve meaningful results and be capable of achieving the low specific activity limits quoted in the Exemption Orders. The Cross Industry Assay Working Group is a national collection of non-destructive assay specialists from a range of companies, which meets regularly to discuss challenges relating to the assay of all categories of waste. In this paper, the Group presents examples of how NDA techniques are being used to support the exemption of waste items. (authors)

  14. How clean is clean: Non-destructive/direct methods of flux, residue detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, C. S.; Ray, U.; Stallard, B. R.; Watkins, R. D.; Koch, M. W.; Moya, M. M.

    The feasibility of three different non-destructive and direct methods of evaluating PCB (printed circuit boards) cleanliness was demonstrated. The detection limits associated with each method were established. In addition, the pros and cons of these methods as routine quality control inspection tools were discussed. OSEE (Optically Stimulated Electron Emission) was demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for detection of low levels of flux residues on insulating substances. However, future work including development of rugged OSEE instrumentation will determine whether the PCB industry can accept this technique in a production environment. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) microscopy is a well established technique with well known characteristics. The inability of FTIR to discriminate an organic contaminant from an organic substrate limits its usefulness as a PCB line inspection tool, but it will still remain a technique for the QC/QA laboratory. One advantage of FTIR over the other two techniques described here is its ability to identify the chemical nature of the residue, which is important in Failure Mode Analysis. Optical imaging using sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms was found to be limited to high concentrations of residue. Further work on improved sensor techniques is necessary.

  15. How clean is clean: Non-destructive/direct methods of flux, residue detection

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, C.S.; Ray, U.; Stallard, B.R.; Watkins, R.D.; Koch, M.W.; Moya, M.M.

    1994-06-01

    The feasibility of three different non-destructive and direct methods of evaluating PCB (printed circuit boards) cleanliness was demonstrated. The detection limits associated with each method were established. In addition, the pros and cons of these methods as routine quality control inspection tools were discussed. OSEE (Optically Stimulated Electron Emission) was demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for detection of low levels of flux residues on insulating substances. However, future work including development of rugged OSEE instrumentation will determine whether the PCB industry can accept this technique in a production environment. FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) microscopy is a well established technique with well known characteristics. The inability of FTIR to discriminate an organic contaminant from an organic substrate limits its usefulness as a PCB line inspection tool, but it will still remain a technique for the QC/QA laboratory. One advantage of FTIR over the other two techniques described here is its ability to identify the chemical nature of the residue, which is important in Failure Mode Analysis. Optical imaging using sophisticated pattern recognition algorithms was found to be limited to high concentrations of residue. Further work on improved sensor techniques is necessary.

  16. Spatial distribution pattern analysis of subtidal macroalgae assemblages by a non-destructive rapid assessment method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinda, Xabier; Juanes, José Antonio; Puente, Araceli; Echavarri-Erasun, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    The extensive field work carried out over the last century has allowed the worldwide description of general distribution patterns and specific composition of rocky intertidal communities. However, the information concerning subtidal communities on hard substrates is more recent and scarce due to the difficulties associated with working in such environments. In this work, a non-destructive method is applied to the study and mapping of subtidal rocky bottom macroalgae assemblages on the coast of Cantabria (N Spain) which is quick, easy and economical. Gelidium corneum and Cystoseira baccata were the dominant species, however, the composition and coverage of macroalgae assemblages varied significantly at different locations and depth ranges. The high presence of Laminaria ochroleuca and Saccorhiza polyschides, characteristic of colder waters, shows the transitional character of this coastal area. The results obtained throughout this study have been very useful to the application of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD 2000/60/EC) and could be of great interest for the future conservation and management of these ecosystems (e.g. Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC).

  17. Non-destructive in-situ method and apparatus for determining radionuclide depth in media

    DOEpatents

    Xu, X. George; Naessens, Edward P.

    2003-01-01

    A non-destructive method and apparatus which is based on in-situ gamma spectroscopy is used to determine the depth of radiological contamination in media such as concrete. An algorithm, Gamma Penetration Depth Unfolding Algorithm (GPDUA), uses point kernel techniques to predict the depth of contamination based on the results of uncollided peak information from the in-situ gamma spectroscopy. The invention is better, faster, safer, and/cheaper than the current practice in decontamination and decommissioning of facilities that are slow, rough and unsafe. The invention uses a priori knowledge of the contaminant source distribution. The applicable radiological contaminants of interest are any isotopes that emit two or more gamma rays per disintegration or isotopes that emit a single gamma ray but have gamma-emitting progeny in secular equilibrium with its parent (e.g., .sup.60 Co, .sup.235 U, and .sup.137 Cs to name a few). The predicted depths from the GPDUA algorithm using Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP) simulations and laboratory experiments using .sup.60 Co have consistently produced predicted depths within 20% of the actual or known depth.

  18. Development of vibrational spectroscopic methods to rapidly and non-destructively assess quality of chicken breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods to Rapidly and Non-Destructively Assess Quality of Chicken Breast Meat H. Zhuang1, M. Sohn2, S. Trabelsi1 and K. Lawrence1 1Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 2University of Georgia, De...

  19. Non-Destructive Lichen Biomass Estimation in Northwestern Alaska: A Comparison of Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa “community” samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m−2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  20. Non-destructive lichen biomass estimation in northwestern Alaska: a comparison of methods.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Abbey; Neitlich, Peter; Smith, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Terrestrial lichen biomass is an important indicator of forage availability for caribou in northern regions, and can indicate vegetation shifts due to climate change, air pollution or changes in vascular plant community structure. Techniques for estimating lichen biomass have traditionally required destructive harvesting that is painstaking and impractical, so we developed models to estimate biomass from relatively simple cover and height measurements. We measured cover and height of forage lichens (including single-taxon and multi-taxa "community" samples, n = 144) at 73 sites on the Seward Peninsula of northwestern Alaska, and harvested lichen biomass from the same plots. We assessed biomass-to-volume relationships using zero-intercept regressions, and compared differences among two non-destructive cover estimation methods (ocular vs. point count), among four landcover types in two ecoregions, and among single-taxon vs. multi-taxa samples. Additionally, we explored the feasibility of using lichen height (instead of volume) as a predictor of stand-level biomass. Although lichen taxa exhibited unique biomass and bulk density responses that varied significantly by growth form, we found that single-taxon sampling consistently under-estimated true biomass and was constrained by the need for taxonomic experts. We also found that the point count method provided little to no improvement over ocular methods, despite increased effort. Estimated biomass of lichen-dominated communities (mean lichen cover: 84.9±1.4%) using multi-taxa, ocular methods differed only nominally among landcover types within ecoregions (range: 822 to 1418 g m-2). Height alone was a poor predictor of lichen biomass and should always be weighted by cover abundance. We conclude that the multi-taxa (whole-community) approach, when paired with ocular estimates, is the most reasonable and practical method for estimating lichen biomass at landscape scales in northwest Alaska. PMID:25079228

  1. An Innovative Non-Destructive and Computational Method for Uranium Activity and Enrichment Verification of UF{sub 6} Cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mongy, Sayed A.; Allam, K.M.; Farid, Osama M.

    2006-07-01

    Verification of {sup 235}U enrichment in uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders is often achieved by destructive and non-destructive assay techniques. These techniques are time consuming, need suitable and similar standard, in addition to loss of the nuclear material in the case of destructive analysis. This paper introduce an innovative approach for verifying of {sup 235}U enrichment in UF{sub 6} cylinder. The approach is based on measuring dose rate ({mu}Sv/h) resulted from the emitted gamma rays of {sup 235}U at the surface of the cylinder and then calculating the activity of uranium and enrichment percentage inside the cylinder by a three dimensional model. Attenuation of the main {sup 235}U gamma transitions due to the cylinder wall (5A Type of Ni alloy) was also calculated and corrected for. The method was applied on UF{sub 6} cylinders enriched with 19.75% of {sup 235}U. The calculated enrichment was found to be 18% with 9% uncertainty. By the suggested method, the calculated total uranium activity inside one of the investigated UF{sub 6} cylinder was found close to the target (certified) value (5.6 GBq) with 9% uncertainty. The method is being developed by taking into consideration other parameters. (authors)

  2. Determining the Stability of Asphalt Concrete at Varying Temperatures and Exposure Times Using Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozgan, Ercan

    This study examined the effect of varying temperatures and varying exposure times on the stability of asphalt concrete using destructive and non-destructive methods. The study also looked at the relationship between destructive and non-destructive methods. In order to investigate the stability according to exposure time and environment temperature, exposure times of 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6 h and temperatures of 30, 40 and 50°C were selected. The results showed that at the environment temperature of 17°C the stability of the asphalt core samples decreased by 40.16% at 30°C after 1.5 h and 62.39% after 6 h. At 40°C the decrease was 74.31% after 1.5 and 78.10% after 6 h. At 50°C the stability of the asphalt decreased by 83.22% after 1.5 h and 88.66% after 6 h. The results also pointed to a moderate negative relationship (R = -0.533) between second ultrasound and stability indicating that non-destructive ultrasound method can be used to predict stability.

  3. An accurate method for determining residual stresses with magnetic non-destructive techniques in welded ferromagnetic steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourna, P.

    2016-03-01

    The scope of the present research work was to investigate the proper selection criteria for developing a suitable methodology for the accurate determination of residual stresses existing in welded parts. Magnetic non-destructive testing took place by the use of two magnetic non-destructive techniques: by the measurement of the magnetic Barkhausen noise and by the evaluation of the magnetic hysteresis loop parameters. The spatial distribution of residual stresses in welded metal parts by both non-destructive magnetic methods and two diffraction methods was determined. The conduction of magnetic measurements required an initial calibration of ferromagnetic steels. Based on the examined volume of the sample, all methods used were divided into two large categories: the first one was related to the determination of surface residual stress, whereas the second one was related to bulk residual stress determination. The first category included the magnetic Barkhausen noise and the X-ray diffraction measurements, while the second one included the magnetic permeability and the neutron diffraction data. The residual stresses determined by the magnetic techniques were in a good agreement with the diffraction ones.

  4. Non-destructive high-throughput DNA extraction and genotyping methods for cotton seeds and seedlings.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiuting; Hoegenauer, Kevin A; Maeda, Andrea B V; Wang, Fei; Stelly, David M; Nichols, Robert L; Jones, Don C

    2015-05-01

    Extensive use of targeted PCR-based genotyping is precluded for many plant research laboratories by the cost and time required for DNA extraction. Using cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) as a model for plants with medium-sized seeds, we report here manual procedures for inexpensive non-destructive high-throughput extraction of DNA suitable for PCR-based genotyping of large numbers of individual seeds and seedlings. By sampling only small amounts of cotyledon tissue of ungerminated seed or young seedlings, damage is minimized, and viability is not discernibly affected. The yield of DNA from each seed or seedling is typically sufficient for 1000 or 500 PCR reactions, respectively. For seeds, the tissue sampling procedure relies on a modified 96-well plate that is used subsequently for seed storage. For seeds and seedlings, the DNA is extracted in a strongly basic DNA buffer that is later neutralized and diluted. Extracts can be used directly for high-throughput PCR-based genotyping. Any laboratory can thus extract DNA from thousands of individual seeds/seedlings per person-day at a very modest cost for consumables (~$0.05 per sample). Being non-destructive, our approach enables a wide variety of time- and resource-saving applications, such as marker-assisted selection (MAS), before planting, transplanting, and flowering. PMID:25967902

  5. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality by Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B.Mi; X. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-05-26

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with different surface preparation conditions before applying the coating, e.g., grit-blasted surface, wire-brush cleaned surface, and a dirty surface. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that the three surface preparation conditions can be successfully differentiated by looking into the impedance difference observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. More specimens are also prepared with variations of process parameters, such as spray angle, stand-off distance, and application of corrosion protective sealant, etc. They are blindly tested to evaluate the reliability of the eddy current system. Quantitative relations between the coating bond strength and the eddy current response are also established with the support of destructive testing. This non-contact, non-destructive, easy to use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  6. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Leonelli, C.; Volkov-Husoviae, T. D.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.

    2008-02-15

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  7. Prediction of Service Life of Cordierite-Mullite Refractory Materials by Non-Destructive Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Kamseu, Elie; Volkov-Husoviæ, T. D.; Cannio, M.; Romagnoli, M.; Veronesi, P.; Dlouhy, I.; Boccaccini, A. R.; Leonelli, C.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic pulse velocity testing was used to perform non-destructive quality control of refractory plates used as substrates in fast firing of porcelain whitewares. The measurement of the ultrasonic velocity was used to asses the presence of internal voids or cracks originated from the manufacturing procedure. Image analysis was used to predict thermal stability of the refractory materials. Two cordierite-mullite compositions were investigated that are characterized by different microstructure morphologies and crack propagation behaviour. A brief discussion about the correlation between microstructure, crack propagation behaviour and thermal shock resistance is presented. Moreover, empirical models were developed to predict the service life of refractory plates from measured values of ultrasonic velocities in plates in the as-received state.

  8. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Thermal Spray Coating Interface Quality By Eddy Current Method

    SciTech Connect

    B. Mi; G. Zhao; R. Bayles

    2006-08-10

    Thermal spray coating is usually applied through directing molten or softened particles at very high velocities onto a substrate. An eddy current non-destructive inspection technique is presented here for thermal spray coating interface quality characterization. Several high-velocity-oxy-fuel (HVOF) coated steel plates were produced with various surface preparation conditions or spray process parameters. A quad-frequency eddy current probe was used to manually scan over the coating surface to evaluate the bonding quality. Experimental results show that different surface preparation conditions and varied process parameters can be successfully differentiated by the impedance value observed from the eddy current probe. The measurement is fairly robust and consistent. This non-contact, nondestructive, easy-to-use technique has the potential for evaluating the coating quality immediately after its application so that any defects can be corrected immediately.

  9. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R2 = 0 .99396. PMID:25920547

  10. A non-destructive method for measuring the mechanical properties of ultrathin films prepared by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qinglin; Xiao, Xingcheng Verbrugge, Mark W.; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2014-08-11

    The mechanical properties of ultrathin films synthesized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) are critical for the liability of their coated devices. However, it has been a challenge to reliably measure critical properties of ALD films due to the influence from the substrate. In this work, we use the laser acoustic wave (LAW) technique, a non-destructive method, to measure the elastic properties of ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films by ALD. The measured properties are consistent with previous work using other approaches. The LAW method can be easily applied to measure the mechanical properties of various ALD thin films for multiple applications.

  11. Evaluation of non-destructive methods for estimating biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitbeck, M.; Grace, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    The estimation of aboveground biomass is important in the management of natural resources. Direct measurements by clipping, drying, and weighing of herbaceous vegetation are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, non-destructive methods for efficiently and accurately estimating biomass are of interest. We compared two non-destructive methods, visual obstruction and light penetration, for estimating aboveground biomass in marshes of the upper Texas, USA coast. Visual obstruction was estimated using the Robel pole method, which primarily measures the density and height of the canopy. Light penetration through the canopy was measured using a Decagon light wand, with readings taken above the vegetation and at the ground surface. Clip plots were also taken to provide direct estimates of total aboveground biomass. Regression relationships between estimated and clipped biomass were significant using both methods. However, the light penetration method was much more strongly correlated with clipped biomass under these conditions (R2 value 0.65 compared to 0.35 for the visual obstruction approach). The primary difference between the two methods in this situation was the ability of the light-penetration method to account for variations in plant litter. These results indicate that light-penetration measurements may be better for estimating biomass in marshes when plant litter is an important component. We advise that, in all cases, investigators should calibrate their methods against clip plots to evaluate applicability to their situation. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  12. A multi-inspection non-destructive testing method for quality evaluation of composite riveted structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weihan; He, Jingjing; Yang, Jingsong; Liu, Shengwang; Zhang, Weifang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon fiber composites have excellent mechanical properties, which are widely used in aerospace industry. However, 60% to 80% damages in composite occur in riveted structures. This research focuses on the quality evaluation of three major riveted structures used in mechanical connection: pressure riveted connection, hammer riveted connection and pull riveted connection. The non-destructive testing results show that the pull riveting technology introduces minimal damage to the composite, but the hammer riveted structure can be seriously damaged by the riveting technology. The pull riveted structure is an interference fit, which makes the composite plate firmly fixed. However, the fix is weak in the pressure riveted structure and the hammer riveted structure, due to the small gap between the rivets and plate. The results show that the pull riveted structure has a higher tensile strength compared with the pressure riveted structure and hammer riveted structure. The hammer riveted structure has a large dispersion in mechanical properties caused by the impact loading used in the hammer riveting technology.

  13. Non-Destructive Measurement of Vascular Tissue Development in Stems of Miniature Tomato Using Acoustic Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Kensuke; Watanabe, Eiko; Kato, Hiroshi

    The guided wave effect resembling that of annual rings found in woods and the cortical region of bones is believed to be observable in vascular tissues of herbaceous plants. The properties of acoustic waves traveling through the vascular tissue in the stem of a miniature tomato were measured using a piezoelectric pulser and receiver. The thickness of the vascular tissues and the stem's water content were measured. The detected acoustic waves showed a guided wave effect. The apparent sound velocity, va, was related to the vascular tissue thickness, tv. These results reveal that the detected acoustic waves traveled along the vascular tissues in stems. The maximum peak intensity of the detected acoustic waves, Imax was also related to t. Furthermore, wilting of the examined plants decreased the Imax, although va was not changed. The decrease in Imax might result from cavitations and embolisms with a subsequent increase in air pores in xylem tissues. These results demonstrate that the measurement of acoustic waves traveling through vascular tissue is a useful tool for the non-destructive evaluation of vascular tissue development and embolism density in xylem tissues.

  14. Non-destructive genetic sampling in fish. An improved method for DNA extraction from fish fins and scales.

    PubMed

    Wasko, Adriane P; Martins, Cesar; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto

    2003-01-01

    DNA-based studies have been one of the major interests in conservation biology of endangered species and in population genetics. As species and population genetic assessment requires a source of biological material, the sampling strategy can be overcome by non-destructive procedures for DNA isolation. An improved method for obtaining DNA from fish fins and scales with the use of an extraction buffer containing urea and further DNA purification with phenol-chloroform is described. The methodology combines the benefits of a non-destructive DNA sampling and its high efficiency. In addition, comparisons with other methodologies for isolating DNA from fish demonstrated that the present procedure also becomes a very attractive alternative to obtain large amounts of high-quality DNA for use in different molecular analyses. The DNA samples, isolated from different fish species, have been successfully used on random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) experiments, as well as on amplification of specific ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences. The present DNA extraction procedure represents an alternative for population approaches and genetic studies on rare or endangered taxa. PMID:14641478

  15. Neutron radiography as a non-destructive method for diagnosing neutron converters for advanced thermal neutron detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraro, A.; Albani, G.; Perelli Cippo, E.; Croci, G.; Angella, G.; Birch, J.; Cazzaniga, C.; Caniello, R.; Dell'Era, F.; Ghezzi, F.; Grosso, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Höglund, C.; Hultman, L.; Schimdt, S.; Robinson, L.; Rebai, M.; Salvato, G.; Tresoldi, D.; Vasi, C.; Tardocchi, M.

    2016-03-01

    Due to the well-known problem of 3He shortage, a series of different thermal neutron detectors alternative to helium tubes are being developed, with the goal to find valid candidates for detection systems for the future spallation neutron sources such as the European Spallation Source (ESS). A possible 3He-free detector candidate is a charged particle detector equipped with a three dimensional neutron converter cathode (3D-C). The 3D-C currently under development is composed by a series of alumina (Al2O3) lamellas coated by 1 μ m of 10B enriched boron carbide (B4C). In order to obtain a good characterization in terms of detector efficiency and uniformity it is crucial to know the thickness, the uniformity and the atomic composition of the B4C neutron converter coating. In this work a non-destructive technique for the characterization of the lamellas that will compose the 3D-C was performed using neutron radiography. The results of these measurements show that the lamellas that will be used have coating uniformity suitable for detector applications. This technique (compared with SEM, EDX, ERDA, XPS) has the advantage of being global (i.e. non point-like) and non-destructive, thus it is suitable as a check method for mass production of the 3D-C elements.

  16. Defining the needs for non-destructive assay of UF6 feed, product, and tails at gas centrifuge enrichment plants and possible next steps

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian D; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Moran, Bruce W; Lebrun, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Current safeguards approaches used by the IAEA at gas centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) need enhancement in order to detect undeclared LEU production with adequate detection probability using non destructive assay (NDA) techniques. At present inspectors use attended systems, systems needing the presence of an inspector for operation, during inspections to verify the mass and {sup 235}U enrichment of UF{sub 6} bulk material used in the process of enrichment at GCEPS. The inspectors also take destructive assay (DA) samples for analysis off-site which provide accurate, on the order of 0.1 % to 0.5% uncertainty, data on the enrichment of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product. However, DA sample taking is a much more labor intensive and resource intensive exercise for the operator and inspector. Furthermore, the operator must ship the samples off-site to the IAEA laboratory which delays the timeliness of the results and contains the possibility of the loss of the continuity of knowledge of the samples during the storage and transit of the material. Use of the IAEA's inspection sampling algorithm shows that while total sample size is fixed by the total population of potential samples and its intrinsic qualities, the split of the samples into NDA or DA samples is determined by the uncertainties in the NDA measurements. Therefore, the larger the uncertainties in the NDA methods, more of the sample taken must be DA samples. Since the DA sampling is arduous and costly, improvements in NDA methods would reduce the number of DA samples needed. Furthermore, if methods of on-site analysis of the samples could be developed that have uncertainties in the 1-2% range, a lot of the problems inherent in DA sampling could be removed. The use of an unattended system that could give an overview of the entire process giving complementary data on the enrichment process as well as accurate measures of enrichment and weights of the UF{sub 6} feed, tails, and product would be a major step

  17. Innovative real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement under large beam current irradiation for BNCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, M.; Kamada, S.; Suda, M.; Fujii, R.; Nakamura, M.; Hoshi, M.; Sato, H.; Endo, S.; Hamano, T.; Arai, S.; Higashimata, A.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a real-time and non-destructive method of beam profile measurement on a target under large beam current irradiation, and without any complex radiation detectors or electrical circuits. We measured the beam profiles on a target by observing the target temperature using an infrared-radiation thermometer camera. The target temperatures were increased and decreased quickly by starting and stopping the beam irradiation within 1 s in response speed. Our method could trace beam movements rapidly. The beam size and position were calibrated by measuring O-ring heat on the target. Our method has the potential to measure beam profiles at beam current over 1 mA for proton and deuteron with the energy around 3 MeV and allows accelerator operators to adjust the beam location during beam irradiation experiments without decreasing the beam current.

  18. Degradation of the ethyl glucuronide content in hair by hydrogen peroxide and a non-destructive assay for oxidative hair treatment using infra-red spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Dominic; Becker, Roland; Kohl, Anka; Hänisch, Jessica; Nehls, Irene

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of quantification results of the alcohol abuse marker ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in hair in comparison to the cut-off values for the drinking behavior may be complicated by cosmetic hair bleaching. Thus, the impact of increasing exposure to hydrogen peroxide on the EtG content of hair was investigated. Simultaneously, the change of absorbance in the range of 1000-1100 cm(-1) indicative for the oxidation of cystine was investigated non-destructively by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) using pulverized portions of the respective hair samples. Hair samples treated with hydrogen peroxide consistently displayed a significantly increased absorbance at 1040 cm(-1) associated with the formation of cysteic acid. The EtG content decreased significantly if the hair was treated with alkaline hydrogen peroxide as during cosmetic bleaching. It could be shown that ATR-FTIR is capable of detecting an exposure to hydrogen peroxide when still no brightening was visible and already before the EtG content deteriorated significantly. Thus, hair samples suspected of having been exposed to oxidative treatment may be checked non-destructively by a readily available technique. This assay is also possible retrospectively after EtG extraction and using archived samples. PMID:25180828

  19. Sensitivity and Calibration of Non-Destructive Evaluation Method That Uses Neural-Net Processing of Characteristic Fringe Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Weiland, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper answers some performance and calibration questions about a non-destructive-evaluation (NDE) procedure that uses artificial neural networks to detect structural damage or other changes from sub-sampled characteristic patterns. The method shows increasing sensitivity as the number of sub-samples increases from 108 to 6912. The sensitivity of this robust NDE method is not affected by noisy excitations of the first vibration mode. A calibration procedure is proposed and demonstrated where the output of a trained net can be correlated with the outputs of the point sensors used for vibration testing. The calibration procedure is based on controlled changes of fastener torques. A heterodyne interferometer is used as a displacement sensor for a demonstration of the challenges to be handled in using standard point sensors for calibration.

  20. Non-destructive testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, D.F.; Fan, C.; Ruan, J.Z.

    1994-12-31

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A non-destructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUIDs and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUIDs. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  1. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage for SUS316 by Using Electromagnetic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oka, M.; Tsuchida, Y.; Yakushiji, T.; Enokizono, M.

    2009-03-01

    There are some fatigue damage estimation methods for an austenitic stainless steel that uses martensitic transformation. For instance, those are the remanent magnetization method, the excitation method using the differential pick-up coil, and so on. We are researching also those two methods in our laboratory now. In the remanent magnetization method, it is well known that the relationship between fatigue damage and the remanent magnetization is simple, clear, and reproducible. In addition, the excitation method can be easily used at the job site because the special magnetizer is unnecessary. But, these methods have some disadvantages shown as follows. For instance, the former needs a special magnetizer and the latter's output signal is small. On the other hand, it is well known that the inductance of a pancake type coil put on the metallic specimen changes according to the electromagnetic properties of the metallic specimen. In this paper, the assessment method of fatigue of an austenitic stainless steel (SUS316) that uses the change by fatigue of the inductance of the pancake type coil measured with the LCR meter is shown. In addition, the fatigue evaluation performance of this method is described.

  2. Verification of recursive probabilistic integration (RPI) method for fatigue life management using non-destructive inspections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tzikang J.; Shiao, Michael

    2016-04-01

    This paper verified a generic and efficient assessment concept for probabilistic fatigue life management. The concept is developed based on an integration of damage tolerance methodology, simulations methods1, 2, and a probabilistic algorithm RPI (recursive probability integration)3-9 considering maintenance for damage tolerance and risk-based fatigue life management. RPI is an efficient semi-analytical probabilistic method for risk assessment subjected to various uncertainties such as the variability in material properties including crack growth rate, initial flaw size, repair quality, random process modeling of flight loads for failure analysis, and inspection reliability represented by probability of detection (POD). In addition, unlike traditional Monte Carlo simulations (MCS) which requires a rerun of MCS when maintenance plan is changed, RPI can repeatedly use a small set of baseline random crack growth histories excluding maintenance related parameters from a single MCS for various maintenance plans. In order to fully appreciate the RPI method, a verification procedure was performed. In this study, MC simulations in the orders of several hundred billions were conducted for various flight conditions, material properties, and inspection scheduling, POD and repair/replacement strategies. Since the MC simulations are time-consuming methods, the simulations were conducted parallelly on DoD High Performance Computers (HPC) using a specialized random number generator for parallel computing. The study has shown that RPI method is several orders of magnitude more efficient than traditional Monte Carlo simulations.

  3. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus utilizing phase multiplication holography

    DOEpatents

    Collins, H. Dale; Prince, James M.; Davis, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    An apparatus and method for imaging of structural characteristics in test objects using radiation amenable to coherent signal processing methods. Frequency and phase multiplication of received flaw signals is used to simulate a test wavelength at least one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the actual wavelength. The apparent reduction in wavelength between the illumination and recording radiation performs a frequency translation hologram. The hologram constructed with a high synthetic frequency and flaw phase multiplication is similar to a conventional acoustic hologram construction at the high frequency.

  4. Potential applicability of stress wave velocity method on pavement base materials as a non-destructive testing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahedi, Masrur

    Aggregates derived from natural sources have been used traditionally as the pavement base materials. But in recent times, the extraction of these natural aggregates has become more labor intensive and costly due to resource depletion and environmental concerns. Thus, the uses of recycled aggregates as the supplementary of natural aggregates are increasing considerably in pavement construction. Use of recycled aggregates such as recycled crushed concrete (RCA) and recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) reduces the rate of natural resource depletion, construction debris and cost. Although recycled aggregates could be used as a viable alternative of conventional base materials, strength characteristics and product variability limit their utility to a great extent. Hence, their applicability is needed to be evaluated extensively based on strength, stiffness and cost factors. But for extensive evaluation, traditionally practiced test methods are proven to be unreasonable in terms of time, cost, reliability and applicability. On the other hand, rapid non-destructive methods have the potential to be less time consuming and inexpensive along with the low variability of test results; therefore improving the reliability of estimated performance of the pavement. In this research work, the experimental program was designed to assess the potential application of stress wave velocity method as a non-destructive test in evaluating recycled base materials. Different combinations of cement treated recycled concrete aggregate (RAP) and recycled crushed concrete (RCA) were used to evaluate the applicability of stress wave velocity method. It was found that, stress wave velocity method is excellent in characterizing the strength and stiffness properties of cement treated base materials. Statistical models, based on P-wave velocity were derived for predicting the modulus of elasticity and compressive strength of different combinations of cement treated RAP, Grade-1 and Grade-2 materials. Two

  5. Method and apparatus for non-destructive evaluation of composite materials with cloth surface impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madras, Eric I. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A method and related apparatus for nondestructive evaluation of composite materials by determination of the quantity known as Integrated Polar Backscatter, which avoids errors caused by surface texture left by cloth impressions by identifying frequency ranges associated with peaks in a power spectrum for the backscattered signal, and removing such frequency ranges from the calculation of Integrated Polar Backscatter for all scan sites on the composite material is presented.

  6. 3D Ultrasonic Non-destructive Evaluation of Spot Welds Using an Enhanced Total Focusing Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiuniene, Elena; Samaitis, Vykintas; Mazeika, Liudas; Sanderson, Ruth

    2015-02-01

    Spot welds are used to join sheets of metals in the automotive industry. When spot weld quality is evaluated using conventional ultrasonic manual pulse-echo method, the reliability of the inspection is affected by selection of the probe diameter and the positioning of the probe in the weld center. The application of a 2D matrix array is a potential solution to the aforementioned problems. The objective of this work was to develop a signal processing algorithm to reconstruct the 3D spot weld volume showing the size of the nugget and the defects in it. In order to achieve this, the conventional total focusing method was enhanced by taking into account the directivities of the single elements of the array and the divergence of the ultrasonic beam due to the propagation distance. Enhancements enabled a reduction in the background noise and uniform sensitivity at different depths to be obtained. The proposed algorithm was verified using a finite element model of ultrasonic wave propagation simulating three common spot weld conditions: a good weld, an undersized weld, and a weld containing a pore. The investigations have demonstrated that proposed method enables the determination of the size of the nugget and detection of discontinuities.

  7. Non-destructive tree root detection with geophysical methods in urban soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vianden, Mitja Johannes; Weihs, Ulrich; Kuhnke, Falko; Rust, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    To assess the safety of roadside trees or as part of ecophysiological research it is often important to investigate the spatial distribution and development of tree roots. Conventionally this is done by laborious excavations or by the application of root drills which in many cases do not allow a comprehensive data collection. An indirect method for the investigation of subsurface features is ground penetrating radar (GPR). Its ability to detect tree roots has been shown by several studies (for example Hruska et al. 1999; Butnor et al. 2001; Barton et al. 2004). Another geophysical method which has been successful applied to study different aspects of tree roots is electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) (for example Hagrey 2007; Amato et al. 2008). These former studies by other authors mainly concentrated on a correlation between the measured parameters (signal amplitude and resistivity) and root-biomass on forest sites or controlled conditions. Results of Cermak et al. (2000), studying tree roots in urban areas with GPR, indicated that this method may also be useful for anthropogenic influenced areas. As a continuation of these approaches the authors have been using both techniques to study the spatial root architecture of urban trees. This research is designed to elicit the possibilities and limitations of the methods in urban areas. Reference sites have been established to quantify the methods' resolution and assess possible fields of application. These test site measurements are the basis for the interpretation of results at urban tree sites. Their results highlight the importance of 3D-measurements in urban areas because in inhomogeneous soil other reflectors (like rocks, cables, pipes, etc.) cause similar signals and bear a risk of misinterpretation. This can be minimized if detected objects have a spatial continuation and are connected to a tree. Here we present preliminary results from a combined application of both methods at the river bank of the

  8. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method

    PubMed Central

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P.

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the “Ligol” and “Szampion” apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson’s correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre

  9. A novel method for non-destructive Compton scatter imaging based on the genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashrafi, Saleh; Jahanbakhsh, Okhtay; Alizadeh, Davood; Salehpour, Behrooz

    2013-05-01

    Compton scattering tomography is widely used in numerous applications such as biomedical imaging, nondestructive industrial testing and environmental survey, etc. This paper proposes the use of the genetic algorithm (GA), which utilizes bio-inspired mathematical models, to construct an image of the insides of a test object via the scattered photons, from a voxel within the object. A NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and a 185 MBq 137Cs gamma ray source were used in the experimental measurements. The obtained results show that the proposed GA based method performs well in constructing images of objects.

  10. Determination of the Optimum Harvest Window for Apples Using the Non-Destructive Biospeckle Method.

    PubMed

    Skic, Anna; Szymańska-Chargot, Monika; Kruk, Beata; Chylińska, Monika; Pieczywek, Piotr Mariusz; Kurenda, Andrzej; Zdunek, Artur; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P

    2016-01-01

    Determination of the optimum harvest window plays a key role in the agro-food chain as the quality of fruit depends on the right harvesting time and appropriate storage conditions during the postharvest period. Usually, indices based on destructive measurements are used for this purpose, like the De Jager Index (PFW-1), FARS index and the most popular Streif Index. In this study, we proposed a biospeckle method for the evaluation of the optimum harvest window (OHW) of the "Ligol" and "Szampion" apple cultivars. The experiment involved eight different maturity stages, of which four were followed by long cold storage and shelf life to assist the determination of the optimum harvest window. The biospeckle activity was studied in relation to standard quality attributes (firmness, acidity, starch, soluble solids content, Streif Index) and physiological parameters (respiration and ethylene emission) of both apple cultivars. Changes of biospeckle activity (BA) over time showed moderate relationships with biochemical changes during apple maturation and ripening. The harvest date suggested by the Streif Index and postharvest quality indicators matched with characteristic decrease in BA. The ability of biospeckle method to characterize the biological state of apples was confirmed by significant correlations of BA with firmness, starch index, total soluble solids and Streif Index, as well as good match with changes in carbon dioxide and ethylene emission. However, it should be noted that correlations between variables changing over time are not as meaningful as independent observations. Also, it is a well-known property of the Pearson's correlation that its value is highly susceptible to outlier data. Due to its non-selective nature the BA reflected only the current biological state of the fruit and could be affected by many other factors. The investigations showed that the optimum harvest window for apples was indicated by the characteristic drop of BA during pre

  11. Apparatus and method for non-destructive testing using multi-frequency eddy currents

    SciTech Connect

    Hedengren, K.H.V.

    1993-08-17

    A method is described of improving eddy current flaw detection and resolution comprising the steps of: providing a plurality of probe elements; providing an alternating source of current capable of oscillating at a multiplicity of discrete frequencies; simultaneously driving said plurality of probe elements with said multiplicity of frequencies to excite discrete frequency responsive signals therefrom; scanning to acquire a corresponding multiplicity of discrete frequency responsive signals from each probe element of said plurality of probe elements; and resolving a corresponding multiplicity of eddy current images from said scan responsive multiplicity of frequency responsive signals.

  12. Distributive, Non-destructive Real-time System and Method for Snowpack Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolik, Jeff (Inventor); Skalka, Christian (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A ground-based system that provides quasi real-time measurement and collection of snow-water equivalent (SWE) data in remote settings is provided. The disclosed invention is significantly less expensive and easier to deploy than current methods and less susceptible to terrain and snow bridging effects. Embodiments of the invention include remote data recovery solutions. Compared to current infrastructure using existing SWE technology, the disclosed invention allows more SWE sites to be installed for similar cost and effort, in a greater variety of terrain; thus, enabling data collection at improved spatial resolutions. The invention integrates a novel computational architecture with new sensor technologies. The invention's computational architecture is based on wireless sensor networks, comprised of programmable, low-cost, low-powered nodes capable of sophisticated sensor control and remote data communication. The invention also includes measuring attenuation of electromagnetic radiation, an approach that is immune to snow bridging and significantly reduces sensor footprints.

  13. Applications of Non-destructive methods (GPR and 3D Laser Scanner) in Historic Masonry Arch Bridge Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alani, Amir; Banks, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    There exist approximately 70,000 masonry arch bridge spans (brick and stone) in the UK with tens of thousands more throughout Europe. A significant number of these bridges are still in operation and form part of the road and rail network systems in many countries. A great majority of these bridges are in desperate need of repair and maintenance. Applications of non-destructive testing methods such as ground penetrating radar (GPR), 3D laser scanning, accelerometer sensors and vibration detecting sensors amongst many others have been used to assess and monitor such structures in the past few years. This presentation provides results of the applications of a 2GHz GPR antenna system and a 3D laser scanner on a historic masonry arch bridge (the Old Bridge, Aylesford) located in Kent, in the south east of England. The older part of the bridge (the mid-span) is 860 years old. The bridge was the subject of a major alteration in 1811. This presentation forms part of a larger ongoing study which is using the two above mentioned non-destructive methods for long-term monitoring of the bridge. The adopted survey planning strategy and technique, data acquisition and processing as well as challenges encountered during actual survey and fieldworks have been discussed in this presentation. As a result of this study the position of different layers of the deck structure has been established with the identification of the original stone base of the bridge. This information in addition to the location of a number of structural ties (anchors - remedial work carried out previously) in the absence of reliable and accurate design details proved to be extremely useful for the modelling of the bridge using the finite element method. Results of the 3D laser scanning of the bridge have also been presented which have provided invaluable data essential for the accurate modelling of the bridge as well as the long term monitoring of the bridge. 2014 EGU-GA GI3.1 Session, organised by COST Action

  14. Development of a Lentivirus Vector-Based Assay for Non-Destructive Monitoring of Cell Fusion Activity

    PubMed Central

    Neshati, Zeinab; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Guangqian; Schalij, Martin J.; de Vries, Antoine A. F.

    2014-01-01

    Cell-to-cell fusion can be quantified by endowing acceptor and donor cells with latent reporter genes/proteins and activators of these genes/proteins, respectively. One way to accomplish this goal is by using a bipartite lentivirus vector (LV)-based cell fusion assay system in which the cellular fusion partners are transduced with a flippase-activatable Photinus pyralis luciferase (PpLuc) expression unit (acceptor cells) or with a recombinant gene encoding FLPeNLS+, a nuclear-targeted and molecularly evolved version of flippase (donor cells). Fusion of both cell populations will lead to the FLPe-dependent generation of a functional PpLuc gene. PpLuc activity is typically measured in cell lysates, precluding consecutive analysis of one cell culture. Therefore, in this study the PpLuc-coding sequence was replaced by that of Gaussia princeps luciferase (GpLuc), a secretory protein allowing repeated analysis of the same cell culture. In myotubes the spread of FLPeNLS+ may be limited due to its nuclear localization signal (NLS) causing low signal outputs. To test this hypothesis, myoblasts were transduced with LVs encoding either FLPeNLS+ or an NLS-less version of FLPe (FLPeNLS−) and subsequently co-cultured in different ratios with myoblasts containing the FLPe-activatable GpLuc expression cassette. At different times after induction of cell-to-cell fusion the GpLuc activity in the culture medium was determined. FLPeNLS+ and FLPeNLS− both activated the latent GpLuc gene but when the percentage of FLPe-expressing myoblasts was limiting, FLPeNLS+ generally yielded slightly higher signals than FLPeNLS− while at low acceptor-to-donor cell ratios FLPeNLS− was usually superior. The ability of FLPeNLS+ to spread through myofibers and to induce reporter gene expression is thus not limited by its NLS. However, at high FLPe concentrations the presence of the NLS negatively affected reporter gene expression. In summary, a rapid and simple chemiluminescence assay for

  15. A Non-destructive method to assess freshness of raw bovine milk using FT-NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanwen; Ding, Wu; Kou, Liping; Li, Liang; Wang, Chen; Jurick, Wayne M

    2015-08-01

    A non-destructive method to analyze the freshness of raw milk was developed using a FT-NIR spectrometer and a fiber optic probe. Diffuse transmittance spectra were acquired in the spectral range 833 ~ 2,500 nm from raw milk samples collected from Northwest A&F University Animal Husbandry Station. After each spectral acquisition, quality parameters such as acidity, pH, and lactose content were measured by traditional detection methods. For all milk samples, PLS (partial least square regression), MLR (multiple linear regression), and ANN (artificial neural networks) analyses were carried out in order to develop models to predict parameters that were indicative of freshness. Predictive models showed R(2) values up to 0.9647, 0.9876 and 0.8772 for acidity, pH, and lactose content, respectively (validation set validations). The similarity analysis and classification between raw milk freshness during storage was also conducted by means of hierarchical cluster analysis. Over an 8 day storage period, the highest heterogeneity was evident between days 1 and 2. PMID:26243957

  16. A non-destructive method for quantification the irradiation doses of irradiated sucrose using Vis/NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gong, Aiping; Qiu, Zhengjun; He, Yong; Wang, Zhiping

    2012-12-01

    This article proposes a new method for fast discrimination of irradiation doses of sucrose based on visible-near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy technology. 250 sucrose samples were categorized into five groups to be irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 kGy respectively and prepared for the discrimination analysis. The 50 samples of each group were randomly divided into a calibration set containing 40 samples, and a validation set containing the remaining 10 samples. Principal component clustering analysis (PCCA) was applied for the extraction of principal components (PCs) and for clustering analysis. The first five PCs were regarded as the inputs to develop the back propagation neural network (BPNN) model. The performance of the model was validated by the 50 unknown samples and the BPNN achieved an excellent precision and recognition ration of 100%. The results indicated that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be utilized as a rapid and non-destructive method for the classification of different irradiation doses of irradiated sucrose. PMID:23041915

  17. Infrared densitometry: a fast and non-destructive method for exact stratum corneum depth calculation for in vitro tape-stripping.

    PubMed

    Hahn, T; Hansen, S; Neumann, D; Kostka, K-H; Lehr, C-M; Muys, L; Schaefer, U F

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of drug penetration into the stratum corneum (SC) by tape-stripping requires an accurate measure of the amount of SC on each tape-strip in order to determine the depth inside the SC. This study applies infrared densitometry (IR-D) to in vitro tape-stripping using the novel Squame Scan(R) 850A. The device had recently been shown to provide accurate measurements of the SC depth for tape-stripping in vivo. Furthermore, the suitability of IR-D for determining the endpoint of tape-stripping, i.e. complete SC removal, was tested. The SC depth was computed from the IR-D data of sequential tape-strips and compared to the results of a protein assay as gold standard. IR-D provided accurate depth results both for freshly excised skin and for skin stored frozen for up to 3 months. In addition, the lower limit of quantification of IR-D indicates the complete removal of the SC (less than 5% of the total SC remaining) and can be used for adjusting the number of tapes applied in situ. Therefore, IR-D is an accurate, fast and non-destructive method for SC depth determination. PMID:20173360

  18. Shake and stew: a non-destructive PCR-ready DNA isolation method from a single preserved fish larva.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Bremer, J R; Smith, B L; Moulton, D L; Lu, C-P; Cornic, M

    2014-01-01

    A rapid non-destructive alternative to isolate DNA from an individual fish larva is presented, based on the suspension of epithelial cells through vortex forces, and the release of DNA in a heated alkaline solution. DNA from >6056 fish larvae isolated using this protocol has yielded a high PCR amplification success rate (>93%), suggesting its applicability to other taxonomic groups or sources when tissue amount is the limiting factor. PMID:24383811

  19. Innovative non-destructive evaluation methods on HTR fuel at AREVA NP: towards a 100% non invasive control strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Banchet, J.; Tisseur, D.; Hermosilla Lara, S.; Piriou, M.; Bargain, R.; Guillermier, P.

    2007-07-01

    High Temperature Reactor (HTR) fuel consists in millimetric multilayered particles called TRISO, embedded, depending on the reactor design, in a pebble or cylinder-shaped graphite matrix called compact. Particles are typically composed of a 500 {mu}m fissile material kernel, a 95 {mu}m porous carbon layer called buffer, a 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer, a 35 {mu}m silicon carbide layer and another 40 {mu}m dense pyrolytic carbon layer. In order to ensure fuel qualification, as well as reactor safety, particles and compacts need to satisfy specifications concerning their physical characteristics and their integrity. In particular, geometrical parameters such as particle diameter and sphericity as well as layers thickness, but also layers density and the absence of structural defects such as cracks or de-cohesions need to be detected and characterized. In the past, a huge R and D work was carried out to build a TRISO particle characterization quality control plan, mainly based on particle sampling as well as destructive characterization methods. However, since then, development of industrial non-destructive evaluation techniques and devices contributed to envisage not only a non invasive control of HTR fuel, but also a 100% production control strategy. Since 2004, AREVA NP is engaged in a R and D program aiming at the development of innovative industrial nondestructive evaluation methods for HTR fuel. After investigating a number of potential techniques, some of them were selected based on their performances and/or their industrial potential. In particular, development has been carried out on high resolution X-Ray imaging allowing accurate layer thickness, layer density and structural defects characterization, X-Ray tomography offering the possibility to characterize fuel element homogeneity and determine the number of in-contact particles contained in a fuel element, infrared thermal imaging (ITI) allowing cracks detection, eddy currents (EC) enabling

  20. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications. PMID:27192290

  1. Determining plutonium mass in spent fuel with non-destructive assay techniques - NGSU research overview and update on 6 NDA techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tobin, Stephen J; Conlin, Jeremy L; Evans, Louise G; Hu, Jianwei; Blanc, Pauline C; Lafleur, Adrienne M; Menlove, Howard O; Schear, Melissa A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Croft, Stephen; Fensin, Michael L; Freeman, Corey R; Koehler, William E; Mozin, V; Sandoval, N P; Lee, T H; Cambell, L W; Cheatham, J R; Gesh, C J; Hunt, A; Ludewigt, B A; Smith, L E; Sterbentz, J

    2010-09-15

    This poster is one of two complementary posters. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. DOE has initiated a multi-lab/university collaboration to quantify the plutonium (Pu) mass in, and detect the diversion of pins from, spent nuclear fuel assemblies with non-destructive assay (NDA). This research effort has the goal of quantifying the capability of 14 NDA techniques as well as training a future generation of safeguards practitioners. By November of 2010, we will be 1.5 years into the first phase (2.5 years) of work. This first phase involves primarily Monte Carlo modelling while the second phase (also 2.5 years) will focus on experimental work. The goal of phase one is to quantify the detection capability of the various techniques for the benefit of safeguard technology developers, regulators, and policy makers as well as to determine what integrated techniques merit experimental work, We are considering a wide range of possible technologies since our research horizon is longer term than the focus of most regulator bodies. The capability of all of the NDA techniques will be determined for a library of 64 17 x 17 PWR assemblies [burnups (15, 30, 45, 60 GWd/tU), initial enrichments (2, 3, 4, 5%) and cooling times (1, 5, 20, 80 years)]. The burnup and cooling time were simulated with each fuel pin being comprised of four radial regions. In this paper an overview of the purpose will be given as well as a technical update on the following 6 neutron techniques: {sup 252}Cf Interrogation with Prompt Neutron Detection, Delayed Neutrons, Differential Die-Away, Differential Die-Away Self-Interrogation, Passive Neutron Albedo Reactivity, Self-Integration Neutron Resonance Densitometry. The technical update will quantify the anticipated performance of each technique for the 64 assemblies of the spent fuel library.

  2. Californium interrogation prompt neutron (CIPN) instrument for non-destructive assay of spent nuclear fuel-Design concept and experimental demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henzlova, D.; Menlove, H. O.; Rael, C. D.; Trellue, H. R.; Tobin, S. J.; Park, Se-Hwan; Oh, Jong-Myeong; Lee, Seung-Kyu; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Kwon, In-Chan; Kim, Ho-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of the first experimental demonstration of the Californium Interrogation Prompt Neutron (CIPN) instrument developed within a multi-year effort launched by the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Spent Fuel Project of the United States Department of Energy. The goals of this project focused on developing viable non-destructive assay techniques with capabilities to improve an independent verification of spent fuel assembly characteristics. For this purpose, the CIPN instrument combines active and passive neutron interrogation, along with passive gamma-ray measurements, to provide three independent observables. This paper describes the initial feasibility demonstration of the CIPN instrument, which involved measurements of four pressurized-water-reactor spent fuel assemblies with different levels of burnup and two initial enrichments. The measurements were performed at the Post-Irradiation Examination Facility at the Korea Atomic Energy Institute in the Republic of Korea. The key aim of the demonstration was to evaluate CIPN instrument performance under realistic deployment conditions, with the focus on a detailed assessment of systematic uncertainties that are best evaluated experimentally. The measurements revealed good positioning reproducibility, as well as a high degree of insensitivity of the CIPN instrument's response to irregularities in a radial burnup profile. Systematic uncertainty of individual CIPN instrument signals due to assembly rotation was found to be <4.5%, even for assemblies with fairly extreme gradients in the radial burnup profile. These features suggest that the CIPN instrument is capable of providing a good representation of assembly average characteristics, independent of assembly orientation in the instrument.

  3. Non-destructive evaluation means and method of flaw reconstruction utilizing an ultrasonic multi-viewing transducer data acquistion system

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Donald O.; Wormley, Samuel J.

    1989-03-28

    A multi-viewing ultrasound transducer acquisition system for non-destructive evaluation, flaw detection and flaw reconstruction in materials. A multiple transducer assembly includes a central transducer surrounded by a plurality of perimeter transducers, each perimeter transducer having an axis of transmission which can be angularly oriented with respect to the axis of transmission of the central transducer to intersect the axis of transmission of the central transducer. A control apparatus automatically and remotely positions the transducer assembly with respect to the material by a positioning apparatus and adjusts the pe GRANT REFERENCE This invention was conceived and reduced to practice at least in part under a grant from the Department of Energy under Contract No. W-7407-ENG-82.

  4. Biospectroscopy of Rhododendron indicum flowers. Non-destructive assessment of anthocyanins in petals using a reflectance-based method.

    PubMed

    Iriel, Analia; Lagorio, María Gabriela

    2009-03-01

    Reflectance spectra from pink petals of Rhododendron indicum flowers showed absorption in the NIR (1470, 1930 and 2500 nm) due to water, in the visible (533 nm, due to anthocyanins) and in the UV (broad absorption due to phenolic compounds other than anthocyanins). A linear correlation between the remission function at 533 nm and the anthocyanin content in micromol per g fresh weight has been found, allowing non-destructive quantification of anthocyanins. The remission function could be obtained either from reflectance of a group of stacked petals (Kubelka-Munk theory) or through determination of the absorption and scattering coefficients following the Pile of Plates model. The intact petals have shown fluorescence emission in the blue (400-500 nm) and in the visible around 624 nm under UV excitation. The red emission was attributed to anthocyanins whereas blue emission was assigned to other phenolic compounds. On the basis of absorption and fluorescence measurements of crude and purified extracts from the petals, the last compounds could possibly be a mixture of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic-type plant phenolics such as ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid or others. PMID:19255674

  5. A model-based method for the characterisation of stress in magnetic materials using eddy current non-destructive evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahia, Abla; Berthelot, Eric; Le Bihan and, Yann; Daniel, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    A precise knowledge of the distribution of internal stresses in materials is key to the prediction of magnetic and mechanical performance and lifetime of many industrial devices. This is the reason why many efforts have been made to develop and enhance the techniques for the non-destructive evaluation of stress. In the case of magnetic materials, the use of eddy current (EC) techniques is a promising pathway to stress evaluation. The principle is based on the significant changes in magnetic permeability of magnetic materials subjected to mechanical stress. These modifications of magnetic permeability affect in turn the signal obtained from an EC probe inspecting the material. From this principle, a numerical tool is proposed in this paper to predict the EC signal obtained from a material subjected to stress. This numerical tool is a combination of a 3D finite element approach with a magneto-mechanical constitutive law describing the effect of stress on the magnetic permeability. The model provides the variations of impedance of an EC probe as a function of stress. An experimental setup in which a magnetic material subjected to a tension stress is inspected using EC techniques is tailored in order to validate the model. A very good agreement is found between experimental and modelling results. For the Iron-Cobalt alloy tested in this study, it is shown that a uniaxial tensile stress can be detected with an error lower than 3 MPa in the range from 0 to 100 MPa.

  6. Progress and goals for INMM ASC N15 consensus standard ""Administrative practices for the determination and reporting of results of non-destructive assay measurements of nuclear material in situ for safeguards nuclear criticality safety and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Bracken, David S; Lamb, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the goals and progress to date on the development of INMM Accredited Standard Committee (ASC) N15 consensus standard Administrative Practices for the Determination and Reporting of Results of Non-Destructive Assay Measurements of Nuclear Material in situ for Safeguards, Nuclear Criticality Safety, and Other Purposes. This standard will define administrative practices in the areas of data generation and reporting of NDA assay of holdup deposits with consideration of the stakeholders of the reported results. These stakeholders may include nuclear material accounting and safeguards, nuclear criticality safety, waste management, health physics, facility characterization, authorization basis, radiation safety, and site licensing authorities. Stakeholder input will be solicited from interested parties and incorporated during the development of the document. Currently only one consensus standard exists that explicitly deals with NDA holdup measurements: ASTM C1455 Standard Test Method for Nondestructive Assay of Special Nuclear Material Holdup Using Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods. The ASTM International standard emphasizes the activities involved in actually making measurements, and was developed by safeguards and NDA experts. This new INMM ASC N15 standard will complement the existing ASTM international standard. One of the largest driving factors for writing this new standard was the recent emphasis on in situ NDA measurements by the safeguards community due to the Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) recommendation 2007-1 on in situ NDA measurements. Specifically, DNFSB recommendation 2007-1 referenced the lack of programmatic requirements for accurate in situ measurements and the use of measurement results for compliance with safety based requirements. That being the case, this paper will also discuss the progress made on the Implementation Plan for Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 2007-1 Safety-Related In Situ

  7. A coupled fictitious electric circuit's method for impedance of a sensor with ferromagnetic core calculation. Application to eddy currents non destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerguini, S.; Maouche, B.; Latreche, M.; Feliachi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The eddy current testing method is widely used to evaluate conductive pieces. This method requires an adequate mathematical model which is able to describe the complicated interactions between the source and induced currents, primary and secondary, the fields and the flaws in materials. This paper describes a model which predicts the apparent changes in the impedance of an absolute ferrite-cored probe in axially symmetric non destructive testing (NDT) configurations. Originally, this model is based on coupled electromagnetic quantities principle. To include the contribution of the magnetic environment, the state variable chosen is the current because the magnetic magnetization is replaced by the fictional equivalent currents. The obtained modelling results are validated by comparison to finite element computations. Once validated, the suggested model is not only applied to calculation of probe's impedance in the presence of a defect inside the load but it is also applied to determine geometrical and physical characteristics of the eddy current non destructive testing (ECNDT) device. This half-numerical technique with a very weak time of simulation can be used for the design of new probes and offers a simple solution to the inversion problem. The model is implemented within a software tool (CECM: coupling electromagnetic circuits method) developed in MATLAB environment.

  8. Low frequency electrical and magnetic methods for non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in fiber reinforced cementitious composites: an overview.

    PubMed

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective. PMID:23337334

  9. Low Frequency Electrical and Magnetic Methods for Non-Destructive Analysis of Fiber Dispersion in Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Faifer, Marco; Ferrara, Liberato; Ottoboni, Roberto; Toscani, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive analysis of fiber dispersion in structural elements made of Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) and Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composites (FRCCs) plays a significant role in the framework of quality control and performance prediction. In this paper, the research activity of the authors in the aforementioned field all over the last lustrum will be reviewed. A method based on the measurement of the inductance of a probe to be placed on the specimen will be presented and its progressive development will be described. Obtained correlation with actual fiber dispersion, as checked by means of destructive methods, as well as with the mechanical performance of the composite will also be presented, in an attempt to address the significance of the method from an engineering application perspective. PMID:23337334

  10. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers

    PubMed Central

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y.; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  11. A Non-Destructive Method for Distinguishing Reindeer Antler (Rangifer tarandus) from Red Deer Antler (Cervus elaphus) Using X-Ray Micro-Tomography Coupled with SVM Classifiers.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Alexandre; Rochefort, Gael Y; Santos, Frédéric; Le Denmat, Dominique; Salmon, Benjamin; Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, biomedical 3D-imaging tools have gained widespread use in the analysis of prehistoric bone artefacts. While initial attempts to characterise the major categories used in osseous industry (i.e. bone, antler, and dentine/ivory) have been successful, the taxonomic determination of prehistoric artefacts remains to be investigated. The distinction between reindeer and red deer antler can be challenging, particularly in cases of anthropic and/or taphonomic modifications. In addition to the range of destructive physicochemical identification methods available (mass spectrometry, isotopic ratio, and DNA analysis), X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT) provides convincing non-destructive 3D images and analyses. This paper presents the experimental protocol (sample scans, image processing, and statistical analysis) we have developed in order to identify modern and archaeological antler collections (from Isturitz, France). This original method is based on bone microstructure analysis combined with advanced statistical support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. A combination of six microarchitecture biomarkers (bone volume fraction, trabecular number, trabecular separation, trabecular thickness, trabecular bone pattern factor, and structure model index) were screened using micro-CT in order to characterise internal alveolar structure. Overall, reindeer alveoli presented a tighter mesh than red deer alveoli, and statistical analysis allowed us to distinguish archaeological antler by species with an accuracy of 96%, regardless of anatomical location on the antler. In conclusion, micro-CT combined with SVM classifiers proves to be a promising additional non-destructive method for antler identification, suitable for archaeological artefacts whose degree of human modification and cultural heritage or scientific value has previously made it impossible (tools, ornaments, etc.). PMID:26901355

  12. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a 252Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  13. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Material and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Seabury, E. H.; Chichester, D. L.; Wharton, C. J.; Caffrey, A. J.

    2009-03-10

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory's PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, but recently a deuterium-tritium (DT) electronic neutron generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  14. A Comparison of Neutron-Based Non-Destructive Assessment Methods for Chemical Warfare Materiel and High Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    E.H. Seabury; D.L. Chichester; C.J. Wharton; A.J. Caffrey

    2008-08-01

    Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) systems employ neutrons as a probe to interrogate items, e.g. chemical warfare materiel-filled munitions. The choice of a neutron source in field-portable systems is determined by its ability to excite nuclei of interest, operational concerns such as radiological safety and ease-of-use, and cost. Idaho National Laboratory’s PINS Chemical Assay System has traditionally used a Cf-252 isotopic neutron source, but recently a Deuterium-Tritium (DT) Electronic Neutron Generator (ENG) has been tested as an alternate neutron source. This paper presents the results of using both of these neutron sources to interrogate chemical warfare materiel (CWM) and high explosive (HE) filled munitions.

  15. Visible and near-infrared light transmission: A hybrid imaging method for non-destructive meat quality evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziadi, A.; Maldague, X.; Saucier, L.; Duchesne, C.; Gosselin, R.

    2012-09-01

    Visual inspection of the amount of external marbling (intramuscular fat) on the meat surface is the official method used to assign the quality grading level of meat. However, this method is based exclusively on the analysis of the meat surface without any information about the internal content of the meat sample. In this paper, a new method using visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) light transmission is used to evaluate the quality of beef meat based on the marbling detection. It is demonstrated that using NIR light in transmission mode, it is possible to detect the fat not only on the surface, as in traditional methods, but also under the surface. Moreover, in combining the analysis of the two sides of the meat simple, it is possible to estimate the volumetric marbling which is not accessible by visual methods commonly proposed in computer vision. To the best of our knowledge, no similar work or method has been published or developed. The experimental results confirm the expected properties of the proposed method and illustrate the quality of the results obtained.

  16. A rapid, non-invasive and non-destructive method for studying swelling behavior and microstructure variations of hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqiong; Li, Xiunan; Chen, Chao; Zhao, Dawei; Su, Zhiguo; Ma, Guanghui; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-20

    A new method for studying swelling behavior of hydrogels was developed based on low field NMR (LF-NMR). This method is established on these facts: firstly, internal water (water trapped in hydrogel) and external water (water outside of hydrogel) correspond to different components of transverse relaxation time (T2); secondly, T2 component amplitude is proportional to relative water content; and finally, T2 value is closely related to mesh size of hydrogel network, the main effect being due to the overall concentration (degree of swelling). This method was successfully applied to swelling ratio determination of chitosan/glutaraldehyde (CS/GA) hydrogels in situ, and the results had better accuracy and repeatability compared with that of weighing method. Furthermore, swelling kinetics at different pH and microstructure of CS/GA hydrogels was well elucidated based on T2. It is clearly showed that LF-NMR provides a powerful tool for probing processes related to water transport and microstructure variation of hydrogels. PMID:27474678

  17. Microwave dielectric method for the rapid, non-destructive determination of bulk density and moisture content of peanut hull pellets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine rapidly and nondestructively moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. For moisture content determination, a permittivity-based function which allows mo...

  18. Use of delayed gamma rays for active non-destructive assay of 235U irradiated by pulsed neutron source (plasma focus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andola, Sanjay; Niranjan, Ram; Kaushik, T. C.; Rout, R. K.; Kumar, Ashwani; Paranjape, D. B.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tomar, B. S.; Ramakumar, K. L.; Gupta, S. C.

    2014-07-01

    A pulsed neutron source based on plasma focus device has been used for active interrogation and assay of 235U by monitoring its delayed high energy γ-rays. The method involves irradiation of fissile material by thermal neutrons obtained after moderation of a burst of neutrons emitted upon fusion of deuterium in plasma focus (PF) device. The delayed gamma rays emitted from the fissile material as a consequence of induced fission were detected by a large volume sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) detector. The detector is coupled to a data acquisition system of 2k input size with 2k ADC conversion gain. Counting was carried out in pulse height analysis mode for time integrated counts up to 100 s while the temporal profile of delayed gamma has been obtained by counting in multichannel scaling mode with dwell time of 50 ms. To avoid the effect of passive (natural) and active (from surrounding materials) backgrounds, counts have been acquired for gamma energy between 3 and 10 MeV. The lower limit of detection of 235U in the oxide samples with this set-up is estimated to be 14 mg.

  19. The RAMANITA method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts.

    PubMed

    Smith, David C

    2005-08-01

    The "RAMANITA" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is quite different. PMID:16029851

  20. A non-destructive n-doping method for graphene with precise control of electronic properties via atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kyu Seok; Kalode, Pranav Y.; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Hongbum; Lee, Lynn; Sung, Myung Mo

    2016-02-01

    Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility.Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08016a

  1. A non-destructive n-doping method for graphene with precise control of electronic properties via atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyu Seok; Kalode, Pranav Y; Koo Lee, Yong-Eun; Kim, Hongbum; Lee, Lynn; Sung, Myung Mo

    2016-02-25

    Graphene applications require high precision control of the Fermi level and carrier concentration via a nondestructive doping method. Here, we develop an effective n-doping technique using atomic layer deposition (ALD) of ZnO thin films on graphene through a reactive molecular layer. This ALD doping method is nondestructive, simple, and precise. The ZnO thin films on graphene are uniform, conformal, of good quality with a low density of pinholes, and finely tunable in thickness with 1 Å resolution. We demonstrate graphene transistor control in terms of the Dirac point, carrier density, and doping state as a function of the ZnO thickness. Moreover, ZnO functions as an effective thin-film barrier against air-borne water and oxygen on the graphene, resulting in extraordinary stability in air for graphene devices. ZnO ALD was also applied to other two-dimensional materials including MoS2 and WSe2, which substantially enhanced electron mobility. PMID:26864992

  2. Non-destructive Testing (NDT) of metal cracks using a high Tc rf-SQUID and eddy current method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, D. F.; Fan, Chang-Xin; Ruan, J. Z.; Han, S. G.; Wong, K. W.; Sun, G. F.

    1995-01-01

    A SQUID is the most sensitive device to detect change in magnetic field. A nondestructive testing (NDT) device using high temperature SQUID's and eddy current method will be much more sensitive than those currently used eddy current systems, yet much cheaper than one with low temperature SQUID's. In this paper, we present our study of such a NDT device using a high temperature superconducting rf-SQUID as a gradiometer sensor. The result clearly demonstrates the expected sensitivity of the system, and indicates the feasibility of building a portable HTS SQUID NDT device with the help from cryocooler industry. Such a NDT device will have a significant impact on metal corrosion or crack detection technology.

  3. Case study of a non-destructive treatment method for the remediation of military structures containing polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated paint.

    PubMed

    Saitta, Erin K H; Gittings, Michael J; Novaes-Card, Simone; Quinn, Jacqueline; Clausen, Christian; O'Hara, Suzanne; Yestrebsky, Cherie L

    2015-08-01

    Restricted by federal regulations and limited remediation options, buildings contaminated with paint laden with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have high costs associated with the disposal of hazardous materials. As opposed to current remediation methods which are often destructive and a risk to the surrounding environment, this study suggests a non-metal treatment system (NMTS) and a bimetallic treatment system (BTS) as versatile remediation options for painted industrial structures including concrete buildings, and metal machine parts. In this field study, four areas of a discontinued Department of Defense site were treated and monitored over 3 weeks. PCB levels in paint and treatment system samples were analyzed through gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations were reduced by 95 percent on painted concrete and by 60-97 percent on painted metal with the majority of the PCB removal occurring within the first week of application. Post treatment laboratory studies including the utilization of an activated metal treatment system (AMTS) further degraded PCBs in BTS and NMTS by up to 82 percent and 99 percent, respectively, indicating that a two-step remediation option is viable. These findings demonstrate that the NMTS and BTS can be an effective, nondestructive, remediation process for large painted structures, allowing for the reuse or sale of remediated materials that otherwise may have been disposed. PMID:25950836

  4. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    SciTech Connect

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Bento, A. C.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.

    2013-11-21

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (∼7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (∼12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s{sup 0.5}/cm{sup 2} K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm{sup 3} K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water)

  5. Non-destructive thermal wave method applied to study thermal properties of fast setting time endodontic cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picolloto, A. M.; Mariucci, V. V. G.; Szpak, W.; Medina, A. N.; Baesso, M. L.; Astrath, N. G. C.; Astrath, F. B. G.; Santos, A. D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Bento, A. C.

    2013-11-01

    The thermal wave method is applied for thermal properties measurement in fast endodontic cement (CER). This new formula is developed upon using Portland cement in gel and it was successfully tested in mice with good biocompatibility and stimulated mineralization. Recently, thermal expansion and setting time were measured, conferring to this material twice faster hardening than the well known Angelus Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) the feature of fast hardening (˜7 min) and with similar thermal expansion (˜12 μstrain/ °C). Therefore, it is important the knowledge of thermal properties like thermal diffusivity, conductivity, effusivity in order to match thermally the tissue environment upon its application in filling cavities of teeth. Photothermal radiometry technique based on Xe illumination was applied in CER disks 600 μm thick for heating, with prepared in four particle sizes (25, 38, 45, and 53) μm, which were added microemulsion gel with variation volumes (140, 150, 160, and 170) μl. The behavior of the thermal diffusivity CER disks shows linear decay for increase emulsion volume, and in contrast, thermal diffusivity increases with particles sizes. Aiming to compare to MTA, thermal properties of CER were averaged to get the figure of merit for thermal diffusivity as (44.2 ± 3.6) × 10-3 cm2/s, for thermal conductivity (228 ± 32) mW/cm K, the thermal effusivity (1.09 ± 0.06) W s0.5/cm2 K and volume heat capacity (5.2 ± 0.7) J/cm3 K, which are in excellent agreement with results of a disk prepared from commercial MTA-Angelus (grain size < 10 μm using 57 μl of distilled water).

  6. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  7. State-of-the-art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for application to nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Herbert; Naus, Dan J.

    2014-02-18

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: •locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth •locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials •detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures •detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner •methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner.

  8. State-of-the-Art of Non-Destructive Testing Methods and Technologies for Application to Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiggenhauser, Dr. Herbert; Naus, Dan J

    2014-01-01

    The inspection of nuclear power plant concrete structures presents challenges different from conventional civil engineering structures. Wall thicknesses can be in excess of one meter and the structures often have increased steel reinforcement density with more complex detailing. The accessibility for any testing method may be limited due to the presence of liners and other components and there can be a number of penetrations or cast-in-place items present. The objective of the report is to present the state-of-the art of non-destructive testing methods and technologies for the inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced nuclear power plant concrete cross-sections with particular respect to: locating steel reinforcement and identification of its cover depth locating tendon ducts and identification of the condition of the grout materials detection of cracking, voids, delamination, and honeycombing in concrete structures detection of inclusions of different materials or voids adjacent to the concrete side of the containment liner methods capable of identification of corrosion occurrence on the concrete side of the containment liner

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE BEAM MEASUREMENTS.

    SciTech Connect

    BAI,M.

    2004-07-05

    In high energy accelerators, especially storage rings, non-destructive beam measurements are highly desirable to minimize the impact on the beam quality. In principle, the non-destructive tools can be either passive detectors like Schottky, or active devices which excite either longitudinal or transverse beam motions for the corresponding measurements. An example of such a device is an ac dipole, a magnet with oscillating field, which can be used to achieve large coherent betatron oscillations. It has been demonstrated in the Brookhaven AGS that by adiabatically exciting the beam, the beam emittance growth due to the filamentation in the phase space can be avoided. This paper overviews both techniques in general. In particular, this paper also presents the beam tune measurement with a Schottky detector, phase advance measurements as well as nonlinear resonance measurements with the ac dipoles in the Brookhaven RHIC.

  10. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  11. Performance monitoring of large-scale autonomously healed concrete beams under four-point bending through multiple non-destructive testing methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Van Tittelboom, K.; De Belie, N.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2016-05-01

    Concrete is still the leading structural material due to its low production cost and great structural design flexibility. Although it is distinguished by such a high durability and compressive strength, it is vulnerable in a series of ambient and operational degradation factors which all too frequently result in crack formation that can adversely affect its mechanical performance. The autonomous healing system, using encapsulated polyurethane-based, expansive, healing agent embedded in concrete, is triggered by the crack formation and propagation and promises material repair and operational service life extension. As shown in our previous studies, the formed cracks on small-scale concrete beams are sealed and repaired by filling them with the healing agent. In the present study, the crack formation and propagation in autonomously healed, large-scale concrete beams are thoroughly monitored through a combination of non-destructive testing (NDT) methods. The ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), using embedded low-cost and aggregate-size piezoelectric transducers, the acoustic emission (AE) and the digital image correlation (DIC) are the NDT methods which are comprehensively used. The integrated ultrasonic, acoustic and optical monitoring system introduces an experimental configuration that detects and locates the four-point bending mode fracture on large-scale concrete beams, detects the healing activation process and evaluates the subsequent concrete repair.

  12. A NEW NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARTICULATE MATTER FILTERS: THE CASE OF MANGANESE AIR POLLUTION IN VALLECAMONICA (ITALY)

    PubMed Central

    Borgese, Laura; Zacco, Annalisa; Pal, Sudipto; Bontempi, Elza; Lucchini, Roberto; Zimmerman, Neil; Depero, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a well-established technique for chemical analysis, but it is mainly employed for quality control in the electronics semiconductor industry. The capability to analyze liquid and uniformly thin solid samples makes this technique suitable for other applications, and especially in the very critical field of environmental analysis. Comparison with standard methods like Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) show that TXRF is a practical, accurate, and reliable technique in occupational settings. Due to the greater sensitivity necessary in trace heavy metal detection, TXRF is also suitable for environmental chemical analysis. In this paper we show that based on appropriate standards, TXRF can be considered for non-destructive routine quantitative analysis of environmental matrices such as air filters. This work has been developed in the frame of the EU-FP6 PHIME (Public Health Impact of long-term, low-level Mixed element Exposure in susceptible population strata) Integrated Project (www.phime.org). The aim of this work was to investigate Mn air pollution in the area of Vallecamonica (Italy). PMID:21315919

  13. Development and validation of a direct, non-destructive quantitative method for medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension using FT-Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Beer, T R M; Vergote, G J; Baeyens, W R G; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C; Verpoort, F

    2004-12-01

    A simple linear regression method was developed and statistically validated for the direct and non-destructive quantitative analysis--without sample preparation--of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous pharmaceutical suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) using FT-Raman spectroscopy. The linear regression was modelled by plotting the highest peak intensity of the vector normalized spectral band between 1630 and 1590 cm-1 against different MPA standard suspension concentrations. At this band, no spectral interferences from additives in the suspension are observed. The validated model was used for the quantification of a commercial suspension (150 mg in 1.0 ml) of the commercialized preparations. The same standards and samples were used, respectively, for the development and validation of a simple linear regression model and for the quantitative determination by means of HPLC-with sample preparation-as described for the related substances of MPA in the Ph. Eur. IV. The quantification results obtained by the FT-Raman method corresponded with the claimed label concentration (150.01+/-0.96 mg/ml (n=6)). Applying the HPLC method, however, a systematic error was observed (157.77+/-0.94 mg/ml (n=6)). The direct FT-Raman method hence appears the most reliable for the quantification of the MPA component in suspension, compared to the HPLC method that requires sample preparation. The latter method provides a systematic error because the exact volume or density of a suspension sample is unknown. A precise isolation of fixed volumes from a suspension is rather unfeasible because of the continuous sagging of the suspended particles and their sticking to the used materials in the isolation process. PMID:15567288

  14. The RAMANITA © method for non-destructive and in situ semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David C.

    2005-08-01

    The "RAMANITA ©" method, for semi-quantitative chemical analysis of mineral solid-solutions by multidimensional calibration of Raman wavenumber shifts and mathematical calculation by simultaneous equations, is published here in detail in English for the first time. It was conceived by the present writer 20 years ago for binary and ternary pyroxene and garnet systems. The mathematical description was set out in 1989, but in an abstract in an obscure French special publication. Detailed "step-by-step" calibration of two garnet ternaries, followed by their linking, by M. Pinet and D.C. Smith in the early 1990s provided a hexary garnet database. Much later, using this garnet database, which forms part of his personal database called RAMANITA ©, the present writer began to develop the method by improving the terminology, automating the calculations, discussing problems and experimenting with different real chemical problems in archaeometry. Although this RAMANITA © method has been very briefly mentioned in two recent books, the necessary full mathematical explanation is given only here. The method will find application in any study which requires obtaining a non-destructive semi-quantitative chemical analysis from mineral solid solutions that cannot be analysed by any destructive analytical method, in particular for archaeological, geological or extraterrestrial research projects, e.g. from gemstones or other crystalline artworks of the cultural heritage (especially by Mobile Raman Microscopy (MRM)) in situ in museums or at archaeological sites, including under water for subaquatic archaeometry; from scientifically precious mineral microinclusions (such as garnet or pyroxene within diamond); from minerals in rocks analysed in situ on planetary bodies by a rover (especially "at distance" by telescopy). Recently some other workers have begun deducing chemical compositions from Raman wavenumber shifts in multivariate chemical space, but the philosophical approach is

  15. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  16. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  17. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  18. Quantitative non-destructive testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    The work undertaken during this period included two primary efforts. The first is a continuation of theoretical development from the previous year of models and data analyses for NDE using the Optical Thermal Infra-Red Measurement System (OPTITHIRMS) system, which involves heat injection with a laser and observation of the resulting thermal pattern with an infrared imaging system. The second is an investigation into the use of the thermoelastic effect as an effective tool for NDE. As in the past, the effort is aimed towards NDE techniques applicable to composite materials in structural applications. The theoretical development described produced several models of temperature patterns over several geometries and material types. Agreement between model data and temperature observations was obtained. A model study with one of these models investigated some fundamental difficulties with the proposed method (the primitive equation method) for obtaining diffusivity values in plates of thickness and supplied guidelines for avoiding these difficulties. A wide range of computing speeds was found among the various models, with a one-dimensional model based on Laplace's integral solution being both very fast and very accurate.

  19. Recent advances in the use of non-destructive near infrared spectroscopy on intact olive fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this review is to illustrate the state of the art in the use of non-destructive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for quality evaluation of intact fruit in the olive industry. First, the most recent studies regarding the application of non-destructive NIR spectroscopy methods to asse...

  20. Mathematical models applied in inductive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wac-Wlodarczyk, A.; Goleman, R.; Czerwinski, D.; Gizewski, T.

    Non-destructive testing are the wide group of investigative methods of non-homogenous material. Methods of computer tomography, ultrasonic, magnetic and inductive methods still developed are widely applied in industry. In apparatus used for non-destructive tests, the analysis of signals is made on the basis of complex system answers. The answer is linearized due to the model of research system. In this paper, the authors will discuss the applications of the mathematical models applied in investigations of inductive magnetic materials. The statistical models and other gathered in similarity classes will be taken into consideration. Investigation of mathematical models allows to choose the correct method, which in consequence leads to precise representation of the inner structure of examined object. Inductive research of conductive media, especially those with ferromagnetic properties, are run with high frequency magnetic field (eddy-currents method), which considerably decrease penetration depth.

  1. Non destructive testing of soft body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Karan

    Pristine bullet proof vests are extremely effective at halting pre-determined projectile threats and have saved over 3000 lives. However, the effectiveness of these vests to halt a bullet is seen to decrease over time.Owing to the importance of bullet proof vests over a period of time, tests to determine their effectiveness have been carried out on every batch of vests at the time of inception and at certain time intervals by shooting a bullet through them. A few vests from every batch are picked up and shot at to check for bullet penetration during this process while these results are extrapolated onto the other vests from the batch.One of the main issues with this method is the fact that testing a few jackets among a large set of jackets does not guarantee the safety of every jacket in the entire batch.Further the jackets that are shot-at have the possibility of undergoing substantial damage during the process thus compromising its safety rendering them unsafe for future use.As the vest penetration phenomenon is extremely complex too, there arose a need for a better testing procedure that could not only help ensure more safety, but also save time and money.The new testing procedure proposed a non-destructive evaluation of the jackets that would solve the issues previous faced in testing the vests. This would lead to the building of a portable set up which could be carried to any location to test jackets in a matter of minutes thus saving time and money.

  2. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  3. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  4. Non-destructive metallurgical analysis of astrolabes utilizing synchrotron radiation.

    SciTech Connect

    Newbury, B.; Stephenson, B.; Almer, J. D.; Notis, M.; Haeffner, D. R.; Slade Cargill, G., III

    2002-05-22

    From the experiments performed it is possible to determine a wide range of information about the metallurgy of the astrolabes studied. It was found that different brass alloys were used for components that were cast and those that were mechanically deformed. Chemical composition, forming history, and thickness measurements are all determined non-destructively, illustrating that this technique could be useful for many applications with metal artifact analysis where non-intrusive methods are required.

  5. A new rapid and non-destructive method to detect tephra layers and cryptotephras: applying to the first distal tephrostratigraphic record of the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, Gwénolé; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Bossuet, Gilles; Delabrousse, Eric; Cubizolle, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Tephrostratigraphy has been considerably developed for 30 years, mainly in palaeo-environmental studies. In such studies, distal tephra layers are important chronological markers, but they are also tools to establish or specify record of past eruptions of a volcanic field. Nowadays, development of effective rapid methods to detect tephra layers in sedimentary records of various compositions is a challenge. Many classic methods for detection of tephra layers, like regular sampling or magnetic susceptibility measurements, have shown their limits. Regular sampling takes a long time, and finding tephra layers remains uncertain. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility maesurements, although it is a non-destructive method, is ineffective when tephra layers are made of volcanic glass shards with differentiated magma composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is also a non-destructive method but it takes a very long time to analyze a core with sufficient high resolution, and measurements only concern the surface of the sediment. We propose a new method allows detection of tephra layers with, for the first time, a 3D resolution: the Computed Tomography Scan (CT- Scan). This method, regularly used in medicine, allows there to obtain pictures of materials density on 3D with inframillimetric measurement ranges. Then, it is possible to detect tephras, cryptotephras (invisible by naked eye), reworked tephra layers even when tephra layers don't outcrop at the surface of the sediment (and are therefore undetectable by usual methods like XRF and magnetic susceptibility). This method has been tried out on tephras sedimented in different types of sediments (silicated, carbonated and organic matter). Our results show that this method is very efficient for peaty environment. Used on coring carried out in Forez Mountains (French Massif Central), CT-Scan allows to detect more tephra layers than usual methods (XRF and magnetic susceptibility). Results presented here allow to build the first

  6. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  7. The Method of Evaluation and Implementation of the Non-destructive Test on Aggregate denuded Concrete Structure for Irrigation and Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogata, Hidehiko; Sato, Shushi; Hattori, Kunio

    The surfaces of the servicing concrete structure for irrigation and drainage have the denuding aggregates. Various diagnoses can't be done properly by the test method for ultrasonic pulse velocity, because close adhesion between pulse terminal and aggregate denuded concrete surface is insufficient. In this research, the solution of this problem by coating method that mediated material is applied to the concrete was examined. As a result, the ultrarapid hardening cement and the epoxy clay were suitable as a mediated material, and the method to evaluate ultrasonic pulse velocity of the coated concrete by the mediated material were clarified. Moreover, the method to evaluate rebound number and impact points of the coated concrete by the mediated material was recommended.

  8. An economical non-destructive method for estimating eelgrass, Zostera marina (Potamogetonaceae) leaf growth rates: formal development and use in northwestern Baja California.

    PubMed

    Solana-Arellano, Elena; Echavarria-Heras, Héctor; Franco-Vizcaíno, Ernesto

    2008-09-01

    Seagrass beds provide much of the primary production in estuaries; host many fishes and fish larvae, and abate erosion. The present study presents original analytical methods for estimating mean leaf-growth rates of eelgrass (Zostera marina). The method was calibrated by using data collected in a Z. marina meadow at Punta Banda estuary in Baja California, Mexico. The analytical assessments were based on measurements of leaf length and standard regression procedures. We present a detailed explanation of the formal procedures involved in the derivation of these analytical methods. The measured daily leaf-growth rate was 10.9 mm d(-1) leaf(-1). The corresponding value projected by our method was 10.2 mm d(-1) leaf(-). The associated standard errors were of 0.53 and 0.56 mm d(-1) leaf(-1) respectively. The method was validated by projecting leaf-growth rates from an independent data set, which gave consistent results. The use of the method to obtain the mean leaf growth rate of a transplanted plot is also illustrated. Comparison of our leaf-growth data with previously reported assessments show the significant forcing of sea-surface temperature on eelgrass leaf dynamics. The formal constructs provided here are of general scope and can be applied to equivalent eelgrass data sets in a straightforward manner. PMID:19419023

  9. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Slot-Die-Coated Lithium Secondary Battery Electrodes by In-Line Laser Caliper and IR Thermography Methods-Journal Cover Page

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Debasish; Li, Jianlin; Born, Rachael; Maxey, L Curt; Dinwiddie, Ralph Barton; Daniel, Claus; Wood III, David L

    2014-01-01

    Note: This is a cover page for the 'Analytical Methods' journal, which was requested by the journal editor for consideration. The article has already been published and the PTS publication ID is 44000. The acknowledgements are same as mentioned in the PTS publication ID 44000.

  10. An improved sample preparation method for non-destructive analyses of fine-grained subseafloor sediments using micro-focus X-ray CT and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uramoto, G.; Morono, Y.; Uematsu, K.; Inagaki, F.

    2012-12-01

    Spatial arrangement of particles in fine-grained marine subsurface sediments is a key factor for the physical property of sediments. The pore space provides micro-niches for chemical, physical, and microbiological components in the subsurface geosphere and biosphere. However, the standard techniques conventionally used for the sample preparation have some critical issues to understand accurate nature of fine-scale particle arrangement because of the possible deformation of micro-structures during the sample fixation. Here we tested the resin-embedding method for ocean drilling core samples, which technique has been applied mainly for biological samples. Using micro-focus X-ray CT-computed tomography and SEM we compared the images with the conventional t-butyl alcohol freeze-drying methods. Using the t-butyl alcohol freeze-dried sediment samples, we observed large number of micrometer-scale cracks in both SEM and X-CT image analyses, indicating the significant disturbance of sediment microstructure during sample processing. On the other hand, when we employed mini-coring, agar infiltration, and related biological sample-processing techniques for the resin-embedding method, no observable cracks were evident, most likely due to the rapid resin impregnation into sediments without sample drying. On SEM images of the flattened sample surface, we compared the porosity assessed with the resin-embedded samples to those measured onboard by the moisture and density method, showing a good agreement of the porosity values. In high-porosity surficial sediments embedded with resin, we observed structures that sediment particles are floating in the space, which may represent the results of physico-chemical interaction among sediment particles. However, almost no such particle arrangements were observed in t-butyl alcohol freeze-dried samples, indicating that drying of interstitial fluids may impact on the physico-chemical forces within particulate compounds. Conclusively, our

  11. Two new species of erect Bryozoa (Gymnolaemata: Cheilostomata) and the application of non-destructive imaging methods for quantitative taxonomy.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Kei; Titschack, Jürgen; Baum, Daniel; Freiwald, André

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of cheilostome Bryozoa are described from continental-slope habitats off Mauritania, including canyon and cold-water coral (mound) habitats. Internal structures of both species were visualised and quantified using microcomputed tomographic (micro-CT) methods. Cellaria bafouri n. sp. is characterised by the arrangement of zooids in alternating longitudinal rows, a smooth cryptocyst, and the presence of an ooecial plate with denticles. Smittina imragueni n. sp. exhibits many similarities with Smittina cervicornis (Pallas, 1766), but differs especially in the shape and orientation of the suboral avicularium. Observations on Smittina imragueni and material labelled as Smittina cervicornis suggest that the latter represents a species group, members of which have not yet been discriminated, possibly because of high intracolony variation and marked astogenetic changes in surface morphology. Both new species are known only from the habitats where they were collected, probably reflecting the paucity of bryozoan sampling from this geographic area and depth range. Both species are able to tolerate low oxygen concentration, which is assumed to be compensated by the high nutrient supply off Mauritania. The application of micro-CT for the semiautomatic quantification of zooidal skeletal characters was successfully tested. We were able to automatically distinguish individual zooidal cavities and acquire corresponding morphological datasets. Comparing the obtained results with conventional SEM measurements allowed ascertaining the reliability of this new method. The employment of micro-CT allows the observation and quantification of previously unseen characters that can be used in describing and differentiating species that were previously indistinguishable. Furthermore, this method might help elucidate processes of colony growth and the function of individual zooids during this process. PMID:26624090

  12. Non-destructive observation of intact bacteria and viruses in water by the highly sensitive frequency transmission electric-field method based on SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Ogura, Toshihiko

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • We developed a high-sensitive frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) system. • The output signal was highly enhanced by applying voltage to a metal layer on SiN. • The spatial resolution of new FTE method is 41 nm. • New FTE system enables observation of the intact bacteria and virus in water. - Abstract: The high-resolution structural analysis of biological specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) presents several advantages. Until now, wet bacterial specimens have been examined using atmospheric sample holders. However, images of unstained specimens in water using these holders exhibit very poor contrast and heavy radiation damage. Recently, we developed the frequency transmission electric-field (FTE) method, which facilitates the SEM observation of biological specimens in water without radiation damage. However, the signal detection system presents low sensitivity. Therefore, a high EB current is required to generate clear images, and thus reducing spatial resolution and inducing thermal damage to the samples. Here a high-sensitivity detection system is developed for the FTE method, which enhances the output signal amplitude by hundredfold. The detection signal was highly enhanced when voltage was applied to the metal layer on silicon nitride thin film. This enhancement reduced the EB current and improved the spatial resolution as well as the signal-to-noise ratio. The spatial resolution of a high-sensitive FTE system is 41 nm, which is considerably higher than previous FTE system. New FTE system can easily be utilised to examine various unstained biological specimens in water, such as living bacteria and viruses.

  13. Subcritical fracture propagation in rocks: An examination using the methods of fracture mechanics and non-destructive testing. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swanson, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation of tensile rock fracture is presented with an emphasis on characterizing time dependent crack growth using the methods of fracture mechanics. Subcritical fracture experiments were performed in moist air on glass and five different rock types at crack velocities using the double torsion technique. The experimental results suggest that subcritical fracture resistance in polycrystals is dominated by microstructural effects. Evidence for gross violations of the assumptions of linear elastic fracture mechanics and double torsion theory was found in the tests on rocks. In an effort to obtain a better understanding of the physical breakdown processes associated with rock fracture, a series of nondestructive evaluation tests were performed during subcritical fracture experiments on glass and granite. Comparison of the observed process zone shape with that expected on the basis of a critical normal principal tensile stress criterion shows that the zone is much more elongated in the crack propagation direction than predicted by the continuum based microcracking model alone.

  14. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  15. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  16. Non destructive testing of works of art by terahertz analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, Jean-Luc; Metayer, Jean-Jacques; Mouhoubi, Kamel; Detalle, Vincent

    2013-11-01

    Improvements in technologies and the growing security needs in airport terminals lead to the development of non destructive testing devices using terahertz waves. Indeed, these waves have the advantage of being, on one hand, relatively penetrating. They also have the asset of not being ionizing. It is thus potentially an interesting contribution in the non destructive testing field. With the help of the VISIOM Company, the possibilities of this new industrial analysis method in assisting the restoration of works of art were then approached. The results obtained within this framework are presented here and compared with those obtained by infrared thermography. The results obtained show first that the THZ method, like the stimulated infrared thermography allows the detection of delamination located in murals paintings or in marquetries. They show then that the THZ method seems to allow detecting defects located relatively deeply (10 mm) and defects potentially concealed by other defects. It is an advantage compared to the stimulated infra-red thermography which does not make it possible to obtain these results. Furthermore, they show that the method does not seem sensitive to the various pigments constituting the pictorial layer, to the presence of a layer of "Japan paper" and to the presence of a layer of whitewash. It is not the case of the stimulated infrared thermography. It is another advantage of the THZ method. Finally, they show that the THZ method is limited in the detection of low-size defects. It is a disadvantage compared to the stimulated infrared thermography.

  17. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  18. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  19. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms.

    PubMed

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F

    2013-08-01

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds. PMID:24007051

  20. Electromagnetic non-destructive technique for duplex stainless steel characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, João Vicente; Camerini, Cesar; Pereira, Gabriela

    2016-02-01

    Duplex stainless steel (DSS) is a two-phase (ferrite and austenite) material, which exhibits an attractive combination of mechanical properties and high corrosion resistance, being commonly employed for equipment of petrochemical plants, refining units and oil & gas platforms. The best properties of DSS are achieved when the phases are in equal proportions. However, exposition to high temperatures (e.g. welding process) may entail undesired consequences, such as deleterious phases precipitation (e.g. sigma, chi) and different proportion of the original phases, impairing dramatically the mechanical and corrosion properties of the material. A detailed study of the magnetic behavior of DSS microstructure with different ferrite austenite ratios and deleterious phases content was accomplished. The non destructive method evaluates the electromagnetic properties changes in the material and is capable to identify the presence of deleterious phases into DSS microstructure.

  1. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob

    2013-05-01

    We investigate non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. In particular, we pursue applications to dynamically controlled ultracold atoms. The dependence of the Faraday signal on laser detuning, atomic density and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. In particular the destructivity per measurement is extremely low and we illustrate this by imaging the same cloud up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration. Adding dynamic changes to system parameters, we demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. The method can be implemented particularly easily in standard imaging systems by the insertion of an extra polarizing beam splitter. These results are steps towards quantum state engineering using feedback control of ultracold atoms.

  2. Non-Destructive Testing A Developing Tool in Science and Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Lianshan

    2013-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT), sometimes also known as non-destructive inspection (NDI) or non-destructive examination (NDE), has been applied to solve a wide range of science and industry problems including construction, aerospace, nuclear engineering, manufacturing, space exploration, art objects, forensic studies, biological and medical fields, etc. Without any permanent changing or alteration of testing objects, NDT methods provide great advantages such as increased testing reliability, efficiency, and safety, as well as reduced time and cost. Since the second half of the 20th century, NDT technology has seen significant growth. Depending on the physical properties being measured, NDT techniques can be classified into several branches. This article will provide a brief overview of commonly used NDT methods and their up-to-date progresses including optical examination, radiography, acoustic emission, ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing. For extended reviews on many presently used NDT methods, please refer to articles by Mullins [1, 2].

  3. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  4. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    SciTech Connect

    Segebade, Chr.

    2013-04-19

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  5. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segebade, Chr.

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  6. Non-destructive testing and fracture mechanics: A short discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbst, Uwe; Heckel, Thomas; Carboni, Michele

    2016-02-01

    A short discussion is provided on the relationship between non-destructive testing and fracture mechanics. The basic tasks behind this are to guarantee the safety of a component at a potential hazard loading event, to specify inspection intervals or, alternatively, of demands on non-destructive testing for a fixed inspection regime, to plan accompanying actions for cases of temporary continued operation of structures in which cracks have been detected, and, finally, fatigue strength considerations which take into account initial defects.

  7. Time Domain Terahertz Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aeroturbine Blade Thermal Barrier Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Jeffrey; Fichter, G.; Chernovsky, A.; Whitaker, John F.; Das, D.; Pollock, Tresa M.; Zimdars, David

    2009-03-01

    Time domain terahertz (TD-THz) non destructive evaluation (NDE) imaging is used to two-dimensionally map the thickness of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on aircraft engine turbine blades. Indications of thermal degradation can be seen. The method is non-contact, rapid, and requires no special preparation of the blade.

  8. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated. PMID:25589230

  9. Non-destructive freeze damage detection in oranges using machine vision and ultraviolet fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A non-contact, non-destructive, and rapid method of detecting freeze damaged oranges based on ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence of the peel oil constituents visible on the peel surface was investigated. The visual appearance is different from oleocellosis in that freeze damaged oranges exhibit a fine pa...

  10. Rapid, Non-Destructive Estimation of Leaf Area on Field-Grown Vitis labruscana Grapevines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three potential variables, shoot basal diameter, leaf count per shoot and shoot length, were examined as potential rapid, non-destructive methods for estimating leaf area per shoot, a frequent component of estimates of leaf area per vine. The metrics were recorded in large field-grown vines over fi...

  11. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Materials via Ultraviolet Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pugel, Betsy

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the use of ultraviolet spectroscopy and imaging for the non-destructive evaluation of the degree of cure, aging, and other properties of resin-based composite materials. This method can be used in air, and is portable for field use. This method operates in reflectance, absorbance, and luminescence modes. The ultraviolet source is used to illuminate a composite surface of interest. In reflectance mode, the reflected response is acquired via the imaging system or via the spectrometer. The spectra are analyzed for organic compounds (conjugated organics) and inorganic compounds (semiconducting band-edge states; luminescing defect states such as silicates, used as adhesives for composite aerospace applications; and metal oxides commonly used as thermal coating paints on a wide range of spacecraft). The spectra are compared with a database for variation in conjugation, substitution, or length of molecule (in the case of organics) or band edge position (in the case of inorganics). This approach is useful in the understanding of material quality. It lacks the precision in defining the exact chemical structure that is found in other materials analysis techniques, but it is advantageous over methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy, and chromatography in that it can be used in the field to assess significant changes in chemical structure that may be linked to concerns associated with weaknesses or variations in structural integrity, without disassembly of or destruction to the structure of interest.

  12. Non-destructive evaluation of anchorage zones by ultrasonics techniques.

    PubMed

    Kharrat, M; Gaillet, L

    2015-08-01

    This work aims to evaluate the efficiency and reliability of two Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) methods for damage assessment in bridges' anchorages. The Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) technique is compared to classical Ultrasonic Testing (UT) in terms of defect detection and structural health classification. The AU technique is firstly used on single seven-wire strands damaged by artificial defects. The effect of growing defects on the waves traveling through the strands is evaluated. Thereafter, three specimens of anchorages with unknown defects are inspected by the AU and UT techniques. Damage assessment results from both techniques are then compared. The structural health conditions of the specimens can be then classified by a damage severity criterion. Finally, a damaged anchorage socket with mastered defects is controlled by the same techniques. The UT allows the detection and localization of damaged wires. The AU technique is used to bring out the effect of defects on acoustic features by comparing a healthy and damaged anchorage sockets. It is concluded that the UT method is suitable for local and crack-like defects, whereas the AU technique enables the assessment of the global structural health of the anchorage zones. PMID:25824342

  13. Complex Archaeological Prospection Using Combination of Non-destructive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltýnová, M.; Pavelka, K.; Nový, P.; Šedina, J.

    2015-08-01

    This article describes the use of a combination of non-destructive techniques for the complex documentation of a fabulous historical site called Devil's Furrow, an unusual linear formation lying in the landscape of central Bohemia. In spite of many efforts towards interpretation of the formation, its original form and purpose have not yet been explained in a satisfactory manner. The study focuses on the northern part of the furrow which appears to be a dissimilar element within the scope of the whole Devil's Furrow. This article presents detailed description of relics of the formation based on historical map searches and modern investigation methods including airborne laser scanning, aerial photogrammetry (based on airplane and RPAS) and ground-penetrating radar. Airborne laser scanning data and aerial orthoimages acquired by the Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre were used. Other measurements were conducted by our laboratory. Data acquired by various methods provide sufficient information to determine the probable original shape of the formation and proves explicitly the anthropological origin of the northern part of the formation (around village Lipany).

  14. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hassen, Ahmed; Taheri, Hossein; Vaidya, Uday

    2016-05-09

    This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D)more » plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.« less

  15. Non-destructive investigation of thermoplastic reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hassen, Ahmed; Vaidya, Uday

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies various manufacturing defects in glass fiber/Polypropylene (PP) composite parts and their methods of detection. Foreign Object Inclusion (FOI) of different shapes, sizes, and materials were placed in a glass fiber/PP panel made by compression molding. The paper aims to characterize the fiber orientation and fiber related defects such as fiber waviness in the composite specimen. Comprehensive investigation for different Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques, namely X-ray radiography and Ultrasonic Testing (UT) techniques to trace and characterize the embedded defects and the composite texture are presented. Conventional X-ray radiography successfully identified the fiber orientation in two dimension (2-D) plane; however, information for the sample depth was not captured. The radiography techniques showed low relative errors for the defect size measurements (maximum error was below 9.5%) when compared to the ultrasonic techniques. Ultrasonic techniques were able to map all the embedded artificial defects. Phase Array (PA) ultrasonic technique was able to precisely locate the FOI in the glass fiber/PP specimen. Nerveless, the shape and size of the defects were not accurately determined due to the high signal attenuation and distortion characteristics of the E-glass fiber.

  16. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  17. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET OUTER COIL SET

    SciTech Connect

    J. BACON; A. BACA; ET AL

    1999-09-01

    The controlled power outer coil set of the first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet is described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND controlled power outer coil set consists of seven nested, mechanically independent externally reinforced coils. These coils, in combination, will produce a 47 T platform field in a 225-mm diameter bore. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator provides ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. Each coil consists of a multi-layer winding of high strength conductor supported by an external high strength stainless steel shell. Coils with the highest magnetic loads will utilize a reinforcing shell fabricated from highly cold worked 301 stainless steel strip. The autofrettage conditioning method will be used to pre-stress the coils and thereby limit conductor and reinforcement strains to the elastic range. The purpose of pre-stressing the coils is to attain a design life of 10,000 full field pulses. The operation and conditioning of the coil set will be described along with special features of its design, magnetic and structural analyses and construction.

  18. PREFACE: III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing (SibTest 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2016-01-01

    This issue of the journal is devoted to the research and studies presented at the III All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference on Innovations in Non-Destructive Testing SibTest. The conference was held in Altai, Russia, on 27-31 July 2015. The conference brought together experts from different countries and organizations who had a great opportunity to share knowledge during oral and poster presentations and to initiate discussions on topics that are of interest to the conference attendees. The conference aimed to discuss innovative methods and the application of advanced technologies in non-destructive testing. The conference also attempted to bring together university, academic and industrial science, to expand the co-operation of scientists from different countries in research and development and the commercialization of innovative technologies in non-destructive testing. The key themes of the conference were: ultrasonic and acoustic testing; electromagnetic and thermal testing; various types of radiation non-destructive testing; passive and active testing techniques. The conference organizers are the Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, with the assistance of the Russian Society for Non-Destructive Testing and Technical Diagnostics, Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, National Research Tomsk State University, Moscow State Institute of Radio Engineering, Electronics and Automation.

  19. Non-destructive decontamination of building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holecek, Josef; Otahal, Petr

    2015-11-01

    For nondestructive radiation decontamination of surfaces it is necessary to use varnishes, such as ARGONNE, DG1101, DG1108, etc. This text evaluates the use of manufactured strippable coatings for radiation decontamination. To evaluate decontamination capability of such coatings the following varnishes were selected and subsequently used: AZ 1-700 and AXAL 1807S. The varnishes were tested on different building materials surfaces contaminated by short-term radioisotopes of Na-24 or La-140, in water soluble or water insoluble forms. Decontamination quality was assessed by the decontamination efficiency value, defined as the proportion of removed activity to the applied activity. It was found that decontamination efficiency of both used varnishes depends not only on the form of contaminant, but in the case of application of AXAL 1807S varnish it also depends on the method of its application on the contaminated surface. The values of the decontamination efficiency for AZ1-700 varnish range from 46% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 98% for the decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. The decontamination efficiency values determined for AXAL 1807S varnish range from 48% for decontamination of a soluble form of the radioisotope from concrete surface to 96% for decontamination of an insoluble form of the radioisotope from ceramic tile surface. Comparing these values to the values given for the decontaminating varnishes we can conclude that AXAL 1807S varnish is possible to use on all materials, except highly porous materials, such as plasterboard or breeze blocks, or plastic materials. AZ 1-700 varnish can be used for all dry materials except plasterboard.

  20. Nitrogen Concentration Estimation in Tomato Leaves by VIS-NIR Non-Destructive Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO3 concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  1. Nitrogen concentration estimation in tomato leaves by VIS-NIR non-destructive spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulissi, Valentina; Antonucci, Francesca; Benincasa, Paolo; Farneselli, Michela; Tosti, Giacomo; Guiducci, Marcello; Tei, Francesco; Costa, Corrado; Pallottino, Federico; Pari, Luigi; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen concentration in plants is normally determined by expensive and time consuming chemical analyses. As an alternative, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration determination in petiole sap were proposed, but these assays are not always satisfactory. Spectral reflectance values of tomato leaves obtained by visible-near infrared spectrophotometry are reported to be a powerful tool for the diagnosis of plant nutritional status. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility and the accuracy of the estimation of tomato leaf nitrogen concentration performed through a rapid, portable and non-destructive system, in comparison with chemical standard analyses, chlorophyll meter readings and N-NO(3) concentration in petiole sap. Mean reflectance leaf values were compared to each reference chemical value by partial least squares chemometric multivariate methods. The correlation between predicted values from spectral reflectance analysis and the observed chemical values showed in the independent test highly significant correlation coefficient (r = 0.94). The utilization of the proposed system, increasing efficiency, allows better knowledge of nutritional status of tomato plants, with more detailed and sharp information and on wider areas. More detailed information both in space and time is an essential tool to increase and stabilize crop quality levels and to optimize the nutrient use efficiency. PMID:22163962

  2. Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, T; Zavaljevski, N; Bakhtiari, S; Miron, A; Kupperman, D

    2004-12-24

    Automated Non-Destructive Testing Array Evaluation System (ANTARES) sofeware alogrithms were developed for use on X-probe(tm) data. Data used for algorithm development and preliminary perfomance determination was obtained for USNRC mock-up at Argone and data from EPRI.

  3. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1993-01-01

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor.

  4. Rotor assembly and assay method

    DOEpatents

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1993-09-07

    A rotor assembly for carrying out an assay includes a rotor body which is rotatable about an axis of rotation, and has a central chamber and first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth chambers which are in communication with and radiate from the central chamber. The rotor assembly further includes a shuttle which is movable through the central chamber and insertable into any of the chambers, the shuttle including a reaction cup carrying an immobilized antigen or an antibody for transport among the chambers. A method for carrying out an assay using the rotor assembly includes moving the reaction cup among the six chambers by passing the cup through the central chamber between centrifugation steps in order to perform the steps of: separating plasma from blood cells, binding plasma antibody or antigen, washing, drying, binding enzyme conjugate, reacting with enzyme substrate and optically comparing the resulting reaction product with unreacted enzyme substrate solution. The movement of the reaction cup can be provided by attaching a magnet to the reaction cup and supplying a moving magnetic field to the rotor. 34 figures.

  5. Rotational magnetic flux sensor with neural network for non-destructive testing

    SciTech Connect

    Enokizono, M.; Todaka, T.; Akita, M. . Faculty of Engineering); Nagata, S. . Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-11-01

    This paper presents a new non-destructive testing (NDT) method which utilizes rotational magnetic flux. In this system, the magnitude and phase value are measured and used to obtain information about defect. These values include the information about the shape or position of an unknown defect. The authors employ the neural network technique for estimation of a defect shape. The experimental results show the validity of the method.

  6. Quality parameters of mango and potential of non-destructive techniques for their measurement - a review.

    PubMed

    Jha, S N; Narsaiah, K; Sharma, A D; Singh, M; Bansal, S; Kumar, R

    2010-01-01

    The king of fruits "Mango" (Mangifera indica L.) is very nutritious and rich in carotenes. India produces about 50% of the total world's mango. Many researchers have reported the maturity indices and quality parameters for determination of harvesting time and eating quality. The methods currently used for determination of quality of mango are mostly based on the biochemical analysis, which leads to destruction of the fruits. Numerous works are being carried out to explore some non-destructive methods such as Near Infrared (NIR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), X-ray and Computed Tomography (CT), electronic nose, machine vision and ultrasound for quality determination of fruits. This paper deals with some recent work reported on quality parameters, harvesting and post-harvest treatments in relation to quality of mango fruits and reviews on some of the potential non-destructive techniques that can be explored for quality determination of mango cultivars. PMID:23572595

  7. Photoacoustic Spectroscopy as a Non-destructive Tool for Quantification of Pesticide Residue in Apple Cuticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lixian; Wang, Yafei; Gao, Chunming; Huan, Huiting; Zhao, Binxing; Yan, Laijun

    2015-06-01

    Photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS), the non-destructive method to detect residue of dimethyl-dichloro-vinyl-phosphate (DDVP) pesticide in a cuticle of apple, is described. After constructing the PA experimental setup and identifying three characteristic peaks of DDVP in the near ultraviolet region, the PA spectra of an apple cuticle contaminated with DDVP were collected. The artificial neural network method was then applied to analyze data quantitatively. The results show a correlation coefficient exceeding 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.2 ppm, which is within the national food safety standard for maximum residue limits for pesticides in food (GB 2763-2012). This fact and the non-destructive character of PAS make the approach promising for detection of pesticide residue in fruits.

  8. Non-destructive analysis in a study of the religious art objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornicu, Nicoleta; Geba, Maria; Bibire, Cristina

    2009-08-01

    The icon Descending of the Saint Spirit from Bucium Church, dating in the year 1814 and was done in tempera on wood technology. The characterization of cultural heritage materials is essential for the comprehension of their degradation mechanisms. The present study aims at identifying the pigments in the various layers, establishing the possible existence of an organic binder and scientifically evaluating the state of preservation. To this end, were used non-destructive methods, as: microscopic (SEM), XRF and spectroscopic (FTIR).

  9. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  10. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  11. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  12. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  13. Non-destructive imaging of buried electronic interfaces using a decelerated scanning electron beam.

    PubMed

    Hirohata, Atsufumi; Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Murphy, Benedict A; Vick, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology enables the production of atomically abrupt interfaces in multilayered junctions, allowing for an increase in the number of transistors in a processor. However, uniform electron transport has not yet been achieved across the entire interfacial area in junctions due to the existence of local defects, causing local heating and reduction in transport efficiency. To date, junction uniformity has been predominantly assessed by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, which requires slicing and milling processes that can potentially introduce additional damage and deformation. It is therefore essential to develop an alternative non-destructive method. Here we show a non-destructive technique using scanning electron microscopy to map buried junction properties. By controlling the electron-beam energy, we demonstrate the contrast imaging of local junction resistances at a controlled depth. This technique can be applied to any buried junctions, from conventional semiconductor and metal devices to organic devices. PMID:27586090

  14. Destructive and Non-Destructive Analysis Techniques for Failure Detection of QFN Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhila, M. N.; Wedianti, S.; Suhaimi, W. S. W. M.; Aishah, I.

    2010-03-01

    One of the latest developments in packaging technology is the QFN (Quad Flat Non-Lead) packages, which is both a chip scale package and plastic encapsulated package with lead pad at the bottom. In this paper, different type of commercial QFN single die packages were characterized by using destructive and non-destructive techniques. Non-destructive techniques such as Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) and X-Ray analysis were used to observe package cracking, delamination and other failure mode. Application of SAM include detection of delaminations between lead frame, die face, paddle, heat sink, cracks and plastic encapsulant. In comparison to other techniques, SAM is sensitive to detect beneath the surface of devices which would be inaccessible otherwise by both conventional optical and electron microscopy inspection methods. Destructive technique such as Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was implemented to address the failures of the QFN single die packages such as die cracking, lifted ball bonds and other failure mode.

  15. [Study on Non-Destructive Testing of Guqin Interior Structure Based on Computed Tomography].

    PubMed

    Zhao, De-da; Liu, Xing-e; Yang, Shu-min; Yu, Shenz; Tian, Gen-lin; Ma, Jian-feng; Wang, Qing-ping

    2015-12-01

    The wood property and production process affect quality of Guqin. At the same time, Guqin shape with cavity layout relations to the improvement of Guqin technology and inheritance, so it's very important to get the internal cavity characteristics and parameters on the condition of non-destructive the structure of Guqin. The image of interior structure in Guqin was investigated by overall scanning based on non-destructive testing technology of computed tomography, which texture of faceplate, connection method between faceplate and soleplate and interior defects were studied. The three-dimensional reconstruction of Guqin cavity was achieved through Mimics software of surface rendering method and put the two-dimensional CT tomography images convert into three-dimensional, which more complete show interior structural form in Guqin, and finally the parameter of cavity dimensions was obtained. Experimental research shows that there is significant difference in Guqin interior structure between Zhong-ni and Luo-xia type, in which the fluctuation of the interior surfacein Zhong-ni type's is larger than that in Luo-xia type; the interior volume of Zhong-ni typeis less than that of Luo-xia type, especially in Guqin neck. The accurate internal information of Guqin obtained through the computed tomography (CT) technology will provide technical support for the Guqin manufacture craft and the quality examination, as well as provide the reference in the aspect of non-destructive testing for other traditional precious internal structure research. PMID:26964242

  16. Methods to assay Drosophila behavior.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Charles D; Becnel, Jaime; Pandey, Udai B

    2012-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, has been used to study molecular mechanisms of a wide range of human diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and various neurological diseases(1). We have optimized simple and robust behavioral assays for determining larval locomotion, adult climbing ability (RING assay), and courtship behaviors of Drosophila. These behavioral assays are widely applicable for studying the role of genetic and environmental factors on fly behavior. Larval crawling ability can be reliably used for determining early stage changes in the crawling abilities of Drosophila larvae and also for examining effect of drugs or human disease genes (in transgenic flies) on their locomotion. The larval crawling assay becomes more applicable if expression or abolition of a gene causes lethality in pupal or adult stages, as these flies do not survive to adulthood where they otherwise could be assessed. This basic assay can also be used in conjunction with bright light or stress to examine additional behavioral responses in Drosophila larvae. Courtship behavior has been widely used to investigate genetic basis of sexual behavior, and can also be used to examine activity and coordination, as well as learning and memory. Drosophila courtship behavior involves the exchange of various sensory stimuli including visual, auditory, and chemosensory signals between males and females that lead to a complex series of well characterized motor behaviors culminating in successful copulation. Traditional adult climbing assays (negative geotaxis) are tedious, labor intensive, and time consuming, with significant variation between different trials(2-4). The rapid iterative negative geotaxis (RING) assay(5) has many advantages over more widely employed protocols, providing a reproducible, sensitive, and high throughput approach to quantify adult locomotor and negative geotaxis behaviors. In the RING assay, several genotypes or drug treatments can be tested simultaneously

  17. Non-destructive mapping of grain orientations in 3D by laboratory X-ray microscopy

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, S. A.; Reischig, P.; Holzner, C.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Withers, P. J.; Merkle, A. P.; Feser, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure, non-destructively and in three-dimensions, is a powerful tool for understanding many aspects related to damage and deformation mechanisms in polycrystalline materials. To this end, the technique of X-ray diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) using monochromatic synchrotron and polychromatic laboratory X-ray sources has been shown to be capable of mapping crystal grains and their orientations non-destructively in 3D. Here we describe a novel laboratory-based X-ray DCT modality (LabDCT), enabling the wider accessibility of the DCT technique for routine use and in-depth studies of, for example, temporal changes in crystallographic grain structure non-destructively over time through ‘4D’ in situ time-lapse studies. The capability of the technique is demonstrated by studying a titanium alloy (Ti-β21S) sample. In the current implementation the smallest grains that can be reliably detected are around 40 μm. The individual grain locations and orientations are reconstructed using the LabDCT method and the results are validated against independent measurements from phase contrast tomography and electron backscatter diffraction respectively. Application of the technique promises to provide important insights related to the roles of recrystallization and grain growth on materials properties as well as supporting 3D polycrystalline modelling of materials performance. PMID:26494523

  18. Non-destructive estimation of root pressure using sap flow, stem diameter measurements and mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    De Swaef, Tom; Hanssens, Jochen; Cornelis, Annelies; Steppe, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Background Upward water movement in plants via the xylem is generally attributed to the cohesion–tension theory, as a response to transpiration. Under certain environmental conditions, root pressure can also contribute to upward xylem water flow. Although the occurrence of root pressure is widely recognized, ambiguity exists about the exact mechanism behind root pressure, the main influencing factors and the consequences of root pressure. In horticultural crops, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), root pressure is thought to cause cells to burst, and to have an important impact on the marketable yield. Despite the challenges of root pressure research, progress in this area is limited, probably because of difficulties with direct measurement of root pressure, prompting the need for indirect and non-destructive measurement techniques. Methods A new approach to allow non-destructive and non-invasive estimation of root pressure is presented, using continuous measurements of sap flow and stem diameter variation in tomato combined with a mechanistic flow and storage model, based on cohesion–tension principles. Key Results Transpiration-driven sap flow rates are typically inversely related to stem diameter changes; however, this inverse relationship was no longer valid under conditions of low transpiration. This decoupling between sap flow rates and stem diameter variations was mathematically related to root pressure. Conclusions Root pressure can be estimated in a non-destructive, repeatable manner, using only external plant sensors and a mechanistic model. PMID:23211757

  19. Data transformation methods for multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2013-07-23

    Methods to improve the performance of an array assay are described. A correlation between fluorescence intensity-related parameters and negative control values of the assay is determined. The parameters are then adjusted as a function of the correlation. As a result, sensitivity of the assay is improved without changes in its specificity.

  20. Bacterial mutagenicity assays: test methods.

    PubMed

    Gatehouse, David

    2012-01-01

    The most widely used assays for detecting chemically induced gene mutations are those employing bacteria. The plate incorporation assay using various Salmonella typhimurium LT2 and E. coli WP2 strains is a short-term bacterial reverse mutation assay specifically designed to detect a wide range of chemical substances capable of causing DNA damage leading to gene mutations. The test is used worldwide as an initial screen to determine the mutagenic potential of new chemicals and drugs.The test uses several strains of S. typhimurium which carry different mutations in various genes of the histidine operon, and E. coli which carry the same AT base pair at the critical mutation site within the trpE gene. These mutations act as hot spots for mutagens that cause DNA damage via different mechanisms. When these auxotrophic bacterial strains are grown on a minimal media agar plates containing a trace of the required amino-acid (histidine or tryptophan), only those bacteria that revert to amino-acid independence (His(+) or Tryp(+)) will grow to form visible colonies. The number of spontaneously induced revertant colonies per plate is relatively constant. However, when a mutagen is added to the plate, the number of revertant colonies per plate is increased, usually in a dose-related manner.This chapter provides detailed procedures for performing the test in the presence and absence of a metabolic activation system (S9-mix), including advice on specific assay variations and any technical problems. PMID:22147566

  1. Investigations and Non-destructive Testing in New Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenov, V.; Ovchinnikov, A.; Osipov, S.; Shtein, A.; Ustinov, A.; Danilson, A.

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical rebar couplers are preferable in the advanced building construction and structural design of antiseismic elements. The paper presents destructive inspection techniques used to investigate stress fields (tensile and compressive) and deformation curves for mechanical rebar splicing. The properties of mechanical rebar splicing are investigated by the non-destructive testing digital radiography. The behavior of real connections (column-to- column, beam-to-column) is studied under static and dynamic loads. Investigation results allow the elaboration of recommendations on their application in the universal prefabricated antiseismic structural system developed at Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, Russia.

  2. Potential techniques for non-destructive evaluation of cable materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Kenneth T.; Clough, Roger L.; Mattson, Bengt; Stenberg, Bengt; Oestman, Erik

    This paper describes the connection between mechanical degradation of common cable materials, in radiation and elevated temperature environments, and density increases caused by the oxidation which leads to this degradation. Two techniques based on density changes are suggested as potential non-destructive evaluation (NDE) procedures which may be applicable to monitoring the mechanical condition of cable materials in power plant environments. The first technique is direct measurement of density changes, via a density gradient column, using small shavings removed from the surface of cable jackets at selected locations. The second technique is computed X-ray tomography, utilizing a portable scanning device.

  3. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)

  4. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, P. C.; Schultz, F. J.; Vourvopoulos, G.

    1995-05-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis.

  5. Photothermal Analysis Applied To Non-Destructive Evaluation Of Paint On Polymer Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergne, D.; Busse, G.

    1988-10-01

    The decoration and protection quality of coatings on polymers is of considerable interest for industrial applications. However, at present there is no non-destructive (NDE) method to monitor the quality of these coatings during the manufacturing process or while they are in use. As an approach for such a method we use photothermal analysis where the propagation and reflection of optically generated thermal waves is investigated. We found that one can monitor the drying process, the effect of surface temperature treatment, and coating thickness (accuracy + 2 μm in 50 μm thickness). The information obtained with this remote NDE method is adequate for most industrial applications, eg car manufacturing.

  6. Non-destructive Testing by Infrared Thermography Under Random Excitation and ARMA Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodnar, J. L.; Nicolas, J. L.; Candoré, J. C.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Photothermal thermography is a non-destructive testing (NDT) method, which has many applications in the field of control and characterization of thin materials. This technique is usually implemented under CW or flash excitation. Such excitations are not adapted for control of fragile materials or for multi-frequency analysis. To allow these analyses, in this article, the use of a new control mode is proposed: infrared thermography under random excitation and auto regressive moving average analysis. First, the principle of this NDT method is presented. Then, the method is shown to permit detection, with low energy constraints, of detachments situated in mural paintings.

  7. Local defect resonance for sensitive non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebahr, W.; Solodov, I.; Rahammer, M.; Gulnizkij, N.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic wave-defect interaction is a background of ultrasound activated techniques for imaging and non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and industrial components. The interaction, primarily, results in acoustic response of a defect which provides attenuation and scattering of ultrasound used as an indicator of defects in conventional ultrasonic NDT. The derivative ultrasonic-induced effects include e.g. nonlinear, thermal, acousto-optic, etc. responses also applied for NDT and defect imaging. These secondary effects are normally relatively inefficient so that the corresponding NDT techniques require an elevated acoustic power and stand out from conventional ultrasonic NDT counterparts for their specific instrumentation particularly adapted to high-power ultrasonic. In this paper, a consistent way to enhance ultrasonic, optical and thermal defect responses and thus to reduce an ultrasonic power required is suggested by using selective ultrasonic activation of defects based on the concept of local defect resonance (LDR). A strong increase in vibration amplitude at LDR enables to reliably detect and visualize the defect as soon as the driving ultrasonic frequency is matched to the LDR frequency. This also provides a high frequency selectivity of the LDR-based imaging, i.e. an opportunity of detecting a certain defect among a multitude of other defects in material. Some examples are shown how to use LDR in non-destructive testing techniques, like vibrometry, ultrasonic thermography and shearography in order to enhance the sensitivity of defect visualization.

  8. Non-destructive hyperspectral imaging of quarantined Mars Returned Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simionovici, Alexandre; Viso, Michel; Beck, Pierre; Lemelle, Laurence; Westphal, Andrew; Vincze, Laszlo; Schoonjans, Tom; Fihman, Francois; Chazalnoel, Pascale; Ferroir, Tristan; Solé, Vicente Armando; Tucoulou, R.

    Introduction: In preparation for the upcoming International Mars Sample Return mission (MSR), returning samples containing potential biohazards, we have implemented a hyperspec-tral method of in-situ analysis of grains performed in BSL4 quarantine conditions, by combining several non-destructive imaging diagnostics. This allows sample transportation on optimized experimental setups, while monitoring the sample quarantine conditions. Our hyperspectral methodology was tested during analyses of meteorites [1-2] and cometary and interstellar grains from the recent NASA Stardust mission [3-6]. Synchrotron Radiation protocols: X-ray analysis methods are widely accepted as the least destructive probes of fragile, unique samples. Diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and ab-sorption micro/nano-spectroscopies were performed on chondritic test samples using focused monochromatic beams at the ESRF synchrotron in Grenoble, France. 2D maps of grain com-position down to ppm concentrations and polycrystalline structure have simultaneously been acquired, followed by X-ray absorption performed on elements of Z 26. Ideally, absorption micro-tomography can later be performed in full-beam mode to record the 3D morphology of the grain followed by fluorescence-tomography in focus-beam mode which complements this picture with a 3D elemental image of the grain. Lab-based protocols: Raman and IR-based spectroscopies have been performed in reflection mode for mineralogical imaging of the grains in the laboratory using commercial microscopes. The spatial resolution varied in the 1-10 m range. Laser limited penetration of opaque samples permits only 2D imaging of the few nanometer-thick outer layers of the grains. Mineralogical maps are now routinely acquired using Raman spectroscopy at sub-micron scales through the 3 container walls of the Martian sample holder, followed by IR few-micrometer spot measurements recording C-based and potential aqueous alteration distributions. Sample Holder: A

  9. Destructive versus non-destructive methods for geochemical analyses of ceramic artifacts: comparison of portable XRF and ICP-MS data on Bronze Age ceramics from Failaka Island (Kuwait) and Bahrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stremtan, Ciprian; Ashkanani, Hasan; Tykot, Robert H.

    2013-04-01

    glass and MACS-3 pressed powder) were also measured to check for accuracy and precision. Our preliminary data shows that most of the major and trace elemental data acquired by both methods are consistent. Some transition metals (e.g. Y, Fe, and Mn) yielded overall lower values when measured with pXRF device (ranging from 27 to 60 % difference), while Ni and Ba showed systematically higher values (20 to 53 %). If samples are chosen properly for pXRF measurements (i.e. thoroughly cleaned, fine grained, well sorted) and the device is properly calibrated, the results are comparable with DCP-OES and ICP-MS data, thus being suitable to use for geochemical fingerprinting

  10. Methods for threshold determination in multiplexed assays

    DOEpatents

    Tammero, Lance F. Bentley; Dzenitis, John M; Hindson, Benjamin J

    2014-06-24

    Methods for determination of threshold values of signatures comprised in an assay are described. Each signature enables detection of a target. The methods determine a probability density function of negative samples and a corresponding false positive rate curve. A false positive criterion is established and a threshold for that signature is determined as a point at which the false positive rate curve intersects the false positive criterion. A method for quantitative analysis and interpretation of assay results together with a method for determination of a desired limit of detection of a signature in an assay are also described.

  11. Application of magnetic resonance imaging to non-destructive void detection in watermelon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.; Miki, T.; Hayashi, S.; Kajikawa, H.; Shimada, M.; Kawate, Y.; Nishizawa, T.; Ikegaya, D.; Kimura, N.; Takabatake, K.; Sugiura, N.; Suzuki, M.

    A novel application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is described. The possibility of utilizing MRI for non-destructive quality evaluation of watermelons was studied. In this study, we applied MRI to the detection of internal voids in watermelons. In order to increase the measurement rate, we employed a one-dimensional projection profile method instead of observing a two-dimensional cross-sectional image. The void detection was carried out with this technique over 30 samples and 28 samples were correctly evaluated. The measurement rate was 900 ms per sample, which is an acceptable speed for a sorting machine in the agricultural field.

  12. Non-destructive Raman analyses - polyacetylenes in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Bernhard; Schulz, Hartwig; Baranska, Malgorzata; Andreev, George N.; Lehner, Caroline; Sawatzki, Juergen

    2005-05-01

    Ferdinand Bohlmann has described the isolation, the identification and the structure elucidation of acetylene compounds in many plants, and confirmed it by its synthesis. We have recorded the Raman spectra of most of these plants non-destructively by FT-Raman spectroscopy using radiation at 1064 nm. We could not observe any interfering fluorescence. We found acetylene compounds in some plants, even distinct compounds with different concentration in various parts of it. The distribution of the different compounds over the plant can be observed and their changes during the ontogenesis can be followed by a FT-Raman mapping technique. Of special help is a library of Raman and IR spectra and the structure of the compounds, synthesized by Bohlmann. Thus, the Raman technique allows analyses in a very short time replacing the usual time-consuming separation procedures and avoiding artefacts during clean-up procedures.

  13. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  14. EVALUATION OF TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS FOR INTERMEDIATE NON DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Case, Susan; Hoggard, Gary

    2014-07-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL) shipments of irradiated experiments from the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to the Hot Fuels Examination Facility (HFEF) have historically been accomplished using the General Electric Model 2000 (GE 2000) Type B shipping container. Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) concerns regarding the future availability and leasing and handling costs associated with the GE 2000 cask have warranted an evaluation of alternative shipping options. One or more of these shipping options may be utilized to perform non destructive examinations (NDE) such as neutron radiography and precision gamma scans of irradiated experiments at HFEF and then return the experiments to ATR for further irradiation, hereafter referred to as “intermediate NDE.”

  15. Induction thermography for non-destructive evaluation of adhesive bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaji, L.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.

    2013-01-01

    Adhesive bonding is widely used in automotive industry in the recent times. One of the major problems with adhesive bonds is the lack of a suitable non-destructive evaluation technique for assessing bonding. In this paper, an experimental study was carried out to apply induction thermography technique to evaluate adhesively bonded steel plates. Samples were fabricated with artificial defects such as air gap, foreign material, and improper adhesive filling. Induction thermography technique was found to detect defects and foreign inclusions. The sample specimen was also inspected using standard techniques such as Ultrasonic testing and Radiography testing. Defect detecting capabilities of the three techniques are compared. Induction thermography heating was FE modelled in 3D using COMSOL 3.5a. The simulated Induction thermography model was compared and validated with experimental results.

  16. Planetary protection - assaying new methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellen, J.; Rettberg, P.; Horneck, G.

    Space age began in 1957 when the USSR launched the first satellite into earth orbit. In response to this new challenge the International Council for Science, formerly know as International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), established the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) in 1958. The role of COSPAR was to channel the international scientific research in space and establish an international forum. Through COSPAR the scientific community agreed on the need for screening interplanetary probes for forward (contamination of foreign planets) and backward (contamination of earth by returned samples/probes) contamination. To prevent both forms of contamination a set of rules, as a guideline was established. Nowadays the standard implementation of the planetary protection rules is based on the experience gained during NASA's Viking project in 1975/76. Since then the evaluation-methods for microbial contamination of spacecrafts have been changed or updated just slowly. In this study the standard method of sample taking will be evaluated. New methods for examination of those samples, based on the identification of life on the molecular level, will be reviewed and checked for their feasibility as microbial detection systems. The methods will be examined for their qualitative (detection and verification of different organisms) and quantitative (detection limit and concentration verification) qualities. Amongst the methods analyzed will be i.e. real-time / PCR (poly-chain-reaction), using specific primer-sets for the amplification of highly conserved rRNA or DNA regions. Measurement of intrinsic fluorescence, i.e ATP using luciferin-luciferase reagents. The use of FAME (fatty acid methyl esters) and microchips for microbial identification purposes. The methods will be chosen to give a good overall coverage of different possible molecular markers and approaches. The most promising methods shall then be lab-tested and evaluated for their use under spacecraft assembly

  17. Non-destructive analysis of extracellular matrix development in cardiovascular tissue-engineered constructs.

    PubMed

    Tuemen, M; Nguyen, D V A; Raffius, J; Flanagan, T C; Dietrich, M; Frese, J; Schmitz-Rode, T; Jockenhoevel, S

    2013-05-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, there is an increasing demand for non-destructive methods to quantify the synthesis of extracellular matrix (ECM) components such as collagens, elastin or sulphated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs) in vitro as a quality control before clinical use. In this study, procollagen I carboxyterminal peptide (PICP), procollagen III aminoterminal peptide (PIIINP), tropoelastin and sGAGs are investigated for their potential use as non-destructive markers in culture medium of statically cultivated cell-seeded fibrin gels. Measurement of PICP as marker for type I collagen synthesis, and PIIINP as marker of type III collagen turnover, correlated well with the hydroxyproline content of the fibrin gels, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. The measurement of tropoelastin as marker of elastin synthesis correlated with the amount of elastin retained in fibrin gels with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.99. sGAGs were retained in fibrin gels, but were not detectable in culture medium at any time of measurement. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential of PICP and tropoelastin as non-destructive culture medium markers for collagen and elastin synthesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study in cardiovascular tissue engineering investigating the whole of here proposed biomarkers of ECM synthesis to monitor the maturation process of developing tissue non-invasively, but for comprehensive assessment of ECM development, these biomarkers need to be investigated in further studies, employing dynamic cultivation conditions and more complex tissue constructs. PMID:23307024

  18. Non-destructive Testing of Forged Metallic Materials by Active Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, S.; Cadith, J.; Bouteille, P.; Legros, G.; Bodnar, J. L.; Detalle, V.

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, infrared thermography is considered as the reference method in many applications such as safety, the inspection of electric installations, or the inspection of buildings' heat insulation. In recent years, the evolution of both material and data-processing tools also allows the development of thermography as a real non-destructive testing method. Thus, by subjecting the element to be inspected to an external excitation and by analyzing the propagation of heat in the examined zone, it is possible to highlight surface or subsurface defects such as cracks, delaminations, or corrosion. One speaks then about active infrared thermography. In this study, some results obtained during the collective studies carried out by CETIM and the University of Reims for the forging industry are presented. Various experimental possibilities offered by active thermography are presented and the interest in this method in comparison with the traditional non-destructive testing methods (penetrant testing and magnetic particle inspection) is discussed. For example, comparative results on a forged cracked hub, a steering joint, and a threaded rod are presented. They highlight the interest of infrared thermography stimulated by induction for forged parts.

  19. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Busschots, Steven; O’Toole, Sharon; O’Leary, John J.; Stordal, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. • Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner. • The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation. • The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines. PMID:26150966

  20. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    PubMed

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines. PMID:26150966

  1. Non-destructive analysis for the investigation of decomposition phenomena of historical manuscripts and prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, Werner; Staub, Susanne; Simon, Rolf; Heissler, Stefan; Pataki, Andrea; Banik, Gerhard

    2007-07-01

    As a contribution to the increasing efforts to preserve cultural heritage, historical books as well as illuminated manuscripts endangered by corrosive writing and printing materials or destructive coloring matters, non-destructive analytical methods are highly desirable enabling an in-situ examination of the surface status of an object. The development and application of a novel combination of non-destructive analytic methods based on (a) synchrotron radiation induced micro-X-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) and (b) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microscope allows to investigate the state as well as the effectiveness of conservation procedures for historical manuscripts. Examples of measurements include (1) an iron gall ink manuscript of a historical memo on legal land description of the year 1769, (2) an original hand colored herbal of the years 1536/38 from the Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt, and (3) the incunabula Johannes von Saaz: "Der Ackermann aus Boehmen" fated from 1463 and printed by Albrecht Pfister, Bamberg, owned by the Herzog August Bibliothek, Wolfenbuettel.

  2. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  3. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change. PMID:23022426

  4. A Non-Destructive Investigation of Plutonium Reference Items Used for Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, D.; Wormald, M.; Wilkins, C.G.; Croft, S.

    2008-07-01

    The calibration of Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) equipment relies on the availability of certified items of known content and construction. Increasing use is being made of calculational tools to create calibration data and so representative standards are no longer always needed. However, even with this approach it is invaluable to benchmark the tools against the measured response under well known conditions and to apply the Measured: Calculated ratio as a scaling factor. Reference sources for Pu are typically doubly encapsulated for safety reasons and contain Pu of well known chemical form, elemental composition, relative isotopic composition and mass. Destructive analysis techniques are used to characterize the materials and so these attributes are usually known with far greater accuracy than that achievable by the NDA methods to which they are being applied. Construction details are also usually provided in order to permit attenuation and related factors to be estimated. This work concerns the empirical investigation of a set of encapsulated PuO{sub 2} powder standards. The characterization and fabrication of the items is adequately documented with the exception of fill height. The fill height governs the powder density and in turn both the self attenuation of photons and the self multiplication of neutrons, consequently this is an important omission. Initially the location and dimensions of the internal plunger cup was used as a basis to estimate the packing density, but later records of plunger positions made at the time of filling were found and significant revisions followed. As a consequence of discrepancies observed in measurements designed to evaluate a new lump correction algorithm we were led to investigate the powder density and distribution directly by gamma-ray scanning. In some cases this resulted in revised density estimates. Equally importantly it was discovered that for the smallest mass items, the powder was not held fixed in the form of a uniform

  5. Non-destructive testing of the MEGAPIE target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Y.; Wohlmuther, M.; Boutellier, V.; Hahl, S.; Lagotzki, A.; Leu, H.; Linder, H. P.; Schwarz, R.; Spahr, A.; Zanini, L.; Kuster, D.; Gavillet, D.; Wagner, W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is one important part of the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the MEGAPIE target. It includes visual inspection and ultrasonic measurement of the beam window of the T91 LBE container and gamma mapping of the beam window of the AlMg3 safety-container. The visual inspection showed no visible failure in the proton beam window area of the T91 LBE container. The ultrasonic measurement demonstrated no detectable change in the wall thickness of the T91 beam window, which implies no severe corrosion effect induced by flowing LBE during the four-month irradiation period. The gamma mapping provided the distribution of 22Na, a spallation product, in the proton beam window area of the AlMg3 safety-container. The result was used to evaluate the accumulated proton fluence distribution profile, the input data for determining irradiation parameters. A maximum proton fluence of 1.9 × 1025 p/m2 was deduced. The corresponding displacement damage degree in the T91 beam window was 7.1 dpa.

  6. Data fusion for automated non-destructive inspection

    PubMed Central

    Brierley, N.; Tippetts, T.; Cawley, P.

    2014-01-01

    In industrial non-destructive evaluation (NDE), it is increasingly common for data acquisition to be automated, driving a recent substantial increase in the availability of data. The collected data need to be analysed, typically necessitating the painstaking manual labour of a skilled operator. Moreover, in automated NDE a region of an inspected component is typically interrogated several times, be it within a single data channel due to multiple probe passes, across several channels acquired simultaneously or over the course of repeated inspections. The systematic combination of these diverse readings is recognized to offer an opportunity to improve the reliability of the inspection, but is not achievable in a manual analysis. This paper describes a data-fusion-based software framework providing a partial automation capability, allowing component regions to be declared defect-free to a very high probability while readily identifying defect indications, thereby optimizing the use of the operator's time. The system is designed to applicable to a wide range of automated NDE scenarios, but the processing is exemplified using the industrial ultrasonic immersion inspection of aerospace turbine discs. Results obtained for industrial datasets demonstrate an orders-of-magnitude reduction in false-call rates, for a given probability of detection, achievable using the developed software system. PMID:25002828

  7. Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Applications of THz Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimdars, David

    2005-03-01

    The technology and applications of time domain terahertz (THz) imaging to non-destructive evaluation (NDE) will be discussed. THz imaging has shown great promise in 2 and 3 dimensional non-contact inspection of non-conductive materials such as plastics, foam, composites, ceramics, paper, wood and glass. THz imaging employs safe low power non-ionizing electromagnetic pulses, with lateral resolution < 200 um, and depth resolution < 50 um. THz pulses can be analyzed spectroscopically to reveal chemical content. Recently, highly integrated turn-key THz imaging systems have been introduced commercially. We will demonstrate the detection of voids and disbonds intentionally incorporated within the sprayed on foam insulation of a space shuttle external tank mock-up segments. An industrially hardened THz scanning system which has been deployed to scan the space shuttle tank with small remote transceiver will be described. Additional terahertz security imaging applications for the detection of weapons and explosives will also be discussed, as well as the application of terahertz sensors for high speed industrial process monitoring and quality control.

  8. Non-destructive compositional analysis of historic organ reed pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manescu, A.; Fiori, F.; Giuliani, A.; Kardjilov, N.; Kasztovszky, Z.; Rustichelli, F.; Straumal, B.

    2008-03-01

    In order to be able to reproduce historic organ reed pipes, a bulk non-destructive chemical composition analysis was performed on the tongues and shallots, focusing mainly on the ratio between copper and zinc and on the presence of lead. Prompt gamma activation analysis results allowed us to observe for the first time that the ratio between the two main components of the brass alloy changed from Cu:Zn = 3:1 for the old tongues and shallots to Cu:Zn = 2:1 around the middle of the 18th century, which is typical also for the modern alloys offered to the organ builders nowadays. We also discovered that the Pb content in the old historic brass alloy diminished until the middle of 18th century when the brass alloy became mainly Pb free. The non-uniform lead distribution inside one of the shallots obtained from a prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) experiment was studied by neutron tomography. It gave us a three-dimensonal (3D) distribution of the lead inclusions inside the shallots. The lead particles are concentrated towards the base of the shallot.

  9. Non-destructive measurement of soil liquefaction density change by crosshole radar tomography, Treasure Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, Robert E.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Ashford, Scott; Rollins, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) experiment at the Treasure Island Test Site [TILT] was performed to non-destructively image the soil column for changes in density prior to, and following, a liquefaction event. The intervening liquefaction was achieved by controlled blasting. A geotechnical borehole radar technique was used to acquire high-resolution 2-D radar velocity data. This method of non-destructive site characterization uses radar trans-illumination surveys through the soil column and tomographic data manipulation techniques to construct radar velocity tomograms, from which averaged void ratios can be derived at 0.25 - 0.5m pixel footprints. Tomograms of void ratio were constructed through the relation between soil porosity and dielectric constant. Both pre- and post-blast tomograms were collected and indicate that liquefaction related densification occurred at the site. Volumetric strains estimated from the tomograms correlate well with the observed settlement at the site. The 2-D imagery of void ratio can serve as high-resolution data layers for numerical site response analysis.

  10. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  11. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  12. A Distributive, Non-Destructive, Real-Time Approach to Snowpack Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frolik, Jeff; Skalka, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This invention is designed to ascertain the snow water equivalence (SWE) of snowpacks with better spatial and temporal resolutions than present techniques. The approach is ground-based, as opposed to some techniques that are air-based. In addition, the approach is compact, non-destructive, and can be communicated with remotely, and thus can be deployed in areas not possible with current methods. Presently there are two principal ground-based techniques for obtaining SWE measurements. The first is manual snow core measurements of the snowpack. This approach is labor-intensive, destructive, and has poor temporal resolution. The second approach is to deploy a large (e.g., 3x3 m) snowpillow, which requires significant infrastructure, is potentially hazardous [uses a approximately equal to 200-gallon (approximately equal to 760-L) antifreeze-filled bladder], and requires deployment in a large, flat area. High deployment costs necessitate few installations, thus yielding poor spatial resolution of data. Both approaches have limited usefulness in complex and/or avalanche-prone terrains. This approach is compact, non-destructive to the snowpack, provides high temporal resolution data, and due to potential low cost, can be deployed with high spatial resolution. The invention consists of three primary components: a robust wireless network and computing platform designed for harsh climates, new SWE sensing strategies, and algorithms for smart sampling, data logging, and SWE computation.

  13. Non-destructive detection of pesticide residues in cucumber using visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Jamshidi, Bahareh; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Jamshidi, Jamshid; Minaei, Saeid; Sharifi, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of using visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy was assessed for non-destructive detection of diazinon residues in intact cucumbers. Vis/NIR spectra of diazinon solution and cucumber samples without and with different concentrations of diazinon residue were analysed at the range of 450-1000 nm. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models were developed based on different spectral pre-processing techniques to classify cucumbers with contents of diazinon below and above the MRL as safe and unsafe samples, respectively. The best model was obtained using a first-derivative method with the lowest standard error of cross-validation (SECV = 0.366). Moreover, total percentages of correctly classified samples in calibration and prediction sets were 97.5% and 92.31%, respectively. It was concluded that Vis/NIR spectroscopy could be an appropriate, fast and non-destructive technology for safety control of intact cucumbers by the absence/presence of diazinon residues. PMID:25789964

  14. Non-destructive forensic latent fingerprint acquisition with chromatic white light sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, Marcus; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus

    2011-02-01

    Non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition is an emerging field of research, which, unlike traditional methods, makes latent fingerprints available for additional verification or further analysis like tests for substance abuse or age estimation. In this paper a series of tests is performed to investigate the overall suitability of a high resolution off-the-shelf chromatic white light sensor for the contact-less and non-destructive latent fingerprint acquisition. Our paper focuses on scanning previously determined regions with exemplary acquisition parameter settings. 3D height field and reflection data of five different latent fingerprints on six different types of surfaces (HDD platter, brushed metal, painted car body (metallic and non-metallic finish), blued metal, veneered plywood) are experimentally studied. Pre-processing is performed by removing low-frequency gradients. The quality of the results is assessed subjectively; no automated feature extraction is performed. Additionally, the degradation of the fingerprint during the acquisition period is observed. While the quality of the acquired data is highly dependent on surface structure, the sensor is capable of detecting the fingerprint on all sample surfaces. On blued metal the residual material is detected; however, the ridge line structure dissolves within minutes after fingerprint placement.

  15. Processes for non-destructive transfer of graphene: widening the bottleneck for industrial scale production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V.; Lipomi, Darren J.

    2015-05-01

    The exceptional charge-transport, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene are well known. High-quality films of single-layer graphene produced over large areas, however, are extremely expensive. The high cost of graphene precludes its use in industries--such as transparent electrodes and flexible packaging--that might take full advantage of its properties. This minireview presents several strategies for the transfer of graphene from the substrates used for growth to substrates used for the final application. Each strategy shares the characteristic of being non-destructive: that is, the growth substrate remains reusable for further synthesis of new graphene. These processes have the potential to lower significantly the costs of manufacturing graphene, to increase production yields, and to minimize environmental impact. This article is divided into sections on (i) the synthesis of high-quality single-layer graphene and (ii) its non-destructive transfer to a host substrate. Section (ii) is further divided according to the substrate from which graphene is transferred: single-crystalline wafers or flexible copper foils. We also comment, wherever possible, on defects produced as a result of the transfer, and potential strategies to mitigate these defects. We conclude that several methods for the green synthesis and transfer of graphene have several of the right characteristics to be useful in industrial scale production.

  16. Processes for non-destructive transfer of graphene: widening the bottleneck for industrial scale production.

    PubMed

    Zaretski, Aliaksandr V; Lipomi, Darren J

    2015-06-14

    The exceptional charge-transport, mechanical, and barrier properties of graphene are well known. High-quality films of single-layer graphene produced over large areas, however, are extremely expensive. The high cost of graphene precludes its use in industries-such as transparent electrodes and flexible packaging-that might take full advantage of its properties. This minireview presents several strategies for the transfer of graphene from the substrates used for growth to substrates used for the final application. Each strategy shares the characteristic of being non-destructive: that is, the growth substrate remains reusable for further synthesis of new graphene. These processes have the potential to lower significantly the costs of manufacturing graphene, to increase production yields, and to minimize environmental impact. This article is divided into sections on (i) the synthesis of high-quality single-layer graphene and (ii) its non-destructive transfer to a host substrate. Section (ii) is further divided according to the substrate from which graphene is transferred: single-crystalline wafers or flexible copper foils. We also comment, wherever possible, on defects produced as a result of the transfer, and potential strategies to mitigate these defects. We conclude that several methods for the green synthesis and transfer of graphene have several of the right characteristics to be useful in industrial scale production. PMID:25924926

  17. Assesment of uniaxial compressive strenght of repair mortars by using in situ non destructive techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szemerey-Kiss, Balázs; Török, Ákos

    2014-05-01

    The present paper provides information on the strength assessment of restoration mortars by using ultrasonic pulse velocity. The aims of the tests were to determine the compressive strength of the mortars by using non destructive test methods. Four commercially available types of restoration mortars were tested. Besides the pure mortars, specimens with 30 and 50 wt% of limestone sand aggregate (from Sóskút quarry) were also made. The material properties of the tested mortars have been described in details previously (Szemerey-Kiss et al. 2013). Cubic test specimens of 3cm x 3cm x 3cm were prepared from the mortars and after casting and consolidation 10 cubes of each mortar type were tested. Ultrasonic pulse velocity was measured according to the guidelines given by EN 14579:2005. Uniaxial compressive strength of test specimens were measured following the instructions of EN 1015-11:2000. An exponential mathematical formula was outlined that describes the uniaxial compressive strength of mortars based on ultrasonic pulse velocity data. The best fit was found for two mortars while the formula with different constants could be also used for other mortars, too. These experiments have proved that non destructive tests can be used in the assessment of the strength of historic mortars. References: Szemerey-Kiss, B., Török, Á., Siegesmund S 2013. The influence of binder/aggregate ratio on the properties and strength of repair mortars. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69:1439-1449.

  18. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  19. Non-destructive testing of an original XVI century painting on wood by ESPI system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, G.; Paturzo, M.; Fatigati, G.; Grilli, M.; Pezzati, L.; Ferraro, P.

    2015-03-01

    Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI), a non-contact and non-destructive optical techniques, was employed for assessing the conservation state of a XVI Century painting on wood (72x88x1,9 cm). By a long term analysis, the whole structure alterations, induced by the room temperature and relative humidity variations, were evaluated. Measurement of the whole painting structural bends was achieved. Local flaws and hidden detachments of pictorial layers from the support, which cannot be recognized by traditional art-restorer methods, were also revealed. This work was prevalently aimed at achieving a simple approach, in the laboratory practice, to get an intuitively user-friendly method for art conservators, not accustomed to high-tech or math based methods. The results demonstrate that ESPI can largely improve the traditional art conservation survey techniques.

  20. Magnetic non-destructive evaluation of ruptures of tensile armor in oil risers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Benitez, J. A.; Padovese, L. R.

    2012-04-01

    Risers are flexible multilayered pipes formed by an inner flexible metal structure surrounded by polymer layers and spiral wound steel ligaments, also known as armor wires. Since these risers are used to link subsea pipelines to floating oil and gas production installations, and their failure could produce catastrophic consequences, some methods have been proposed to monitor the armor integrity. However, until now there is no practical method that allows the automatic non-destructive detection of individual armor wire rupture. In this work we show a method using magnetic Barkhausen noise that has shown high efficiency in the detection of armor wire rupture. The results are examined under the cyclic and static load conditions of the riser. This work also analyzes the theory behind the singular dependence of the magnetic Barkhausen noise on the applied tension in riser armor wires.

  1. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbany, Z.; Handayani, G.

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  2. Monitoring ground anchor using non-destructive ground anchor integrity test (NDT-GRANIT)

    SciTech Connect

    Robbany, Z. Handayani, G.

    2015-09-30

    Monitoring at ground anchor commonly uses a pull out test method, therefor we developing a non-destructive ground anchor integrity testing (NDT-GRANIT). NDT-GRANIT using the principle of seismic waves that have been modified into form of sweep signal, the signal will be demodulated, filtered, and Fourier transformation (inverse discrete Fourier transform) so the data can be interpreted reflected wave from the ground anchor. The method was applied to determine whether the ground anchor still gripped in the subsurface by looking the attenuation of the wave generated sources. From the result we can see that ground anchor does not grip. To validate the results of the comparison method of measurement used pile integrity test.

  3. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Depth of Surface Cracks Using Ultrasonic Frequency Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

  4. Evaluation of thermal cameras for non-destructive thermal testing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrzanowski, K.; Park, S. N.

    2001-04-01

    Thermal cameras are nowadays often used in industry and science for non-destructive thermal testing (NDTT). There have been published, by the American Society for Testing of Materials, two standards that present detailed measurement procedures of the minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) of commercial thermal cameras for NDTT applications. However, the standards provide only very general guidelines about the use of the measured MRTD and MDTD values for evaluation of thermal cameras for NDTT applications. Precise methods that enable evaluation of a thermal imager for NDTT application on the basis of measurement results of the MRTD and the MDTD are presented in this paper. The methods enable estimation of probabilities of detection, orientation, recognition and identification of thermal anomalies generated by flaws in the materials imaged.

  5. Non-destructive evaluation of depth of surface cracks using ultrasonic frequency analysis.

    PubMed

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Sheng-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic is one of the most common uses of a non-destructive evaluation method for crack detection and characterization. The effectiveness of the acoustic-ultrasound Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technique for the determination of the depth of the surface crack was presented. A method for ultrasonic sizing of surface cracks combined with the time domain and frequency spectrum was adopted. The ultrasonic frequency spectrum was obtained by Fourier transform technique. A series of test specimens with various depths of surface crack ranging from 1 mm to 8 mm was fabricated. The depth of the surface crack was evaluated using the pulse-echo technique. In this work, three different longitudinal waves with frequencies of 2.25 MHz, 5 MHz and 10 MHz were employed to investigate the effect of frequency on the sizing detection of surface cracks. Reasonable accuracies were achieved with measurement errors less than 7%. PMID:25225875

  6. Nondestructive assay methods for solids containing plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Macmurdo, K.W.; Gray, L.W.; Gibbs, A.

    1984-06-01

    Specific nondestructive assay (NDA) methods, e.g. calorimetry, coincidence neutron counting, singles neutron counting, and gamma ray spectrometry, were studied to provide the Savannah River Plant with an NDA method to measure the plutonium content of solid scrap (slag and crucible) generated in the JB-Line plutonium metal production process. Results indicate that calorimetry can be used to measure the plutonium content to within about 3% in 4 to 6 hours by using computerized equilibrium sample power predictive models. Calorimetry results confirm that a bias exists in the present indirect measurement method used to estimate the plutonium content of slag and crucible. Singles neutron counting of slag and crucible can measure plutonium to only +-30%, but coincidence neutron counting methods improve measurement precision to better than +-10% in less than ten minutes. Only four portions of a single slag and crucible sample were assayed, and further study is recommended.

  7. Non-destructive in situ mapping of macroholes, cracks and inhomogeneities of stalagmites in cave environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegymegi, Erika; Gyöngy, Miklós; Bodolai, Tamás; Divós, Ferenc; Barta, Edit; Gribovszki, Katalin; Bokelmann, Götz; Hegymegi, Csaba; Lednická, Markéta; Kovács, Károly

    2016-04-01

    Intact and vulnerable, candle-stick type stalagmites can be used as prehistoric-earthquake indicators during seismic-hazard analysis of a given region, because they are old enough to survive several earthquakes. The continued intactness of the stalagmites indicates a lack of earthquakes that had the strength to destroy them. To make sure that the stalagmites are intact, we have to image their internal structure in order to estimate the steadiness more accurate and potential failure in the last few thousand years, during their evolution. These stalagmites play an important indicator role and carry fundamental information; however, legally they are strictly protected natural objects in Europe. Therefore it is impossible to examine them in the laboratory by conventional equipment such as computer tomography (CT) or X-ray, because this would require taking samples. With the presented non-destructive methods (ultrasound and acoustic tomography) we tried to detect macroholes, cracks and velocity anomalies inside the stalagmites on the mm scale in situ, in the cave. The acoustic tomography applied in the current work is an existing method in forest research. Forest researchers use it to non-destructively detect the size and location of decayed or hollow parts in the trunk and this technique is able to detect the velocity changing of wave propagation and anomalies in the stalagmites as well. The other method that we use is ultrasound imaging, which uses (and is able to calculate) the velocity of sound propagation. Here, the frequency used is much higher (typically 250 kHz to 5 MHz), which increases resolution but at the same time decreases penetration depth compared to acoustic tomography. In this latter work, through transmission and TOFD (time-of-flight-diffraction) ultrasound methods are using thickness-mode ultrasound transducers (Panametrics, Olympus). Such equipment is well-adapted to the cave environment and this is the first time that it has been used for these

  8. LL/ILW: Post-Qualification of Old Waste through Non-Destructive Extraction of Barrels from Cement Shields - 13535

    SciTech Connect

    Oehmigen, Steffen; Ambos, Frank

    2013-07-01

    Currently there is a large number of radioactive waste drums entombed in cement shields at German nuclear power plants. These concrete containers used in the past for the waste are not approved for the final repository. Compliance with current acceptance criteria of the final repository has to be proven by qualification measures on the waste. To meet these criteria, a new declaration and new packing is necessary. A simple non-destructive extraction of about 2000 drums from their concrete shields is not possible. So different methods were tested to find a way of non-destructive extraction of old waste drums from cement shields and therefore reduce the final repository volume and final repository costs by using a container accepted and approved for Konrad. The main objective was to build a mobile system to offer this service to nuclear plant stations. (authors)

  9. Non-destructive evaluation of TBC by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianqi

    suggested. An alternative electrolyte (trifluoroacetic acid) was investigated using EIS in order to be used as compatible or friendly solution to TBC. A similar characteristic EIS result was found using the alternative electrolyte compared with the commonly used electrolyte [Fe(CN)6]-3/[Fe(CN) 6]-4 in this work. It has indicated that a friendly electrolyte be viable for EIS technique to be used for non-destructive evaluation of TBC. Visualization of a flexible probe for EIS field detection has also been designed. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  10. Template synthesis of test tube nanoparticles using non-destructive replication

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Jonathan; Yao, Jingyuan; Rodgers, David; Hinds, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Nano test tubes are a promising delivery vehicle for a range of therapeutics including small molecule drugs and biologics. However, current template synthesis methods of producing nano test tubes are prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Here, non-destructive template replication was used to increase nano test tube yield from porous alumina by more than a hundredfold. We demonstrate how to produce nano test tubes of several sizes and compositions including hybrid tubes with different inner and outer surfaces for targeted surface chemistry. Nano test tubes were readily suspended and stored in aqueous solutions without the need for chemical treatment. These nano test tubes should find application as delivery vehicles for therapeutics, particularly for processive “bionanoreactors” loaded with enzymes. PMID:23376956