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Sample records for non-diffracting optical metamaterials

  1. Electrically driven optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  2. Electrically driven optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Le-Van, Quynh; Le Roux, Xavier; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Degiron, Aloyse

    2016-01-01

    The advent of metamaterials more than 15 years ago has offered extraordinary new ways of manipulating electromagnetic waves. Yet, progress in this field has been unequal across the electromagnetic spectrum, especially when it comes to finding applications for such artificial media. Optical metamaterials, in particular, are less compatible with active functionalities than their counterparts developed at lower frequencies. One crucial roadblock in the path to devices is the fact that active optical metamaterials are so far controlled by light rather than electricity, preventing them from being integrated in larger electronic systems. Here we introduce electroluminescent metamaterials based on metal nano-inclusions hybridized with colloidal quantum dots. We show that each of these miniature blocks can be individually tuned to exhibit independent optoelectronic properties (both in terms of electrical characteristics, polarization, colour and brightness), illustrate their capabilities by weaving complex light-emitting surfaces and finally discuss their potential for displays and sensors. PMID:27328976

  3. Optical theorem for acoustic non-diffracting beams and application to radiation force and torque

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Likun; Marston, Philip L.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustical and optical non-diffracting beams are potentially useful for manipulating particles and larger objects. An extended optical theorem for a non-diffracting beam was given recently in the context of acoustics. The theorem relates the extinction by an object to the scattering at the forward direction of the beam’s plane wave components. Here we use this theorem to examine the extinction cross section of a sphere centered on the axis of the beam, with a non-diffracting Bessel beam as an example. The results are applied to recover the axial radiation force and torque on the sphere by the Bessel beam. PMID:24049681

  4. Anisotropic metamaterial optical fibers.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Dheeraj; Anantha Ramakrishna, S; Pollock, Justin G; Iyer, Ashwin K

    2015-04-01

    Internal physical structure can drastically modify the properties of waveguides: photonic crystal fibers are able to confine light inside a hollow air core by Bragg scattering from a periodic array of holes, while metamaterial loaded waveguides for microwaves can support propagation at frequencies well below cutoff. Anisotropic metamaterials assembled into cylindrically symmetric geometries constitute light-guiding structures that support new kinds of exotic modes. A microtube of anodized nanoporous alumina, with nanopores radially emanating from the inner wall to the outer surface, is a manifestation of such an anisotropic metamaterial optical fiber. The nanopores, when filled with a plasmonic metal such as silver or gold, greatly increase the electromagnetic anisotropy. The modal solutions in such anisotropic circular waveguides can be uncommon Bessel functions with imaginary orders. PMID:25968741

  5. Roadmap on optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis

    2016-09-01

    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  6. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  7. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, Sergey S.; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-04-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light.

  8. Magnetic hyperbolic optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kruk, Sergey S; Wong, Zi Jing; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; O'Brien, Kevin; Neshev, Dragomir N; Kivshar, Yuri S; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Strongly anisotropic media where the principal components of electric permittivity or magnetic permeability tensors have opposite signs are termed as hyperbolic media. Such media support propagating electromagnetic waves with extremely large wave vectors exhibiting unique optical properties. However, in all artificial and natural optical materials studied to date, the hyperbolic dispersion originates solely from the electric response. This restricts material functionality to one polarization of light and inhibits free-space impedance matching. Such restrictions can be overcome in media having components of opposite signs for both electric and magnetic tensors. Here we present the experimental demonstration of the magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in three-dimensional metamaterials. We measure metamaterial isofrequency contours and reveal the topological phase transition between the elliptic and hyperbolic dispersion. In the hyperbolic regime, we demonstrate the strong enhancement of thermal emission, which becomes directional, coherent and polarized. Our findings show the possibilities for realizing efficient impedance-matched hyperbolic media for unpolarized light. PMID:27072604

  9. Optical forces in nanorod metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Shalin, Alexander S.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Optomechanical manipulation of micro and nano-scale objects with laser beams finds use in a large span of multidisciplinary applications. Auxiliary nanostructuring could substantially improve performances of classical optical tweezers by means of spatial localization of objects and intensity required for trapping. Here we investigate a three-dimensional nanorod metamaterial platform, serving as an auxiliary tool for the optical manipulation, able to support and control near-field interactions and generate both steep and flat optical potential profiles. It was shown that the ‘topological transition’ from the elliptic to hyperbolic dispersion regime of the metamaterial, usually having a significant impact on various light-matter interaction processes, does not strongly affect the distribution of optical forces in the metamaterial. This effect is explained by the predominant near-fields contributions of the nanostructure to optomechanical interactions. Semi-analytical model, approximating the finite size nanoparticle by a point dipole and neglecting the mutual re-scattering between the particle and nanorod array, was found to be in a good agreement with full-wave numerical simulation. In-plane (perpendicular to the rods) trapping regime, saddle equilibrium points and optical puling forces (directed along the rods towards the light source), acting on a particle situated inside or at the nearby the metamaterial, were found. PMID:26514667

  10. Various uses for optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    Optical metamaterials promise aberration free and better than diffraction limited performance for imaging systems through constructed materials made to regulate the interaction with electromagnetic waves. Optical metamaterials have the potential to miniaturize the optical bench and obtain diffraction-limited performance with a single device. The reduction of size, weight, and complexity of optical systems while maintaining performance is desired. In unmanned aircrafts, buoy systems, 360 degree imaging systems, and optronic or traditional periscope systems the lenses constitute a considerable percentage of the weight and volume. Another characteristic that is desired is optical cross section reduction for both visible and infrared bands. Optical cloaking using metamaterials has the potential to make objects indiscernible from its environment by masking objects signature. Other characteristics that are desired are materials that are perfect light absorbers for stray light baffles, detectors, or solar energy harvesting, nonlinear frequency conversion for photonics devices, and lenses or head window coatings to achieve specific properties. These topics are discussed in this paper.

  11. Non-diffracting beam synthesis used for optical trapping and delivery of sub-micron objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čižmár, Tomáš; Kollárov, Věra; Šiler, Martin; Jákl, Petr; Bouchal, Zdeněk; Garcés-Chávez, Veneranda; Dholakia, Kishan; Zemánek, Pavel

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate the use of interference between non-diffracting Bessel beams (BB) to generate a system of optical traps. They offer sub-micron particle confinement, delivery and organization over a distance of hundreds of μm. We analyze system of two identical counter-propagating BBs and the case of two co-propagating BBs with different propagation constants separately. In both of these cases, the interference results in periodic on-axis intensity oscillations involving particle confinement. Altering the phase of one of the interfering beams, the whole structure of optical traps can be shifted axially. Implementing this conveyor belt enables the particle delivery over the whole distance where the optical traps are strong enough for particle confinement. Experimentally we succeeded with generation of both of these systems. In case of two counter-propagating BBs we observed a strong sub-micron particle confinement, while in case of co-propagating BBs the confinement was observed only with help of fluid flow against the radiation pressure of both beams.

  12. Implementation of optical dielectric metamaterials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbitt, Shandra J.; Francoeur, Mathieu; Raeymaekers, Bart

    2015-06-01

    Metamaterials are a class of man-made materials with exotic electromagnetic properties. The ability to fabricate three-dimensional macroscale metamaterials would enable embedding these structures in engineering applications and devices, to take advantage of their unique properties. This paper reviews the implementation of optical Mie resonance-based dielectric (MRD) metamaterials, as opposed to the more commonly used metallic-based metamaterials. Design constraints are derived based on Mie theory and related to fabrication specifications. Techniques to fabricate optical dielectric metamaterials are reviewed, including electron-beam lithography, focused ion beam lithography, nanoimprint lithography, and directed self-assembly. The limitations of each fabrication method are critically evaluated in light of the design constraints. The challenges that must be overcome to achieve fabrication and implementation of macroscale three-dimensional MRD metamaterials are discussed.

  13. Toward high throughput optical metamaterial assemblies.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Jake; Ratna, Banahalli R

    2015-11-01

    Optical metamaterials have unique engineered optical properties. These properties arise from the careful organization of plasmonic elements. Transitioning these properties from laboratory experiments to functional materials may lead to disruptive technologies for controlling light. A significant issue impeding the realization of optical metamaterial devices is the need for robust and efficient assembly strategies to govern the order of the nanometer-sized elements while enabling macroscopic throughput. This mini-review critically highlights recent approaches and challenges in creating these artificial materials. As the ability to assemble optical metamaterials improves, new unforeseen opportunities may arise for revolutionary optical devices. PMID:26560623

  14. Optical nonlinearities in plasmonic metamaterials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Metals exhibit strong and fast nonlinearities making metallic, plasmonic, structures very promising for ultrafast all-optical applications at low light intensities. Combining metallic nanostructures in metamaterials provides additional functionalities via prospect of precise engineering of spectral response and dispersion. From this point of view, hyperbolic metamaterials, in particular those based on plasmonic nanorod arrays, provide wealth of exciting possibilities in nonlinear optics offering designed linear and nonlinear properties, polarization control, spontaneous emission control and many others. Experiments and modeling have already demonstrated very strong Kerr-nonlinear response and its ultrafast recovery due to the nonlocal nature of the plasmonic mode of the metamaterial, so that small changes in the permittivity of the metallic component under the excitation modify the nonlocal response that in turn leads to strong changes of the metamaterial transmission. In this talk, we will discuss experimental studies and numerical modeling of second- and third-order nonlinear optical processes in hyperbolic metamaterials based on metallic nanorods and other plasmonic systems where coupling between the resonances plays important role in defining nonlinear response. Second-harmonic generation and ultrafast Kerr-type nonlinearity originating from metallic component of the metamaterial will be considered, including nonlinear magneto-optical effects. Nonlinear optical response of stand-alone as well as integrated metamaterial components will be presented. Some of the examples to be discussed include nonlinear polarization control, nonlinear metamaterial integrated in silicon photonic circuitry and second-harmonic generation, including magneto-optical effects.

  15. Realizing optical magnetism from dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ginn, James C; Brener, Igal; Peters, David W; Wendt, Joel R; Stevens, Jeffrey O; Hines, Paul F; Basilio, Lorena I; Warne, Larry K; Ihlefeld, Jon F; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, an all-dielectric metamaterial composite in the midinfrared based on micron-sized, high-index tellurium dielectric resonators. Dielectric resonators are desirable compared to conventional metallodielectric metamaterials at optical frequencies as they are largely angular invariant, free of Ohmic loss, and easily integrated into three-dimensional volumes. Measurements and simulation provide evidence of optical magnetism, which could be used for infrared magnetic mirrors, hard or soft surfaces, and subwavelength cavities. PMID:22463666

  16. Chiral THz metamaterial with tunable optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jiangfeng; Taylor, Antoinette; O' Hara, John; Chowdhury, Roy; Zhao, Rongkuo; Soukoullis, Costas M

    2010-01-01

    Optical activity in chiral metamaterials is demonstrated in simulation and shows actively tunable giant polarization rotation at THz frequencies. Electric current distributions show that pure chirality is achieved by our bi-Iayer chiral metamaterial design. The chirality can be optically controlled by illumination with near-infrared light. Optical activity, occurring in chiral materials such as DNA, sugar and many other bio-molecules, is a phenomenon of great importance to many areas of science including molecular biology, analytical chemistry, optoelectronics and display applications. This phenomenon is well understood at an effective medium level as a magnetic/electric moment excited by the electric/magnetic field of the incident electromagnetic (EM) wave. Usually, natural chiral materials exhibit very weak optical activity e.g. a gyrotropic quartz crystal. The optical activity of chiral metamaterials, however, can be five orders of magnitude stronger. Chiral metamaterials are made of sub-wavelength resonators lacking symmetry planes. The asymmetry allows magnetic moments to be excited by the electric field of the incident EM wave and vice versa. Recently, chiral metamaterials have been demonstrated and lead to prospects in giant optical activity, circular dichroism, negative refraction and reversing the Casmir force. These fascinating optical properties require strong chirality, which may be designed through the microscopic structure of chiral metamaterials. However, these metamaterials have a fixed response function, defined by the geometric structuring, which limits their ability to manipulate EM waves. Active metamaterials realize dynamic control of response functions and have produced many influential applications such as ultra-fast switching devices, frequency and phase modulation and memory devices. Introducing active designs to chiral metamaterials will give additional freedom in controlling the optical activity, and therefore enable dynamic manipulation

  17. [INVITED] Self-assembled optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, Alexandre; Aradian, Ashod; Ponsinet, Virginie; Barois, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Self-assembled metamaterials constitute a promising platform to achieving bulk and homogenous optical materials that exhibit unusual effective medium properties. For many years now, the research community has contemplated lithographically fabricated metasurfaces, with extraordinary optical features. However, achieving large volumes at low cost is still a challenge by top-down fabrication. Bottom-up fabrication, that relies both on nanochemistry and self-assembly, is capable of building such materials while greatly reducing the energy footprint in the formulation of the metamaterial. Self-assembled metamaterials have shown that they are capable of reaching unprecedented values of bulkiness and homogeneity figures of merit. This feat is achieved by synthesizing plasmonic nanoresonators (meta-atoms in the sense of artificial polarizable units) and assembling them into a fully three-dimensional matrix through a variety of methods. Furthermore it has been shown that a wide range of material parameters can be tailored by controlling the geometry and composition of the meta-atoms as well as the volume fraction of the nano-objects in the metamaterial. Here we conduct a non-comprehensive review of some of the recent trends in self-assembled optical metamaterials and illustrate these trends with our recent work.

  18. Classical and quantum optics of hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Zubin

    Nanotechnology has paved the way for artificial materials which have electromagnetic, mechanical, thermal and acoustic properties beyond those which are ordinarily found in nature. Photonic nanomaterials hold the promise:- to usher in a new generation of photonic devices with imaging capabilities well beyond the reach of conventional optics, to drive CMOS compatible nanophotonics research for sustaining Moores law and even address pressing societal needs of solar energy harvesting. The central theme of this thesis is the understanding of the essential physics for new devices based on nanofabricated metamaterials, where the bulk macroscopic material properties are governed and tailored at will, according to the constituent nanostructured building blocks. The particular class of metamaterials considered are uniaxial media with an extreme dielectric anisotropy i.e. materials with dielectric constants of opposite signs in the dielectric tensor. This gives rise to a hyperbolic dispersion relation for extraordinary propagating waves in the medium. We unravel a unique singularity in the photonic density of states (PDOS) of such hyperbolic metamaterials. The remarkable property which sets it apart from other photonic systems is the broad spectral bandwidth in which the PDOS diverges, paving the way for a new approach to controlling broadband light-matter interaction. We use the unique electromagnetic metamaterial states that cause the divergence in the PDOS for two specific device applications: subdiffraction imaging and quantum optics. We solve the long standing problem of the fundamental diffraction limit which plagues all conventional optical imaging systems using a device called the hyperlens, comprising of nanostructured hyperbolic metamaterials. The hyperlens produces magnified images of subwavelength objects in the far-field, promising to revolutionize applications such as nano-bio imaging and subdiffraction lithography. We show that the hyperlens can be understood

  19. Optical pulling forces in hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalin, Alexander S.; Sukhov, Sergey V.; Bogdanov, Andrey A.; Belov, Pavel A.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2015-06-01

    Control over mechanical motion of nanoscale particles is a valuable functionality desired in a variety of multidisciplinary applications, e.g., biophysics, and it is usually achieved by employing optical forces. Hyperbolic metamaterials enable tailoring and enhancing electromagnetic scattering and, as the result, provide a platform for a new type of optical manipulation. Here optical pulling forces acting on a small particle placed inside a hyperbolic metamaterial slab were predicted and analyzed. In order to attract particles to a light source, highly confined extraordinary modes of hyperbolic metamaterial were excited via scattering from an imperfection situated at the slab's interface. This type of structured illumination together with remarkable scattering properties, inspired by the hyperbolic dispersion in the metamaterial, creates optical attraction. Forces acting on high-, low-index dielectric, and gold particles were investigated and it was shown that the pulling effect emerges in all of the cases. The ability to control mechanical motion at nanoscale using auxiliary photonic structures paves the way for investigation of various phenomena, e.g., biochemical reactions, molecular dynamics, and more.

  20. Enhanced optical phase conjugation in nonlinear metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kihong

    2014-12-15

    Optical phase conjugation by degenerate four-wave mixing in nonlinear metamaterials is studied theoretically by solving the coupled wave equations using a generalized version of the invariant imbedding method. The phase-conjugate reflectance and the lateral shift of the phase-conjugate reflected beams are calculated and their dependencies on the frequency, the polarization, the incident angle, the material properties and the structure are investigated in detail. It is found that the efficiency of phase conjugation can be significantly enhanced due to the enhancement of electromagnetic fields in various metamaterial structures. PMID:25607488

  1. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Anan

    2010-01-01

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, ε. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  2. Optical pulse frequency conversion inside transformation-optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginis, Vincent; Tassin, Philippe; Craps, Ben; Danckaert, Jan; Veretennicoff, Irina

    2012-05-01

    Based on the analogy between the Maxwell equations in complex metamaterials and the free-space Maxwell equations on the background of an arbitrary metric, transformation optics allows for the design of metamaterial devices using a geometrical perspective. This intuitive geometrical approach has already generated various novel applications within the elds of invisibility cloaking, electromagnetic beam manipulation, optical information storage, and imaging. Nevertheless, the framework of transformation optics is not limited to three-dimensional transformations and can be extended to four-dimensional metrics, which allow for the implementation of metrics that occur in general relativistic or cosmological models. This enables, for example, the implementation of black hole phenomena and space-time cloaks inside dielectrics with exotic material parameters. In this contribution, we present a time-dependent metamaterial device that mimics the cosmological redshift. Theoretically, the transformation-optical analogy requires an innite medium with a permittivity and a permeability that vary monotonically as a function of time. We demonstrate that the cosmological frequency shift can also be reproduced in more realistic devices, considering the fact that practical devices have a nite extent and bound material parameters. Indeed, our recent numerical results indicate that it is possible to alter the frequency of optical pulses in a medium with solely a modulated permittivity. Furthermore, it is shown that the overall frequency shift does not depend on the actual variation of the permittivity. The performance of a nite frequency converter is, for example, not aected by introducing the saw tooth evolution of the material parameters. Finally, we studied the eect of the introduction of realistic metamaterial losses and, surprisingly, we found a very high robustness with respect to this parameter. These results open up the possibility to fabricate this frequency converting device

  3. Optical isotropy at terahertz frequencies using anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, In-Sung; Sohn, Ik-Bu; Kang, Chul; Kee, Chul-Sik; Yang, Jin-Kyu; Lee, Joong Wook

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate optically isotropic filters in the terahertz (THz) frequency range using structurally anisotropic metamaterials. The proposed metamaterials with two-dimensional arrangements of anisotropic H-shaped apertures show polarization-independent transmission due to the combined effects of the dipole resonances of resonators and antennas. Our results may offer the potential for the design and realization of versatile THz devices and systems.

  4. Broadband optical isolator based on helical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Cao, Hu; Yang, ZhenYu; Zhao, Ming; Wu, Lin; Zhang, Peng

    2015-05-01

    Based on helical metamaterials, a new broadband optical isolator with a triple-helix structure is proposed in this paper. The right-handed circularly polarized light can transmit through the isolator with its polarization unchanged. The reverse propagating light, which is caused by the reflection of the latter optical devices, is converted into left-handed circularly polarized light that is suppressed by the proposed isolator because of absorption. Our design has some unprecedented advantages such as broad frequency ranges and a compact structure; moreover, neither polarizers nor adscititious magnetic fields are required. Properties of the isolator are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method, and this phenomenon is studied by the mechanism of helical antenna theory. PMID:26366900

  5. Acousto-optical properties of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovoit, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of the effective use of metamaterials in acousto-optics is demonstrated. It is shown that photoelastic constants that determine a change in the dielectric constant of a heterogeneous medium under the action of a sound wave can significantly exceed the corresponding constants for conventional crystals. We have analysed the mechanisms of the dielectric constant variation in a heterogeneous medium consisting of nanoparticles in the form of ellipsoids and have found explicitly the values of the photoelastic constants. It is shown that the mechanism of the dielectric constant variation in a longitudinal sound wave is reduced to a change in the local concentration of nanoparticles in the bulk and in a transverse acoustic wave - to a local rotation of space-oriented nanoellipsoids. It is also shown that the use of metamedia with a nonuniform distribution of nanoparticles provides a unique opportunity for designing qualitatively new instruments and devices that cannot be produced on the basis of conventional crystals. It is noted that metamaterials open ample opportunities for creating devices of the IR region of the spectrum due to the absence of restrictions on the size of such media.

  6. Magnetic field concentrator for probing optical magnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Antosiewicz, Tomasz J; Wróbel, Piotr; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2010-12-01

    Development of all dielectric and plasmonic metamaterials with a tunable optical frequency magnetic response creates a need for new inspection techniques. We propose a method of measuring magnetic responses of such metamaterials within a wide range of optical frequencies with a single probe. A tapered fiber probe with a radially corrugated metal coating concentrates azimuthally polarized light in the near-field into a subwavelength spot the longitudinal magnetic field component which is much stronger than the perpendicular electric one. The active probe may be used in a future scanning near-field magnetic microscope for studies of magnetic responses of subwavelength elementary cells of metamaterials. PMID:21164936

  7. Optical-image transfer through a diffraction-compensating metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Kivijärvi, Ville; Nyman, Markus; Shevchenko, Andriy; Kaivola, Matti

    2016-05-01

    Cancellation of optical diffraction is an intriguing phenomenon enabling optical fields to preserve their transverse intensity profiles upon propagation. In this work, we introduce a metamaterial design that exhibits this phenomenon for three-dimensional optical beams. As an advantage over other diffraction-compensating materials, our metamaterial is impedance-matched to glass, which suppresses optical reflection at the glass-metamaterial interface. The material is designed for beams formed by TM-polarized plane-wave components. We show, however, that unpolarized optical images with arbitrary shapes can be transferred over remarkable distances in the material without distortion. We foresee multiple applications of our results in integrated optics and optical imaging. PMID:27137594

  8. Optical chiral metamaterial based on the resonant behaviour of nanodiscs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordi, Mahdi; Mojtaba Mirsalehi, Mir

    2016-08-01

    Circular dichorism and optical activity have been achieved by chiral metamaterials in the optical spectrum, but for the case of negative index of refraction, remarkable achievements have not been obtained in this region so far. We employ nanoparticles to shift the resonant frequency of a chiral metamaterial based on twisted cross wires to optical domain. Our proposed structure provides giant optical activity, strong circular dichorism and also negative refractive index in the optical wavelengths. Optical activity in our structure has a rotary power similar to a gyrotropic crystal of quartz, but in a thickness which is four orders of magnitude smaller. The foundation of our method for realizing such an optical chiral metamaterial is based on creating a different coupling between longitudinal modes of localized surface plasmons for right and left circularly polarized incident waves.

  9. Giant Nonlinearity of an Optically Reconfigurable Plasmonic Metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Zhang, Jianfa; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2016-01-27

    Metamaterial nanostructures actuated by light give rise to a large optical nonlinearity. Plasmonic metamolecules on a flexible support structure cut from a dielectric membrane of nanoscale thickness are rearranged by optical illumination. This changes the optical properties of the strongly coupled plasmonic structure and therefore results in modulation of light with light. PMID:26619205

  10. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-01

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  11. A review of nano-optics in metamaterial hybrid heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2014-03-31

    We present a review for the nonlinear nano-optics in quantum dots doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by depositing a metamaterial on a dielectric substrate and ensemble of noninteracting quantum dots are doped near the heterostructure interface. It is shown that there is enhancement of the second harmonic generation due to the surface plasmon polaritons field present at the interface.

  12. Optical magnetism and optical activity in nonchiral planar plasmonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, Guozhou; Li, Qiang; Yang, Lizhen; Wu, Lijun

    2016-07-01

    We investigate optical magnetism and optical activity in a simple planar metamolecule composed of double U-shaped metal split ring resonators (SRRs) twisted by 90° with respect to one another. Compared to a single SRR, the resonant energy levels are split and strong magnetic response can be observed due to inductive and conductive coupling. More interestingly, the nonchiral structures exhibit strong optical gyrotropy (1100°/λ) under oblique incidence, benefiting from the strong electromagnetic coupling. A chiral molecule model is proposed to shed light on the physical origin of optical activity. These artificial chiral metamaterials could be utilized to control the polarization of light and promise applications in enantiomer sensing-based medicine, biology, and drug development. PMID:27367063

  13. Metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Smith, David R.; Schurig, David; Starr, Anthony F.; Mock, Jack J.

    2014-09-09

    One exemplary metamaterial is formed from a plurality of individual unit cells, at least a portion of which have a different permeability than others. The plurality of individual unit cells are arranged to provide a metamaterial having a gradient index along at least one axis. Such metamaterials can be used to form lenses, for example.

  14. All-optical metamaterial modulators: Fabrication, simulation and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Zahyun

    Artificially structured composite metamaterials consist of sub-wavelength sized structures that exhibit unusual electromagnetic properties not found in nature. Since the first experimental verification in 2000, metamaterials have drawn considerable attention because of their broad range of potential applications. One of the most attractive features of metamaterials is to obtain negative refraction, termed left-handed materials or negative-index metamaterials, over a limited frequency band. Negative-index metamaterials at near infrared wavelength are fabricated with circular, elliptical and rectangular holes penetrating through metal/dielectric/metal films. All three negative-index metamaterial structures exhibit similar figure of merit; however, the transmission is higher for the negative-index metamaterial with rectangular holes as a result of an improved impedance match with the substrate-superstrate (air-glass) combination. In general, the processing procedure to fabricate the fishnet structured negative-index metamaterials is to define the hole-size using a polymetric material, usually by lithographically defining polymer posts, followed by deposition of the constitutive materials and dissolution of the polymer (liftoff processing). This processing (fabrication of posts: multi-layer deposition: liftoff) often gives rise to significant sidewall-angle because materials accumulate on the tops of the posts that define the structure, each successive film deposition has a somewhat larger aperture on the bottom metamaterial film, giving rise to a nonzero sidewall-angle and to optical bianisotropy. Finally, we demonstrate a nanometer-scale, sub-picosecond metamaterial device capable of over terabit/second all-optical communication in the near infrared spectrum. We achieve a 600 fs device response by utilizing a regime of sub-picosecond carrier dynamics in amorphous silicon and ˜70% modulation in a path length of only 124 nm by exploiting the strong nonlinearities in

  15. Optical spin-sensitive Zitterbewegung in bianisotropic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui-Peng; Guo, Qing-Hua; Wu, Li-Ting; Chen, Jing; Fan, Dianyuan

    2016-06-27

    We present a theoretical analysis on optical spin-sensitive Zitterbewegung (ZB) in metamaterials. By developing some formulas about the dispersions and eigenstates of optical modes we show that spin-sensitive ZB can be obtained in a bianisotropic metamaterial with a proper coupling between the electric and magnetic responses. A close analogue of the developed analytical results with these of Dirac equation is proposed. Numerical simulation proves the existence of ZB on the refracted optical beam along a direction determined by the optical spin of incidence. Furthermore, we show that when the incident optical field is linearly polarized, although ZB on field intensity does not exist, the optical spin possesses an interesting spatial split and trembling phenomena. Significance of this investigation is discussed. PMID:27410542

  16. Optical Metamaterials: Design, Characterization and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaturvedi, Pratik

    2009-01-01

    Artificially engineered metamaterials have emerged with properties and functionalities previously unattainable in natural materials. The scientific breakthroughs made in this new class of electromagnetic materials are closely linked with progress in developing physics-driven design, novel fabrication and characterization methods. The intricate…

  17. THz optics and metamaterials: Design, fabrication and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turaga, Shuvan Prashant

    In the past decade, terahertz(THz) based optics and metamaterials have been extensively researched to create components and devices in the frequency range of 0.1 to 5 THz also known as 'THz gap'. Metamaterials, in particular, have realized concepts such as negative refraction, slow light and superlensing through artificially engineered media. The naturally available materials have very weak interaction of terahertz light. Therefore, the design of THz metamaterials to manipulate THz radiation is an important task towards furthering the usage of terahertz light for practical applications. The thesis involved the development of two lab facilities for fabrication and characterization. A state-of-the-art two photon lithography( TPL) system was developed which enables us to manufacture 3D structures with sub-diffraction limit resolution(280nm at 800 nm wavelength). The software was written to enable easy fabrication of multiple structures with different algorithms. For characterizing our metamaterial structures in the terahertz regime, a THz time-domain spectroscopy(THz-TDS) and imaging system was built. This transmission based spectrometer has a dynamic range of 50 dB at 0.5 THz and a bandwidth of about 2.5 THz. To demonstrate the application of these home-built facilities, the metamaterials in the THz regime were fabricated using TPL and UV lithography. To investigate conductive coupling effects in meta-atoms, a new design was proposed, fabricated and characterized. As an application of TPL, free standing polymer helices were fabricated and coated with silver electroless plating. These silver helical metamaterials have potential application as circular polarizers in the MIR and THz regimes. The aspect ratio effects of these helical metamaterials were also studied in order to improve their polarizing performance.

  18. Demonstration of sharp multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Moritake, Yuto; Kanamori, Yoshiaki; Hane, Kazuhiro

    2016-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrated multiple Fano resonances in optical metamaterials. By combination of two different sized asymmetric-double-bar (ADB) structures, triple Fano resonance was observed in the near-infrared region. In addition to Fano resonance due to anti-phase modes in isolated ADB structures, an anti-phase mode due to coupling among different sized ADBs was observed. Dependence of characteristics of resonances on size difference was also investigated. At specific conditions of size difference, quality factors of three Fano resonances were improved compared with ADB metamaterials consisting of one kind of ADBs. The results will help to realize applications using metamaterial resonators with multiple functionalities and high performance. PMID:27137549

  19. Polarization-dependent optics using gauge-field metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Fu; Xiao, Shiyi; Li, Jensen; Wang, Saisai; Hang, Zhi Hong

    2015-12-14

    We show that effective gauge field for photons with polarization-split dispersion surfaces, being realized using uniaxial metamaterials, can be used for polarization control with unique opportunities. The metamaterials with the proposed gauge field correspond to a special choice of eigenpolarizations on the Poincaré sphere as pseudo-spins, in contrary to those from either conventional birefringent crystals or optical active media. It gives rise to all-angle polarization control and a generic route to manipulate photon trajectories or polarizations in the pseudo-spin domain. As demonstrations, we show beam splitting (birefringent polarizer), all-angle polarization control, unidirectional polarization filter, and interferometer as various polarization control devices in the pseudo-spin domain. We expect that more polarization-dependent devices can be designed under the same framework.

  20. Strong optical activity from twisted-cross photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Decker, M; Ruther, M; Kriegler, C E; Zhou, J; Soukoulis, C M; Linden, S; Wegener, M

    2009-08-15

    Following a recent theoretical suggestion and microwave experiments, we fabricate photonic metamaterials composed of pairs of twisted gold crosses using two successive electron-beam-lithography steps and intermediate planarization via a spin-on dielectric. The resulting two effective resonances of the coupled system lie in the 1-2 microm wavelength regime and exhibit pronounced circular dichroism, while the circular polarization conversion is very small. In between the two resonances, we find a fairly broad spectral regime with strong optical activity, i.e., with a pure rotation of incident linear polarization. The measured optical transmittance spectra agree well with theory. PMID:19684829

  1. Optical chiral metamaterials: a review of the fundamentals, fabrication methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zuojia; Cheng, Feng; Winsor, Thomas; Liu, Yongmin

    2016-10-14

    Optical chiral metamaterials have recently attracted considerable attention because they offer new and exciting opportunities for fundamental research and practical applications. Through pragmatic designs, the chiroptical response of chiral metamaterials can be several orders of magnitude higher than that of natural chiral materials. Meanwhile, the local chiral fields can be enhanced by plasmonic resonances to drive a wide range of physical and chemical processes in both linear and nonlinear regimes. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental principles of chiral metamaterials, various optical chiral metamaterials realized by different nanofabrication approaches, and the applications and future prospects of this emerging field. PMID:27606801

  2. An optical metamaterial with simultaneously suppressed optical diffraction and surface reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivijärvi, V.; Nyman, M.; Shevchenko, A.; Kaivola, M.

    2016-03-01

    Diffraction-free propagation of light has been demonstrated in free space for Bessel-like beams and for arbitrary beams in specially designed photonic crystals and metamaterials. The phenomenon is called self-collimation in photonic crystals and canalization in metamaterials, as the approaches to obtaining the effect are different. In both cases, however, diffraction-free propagation of light is achieved by making the dispersion surface of the material at a given frequency flat. In photonic crystals this is done by tuning the unit-cell dimensions close to the band-gap regime, and in metamaterials by tuning a hyperbolic-type metamaterial towards its transition to an ordinary elliptical metamaterial. In this work, we propose an alternative way to suppress optical diffraction in a metamaterial by adjusting the anisotropy of the finite-sized three-dimensional metamolecules and the material’s spatial dispersion. The approach allows matching the wave impedance of the material to that of the surrounding medium in a wide range of incidence angles and thereby also suppressing optical reflection from the material’s surface.

  3. Electro-optical control in a plasmonic metamaterial hybridised with a liquid-crystal cell.

    PubMed

    Buchnev, O; Ou, J Y; Kaczmarek, M; Zheludev, N I; Fedotov, V A

    2013-01-28

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient electro-optical control in an active nano-structured plasmonic metamaterial hybridised with a liquid-crystal cell. The hybridisation was achieved by simultaneously replacing the polarizer, transparent electrode and molecular alignment layer of the liquid-crystal cell with the metamaterial nano-structure. With the control signal of only 7 V we have achieved a fivefold hysteresis-free modulation of metamaterial transmission at the wavelength of 1.55 µm. PMID:23389148

  4. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  5. Nonlinear optics, active plasmonics and metamaterials with liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Iam Choon

    2014-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals possess large and versatile optical nonlinearities suitable for photonics applications spanning the femtoseconds to milliseconds time scales, and across a wide spectral window. We present a comprehensive review of the physical properties and mechanisms that underlie these multiple time scales nonlinearities, delving into individual molecular electronic responses as well as collective ordered-phase dynamical processes. Several exemplary theoretical formalisms and feasibility demonstrations of ultrafast all-optical transmission switching and tunable metamaterials and plasmonic photonic structures where the liquid crystal constituents play the critical role of enabling the processes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on all-optical processes, but we have also highlighted cases where electro-optical means could provide additional control, flexibility and enhancement possibility. We also point out how another phase of chiral nematic, namely, Blue-Phase liquid crystals could circumvent some of the limitations of nematic and present new possibilities.

  6. Coherent control of optical polarization effects in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Mousavi, Seyedmohammad A.; Plum, Eric; Shi, Jinhui; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-01-01

    Processing of photonic information usually relies on electronics. Aiming to avoid the conversion between photonic and electronic signals, modulation of light with light based on optical nonlinearity has become a major research field and coherent optical effects on the nanoscale are emerging as new means of handling and distributing signals. Here we demonstrate that in slabs of linear material of sub-wavelength thickness optical manifestations of birefringence and optical activity (linear and circular birefringence and dichroism) can be controlled by a wave coherent with the wave probing the polarization effect. We demonstrate this in proof-of-principle experiments for chiral and anisotropic microwave metamaterials, where we show that the large parameter space of polarization characteristics may be accessed at will by coherent control. Such control can be exerted at arbitrarily low intensities, thus arguably allowing for fast handling of electromagnetic signals without facing thermal management and energy challenges. PMID:25755071

  7. Realization of an all-dielectric zero-index optical metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moitra, Parikshit; Yang, Yuanmu; Anderson, Zachary; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Briggs, Dayrl P.; Valentine, Jason

    2013-10-01

    Metamaterials offer unprecedented flexibility for manipulating the optical properties of matter, including the ability to access negative index, ultrahigh index and chiral optical properties. Recently, metamaterials with near-zero refractive index have attracted much attention. Light inside such materials experiences no spatial phase change and extremely large phase velocity, properties that can be applied for realizing directional emission, tunnelling waveguides, large-area single-mode devices and electromagnetic cloaks. However, at optical frequencies, the previously demonstrated zero- or negative-refractive-index metamaterials have required the use of metallic inclusions, leading to large ohmic loss, a serious impediment to device applications. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an impedance-matched zero-index metamaterial at optical frequencies based on purely dielectric constituents. Formed from stacked silicon-rod unit cells, the metamaterial has a nearly isotropic low-index response for transverse-magnetic polarized light, leading to angular selectivity of transmission and directive emission from quantum dots placed within the material.

  8. All-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Li; Huang, Lirong

    2015-07-07

    The newly introduced metamaterial-based optical circuit, an analogue of electronic circuit, is becoming a forefront topic in the fields of electronics, optics, plasmonics, and metamaterials. However, metals, as the commonly used plasmonic elements in an optical circuit, suffer from large losses at the visible and infrared wavelengths. We propose here a low-loss, all-semiconductor metamaterial-based optical circuit board at the microscale by using interleaved intrinsic GaAs and doped GaAs, and present the detailed design process for various lumped optical circuit elements, including lumped optical inductors, optical capacitors, optical conductors, and optical insulators. By properly combining these optical circuit elements and arranging anisotropic optical connectors, we obtain a subwavelength optical filter, which can always hold band-stop filtering function for various polarization states of the incident electromagnetic wave. All-semiconductor optical circuits may provide a new opportunity in developing low-power and ultrafast components and devices for optical information processing.

  9. Metamaterials: Metamaterials go Gattaca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Andrea R.

    2014-01-01

    DNA tethers guide the self-assembly of colloidal metal nanoparticles into three-dimensional optical metamaterials. The observation of epsilon-near-zero behaviour in nanoparticle-based materials indicates that bottom-up assembly may be a viable solution to current challenges in the manufacture of metamaterials.

  10. Sub-picosecond optical switching with a negative index metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Dani, Keshav M; Upadhya, Prashant C; Zahyum, Ku

    2009-01-01

    Development of all-optical signal processing, eliminating the performance and cost penalties of optical-electrical-optical conversion, is important for continu,ing advances in Terabits/sec (Tb/s) communications.' Optical nonlinearities are generally weak, traditionally requiring long-path, large-area devicesl,2 or very high-Q, narrow-band resonator structures.3 Optical metamaterials offer unique capabilities for optical-optical interactions. Here we report 600 femtosecond (fs) all-optical modulation using a fIShnet (2D-perforated metallamorphous-Si (a-Si)/metal film stack) negative-index meta material with a structurally tunable broad-band response near 1.2 {micro}m. Over 20% modulation (experimentally limited) is achieved in a path length of only 116 nm by photo-excitation of carriers in the a-Si layer. This has the potential for Tb/s aU-optical communication and will lead to other novel, compact, tunable sub-picosecond (ps) photonic devices.

  11. Tuning the Optical Response of Graphene and Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldflam, Michael David

    The following dissertation examines the tunability of two types of proof-of-concept devices centering around post-fabrication modification of the infrared optical response. The first device, created through the hybridization of the metamaterials and the phase-transition oxide vanadium dioxide (VO2), is probed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. We demonstrate that, through application of voltage pulses to this initially uniform device, a gradient in the optical properties can be obtained. This macroscopic control mechanism enables persistent modification of the device, though the hysteretic nature of the VO2 insulator to metal transition (IMT), on spatial scales on the order of a few wavelengths of the probing light. In addition to effects from current-induced heating, we show that the optical response can also be modified through the use of an ionic gel to oxidize or reduce the vanadium ions in VO2, thereby driving its IMT. These measurements also demonstrate the potential for metamaterials as a means of probing metal-to-insulator transitions, allowing for enhanced optical probing of changes in VO2 properties due to electric fields from the ion gel. The second device we explored is a graphene based device used for examining the modification of graphene's plasmonic response in conjunction with the ferroelectric high-? dielectric lead zirconium titanate (PZT) employed as a gate dielectric. By using PZT, the carrier concentration, and therefore the optical properties of graphene, can be heavily modified with small back-gate voltages. Additionally, the use of a ferroelectric dielectric enables a form of memory in the device where transient voltage application leads to persistent changes in graphene properties. Examination of this device using scanning near-field optical microscopy allows us to determine the usefulness of similar devices in future plasmonic device.

  12. Toward optical sensing with hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Tom G.

    2015-06-01

    A possible means of optical sensing, based on a porous hyperbolic material that is infiltrated by a fluid containing an analyte to be sensed, was theoretically investigated. The sensing mechanism relies on the observation that extraordinary plane waves propagate in the infiltrated hyperbolic material only in directions enclosed by a cone aligned with the optic axis of the infiltrated hyperbolic material. The angle this cone subtends to the plane perpendicular to the optic axis is θc. The sensitivity of θc to changes in the refractive index of the infiltrating fluid, namely nb, was explored; also considered were the permittivity parameters and porosity of the hyperbolic material, as well as the shape and size of its pores. Sensitivity was gauged by the derivative dθc/dnb. In parametric numerical studies, values of dθc/dnb in excess of 500 deg per refractive index unit were computed, depending upon the constitutive parameters of the porous hyperbolic material and infiltrating fluid and the nature of the porosity. In particular, it was observed that exceeding large values of dθc/dnb could be attained as the negative-valued eigenvalue of the infiltrated hyperbolic material approached zero.

  13. Tailoring Dispersion for Broadband Low-loss Optical Metamaterials Using Deep-subwavelength Inclusions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi Hao; Yun, Seokho; Lin, Lan; Bossard, Jeremy A.; Werner, Douglas H.; Mayer, Theresa S.

    2013-01-01

    Metamaterials have the potential to create optical devices with new and diverse functionalities based on novel wave phenomena. Most practical optical systems require that the device properties be tightly controlled over a broad wavelength range. However, optical metamaterials are inherently dispersive, which limits operational bandwidths and leads to high absorption losses. Here, we show that deep-subwavelength inclusions can controllably tailor the dispersive properties of an established metamaterial structure thereby producing a broadband low-loss optical device with a desired response. We experimentally verify this by optimizing an array of nano-notch inclusions, which perturb the mode patterns and strength of the primary and secondary fishnet nanostructure resonances and give an optically thin mid-wave-infrared filter with a broad transmissive pass-band and near-constant group delay. This work outlines a powerful new strategy for realizing a wide range of broadband optical devices that exploit the unique properties of metamaterials. PMID:23535875

  14. Exchanging Ohmic Losses in Metamaterial Absorbers with Useful Optical Absorption for Photovoltaics

    PubMed Central

    Vora, Ankit; Gwamuri, Jephias; Pala, Nezih; Kulkarni, Anand; Pearce, Joshua M.; Güney, Durdu Ö.

    2014-01-01

    Using metamaterial absorbers, we have shown that metallic layers in the absorbers do not necessarily constitute undesired resistive heating problem for photovoltaics. Tailoring the geometric skin depth of metals and employing the natural bulk absorbance characteristics of the semiconductors in those absorbers can enable the exchange of undesired resistive losses with the useful optical absorbance in the active semiconductors. Thus, Ohmic loss dominated metamaterial absorbers can be converted into photovoltaic near-perfect absorbers with the advantage of harvesting the full potential of light management offered by the metamaterial absorbers. Based on experimental permittivity data for indium gallium nitride, we have shown that between 75%–95% absorbance can be achieved in the semiconductor layers of the converted metamaterial absorbers. Besides other metamaterial and plasmonic devices, our results may also apply to photodectors and other metal or semiconductor based optical devices where resistive losses and power consumption are important pertaining to the device performance. PMID:24811322

  15. Geometric-optical studies for metamaterial representations of curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Tom H.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2011-10-01

    Metamaterials offer opportunities to explore curved-spacetime scenarios which would otherwise be impractical or impossible to study. These opportunities arise from the formal analogy that exists between light propagation in vacuous curved spacetime and in a certain nonhomogeneous bianisotropic medium, called a Tamm medium. As the science and technology of nanostructured metamaterials continues its rapid development, the practical realization of Tamm mediums is edging ever closer. We considered two particular curved spacetimes associated with: (a) spinning cosmic strings, and (b) the Alcubierre drive. For both examples, a Tamm medium formulation was developed which is asymptotically identical to vacuum and is therefore amenable to physical realization. A study of ray trajectories for both Tamm mediums was undertaken, within the geometric optics regime. For the spinning cosmic string, it was observed that: (i) rays do not cross the string's boundary; (ii) evanescent waves are supported in regions of phase space that correspond to those regions of the string's spacetime wherein closed timelike curves may arise; and (iii) a non-spinning string is nearly invisible whereas a spinning string may be rather more visible. For the Alcubierre drive, it was observed that: (i) ray trajectories are highly sensitive to the magnitude and direction of the warp bubble's velocity, but less sensitive to the thickness of the transition zone between the warp bubble and its background; and (ii) the warp bubble acts as a focusing lens for rays which travel in the same direction as the bubble, especially at high speeds.

  16. Analysis of optical properties of planar metamaterials by calculating multipole moments of their constituent meta-atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, A A; Klimov, Vasilii V; Vladimorova, Yu V; Zadkov, Viktor N

    2013-05-31

    On the basis of calculations of multipole moments of meta-atoms forming a planar metamaterial, a new method is proposed for the quantitative determination of its optical and polarisation properties. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of a planar metamaterial consisting of H-shaped nanoparticles. (metamaterials)

  17. Numerical investigation of a multi-functional optical device based on graphene-silica metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huaiqing; Ren, Guobin; Gao, Yixiao; Zhu, Bofeng; Li, Haisu; Wu, Beilei; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-06-01

    We propose a permittivity-tunable metamaterial channel, which is composed of alternative layers of graphene and silica. Optical waves can pass through the metamaterial channel only if its permittivity is tuned to zero. Taking advantage of the permittivity tunable property of the metamaterial, a multi-functional optical device, which can act as a wavelength demultiplexer, switch, and optical splitter without changing the geometric parameters has been proposed and numerically investigated by using the Finite Element Method. Owing to the permittivity tunable property of graphene, the working wavelength of the multi-functional device can be flexibly controlled by tuning the gate voltage applied on the metamaterial. This tunable ultracompact multi-functional optical device may find potential applications in highly integrated photonic circuits.

  18. Optical activity in planar chiral metamaterials: Theoretical study

    SciTech Connect

    Bai, Benfeng; Svirko, Yuri; Turunen, Jari; Vallius, Tuomas

    2007-08-15

    A thorough theoretical study of the optical activity in planar chiral metamaterial (PCM) structures, made of both dielectric and metallic media, is conducted by the analysis of gammadion-shaped nanoparticle arrays. The general polarization properties are first analyzed from an effective-medium perspective, by analogy with natural optical activity, and then verified by rigorous numerical simulation, some of which are corroborated by previous experimental results. The numerical analysis suggests that giant polarization rotation (tens of degrees) may be achieved in the PCM structures with a thickness of only hundreds of nanometers. The artificial optical activity arises from circular birefringence induced by the structural chirality and is enhanced by the guided-mode or surface-plasmon resonances taking place in the structures. There are two polarization conversion types in the dielectric PCMs, whereas only one type in the metallic ones. Many intriguing features of the polarization property of PCMs are also revealed and explained: the polarization effect is reciprocal and vanishes in the symmetrically layered structures; the effect occurs only in the transmitted field, but not in the reflected field; and the polarization spectra of two enantiomeric PCM structures are mirror symmetric to each other. These remarkable properties pave the way for the PCMs to be used as polarization elements in new-generation integrated optical systems.

  19. Characterization of wave physics in acoustic metamaterials using a fiber optic point detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganye, Randy; Chen, Yongyao; Liu, Haijun; Bae, Hyungdae; Wen, Zhongshan; Yu, Miao

    2016-06-01

    Due to limitations of conventional acoustic probes, full spatial field mapping (both internal and external wave amplitude and phase measurements) in acoustic metamaterials with deep subwavelength structures has not yet been demonstrated. Therefore, many fundamental wave propagation phenomena in acoustic metamaterials remain experimentally unexplored. In this work, we realized a miniature fiber optic acoustic point detector that is capable of omnidirectional detection of complex spatial acoustic fields in various metamaterial structures over a broadband spectrum. By using this probe, we experimentally characterized the wave-structure interactions in an anisotropic metamaterial waveguide. We further demonstrated that the spatial mapping of both internal and external acoustic fields of metamaterial structures can help obtain important wave propagation properties associated with material dispersion and field confinement, and develop an in-depth understanding of the waveguiding physics in metamaterials. The insights and inspirations gained from our experimental studies are valuable not only for the advancement of fundamental metamaterial wave physics but also for the development of functional metamaterial devices such as acoustic lenses, waveguides, and sensors.

  20. Design, Analysis, and Characterization of Metamaterial Quasi-Optical Components for Millimeter-Wave Automotive Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Vinh Ngoc

    Since their introduction by Mercedes Benz in the late 1990s, W-band radars operating at 76-77 GHz have found their way into more and more passenger cars. These automotive radars are typically used in adaptive cruise control, pre-collision sensing, and other driver assistance systems. While these systems are usually only about the size of two stacked cigarette packs, system size, and weight remains a concern for many automotive manufacturers. In this dissertation, I discuss how artificially structured metamaterials can be used to improve lens-based automotive radar systems. Metamaterials allow the fabrication of smaller and lighter systems, while still meeting the frequency, high gain, and cost requirements of this application. In particular, I focus on the development of planar artificial dielectric lenses suitable for use in place of the injection-molded lenses now used in many automotive radar systems. I begin by using analytic and numerical ray-tracing to compare the performance of planar metamaterial GRIN lenses to equivalent aspheric refractive lenses. I do this to determine whether metamaterials are best employed in GRIN or refractive automotive radar lenses. Through this study I find that planar GRIN lenses with the large refractive index ranges enabled by metamaterials have approximately optically equivalent performance to equivalent refractive lenses for fields of view approaching +/-20°. I also find that the uniaxial nature of most planar metamaterials does not negatively impact planar GRIN lens performance. I then turn my attention to implementing these planar GRIN lenses at W-band automotive radar frequencies. I begin by designing uniform sheets of W-band electrically-coupled LC resonator-based metamaterials. These metamaterial samples were fabricated by the Jokerst research group on glass and liquid crystal polymer (LCP) substrates and tested at Toyota Research Institute- North America (TRI-NA). When characterized at W-band frequencies, these

  1. Weaving the invisible thread: design of an optically invisible metamaterial fibre.

    PubMed

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Chen, Parry Y; Fleming, Simon C

    2010-08-16

    We present the design of an invisible metamaterial fibre operating at optical frequencies, which could be fabricated by adapting existing fibre drawing techniques. The invisibility is realised by matching the refractive index of the metamaterial fibre with the surroundings. We present a general recipe for the fabrication of such fibres, and numerically characterise a specific example using hexagonally arranged silver nanowires in a silica background. We find that invisibility is highly sensitive to details of the metamaterial boundary, a problem that is likely to affect most invisibility and cloaking schemes. PMID:20721197

  2. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wolf, Omri; Allerman, Andrew A.; Ma, Xuedan; Wendt, Joel R.; Song, Alex Y.; Shaner, Eric A.; Brener, Igal

    2015-10-15

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance, by more than two orders of magnitude, the optical second harmonic generation, in the near infrared, obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators’ cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a new class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  3. Features of hyperbolic metamaterials with extremal optical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurilkina, S. N.; Binhussain, M. A.; Belyi, V. N.; Kazak, N. S.

    2016-08-01

    The possibility is shown and conditions are found for the realization of the type I or II epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials based on a multilayer metal-dielectric structure. It is found that, for both propagating and evanescent extraordinary waves, diffraction-free energy transportation occurs with low losses within narrow channels inside the type I ENZ metamaterial on the basis of such a structure. The research presents the possibility of forming the type II ENZ metamaterial inside the two kinds of propagating light waves for which the amplitude decays from the boundary and the phase fronts move away from and towards the boundary of the metamaterial, respectively. The interaction between Gaussian light beams and metamaterials with extremal characteristics is theoretically investigated. The prospect of the practical application of these media is considered.

  4. Gold nanostructures using tobacco mosaic viruses for optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Mime; Yamashita, Ichiro; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Shiba, Kiyotaka; Tomita, Satoshi

    2011-05-01

    We have succeeded in aligning gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in three-dimensions using tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in order to realize new optical properties. TMV is a tube-shaped plant virus about 300 nm in length with an outer- and inner-diameter of 18 nm and 4 nm. We genetically fused material-binding peptides that can promote metal crystallization, namely a gold-binding peptide (GBP) and a titanium-binding peptide (TBP), to the outer-surface of TMV. By reducing potassium chloroaurate with sodium borohydride in the presence of the engineered viruses in 5% acetic acid solution, Au NPs were deposited on the outer-surface of the viruses. Using TBP-fused TMV, NPs of 5 nm were obtained, with a standard deviation smaller than those deposited on wild-type TMV. The diameter of the NPs on GBP-fused TMV was 10 nm. These results indicate that genetically-modified TMVs are promising templates for the construction of optical metamaterials.

  5. Second-order nonlinear optical metamaterials: ABC-type nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, L. Kieninger, C.; Lauermann, M.; Köhnle, K.; Froelich, A.; Wegener, M.; Frenzel, T.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.; Koos, C.

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate a concept for second-order nonlinear metamaterials that can be obtained from non-metallic centrosymmetric constituents with inherently low optical absorption. The concept is based on iterative atomic-layer deposition of three different materials, A = Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, B = TiO{sub 2}, and C = HfO{sub 2}. The centrosymmetry of the resulting ABC stack is broken since the ABC and the inverted CBA sequences are not equivalent—a necessary condition for non-zero second-order nonlinearity. In our experiments, we find that the bulk second-order nonlinear susceptibility depends on the density of interfaces, leading to a nonlinear susceptibility of 0.26 pm/V at a wavelength of 800 nm. ABC-type nanolaminates can be deposited on virtually any substrate and offer a promising route towards engineering of second-order optical nonlinearities at both infrared and visible wavelengths.

  6. Second-harmonic generation from atomic-scale ABC-type laminate optical metamaterials (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alloatti, Luca; Kieninger, Clemens M.; Frölich, Andreas M.; Lauermann, Matthias; Frenzel, Tobias; Köhnle, Kira; Freude, Wolfgang; Leuthold, Juerg; Koos, Christian; Wegener, Martin

    2015-09-01

    [invited] We introduce ABC laminate metamaterials composed of layers of three different dielectrics. Each layer has zero bulk second-order optical nonlinearity, yet centro-symmetry is broken locally at each inner interface. To achieve appreciable effective bulk metamaterial second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities, we densely pack many inner surfaces to a stack of atomically thin layers grown by conformal atomic-layer deposition. For the ABC stack, centro-symmetry is also broken macroscopically. Our experimental results for excitation at around 800 nm wavelength indicate interesting application perspectives for frequency conversion or electro-optic modulation in silicon photonics.

  7. Material parameter retrieval procedure for general bi-isotropic metamaterials and its application to optical chiral negative-index metamaterial design.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Do-Hoon; Werner, Douglas H; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2008-08-01

    A chiral optical negative-index metamaterial design of doubly periodic construction for the near-infrared spectrum is presented. The chirality is realized by incorporating sub-wavelength planar silver-aluminasilver resonators and arranging them in a left-handed helical (i.e., stair-step) configuration as a wave propagates through the metamaterial. An effective material parameter retrieval procedure is developed for general bi-isotropic metamaterials. A numerical design example is presented and the retrieved effective material parameters exhibiting a negative index of refraction are provided. PMID:18679454

  8. Acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Zhou; Guo, Xiasheng Tu, Juan; Ma, Qingyu; Wu, Junru; Zhang, Dong

    2015-03-14

    The acoustic non-diffracting Airy beam as its optical counterpart has unique features of self-bending and self-healing. The complexity of most current designs handicaps its applications. A simple design of an acoustic source capable of generating multi-frequency and broad-band acoustic Airy beam has been theoretically demonstrated by numerical simulations. In the design, a piston transducer is corrugated to induce spatial phase variation for transducing the Airy function. The piston's surface is grooved in a pattern that the width of each groove corresponds to the half wavelength of Airy function. The resulted frequency characteristics and its dependence on the size of the piston source are also discussed. This simple design may promote the wide applications of acoustic Airy beam particularly in the field of medical ultrasound.

  9. Tailoring alphabetical metamaterials in optical frequency: plasmonic coupling, dispersion, and sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Cuong; Xu, Xinlong; Liow, Chihao; Li, Shuzhou; Tan, Pingheng; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-04-22

    Tailoring optical properties of artificial metamaterials, whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional and naturally occurring materials, is of importance in fundamental research and has led to many important applications such as security imaging, invisible cloak, negative refraction, ultrasensitive sensing, and transformable and switchable optics. Herein, by precisely controlling the size, symmetry, and topology of alphabetical metamaterials with U, S, Y, H, U-bar, and V shapes, we have obtained highly tunable optical response covering visible-to-infrared (vis-NIR) optical frequency. In addition, we show a detailed study on the physical origin of resonance modes, plasmonic coupling, the dispersion of resonance modes, and the possibility of negative refraction. We have found that all the electronic and magnetic modes follow the dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons; thus, essentially they are electronic- and magnetic-surface-plasmon-polaritons-like (ESPP-like and MSPP-like) modes resulted from diffraction coupling between localized surface plasmon and freely propagating light. On the basis of the fill factor and formula of magnetism permeability, we predict that the alphabetical metamaterials should show the negative refraction capability in visible optical frequency. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the specific ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing of monolayer molecules and femtomolar food contaminants by tuning their resonance to match the laser wavelength, or by tuning the laser wavelength to match the plasmon resonance of metamaterials. Our tunable alphabetical metamaterials provide a generic platform to study the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials and explore the novel applications in optical frequency. PMID:24670107

  10. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shorokhov, Alexander S; Okhlopkov, Kirill I; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial's χ((3)) was observed; the all-optical χ((3)) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm(2). PMID:27335268

  11. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a newmore » class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.« less

  12. Optical Strong Coupling between near-Infrared Metamaterials and Intersubband Transitions in III-Nitride Heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Benz, Alexander; Campione, Salvatore; Moseley, Michael W.; Wierer, Jonathan J.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Brener, Igal

    2014-08-25

    We present the design, realization, and characterization of optical strong light–matter coupling between intersubband transitions within a semiconductor heterostructures and planar metamaterials in the near-infrared spectral range. The strong light–matter coupling entity consists of a III-nitride intersubband superlattice heterostructure, providing a two-level system with a transition energy of ~0.8 eV (λ ~1.55 μm) and a planar “dogbone” metamaterial structure. Furthermore, as the bare metamaterial resonance frequency is varied across the intersubband resonance, a clear anticrossing behavior is observed in the frequency domain. We found that this strongly coupled entity could enable the realization of electrically tunable optical filters, a new class of efficient nonlinear optical materials, or intersubband-based light-emitting diodes.

  13. Micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Chengkuo; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Huang, Chia-Yi

    2014-04-14

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically tunable metamaterial with enhanced electro-optical performance by increasing the number of movable cantilevers in the symmetrical split ring resonator metamaterial unit cell. Simulations were carried out to understand the interaction of the incident terahertz radiation with out-of-plane deforming metamaterial resonator. In order to improve the overall device performance, the number of released cantilever in a unit cell was increased from one to two, and it was seen that the tunable range was doubled and the switching contrast improved by a factor of around five at 0.7 THz. This simple design approach can be adopted for a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches to enable future photonic circuit applications.

  14. Holographic generation of non-diffractive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Choi, Dawoon; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Kyookeun; Kim, Kyoung-Youm

    2014-11-01

    An Airy beam is a non-diffractive wave which propagates along a ballistic trajectory without any external force. Although it is impossible to implement ideal Airy beams because they carry infinite power, so-called finite Airy beams can be achieved by tailoring infinite side lobes with an aperture function and they have similar propagating characteristics with those of ideal Airy beams. The finite Airy beam can be optically generated by several ways: the optical Fourier transform system with imposing cubic phase to a broad Gaussian beam, nonlinear generation of Airy beams, curved plasma channel generation, and electron beam generation. In this presentation, a holographic generation of the finite Airy beams will be discussed. The finite Airy beams can be generated in virtue of holographic technique by `reading' a hologram which is recorded by the interference between a finite Airy beam generated by the optical Fourier transform and a reference plane wave. Moreover, this method can exploit the unique features of holography itself such as successful reconstruction with the imperfect incidence of reference beam, reconstruction of phase-conjugated signal beam, and multiplexing, which can shed more light on the characteristics of finite Airy beams. This method has an advantage in that once holograms are recorded in the photopolymer, a bulky optics such as the SLM and lenses are not necessary to generate Airy beams. In addition, multiple Airy beams can be stored and reconstructed simultaneously or individually.

  15. 3D optical metamaterials formed by holographic assembly and directed solidification of eutectics (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Paul V.

    2015-09-01

    Nanoscale integration of materials in three dimensions is critical for the realization of a number of highly functional optical metamaterials. Starting with structures enabled via eutectic solidification and holographic lithography, our team is applying unique template-based and post-synthetic materials transformations in conjunction with powerful computational design tools to develop the scientific underpinnings of, and to produce, 3D metamaterials derived from directionally solidified eutectics. Our approach involves close interactions among computational design, photonic theory, eutectic materials development, template fabrication, materials chemistry, and optical characterization.

  16. Elevating optical activity: Efficient on-edge lithography of three-dimensional starfish metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Dietrich, K. Menzel, C.; Lehr, D.; Puffky, O.; Pertsch, T.; Tünnermann, A.; Kley, E.-B.; Hübner, U.

    2014-05-12

    We present an approach for extremely fast, wafer-scale fabrication of chiral starfish metamaterials based on electron beam- and on-edge lithography. A millimeter sized array of both the planar chiral and the true 3D chiral starfish is realized, and their chiroptical performances are compared by circular dichroism measurements. We find optical activity in the visible and near-infrared spectral range, where the 3D starfish clearly outperforms the planar design by almost 2 orders of magnitude, though fabrication efforts are only moderately increased. The presented approach is capable of bridging the gap between high performance optical chiral metamaterials and industrial production by nanoimprint technology.

  17. Hydrogen sensing via anomalous optical absorption of palladium-based metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A.; Leite, I. T.; Rocha-Rodrigues, P.; Fernandes, P.; Araujo, J. P.; Jorge, P. A. S.; Santos, J. L.; Teixeira, J. M.; Guerreiro, A.

    2016-05-01

    A palladium (Pd)-based optical metamaterial has been designed, fabricated and characterized for its application in hydrogen sensing. The metamaterial can replace Pd thin films in optical transmission schemes for sensing with performances far superior to those of conventional sensors. This artificial material consists of a palladium-alumina metamaterial fabricated using inexpensive and industrial-friendly bottom-up techniques. During the exposure to hydrogen, the system exhibits anomalous optical absorption when compared to the well-known response of Pd thin films, this phenomenon being the key factor for the sensor sensitivity. The exposure to hydrogen produces a large variation in the light transmission through the metamembrane (more than 30% with 4% in volume hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixture at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), thus avoiding the need for sophisticated optical detection systems. An optical homogenization model is proposed to explain the metamaterial response. These results contribute to the development of reliable and low-cost hydrogen sensors with potential applications in the hydrogen economy and industrial processes to name a few, and also open the door to optically study the hydrogen diffusion processes in Pd nanostructures.

  18. Hydrogen sensing via anomalous optical absorption of palladium-based metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A; Leite, I T; Rocha-Rodrigues, P; Fernandes, P; Araujo, J P; Jorge, P A S; Santos, J L; Teixeira, J M; Guerreiro, A

    2016-05-01

    A palladium (Pd)-based optical metamaterial has been designed, fabricated and characterized for its application in hydrogen sensing. The metamaterial can replace Pd thin films in optical transmission schemes for sensing with performances far superior to those of conventional sensors. This artificial material consists of a palladium-alumina metamaterial fabricated using inexpensive and industrial-friendly bottom-up techniques. During the exposure to hydrogen, the system exhibits anomalous optical absorption when compared to the well-known response of Pd thin films, this phenomenon being the key factor for the sensor sensitivity. The exposure to hydrogen produces a large variation in the light transmission through the metamembrane (more than 30% with 4% in volume hydrogen-nitrogen gas mixture at room temperature and atmospheric pressure), thus avoiding the need for sophisticated optical detection systems. An optical homogenization model is proposed to explain the metamaterial response. These results contribute to the development of reliable and low-cost hydrogen sensors with potential applications in the hydrogen economy and industrial processes to name a few, and also open the door to optically study the hydrogen diffusion processes in Pd nanostructures. PMID:27003717

  19. Electron optics of nanoplasmonic metamaterials in bio/opto theranostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roper, D. Keith; DeJarnette, Drew; Forcherio, Gregory T.; Dunklin, Jeremy; Berry, Keith; Jang, Gyoung G.; Lisunova, Milana; Blake, Phillip; Ahn, Wonmi

    2014-08-01

    Opto-electronic coupling of plasmonic nano-antennas in the near infrared water window in vitro and in vivo is of growing interest for imaging contrast agents, spectroscopic labels and rulers, biosensing, drug-delivery, and optoplasmonic ablation. Metamaterials composed of nanoplasmonic meta-atoms offer improved figures of merit in many applications across a broader spectral window. Discrete and coupled dipole approximations effectively describe localized and coupled resonance modes in nanoplasmonic metamaterials. From numeric and experimental results have emerged four design principles to guide fabrication and implementation of metamaterials in bio-related devices and systems. Resonance intensity and sensitivity are enhanced by surface-to-mass of meta-atoms and lattice constant. Fano resonant coupling is dependent on meta-atom polarizability and lattice geometry. Internal reflection in plasmonic metaatom- containing polymer films enhances dissipation rate. Dimensions of self-assembled meta-atoms depend on balancing electrochemical and surface forces. Examples of these principles from our lab compare computation with images and spectra from ordered metal-ceramic and polymeric nanocomposite metamaterials for bio/opto theranostic applications. These principles speed design and description of new architectures for nanoplasmonic metamaterials that show promise for bioapplications.

  20. Non-diffracting speckles of a perfect vortex beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangi Reddy, Salla; P, Chithrabhanu; Vaity, Pravin; Aadhi, A.; Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R. P.

    2016-05-01

    We generate perfect optical vortex (POV) beams, whose intensity distribution is independent of the order, and scatter them through a rough surface. We show that the size of produced speckles is independent of the order of the POV and their Fourier transform gives the random non-diffracting fields. The invariant size of speckles over the free space propagation verifies their non-diffracting or non-diverging nature. The size of speckles can be easily controlled by changing the axicon parameter, used to generate the Bessel-Gauss beams whose Fourier transform provides the POV. These results may be useful in applications of POV for authentication in cryptography.

  1. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guddala, Sriram; Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-01

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm2.

  2. Thermally induced nonlinear optical absorption in metamaterial perfect absorbers

    SciTech Connect

    Guddala, Sriram Kumar, Raghwendra; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2015-03-16

    A metamaterial perfect absorber consisting of a tri-layer (Al/ZnS/Al) metal-dielectric-metal system with top aluminium nano-disks was fabricated by laser-interference lithography and lift-off processing. The metamaterial absorber had peak resonant absorbance at 1090 nm and showed nonlinear absorption for 600ps laser pulses at 1064 nm wavelength. A nonlinear saturation of reflectance was measured to be dependent on the average laser power incident and not the peak laser intensity. The nonlinear behaviour is shown to arise from the heating due to the absorbed radiation and photo-thermal changes in the dielectric properties of aluminium. The metamaterial absorber is seen to be damage resistant at large laser intensities of 25 MW/cm{sup 2}.

  3. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio −1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio −1 and −∞, respectively. PMID:24522287

  4. A versatile smart transformation optics device with auxetic elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Lim, Donghwan; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R

    2014-01-01

    Synergistic integration of electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical properties of metamaterials, a concept known as smart metamaterials, promises new applications across the spectrum, from flexible waveguides to shape-conforming cloaks. These applications became possible thanks to smart transformation optics (STO), a design methodology that utilizes coordinate transformations to control both EM wave propagation and mechanical deformation of the device. Here, we demonstrate several STO devices based on extremely auxetic (Poisson ratio -1) elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials, both of which exhibit enormous flexibility and sustain efficient operation upon a wide range of deformations. Spatial maps of microwave electric fields across these devices confirm our ability to deform carpet cloaks, bent waveguides, and potentially other quasi-conformal TO-based devices operating at 7 ~ 8 GHz. These devices are each fabricated from a single sheet of initially uniform (double-periodic) square-lattice metamaterial, which acquires the necessary distribution of effective permittivity entirely from the mechanical deformation of its boundary. By integrating transformation optics and continuum mechanics theory, we provide analytical derivations for the design of STO devices. Additionally, we clarify an important point relating to two-dimensional STO devices: the difference between plane stress and plane strain assumptions, which lead to elastic metamaterials with Poisson ratio -1 and -∞, respectively. PMID:24522287

  5. Optical properties of two-dimensional metamaterial photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Mejía-Salazar, J. R.

    2013-12-14

    In the present work, we theoretically study a 2D photonic crystal (PC) comprised by double negative (DNG) metamaterial cylinders, showing that such a system presents a superior light-matter interaction when compared with their single negative (SNG) plasmonic PC counterparts, suggesting a route to enhance the performance of sensors and photovoltaic cells. On the other hand, we have observed that depending on the frequency, the mode symmetry resembles either the case of SNG electric (SNG-E) or SNG magnetic (SNG-M) PC, suggesting that either the electric or magnetic character of the DNG metamaterial dominates in each case.

  6. Twisted split-ring-resonator photonic metamaterial with huge optical activity.

    PubMed

    Decker, M; Zhao, R; Soukoulis, C M; Linden, S; Wegener, M

    2010-05-15

    Coupled split-ring-resonator metamaterials have previously been shown to exhibit large coupling effects, which are a prerequisite for obtaining large effective optical activity. By a suitable lateral arrangement of these building blocks, we completely eliminate linear birefringence and obtain pure optical activity and connected circular optical dichroism. Experiments around a 100 THz frequency and corresponding modeling are in good agreement. Rotation angles of about 30 degrees for 205 nm sample thickness are derived. PMID:20479819

  7. Parallel fabrication of wafer-scale plasmonic metamaterials for nano-optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, S.; Gibbs, J. G.; Mark, A. G.; Lee, T. C.; Jeong, H.-H.; Kim, I.; Fischer, P.

    2015-03-01

    We describe how physical vapor deposition coupled with micelle-nanolithography-seeded substrates permits the growth of metamaterials with 3D structural and material control at the nanoscale. Novel plasmonic hybrid structures with tuned optical response from the UV to the near IR are demonstrated.

  8. Optically induced metal-to-dielectric transition in Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaipurath, R. M.; Pietrzyk, M.; Caspani, L.; Roger, T.; Clerici, M.; Rizza, C.; Ciattoni, A.; di Falco, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-06-01

    Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and imaginary parts in crossing the ENZ wavelength, further supporting an optically induced change in the physical behaviour of the metamaterial.

  9. Optically induced metal-to-dielectric transition in Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kaipurath, R M; Pietrzyk, M; Caspani, L; Roger, T; Clerici, M; Rizza, C; Ciattoni, A; Di Falco, A; Faccio, D

    2016-01-01

    Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and imaginary parts in crossing the ENZ wavelength, further supporting an optically induced change in the physical behaviour of the metamaterial. PMID:27292270

  10. Optically induced metal-to-dielectric transition in Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kaipurath, R. M.; Pietrzyk, M.; Caspani, L.; Roger, T.; Clerici, M.; Rizza, C.; Ciattoni, A.; Di Falco, A.; Faccio, D.

    2016-01-01

    Epsilon-Near-Zero materials exhibit a transition in the real part of the dielectric permittivity from positive to negative value as a function of wavelength. Here we study metal-dielectric layered metamaterials in the homogenised regime (each layer has strongly subwavelength thickness) with zero real part of the permittivity in the near-infrared region. By optically pumping the metamaterial we experimentally show that close to the Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) wavelength the permittivity exhibits a marked transition from metallic (negative permittivity) to dielectric (positive permittivity) as a function of the optical power. Remarkably, this transition is linear as a function of pump power and occurs on time scales of the order of the 100 fs pump pulse that need not be tuned to a specific wavelength. The linearity of the permittivity increase allows us to express the response of the metamaterial in terms of a standard third order optical nonlinearity: this shows a clear inversion of the roles of the real and imaginary parts in crossing the ENZ wavelength, further supporting an optically induced change in the physical behaviour of the metamaterial. PMID:27292270

  11. Transformation optics and metamaterials at infrared wavelength: engineering of permittivity and permeability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Rasta; Degiron, Aloyse; Leroux, Xavier; Lupu, Anatole; de Lustrac, André

    2013-05-01

    The transformation optics was introduced by J. Pendry and U. Leonhardt in 2006 [1,2]. In this method an initial space is transformed into a new space and this transformed space can be materialized by a material, which the electromagnetic parameters can be deduced from the metric of the transformed space. In the general case the electromagnetic parameters are anisotropic tensors. At microwave frequencies these materials can be realized using classical metamaterials like SRR form J. Pendry or ELC from D. Smith [3]. At infrared wavelengths this realization is a challenge because the dimensions of the metamaterials are much smaller than the wavelength and become nanometric. Then the design of these metamaterials must be simplified and original methods must be developed to allow the realization of these metamaterials with controlled electromagnetic properties. In this paper we describe the realization of a multilayer metamaterial working at infrared wavelength, which the permittivity and the permeability can be adjusted separately. We give some examples of realized multilayer materials operating around 150THz, with a comparison between the results of full wave simulations of these materials and their characterizations using a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer.

  12. Quasi-conformal transformation optics with elasto-electromagnetic metamaterials: Design algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Seo, Ilsung; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-07-01

    We report here a design method that is used to determine the initial shapes of elasto-electromagnetic metamaterial blocks with respect to the given shape of a hiding object when these blocks are applied to the problem of carpet cloaking. Starting from the inhomogeneous permittivity distribution of a cloak, derived using transformation optics, we use an inverse process to design the initial shape of a uniform permittivity material for an arbitrary value of Poisson's ratio in the range from -1 to 0.5. Then, by elastic compression of the initially uniform metamaterial, we obtain the inhomogeneous permittivity distribution that is required for cloaking. Our design method is then experimentally verified by measurements of the electric field profiles in smart metamaterial cloaks.

  13. Binary alloy of virus capsids and gold nanoparticles as a Mie-resonance-based optical metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yannopapas, Vassilios

    2015-02-01

    We present a metamaterial design based on a binary alloy of gold nanoparticles and virus capsids (protein nanoparticles) which possesses metamaterial functionalities in the optical regime. Such binary alloys have already been realized in the laboratory by means of DNA-programmed crystallization of metallic nanoparticles and virus capsids with suitable DNA linkers. The resulting binary alloy has a NaTl-lattice symmetry and operates as Mie resonance-based metamaterial thanks to the extremely high values of the electric permittivity of the virus capsids. By employing an effective-medium theory and rigorous electrodynamic calculations we identify regions of photo-induced magnetic activity stemming from the Mie resonances of the virus capsids. The magnetic activity of the virus particles accompanied by the ordinary electric activity of the gold nanoparticles results in spectral regions of negative refractive index which can be tuned to a desired spectral window by varying the concentration of the RNA within the virus capsids.

  14. Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, James; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2016-02-22

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials and detectors in order to operate simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. Each distinct waveband must be detected at different spatial locations on a single chip or by separate chips optimised for each band. Here, we report on a single component that optically multiplexes visible, Mid Infrared (4.5 μm) and Terahertz (126 μm) radiation thereby maximising the spectral information density. We hybridise plasmonic and metamaterial structures to form a device capable of simultaneously filtering 15 visible wavelengths and absorbing Mid Infrared and Terahertz. Our synthetic multi-spectral component could be integrated with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology where Si photodiodes are available to detect the visible radiation and micro-bolometers available to detect the Infrared/Terahertz and render an inexpensive, mass-producible camera capable of forming coaxial visible, Infrared and Terahertz images. PMID:26907004

  15. Amplitude and phase-resolved measurements of optical metamaterials in the mid-infrared by phase matched electro-optic sampling.

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Brener, Igal; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Wendt, Joel Robert; Bender, Daniel A.; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2010-03-01

    We describe a time-domain spectroscopy system in the thermal infrared used for complete transmission and reflection characterization of metamaterials in amplitude and phase. The system uses a triple-output near-infrared ultrafast fiber laser, phase-locked difference frequency generation and phase-matched electro-optic sampling. We will present measurements of several metamaterials designs.

  16. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2.

  17. Ultrafast control of third-order optical nonlinearities in fishnet metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Shorokhov, Alexander S.; Okhlopkov, Kirill I.; Reinhold, Jörg; Helgert, Christian; Shcherbakov, Maxim R.; Pertsch, Thomas; Fedyanin, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Nonlinear photonic nanostructures that allow efficient all-optical switching are considered to be a prospective platform for novel building blocks in photonics. We performed time-resolved measurements of the photoinduced transient third-order nonlinear optical response of a fishnet metamaterial. The mutual influence of two non-collinear pulses exciting the magnetic resonance of the metamaterial was probed by detecting the third-harmonic radiation as a function of the time delay between pulses. Subpicosecond-scale dynamics of the metamaterial’s χ(3) was observed; the all-optical χ(3) modulation depth was found to be approximately 70% at a pump fluence of only 20 μJ/cm2. PMID:27335268

  18. Optically and thermally controlled terahertz metamaterial via transition between direct and indirect electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Jiawei Feng, Ls

    2014-12-15

    This passage presents a design of tunable terahertz metamaterials via transition between indirect and direct electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects by changing semiconductor InSb’s properties to terahertz wave under optical and thermal stimuli. Mechanical model and its electrical circuit model are utilized in analytically calculating maximum transmission of transparency window. Simulated results show consistency with the analytical expressions. The results show that the metamaterials hold 98.4% modulation depth at 189 GHz between 300 K, σ{sub InSb} =256000 S/m, and 80 K, σ{sub InSb} =0.0162 S/m conditions , 1360 ps recovery time of the excited electrons in InSb under optical stimulus at 300 K mainly considering the direct EIT effect, and minimum bandwidth 1 GHz.

  19. Magnetoelastic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V; Powell, David A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2012-01-01

    The study of advanced artificial electromagnetic materials, known as metamaterials, provides a link from material science to theoretical and applied electrodynamics, as well as to electrical engineering. Being initially intended mainly to achieve negative refraction, the concept of metamaterials quickly covered a much broader range of applications, from microwaves to optics and even acoustics. In particular, nonlinear metamaterials established a new research direction giving rise to fruitful ideas for tunable and active artificial materials. Here we introduce the concept of magnetoelastic metamaterials, where a new type of nonlinear response emerges from mutual interaction. This is achieved by providing a mechanical degree of freedom so that the electromagnetic interaction in the metamaterial lattice is coupled to elastic interaction. This enables the electromagnetically induced forces to change the metamaterial structure, dynamically tuning its effective properties. This concept leads to a new generation of metamaterials, and can be compared to such fundamental concepts of modern physics as optomechanics of photonic structures or magnetoelasticity in magnetic materials. PMID:22081080

  20. Non-local Optical Topological Transitions and Critical States in Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Satoshi; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2015-12-01

    Just as the topology of the Fermi surface defines the properties of the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, the geometry of the iso-frequency surface in the phase space of the propagating electromagnetic waves, determines the optical properties of the corresponding optical materials. Furthermore, in the direct analog to the Lifshitz transition in condensed matter physics, a change in the topology of iso-frequency surface has a dramatic effect on the emission, propagation and scattering of the electromagnetic waves. Here, we uncover a new class of such optical topological transitions in metamaterials, induced by the non-locality of the electromagnetic response inherent to these composites.

  1. Non-local Optical Topological Transitions and Critical States in Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Satoshi; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2015-01-01

    Just as the topology of the Fermi surface defines the properties of the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, the geometry of the iso-frequency surface in the phase space of the propagating electromagnetic waves, determines the optical properties of the corresponding optical materials. Furthermore, in the direct analog to the Lifshitz transition in condensed matter physics, a change in the topology of iso-frequency surface has a dramatic effect on the emission, propagation and scattering of the electromagnetic waves. Here, we uncover a new class of such optical topological transitions in metamaterials, induced by the non-locality of the electromagnetic response inherent to these composites. PMID:26670600

  2. Non-local Optical Topological Transitions and Critical States in Electromagnetic Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Satoshi; Narimanov, Evgenii

    2015-01-01

    Just as the topology of the Fermi surface defines the properties of the free electrons in metals and semiconductors, the geometry of the iso-frequency surface in the phase space of the propagating electromagnetic waves, determines the optical properties of the corresponding optical materials. Furthermore, in the direct analog to the Lifshitz transition in condensed matter physics, a change in the topology of iso-frequency surface has a dramatic effect on the emission, propagation and scattering of the electromagnetic waves. Here, we uncover a new class of such optical topological transitions in metamaterials, induced by the non-locality of the electromagnetic response inherent to these composites. PMID:26670600

  3. Metamaterials with tunable refractive index fabricated from amorphous ferromagnetic microwires and optical Magnus effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Andrey; Vedyayev, Anatoly; Galkin, Vladimir; Shalygin, Alexander; Ivanov, Valery

    2009-03-01

    For homogeneous NPVM (negative phase--velocity mediums) [V. G. Veselago, Soviet Physics - Uspekhi 10 (1968) 509; T. G. Mackay, A. Lakhtakia, Phys. Rev. E 69 (2004) 026602] anomalous effects such as negative refraction, light pressure, Doppler shift, Cherenkov-Vavilov radiation, Goos-Hanchen effect have been discovered in different frequency ranges. In this presentation the optical circular polarized effect is calculated for inhomogeneous mediums (optical Magnus effect) and it is shown that it is anomalous in NPVM with respect to ``right-handed'' materials. The proposed metamaterials fabricated from glass coated amorphous ferromagnetic Co-Fe-Cr-B-Si microwires are shown to exhibit a negative refractive index for electromagnetic waves over scale of GHz frequencies [A.V. Ivanov, A.N. Shalygin, A.V. Vedyayev, V.A. Ivanov, JETP Letters 85 (2007) 565]. The magnetostatic interaction between microwires has been taken into account. The phase and group velocities in proposed metamaterial have been calculated. The ratio of thereof depends monotonically on the size of the microwires. Optical properties of such metamaterials are tunable by an external magnetic field and mechanical stress.

  4. Design of 3D isotropic metamaterial device using smart transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Kim, Junhyun; Yoo, Do-Sik; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2015-08-24

    We report here a design method for a 3 dimensional (3D) isotropic transformation optical device using smart transformation optics. Inspired by solid mechanics, smart transformation optics regards a transformation optical medium as an elastic solid and deformations as coordinate transformations. Further developing from our previous work on 2D smart transformation optics, we introduce a method of 3D smart transformation optics to design 3D transformation optical devices by maintaining isotropic materials properties for all types of polarizations imposing free or nearly free boundary conditions. Due to the material isotropy, it is possible to fabricate such devices with structural metamaterials made purely of common dielectric materials. In conclusion, the practical importance of the method reported here lies in the fact that it enables us to fabricate, without difficulty, arbitrarily shaped 3D devices with existing 3D printing technology. PMID:26368165

  5. Multipolar Effects in the Optical Active Second Harmonic Generation from Sawtooth Chiral Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Huimin; Guo, Yuxiang; Gao, Wensheng; Ma, Jie; Zhong, Yongchun; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C. T.; Wong, Kam Sing

    2016-02-01

    Based on the facts that chiral molecules response differently to left- and right-handed circular polarized light, chiroptical effects are widely employed for determining structure chirality, detecting enantiomeric excess, or controlling chemical reactions of molecules. Compared to those in natural materials, chiroptical behaviors can be significantly amplified in chiral plasmonic metamaterials due to the concentrated local fields in the structure. The on-going research towards giant chiroptical effects in metamaterial generally focus on optimizing the field-enhancement effects. However, the observed chiroptical effects in metamaterials rely on more complicated factors and various possibilities towards giant chiroptical effects remains unexplored. Here we study the optical-active second harmonic generation (SHG) behaviors in a pair of planar sawtooth gratings with mirror-imaged patterns. Significant multipolar effects were observed in the polarization-dependent SHG curves. We show that the chirality of the nanostructure not only give rise to nonzero chiral susceptibility tensor components within the electric-dipole approximation, but also lead to different levels of multipolar interactions for the two orthogonal circular polarizations that further enhance the nonlinear optical activity of the material. Our results thus indicate novel ways to optimize nonlinear plasmonic structures and achieve giant chiroptical response via multipolar interactions.

  6. Emission wavelength tuning of fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance.

    PubMed

    Moritake, Y; Kanamori, Y; Hane, K

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrated fine emission wavelength tuning of quantum dot (QD) fluorescence by fine structural control of optical metamaterials with Fano resonance. An asymmetric-double-bar (ADB), which was composed of only two bars with slightly different bar lengths, was used to obtain Fano resonance in the optical region. By changing the short bar length of ADB structures with high dimensional accuracy in the order of 10 nm, resonant wavelengths of Fano resonance were controlled from 1296 to 1416 nm. Fluorescence of QDs embedded in a polymer layer on ADB metamaterials were modified due to coupling to Fano resonance and fine tuning from 1350 to 1376 nm was observed. Wavelength tuning of modified fluorescence was reproduced by analysis using absorption peaks of Fano resonance. Tuning range of modified fluorescence became narrow, which was interpreted by a simple Gaussian model and resulted from comparable FWHM in QD fluorescence and Fano resonant peaks. The results will help the design and fabrication of metamaterial devices with fluorophores such as light sources and biomarkers. PMID:27622503

  7. Multipolar Effects in the Optical Active Second Harmonic Generation from Sawtooth Chiral Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Su, Huimin; Guo, Yuxiang; Gao, Wensheng; Ma, Jie; Zhong, Yongchun; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C T; Wong, Kam Sing

    2016-01-01

    Based on the facts that chiral molecules response differently to left- and right-handed circular polarized light, chiroptical effects are widely employed for determining structure chirality, detecting enantiomeric excess, or controlling chemical reactions of molecules. Compared to those in natural materials, chiroptical behaviors can be significantly amplified in chiral plasmonic metamaterials due to the concentrated local fields in the structure. The on-going research towards giant chiroptical effects in metamaterial generally focus on optimizing the field-enhancement effects. However, the observed chiroptical effects in metamaterials rely on more complicated factors and various possibilities towards giant chiroptical effects remains unexplored. Here we study the optical-active second harmonic generation (SHG) behaviors in a pair of planar sawtooth gratings with mirror-imaged patterns. Significant multipolar effects were observed in the polarization-dependent SHG curves. We show that the chirality of the nanostructure not only give rise to nonzero chiral susceptibility tensor components within the electric-dipole approximation, but also lead to different levels of multipolar interactions for the two orthogonal circular polarizations that further enhance the nonlinear optical activity of the material. Our results thus indicate novel ways to optimize nonlinear plasmonic structures and achieve giant chiroptical response via multipolar interactions. PMID:26911449

  8. Multipolar Effects in the Optical Active Second Harmonic Generation from Sawtooth Chiral Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huimin; Guo, Yuxiang; Gao, Wensheng; Ma, Jie; Zhong, Yongchun; Tam, Wing Yim; Chan, C. T.; Wong, Kam Sing

    2016-01-01

    Based on the facts that chiral molecules response differently to left- and right-handed circular polarized light, chiroptical effects are widely employed for determining structure chirality, detecting enantiomeric excess, or controlling chemical reactions of molecules. Compared to those in natural materials, chiroptical behaviors can be significantly amplified in chiral plasmonic metamaterials due to the concentrated local fields in the structure. The on-going research towards giant chiroptical effects in metamaterial generally focus on optimizing the field-enhancement effects. However, the observed chiroptical effects in metamaterials rely on more complicated factors and various possibilities towards giant chiroptical effects remains unexplored. Here we study the optical-active second harmonic generation (SHG) behaviors in a pair of planar sawtooth gratings with mirror-imaged patterns. Significant multipolar effects were observed in the polarization-dependent SHG curves. We show that the chirality of the nanostructure not only give rise to nonzero chiral susceptibility tensor components within the electric-dipole approximation, but also lead to different levels of multipolar interactions for the two orthogonal circular polarizations that further enhance the nonlinear optical activity of the material. Our results thus indicate novel ways to optimize nonlinear plasmonic structures and achieve giant chiroptical response via multipolar interactions. PMID:26911449

  9. Extended explanation of transformation optics for metamaterial-modified wireless power transfer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Luo, Xudong; Ma, Hongru

    2016-03-01

    We analytically extend the scope of transformation optics (TO) to metamaterial-modified wireless power transfer (WPT) systems and demonstrate that the extended TO can help design the highly efficient WPT. The methodology is based on rigorous scattering theory, enabling an equivalent model under certain circumstances to be established, that can significantly simplify investigating metamaterial-enhanced WPT. More important, from the analytical study on the equivalent model, we prove that TO is still applicable, even when the conditions of complementary media are not satisfied. Our findings are verified numerically using our methodology as well as COMSOL simulations. Moreover, a further study also indicates the extended TO explanation as well as the analysis of the equivalent model could help improve the transfer efficiency of WPT significantly. The demonstrations are not restricted to any specific frequency, and the conclusions could be extended to a broad range of wavelengths, including applications to active cloaks and other related devices.

  10. One-Dimensional Chirality: Strong Optical Activity in Epsilon-Near-Zero Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Rizza, Carlo; Di Falco, Andrea; Scalora, Michael; Ciattoni, Alessandro

    2015-07-31

    We suggest that electromagnetic chirality, generally displayed by 3D or 2D complex chiral structures, can occur in 1D patterned composites whose components are achiral. This feature is highly unexpected in a 1D system which is geometrically achiral since its mirror image can always be superposed onto it by a 180 deg rotation. We analytically evaluate from first principles the bianisotropic response of multilayered metamaterials and we show that the chiral tensor is not vanishing if the system is geometrically one-dimensional chiral; i.e., its mirror image cannot be superposed onto it by using translations without resorting to rotations. As a signature of 1D chirality, we show that 1D chiral metamaterials support optical activity and we prove that this phenomenon undergoes a dramatic nonresonant enhancement in the epsilon-near-zero regime where the magnetoelectric coupling can become dominant in the constitutive relations. PMID:26274441

  11. Diffraction-free optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in extremely anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei; Yang, Xiaodong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Extremely anisotropic metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials are designed to have the effective permittivity tensor of a transverse component (parallel to the interfaces of the multilayer) with zero real part and a longitudinal component (normal to the interfaces of the multilayer) with ultra-large imaginary part at the same wavelength, including the optical nonlocality analysis based on the transfer-matrix method. The diffraction-free deep-subwavelength optical beam propagation with near-zero phase variation in the designed multilayer stack due to the near-flat iso-frequency contour is demonstrated and analyzed, including the effects of the multilayer period and the material loss.

  12. Low-power all-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-03-31

    All-optical tunable plasmonic-mode coupling is realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of gold asymmetrically split ring resonators, covered with a poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)] azobenzene polymer layer. The third-order optical nonlinearity of the azobenzene polymer is enormously enhanced by using resonant excitation. Under excitation with a 17-kW/cm{sup 2}, 532-nm pump light, plasmonic modes shift by 51 nm and the mode interval is enlarged by 30 nm. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by five orders of magnitude, while extremely large tunability is maintained.

  13. Optical nonlocality induced Zitterbewegung near the Dirac point in metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lei; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    The optical nonlocality near the Dirac point in infinite periodic metal-dielectric multilayer metamaterials is investigated through the dispersion relation analysis according to the transfer-matrix method. It is revealed that both the symmetric and asymmetric surface plasmon polariton modes present the zero nonlocal effective permittivity, and the degeneracy of these two modes results in the emergence of the Dirac point. Furthermore, the Zitterbewegung effect near the Dirac point induced by the optical nonlocality is demonstrated due to the coherent coupling between the symmetric and asymmetric modes. PMID:27136999

  14. Ultra low-loss, isotropic optical negative-index metamaterial based on hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua-Domínguez, R.; Abujetas, D. R.; Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, many fascinating properties predicted for metamaterials (negative refraction, superlensing, electromagnetic cloaking,…) were experimentally demonstrated. Unfortunately, the best achievements have no direct translation to the optical domain, without being burdened by technological and conceptual difficulties. Of particular importance within the realm of optical negative-index metamaterials (NIM), is the issue of simultaneously achieving strong electric and magnetic responses and low associated losses. Here, hybrid metal-semiconductor nanowires are proposed as building blocks of optical NIMs. The metamaterial thus obtained, highly isotropic in the plane normal to the nanowires, presents a negative index of refraction in the near-infrared, with values of the real part well below −1, and extremely low losses (an order of magnitude better than present optical NIMs). Tunability of the system allows to select the operating range in the whole telecom spectrum. The design is proven in configurations such as prisms and slabs, directly observing negative refraction. PMID:23514968

  15. Digital metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, ‘0’ and ‘1’, in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call ‘metamaterial bits’, with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental ‘metamaterial bytes’ with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology.

  16. Digital metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Della Giovampaola, Cristian; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-01

    Balancing complexity and simplicity has played an important role in the development of many fields in science and engineering. One of the well-known and powerful examples of such balance can be found in Boolean algebra and its impact on the birth of digital electronics and the digital information age. The simplicity of using only two numbers, '0' and '1', in a binary system for describing an arbitrary quantity made the fields of digital electronics and digital signal processing powerful and ubiquitous. Here, inspired by the binary concept, we propose to develop the notion of digital metamaterials. Specifically, we investigate how one can synthesize an electromagnetic metamaterial with a desired permittivity, using as building blocks only two elemental materials, which we call 'metamaterial bits', with two distinct permittivity functions. We demonstrate, analytically and numerically, how proper spatial mixtures of such metamaterial bits lead to elemental 'metamaterial bytes' with effective material parameters that are different from the parameters of the metamaterial bits. We then apply this methodology to several design examples of optical elements, such as digital convex lenses, flat graded-index digital lenses, digital constructs for epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) supercoupling and digital hyperlenses, thus highlighting the power and simplicity of the methodology. PMID:25218061

  17. Dispersion and optical gradient force from high-order mode coupling between two hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanghui; Zhang, Weifeng; Lu, Jiahui; Zhao, Huijun

    2016-08-01

    We analytically study dispersion properties and optical gradient forces of different-order transverse magnetic (TM) modes in two coupled hyperbolic metamaterial waveguides (HMMWs). According to Maxwell's equations, we obtain the dispersion relation of symmetric and antisymmetric modes, and calculate optical gradient forces of different-order modes by using Maxwell stress tensor. Numerical results show that the dispersion properties are dependent on the filling ratio, and the optical gradient forces of high-order TM modes are larger than the fundamental mode when the gap between two HMMWs is very narrow, but they weaken much faster than the case of low-order TM modes with the gap width increasing. In addition, the effects of the dielectric surrounding of waveguides on the coupling effect and optical gradient force are clarified. These properties offer an avenue for various optomechanical applications in optical sensors and actuators.

  18. Optical nanotransmission lines: synthesis of planar left-handed metamaterials in the infrared and visible regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alù, Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2006-03-01

    Following our recent theoretical development of the concepts of nanoinductors, nanocapacitors, and nanoresistors at optical frequencies and the possibility of synthesizing more complex nanoscale circuits, we theoretically investigate in detail the problem of optical nanotransmission lines (NTLs) that can be envisioned by properly joining together arrays of these basic nanoscale circuit elements. We show how, in the limit in which these basic circuit elements are closely packed together, NTLs can be regarded as stacks of plasmonic and nonplasmonic planar slabs, which may be designed to effectively exhibit the properties of planar metamaterials with forward (right-handed) or backward (left-handed) operation. With the proper design, negative refraction and left-handed propagation are shown to be possible in these planar plasmonic guided-wave structures, providing possibilities for subwavelength focusing and imaging in planar optics and laterally confined waveguiding at IR and visible frequencies. The effective material parameters for such NTLs are derived, and the connection and analogy between these optical NTLs and the double-negative and double-positive metamaterials are also explored. Physical insights and justification for the results are also presented.

  19. Optical gecko toe: Optically controlled attractive near-field forces between plasmonic metamaterials and dielectric or metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; MacDonald, K. F.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2012-05-01

    On the mesoscopic scale, electromagnetic forces are of fundamental importance to an enormously diverse range of systems, from optical tweezers to the adhesion of gecko toes. Here we show that a strong light-driven force may be generated when a plasmonic metamaterial is illuminated in close proximity to a dielectric or metal surface. This near-field force can exceed radiation pressure and Casimir forces to provide an optically controlled adhesion mechanism mimicking the gecko toe: At illumination intensities of just a few tens of nW/μm2 it is sufficient to overcome the Earth's gravitational pull.

  20. A class of circular waveguiding structures containing cylindrically anisotropic metamaterials: Applications from radio frequency/microwave to optical frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Justin G.; Iyer, Ashwin K.; Pratap, Dheeraj; Anantha Ramakrishna, S.

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates a class of circular waveguiding structures containing anisotropic metamaterials and explores their potential benefits in applications from RF to optical frequencies. The introduction of anisotropy in these waveguides is shown to provide substantial control of the dispersion and field distributions of several supported modes. For exotic material parameters such as permittivity and permeability that are typically associated with metamaterials, intriguing propagation phenomena such as backward-wave behavior, frequency-reduced modes, monomodal propagation, and field confinement are observed and provide enabling functionalities for a wide range of RF/microwave and optical applications.

  1. James C. McGroddy Prize for New Materials Lecture: Transformation optics shapes metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendry, John

    2013-03-01

    Metamaterials offer a huge range of new electromagnetic properties: negative refraction, spatial inhomogeneity to name only two. To exploit the possibilities offered in this new world we need a new design tool. Maxwell's equations are exact at the classical level but lack transparency; Snell's law is elegantly visual, an aid to the imagination, but fails to account for many vital aspects of electromagnetism. Transformation optics retains an intuitive appeal, replacing the rays of Snell's law with the field lines of Maxwell whose equations is represents exactly.

  2. Magneto-optical characteristics of layered Epsilon-Near-Zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdi-Ghaleh, Reza; Suldozi, Reza

    2016-09-01

    The transmittance magneto-optical (MO) characteristics of Epsilon-Near-Zero (ENZ) metamaterials are studied, using 4 by 4 transfer matrix method. The considered structures are a free standing ENZ-MO slab, and a microcavity type multi-layer structure containing an ENZ-MO layer. The transmittance coefficients of the right- and left-handed circular polarizations for the slab are analytically obtained and numerically investigated. Furthermore, these characteristics are numerically studied for the multi-layer structure. In addition, the Faraday rotations of both structures are investigated. The results reveal the circular polarization filtering effects.

  3. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment—all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, ‘space-coiling’ metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials (‘meta-liquids’), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks.

  4. Metamaterials beyond electromagnetism.

    PubMed

    Kadic, Muamer; Bückmann, Tiemo; Schittny, Robert; Wegener, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Metamaterials are rationally designed man-made structures composed of functional building blocks that are densely packed into an effective (crystalline) material. While metamaterials are mostly associated with negative refractive indices and invisibility cloaking in electromagnetism or optics, the deceptively simple metamaterial concept also applies to rather different areas such as thermodynamics, classical mechanics (including elastostatics, acoustics, fluid dynamics and elastodynamics), and, in principle, also to quantum mechanics. We review the basic concepts, analogies and differences to electromagnetism, and give an overview on the current state of the art regarding theory and experiment-all from the viewpoint of an experimentalist. This review includes homogeneous metamaterials as well as intentionally inhomogeneous metamaterial architectures designed by coordinate-transformation-based approaches analogous to transformation optics. Examples are laminates, transient thermal cloaks, thermal concentrators and inverters, 'space-coiling' metamaterials, anisotropic acoustic metamaterials, acoustic free-space and carpet cloaks, cloaks for gravitational surface waves, auxetic mechanical metamaterials, pentamode metamaterials ('meta-liquids'), mechanical metamaterials with negative dynamic mass density, negative dynamic bulk modulus, or negative phase velocity, seismic metamaterials, cloaks for flexural waves in thin plates and three-dimensional elastostatic cloaks. PMID:24190877

  5. On the origin of pure optical rotation in twisted-cross metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Barr, Lauren E; Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Tremain, Ben; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; Hendry, Euan; Hibbins, Alastair P

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the response of twisted-cross metamaterials that provide near dispersionless optical rotation across a broad band of frequencies from 19 GHz to 37 GHz. We compare two distinct geometries: firstly, a bilayer structure comprised of arrays of metallic crosses where the crosses in the second layer are twisted about the layer normal; and secondly where the second layer is replaced by the complementary to the original, i.e. an array of cross-shaped holes. Through numerical modelling we determine the origin of rotatory effects in these two structures. In both, pure optical rotation occurs in a frequency band between two transmission minima, where alignment of electric and magnetic dipole moments occurs. In the cross/cross metamaterial, the transmission minima occur at the symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the coupled crosses. By contrast, in the cross/complementary-cross structure the transmission minima are associated with the dipole and quadrupole modes of the cross, the frequencies of which appear intrinsic to the cross layer alone. Hence the bandwidth of optical rotation is found to be relatively independent of layer separation. PMID:27457405

  6. On the origin of pure optical rotation in twisted-cross metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Lauren E.; Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Tremain, Ben; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; Hendry, Euan; Hibbins, Alastair P.

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the response of twisted-cross metamaterials that provide near dispersionless optical rotation across a broad band of frequencies from 19 GHz to 37 GHz. We compare two distinct geometries: firstly, a bilayer structure comprised of arrays of metallic crosses where the crosses in the second layer are twisted about the layer normal; and secondly where the second layer is replaced by the complementary to the original, i.e. an array of cross-shaped holes. Through numerical modelling we determine the origin of rotatory effects in these two structures. In both, pure optical rotation occurs in a frequency band between two transmission minima, where alignment of electric and magnetic dipole moments occurs. In the cross/cross metamaterial, the transmission minima occur at the symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the coupled crosses. By contrast, in the cross/complementary-cross structure the transmission minima are associated with the dipole and quadrupole modes of the cross, the frequencies of which appear intrinsic to the cross layer alone. Hence the bandwidth of optical rotation is found to be relatively independent of layer separation.

  7. Optical properties of metal-dielectric based epsilon near zero metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramania, Ganapathi; Fischer, Arthur; Luk, Ting

    2014-03-01

    Epsilon(ɛ) near zero(ENZ) materials are metamaterials where the effective dielectric constant(ɛ) is close to zero for a range of wavelengths resulting in zero effective displacement field (D = ɛE) and displacement current. ENZ structures are of great interest in many application areas such as optical nanocircuits, supercoupling, cloaking, emission enhancement etc. Effective ENZ behavior has been demonstrated using cut-off frequency region in a metallic waveguide where the modal index vanishes. Here we demonstrate the fabrication of ENZ metamaterials operating at visible wavelengths (λ ~ 640nm) using an effective medium approach based on a metal-dielectric composites(App. Phys. Let.,101,241107(2012)) that can act as ``bulk'' ENZ material. The structure consists of a multilayer stack composite of alternating nanoscale thickness layers of Ag and TiO2. Optical spectroscopy shows transmission and absorption response is consistent with ENZ behavior and matches well with simulations. We will discuss the criteria necessary in the design and practical implementation of the composite that better approximates a homogenous effective medium including techniques to minimize the effect of optical losses to boost transmission. The potential for hosting gain media in the gratings to address losses and emission control will be discussed. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  8. On the origin of pure optical rotation in twisted-cross metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Lauren E.; Díaz-Rubio, Ana; Tremain, Ben; Carbonell, Jorge; Sánchez-Dehesa, José; Hendry, Euan; Hibbins, Alastair P.

    2016-01-01

    We present an experimental and computational study of the response of twisted-cross metamaterials that provide near dispersionless optical rotation across a broad band of frequencies from 19 GHz to 37 GHz. We compare two distinct geometries: firstly, a bilayer structure comprised of arrays of metallic crosses where the crosses in the second layer are twisted about the layer normal; and secondly where the second layer is replaced by the complementary to the original, i.e. an array of cross-shaped holes. Through numerical modelling we determine the origin of rotatory effects in these two structures. In both, pure optical rotation occurs in a frequency band between two transmission minima, where alignment of electric and magnetic dipole moments occurs. In the cross/cross metamaterial, the transmission minima occur at the symmetric and antisymmetric resonances of the coupled crosses. By contrast, in the cross/complementary-cross structure the transmission minima are associated with the dipole and quadrupole modes of the cross, the frequencies of which appear intrinsic to the cross layer alone. Hence the bandwidth of optical rotation is found to be relatively independent of layer separation. PMID:27457405

  9. Multi-stencil character projection e-beam lithography: a fast and flexible way for high quality optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Uwe; Falkner, Matthias; Zeitner, Uwe D.; Banasch, Michael; Dietrich, Kay; Kley, Ernst-Bernhard

    2014-10-01

    In this work we report on the strong improvement of pattern quality and significant write-time reduction using Character Projection with a multi-stencil character stage with more than 2000 apertures for the fabrication of nanomaterials and, in particular, on an optical metamaterial, which is called "Metamaterial Perfect Absorber". The Character Projection ebeam lithography allows the transition from the time-consuming serial to a fast quasi-parallel writing method and opens the way for the fabrication of device areas which are impossible to realize with often in the R&D used SEM based Gaussian electron beam-writers. More than 150.000 times faster than the comparable Gaussian E-beam exposure, 100 times faster and with a factor of 10 improved pattern size homogeneity than the corresponding Variable Shaped E-beam exposure - these are our main results for the fabrication of optical metamaterials using a Variable Shaped E-beam with Character Projection.

  10. Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Gururaj V.; Saha, Bivas; Liu, Jing; Saber, Sammy M.; Stach, Eric A.; Irudayaraj, Joseph M. K.; Sands, Timothy D.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a plasmonic material having optical properties resembling gold. Unlike gold, however, TiN is complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible, mechanically strong, and thermally stable at higher temperatures. Additionally, TiN exhibits low-index surfaces with surface energies that are lower than those of the noble metals which facilitates the growth of smooth, ultrathin crystalline films. Such films are crucial in constructing low-loss, high-performance plasmonic and metamaterial devices including hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). HMMs have been shown to exhibit exotic optical properties, including extremely high broadband photonic densities of states (PDOS), which are useful in quantum plasmonic applications. However, the extent to which the exotic properties of HMMs can be realized has been seriously limited by fabrication constraints and material properties. Here, we address these issues by realizing an epitaxial superlattice as an HMM. The superlattice consists of ultrasmooth layers as thin as 5 nm and exhibits sharp interfaces which are essential for high-quality HMM devices. Our study reveals that such a TiN-based superlattice HMM provides a higher PDOS enhancement than gold- or silver-based HMMs. PMID:24821762

  11. Large-area flexible 3D optical negative index metamaterial formed by nanotransfer printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanda, Debashis; Shigeta, Kazuki; Gupta, Sidhartha; Cain, Tyler; Carlson, Andrew; Mihi, Agustin; Baca, Alfred J.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Braun, Paul; Rogers, John A.

    2011-07-01

    Negative-index metamaterials (NIMs) are engineered structures with optical properties that cannot be obtained in naturally occurring materials. Recent work has demonstrated that focused ion beam and layer-by-layer electron-beam lithography can be used to pattern the necessary nanoscale features over small areas (hundreds of µm2) for metamaterials with three-dimensional layouts and interesting characteristics, including negative-index behaviour in the optical regime. A key challenge is in the fabrication of such three-dimensional NIMs with sizes and at throughputs necessary for many realistic applications (including lenses, resonators and other photonic components). We report a simple printing approach capable of forming large-area, high-quality NIMs with three-dimensional, multilayer formats. Here, a silicon wafer with deep, nanoscale patterns of surface relief serves as a reusable stamp. Blanket deposition of alternating layers of silver and magnesium fluoride onto such a stamp represents a process for `inking' it with thick, multilayer assemblies. Transfer printing this ink material onto rigid or flexible substrates completes the fabrication in a high-throughput manner. Experimental measurements and simulation results show that macroscale, three-dimensional NIMs (>75 cm2) nano-manufactured in this way exhibit a strong, negative index of refraction in the near-infrared spectral range, with excellent figures of merit.

  12. Epitaxial superlattices with titanium nitride as a plasmonic component for optical hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Naik, Gururaj V; Saha, Bivas; Liu, Jing; Saber, Sammy M; Stach, Eric A; Irudayaraj, Joseph M K; Sands, Timothy D; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2014-05-27

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is a plasmonic material having optical properties resembling gold. Unlike gold, however, TiN is complementary metal oxide semiconductor-compatible, mechanically strong, and thermally stable at higher temperatures. Additionally, TiN exhibits low-index surfaces with surface energies that are lower than those of the noble metals which facilitates the growth of smooth, ultrathin crystalline films. Such films are crucial in constructing low-loss, high-performance plasmonic and metamaterial devices including hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs). HMMs have been shown to exhibit exotic optical properties, including extremely high broadband photonic densities of states (PDOS), which are useful in quantum plasmonic applications. However, the extent to which the exotic properties of HMMs can be realized has been seriously limited by fabrication constraints and material properties. Here, we address these issues by realizing an epitaxial superlattice as an HMM. The superlattice consists of ultrasmooth layers as thin as 5 nm and exhibits sharp interfaces which are essential for high-quality HMM devices. Our study reveals that such a TiN-based superlattice HMM provides a higher PDOS enhancement than gold- or silver-based HMMs. PMID:24821762

  13. Time travel in transformation optics: Metamaterials with closed null geodesics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boston, S. Reece

    2015-06-01

    We apply the methods of transformation optics to theoretical descriptions of spacetimes that support closed null geodesic curves. The metric used is based on frame dragging spacetimes, such as the van Stockum dust or the Kerr black hole. Through transformation optics, this metric is analogous to a material that in theory should allow for communication between past and future. Presented herein is a derivation and description of the spacetime and the resulting permeability, permittivity, and magnetoelectric couplings that a material would need in order for light in the material to follow closed null geodesics. We also address the paradoxical implications of such a material and demonstrate why such a material would not actually result in a violation of causality. A full derivation of the Plebanski equations is also included.

  14. Ultralow-power all-optical tunable double plasmon-induced transparencies in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-05-26

    An all-optical tunable double plasmon-induced transparency is realized in a photonic metamaterial coated on the surface of a nanocomposite layer made of polycrystalline indium-tin oxide doped with gold nanoparticles. The local-field effect, quantum confinement effect, and hot-electron injection ensure a large optical nonlinearity for the nanocomposite. A shift of 120 nm in the central wavelength of transparency windows is reached under excitation with a weak pump laser with an intensity of 21 kW/cm{sup 2}. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by five orders of magnitude, while an ultrafast response time of 34.9 ps is maintained.

  15. Transformation optics for antennas: why limit the bandwidth with metamaterials?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar; Tang, Wenxuan; Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C.; Dyke, Amy; Dyke, Hazel; Zhang, Lianhong; Haq, Sajad; Hao, Yang

    2013-05-01

    In the last decade, a technique termed transformation optics has been developed for the design of novel electromagnetic devices. This method defines the exact modification of magnetic and dielectric constants required, so that the electromagnetic behaviour remains invariant after a transformation to a new coordinate system. Despite the apparently infinite possibilities that this mathematical tool introduces, one restriction has repeatedly recurred since its conception: limited frequency bands of operation. Here we circumvent this problem with the proposal of a full dielectric implementation of a transformed planar hyperbolic lens which retains the same focusing properties of an original curved lens. The redesigned lens demonstrates operation with high directivity and low side lobe levels for an ultra-wide band of frequencies, spanning over three octaves. The methodology proposed in this paper can be applied to revolutionise the design of many electromagnetic devices overcoming bandwidth limitations.

  16. Transformation optics for antennas: why limit the bandwidth with metamaterials?

    PubMed Central

    Quevedo-Teruel, Oscar; Tang, Wenxuan; Mitchell-Thomas, Rhiannon C.; Dyke, Amy; Dyke, Hazel; Zhang, Lianhong; Haq, Sajad; Hao, Yang

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, a technique termed transformation optics has been developed for the design of novel electromagnetic devices. This method defines the exact modification of magnetic and dielectric constants required, so that the electromagnetic behaviour remains invariant after a transformation to a new coordinate system. Despite the apparently infinite possibilities that this mathematical tool introduces, one restriction has repeatedly recurred since its conception: limited frequency bands of operation. Here we circumvent this problem with the proposal of a full dielectric implementation of a transformed planar hyperbolic lens which retains the same focusing properties of an original curved lens. The redesigned lens demonstrates operation with high directivity and low side lobe levels for an ultra-wide band of frequencies, spanning over three octaves. The methodology proposed in this paper can be applied to revolutionise the design of many electromagnetic devices overcoming bandwidth limitations. PMID:23712699

  17. Coherent control of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Sangeeta; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2009-08-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the possibility of dynamically controlling the response of metamaterials at optical frequencies using the well known phenomenon of coherent control. Our results predict a variety of effects ranging from dramatic reduction of losses associated with the resonant response of metamaterials to switchable ultraslow to superluminal propagation of pulses governed by the magnetic field of the incident wave. These effects, generic to all metamaterials having a resonant response, involve embedding the metamaterial in resonant dispersive coherent atomic/molecular media. These effects may be utilized for narrow band switching applications and detectors for radiation below predetermined cut-off frequencies.

  18. Non-diffractive computational ghost imaging.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D B; He, Ruiqing; Chen, Qian; Gibson, G M; Padgett, M J

    2016-06-27

    Computational ghost imaging (CGI) enables an image to be recorded using a single-pixel detector. The image can be reconstructed from correlations between the scene and a series of known projected intensity patterns. In this work we investigate the performance of CGI using pseudo non-diffracting (ND) speckle patterns. We demonstrate an extended depth-of-field that is ∼ 2-3 times greater than that achievable with conventional speckle, when only computing each intensity pattern to a single depth. In addition, the average speckle grain size of ND speckle is reduced by a factor of ∼ 1.5 relative to conventional speckle, which enhances the lateral Rayleigh-limit resolving power of our reconstructed images. However, the point-spread function (PSF) of our imaging system takes the form of a Bessel beam, which manifests itself as long-range correlations between speckle grains in the projected patterns. We discuss the trade-off between enhancement of the depth-of-field and the lateral resolution when using ND speckle, at the expense of a reduction in image contrast. Our work demonstrates that the tailoring of lateral and axial correlations in projected intensity patterns permits PSF engineering in CGI. PMID:27410575

  19. Flexible chiral metamaterials with dynamically optical activity and high negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Furkan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Unal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally chiral metamaterials (MTMs) based on gammadion-bilayer cross-wires that uniaxially create giant optical activity and tunable circular dichroism as a result of the dynamic design. In addition, the suggested structure gives high negative refractive index due to the large chirality in order to obtain an efficient polarization converter. We also present a numerical analysis in order to show the additional features of the proposed chiral MTM in detail. Therefore, a MTM sensor application of the proposed chiral MTM is introduced and discussed. The presented chiral designs offer a much simpler geometry and more efficient outlines. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation. It can be seen from the results that, the suggested chiral MTM can be used as a polarization converter, sensor, etc. for several frequency regimes.

  20. Nonlocal optical effects on the Goos-Hänchen shifts at multilayered hyperbolic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Wei; Bian, Tingting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Leung, P. T.

    2016-02-01

    The lateral beam shift of light incident on a multilayered hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) is investigated using a theoretical model which emphasizes the nonlocal optical response of the indefinite material. By applying an effective local response theory formulated recently in the literature, it is found that nonlocal effects only affect p polarized light in this Goos-Hänchen (GH) shift of the incident beam; leading to a blue-shifted peak for positive shifts at high frequencies and red-shifted dip for negative shifts at low frequencies in the GH shift spectrum. An account for the observed phenomenon is given by referring to the ‘Brewster condition’ for the reflected wave from the HMM. This observation thus provides a relatively direct probe for the nonlocal response of the HMM.

  1. Experimental verification of displacement-current conduits in metamaterials-inspired optical circuitry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian; Engheta, Nader

    2012-05-11

    Electric displacement current is present in capacitors and optical waveguides; however, unlike the conduction current in metallic wires, it is not confined. Analogous to the contrast in conductivity between a metallic wire and the surrounding air, displacement-current wires based on near-zero permittivity media contain a large contrast in effective permittivity. As a variation on this idea, in this Letter, we demonstrate at microwave frequencies two displacement-current cables based on effectively negative and effectively positive permittivity metastructures. Our experimental results clearly show cablelike behaviors that allow bending of the structure while still confining and maintaining the primarily longitudinal forward and reverse effective displacement currents within each conduit. The results presented here experimentally verify the notion of displacement-current wires and cables in metatronics as metamaterial-inspired circuitry. PMID:23003040

  2. N-single-helix photonic-metamaterial based broadband optical range circular polarizer by induced phase lags between helices.

    PubMed

    Behera, Saraswati; Joseph, Joby

    2015-02-10

    In this work, we have designed a photonic-metamaterial based broadband circular polarizer using N=4 phase-lagged aluminum single helices arranged in a square array as a unit cell. The effect of phase differences between the helices in an array on the optical performance of the structure is studied, and a comparative study is done with that of multi-intertwined helices. It is observed that the proposed metamaterial structure shows circular polarization sensitivity over a broad optical wavelength range (≈450-900  nm), with improved optical performance in average extinction ratio and broad positive circular dichroism in comparison to multiple intertwined helices. The induced phase lag between the helices in a square-array based unit cell reduces the linear birefringence and leads to the recovery of circular space symmetry in the structure. PMID:25968042

  3. 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Negative-Refraction Metamaterials at Optical Frequencies: Optical Nano-Transmission-Line and Circuit Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engheta, Nader; Alu, Andrea

    2006-03-01

    In recent years metamaterials have offered new possibilities for overcoming some of the intrinsic limitations in wave propagation. Their realization at microwave frequencies has followed two different paths; one consisting of embedding resonant inclusions in a host dielectric, and the other following a transmission-line approach, i.e., building 1-D, 2-D, or 3-D cascades of circuit elements, respectively, as linear, planar or bulk right- or left-handed metamaterials. The latter is known to provide larger bandwidth and better robustness to ohmic losses. Extending these concepts to optical frequencies is a challenging task, due to changes in material response to electromagnetic waves at these frequencies. However, recently we have studied theoretically how it may be possible to have circuit nano-elements at these frequencies by properly exploiting plasmonic resonances. Here we present our theoretical work on translating the circuit concepts of right- and left-handed metamaterials into optical frequencies by applying the analogy between nanoparticles and nanocircuit elements in transmission lines. We discuss how it is possible to synthesize optical negative-refraction metamaterials by properly cascading plasmonic and non-plasmonic elements in 1-D, 2-D and 3-D geometries.

  4. Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection.

    PubMed

    Kravets, V G; Schedin, F; Jalil, R; Britnell, L; Gorbachev, R V; Ansell, D; Thackray, B; Novoselov, K S; Geim, A K; Kabashin, A V; Grigorenko, A N

    2013-04-01

    The non-trivial behaviour of phase is crucial for many important physical phenomena, such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Berry phase. By manipulating the phase of light one can create 'twisted' photons, vortex knots and dislocations which has led to the emergence of the field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nano-optics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and the peculiarities of the phase of light. We show that properly designed plasmonic metamaterials exhibit topologically protected zero reflection yielding to sharp phase changes nearby, which can be employed to radically improve the sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene and binding of streptavidin-biotin, we demonstrate an areal mass sensitivity at a level of fg mm(-2) and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a route towards simple and scalable single-molecule label-free biosensing technologies. PMID:23314104

  5. Singular phase nano-optics in plasmonic metamaterials for label-free single-molecule detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravets, V. G.; Schedin, F.; Jalil, R.; Britnell, L.; Gorbachev, R. V.; Ansell, D.; Thackray, B.; Novoselov, K. S.; Geim, A. K.; Kabashin, A. V.; Grigorenko, A. N.

    2013-04-01

    The non-trivial behaviour of phase is crucial for many important physical phenomena, such as, for example, the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the Berry phase. By manipulating the phase of light one can create ’twisted’ photons, vortex knots and dislocations which has led to the emergence of the field of singular optics relying on abrupt phase changes. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of singular visible-light nano-optics which exploits the benefits of both plasmonic field enhancement and the peculiarities of the phase of light. We show that properly designed plasmonic metamaterials exhibit topologically protected zero reflection yielding to sharp phase changes nearby, which can be employed to radically improve the sensitivity of detectors based on plasmon resonances. By using reversible hydrogenation of graphene and binding of streptavidin-biotin, we demonstrate an areal mass sensitivity at a level of fg mm-2 and detection of individual biomolecules, respectively. Our proof-of-concept results offer a route towards simple and scalable single-molecule label-free biosensing technologies.

  6. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheludev, Nikolay I.; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters.

  7. Reconfigurable nanomechanical photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zheludev, Nikolay I; Plum, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The changing balance of forces at the nanoscale offers the opportunity to develop a new generation of spatially reconfigurable nanomembrane metamaterials in which electromagnetic Coulomb, Lorentz and Ampère forces, as well as thermal stimulation and optical signals, can be engaged to dynamically change their optical properties. Individual building blocks of such metamaterials, the metamolecules, and their arrays fabricated on elastic dielectric membranes can be reconfigured to achieve optical modulation at high frequencies, potentially reaching the gigahertz range. Mechanical and optical resonances enhance the magnitude of actuation and optical response within these nanostructures, which can be driven by electric signals of only a few volts or optical signals with power of only a few milliwatts. We envisage switchable, electro-optical, magneto-optical and nonlinear metamaterials that are compact and silicon-nanofabrication-technology compatible with functionalities surpassing those of natural media by orders of magnitude in some key design parameters. PMID:26740040

  8. Superconducting terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; Singh, Ranjan; O' Hara, John F; Azad, Abul K; Trugman, Stuart A; Jia, Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2010-01-01

    During the past ten years subwavelength metallic structures have enabled metamaterials exhibiting exotic physical properties that are not possible or difficult to realize using naturally occurring materials, This bottom-up metamaterial approach is particularly attractive in the terahertz (THz) frequency range, where the THz gap is inherently associated with the lack of materials with appropriate reponse. In fact THz metamaterial devices have accomplished unprecedented performance towards practical applications. In these devices, the key is to incorporate natural materials, e,g, semiconductors, as the metamaterial substrates or integration parts of metamaterial structures. The active or dynamic tunability of metamaterials is through the application of external stimuli such as temperature, photoexcitation, or electric field. to modify the capacitive gaps in split-ring resonators (SRRs), It becomes clear that we would not be able to do much on the metallic SRRs, i.e. the metal conductivity and therefore the inductance largely remain constant not affected by external stimuli. Recently, there has been increasing interest in superconducting metamaterials towards loss reduction. Significant Joule losses have often prevented resonant metal metamaterials from achieving proposed applications. particularly in the optical frequency range. At low temperatures, superconducting materials possess superior conductivity than metals at frequencies up to THz. and therefore it is expected that superconducting melamaterials will have a lower loss than metal metamatetials, More interestingly, superconductors exhibit tunable complex conductivity over a wide range of values through change of temperature and application of photoexcitation, electrical currents and magnetic fields. Therefore, we would expect correspondingly tunable metamaterials. which originate from the superconducting materials composing the metamaterial, in contrast to tuning the metamaterial embedded environment.

  9. Magneto-induced anisotropy of Voigt effect and other magneto-optical phenomena in ordered metal-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strelniker, Yakov M.; Bergman, David J.

    2013-09-01

    When an applied magnetic field has an arbitrary direction with respect to the lattice axes of a periodically microstructured or nanostructured metamaterial, the effective permittivity tensor of the metamaterial sample becomes anisotropic and all its components can be nonzero. This is true even if the microstructure has a high symmetry, e.g., cubic or triangular. It is found that the strong magneto-induced anisotropy which appears in the macroscopic response leads to unusual anisotropic behavior of the Voigt effect and other magneto-optical (MO) effects. I.e., these phenomena become strongly dependent on the direction of the applied static magnetic field, as well as on the direction of the time dependent electromagnetic field, with respect to the symmetry axes of the periodic microstructure.

  10. Metamaterials program at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Frederick Bossert

    2010-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories Metamaterial Science and Technology Program has developed novel HPC-based design tools, wafer scale 3D fabrication processes, and characterization tools to enable thermal IR optical metamaterial application studies.

  11. Enhancement of magnetic dipole emission at yellow light in optical metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wenliang; Yi, Ningbo; Sun, Shang; Cui, Lin; Song, Qinghai; Xiao, Shumin

    2015-09-01

    Here we demonstrate the control of magnetic dipole spontaneous emission at yellow light by magnetic metamaterials. By embedding magnetic dipole into a magnetic metamaterial consisting of arrays of paired silver strips, the radiative emission enhancement and the Purcell factor around 590 nm has been dramatically increased to 110 and 180 respectively. Moreover, the enhancements are found to be robust to variation of dipole's positions and structure geometries, showing nice fabrication tolerance for practical applications.

  12. Enhanced optical nonlinearities in the near-infrared using III-nitride heterostructures coupled to metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Omri E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Ma, Xuedan; Brener, Igal E-mail: ibrener@sandia.gov; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Shaner, Eric A.; Song, Alex Y.

    2015-10-12

    We use planar metamaterial resonators to enhance by more than two orders of magnitude the near infrared second harmonic generation obtained from intersubband transitions in III-Nitride heterostructures. The improvement arises from two factors: employing an asymmetric double quantum well design and aligning the resonators' cross-polarized resonances with the intersubband transition energies. The resulting nonlinear metamaterial operates at wavelengths where single photon detection is available, and represents a different class of sources for quantum photonics related phenomena.

  13. Infrared metamaterial phase holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larouche, Stéphane; Tsai, Yu-Ju; Tyler, Talmage; Jokerst, Nan M.; Smith, David R.

    2012-05-01

    As a result of advances in nanotechnology and the burgeoning capabilities for fabricating materials with controlled nanoscale geometries, the traditional notion of what constitutes an optical device continues to evolve. The fusion of maturing low-cost lithographic techniques with newer optical design strategies has enabled the introduction of artificially structured metamaterials in place of conventional materials for improving optical components as well as realizing new optical functionality. Here we demonstrate multilayer, lithographically patterned, subwavelength, metal elements, whose distribution forms a computer-generated phase hologram in the infrared region (10.6 μm). Metal inclusions exhibit extremely large scattering and can be implemented in metamaterials that exhibit a wide range of effective medium response, including anomalously large or negative refractive index; optical magnetism; and controlled anisotropy. This large palette of metamaterial responses can be leveraged to achieve greater control over the propagation of light, leading to more compact, efficient and versatile optical components.

  14. Routing of deep-subwavelength optical beams without reflection and diffraction using infinitely anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catrysse, Peter B.; Fan, Shanhui

    2015-03-01

    Media that are described by extreme electromagnetic parameters, such as very large/small permittivity/permeability, have generated significant fundamental and applied interest in recent years. Notable examples include epsilon-near-zero, ultra-low refractive-index, and ultra-high refractive-index materials. Many photonic structures, such as waveguides, lenses, and photonic band gap materials, benefit greatly from the large index contrast provided by such media. In this paper, I discuss our recent work on media with infinite anisotropy, i.e., infinite permittivity (permeability) in one direction and finite in the other directions. As an illustration of the unusual optical behaviors that result from infinite anisotropy, I describe efficient light transport in deep-subwavelength apertures filled with infinitely anisotropic media. I then point out some of the opportunities that exist for controlling light at the nano-scale using infinitely anisotropic media by themselves. First, I show that a single medium with infinite anisotropy enables diffraction-free propagation of deep-subwavelength beams. Next, I demonstrate interfaces between two infinitely anisotropic media that are impedancematched for complete deep-subwavelength beams and enable reflection-free routing with zero bend radius that is entirely free from diffraction effects even when deep-subwavelength information is encoded on the beams. These behaviors indicate an unprecedented possibility to use media with infinite anisotropy to manipulate beams with deepsubwavelength features, including complete images. To illustrate physical realizability, I demonstrate a metamaterial design using existing materials in a planar geometry, which can be implemented using well-established nanofabrication techniques. This approach provides a path to deep-subwavelength routing of information-carrying beams and far-field imaging unencumbered by diffraction and reflection.

  15. Nature-inspired optimization of quasicrystalline arrays and all-dielectric optical filters and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namin, Frank Farhad A.

    (photonic resonance) and the plasmonic response of the spheres (plasmonic resonance). In particular the couplings between the photonic and plasmonic modes are studied. In periodic arrays this coupling leads to the formation of a so called photonic-plasmonic hybrid mode. The formation of hybrid modes is studied in quasicrystalline arrays. Quasicrystalline structures in essence possess several periodicities which in some cases can lead to the formation of multiple hybrid modes with wider bandwidths. It is also demonstrated that the performance of these arrays can be further enhanced by employing a perturbation method. The second property considered is local field enhancements in quasicrystalline arrays of gold nanospheres. It will be shown that despite a considerably smaller filling factor quasicrystalline arrays generate larger local field enhancements which can be even further enhanced by optimally placing perturbing spheres within the prototiles that comprise the aperiodic arrays. The second thrust of research in this dissertation focuses on designing all-dielectric filters and metamaterial coatings for the optical range. In higher frequencies metals tend to have a high loss and thus they are not suitable for many applications. Hence dielectrics are used for applications in optical frequencies. In particular we focus on designing two types of structures. First a near-perfect optical mirror is designed. The design is based on optimizing a subwavelength periodic dielectric grating to obtain appropriate effective parameters that will satisfy the desired perfect mirror condition. Second, a broadband anti-reflective all-dielectric grating with wide field of view is designed. The second design is based on a new computationally efficient genetic algorithm (GA) optimization method which shapes the sidewalls of the grating based on optimizing the roots of polynomial functions.

  16. Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, O.; Pendry, J. B.; Maier, S. A.; Oulton, R. F.; Hamm, J. M.; Tsakmakidis, K. L.

    2012-07-01

    Optical metamaterials and nanoplasmonics bridge the gap between conventional optics and the nanoworld. Exciting and technologically important capabilities range from subwavelength focusing and stopped light to invisibility cloaking, with applications across science and engineering from biophotonics to nanocircuitry. A problem that has hampered practical implementations have been dissipative metal losses, but the efficient use of optical gain has been shown to compensate these and to allow for loss-free operation, amplification and nanoscopic lasing. Here, we review recent and ongoing progress in the realm of active, gain-enhanced nanoplasmonic metamaterials. On introducing and expounding the underlying theoretical concepts of the complex interaction between plasmons and gain media, we examine the experimental efforts in areas such as nanoplasmonic and metamaterial lasers. We underscore important current trends that may lead to improved active imaging, ultrafast nonlinearities on the nanoscale or cavity-free lasing in the stopped-light regime.

  17. Metamaterial lens design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Ralph Hamilton, III

    Developments in nanotechnology and material science have produced optical materials with astonishing properties. Theory and experimentation have demonstrated that, among other properties, the law of refraction is reversed at an interface between a naturally occurring material and these so-called metamaterials. As the technology advances metamaterials have the potential to vastly impact the field of optical science. In this study we provide a foundation for future work in the area of geometric optics and lens design with metamaterials. The concept of negative refraction is extended to derive a comprehensive set of first-order imaging principles as well as an exhaustive aberration theory to 4th order. Results demonstrate congruence with the classical theory; however, negative refraction introduces a host of novel properties. In terms of aberration theory, metamaterials present the lens designer with increased flexibility. A singlet can be bent to produce either positive or negative spherical aberration (regardless of its focal length), its contribution to coma can become independent of its conjugate factor, and its field curvature takes on the opposite sign of its focal power. This is shown to be advantageous in some designs such as a finite conjugate relay lens; however, in a wider field of view landscape lens we demonstrate a metamaterial's aberration properties may be detrimental. This study presents the first comprehensive investigation of metamaterial lenses using industry standard lens design software. A formal design study evaluates the performance of doublet and triplet lenses operating at F/5 with a 100 mm focal length, a 20° half field of view, and specific geometric constraints. Computer aided optimization and performance evaluation provide experimental controls to remove designer-induced bias from the results. Positive-index lenses provide benchmarks for comparison to metamaterial systems subjected to identical design constraints. We find that

  18. Spatial gradient tuning in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Tom; Goldflam, Michael; Jokerst, Nan; Basov, Dimitri; Smith, David

    2011-03-01

    Gradient Index (GRIN) metamaterials have been used to create devices inspired by, but often surpassing the potential of, conventional GRIN optics. The unit-cell nature of metamaterials presents the opportunity to exert much greater control over spatial gradients than is possible in natural materials. This is true not only during the design phase but also offers the potential for real-time reconfiguration of the metamaterial gradient. This ability fits nicely into the picture of transformation-optics, in which spatial gradients can enable an impressive suite of innovative devices. We discuss methods to exert control over metamaterial response, focusing on our recent demonstrations using Vanadium Dioxide. We give special attention to role of memristance and mem-capacitance observed in Vanadium Dioxide, which simplify the demands of stimuli and addressing, as well as intersecting metamaterials with the field of memory-materials.

  19. Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibbotson, Lindsey A.; Demetriadou, Angela; Croxall, Stephen; Hess, Ortwin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-02-01

    Metallic woodpile photonic crystals and metamaterials operating across the visible spectrum are extremely difficult to construct over large areas, because of the intricate three-dimensional nanostructures and sub-50 nm features demanded. Previous routes use electron-beam lithography or direct laser writing but widespread application is restricted by their expense and low throughput. Scalable approaches including soft lithography, colloidal self-assembly, and interference holography, produce structures limited in feature size, material durability, or geometry. By multiply stacking gold nanowire flexible gratings, we demonstrate a scalable high-fidelity approach for fabricating flexible metallic woodpile photonic crystals, with features down to 10 nm produced in bulk and at low cost. Control of stacking sequence, asymmetry, and orientation elicits great control, with visible-wavelength band-gap reflections exceeding 60%, and with strong induced chirality. Such flexible and stretchable architectures can produce metamaterials with refractive index near zero, and are easily tuned across the IR and visible ranges.

  20. Optical Activity Enhanced by Strong Inter-molecular Coupling in Planar Chiral Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Teun-Teun; Oh, Sang Soon; Park, Hyun-Sung; Zhao, Rongkuo; Kim, Seong-Han; Choi, Wonjune; Min, Bumki; Hess, Ortwin

    2014-01-01

    The polarization of light can be rotated in materials with an absence of molecular or structural mirror symmetry. While this rotating ability is normally rather weak in naturally occurring chiral materials, artificial chiral metamaterials have demonstrated extraordinary rotational ability by engineering intra-molecular couplings. However, while in general, chiral metamaterials can exhibit strong rotatory power at or around resonances, they convert linearly polarized waves into elliptically polarized ones. Here, we demonstrate that strong inter-molecular coupling through a small gap between adjacent chiral metamolecules can lead to a broadband enhanced rotating ability with pure rotation of linearly polarized electromagnetic waves. Strong inter-molecular coupling leads to nearly identical behaviour in magnitude, but engenders substantial difference in phase between transmitted left and right-handed waves. PMID:25209452

  1. Terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; Taylor, Antoineete J; Azad, Abul K; O' Hara, John F

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present our recent developments in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and devices. Planar THz metamaterials and their complementary structures fabricated on suitable substrates have shown electric resonant response, which causes the band-pass or band-stop property in THz transmission and reflection. The operational frequency can be further tuned up to 20% upon photoexcitation of an integrated semiconductor region in the splitring resonators as the metamaterial elements. On the other hand, the use of semiconductors as metamaterial substrates enables dynamical control of metamaterial resonances through photoexcitation, and reducing the substrate carrier lifetime further enables an ultrafast switching recovery. The metamaterial resonances can also be actively controlled by application of a voltage bias when they are fabricated on semiconductor substrates with appropriate doping concentration and thickness. Using this electrically driven approach, THz modulation depth up to 80% and modulation speed of 2 MHz at room temperature have been demonstrated, which suggests practical THz applications.

  2. Permeability-controlled optical modulator with Tri-gate metamaterial: control of permeability on InP-based photonic integration platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kanazawa, Toru; Kang, Joonhyung; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Takuo; Arai, Shigehisa

    2015-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured materials that can produce innovative optical functionalities such as negative refractive index, invisibility cloaking, and super-resolution imaging. Combining metamaterials with semiconductors enables us to develop novel optoelectronic devices based on the new concept of operation. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of a permeability-controlled waveguide optical modulator consisting of an InGaAsP/InP Mach-Zehnder interferometer with `tri-gate' metamaterial attached on its arms. The tri-gate metamaterial consists of metal resonator arrays and triple-gate field effect elements. It changes its permeability with a change in the controlling gate voltage, thereby changing the refractive index of the interferometer arm to switch the modulator with an extinction ratio of 6.9 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The result shows the feasibility of InP-based photonic integrated devices that can produce new functions by controlling their permeability as well as their permittivity.

  3. Permeability-controlled optical modulator with Tri-gate metamaterial: control of permeability on InP-based photonic integration platform

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kanazawa, Toru; Kang, JoonHyung; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Takuo; Arai, Shigehisa

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured materials that can produce innovative optical functionalities such as negative refractive index, invisibility cloaking, and super-resolution imaging. Combining metamaterials with semiconductors enables us to develop novel optoelectronic devices based on the new concept of operation. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of a permeability-controlled waveguide optical modulator consisting of an InGaAsP/InP Mach-Zehnder interferometer with ‘tri-gate’ metamaterial attached on its arms. The tri-gate metamaterial consists of metal resonator arrays and triple-gate field effect elements. It changes its permeability with a change in the controlling gate voltage, thereby changing the refractive index of the interferometer arm to switch the modulator with an extinction ratio of 6.9 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The result shows the feasibility of InP-based photonic integrated devices that can produce new functions by controlling their permeability as well as their permittivity. PMID:25797041

  4. Permeability-controlled optical modulator with Tri-gate metamaterial: control of permeability on InP-based photonic integration platform.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Tomohiro; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Kanazawa, Toru; Kang, JoonHyung; Nishiyama, Nobuhiko; Miyamoto, Yasuyuki; Tanaka, Takuo; Arai, Shigehisa

    2015-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificially structured materials that can produce innovative optical functionalities such as negative refractive index, invisibility cloaking, and super-resolution imaging. Combining metamaterials with semiconductors enables us to develop novel optoelectronic devices based on the new concept of operation. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of a permeability-controlled waveguide optical modulator consisting of an InGaAsP/InP Mach-Zehnder interferometer with 'tri-gate' metamaterial attached on its arms. The tri-gate metamaterial consists of metal resonator arrays and triple-gate field effect elements. It changes its permeability with a change in the controlling gate voltage, thereby changing the refractive index of the interferometer arm to switch the modulator with an extinction ratio of 6.9 dB at a wavelength of 1.55 μm. The result shows the feasibility of InP-based photonic integrated devices that can produce new functions by controlling their permeability as well as their permittivity. PMID:25797041

  5. Nanostructured graphene-based hyperbolic metamaterial performing as a wide-angle near infrared electro-optical switch.

    PubMed

    Shoaei, Maziar; Moravvej-Farshi, Mohammad Kazem; Yousefi, Leila

    2015-02-10

    We propose a nanostructured hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) that can make the transition between elliptic and hyperbolic regimes in the near infrared (IR) frequency range. This switchable HMM is a slab made of a periodic stack of metal/Al(2)O(3)/graphene/Al(2)O(3)/metal nano-layers. By tuning the graphene conductivity via tuning its chemical potential, through a variable external bias, the response of this highly anisotropic medium to a monochromatic TM incident light can be switched between a positive/negative refraction regime and a negative refraction/no-transmission regime. The proposed structure is suitable for applications such as beam splitters, modulators, four-port devices, and optical gates. PMID:25968041

  6. An exact approach to intensity analysis of optical pulses in nonlinear meta-materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2016-05-01

    The nonlinear pulse propagation has been analytically studied by solving the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric permittivity(ɛ) and magnetic permeability(μ). The exact solutions obtained are shown to be of trigonometric & localized types. The analytical and simulation based method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material which behaves as a negative refractive medium (NRM), where both ɛ and μ are shown to be dispersive and negative in nature.

  7. Metamaterial electromagnetic wave absorbers.

    PubMed

    Watts, Claire M; Liu, Xianliang; Padilla, Willie J

    2012-06-19

    The advent of negative index materials has spawned extensive research into metamaterials over the past decade. Metamaterials are attractive not only for their exotic electromagnetic properties, but also their promise for applications. A particular branch-the metamaterial perfect absorber (MPA)-has garnered interest due to the fact that it can achieve unity absorptivity of electromagnetic waves. Since its first experimental demonstration in 2008, the MPA has progressed significantly with designs shown across the electromagnetic spectrum, from microwave to optical. In this Progress Report we give an overview of the field and discuss a selection of examples and related applications. The ability of the MPA to exhibit extreme performance flexibility will be discussed and the theory underlying their operation and limitations will be established. Insight is given into what we can expect from this rapidly expanding field and future challenges will be addressed. PMID:22627995

  8. Optical nano-woodpiles: large-area metallic photonic crystals and metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Ibbotson, Lindsey A.; Demetriadou, Angela; Croxall, Stephen; Hess, Ortwin; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2015-01-01

    Metallic woodpile photonic crystals and metamaterials operating across the visible spectrum are extremely difficult to construct over large areas, because of the intricate three-dimensional nanostructures and sub-50 nm features demanded. Previous routes use electron-beam lithography or direct laser writing but widespread application is restricted by their expense and low throughput. Scalable approaches including soft lithography, colloidal self-assembly, and interference holography, produce structures limited in feature size, material durability, or geometry. By multiply stacking gold nanowire flexible gratings, we demonstrate a scalable high-fidelity approach for fabricating flexible metallic woodpile photonic crystals, with features down to 10 nm produced in bulk and at low cost. Control of stacking sequence, asymmetry, and orientation elicits great control, with visible-wavelength band-gap reflections exceeding 60%, and with strong induced chirality. Such flexible and stretchable architectures can produce metamaterials with refractive index near zero, and are easily tuned across the IR and visible ranges. PMID:25660667

  9. Mid-infrared tunable metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Miao, Xiaoyu; Shaner, Eric A; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-04-28

    A mid-infrared tunable metamaterial comprises an array of resonators on a semiconductor substrate having a large dependence of dielectric function on carrier concentration and a semiconductor plasma resonance that lies below the operating range, such as indium antimonide. Voltage biasing of the substrate generates a resonance shift in the metamaterial response that is tunable over a broad operating range. The mid-infrared tunable metamaterials have the potential to become the building blocks of chip based active optical devices in mid-infrared ranges, which can be used for many applications, such as thermal imaging, remote sensing, and environmental monitoring.

  10. Superlens from complementary anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, G. X.; Tam, H. L.; Wang, F. Y.; Cheah, K. W.

    2007-12-01

    Metamaterials with isotropic property have been shown to possess novel optical properties such as a negative refractive index that can be used to design a superlens. Recently, it was shown that metamaterials with anisotropic property can translate the high-frequency wave vector k values from evanescence to propagating. However, electromagnetic waves traveling in single-layer anisotropic metamaterial produce diverging waves of different spatial frequency. In this work, it is shown that, using bilayer metamaterials that have complementary anisotropic property, the diverging waves are recombined to produce a subwavelength image, i.e., a superlens device can be designed. The simulation further shows that the design can be achieved using a metal/oxide multilayer, and a resolution of 30 nm can be easily obtained in the optical frequency range.

  11. Metamaterial fibres for subdiffraction imaging and focusing at terahertz frequencies over optically long distances

    PubMed Central

    Tuniz, Alessandro; Kaltenecker, Korbinian J.; Fischer, Bernd M.; Walther, Markus; Fleming, Simon C.; Argyros, Alexander; Kuhlmey, Boris T.

    2013-01-01

    Using conventional materials, the resolution of focusing and imaging devices is limited by diffraction to about half the wavelength of light, as high spatial frequencies do not propagate in isotropic materials. Wire array metamaterials, because of their extreme anisotropy, can beat this limit; however, focusing with these has only been demonstrated up to microwave frequencies and using propagation over a few wavelengths only. Here we show that the principle can be scaled to frequencies orders of magnitudes higher and to considerably longer propagation lengths. We demonstrate imaging through straight and tapered wire arrays operating in the terahertz spectrum, with unprecedented propagation of near field information over hundreds of wavelengths and focusing down to 1/28 of the wavelength with a net increase in power density. Applications could include in vivo terahertz-endoscopes with resolution compatible with imaging individual cells. PMID:24162458

  12. Ultralow-power all-optical tunable dual Fano resonances in nonlinear metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Yu; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2013-11-04

    Dual Fano resonances are realized in a nonlinear photonic metamaterial consisting of periodic arrays of asymmetrical meta-molecules etched in a gold film coated with azobenzene polymer layer made of poly[(methyl methacrylate)-co-(disperse red 13 acrylate)]. Enormously enhanced photoisomerization associated with resonant excitation brings about a large refractive index variation in the azobenzene polymer. Under excitation of a weak pump light as low as 0.61 kW/cm{sup 2}, a large shift of 50 nm in the Fano resonance wavelength is obtained. Compared with previous reports, the threshold pump intensity is reduced by seven orders of magnitude while a large tunability is maintained simultaneously.

  13. Terahertz metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Peralta, Xomalin Guaiuli; Brener, Igal; O'Hara, John; Azad, Abul; Smirnova, Evgenya; Williams, John D.; Averitt, Richard D.

    2014-08-12

    Terahertz metamaterials comprise a periodic array of resonator elements disposed on a dielectric substrate or thin membrane, wherein the resonator elements have a structure that provides a tunable magnetic permeability or a tunable electric permittivity for incident electromagnetic radiation at a frequency greater than about 100 GHz and the periodic array has a lattice constant that is smaller than the wavelength of the incident electromagnetic radiation. Microfabricated metamaterials exhibit lower losses and can be assembled into three-dimensional structures that enable full coupling of incident electromagnetic terahertz radiation in two or three orthogonal directions. Furthermore, polarization sensitive and insensitive metamaterials at terahertz frequencies can enable new devices and applications.

  14. The topology of gyroscopic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Lisa M.; Kleckner, Dustin; Read, Alismari; Vitelli, Vincenzo; Turner, Ari M.; Irvine, William T. M.

    Mechanical metamaterials can have topologically protected states, much like their electronic and optical counterparts. We recently demonstrated this in experiment by building a meta-material composed of coupled gyroscopes on a honeycomb lattice. This system breaks time-reversal symmetry and exhibits topologically protected one-way edge modes. In this talk we will explore the relationship between the topology of the band structure and the geometry of the lattice.

  15. All-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  16. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces. PMID:26740041

  17. Designing optical metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion based on an Al:ZnO/ZnO nano-layered structure using the atomic layer deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Priscilla; Liu, Mingzhao; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2016-04-10

    Nano-layered Al:ZnO/ZnO hyperbolic dispersion metamaterial with a large number of layers was fabricated using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Experimental dielectric functions for Al:ZnO/ZnO structures are obtained by an ellipsometry technique in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The theoretical modeling of the Al:ZnO/ZnO dielectric permittivity is done using effective medium approximation. A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical permittivity for this highly anisotropic nano-layered metamaterial. The results of the ellipsometry analysis show that Al:ZnO/ZnO structures with a 1:9 ALD cycle ratio exhibit hyperbolic dispersion transition change near 1.8 μm wavelength. PMID:27139865

  18. Designing optical metamaterial with hyperbolic dispersion based on Al:ZnO/ZnO nano-layered structure using Atomic Layer Deposition technique

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kelly, Priscilla; Liu, Mingzhao; Kuznetsova, Lyuba

    2016-04-07

    In this study, nano-layered Al:ZnO/ZnO hyperbolic dispersion metamaterial with a large number of layers was fabricated using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. Experimental dielectric functions for Al:ZnO/ZnO structures are obtained by an ellipsometry technique in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. The theoretical modeling of the Al:ZnO/ZnO dielectric permittivity is done using effective medium approximation. A method for analysis of spectroscopic ellipsometry data is demonstrated to extract the optical permittivity for this highly anisotropic nano-layered metamaterial. The results of the ellipsometry analysis show that Al:ZnO/ZnO structures with a 1:9 ALD cycle ratio exhibit hyperbolic dispersion transition change near 1.8more » μm wavelength.« less

  19. Study of optical reflectance properties in 1D annular photonic crystal containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Sanjeev K.; Aghajamali, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    Theoretical investigation of photonic band gaps or reflection bands in one-dimensional annular photonic crystal (APC) containing double negative (DNG) metamaterials and air has been presented. The proposed structure consists of the alternate layers of dispersive DNG material and air immersed in free space. In order to study photonic band gaps we obtain the reflectance spectrum of the annular PC by employing the transfer matrix method (TMM) in the cylindrical waves for both TE and TM polarizations. In this work we study the effect of azimuthal mode number (m) and starting radius (ρ0) on the three band gaps viz. zero averaged refractive index (zero-nbar) gap, zero permittivity (zero- ε) and zero permeability (zero- μ) gaps. It is found that for m ≥ 1 , zero- μ gap appears in TE mode and zero- ε gap appears in TM mode. The width of both zero- μ and zero- ε gap increases by increasing m values, but the enhancement of zero- μ gap is more appreciable. Also, the effect of ρ0 on the three band gaps (reflection bands) of annular PC structure at the given m-number has been studied, for both TE and TM polarizations. The result shows that in both polarizations zero- ε and zero- μ gaps decreases when ρ0 increases, whereas zero-nbar gap remains invariant.

  20. Efficient Thermal-Light Interconversions Based on Optical Topological Transition in the Metal-Dielectric Multilayered Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Chen, Xi; Guo, L Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials are proposed to work as wideband spectral-selective emitters/absorbers due to the topological change in isofrequency contour around the epsilon-near-zero point. By setting the transition at the border between the visible and IR ranges, the metal-dielectric multilayered metamaterials become good absorbers/emitters for visible light and good reflectors for IR light, which are desirable for efficient thermal-light interconversions. PMID:26891165

  1. Theory-guided nano-engineering of organic electro-optic materials for hybrid silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, Larry R.

    2013-03-01

    Coarse-grained Monte Carlo/molecular dynamic calculations are employed to explore the effect of various of intermolecular electrostatic interactions upon chromophore order, lattice dimensionality, and viscoelasticity in electrically-poled organic second order nonlinear optical materials. The following classes of organic macromolecular materials are considered: (1) Chromophore-polymer composites, (2) chromophores covalently incorporated into polymers and dendrimers, (3) chromophores incorporating additional dipolar or quadrupolar interactions that enhance poling efficiency, and (4) binary chromophore materials. For chromophore-polymer composites, the competition of chromophore-chromophore dipolar interactions and nuclear repulsive (steric) interactions define poling-induced acentric order. For covalently incorporated chromophores, covalent bond potentials also influence poling-induced order. These first two classes of materials basically behave as Langevin (3-D) lattice materials. Dipolar (e.g., coumarin) and quadrupolar (arene-perfluoroarene) interactions act to influence lattice dimensionality and thus enhance poling efficiency (the ratio of electro-optic activity to electric poling field strength). The long-range molecular cooperativity associated with these interactions influences viscoelastic properties critical to material processing and integration into silicon photonic, plasmonic, and metamaterial devices. The interaction between different chromophore species in binary chromophore materials also enhances poling efficiency. Polarized laser radiation applied to certain binary chromophore materials can also be used to enhance poling efficiency through control of lattice dimensionality. Poling efficiency approaching 5 (nm/V)2 has been achieved for these latter two classes of materials. Improvement in poling efficiency and control of material viscosity is particular important for integration of organic materials into complex device structures.

  2. Electrically tunable infrared metamaterial devices

    DOEpatents

    Brener, Igal; Jun, Young Chul

    2015-07-21

    A wavelength-tunable, depletion-type infrared metamaterial optical device is provided. The device includes a thin, highly doped epilayer whose electrical permittivity can become negative at some infrared wavelengths. This highly-doped buried layer optically couples with a metamaterial layer. Changes in the transmission spectrum of the device can be induced via the electrical control of this optical coupling. An embodiment includes a contact layer of semiconductor material that is sufficiently doped for operation as a contact layer and that is effectively transparent to an operating range of infrared wavelengths, a thin, highly doped buried layer of epitaxially grown semiconductor material that overlies the contact layer, and a metallized layer overlying the buried layer and patterned as a resonant metamaterial.

  3. Broadband electromagnetic cloaking with smart metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dongheok; Urzhumov, Yaroslav; Jung, Youngjean; Kang, Gumin; Baek, Seunghwa; Choi, Minjung; Park, Haesung; Kim, Kyoungsik; Smith, David R

    2012-01-01

    The ability to render objects invisible with a cloak that fits all objects and sizes is a long-standing goal for optical devices. Invisibility devices demonstrated so far typically comprise a rigid structure wrapped around an object to which it is fitted. Here we demonstrate smart metamaterial cloaking, wherein the metamaterial device not only transforms electromagnetic fields to make an object invisible, but also acquires its properties automatically from its own elastic deformation. The demonstrated device is a ground-plane microwave cloak composed of an elastic metamaterial with a broad operational band (10-12 GHz) and nearly lossless electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial is uniform, or perfectly periodic, in its undeformed state and acquires the necessary gradient-index profile, mimicking a quasi-conformal transformation, naturally from a boundary load. This easy-to-fabricate hybrid elasto-electromagnetic metamaterial opens the door to implementations of a variety of transformation optics devices based on quasi-conformal maps. PMID:23169054

  4. Hyperspectral optical near-field imaging: Looking graded photonic crystals and photonic metamaterials in color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellinger, Jean; Van Do, K.; Le Roux, Xavier; de Fornel, Frédérique; Cassan, Eric; Cluzel, Benoît

    2012-10-01

    Using a scanning near-field optical microscope operating with a hyperspectral detection scheme, we report the direct observation of the mirage effect within an on-chip integrated artificial material made of a two dimensional graded photonic crystal. The light rainbow due to the material dispersion is quantified experimentally and quantitatively compared to three dimensional plane wave assisted Hamiltonian optics predictions of light propagation.

  5. Radar illusion via metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei Xiang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2011-02-01

    An optical illusion is an image of a real target perceived by the eye that is deceptive or misleading due to a physiological illusion or a specific visual trick. The recently developed metamaterials provide efficient approaches to generate a perfect optical illusion. However, all existing research on metamaterial illusions has been limited to theory and numerical simulations. Here, we propose the concept of a radar illusion, which can make the electromagnetic (EM) image of a target gathered by radar look like a different target, and we realize a radar illusion device experimentally to change the radar image of a metallic target into a dielectric target with predesigned size and material parameters. It is well known that the radar signatures of metallic and dielectric objects are significantly different. However, when a metallic target is enclosed by the proposed illusion device, its EM scattering characteristics will be identical to that of a predesigned dielectric object under the illumination of radar waves. Such an illusion device will confuse the radar, and hence the real EM properties of the metallic target cannot be perceived. We designed and fabricated the radar illusion device using artificial metamaterials in the microwave frequency, and good illusion performances are observed in the experimental results. PMID:21405918

  6. Plasmonic tunable metamaterial absorber as ultraviolet protection film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayati, M. K.; Zillohu, A. U.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Elbahri, M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonic metamaterials designed for optical frequency have to be shrunk down to few 10th of nanometer which turns their manufacturing cumbersome. Here, we shift the performance of metamaterial down to ultraviolet (UV) by using ultrathin nanocomposite as a tunable plasmonic metamaterial fabricated with tandem co-deposition. It provides the possibility to realize a plasmonic metamaterial absorber for UV frequency with marginal angle sensitivity. Its resonance frequency and intensity can be adjusted by changing thickness and filling factor of the composite. Presented approach for tunable metamaterials for high frequency could pave the way for their application for thermo-photovoltaic, stealth technology, and UV-protective coating.

  7. Unveiling the optical properties of a metamaterial synthesized by electron-beam-induced deposition.

    PubMed

    Woźniak, P; Höflich, K; Brönstrup, G; Banzer, P; Christiansen, S; Leuchs, G

    2016-01-15

    Direct writing using a focused electron beam allows for fabricating truly three-dimensional structures of sub-wavelength dimensions in the visible spectral regime. The resulting sophisticated geometries are perfectly suited for studying light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Their overall optical response will strongly depend not only on geometry but also on the optical properties of the deposited material. In the case of the typically used metal-organic precursors, the deposits show a substructure of metallic nanocrystals embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Since gold-containing precursor media are especially interesting for optical applications, we experimentally determine the effective permittivity of such an effective material. Our experiment is based on spectroscopic measurements of planar deposits. The retrieved permittivity shows a systematic dependence on the gold particle density and cannot be sufficiently described using the common Maxwell-Garnett approach for effective medium. PMID:26629782

  8. Unveiling the optical properties of a metamaterial synthesized by electron-beam-induced deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woźniak, P.; Höflich, K.; Brönstrup, G.; Banzer, P.; Christiansen, S.; Leuchs, G.

    2016-01-01

    Direct writing using a focused electron beam allows for fabricating truly three-dimensional structures of sub-wavelength dimensions in the visible spectral regime. The resulting sophisticated geometries are perfectly suited for studying light-matter interaction at the nanoscale. Their overall optical response will strongly depend not only on geometry but also on the optical properties of the deposited material. In the case of the typically used metal-organic precursors, the deposits show a substructure of metallic nanocrystals embedded in a carbonaceous matrix. Since gold-containing precursor media are especially interesting for optical applications, we experimentally determine the effective permittivity of such an effective material. Our experiment is based on spectroscopic measurements of planar deposits. The retrieved permittivity shows a systematic dependence on the gold particle density and cannot be sufficiently described using the common Maxwell-Garnett approach for effective medium.

  9. Unravelling the optical responses of nanoplasmonic mirror-on-mirror metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Sikdar, Debabrata; Hasan, Shakeeb B; Urbakh, Michael; Edel, Joshua B; Kornyshev, Alexei A

    2016-07-27

    Mirror-on-mirror platforms based on arrays of metallic nanoparticles, arranged top-down or self-assembled on a thin metallic film, have interesting optical properties. Interaction of localized surface-plasmons in nanoparticles with propagating surface-plasmons in the film underpins the exotic features of such platforms. Here, we present a comprehensive theoretical framework which emulates such a system using a five-layer-stack model and calculate its reflectance, transmittance, and absorbance spectra. The theory rests on dipolar quasi-static approximations incorporating image-forces and effective medium theory. Systematically tested against full-wave simulations, this simple approach proves to be adequate within its obvious applicability limits. It is used to study optical signals as a function of nanoparticle dimensions, interparticle separation, metal film thickness, the gap between the film and nanoparticles, and incident light characteristics. Several peculiar features are found, e.g., quenching of reflectivity in certain frequency domains or shift of the reflectivity spectra. Schemes are proposed to tailor those as functions of the mentioned parameters. Calculating the system's optical responses in seconds, as compared to much longer running simulations, this theory helps to momentarily unravel the role of each system parameter in light reflection, transmission, and absorption, facilitating thereby the design and optimisation of novel mirror-on-mirror systems. PMID:27406066

  10. Strong Coupling between Nanoscale Metamaterials and Phonons

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, David J.; Brener, Igal; Ginn, James C.; Sinclair, Michael B.; Peters, David W.; Coffey, Kevin R.; Boreman, Glenn D.

    2011-05-11

    We use split ring resonators (SRRs) at optical frequencies to study strong coupling between planar metamaterials and phonon vibrations in nanometer-scale dielectric layers. A series of SRR metamaterials were fabricated on a semiconductor wafer with a thin intervening SiO{sub 2} dielectric layer. The dimensions of the SRRs were varied to tune the fundamental metamaterial resonance across the infrared (IR) active phonon band of SiO{sub 2} at 130 meV (31 THz). Strong anticrossing of these resonances was observed, indicative of strong coupling between metamaterial and phonon excitations. This coupling is very general and can occur with any electrically polarizable resonance including phonon vibrations in other thin film materials and semiconductor band-to-band transitions in the near to far IR. These effects may be exploited to reduce loss and to create unique spectral features that are not possible with metamaterials alone.

  11. Topologically Reconfigurable Atomic Lattice Quantum Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Pankaj; Mrejen, Michael; Kim, Jeongmin; Wu, Chihhui; Wang, Yuan; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Zhang, Xiang

    Metamaterials have attracted unprecedented attention owing to their exceptional light-matter interaction properties. However, harnessing metamaterial at single photon or few photon excitations is still a long way to go due to several critical challenges such as optical loss, defects to name a few. Here we introduce and theoretically demonstrate a novel platform toward quantum metamaterial, immune to aforementioned challenges, with ultra-cold neutral atoms trapped in an artificial crystal of light. Such periodic atomic density grating -an atomic lattice- exhibits extreme anisotropic optical response where it behaves like a metal in one direction but dielectric along orthogonal directions. We harness the interacting dark resonance physics to eliminate the absorption loss and demonstrate an all-optical and ultra-fast control over the photonic topological transition from a close to an open topology at the same frequency. Such atomic lattice quantum metamaterial enables dynamic manipulation of the decay rate of a quantum emitter by more than an order of magnitude. Our proposal brings together two important contemporary realm of science - cold atom physics and metamaterial for applications in both fundamental and applied science. Atomic lattice quantum metamaterial may provide new opportunities, at single or few photon level, for quantum sensing, quantum information processing with metamaterials.

  12. Design and construction of an electro-optic RF metamaterial array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Weibin; Nelson, Robert L.; Zhan, Qiwen

    2011-03-01

    Subwavelength metallic structures capable of creating strongly localized electromagnetic field with enormous enhancement under illumination/excitation are designed for direct radio frequency (RF) imaging. Three dimensional finite element method models are applied to investigate the electromagnetic field concentrations of two types of split ring resonators. Under appropriate linearly polarized illumination, a highly confined field located at the gap of the ring resonator is found due to strong scattering resonance. The numerical studies show that field enhancement as high as 6,800 is achieved for a planar D-shaped split ring resonator. The enhancement can be further increased through shrinking the gaps size or the ring width. Crescent shaped split ring resonator is designed for broadband application. It provides an enhanced bandwidth which is 1.15 times of the resonant frequency. The concentrated electromagnetic field facilitates nonlinear processes that find lots of applications. Optimized RF concentrators integrated with electro-optic modulators are demonstrated to directly modulate optical carrier. The combination of RF concentrator and EO modulator could enable a focal plane RF imager array that allows direct RF imaging, and significantly decrease RF aperture size and weight. Additional benefits include enhanced functionality such as inherent polarimetric imaging capability.

  13. Tunable VO2/Au hyperbolic metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prayakarao, S.; Mendoza, B.; Devine, A.; Kyaw, C.; van Dover, R. B.; Liberman, V.; Noginov, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is known to have a semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at ˜68 °C. Therefore, it can be used as a tunable component of an active metamaterial. The lamellar metamaterial studied in this work is composed of subwavelength VO2 and Au layers and is designed to undergo a temperature controlled transition from the optical hyperbolic phase to the metallic phase. VO2 films and VO2/Au lamellar metamaterial stacks have been fabricated and studied in electrical conductivity and optical (transmission and reflection) experiments. The observed temperature-dependent changes in the reflection and transmission spectra of the metamaterials and VO2 thin films are in a good qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The demonstrated optical hyperbolic-to-metallic phase transition is a unique physical phenomenon with the potential to enable advanced control of light-matter interactions.

  14. Manipulating Complex Light with Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Jinwei; Wang, Xi; Sun, Jingbo; Pandey, Apra; Cartwright, Alexander N.; Litchinitser, Natalia M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the field of metamaterials have revealed unparalleled opportunities for “engineering” space for light propagation; opening a new paradigm in spin- and quantum-related phenomena in optical physics. Here we show that unique optical properties of metamaterials (MMs) open unlimited prospects to “engineer” light itself. We propose and demonstrate for the first time a novel way of complex light manipulation in few-mode optical fibers using optical MMs. Most importantly, these studies highlight how unique properties of MMs, namely the ability to manipulate both electric and magnetic field components of electromagnetic (EM) waves, open new degrees of freedom in engineering complex polarization states of light at will, while preserving its orbital angular momentum (OAM) state. These results lay the first steps in manipulating complex light in optical fibers, likely providing new opportunities for high capacity communication systems, quantum information, and on-chip signal processing. PMID:24084836

  15. Highly flexible near-infrared metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Li, G X; Chen, S M; Wong, W H; Pun, E Y B; Cheah, K W

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic or metamaterial nanostructures are usually fabricated on rigid substrate i.e. glass, silicon. Optical functionality of such kinds of nanostructures is limited by the planar surface and thus sensitive to the incident angle of light. In this work, we demonstrated that a tri-layer flexible metamaterials working at near infrared (NIR) regime can be fabricated on transparent PET substrate using flip chip transfer (FCT) technique. FCT technique is solution-free and can also be applied to fabricate other functional nanostructures device on flexible substrate. We demonstrated NIR metamaterial device can be transformed into various shapes by bending the PET substrate. PMID:22274363

  16. Mechanism of optical terahertz-transmission modulation in an organic/inorganic semiconductor interface and its application to active metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Tatsunosuke; Takagi, Ryosuke; Takano, Keisuke; Hangyo, Masanori

    2013-11-15

    Terahertz (THz) transmission modulation through copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)-coated Si under various laser light irradiation conditions was investigated using THz time-domain spectroscopy. The charge carrier transfer from Si to CuPc is crucial for photo-induced metallization, and the thickness of the CuPc layer is a critical parameter for achieving high charge carrier density for metallization. Transmission through a split-ring resonator array metamaterial, fabricated on CuPc-coated Si, can be efficiently modulated by laser light irradiation. Our findings may open the way for various types of metamaterials using organic conjugated materials that are suitable for easy device fabrication using printing technologies. PMID:24322092

  17. Reconfiguring photonic metamaterials with currents and magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Valente, João Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Youngs, Ian J.; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2015-03-16

    We demonstrate that spatial arrangement and optical properties of metamaterial nanostructures can be controlled dynamically using currents and magnetic fields. Mechanical deformation of metamaterial arrays is driven by both resistive heating of bimorph nanostructures and the Lorentz force that acts on charges moving in a magnetic field. With electrically controlled transmission changes of up to 50% at sub-mW power levels, our approaches offer high contrast solutions for dynamic control of metamaterial functionalities in optoelectronic devices.

  18. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate planar terahertz metamaterial devices enabling actively controllable transmission amplitude, phase, or frequency at room temperature via carrier depletion or photoexcitation in the semiconductor substrate or in semiconductor materials incorporated into the metamaterial structure.

  19. Photoluminescence and spontaneous emission enhancement in metamaterial nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, M. R.; Cox, J. D.; Brzozowski, M.

    2014-02-01

    We present a theory for the photoluminescence (PL) and spontaneous emission of semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots—QDS) doped in a metamaterial heterostructure. The heterostructure is formed by fabricating a split-ring resonator and metallic rod metamaterial on a dielectric substrate. QDs are doped near the interface in the heterostructure. Our results indicate that the PL and spontaneous emission of the QDs are enhanced in the presence of the metamaterial when the exciton and surface plasmon frequencies are resonant. These findings are consistent with recent experimental studies. The present study can be used to make new types of nanoscale optical devices for sensing, switching and imaging applications based on metamaterials.

  20. Photonic analog of a van Hove singularity in metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin

    2013-07-01

    We introduce the photonic analog of electronic van Hove singularities (VHS) in artificial media (metamaterials) with hyperbolic dispersion. Unlike photonic and electronic crystals, the VHS in metamaterials are unrelated to the underlying periodicity and occur due to slow-light modes in the structure. We show that the VHS characteristics are manifested in the near-field local density of optical states in spite of the losses, dispersion, and finite unit-cell size of the hyperbolic metamaterial. Finally, we show that this work should lead to quantum, thermal, nanolasing, and biosensing applications of van Hove singularities in hyperbolic metamaterials achievable by current fabrication technology.

  1. Water: Promising Opportunities For Tunable All-dielectric Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Kuznetsova, Svetlana M.; Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2015-01-01

    We reveal an outstanding potential of water as an inexpensive, abundant and bio-friendly high-refractive-index material for creating tunable all-dielectric photonic structures and metamaterials. Specifically, we demonstrate thermal, mechanical and gravitational tunability of magnetic and electric resonances in a metamaterial consisting of periodically positioned water-filled reservoirs. The proposed water-based metamaterials can find applications not only as cheap and ecological microwave devices, but also in optical and terahertz metamaterials prototyping and educational lab equipment. PMID:26311410

  2. Photoexited switchable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zongcheng; Gao, Runmei; Ding, Chunfeng; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Yating; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-01

    We propose a design and numerical study of an optically switchable metamaterial absorber in the terahertz regime. The metamaterial absorber comprises a periodic array of metallic split-ring resonators sitting back to back with an embedded semiconductor silicon. Filing the gap between the resonator arms with a semiconductor (silicon), leads to easy modification of its optical response through a pump beam which changes conductivity of Si. The conductivity of silicon is a function of incident pump power. Therefore, the resonance frequencies of the metamaterial can be tunable by applying an external pump power. The resonance peak of the absorption spectra shows a shift from 1.17 to 0.68 THz via external optical stimulus, with granting a resonance tuning range on the order of 42%. The optical-tuned absorber has potential applications as a terahertz modulator and switchable device and offer a step forward in filling the "THz gap".

  3. Engineering electromagnetic responses of bilayered metamaterials based on Fano resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Na, Bo; Xu, Yiqun; Zhu, Zheng; Wang, Yuekun; Ma, Huifeng; Cui, Tiejun

    2013-08-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate engineered electromagnetic responses from a single-peak Fano resonance to a fast roll-off behavior by using planar metamaterials, which are constructed by bilayered asymmetrically split rings (ASRs) with twist angles of 0° and 180°. Since each single-layer ASR metamaterial reveals a Fano-type resonance, the dramatic transmission properties are resulted from the hybridization of electromagnetic resonances due to the near-field coupling between two Fano resonances and the far-field retardation effect of the bilayered metamaterials. The surface currents and charges distributions provide an insight into deep understanding of in-phase and out-of-phase coupling of two Fano resonances. The measured and simulated results of bilayered metamaterials agree well to each other. Especially, the proposed metamaterials can be exploited to design metamaterial-based devices in the THz and optical ranges like filters and sensors.

  4. Photonic simulation of topological excitations in metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Condensed matter systems with topological order and metamaterials with left-handed chirality have attracted recently extensive interests in the fields of physics and optics. So far the topological order and chirality of electromagnetic wave are two independent concepts, and there is no work to address their connection. Here we propose to establish the relation between the topological order in condensed matter systems and the chirality in metamaterials, by mapping explicitly Maxwell's equations to the Dirac equation in one dimension. We report an experimental implement of the band inversion in the Dirac equation, which accompanies change of chirality of electromagnetic wave in metamaterials, and the first microwave measurement of topological excitations and topological phases in one dimension. Our finding provides a proof-of-principle example that electromagnetic wave in the metamaterials can be used to simulate the topological order in condensed matter systems and quantum phenomena in relativistic quantum mechanics in a controlled laboratory environment. PMID:24452532

  5. Photonic simulation of topological excitations in metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei; Sun, Yong; Chen, Hong; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Condensed matter systems with topological order and metamaterials with left-handed chirality have attracted recently extensive interests in the fields of physics and optics. So far the topological order and chirality of electromagnetic wave are two independent concepts, and there is no work to address their connection. Here we propose to establish the relation between the topological order in condensed matter systems and the chirality in metamaterials, by mapping explicitly Maxwell's equations to the Dirac equation in one dimension. We report an experimental implement of the band inversion in the Dirac equation, which accompanies change of chirality of electromagnetic wave in metamaterials, and the first microwave measurement of topological excitations and topological phases in one dimension. Our finding provides a proof-of-principle example that electromagnetic wave in the metamaterials can be used to simulate the topological order in condensed matter systems and quantum phenomena in relativistic quantum mechanics in a controlled laboratory environment. PMID:24452532

  6. Design of Metamaterials for control of electromagnetic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Metamaterials are artificial effective media supporting propagating waves that derive their properties form the average response of deliberately designed and arranged, usually resonant scatterers with structural length-scales much smaller than the wavelength inside the material. Electromagnetic metamaterials are the most important implementation of metamaterials, which are made from deeply sub-wavelength electric, magnetic and chiral resonators and can be designed to work from radio frequencies all the way to visible light. Metamaterials have been major new development in physics and materials science over the last decade and are still attracting more interest as they enable us to create materials with unique properties like negative refraction, flat and super lenses, impedance matching eliminating reflection, perfect absorbers, deeply sub-wavelength sized wave guides and cavities, tunability, enhanced non-linearity and gain, chirality and huge optical activity, control of Casimir forces, and spontaneous emission, etc. In this talk, I will discuss the design, numerical simulation, and mathematical modeling of metamaterials. I will survey the current state of the art and discuss challenges, possible solutions and perspectives. In particular, the problem of dissipative loss and their possible compensation by incorporating spatially distributed gain in metamaterials. If the gain sub-system is strongly coupled to the sub-wavelength resonators of the metamaterial loss compensation and undamping of the resonant response of the metamaterials can occur. I will explore new, alternative dielectric low loss resonators for metamaterials as well as the potential of new conducting materials such as Graphene to replace metals as the conducting material in resonant metamaterials. Two dimensional metamaterials or metasurfaces, implementations of effective electromagnetic current sheets in which both electric and magnetic sheet conductivities are controlled by the average response

  7. Acoustic beam interaction with a rigid sphere: The case of a first-order non-diffracting Bessel trigonometric beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2011-11-01

    Mathematical expressions for the acoustic scattering, instantaneous (linear), and time-averaged (nonlinear) forces resulting from the interaction of a new type of Bessel beam, termed here a first-order non-diffracting Bessel trigonometric beam (FOBTB) with a sphere, are derived. The beam is termed "trigonometric" because of the dependence of its phase on the cosine function. The FOBTB is regarded as a superposition of two equi-amplitude first-order Bessel vortex (helicoidal) beams having a unit positive and negative order (known also as topological charge), respectively. The FOBTB is non-diffracting, possesses an axial null, a geometric phase, and has an azimuthal phase that depends on cos( ϕ± ϕ0), where ϕ0 is an initial arbitrary phase angle. Beam rotation around its wave propagation axis can be achieved by varying ϕ0. The 3D directivity patterns are computed, and the resulting modifications of the scattering are illustrated for a rigid sphere centered on the beam's axis and immersed in water. Moreover, the backward and forward acoustic scattering by a sphere vanish for all frequencies. The present paper will shed light on the novel scattering properties of an acoustical FOBTB by a sphere that may be useful in particle manipulation and entrapment, non-destructive/medical imaging, and may be extended to other potentially useful applications in optics and electromagnetism.

  8. Active terahertz metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Hou-tong; O' Hara, John F; Taylor, Antoinette J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an overview of research in our group in terahertz (THz) metamaterials and their applications. We have developed a series of planar metamaterials operating at THz frequencies, all of which exhibit a strong resonant response. By incorporating natural materials, e.g. semiconductors, as the substrates or as critical regions of metamaterial elements, we are able to effectively control the metamaterial resonance by the application of external stimuli, e.g., photoexcitation and electrical bias. Such actively controllable metamaterials provide novel functionalities for solid-state device applications with unprecedented performance, such as THz spectroscopy, imaging, and many others.

  9. Atomic layer deposited second-order nonlinear optical metamaterial for back-end integration with CMOS-compatible nanophotonic circuitry.

    PubMed

    Clemmen, Stéphane; Hermans, Artur; Solano, Eduardo; Dendooven, Jolien; Koskinen, Kalle; Kauranen, Martti; Brainis, Edouard; Detavernier, Christophe; Baets, Roel

    2015-11-15

    We report the fabrication of artificial unidimensional crystals exhibiting an effective bulk second-order nonlinearity. The crystals are created by cycling atomic layer deposition of three dielectric materials such that the resulting metamaterial is noncentrosymmetric in the direction of the deposition. Characterization of the structures by second-harmonic generation Maker-fringe measurements shows that the main component of their nonlinear susceptibility tensor is about 5 pm/V, which is comparable to well-established materials and more than an order of magnitude greater than reported for a similar crystal [Appl. Phys. Lett.107, 121903 (2015)APPLAB0003-695110.1063/1.4931492]. Our demonstration opens new possibilities for second-order nonlinear effects on CMOS-compatible nanophotonic platforms. PMID:26565877

  10. Interaction between graphene and metamaterials: split rings vs. wire pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, Yanhong; Tassin, Philippe; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas

    2012-05-14

    We have recently shown that graphene is unsuitable to replace metals in the current-carrying elements of metamaterials. At the other hand, experiments have demonstrated that a layer of graphene can modify the optical response of a metal-based metamaterial. Here we study this electromagnetic interaction between metamaterials and graphene. We show that the weak optical response of graphene can be modified dramatically by coupling to the strong resonant fields in metallic structures. A crucial element determining the interaction strength is the orientation of the resonant fields. If the resonant electric field is predominantly parallel to the graphene sheet (e.g., in a complementary split-ring metamaterial), the metamaterial’s resonance can be strongly damped. If the resonant field is predominantly perpendicular to the graphene sheet (e.g., in a wire-pair metamaterial), no significant interaction exists.

  11. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  12. Distillation of photon entanglement using a plasmonic metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Motoki; Bechu, Muriel; Tame, Mark; Kaya Özdemir, Şahin; Ikuta, Rikizo; Güney, Durdu Ö.; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yang, Lan; Wegener, Martin; Imoto, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Plasmonics is a rapidly emerging platform for quantum state engineering with the potential for building ultra-compact and hybrid optoelectronic devices. Recent experiments have shown that despite the presence of decoherence and loss, photon statistics and entanglement can be preserved in single plasmonic systems. This preserving ability should carry over to plasmonic metamaterials, whose properties are the result of many individual plasmonic systems acting collectively, and can be used to engineer optical states of light. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of quantum state filtering, also known as entanglement distillation, using a metamaterial. We show that the metamaterial can be used to distill highly entangled states from less entangled states. As the metamaterial can be integrated with other optical components this work opens up the intriguing possibility of incorporating plasmonic metamaterials in on-chip quantum state engineering tasks. PMID:26670790

  13. Experimental demonstration of metamaterial ``multiverse'' in a ferrofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Yost, Bradley; Bates, Evan; Smolyaninova, Vera N.

    2013-06-01

    Extraordinary light rays propagating inside a hyperbolic metamaterial look similar to particle world lines in a 2+1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime [1]. Magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid are known to form nanocolumns aligned along the magnetic field, so that a hyperbolic metamaterial may be formed at large enough nanoparticle concentration nH. Here we investigate optical properties of such a metamaterial just below nH. While on average such a metamaterial is elliptical, thermal fluctuations of nanoparticle concentration lead to transient formation of hyperbolic regions (3D Minkowski spacetimes) inside this metamaterial. Thus, thermal fluctuations in a ferrofluid look similar to creation and disappearance of individual Minkowski spacetimes (universes) in the cosmological multiverse. This theoretical picture is supported by experimental measurements of polarization-dependent optical transmission of a cobalt based ferrofluid at 1500 nm.

  14. Photoexcited broadband blueshift tunable perfect terahertz metamaterial absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zong-Cheng; Gao, Run-Mei; Ding, Chun-Feng; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Ya-Ting; Yao, Jian-Quan

    2015-04-01

    We present an demonstration of optically tunable metamaterial absorber at terahertz frequencies. The metamaterials are based on two split ring resonators (SSRs) that can be tuned by integrating photoconductive silicon into the metamaterial unit cell. Filing the gap between the resonator arm with a semiconductor (silicon), leads to easy modification of its optical response through a pump beam which changes conductivity of Si. The conductivity of silicon is a function of incident pump power. Therefore, the conductivity of silicon is tuned effectively by applying an external pump power. We demonstrate that a blueshift of the resonance frequency under illumination can be accomplished and a broadband switch of absorption frequencies varying from 0.68 to 1.41 THz, with a tuning range of 51.8%. The realization of broadband blueshift tunable metamaterial absorber offers opportunities for achieving switchable metamaterial absorber and could be implemented in terahertz devices to achieve additional functionalities.

  15. Experimental demonstration of metamaterial "multiverse" in a ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Smolyaninov, Igor I; Yost, Bradley; Bates, Evan; Smolyaninova, Vera N

    2013-06-17

    Extraordinary light rays propagating inside a hyperbolic metamaterial look similar to particle world lines in a 2 + 1 dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Magnetic nanoparticles in a ferrofluid are known to form nanocolumns aligned along the magnetic field, so that a hyperbolic metamaterial may be formed at large enough nanoparticle concentration nH. Here we investigate optical properties of such a metamaterial just below nH. While on average such a metamaterial is elliptical, thermal fluctuations of nanoparticle concentration lead to transient formation of hyperbolic regions (3D Minkowski spacetimes) inside this metamaterial. Thus, thermal fluctuations in a ferrofluid look similar to creation and disappearance of individual Minkowski spacetimes (universes) in the cosmological multiverse. This theoretical picture is supported by experimental measurements of polarization-dependent optical transmission of a cobalt based ferrofluid at 1500 nm. PMID:23787680

  16. Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Dhakar, Lokesh; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-06-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial with polarization independent characteristics for multiple resonances in terahertz spectral region. The metamaterial unit cell consists of eight out-of-plane deformable microcantilevers placed at each corner of an octagon ring. The octagon shaped unit cell geometry provides the desired rotational symmetry, while the out-of-plane movable cantilevers preserves the symmetry at different configurations of the metamaterial. The metamaterial is shown to provide polarization independent response for both electrical inductive-capacitive (eLC) resonance and dipolar resonance at all states of actuation. The proposed metamaterial has a switching range of 0.16 THz and 0.37 THz and a transmission intensity change of more than 0.2 and 0.7 for the eLC and dipolar resonances, respectively for both TE and TM modes. Further optimization of the metal layer thickness, provides an improvement of up to 80% modulation at 0.57 THz. The simultaneously tunable dual band isotropic metamaterial will enable the realization of high performance electro-optic devices that would facilitate numerous terahertz applications such as compressive terahertz imaging, miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy and next generation high speed wireless communication possible in the near future.

  17. Direct Writing of Metamaterials Using Atomic Calligraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Thomas; Reeves, Jeremy; Barrett, Lawrence; Lally, Richard; Bishop, David

    The trend toward creating metamaterials with spectral features at shorter wavelengths demands a concomitant decrease in the minimum feature size. Many fabrication techniques have been developed to meet this challenge, all of which must address competition between resolution and throughput. We fabricate metamaterials using atomic calligraphy, a technique that tackles both the throughput and resolution challenges, and present optical characterization of the metamaterials we fabricate. Atomic calligraphy is a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based moveable stencil used to fabricate nanostructures. We increase the throughput of this technique by using many stencils in parallel and work toward further enhancing throughput by using a stage system to step the MEMS and repeat fabrication over large areas. Finally, we characterize the infrared response of the metamaterials that we fabricated. This technology can be used to fabricate metamaterials on a host of substrates, including those that are chemically incompatible with or have topological features that preclude them from use with conventional nanofabrication techniques, such as mechanical scaffolds that enable tuning of the metamaterial spectral response. This work is funded by the DARPA A2P Program.

  18. Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy.

    PubMed

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Dhakar, Lokesh; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial with polarization independent characteristics for multiple resonances in terahertz spectral region. The metamaterial unit cell consists of eight out-of-plane deformable microcantilevers placed at each corner of an octagon ring. The octagon shaped unit cell geometry provides the desired rotational symmetry, while the out-of-plane movable cantilevers preserves the symmetry at different configurations of the metamaterial. The metamaterial is shown to provide polarization independent response for both electrical inductive-capacitive (eLC) resonance and dipolar resonance at all states of actuation. The proposed metamaterial has a switching range of 0.16 THz and 0.37 THz and a transmission intensity change of more than 0.2 and 0.7 for the eLC and dipolar resonances, respectively for both TE and TM modes. Further optimization of the metal layer thickness, provides an improvement of up to 80% modulation at 0.57 THz. The simultaneously tunable dual band isotropic metamaterial will enable the realization of high performance electro-optic devices that would facilitate numerous terahertz applications such as compressive terahertz imaging, miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy and next generation high speed wireless communication possible in the near future. PMID:26115416

  19. Microelectromechanically tunable multiband metamaterial with preserved isotropy

    PubMed Central

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Qian, You; Dhakar, Lokesh; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a micromachined reconfigurable metamaterial with polarization independent characteristics for multiple resonances in terahertz spectral region. The metamaterial unit cell consists of eight out-of-plane deformable microcantilevers placed at each corner of an octagon ring. The octagon shaped unit cell geometry provides the desired rotational symmetry, while the out-of-plane movable cantilevers preserves the symmetry at different configurations of the metamaterial. The metamaterial is shown to provide polarization independent response for both electrical inductive-capacitive (eLC) resonance and dipolar resonance at all states of actuation. The proposed metamaterial has a switching range of 0.16 THz and 0.37 THz and a transmission intensity change of more than 0.2 and 0.7 for the eLC and dipolar resonances, respectively for both TE and TM modes. Further optimization of the metal layer thickness, provides an improvement of up to 80% modulation at 0.57 THz. The simultaneously tunable dual band isotropic metamaterial will enable the realization of high performance electro-optic devices that would facilitate numerous terahertz applications such as compressive terahertz imaging, miniaturized terahertz spectroscopy and next generation high speed wireless communication possible in the near future. PMID:26115416

  20. Single-material semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Wei, D; Harris, C; Bomberger, C C; Zhang, J; Zide, J; Law, S

    2016-04-18

    Layered semiconductor hyperbolic metamaterials for the mid-infrared are grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a single material system, doped and undoped InAs. The onset wavelength for metamaterial behavior can be tuned from 5.8μm to beyond 10μm, while the fill factor ranges from 0.25 to 0.75, resulting in designer optical behavior. The reflection and transmission behavior were studied by Fourier transform spectroscopy and modeled using effective medium theory. We also conducted a geometric optics experiment to demonstrate negative refraction of our materials. PMID:27137307

  1. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency—the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  2. Nonlinear metamaterials for holography.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Euclides; Bitton, Ora; Prior, Yehiam

    2016-01-01

    A hologram is an optical element storing phase and possibly amplitude information enabling the reconstruction of a three-dimensional image of an object by illumination and scattering of a coherent beam of light, and the image is generated at the same wavelength as the input laser beam. In recent years, it was shown that information can be stored in nanometric antennas giving rise to ultrathin components. Here we demonstrate nonlinear multilayer metamaterial holograms. A background free image is formed at a new frequency-the third harmonic of the illuminating beam. Using e-beam lithography of multilayer plasmonic nanoantennas, we fabricate polarization-sensitive nonlinear elements such as blazed gratings, lenses and other computer-generated holograms. These holograms are analysed and prospects for future device applications are discussed. PMID:27545581

  3. Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ranjan; Xiong, Jie; Azad, Md A.; Yang, Hao; Trugman, Stuart A.; Jia, Quanxi; Taylor, Antoinette; Chen, Houtong

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. Conclusions are: (1) High Tc superconductors good for tunable and ultrafast metamaterials; (2) Large frequency and amplitude tunability in ultrathin superconductor films; (3) Such tunable properties cannot be accessed using metals; (4) Complex metal oxides can be used as active substrates - large tunability; (5) Complex oxides fail to address the issue of radiation losses in THz metamaterials.

  4. Theory and design of nonlinear metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Alec Daniel

    If electronics are ever to be completely replaced by optics, a significant possibility in the wake of the fiber revolution, it is likely that nonlinear materials will play a central and enabling role. Indeed, nonlinear optics is the study of the mechanisms through which light can change the nature and properties of matter and, as a corollary, how one beam or color of light can manipulate another or even itself within such a material. However, of the many barriers preventing such a lofty goal, the narrow and limited range of properties supported by nonlinear materials, and natural materials in general, stands at the forefront. Many industries have turned instead to artificial and composite materials, with homogenizable metamaterials representing a recent extension of such composites into the electromagnetic domain. In particular, the inclusion of nonlinear elements has caused metamaterials research to spill over into the field of nonlinear optics. Through careful design of their constituent elements, nonlinear metamaterials are capable of supporting an unprecedented range of interactions, promising nonlinear devices of novel design and scale. In this context, I cast the basic properties of nonlinear metamaterials in the conventional formalism of nonlinear optics. Using alternately transfer matrices and coupled mode theory, I develop two complementary methods for characterizing and designing metamaterials with arbitrary nonlinear properties. Subsequently, I apply these methods in numerical studies of several canonical metamaterials, demonstrating enhanced electric and magnetic nonlinearities, as well as predicting the existence of nonlinear magnetoelectric and off-diagonal nonlinear tensors. I then introduce simultaneous design of the linear and nonlinear properties in the context of phase matching, outlining five different metamaterial phase matching methods, with special emphasis on the phase matching of counter propagating waves in mirrorless parametric amplifiers

  5. Metamaterials with conformational nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapine, Mikhail; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Powell, David A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2011-11-01

    Within a decade of fruitful development, metamaterials became a prominent area of research, bridging theoretical and applied electrodynamics, electrical engineering and material science. Being man-made structures, metamaterials offer a particularly useful playground to develop interdisciplinary concepts. Here we demonstrate a novel principle in metamaterial assembly which integrates electromagnetic, mechanical, and thermal responses within their elements. Through these mechanisms, the conformation of the meta-molecules changes, providing a dual mechanism for nonlinearity and offering nonlinear chirality. Our proposal opens a wide road towards further developments of nonlinear metamaterials and photonic structures, adding extra flexibility to their design and control.

  6. Design and fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by holographic lithography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi; Li, Qiuze; Wang, Guo Ping

    2008-07-21

    We demonstrate a holographic lithography for the fabrication of diverse metamaterial structures by using an optical prism. Cylindrical nanoshells, U-shaped resonator arrays, and double-split ring arrays are obtained experimentally by real time modulating the phase relation of the interference beams. This easy-to-use method may provide a roadway for the design and fabrication of future metamaterials requiring diverse structures for effectively manipulating electromagnetic properties at optical frequencies. PMID:18648445

  7. Micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Pei Ho, Chong; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Singh, Navab; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Lee, Chengkuo

    2014-05-19

    We experimentally demonstrate a micro-electro-mechanically switchable near infrared complementary metamaterial absorber by integrating the metamaterial layer to be the out of plane movable microactuator. The metamaterial layer is electrostatically actuated by applying voltage across the suspended complementary metamaterial layer and the stationary bottom metallic reflector. Thus, the effective spacing between the metamaterial layer and bottom metal reflector is varied as a function of applied voltage. With the reduction of effective spacing between the metamaterial and reflector layers, a strong spectral blue shift in the peak absorption wavelength can be achieved. With spacing change of 300 nm, the spectral shift of 0.7 μm in peak absorption wavelength was obtained for near infrared spectral region. The electro-optic switching performance of the device was characterized, and a striking switching contrast of 1500% was achieved at 2.1 μm. The reported micro-electro-mechanically tunable complementary metamaterial absorber device can potentially enable a wide range of high performance electro-optical devices, such as continuously tunable filters, modulators, and electro-optic switches that form the key components to facilitate future photonic circuit applications.

  8. Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, D M; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C H Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials. PMID:26879520

  9. Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, D. M.; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2016-02-01

    Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials.

  10. Coherently Tunable Triangular Trefoil Phaseonium Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, D. M.; Soci, Cesare; Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2016-01-01

    Phaseonium is a three-level Λ quantum system, in which a coherent microwave and an optical control (pump) beams can be used to actively modulate the dielectric response. Here we propose a new metamaterial structure comprising of a periodic array of triangular phaseonium metamolecules arranged as a trefoil. We present a computational study of the spatial distribution of magnetic and electric fields of the probe light and the corresponding transmission and reflection, for various parameters of the optical and microwave beams. For specific values of the probing frequencies and control fields, the phaseonium can display either metallic or dielectric optical response. We find that, in the metallic regime, the phaseonium metamaterial structure supports extremely large transmission, with optical amplification at large enough intensity of the microwave thanks to strong surface plasmon coupling; while, in the dielectric regime without microwave excitation, the transmission bandwidth can be tuned by varying the control beam intensity. Implementation of such phaseonium metamaterial structure in solid-state systems, such as patterned crystals doped with rare-earth elements or dielectric matrices embedded with quantum dots, could enable a new class of actively tunable quantum metamaterials. PMID:26879520

  11. Anisotropic metamaterials for microwave antennas and infrared nanostructured thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Zhihao

    Wave-matter interactions have long been investigated to discover unknown physical phenomena and exploited to achieve improved device performance throughout the electromagnetic spectrum ranging from quasi-static limit to microwave frequencies, and even at infrared and optical wavelengths. As a nascent but fast growing field, metamaterial technology, which relies on clusters of artificially engineered subwavelength structures, has been demonstrated to provide a wide variety of exotic electromagnetic properties unattainable in natural materials. This dissertation presents the research on novel anisotropic metamaterials for tailoring microwave radiation and infrared scattering of nanostructured thin films. First, a new inversion algorithm is proposed for retrieving the anisotropic effective medium parameters of a slab of metamaterial. Secondly, low-loss anisotropic metamaterial lenses and coatings are introduced for improving the gain and/or bandwidth for a variety of antennas. In particular, a quad-beam high-gain lens for a quarter-wave monopole, a low-profile grounded leaky metamaterial coating for slot antenna, and an ultra-thin anisotropic metamaterial bandwidth-enhancing coating for a quarter-wave monopole are experimentally demonstrated. In the infrared regime, novel nanostructured metamaterial free-standing thin-films, which are inherently anisotropic, are introduced for achieving exotic index properties and further for practical photonic devices. In particular, a low-loss near-infrared fishnet zero-index metamaterial, a dispersionengineered optically-thin, low-loss broadband metamaterial filter with a suppressed group delay fluctuation in the mid-infrared, and a conformal dual-band near-perfectly absorbing coating in the mid-infrared are experimentally demonstrated. These explorations show the great promise anisotropic metamaterials hold for the flexible manipulation of electromagnetic waves and their broad applicability in a wide spectrum range.

  12. Hyperbolic metamaterial lens with hydrodynamic nonlocal response.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-06-17

    We investigate the effects of hydrodynamic nonlocal response in hyperbolic metamaterials (HMMs), focusing on the experimentally realizable parameter regime where unit cells are much smaller than an optical wavelength but much larger than the wavelengths of the longitudinal pressure waves of the free-electron plasma in the metal constituents. We derive the nonlocal corrections to the effective material parameters analytically, and illustrate the noticeable nonlocal effects on the dispersion curves numerically. As an application, we find that the focusing characteristics of a HMM lens in the local-response approximation and in the hydrodynamic Drude model can differ considerably. In particular, the optimal frequency for imaging in the nonlocal theory is blueshifted with respect to that in the local theory. Thus, to detect whether nonlocal response is at work in a hyperbolic metamaterial, we propose to measure the near-field distribution of a hyperbolic metamaterial lens. PMID:23787690

  13. Point interactions, metamaterials, and PT-symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafazadeh, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We express the boundary conditions for TE and TM waves at the interfaces of an infinite planar slab of homogeneous metamaterial as certain point interactions and use them to compute the transfer matrix of the system. This allows us to demonstrate the omnidirectional reflectionlessness of Veselago's slab for waves of arbitrary wavelength, reveal the translational and reflection symmetry of this slab, explore the laser threshold condition and coherent perfect absorption for active negative-index metamaterials, introduce a point interaction modeling phase-conjugation, determine the corresponding antilinear transfer matrix, and offer a simple proof of the equivalence of Veselago's slab with a pair of parallel phase-conjugating plates. We also study the connection between certain optical setups involving metamaterials and a class of PT-symmetric quantum systems defined on wedge-shape contours in the complex plane. This provides a physical interpretation for the latter.

  14. Mass Separation by Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  15. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  16. Mass Separation by Metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices. PMID:26912419

  17. Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin; Chang, Sehwan; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes. PMID:26522815

  18. Invisible Hyperbolic Metamaterial Nanotube at Visible Frequency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; No, You-Shin; Chang, Sehwan; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes. PMID:26522815

  19. Magnetic resonances in nano-scale metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhao; Liddle, Alex; Martin, Michael

    2006-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and optically measured several different kinds of nano-scale metamaterials. We make use e-beam nano-lithography technology at LBNL's Center for X-Ray Optics for fabricating these structures on extremely thin SiN substrates so that they are close to free-standing. Optical properties were measured as a function of incidence angle and polarization. We directly observe a strong magnetic resonance consistent with a negative magnetic permeability in our samples at mid- and near-IR optical frequencies. We will discuss the results in comparison with detailed simulations, and will discuss the electric dipole or quadrupole resonances observed in the samples. Finally, we will report on our progress towards constructing a fully negative index of refraction meta-material.

  20. SERS-active dielectric metamaterials based on periodic nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Lagarkov, Andrey; Budashov, Igor; Chistyaev, Vladimir; Ezhov, Alexander; Fedyanin, Andrey; Ivanov, Andrey; Kurochkin, Ilya; Kosolobov, Sergey; Latyshev, Alexander; Nasimov, Dmitriy; Ryzhikov, Ilya; Shcherbakov, Maxim; Vaskin, Aleksandr; Sarychev, Andrey K

    2016-04-01

    New dielectric SERS metamaterial is investigated. The material consists of periodic dielectric bars deposited on the metal substrate. Computer simulations as well as real experiment reveal extraordinary optical reflectance in the proposed metamaterial due to the excitation of the multiple dielectric resonances. We demonstrate the enhancement of the Raman signal from the complex of 5,5'-dithio-bis-[2-nitrobenzoic acid] molecules and gold nanoparticle (DTNB-Au-NP), which is immobilized on the surface of the barshaped dielectric metamaterial. PMID:27137006

  1. Combinatorial Mechanical Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hecke, Martin

    The structure of most mechanical metamaterials is periodic so that their design space is that of the unit cell. Here we introduce a combinatorial strategy to create a vast number of distinct mechanical metamaterials, each with a unique spatial texture and response. These are aperiodic stackings of anisotropic building blocks, and their functionality rests on both the block design and their stacking configuration which is governed by a tiling problem. We realize such metamaterials by 3D printing, and show that they act as soft machines, capable of pattern recognition and pattern analysis.

  2. Metamaterials Application in Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Li, Suyan; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Metamaterials are artificial media structured on a size scale smaller than wavelength of external stimuli, and they can exhibit a strong localization and enhancement of fields, which may provide novel tools to significantly enhance the sensitivity and resolution of sensors, and open new degrees of freedom in sensing design aspect. This paper mainly presents the recent progress concerning metamaterials-based sensing, and detailedly reviews the principle, detecting process and sensitivity of three distinct types of sensors based on metamaterials, as well as their challenges and prospects. Moreover, the design guidelines for each sensor and its performance are compared and summarized. PMID:22736975

  3. Scattering of light from metamaterial gratings with finite length.

    PubMed

    Grünhut, Vivian; Cuevas, Mauro; Depine, Ricardo A

    2012-06-01

    Using an integral equation approach based on the Rayleigh hypothesis, we investigate the scattering of a plane wave at the rough surface of a metamaterial with a finite number of sinusoidal grooves. To show the adequacy of the model, we present results that are in agreement with the predictions of physical optics and that quantitatively reproduce the polarization and angular dependences predicted by the C-formalism for metamaterial gratings with an infinite number of grooves. PMID:22695585

  4. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies.

  5. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Fano resonances - resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile - have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies. PMID:26813107

  6. Fano resonances from gradient-index metamaterials

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yadong; Li, Sucheng; Hou, Bo; Chen, Huanyang

    2016-01-01

    Fano resonances – resonant scattering features with a characteristic asymmetric profile – have generated much interest, due to their extensive and valuable applications in chemical or biological sensors, new types of optical switches, lasers and nonlinear optics. They have been observed in a wide variety of resonant optical systems, including photonic crystals, metamaterials, metallic gratings and nanostructures. In this work, a waveguide structure is designed by employing gradient-index metamaterials, supporting strong Fano resonances with extremely sharp spectra. As the changes in the transmission spectrum originate from the interaction of guided modes from different channels, instead of resonance structures or metamolecules, the Fano resonances can be observed for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. These findings are verified by fine agreement with analytical calculations and experimental results at microwave, as well as simulated results at near infrared frequencies. PMID:26813107

  7. MEMS tunable terahertz metamaterials using out-of-plane mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Lee, Chengkuo

    2015-03-01

    The tunable terahertz metamaterial (TTM) has attracted intense research interest, since the electromagnetic response of the metamaterial can be actively controlled through external stimulus, which is of great significance in real time applications. The active control of metamaterial characteristics is crucial in order to provide a flexible and versatile platform for mimicking fundamental physical effects. To realize the electromagnetic tunability, various approaches have been demonstrated to increase the flexibility in applications, such as changing the effective electromagnetic properties. Alternatively, MEMS-based techniques are well developed. The structural reconfiguration is a straightforward way to control the electromagnetic properties. The metamaterial properties can be directly modified by reconfiguring the unit cell which is the fundamental building block of metamaterials. Currently, our research works are focusing on MEMS-based TTM adopting stress-induced curved actuators (SICA) to adjust the resonant frequency of devices. Herein, the proposed TTM designs are double split-ring resonator (DSRR), electric split-ring resonator (eSRR), Omega-ring metamaterial (ORM), symmetric and asymmetric T-shape metamaterial (STM and ATM), respectively. We demonstrated these TTM can be active, continuous, and recoverable control the resonant frequency by using electrostatic or electrothermal actuation mechanism. Therefore, the TTM devices can be effectively used for sensors, optical switches, and filters applications.

  8. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  9. Thermochromic Infrared Metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyu; Padilla, Willie J

    2016-02-01

    An infrared artificial thermochromic material composed of a metamaterial emitter and a bimaterial micro-electro-mechanical system is investigated. A differential emissivity of over 30% is achieved between 623 K and room temperature. The passive metamaterial device demonstrates the ability to independently control the peak wavelength and temperature dependence of the emissivity, and achieves thermal emission following a super Stefan-Boltzmann power curve. PMID:26619382

  10. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.