Sample records for non-endocrine autoimmune disorders

  1. Increased interleukin-4-positive lymphocytes in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and concurrent non-endocrine autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Santaguida, M G; Nardo, S; Del Duca, S C; Lococo, E; Virili, C; Gargano, L; Lenti, L; Centanni, M

    2011-01-01

    A prevalent T helper type 1 (Th1) subset of lymphocytes has been described in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), but whether a similar polarization may characterize HT when associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders (NEAD) is not known. The aim of the present study was to analyse the intracellular Th1 and Th2 distinctive cytokines in patients with isolated HT or associated with non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. Intracellular cytokine expression was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 68 out-patients (females = 55; males = 13; median age = 36 years) with HT : 33 had isolated HT and 35 had a concurrent NEAD. The percentage of interferon (IFN)-? and interleukin (IL)-2 Th1- and IL-4 Th2-positive cells was measured by flow cytometric analysis. We found an increased percentage of IL-2-positive cells in all patients, without differences between patients with isolated HT or associated with NEAD. IFN-?+ cells were also increased in both groups, but the median percentage of those with isolated HT was lower than in patients with HT+NEAD (19·0 versus 29·9%; P = 0·0082). An increased number of IL-4-positive cells was observed in three of 33 (9·1%) patients with isolated HT and in 25 of 35 patients with NEAD [71%; P < 0·0001; relative risk (RR) = 3·18]. The median values of IL-4+ cells (HT = 5·0% versus HT + NEAD = 16·8%) confirmed this large difference (P < 0·0001). A clear-cut increase of IL-4+ lymphocytes characterizes patients with autoimmune thyroiditis who have associated non-endocrine autoimmune disorders. These findings may represent an initial tool to detect patients with autoimmune thyroiditis in which additional non-endocrine autoimmune disorders may be awaited. PMID:21623768

  2. Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Iddah, M. A.; Macharia, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of Review. Studies have been published in the field of autoimmune thyroid diseases since January 2005. The review is organized into areas of etiology, autoimmune features, autoantibodies, mechanism of thyroid cell injury, B-cell responses, and T-cell responses. Also it reviews the diagnosis and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disorders. Recent Findings. Autoimmune thyroid diseases have been reported in people living in different parts of the world including North America, Europe, Baalkans, Asia, Middle East, South America, and Africa though the reported figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected per year. Cases are unrecognized due to inaccurate diagnosis and hence are treated as other diseases. However, the most recent studies have shown that the human autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) affect up to 5% of the general population and are seen mostly in women between 30 and 50 years. Summary. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Overall, this review has expanded our understanding of the mechanism involved in pathogenesis of AITD and the relationship between autoimmune thyroid disease, neoplasm, and kidney disease. It has opened new lines of investigations that will ultimately result in a better clinical practice. PMID:23878745

  3. Autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Corrado, Alda; Di Domenicantonio, Andrea; Fallahi, Poupak

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) result from a dysregulation of the immune system leading to an immune attack on the thyroid. AITD are T cell-mediated organ-specific autoimmune disorders. The prevalence of AITD is estimated to be 5%; however, the prevalence of antithyroid antibodies may be even higher. The AITD comprise two main clinical presentations: Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), both characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the thyroid parenchyma. The clinical hallmarks of GD and HT are thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism, respectively. The mechanisms that trigger the autoimmune attack to the thyroid are still under investigation. Epidemiological data suggest an interaction among genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers as the key factor leading to the breakdown of tolerance and the development of disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of cytokines and chemokines in the pathogenesis of AT and GD. In thyroid tissue, recruited T helper 1 (Th1) lymphocytes may be responsible for enhanced IFN-? and TNF-? production, which in turn stimulates CXCL10 (the prototype of the IFN-?-inducible Th1 chemokines) secretion from the thyroid cells, therefore creating an amplification feedback loop, initiating and perpetuating the autoimmune process. Associations exist between AITD and other organ specific (polyglandular autoimmune syndromes), or systemic autoimmune disorders (Sjögren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, cryoglobulinemia, sarcoidosis, psoriatic arthritis). Moreover, several studies have shown an association of AITD and papillary thyroid cancer. These data suggest that AITD patients should be accurately monitored for thyroid dysfunctions, the appearance of thyroid nodules, and other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25461470

  4. Epilepsy in systemic autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Ignacio

    2014-09-01

    Autoimmunity and inflammation have been implicated as causative factors of seizures and epilepsy. Autoimmune disorders can affect the central nervous system as an isolated syndrome or be part of a systemic disease. Examples of systemic autoimmune disorders include systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatic arthritis, and Sjögren syndrome. Overall, there is a 5-fold increased risk of seizures and epilepsy in children with systemic autoimmune disorders. Various etiologic factors have been implicated in causing the seizures in these patients, including direct inflammation, effect on blood vessels (vasculitis), and production of autoantibodies. Potential treatments for this autoimmune injury include steroids, immunoglobulins, and other immune-modulatory therapies. A better understanding of the mechanisms of epileptogenesis in patients with systemic autoimmune diseases could lead to targeted treatments and better outcomes. PMID:25510945

  5. Systemic Effects of Non-Endocrine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, James D.; Rona, George

    1964-01-01

    Tumours of non-endocrine origin may exert deleterious effects by elaborating active principles which disturb body regulation. Systemic manifestations are fairly common with neoplasms of the lung, kidney, gastro-intestinal tract and thymus. The secretion of these tumours may have a known chemical structure (serotonin), may present hormone-like action (parathormone, antidiuretic hormone, insulinoid), or have well-defined biological properties (erythropoietin, gastrin-like principle). Tumours may stimulate endocrine glands by an unknown mechanism, producing disorders such as Cushing's syndrome, hypercalcemia, gynecomastia and hypoglycemia. Thymomas may be associated with autoimmune diseases. Tumours may extensively utilize or excrete some metabolite (glucose) or electrolyte (Na or K). Awareness of the systemic effects of various neoplasms may lead to an early diagnosis and proper treatment of these manifestations. PMID:14204555

  6. Celiac sprue: a unique autoimmune disorder

    PubMed Central

    Rashtak, Shadi; Marietta, Eric V; Murray, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Celiac sprue (CS) is a gluten-sensitive enteropathy with many autoimmune features. CS involves multiple organs through immune and nonimmune processes, and is frequently associated with other autoimmune disorders. This article reviews the co-occurrence of CS with autoimmune disorders of the cutaneous, nervous, endocrine, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. The types of autoimmune disorders associated with CS and the prevalence of CS in other autoimmune disorders are also discussed. A brief review of the literature on the potential mechanisms behind these associations and the therapeutic effects of a gluten-free diet for autoimmune comorbidities in CS is also provided. PMID:20477645

  7. Gene Therapy for Autoimmune Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Evans; S. C. Ghivizzani; T. J. Oligino; P. D. Robbins

    2000-01-01

    Although many autoimmune disorders do not have a strong genetic basis, their treatment may nevertheless be improved by gene therapies. Most strategies seek to transfer genes encoding immunomodulatory products that will alter host immune responses in a beneficial manner. Used in this fashion, genes serve as biological delivery vehicles for the products they encode. By this means gene therapy overcomes

  8. [Systemic autoimmune disorders and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Kiss, Emese; Kiss, Csaba György; Poór, Gyula

    2011-10-23

    The coincidence of systemic autoimmune diseases and pregnancy may modify the outcome of the disease and the pregnancy due to the background immunologic and hormonal processes. The great majority of patients with autoimmune diseases are young females in their reproductive years, willing to have babies. Consequently, we have to prepare for this special situation. Our concept on childbearing in autoimmune women has changed within the last 30 years. Earlier, systemic lupus erythematosus flared in about 50% of patients during pregnancy, but the flare rate has significantly decreased recently. This improvement can be attributed to increased attention to low diseases activity at the time of conception, which might reduce to the half of the risk for flare. Tight control of patients and appropriate use of corticosteroids also contribute to the better results. The adequate use of anti-thrombotic agents resulted in a significant amelioration of pregnancy outcome in antiphospholipid syndrome. The earlier use of methotrexate and the introduction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis have changed the natural characteristics of the disease. The increase in remission rate indirectly has beneficial effect on the number of planned and carried out pregnancies. Authors review the connection between systemic autoimmune disorders and pregnancy as well as the possibilities of medical treatment of such diseases during pregnancy. PMID:21983397

  9. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.

    PubMed

    Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

    2012-10-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

  10. Thyroid-associated autoimmune coagulation disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Massimo Franchini; Giuseppe Lippi; Franco Manzato; Pier Paolo Vescovi

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities of blood coagulation are not rarely observed in patients with thyroid dysfunctions and may range from subclinical\\u000a laboratory abnormalities to clinically significant hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications. In this review, we summarize the\\u000a current knowledge on thyroid-associated autoimmune coagulation disorders (i.e., autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura, antiphospholipid\\u000a syndrome, and autoantibodies against coagulation factor VIII) and discuss their laboratory characteristics, clinical impact,\\u000a and

  11. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Endocrinologic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katri Kaukinen; Pekka Collin; Anna-Helena Mykkanen; Jukka Partanen; Markku Maki; Jorma Salmi

    1999-01-01

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetesmellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease,and alopecia areata are at increased risk of celiacdisease. We investigated whether patients with more than one autoimmune endocrinologic disorder areeven more susceptible to celiac disease or haveceliac-type mucosal inflammation. All 62 patients foundto have such multiple diseases in 1994-1996 were investigated. Small bowel biopsy was performedon all voluntary nonceliac subjects. The

  12. Epilepsy Associated with Systemic Autoimmune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Devinsky, Orrin; Schein, Adam; Najjar, Souhel

    2013-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems. Brain involvement commonly causes seizures, which may be the presenting symptom. Systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjorgren's syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, sarcoidsosis, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, Behcet's, and Hashimoto's encephalopathy are reviewed. Mechanisms underlying CNS pathology in systemic autoimmune disorders—and specifically factors predisposing these patients—are discussed, including vascular disease (e.g., prothrombotic state, anticardiolipin antibody, emboli, vasculitis), antineuronal antibodies, immune complexes, cytokines, metabolic disorders, infection, and therapy. Diagnostic and therapeutic strategies must be individualized for both the disorder and the patient. Systemic autoimmune disorders affect multiple organ systems and frequently involve the central and peripheral nervous systems. Seizures are among the most common neurological manifestation and occasionally can be the presenting symptom. There are many causes of seizures in systemic autoimmune disorders (Table 1), and the first clinical challenge is to determine not only the cause but also the significance of seizures. In some cases, they are clues to metabolic or infectious disorders or medication toxicity; in other cases, seizures herald a life-threatening progression of the underlying illness. PMID:23646005

  13. Natural killer cells in human autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a critical role in early host defense against viruses. Through their cytolytic capacity and generation of cytokines and chemokines, NK cells modulate the activity of other components of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have been implicated in the initiation or maintenance of autoimmune responses. This review focuses on recent research elucidating a potential immunoregulatory role for NK cells in T-cell and B-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders in humans, with a particular focus on multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. A better understanding of the contributions of NK cells to the development of autoimmunity may lead to novel therapeutic targets in these diseases. PMID:23856014

  14. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders without and with autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can coexist with non-organ-specific or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the features between NMOSD without and with autoimmune diseases, and NMOSD with non-organ-specific and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Methods One hundred and fifty five NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases (n?=?115) and with autoimmune diseases (n?=?40) were enrolled. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases were divided by organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The clinical, laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging features between two groups were assessed. Results Motor deficit was less frequent in NMOSD patients with non-organ-specific autoimmune diseases (p?=?0.024). Cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell and protein, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin G were lower in NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases, while several autoantibodies seropositivity and thyroid indexes were significantly higher in NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases (p??0.05). NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases had higher brain abnormalities than NMOSD without autoimmune diseases (p?autoimmune diseases were similar. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases have high frequency of brain abnormalities. PMID:25135481

  15. Emerging patterns of genetic overlap across autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Most of the recently identified autoimmunity loci are shared among multiple autoimmune diseases. The pattern of genetic association with autoimmune phenotypes varies, suggesting that certain subgroups of autoimmune diseases are likely to share etiological similarities and underlying mechanisms of disease. In this review, we summarize the major findings from recent studies that have sought to refine genotype-phenotype associations in autoimmune disease by identifying both shared and distinct autoimmunity loci. More specifically, we focus on information from recent genome-wide association studies of rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, celiac disease, multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type 1 diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease. Additional work in this area is warranted given both the opportunity it provides to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms in autoimmunity and its potential to inform the development of improved diagnostic and therapeutic tools for this group on complex human disorders. PMID:22284131

  16. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki syndrome.

    PubMed

    Giordano, Paola; Lassandro, Giuseppe; Sangerardi, Maria; Faienza, Maria Felicia; Valente, Federica; Martire, Baldassarre

    2014-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

  17. Autoimmune haematological disorders in two Italian children with Kabuki Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Kabuki syndrome (also called Niikawa-Kuroki syndrome) is a rare genetic disease described for the first time in Japan, characterised by anomalies in multiple organ systems and often associated with autoimmune disorders and impaired immune response. We herein report the clinical history, the therapeutic approach and the outcome of two children with Kabuki syndrome who developed autoimmune haematological disorders (haemolytic anaemia and immune thrombocytopenia). Factors regarding differential diagnosis and interventions in better management of this syndrome and its complications are discussed. This is the first report of Italian children with autoimmune haematological disorders complicating Kabuki syndrome. PMID:24460868

  18. Cytokines and HCV-related autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ruffilli, Ilaria; Fallahi, Poupak

    2014-12-01

    Cytokines are intercellular mediators involved in viral control and liver damage being induced by infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The complex cytokine network operating during initial infection allows a coordinated, effective development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, HCV interferes with cytokines at various levels and escapes immune response by inducing a T-helper (Th)2/T cytotoxic 2 cytokine profile. Inability to control infection leads to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates into the liver parenchyma by interferon (IFN)-?-inducible CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)9, -10, and -11 chemokines, which results in sustained liver damage and eventually in liver cirrhosis. The most important systemic HCV-related extrahepatic diseases-mixed cryoglobulinemia, lymphoproliferative disorders, thyroid autoimmune disorders, and type 2 diabetes-are associated with a complex dysregulation of the cytokine/chemokine network, involving proinflammatory and Th1 chemokines. The therapeutical administration of cytokines such as IFN-? may result in viral clearance during persistent infection and revert this process. Theoretically agents that selectively neutralize CXCL10 could increase patient responsiveness to traditional IFN-based HCV therapy. Several studies have reported IL-28B polymorphisms and circulating CXCL10 may be a prognostic markers for HCV treatment efficacy in HCV genotype 1 infection. PMID:25381483

  19. Rapidly evolving hypopituitarism in a boy with multiple autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Jevalikar, Ganesh; Wong, Sze Choong; Zacharin, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    A 10-year-old boy with acute onset cranial diabetes insipidus and multiple autoimmune disorders had evolving panhypopituitarism, thought to be due to autoimmune hypophysitis. Over 18 months, a dramatic clinical course with progressive hypopituitarism and development of type 1 diabetes mellitus was evident. Serial brain imaging showed changes suggestive of germinoma. PMID:23586429

  20. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 3c with Ectodermal Dysplasia, Immune Deficiency and Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Büyükçelik, Mithat; Keskin, Mehmet; Keskin, Özlem; Bay, Ali; Demircio?lu K?l?ç, Beltinge; Kor, Y?lmaz; K?l?nç, M. Arda; Balat, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is a disorder which is associated with multiple endocrine gland insufficiency and also with non-endocrine manifestations. The pathophysiology of APS is poorly understood, but the hallmark evidence of APS is development of autoantibodies against multiple endocrine and non-endocrine organs. These autoantibodies are responsible for the dysfunction of the affected organs and sometimes may also cause non-endocrine organ dysfunction. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious and life-threatening disease which develops due to many etiological factors including autoimmune disorders. Here, we present an unusual case of APS. Ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency and HUS occurred concomitantly in the same patient with APS type 3c. Once the autoantibody generation was initiated in the human body, development of multiple disorders due to organ dysfunction and also autoantibody-related diseases may have occurred. PMID:24637310

  1. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS), also called polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGAS), are a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterized by autoimmune activity against more than one endocrine organs, although non-endocrine organs can be affected. The two major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes, (type1-type2/APS-1 and APS-2), both have Addison's disease as a prominent component. Further autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes include APS3 and APS4. The major autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes have a strong genetic component with the type 2 syndrome occurring in multiple generations and the type I syndrome in siblings. It is well recognized that more than 20years may elapse between the onset on one endocrinopathy and the diagnosis of the next, for example, almost 40-50% of subjects with Addison's disease will develop an associated endocrinopathy. The discovery of the polyendocrine autoimmune syndromes offered the possibility to understand autoimmune disorders with particular interest for type 1A diabetes and the neuroendocrine immunology (NEI) is further contributing to understand the links. PMID:24055063

  2. Rheumatic and autoimmune thyroid disorders: a causal or casual relationship?

    PubMed

    Bourji, Khalil; Gatto, Mariele; Cozzi, Franco; Doria, Andrea; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    A number of dysfunctions may affect the thyroid gland leading either to hyper- or hypothyroidism which are mediated by autoimmune mechanisms. Thyroid abnormalities may represent an isolated alteration or they may be the harbinger of forthcoming disorders as is the case of well-characterized polyendocrine syndromes. Also, they may precede or follow the appearance of rheumatic manifestations in patients affected with connective tissue diseases or rheumatoid arthritis. The mechanisms by which autoimmune thyroid disorders may be linked to systemic autoimmune diseases have not been fully unraveled yet, however alterations of common pathways are suggested by shared genetic variants affecting autoantigen presentation and regulation of the immune response. On the other hand, the higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders over rheumatic diseases compels the chance of a mere causal concomitancy in the same patient. The aim of our paper is to provide an overview of available data on thyroid involvement in different rheumatic diseases and to go over the main rheumatic manifestations in the context of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25315745

  3. Carpal tunnel syndrome as a herald of autoimmune rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B

    1997-01-01

    In six patients aged 59-71 years carpal tunnel syndrome, seemingly idiopathic, was followed by connective tissue disorders, in most cases autoimmune in nature. Patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome may therefore require long-term follow-up, if inflammatory rheumatic conditions are not to be missed. PMID:9155757

  4. Genetics of autoimmune diseases — disorders of immune homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Behrens; Peter K. Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    In the past few years, our extensive knowledge of the mammalian immune system and our increasing ability to understand the genetic causes of complex human disease have opened a window onto the pathways that lead to autoimmune disorders. In addition to the well-established role of genetic variation that affects the major histocompatibility complex, a number of rare and common variants

  5. Mycophenolate mofetil in autoimmune and inflammatory skin disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hossein C. Nousari; Alexander Sragovich; Arash Kimyai-Asadi; Diane Orlinsky; Grant J. Anhalt

    1999-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) has been widely used as an immunosuppressant in organ transplantation. MMF has recently been added to therapeutic regimens for skin disorders. Expanding the use of MMF in dermatology, we describe additional patients with autoimmune and inflammatory skin diseases, including 4 cases of pemphigus vulgaris, 1 case of pemphigus foliaceus, 1 case of perineal and metastatic cutaneous Crohn’s

  6. [A review on thyroid autoimmune disorders and HCV chronic infection].

    PubMed

    Di Domenicantonio, A; Politti, U; Marchi, S; De Bortoli, N; Giuggioli, D; Antonelli, A; Ferri, C

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographical signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender, vs healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with "HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia" (MC+HCV), a higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also compared to HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC+HCV or with HCV chronic infection, show an higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than in controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC+HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine than patients without thyroiditis. Probably, HCV thyroid infection acts by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes, that secrete interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, that may lead into the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function and nodules are recommanded in HCV patients. PMID:25366958

  7. Evaluation of autoimmune phenomena in patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Rigante, Donato; Lepri, Gemma; Bertini, Federico; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are basically characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infections. Poor data are available about the clear definition of PANDAS's autoimmune origin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune phenomena, including thyroid function abnormalities, specific celiac disease antibodies, and positivity of organ- or nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in a large cohort of Caucasian children and adolescents with PANDAS. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (59 males, 18 females; mean age 6.3±2.5 years, range 2.0-14.5 years) strictly fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were recruited. In all subjects we evaluated serum concentrations of free-T3, free-T4, thyrotropin, and the following auto-antibodies: anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyrotropin receptor, anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-extractable nuclear antigens, anti-phospholipid, plus lupus-like anticoagulant. The results were compared with those obtained from 197 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (130 males, 67 females; mean age 6.8±2.9 years, range 2.3-14.8 years). The frequencies of subclinical (3.8% vs 3.6%) and overt hypothyroidism (1.2% vs 0%), autoimmune thyroiditis (2.46% vs 1.14%), celiac disease (1.2% vs 0.05%), and positivity of organ- and nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (5.1% vs 4.8%) were not statistically significant between patients with PANDAS and controls. Evaluating the overall disease duration, we did not observe any significant difference between patients with (3.4±2.15 years) and without (3.4±2.89 years) autoimmune abnormalities. However, PANDAS patients with autoimmune diseases or positivity for any organ- and nonorgan-specific antibodies showed significantly higher anti-streptolysin O and anti-DNAse B titers, as well as a history of more frequent throat infections than controls (p<0.0001). Abnormalities of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune diseases, as well as the association with celiac disease or organ- and nonorgan-specific autoimmunity seem not more frequent in children and adolescents with PANDAS than in healthy controls. A potential relationship between autoimmunity and PANDAS should be assessed further in larger studies. Children and adolescents with PANDAS should not be actually screened for thyroid function, celiac disease and/or autoimmune diseases. PMID:25151976

  8. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders associated with other autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Eduardo; Guimarães, Joana

    2015-02-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating autoimmune disease with severe, tremendously incapacitating, consequences in the patient's health and wellbeing. Until 2004, NMO was considered a restricted type of multiple sclerosis but in the same year an auto-antibody reacting against aquaporin-4 (NMO-IgG) was found to be related with NMO and it was considered the main etiologic agent of this disease. Its detection is very sensitive and specific allowing an early diagnosis and a better treatment and prognosis. With this tool, a spectrum of diseases including other autoimmune diseases was found to have NMO-IgG antibodies and a new classification named NMO spectrum disorders was created. In this review, we sum up the developments in this field associated with other autoimmune diseases. We approach the latest discoveries in the diagnosis like the new biomarkers that will possibly be used in the close future or the developments in the neuroimaging techniques. We reviewed the literature and synthesized case reports of NMO patients with concurrent autoimmune diseases and the information from useful larger studies. Finally, we summarize the commonly used treatments in NMO and we try to specify the best treatment for NMO with simultaneous autoimmune disease. This review updates the information about this issue and raises the awareness of rheumatologists for these severe diseases. PMID:24952418

  9. Eosinophilic esophagitis: an autoimmune esophageal disorder.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Neha; Levine, Jeremiah

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal inflammatory disease associated with esophageal dysfunction resulting from severe inflammation. The incidence and prevalence of EoE have been increasing in the past decade; however, the reason for this increase is unclear. There is a chronic inflammatory infiltrate that is present in EoE which promotes inflammation, symptoms, and dysfunction. In addition to eosinophils, interleukin (IL)-5 expressing T cells, B cells, eotaxin-3, IL-13, and IgE-bearing mast cells are present in EoE and are thought to contribute to the disease process. Eosinophils are pro-inflammatory and modulate multiple aspects of the immune response. Eosinophils produce a wide range of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, granulocyte-monocyte colony-stimulating factors, and tumor necrosis factors. Once activated, eosinophils release granule components, which are toxic to a variety of tissues. Transforming growth factor ?1 is a pro-fibrotic molecule produced by epithelial and inflammatory cells, is overexpressed in EoE, and plays a role in esophageal remodeling. Fibrous remodeling in EoE could be associated with symptoms of dysphagia and may explain and predict future esophageal strictures and dysmotility. EoE is a complex disease involving multiple activation pathways, a large number of cells, and various inflammatory molecules. It, along with other atopic disease, is becoming increasingly prevalent and has an important genetic load and may represent as an immunological tolerance disorder of the GI tract. PMID:25499460

  10. Paedatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection in an Indian Adolescent--A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sachin; Vaish, Supriya; Chopra, Saurabh; Singh, Vindyaprakash; Sharma, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a unique constellation of signs and symptoms that exist in a subset of children with rapid onset or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders due to an initial autoimmune reaction to a Group A Beta Hemolytic…

  11. [Metabolic disorders and nutritional status in autoimmune thyroid diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawicka, Anna; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena; Regulska-Ilow, Bo?ena

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the authors of epidemiological studies have documented that autoimmune diseases are a major problem of modern society and are classified as diseases of civilization. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) are caused by an abnormal immune response to autoantigens present in the thyroid gland - they often coexist with other autoimmune diseases. The most common dysfunctions of the thyroid gland are hypothyroidism, Graves-Basedow disease and Hashimoto's disease. Hashimoto's thyroiditis can be the main cause of primary hypothyroidism of the thyroid gland. Anthropometric, biochemical and physicochemical parameters are used to assess the nutritional status during the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. Patients with hypothyroidism are often obese, whereas patients with hyperthyroidism are often afflicted with rapid weight loss. The consequence of obesity is a change of the thyroid hormones' activity; however, weight reduction leads to their normalization. The activity and metabolic rate of thyroid hormones are modifiable. ATDs are associated with abnormalities of glucose metabolism and thus increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2. Celiac disease (CD) also increases the risk of developing other autoimmune diseases. Malnutrition or the presence of numerous nutritional deficiencies in a patient's body can be the cause of thyroid disorders. Coexisting deficiencies of such elements as iodine, iron, selenium and zinc may impair the function of the thyroid gland. Other nutrient deficiencies usually observed in patients suffering from ATD are: protein deficiencies, vitamin deficiencies (A, C, B6, B5, B1) and mineral deficiencies (phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chromium). Proper diet helps to reduce the symptoms of the disease, maintains a healthy weight and prevents the occurrence of malnutrition. This article presents an overview of selected documented studies and scientific reports on the relationship of metabolic disorders and nutritional status with the occurrence of ATD. PMID:25614676

  12. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infection (PANDAS): a Controversial Diagnosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sheila Knupp Feitosa de Oliveira; Christina Feitosa Pelajo

    2010-01-01

    Despite more than a decade of studying pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection\\u000a (PANDAS), it is still not possible to confirm its existence and whether it is a poststreptococcal autoimmune disorder. Many\\u000a controversies remain: the diagnostic criteria have not been validated, evidence of autoimmunity remains inconclusive, evidence\\u000a of a genetic predisposition is weak, and streptococcal infections are common

  13. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Bianchini, S; Baggi, E; Fattizzo, M; Rigante, D

    2014-12-01

    The acronym PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) has been used to describe a syndrome characterized by various obsessions, compulsions, tics, hyperactivity, motor stereotypies, and paroxysmal movement disorders that are correlated with prior infection by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) infections. Five clinical criteria can be used to diagnose PANDAS: (1) the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or any other tic disorders; (2) prepuberal onset (between 3 years of age and the start of puberty); (3) abrupt onset and relapsing-remitting symptom course; (4) a distinct association with GABHS infection; and (5) association with neurological abnormalities during exacerbations (adventitious movements or motoric hyperactivity). The exact pathogenesis of PANDAS remains unclear, and several theories that focus on multiple etiologic or contributive factors have emerged. PANDAS appears to be a neurobiological disorder that potentially complicates GABHS infections in genetically susceptible individuals. The current standard of care for PANDAS patients remains symptomatic, and cognitive behavioral therapy, such as exposure and response prevention, combined with family counseling and psychoeducation, should be the first approach for treating PANDAS. This review examines current theories of PANDAS pathogenesis, identifies possible treatments for managing this complex condition, and highlights areas for future research. Moving forward, developing more standardized diagnostic criteria and identifying specific laboratory markers to facilitate PANDAS diagnoses are crucial. PMID:24953744

  14. Duration of exposure to gluten and risk for autoimmune disorders in patients with celiac disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Ventura; Giuseppe Magazzù; Luigi Greco

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: The relationship between celiac disease and many autoimmune disorders has been explained by the sharing of a common genetic factor. In a multicenter national study, we examined the relationship between the prevalence of autoimmune disorders in celiac disease and the duration of exposure to gluten. Methods: Over a 6-month period, 909 patients with celiac disease (group A;

  15. Useful biomarkers for assessment of hepatitis C virus infection-associated autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deng-Ho; Ho, Ling-Jun; Lai, Jenn-Haung

    2014-01-01

    During the course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, various extrahepatic manifestations of autoimmune disorders may occur, including arthralgia/arthritis, sicca complex, purpura, cutaneous ulcer, and thyroid dysfunction. In addition, the prevalence of circulating autoantibodies is high among patients with HCV infection. Commonly detected autoantibodies in HCV-infected patients include rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, anti-SSA/anti-SSB antibody, cryoglobulin, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, anti-smooth muscle antibody, anti-liver and anti-thyroid autoantibodies. These autoantibodies may be associated with underlying autoimmune disorders or liver inflammation in HCV infection. A possible reason for antibody production is overactivation and proliferation of B lymphocytes, via the interaction with the surface protein of HCV. Because immunotherapy can cause HCV flare-up or liver damage, overdiagnosis of HCV-related autoimmune symptoms as primary autoimmune disorders should be avoided. This review describes biomarkers that are useful in clinically evaluating autoimmune manifestations and disorders associated with HCV infection. PMID:24659887

  16. Dendritic cells in autoimmune disorders and cancer of the thyroid.

    PubMed

    Lewinski, Andrzej; Sliwka, Przemyslaw Wiktor; Stasiolek, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), considered as one of the crucial immune regulatory populations, are implicated in the immune pathology of various disorders. Also in the thyroid gland, DCs were shown to be involved in early and chronic phases of various types of autoimmunity - including Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease. In thyroid malignant processes, DCs are suggested as an important element of both tumour defence and tumour immune evasion mechanisms. Recent findings emphasize a crucial role of interactions between particular DC subsets and other regulatory cell populations (e.g. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells) in thyroid pathology. Additionally, an increasing attention has been paid to the control of DC function by thyrometabolic conditions. PMID:24802957

  17. Presence of systemic autoimmune disorders in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tektonidou, M; Anapliotou, M; Vlachoyiannopoulo..., P; Moutsopoulos, H

    2004-01-01

    Methods: 168 consecutive patients with ATD with positive antithyroid antibodies and 75 healthy subjects were tested for the presence of ANA. ANA positive patients were further evaluated by complete history, physical examination, blood and urine tests, and immunological studies. Patients with subjective xerophthalmia and xerostomia were examined by objective tests. Results: 58/168 (35%) patients with ATD were ANA positive compared with 7/75 (9%) healthy controls (p = 0.001). Of 58 ANA positive patients, 6 (10%) had anti-Ro antibodies, 1 had anti-Ro and anti-La antibodies, 7 (12%) had anti-dsDNA antibodies, and 7 (12%) had medium levels of IgG and/or IgM anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL). No healthy subjects had positive anti-dsDNA, antibodies against the extractable nuclear antigens, or aCL. 5/58 (9%) patients fulfilled the criteria for Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Two patients had features related to systemic lupus erythematosus. No healthy subjects had clinical or laboratory characteristics of systemic autoimmune disorders. Conclusion: ANA are detected in 1/3 of patients with ATD. Anti-dsDNA, anti-Ro, and aCL can also be found in ANA positive patients with ATD. SS occurs in about 1/10 of ANA positive patients with ATD. PMID:15308528

  18. Hair disorders associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Cassano, N; Amerio, P; D'Ovidio, R; Vena, G A

    2014-10-01

    Hair disorders are frequently observed in various systemic diseases, including autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), with predilection of lupus erythematosus (LE), followed by dermatomyositis (DM) and scleroderma. Hair disorders in CTDs may manifest as various clinical patterns, such as telogen hair loss, diffuse thinning or fragility of hair, and scarring alopecia. Less common hair disorders include anagen effluvium, alopecia areata, and trichomegaly. Some drugs used to treat CTDs may cause hair loss in a drug-related manner or hyperthrichosis. In the assessment of common hair loss patterns, such as telogen effluvium, the possible association with CTDs must be borne in mind and should not be overlooked. Alopecia appears to be a significant sign in the course of LE and especially systemic LE. In DM, the involvement of the scalp is common, and is often characterized by a diffuse, violaceous, scaly, non-scarring and symptomatic hair loss. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre is an uncommon localized form of morphea with involvement of the paramedian forehead and frontal scalp, where it is associated with cicatricial alopecia. The most important variant of scarring alopecia in the context of CTDs is that associated with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). In the diagnostic work-up of DLE-related cicatrical alopecia, histopathological and immunopathological studies are useful, and a relevant role has been attributed to dermatoscopy (trichoscopy) over the last years. Hair loss has been reported in several other CTDs, including mixed and undifferentiated CTDs, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, although it is likely to be underestimated in such diseases. PMID:24975949

  19. Multiple autoimmune haemopoietic disorders and insidious clonal proliferation of large granular lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Akashi, K; Shibuya, T; Taniguchi, S; Hayashi, S; Iwasaki, H; Teshima, T; Takamatsu, Y; Gondo, H; Okamura, T; Harada, M; Niho, Y

    1999-12-01

    We report a patient with clonal proliferation of CD3+8+TCRalphabeta+ large granular lymphocytes (LGL) presenting multiple episodes of autoimmune cytopenia, including autoimmune neutropenia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, and pure red cell aplasia. Each disorder appeared separately or as a combination during an 11-year clinical course. The increase of blood CD3+8+TCRalphabeta+ LGL was detected 6 years after the initial diagnosis of cytopenia, but the absolute number of LGL cells was always < 1.0 x 109/l. LGL cells were of monoclonal origin and had a chromosomal abnormality. LGL cells transiently responded to cyclosporine A therapy, which was also effective on all of these autoimmune cytopenias. Accordingly, an undetectable level of proliferation of a clonal LGL population could cause various autoimmune haemopoietic disorders. PMID:10583274

  20. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-02-15

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  1. Type 1 diabetes and polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Martin P; Matheis, Nina; Kahaly, George J

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder caused by inflammatory destruction of the pancreatic tissue. The etiopathogenesis and characteristics of the pathologic process of pancreatic destruction are well described. In addition, the putative susceptibility genes for T1D as a monoglandular disease and the relation to polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PAS) have also been well explored. The incidence of T1D has steadily increased in most parts of the world, especially in industrialized nations. T1D is frequently associated with autoimmune endocrine and non-endocrine diseases and patients with T1D are at a higher risk for developing several glandular autoimmune diseases. Familial clustering is observed, which suggests that there is a genetic predisposition. Various hypotheses pertaining to viral- and bacterial-induced pancreatic autoimmunity have been proposed, however a definitive delineation of the autoimmune pathomechanism is still lacking. In patients with PAS, pancreatic and endocrine autoantigens either colocalize on one antigen-presenting cell or are expressed on two/various target cells sharing a common amino acid, which facilitates binding to and activation of T cells. The most prevalent PAS phenotype is the adult type 3 variant or PAS type III, which encompasses T1D and autoimmune thyroid disease. This review discusses the findings of recent studies showing noticeable differences in the genetic background and clinical phenotype of T1D either as an isolated autoimmune endocrinopathy or within the scope of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome. PMID:25685279

  2. Autoimmune Complications after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Children with Nonmalignant Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Abdalla; Zaidman, Irena; Bergman, Reuven; Elhasid, Ronit; Ben-Arush, Myriam Weyl

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only curative treatment for many nonmalignant disorders, such as autoimmune disorders, inborn metabolic disorders, hemoglobinopathies, and immunodeficiency disorders. Autoimmune complications (AICs) after HSCT, such as autoimmune cytopenias, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, and autoimmune cutaneous manifestations, are still neither well defined nor characterized. Patients. Between 2000 and 2012, 92 patients (47 males, 45 females) were treated with HSCT in our hospital, 51 with congenital hemoglobinopathies, 19 with primary immunodeficiency disease, 10 with metabolic disorders, five with Fanconi anemia, three with aplastic anemia, and four with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Results. Mean age at HSCT was 6.4 years (range, 0.2–32 years) and mean duration of followup after HSCT was 6.81 years (range, 1–11 years). Sixteen (17.4%) patients developed chronic GVHD and five (5.4%) showed sclerodermatous features. Five (5.4%) patients were diagnosed with scleroderma manifestations, six (6.5%) with vitiligo, six (6.5%) with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), six (6.5%) with idiopathic thrombocytopenia, three (3.3%) with mild leucopenia, two (2.2%) with aplastic anemia, two (2.2%) (one boy, one girl) with autoimmune thyroid disease, and one (1.1%) with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusions. It was concluded that AICs are clinically significant complications after HSCT that contribute to morbidity but not to mortality. AICs are more frequent after HSCT for metabolic disorders, and sclerodermatous GVHD is more significant in children who underwent allogeneic HSCT for hemoglobinopathies. The potential to identify risk factors for AICs could lead to less morbidity and mortality and to maintain the patient's quality of life. PMID:24574898

  3. The Increased Risk for Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Raevuori, Anu; Haukka, Jari; Vaarala, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana M.; Gissler, Mika; Grainger, Marjut; Linna, Milla S.; Suokas, Jaana T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Research suggests autoimmune processes to be involved in psychiatric disorders. We aimed to address the prevalence and incidence of autoimmune diseases in a large Finnish patient cohort with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Methods Patients (N?=?2342) treated at the Eating Disorder Unit of Helsinki University Central Hospital between 1995 and 2010 were compared with general population controls (N?=?9368) matched for age, sex, and place of residence. Data of 30 autoimmune diseases from the Hospital Discharge Register from 1969 to 2010 were analyzed using conditional and Poisson regression models. Results Of patients, 8.9% vs. 5.4% of control individuals had been diagnosed with one or more autoimmune disease (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–2.0, P<0.001). The increase in endocrinological diseases (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.8–3.2, P<0.001) was explained by type 1 diabetes, whereas Crohn's disease contributed most to the risk of gastroenterological diseases (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4–2.5, P<0.001). Higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases among patients with eating disorders was not exclusively due to endocrinological and gastroenterological diseases; when the two categories were excluded, the increase in prevalence was seen in the patients both before the onset of the eating disorder treatment (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.1, P?=?0.02) and at the end of the follow-up (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1–1.8, P?=?0.01). Conclusions We observed an association between eating disorders and several autoimmune diseases with different genetic backgrounds. Our findings support the link between immune-mediated mechanisms and development of eating disorders. Future studies are needed to further explore the risk of autoimmune diseases and immunological mechanisms in individuals with eating disorders and their family members. PMID:25147950

  4. Mice Transgenic for Baff Develop Lymphocytic Disorders along with Autoimmune Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Mackay, Fabienne; Woodcock, Stephen A.; Lawton, Pornsri; Ambrose, Christine; Baetscher, Manfred; Schneider, Pascal; Tschopp, Jurg; Browning, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    The cause of many autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is unresolved, although dysregulated production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family members appears to be important in many cases. BAFF, a new member of the TNF family, binds to B cells and costimulates their growth in vitro. Mice transgenic for BAFF have vastly increased numbers of mature B and effector T cells, and develop autoimmune-like manifestations such as the presence of high levels of rheumatoid factors, circulating immune complexes, anti–DNA autoantibodies, and immunoglobulin deposition in the kidneys. This phenotype is reminiscent of certain human autoimmune disorders and suggests that dysregulation of BAFF expression may be a critical element in the chain of events leading to autoimmunity. PMID:10587360

  5. Biologics in children’s autoimmune disorders: efficacy and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Breda; Marianna Del Torto; Sara De Sanctis; Francesco Chiarelli

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases have led to the discovery of mechanisms of inflammation and\\u000a autoimmunity and have made possible the invention of new target-specific drugs. Biologic drugs, designed to inhibit specific\\u000a components of the immune system, such as cytokines, cytokine gene expression, and their complex interactions, have revolutionized\\u000a the treatment options in pediatric rheumatology. Only three

  6. Clinical and Pathological Implications of Concurrent Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders and Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, L. L.; Ferreira, R. C.; Marcello, M. A.; Vassallo, J.; Ward, L. S.

    2011-01-01

    Cooccurrences of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer (DTC) have been repeatedly reported. Both CLT and DTC, mainly papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), share some epidemiological and molecular features. In fact, thyroid lymphocytic inflammatory reaction has been observed in association with PTC at variable frequency, although the precise relationship between the two diseases is still debated. It also remains a matter of debate whether the association with a CLT or even an autoimmune disorder could influence the prognosis of PTC. A better understanding about clinical implications of autoimmunity in concurrent thyroid cancer could raise new insights of thyroid cancer immunotherapy. In addition, elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in autoimmune disease and concurrent cancer allowed us to identify new therapeutic strategies against thyroid cancer. The objective of this article was to review recent literature on the association of these disorders and its potential significance. PMID:21403889

  7. [Corneal melting after ocular surgery in patients with auto-immune disorders].

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, I J E; van Rooij, J; Hazes, J W M; van Cleynenbreugel, H; Geerards, A J M; Remeyer, L

    2007-04-21

    Two women aged 78 and 74 years respectively, both with dry eyes due to underlying auto-immune disorders, presented after uncomplicated cataract surgery with immunostromal corneal ulceration. Intensive topical lubrication combined with systemic immunosuppressants were necessary to control the corneal melt. Dry eyes are a frequently-encountered problem among patients with rheumatoid disorders and increase the risk of corneal melting. Auto-immune related corneal melting can occur spontaneously or after ocular surgery, it threatens visual acuity and ocular integrity and may be associated with systemic vasculitis. When treating patients with rheumatoid disorders, the presence of dry eyes and the accompanying risk of serious complications need to be ascertained. In patients at risk, pre-operative preventive measures to suppress any underlying systemic disorders and improve the ocular environment are necessary. When corneal melting is diagnosed, aggressive topical therapy combined with systemic immunosuppressants is indicated. PMID:17500345

  8. Leucocyte migration inhibition with mitochondria in human autoimmune thyroid disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wartenberg, Janina; Doniach, Deborah; Brostoff, J.; Roitt, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Leucocyte migration inhibition tests (LMT) with rat and human liver mitochondria are reported in forty-nine thyroid patients and forty-seven healthy controls. Whereas normal subjects and colloid goitre cases were inactive in this test, patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyrotoxicosis gave positive mitochondrial reactions which paralleled the organ-specific thyroid microsomal LMT obtained in the same patients and were not species dependent. The active antigen may be in the inner membranes of the particles. As with thyroid microsomes, intense inhibition with mitochondria was seen in the hypercellular variant of Hashimoto goitre characterized serologically by low or absent thyroglobulin antibodies, and the lowest LMT values occurred in the rare cases showing poor response to thyroxine therapy. An inverse correlation was found between mitochondrial LMT and thyroglobulin antibody titres. Surprisingly, weak LMT was also found in four thyroid patients who happened to have mitochondrial antibodies in the serum in addition to the usual thyroidspecific reactivities. The mitochondrial LMT appears to be of widespread occurrence in autoimmune diseases and also develops following tissue injury. Its possible significance in relation to cellular immunity, cell destruction and the inflammatory response is discussed. PMID:4740446

  9. Duration of gluten exposure in adult coeliac disease does not correlate with the risk for autoimmune disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Sategna Guidetti; E Solerio; N Scaglione; G Aimo; G Mengozzi

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMSDuration of gluten exposure seems to predispose adolescents with coeliac disease to autoimmune diseases. In a retrospective cohort study, we assessed the relationship between autoimmune disorders and actual gluten exposure in patients in whom coeliac disease was diagnosed in adult life (?16 years).METHODSWe screened for the presence of autoimmunity in 605 controls (16–84 years) and 422 patients (16–84

  10. Common Genetic Determinants of Uveitis Shared with Other Autoimmune Disorders1

    PubMed Central

    Mattapallil, Mary J.; Sahin, Azize; Silver, Phyllis B.; Sun, Shu-Hui; Chan, Chi-Chao; Remmers, Elaine F.; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding; Caspi, Rachel R.

    2008-01-01

    Uveitis is a complex multifactorial autoimmune disease of the eye characterized by inflammation of the uvea and retina, degeneration of the retina, and blindness in genetically predisposed patients. Using the rat model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), we previously identified three quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with EAU on rat chromosomes 4, 12, and 10 (Eau1, Eau2, and Eau3). The primary goal of the current study is to delineate additional non-MHC chromosomal regions that control susceptibility to EAU, and to identify any QTLs that overlap with the QTLs of other autoimmune diseases. Using a set of informative microsatellite markers and F2 generations of resistant and susceptible MHC class II-matched rat strains (F344 and LEW), we have identified several new significant or suggestive QTLs on rat chromosomes 2, 3, 7, 10, and 19 that control susceptibility to EAU. A protective allele was identified in the susceptible LEW strain in the Eau5 locus at D7Wox18, and epistatic interactions between QTLs were found to influence the severity of disease. The newly identified regions (Eau4 through Eau9) colocalize with the genetic determinants of other autoimmune disease models, and to disease-regulating syntenic regions identified in autoimmune patients on human chromosomes 4q21-31, 5q31-33, 16q22-24, 17p11-q12, 20q11-13, and 22q12-13. Our results suggest that uveitis shares some of the pathogenic mechanisms associated with other autoimmune diseases, and lends support to the “common gene, common pathway” hypothesis for autoimmune disorders. PMID:18453595

  11. Audit to assess the prevalence of autoimmune disorders among patients suffering from psychiatric illnesses.

    PubMed

    Vaja, Rakhee; Agius, Mark; Zaman, Rashid

    2013-09-01

    While knowledge of the aetiology of psychiatric disorders is complex and has not been fully elucidated, recently it has been noted that a sizeable proportion of psychiatric patients have coexisting immunological health conditions. It is debatable whether inflammatory factors plays a role in the aetiology of the psychiatric conditions, or if psychiatric conditions predispose to immune dysfunction. However, previous work has given weight to the theory that the immune system has important neuromodulatory roles in the brain, and disturbances in this system can lead to psychiatric manifestations. Epidemiological evidence is needed to explore the strength of the correlation between immune conditions and psychiatric disorders, and this audit attempts to investigate this potential association using the psychiatric patient databaseof Bedford East Community Mental Health Team (Bedfordshire, UK). In this audit, the patient information was analysed to obtain prevalence data for an array of autoimmune conditions. This was then compared to the expected prevalence of the same autoimmune conditions. The results showed that patients with each psychiatric condition had a higher than expected prevalence of autoimmune conditions overall. The most striking discrepancy was that the percentage of patients with coexisting hypothyroidism was higher than expected in almost every psychiatric condition recorded. Other patterns in prevalence of autoimmune conditions were also noted. A causative link between psychiatric and autoimmune diseases is still questionable, and this issue needs to be researched further in terms of prevalence data and aetiological evidence. There are significant implications for clinical practice if a greater incidence of autoimmune conditions among psychiatric patients is proven. This includes screening opportunities and risk assessments, as well as potential for new pharmacological therapies based around immune regulation. PMID:23995199

  12. Genome-wide Association Study of Dermatomyositis Reveals Genetic Overlap with other Autoimmune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Frederick W.; Cooper, Robert G.; Vencovsky, Jiri; Rider, Lisa G.; Danko, Katalin; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Pachman, Lauren M.; Reed, Ann M.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Padyukov, Leonid; Selva-O’Callaghan, Albert; Radstake, Timothy; Isenberg, David A.; Chinoy, Hector; Ollier, William E. R.; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Peng, Bo; Lee, Annette; Lamb, Janine A.; Chen, Wei; Amos, Christopher I.; Gregersen, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify new genetic associations with juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (DM). Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adult and juvenile DM patients of European ancestry (n = 1178) and controls (n = 4724). To assess genetic overlap with other autoimmune disorders, we examined whether 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, and previously associated with autoimmune diseases, predispose to DM. Results Compared to controls, patients with DM had a strong signal in the MHC region consisting of GWAS-level significance (P < 5x10?8) at 80 genotyped SNPs. An analysis of 141 non-MHC SNPs previously associated with autoimmune diseases showed that three SNPs linked with three genes were associated with DM, with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. These genes were phospholipase C like 1 (PLCL1, rs6738825, FDR=0.00089), B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK, rs2736340, FDR=0.00031), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21, rs951005, FDR=0.0076). None of these genes was previously reported to be associated with DM. Conclusion Our findings confirm the MHC as the major genetic region associated with DM and indicate that DM shares non-MHC genetic features with other autoimmune diseases, suggesting the presence of additional novel risk loci. This first identification of autoimmune disease genetic predispositions shared with DM may lead to enhanced understanding of pathogenesis and novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:23983088

  13. Autoimmune neurological disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Yasuo; Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimoda, Konomi; Kanda, Sachiko; Hoshino, Ai; Hanafusa, Yukiko; Kumada, Satoko; Kurihara, Eiji; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-08-01

    Although central nervous system (CNS) disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection occur only rarely, Sydenham's chorea is a well-recognized disease that can arise following infection. Children may develop a tic, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and extrapyramidal movement subsequent to GABHS infection. These disorders have been termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). Herein we report one case each of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), PANDAS and subacute encephalitis associated with GABHS infection. To evaluate the pathogenesis of the CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection, we measured levels of neurotransmitters, cytokines, anti-neuronal autoantibodies, and performed immunohistochemistry using patient sera to stain human brain sections. All three cases showed psychiatric behavioral disorders. Immunotherapy was effective, and homovanillic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were elevated at the acute stage in all three cases. In each case of ADEM and PANDAS, immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal impairment in the basal ganglia during the acute stage. Neuronal immunoreactivity was visualized in the cerebral cortex at the acute stage in the case of subacute encephalitis. There was no direct correlation between immunoreactivity of patient sera on the brain sections and positivity of anti-neuronal autoantibodies or CSF biomarkers. The results suggest that autoimmune responses may modulate neurotransmission, and the use of patient serum for immunohistochemistry is a sensitive screening method for the detection of anti-neuronal autoantibodies in CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection. PMID:23142103

  14. Interleukin-1 as a Common Denominator from Autoinflammatory to Autoimmune Disorders: Premises, Perils, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Cantarini, Luca; Vitale, Antonio; Iannone, Florenzo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Andreozzi, Laura; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rigante, Donato

    2015-01-01

    A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet's disease, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still's disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:25784780

  15. Interleukin-1 as a common denominator from autoinflammatory to autoimmune disorders: premises, perils, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Giuseppe; Cantarini, Luca; Vitale, Antonio; Iannone, Florenzo; Anelli, Maria Grazia; Andreozzi, Laura; Lapadula, Giovanni; Galeazzi, Mauro; Rigante, Donato

    2015-01-01

    A complex web of dynamic relationships between innate and adaptive immunity is now evident for many autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, the first deriving from abnormal activation of innate immune system without any conventional danger triggers and the latter from self-/non-self-discrimination loss of tolerance, and systemic inflammation. Due to clinical and pathophysiologic similarities giving a crucial role to the multifunctional cytokine interleukin-1, the concept of autoinflammation has been expanded to include nonhereditary collagen-like diseases, idiopathic inflammatory diseases, and metabolic diseases. As more patients are reported to have clinical features of autoinflammation and autoimmunity, the boundary between these two pathologic ends is becoming blurred. An overview of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders, PFAPA syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, uveitis, pericarditis, Behçet's disease, gout, Sjögren's syndrome, interstitial lung diseases, and Still's disease is presented to highlight the fundamental points that interleukin-1 displays in the cryptic interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:25784780

  16. Is fibromyalgia an autoimmune disorder of endogenous vasoactive neuropeptides?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R Staines

    2004-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder characterised by soft tissue pain, disturbance of function an often prolonged course and variable fatigue and debility. A clearly defined aetiology has not been described. This paper proposes that immunological aberration is likely and this may prove to be associated with an expanding group of novel vasoactive neuropeptides. Vasoactive neuropeptides act as hormones, neurotransmitters, immune

  17. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePLUS

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider ...

  18. Design of Peptide Immunotherapies for MHC Class-II-Associated Autoimmune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune disorders, that occur when autoreactive immune cells are induced to activate their responses against self-tissues, affect one percent of the world population and represent one of the top 10 leading causes of death. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a principal susceptibility locus for many human autoimmune diseases, in which self-tissue antigens providing targets for pathogenic lymphocytes are bound to HLA molecules encoded by disease-associated alleles. In spite of the attempts to design strategies for inhibition of antigen presentation targeting the MHC-peptide/TCR complex via generation of blocking antibodies, altered peptide ligands (APL), or inhibitors of costimulatory molecules, potent therapies with minimal side effects have yet to be developed. Copaxone (glatiramer acetate, GA) is a random synthetic amino acid copolymer that reduces the relapse rate by about 30% in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Based on the elucidated binding motifs of Copaxone and of the anchor residues of the immunogenic myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide to HLA-DR molecules, novel copolymers have been designed and proved to be more effective in suppressing MS-like disease in mice. In this report, we describe the rationale for design of second-generation synthetic random copolymers as candidate drugs for a number of MHC class-II-associated autoimmune disorders. PMID:24324511

  19. Celiac disease and transglutaminase 2: Model for posttranslational modification of antigens and HLA association in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sollid, Ludvig M.; Jabri, Bana

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modification (PTM) of antigen is a way to break T-cell tolerance to self-antigens and promote autoimmunity. However, the precise mechanisms by which modifications would facilitate autoimmune T-cell responses and how they relate to particular autoimmune-associated MHC molecules remain elusive. Celiac disease is a T-cell mediated enteropathy with a strong HLA association where the immune response is directed mainly against deamidated cereal gluten peptides that have been modified by the enzyme transglutaminase 2. The disease is further characterized by autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 that have extraordinary high disease specificity and sensitivity. There have been important advances in the knowledge of celiac disease pathogenesis, and these insights may be applicable to other autoimmune disorders where posttranslational modification plays a role. This insight gives clues for understanding the involvement of PTMs in other autoimmune diseases. PMID:21917438

  20. Lyme disease and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): an overview

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Hanna; Cameron, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    Lyme disease (LD) is a complex, multisystemic illness. As the most common vector- borne disease in the United States, LD is caused by bacterial spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, with potential coinfections from agents of anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and ehrlichiosis. Persistent symptoms and clinical signs reflect multiorgan involvement with episodes of active disease and periods of remission, not sparing the coveted central nervous system. The capability of microorganisms to cause and exacerbate various neuropsychiatric pathology is also seen in pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), a recently described disorder attributed to bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus in which neurologic tics and obsessive-compulsive disorders are sequelae of the infection. In the current overview, LD and PANDAS are juxtaposed through a review of their respective infectious etiologies, clinical presentations, mechanisms of disease development, courses of illness, and treatment options. Future directions related to immunoneuropsychiatry are also discussed. PMID:22393303

  1. Familial Autoimmune Thyroid Disease as a Risk Factor for Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A CPEA Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia A. Molloy; Ardythe L. Morrow; Jareen Meinzen-Derr; Geraldine Dawson; Raphael Bernier; Michelle Dunn; Susan L. Hyman; William M. McMahon; Julie Goudie-Nice; Susan Hepburn; Nancy Minshew; Sally Rogers; Marian Sigman; M. Anne Spence; Helen Tager-Flusberg; Fred R. Volkmar; Catherine Lord

    2006-01-01

    A multicenter study of 308 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was conducted through the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to compare the family history of autoimmune disorders in children with ASD with and without a history of regression. A history of regression was determined from the

  2. Familial Autoimmune Thyroid Disease as a Risk Factor for Regression in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A CPEA Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molloy, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Ardythe L.; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Dawson, Geraldine; Bernier, Raphael; Dunn, Michelle; Hyman, Susan L.; McMahon, William M.; Goudie-Nice, Julie; Hepburn, Susan; Minshew, Nancy; Rogers, Sally; Sigman, Marian; Spence, M. Anne; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Volkmar, Fred R.; Lord, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    A multicenter study of 308 children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was conducted through the Collaborative Programs of Excellence in Autism (CPEA), sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, to compare the family history of autoimmune disorders in children with ASD with and without a history of regression. A…

  3. A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Toufexis, Megan; Deoleo, Caroline; Elia, Josephine; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is an infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Children with a pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) phenotype may have tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms secondary to a systemic immune activation by GAS infecting perianal areas. In this retrospective case series, the authors describe three children with symptoms consistent with PANDAS and a confirmed perianal streptococcal dermatitis as the likely infectious trigger. Concomitant perianal dermatitis and new-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics are strong indications for perianal culture and rapid antigen detection test in young children. PMID:24763762

  4. High rates of autoimmune and endocrine disorders, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome and atopic diseases among women with endometriosis: a survey analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Sinaii; S. D. Cleary; M. L. Ballweg; L. K. Nieman; P. Stratton

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Women with endometriosis may also have associated disorders related to autoimmune dysregulation or pain. This study examined whether the prevalence of autoimmune, chronic pain and fatigue and atopic disorders is higher in women with endometriosis than in the general female population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 1998 by the Endometriosis Association of 3680 USA members

  5. A review of the current literature and a guide to the early diagnosis of autoimmune disorders associated with neuromyelitis optica.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Anand; Elsone, Liene; Appleton, Richard; Jacob, Anu

    2014-05-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an immune-mediated neurological disorder characterised by recurrent episodes of optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. A serum biomarker, aquaporin-4 IgG, the autoantibody against aquaporin-4 water channel, has been specifically associated with NMO and has assisted early recognition and prediction of relapses. Less commonly, a monophasic course, associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein has been reported. Specific diagnostic criteria have been defined; however, some cases that do not fulfil these criteria (but are nevertheless associated with aquaporin-4 IgG) are classified as NMO spectrum disorder and follow the same relapsing course. An ever-growing list of autoimmune disorders, both organ-specific and non-organ-specific, have been associated in up to 20-30% of patients with NMO. These disorders, which may become symptomatic before or after the development of NMO, are often diagnosed long after the diagnosis of NMO, as symptoms may be wrongly attributed to NMO, its residual effects or medication side effects. In addition, autoantibodies can be found in patients with NMO without coexisting disease (up to 40% in some series) and maybe suggestive of a heightened humoral immune response. We present a comprehensive review of the current literature on autoimmune disorders co-existing with NMO and identified 22 autoimmune conditions (myasthenia gravis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, sclerosing cholangitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, Sjogren's syndrome, autoimmune hypothyroidism, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, pernicious anaemia, narcolepsy, pemphigus foliaceus, alopecia areata, psoriasis, scleroderma, dermatitis herpetiformis, polymyositis, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, paraneoplastic disorders, insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and autoimmune encephalitis). PMID:24512514

  6. Antigen and substrate withdrawal in the management of autoimmune thrombotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Keith R.; Zheng, X. Long; Sachais, Bruce S.; Luning Prak, Eline T.; Siegel, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevailing approaches to manage autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, antiphospholipid syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, include immunosuppression and systemic anticoagulation, though neither provides optimal outcome for many patients. A different approach is suggested by the concurrence of autoantibodies and their antigenic targets in the absence of clinical disease, such as platelet factor 4 in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and ?2-glycoprotein-I (?2GPI) in antiphospholipid syndrome. The presence of autoantibodies in the absence of disease suggests that conformational changes or other alterations in endogenous protein autoantigens are required for recognition by pathogenic autoantibodies. In thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the clinical impact of ADAMTS13 deficiency caused by autoantibodies likely depends on the balance between residual antigen, that is, enzyme activity, and demand imposed by local genesis of ultralarge multimers of von Willebrand factor. A corollary of these concepts is that disrupting platelet factor 4 and ?2GPI conformation (or ultralarge multimer of von Willebrand factor oligomerization or function) might provide a disease-targeted approach to prevent thrombosis without systemic anticoagulation or immunosuppression. Validation of this approach requires a deeper understanding of how seemingly normal host proteins become antigenic or undergo changes that increase antibody avidity, and how they can be altered to retain adaptive functions while shedding epitopes prone to elicit harmful autoimmunity. PMID:22966172

  7. Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Donoviel, Michael S; Nouraldeen, Amr; Tarver, James; Fu, Qinghong; Carlsen, Marianne; Jessop, Theodore C; Zhang, Haiming; Hazelwood, Jill; Nguyen, Huy; Baugh, Simon D P; Gardyan, Michael; Terranova, Kristen M; Barbosa, Joseph; Yan, Jack; Bednarz, Mark; Layek, Suman; Courtney, Lawrence F; Taylor, Jerry; Digeorge-Foushee, Ann Marie; Gopinathan, Suma; Bruce, Debra; Smith, Traci; Moran, Liam; O'Neill, Emily; Kramer, Jeff; Lai, Zhong; Kimball, S David; Liu, Qingyun; Sun, Weimei; Yu, Sean; Swaffield, Jonathan; Wilson, Alan; Main, Alan; Carson, Kenneth G; Oravecz, Tamas; Augeri, David J

    2009-07-01

    During nearly a decade of research dedicated to the study of sphingosine signaling pathways, we identified sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) as a drug target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. S1PL catalyzes the irreversible decomposition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by a retro-aldol fragmentation that yields hexadecanaldehyde and phosphoethanolamine. Genetic models demonstrated that mice expressing reduced S1PL activity had decreased numbers of circulating lymphocytes due to altered lymphocyte trafficking, which prevented disease development in multiple models of autoimmune disease. Mechanistic studies of lymphoid tissue following oral administration of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI) 3 showed a clear relationship between reduced lyase activity, elevated S1P levels, and lower levels of circulating lymphocytes. Our internal medicinal chemistry efforts discovered potent analogues of 3 bearing heterocycles as chemical equivalents of the pendant carbonyl present in the parent structure. Reduction of S1PL activity by oral administration of these analogues recapitulated the phenotype of mice with genetically reduced S1PL expression. PMID:19489538

  8. Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Treatment of Twelve Youths with Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Miro; Grant, Paul; Swedo, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    This is a case series describing 12 youths treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Although it is a clinically based series, the case reports provide new information about the short-term benefits of IVIG therapy, and are the first descriptions of long-term outcome for PANDAS patients. PMID:25658609

  9. Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients with CP. PMID:25198679

  10. Clinical Consequences of Targeting IL-17 and TH17 in Autoimmune and Allergic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Keven M.; Manni, Michelle L.; Biswas, Partha S.; Alcorn, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The TH17 lineage of T cells and its canonical cytokine IL-17 have been the focus of many recent studies in autoimmune, allergic, and infectious disease. In this review, we will briefly discuss the current knowledge about the role of these cells and IL-17 in a spectrum of disorders. It is clear that IL-17 plays pathogenic roles in certain conditions while the same pathway is critically important to immunity in others. Targeting of TH17 cells or IL-17 therapeutically may impart many benefits, but this approach is not without potentially serious implications regarding host defense. These issues will be discussed herein as we evaluate pharmacological approaches targeting this pathway that are just beginning to be fully tested in human disease. PMID:23760974

  11. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with group a streptococcal infection: the role of surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Pavone, P; Rapisarda, V; Serra, A; Nicita, F; Spalice, A; Parano, E; Rizzo, R; Maiolino, L; Di Mauro, P; Vitaliti, G; Coco, A; Falsaperla, A; Trifiletti, R R; Cocuzza, S

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS) is a well-defined syndrome in which tics (motor and/or vocal) and/or obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) consistently exacerbate in temporal correlation to a Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal infection. In children with PANDAS, there is speculation about whether tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy might improve the neuropsychiatric course. Our objective was to examine whether such surgery impacted remission or, in patients without remission, modified clinical course of the disease, streptococcal antibody titers, neuronal antibodies or clinical severity of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and/or tics. Study participants (n = 120) with positive PANDAS criteria were recruited, examined, and divided into surgical or non-surgery groups. The surgical group consisted of children with tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy (n=56). The remaining children were categorized as non-surgery (n=64). Clinical follow-up was made every 2 months for more than 2 years. Surgery did not affect symptomatology progression, streptococcal and neuronal antibodies, or the clinical severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms in these children. In conclusion, in our series clinical progression, antibody production, and neuropsychiatric symptom severity did not differ on the basis of surgical status. We cannot uphold surgical management as likely to impact positive remission rates, course of OCD/tics, or antibody concentrations in children with PANDAS. PMID:25280028

  12. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... JavaScript on. Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare genetic disorder ...

  13. An intelligent and cost-effective computer dosing system for individualizing FK506 therapy in transplantation and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    McMichael, J; Lieberman, R; Doyle, H; McCauley, J; Fung, J; Starzl, T E

    1993-07-01

    The accuracy and precision of an intelligent dosing system (IDS) for FK506 in predicting doses to achieve target drug levels has been prospectively evaluated in transplant and autoimmune patients. For dose individualization, the knowledge base is updated with patient-specific feedback including the current dose, drug level, and the new target level. The study population of 147 patients consisted of 97 transplant patients (liver and kidney) and 50 patients with autoimmune disorders. Patients in the transplant study group were entered sequentially and followed as a cohort. Patients in the autoimmune study group were randomly assigned to one of three predefined FK506 concentration windows (low, 0.1-.3; medium, 0.4-.7; and high, 0.8-1.3 ng/mL) as part of a concentration controlled clinical trial. Predictions of steady-state plasma drug levels were made throughout the clinical course of autoimmune patients and during the first 6 weeks post-transplant in liver and kidney recipients. FK506 concentration in plasma was measured by a monoclonal antibody based ELISA assay. Accuracy was computed as the mean prediction error (mpe). Precision was computed as the root mean squared prediction error (rmspe). The accuracy of the IDS in each study group was as follows: 0.016 ng/mL (liver), -0.034 ng/mL (kidney), and -0.022 ng/mL (autoimmune). Because the 95% confidence interval included zero in each case, the IDS showed no bias. The precision of the IDS in each study group was as follows: 0.133 ng mL (liver), 0.1903 ng/mL (kidney), and 0.1188 ng/mL (autoimmune). These results indicate that the FK506 IDS is both accurate and very precise (reproducible) in transplant and autoimmune patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7690046

  14. Autoimmune encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of 11 autoimmune encephalitic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  15. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC)—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by one study, but needs replication in larger trials. Overall, the available evidence does not convincingly support the concept that PANDAS are a well-defined, isolated clinical entity subdued by definite pathophysiological mechanisms; larger, prospective studies are necessary to reshape the nosography and disease mechanisms of post-streptococcal acute neuropsychiatric disorders other than SC. Research is also under way to shed further light on a possible relationship between streptococcal infections, other biological and psychosocial stressors, and the complex pathobiology of chronic tic disorders. PMID:24106651

  16. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept.

    PubMed

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham's chorea (SC)-the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder-and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo's criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by one study, but needs replication in larger trials. Overall, the available evidence does not convincingly support the concept that PANDAS are a well-defined, isolated clinical entity subdued by definite pathophysiological mechanisms; larger, prospective studies are necessary to reshape the nosography and disease mechanisms of post-streptococcal acute neuropsychiatric disorders other than SC. Research is also under way to shed further light on a possible relationship between streptococcal infections, other biological and psychosocial stressors, and the complex pathobiology of chronic tic disorders. PMID:24106651

  17. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2, alopecia universalis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Protic, Marijana; Gligorijevic, Vladimir; Bojic, Daniela; Popovic, Bojana; Damjanovic, Svetozar; Jojic, Njegica

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are defined as a spectrum of association between 2 or more organ specific endocrinopaties and non-endocrine autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes type 2 is characterized by the coexistence of adrenal failure with autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1. Inflammatory bowel diseases are rarely associated with these autoimmune disorders. Here, we report about a case of 33 years old male with known history of Crohn's colitis diagnosed in childhood. In 2003 the patient experienced sudden loss of hair, eyebrows, eyelashes, beard and body hair - alopecia universalis was diagnosed. At the age of 28, the patient was hospitalized with severe dehydration and clinical signs of ketoacidosis. Increased blood glucose (40 mmol/L), ketonuria and metabolic acidosis indicated diabetes mellitus type 1. In 2005, he had severe relapse of Crohn's disease and was treated with systemic corticosteroid. Although patient responded well to the induction therapy, fatigue, hypotension, bradycardia called for further investigations: free thyroxine - 6.99 pmol/L, thyroid-stimulating hormone >75 U/ml, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies >1000 U/mL, so diagnosis of Haschimoto thyroiditis was confirmed. Persistent hypotension and fatigue, recurrent hypoglycemic crises indicated a possible presence of hypo-function of adrenal glands. After complete withdrawal of corticosteroid therapy, low cortisol levels (69.4 nmol/L) and positive tetracosactide stimulation test proved adrenal cortex failure. Regardless of the intensive treatment for diabetes, hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and Crohn's disease, it was extremely difficult to achieve and maintain control of all four diseases. PMID:22677116

  18. Markers of procoagulant imbalance in patients with localized melanomas and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Tripodi, A; Mannucci, P M; Chantarangkul, V; Bottasso, B; Arbini, A A; Della Bella, S; Scorza, R

    1993-08-01

    Hypercoagulability can be defined as a condition of procoagulant imbalance due to heightened enzymatic activation of coagulation zymogens, but with no laboratory evidence of fibrin deposition nor clinical signs of thrombosis. The imbalance can be detected by measuring the plasma levels of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), fibrinopeptide A (FPA) and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes. The aims of this study were to establish the frequency of existence and biochemical pattern of hypercoagulability in patients with cancer and autoimmune disorders, clinical conditions associated with an increased risk of thrombosis, and to ascertain the most sensitive method for its diagnosis. In approximately one-fourth of the patients hypercoagulability was identified by finding high levels of FPA F1 + 2 or TAT unaccompanied by signs of fibrin deposition (expressed by normal levels of D-dimer). In a smaller proportion of patients (approximately 10%), the concomitant presence of high levels of D-dimer indicated that the activation of the coagulation cascade had gone beyond the stage of heightened enzymatic activity to the point of cross-linked fibrin deposition. Of the markers used to detect hypercoagulability. FPA seems to be the most sensitive, being significantly increased in all clinical conditions studied. PMID:8217826

  19. Assessment of thyroid disorders and autoimmunity in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Acay, Akif; Ulu, Memnune Sena; Ahsen, Ahmet; Eroglu, Selma; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Yuksel, Seref; Acarturk, Gursel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a significant increase in thyroid autoimmunity, and disorders in patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs). We enrolled 201 patients with RDs (41 with ankylosing spondylitis, 15 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 80 with rheumatoid arthritis [RA], 65 with familial Mediterranean fever), and 122 healthy controls. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), C-reactive protein, and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase) were measured in all participants. There were no significant differences between the ages of the patients and controls. The mean TSH values of the patients with RDs and the controls were 3.1 ± 2.68 mIU/L and 1.9 ± 0.83 mIU/L, respectively (P = 0.004). The mean fT4 value of the patients with RDs was 1.43 ± 0.67 ng/dL whereas that of the controls was 1.58 ± 0.68 ng/dL (P <0.001). Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 24 patients with RDs. Thyroid antibodies were detected in 16 of 201 (8%) patients with RDs. Three of these patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, while the others were euthyroid. Thyroid autoantibodies were significantly higher in patients with RDs (P <0.001). Additionally, thyroid disorders were observed more frequently in patients with RDs than in the healthy controls. Based on our findings, we recommend that thyroid function tests should better be included in the clinical evaluation of patients with RDs. PMID:24965722

  20. Opportunistic Autoimmune Disorders Potentiated by Immune-Checkpoint Inhibitors Anti-CTLA-4 and Anti-PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yi-chi M.; Flynn, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of immunotherapy for cancer and autoimmune diseases, recent ongoing and completed clinical trials have focused on specific targets to redirect the immune network toward eradicating a variety of tumors and ameliorating the self-destructive process. In a previous review, both systemic immunomodulators and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), anti-CTLA-4, and anti-CD52, were discussed regarding therapeutics and autoimmune sequelae, as well as predisposing factors known to exacerbate immune-related adverse events (irAEs). This review will focus on immune-checkpoint inhibitors, and the data from most clinical trials involve blockade with anti-CTLA-4 such as ipilimumab. However, despite the mild to severe irAEs observed with ipilimumab in ~60% of patients, overall survival (OS) averaged ~22–25% at 3–5?years. To boost OS, other mAbs targeting programed death-1 and its ligand are undergoing clinical trials as monotherapy or dual therapy with anti-CTLA-4. Therapeutic combinations may generate different spectrum of opportunistic autoimmune disorders. To simulate clinical scenarios, we have applied regulatory T cell perturbation to murine models combined to examine the balance between thyroid autoimmunity and tumor-specific immunity. PMID:24904570

  1. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells and dermatological disorders : focus on their role in autoimmunity and tumors

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in the initiation of the pathological process of autoimmune diseases such as lupus or psoriasis. Their function words Interferon alpha Lupus Melanoma Plasmacytoid dendritic cell Psoriasis Toll-like receptor ligand

  2. Passive transfer of streptococcus-induced antibodies reproduces behavioral disturbances in a mouse model of pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Yaddanapudi; M Hornig; R Serge; J De Miranda; A Baghban; G Villar; W I Lipkin

    2010-01-01

    Streptococcal infections can induce obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders. In children, this syndrome, frequently associated with disturbances in attention, learning and mood, has been designated pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Autoantibodies recognizing central nervous system (CNS) epitopes are found in sera of most PANDAS subjects, but may not be unique to this neuropsychiatric subset. In support of

  3. Processing of mutated human proinsulin to mature insulin in the non-endocrine cell line, CHO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. N. Hunt; A. S. Tait; P. P. Gray; M. J. Sleigh

    1996-01-01

    Heterologous genes encoding proproteins, including proinsulin, generally produce mature protein when expressed in endocrine cells while unprocessed or partially processed protein is produced in non-endocrine cells. Proproteins, which are normally processed in the regulated pathway restricted to endocrine cells, do not always contain the recognition sequence for cleavage by furin, the endoprotease specific to the constitutive pathway, the principal protein

  4. Upregulation of lymphocyte apoptosis as a strategy for preventing and treating autoimmune disorders: a role for whole-food vegan diets, fish oil and dopamine agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F. McCarty

    2001-01-01

    Induced apoptosis of autoreactive T-lymphocyte precursors in the thymus is crucial for the prevention of autoimmune disorders. IGF-I and prolactin, which are lymphocyte growth factors, may have the potential to suppress apoptosis in thymocytes and thus encourage autoimmunity; conversely, dietary fish oil rich in omega-3 fats appears to upregulate apoptosis in lymphocytes. Since whole-food vegan diets may downregulate systemic IGF-I

  5. Treatment of dermatologic connective tissue disease and autoimmune blistering disorders in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Braunstein, Inbal; Werth, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune skin disease occurs in pregnancy, and treatment is often required to control both maternal disease and fetal outcomes. Here we present the available safety data in pregnancy and lactation for medications used to treat autoimmune skin diseases, including cutaneous lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis, morphea and systemic sclerosis, pemphigus vulgaris, pemphigus foliaceus, and pemphigoid gestationis. A PubMed search of the English-language literature using keywords, "pregnancy" "rheumatic disease," and "connective tissue disease" was performed. Relevant articles found in the search and references were included. Reasonable evidence supports the careful and cautious use of topical steroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors, systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and azathioprine in pregnancy. Case reports or clinical experience suggest intravenous immunoglobulin, dapsone, phototherapy, rituximab, and plasmapheresis may be safe. Several treatment options exist for autoimmune skin disease in pregnancy and lactation, and should be considered when treating these patients. PMID:23914893

  6. Improvement of preclinical animal models for autoimmune-mediated disorders via reverse translation of failed therapies.

    PubMed

    't Hart, Bert A; Jagessar, S Anwar; Kap, Yolanda S; Haanstra, Krista G; Philippens, Ingrid H C H M; Serguera, Che; Langermans, Jan; Vierboom, Michel

    2014-09-01

    The poor translational validity of autoimmune-mediated inflammatory disease (AIMID) models in inbred and specific pathogen-free (SPF) rodents underlies the high attrition of new treatments for the corresponding human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a frequently used preclinical AIMID model. We discuss here how crucial information needed for the innovation of current preclinical models can be obtained from postclinical analysis of the nonhuman primate EAE model, highlighting the mechanistic reasons why some therapies fail and others succeed. These new insights can also help identify new targets for treatment. PMID:24704460

  7. Biologics-induced autoimmune renal disorders in chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases: systematic literature review and analysis of a monocentric cohort.

    PubMed

    Piga, Matteo; Chessa, Elisabetta; Ibba, Valentina; Mura, Valentina; Floris, Alberto; Cauli, Alberto; Mathieu, Alessandro

    2014-08-01

    The use of biologic drugs has been linked with the paradoxical development of systemic and organ specific autoimmune processes. The aim of this study was to describe the features of biologics-induced autoimmune renal disorders (AIRD) through a systematic review and a cohort study of 707 adult patients affected with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), Ankylosing Spondylitis (SA) and Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA). The literature search identified 2687 articles of which 21 were considered relevant for the present study, accounting for 26 case reports. The cohort analysis retrieved 3 cases. According to clinical manifestations and kidney histology the identified AIRD cases were classified as: a) glomerulonephritis associated with systemic vasculitis (GNSV), b) glomerulonephritis in lupus-like syndrome (GNLS), c) isolated autoimmune renal disorders (IARD). Twenty-two out of 29 cases with AIRD were reported in patients affected by RA, 5 in AS and 2 in PsA. The biologic drug most frequently associated with development of AIRD was Etanercept (15 cases, 51.7%), followed by Adalimumab (9 cases, 31.0%) and Infliximab (3 cases, 10.3%) while Tocilizumab and Abatacept were reported in 1 case (3.4%) for each. Thirteen out of 29 (44.8%) cases were classified as affected by IARD, 12 (41.3%) as GNSV and 4 (13.9%) as GNLS. Worse prognosis was associated with GNSV and lack of biologic withdrawal. Although rare, AIRD may be life-threatening and may lead to renal failure and death. If AIRD occurs, biologic drugs must be stopped and patient should be treated according to clinical manifestations and kidney biopsy findings. PMID:24840285

  8. A possible mechanism behind autoimmune disorders discovered by genome-wide linkage and association analysis in celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Östensson, Malin; Montén, Caroline; Bacelis, Jonas; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H; Adamovic, Svetlana; Ek, Johan; Ascher, Henry; Pollak, Elisabet; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Agardh, Daniel; Wahlström, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Torinsson-Naluai, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by an intestinal inflammation triggered by gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley. Similar to other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease is the result of an immune response to self-antigens leading to tissue destruction and production of autoantibodies. Common diseases like celiac disease have a complex pattern of inheritance with inputs from both environmental as well as additive and non-additive genetic factors. In the past few years, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding genetic risk variants behind many common diseases and traits. To complement and add to the previous findings, we performed a GWAS including 206 trios from 97 nuclear Swedish and Norwegian families affected with celiac disease. By stratifying for HLA-DQ, we identified a new genome-wide significant risk locus covering the DUSP10 gene. To further investigate the associations from the GWAS we performed pathway analyses and two-locus interaction analyses. These analyses showed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and identified a set of candidate mechanisms and genes of which some were selected for mRNA expression analysis using small intestinal biopsies from 98 patients. Several genes were expressed differently in the small intestinal mucosa from patients with celiac autoimmunity compared to intestinal mucosa from control patients. From top-scoring regions we identified susceptibility genes in several categories: 1) polarity and epithelial cell functionality; 2) intestinal smooth muscle; 3) growth and energy homeostasis, including proline and glutamine metabolism; and finally 4) innate and adaptive immune system. These genes and pathways, including specific functions of DUSP10, together reveal a new potential biological mechanism that could influence the genesis of celiac disease, and possibly also other chronic disorders with an inflammatory component. PMID:23936387

  9. A Possible Mechanism behind Autoimmune Disorders Discovered By Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Malin; Montén, Caroline; Bacelis, Jonas; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Adamovic, Svetlana; Ek, Johan; Ascher, Henry; Pollak, Elisabet; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Agardh, Daniel; Wahlström, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Torinsson-Naluai, Åsa

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by an intestinal inflammation triggered by gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley. Similar to other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease is the result of an immune response to self-antigens leading to tissue destruction and production of autoantibodies. Common diseases like celiac disease have a complex pattern of inheritance with inputs from both environmental as well as additive and non-additive genetic factors. In the past few years, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding genetic risk variants behind many common diseases and traits. To complement and add to the previous findings, we performed a GWAS including 206 trios from 97 nuclear Swedish and Norwegian families affected with celiac disease. By stratifying for HLA-DQ, we identified a new genome-wide significant risk locus covering the DUSP10 gene. To further investigate the associations from the GWAS we performed pathway analyses and two-locus interaction analyses. These analyses showed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and identified a set of candidate mechanisms and genes of which some were selected for mRNA expression analysis using small intestinal biopsies from 98 patients. Several genes were expressed differently in the small intestinal mucosa from patients with celiac autoimmunity compared to intestinal mucosa from control patients. From top-scoring regions we identified susceptibility genes in several categories: 1) polarity and epithelial cell functionality; 2) intestinal smooth muscle; 3) growth and energy homeostasis, including proline and glutamine metabolism; and finally 4) innate and adaptive immune system. These genes and pathways, including specific functions of DUSP10, together reveal a new potential biological mechanism that could influence the genesis of celiac disease, and possibly also other chronic disorders with an inflammatory component. PMID:23936387

  10. AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS IN WOMEN WITH TURNER SYNDROME AND WOMEN WITH KARYOTYPICALLY NORMAL PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    Bakalov, Vladimir K.; Gutin, Liat; Cheng, Clara M; Zhou, Jian; Sheth, Puja; Shah, Kavita; Arepalli, Sruthi; Vanderhoof, Vien; Nelson, Lawrence M.; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women compared to men could be due to effects of ovarian hormones, pregnancy and/or the presence of a 2nd X chromosome. To elucidate the role of these factors, we investigated the prevalence and spectrum of autoimmune diagnoses in women with primary ovarian insufficiency associated with X chromosome monosomy (Turner syndrome, TS, n=244) and women with karyotypically normal (46,XX) primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, n=457) in a prospective study, conducted at the National Institutes of Health. We compared the study group prevalence to normative data for the U.S. population of women. Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis (HT) occurred in 37% of women with TS vs. 15% with POI (P<0.0001); HT prevalence in both ovarian insufficiency groups significantly exceeded that in U.S. population of women (5.8%). Inflammatory bowel (IBD, 4%) and celiac disease (CD, 2.7%) were significantly increased in TS, but not in POI. No other autoimmune diagnosis, including Graves’ disease or Type 1 diabetes appears to be significantly increased in either group. Women with TS had higher pro-inflammatory IL6 and TGF ?1 levels (p<0.0001 for both), and lower anti-inflammatory IL10 and TGF ?2 levels (p<0.005 for both) compared to POI and to normal volunteers. Lifetime estrogen exposure and parity were significantly lower in TS compared to POI, which were in turn lower than the general population of women. The finding that lymphocytic thyroiditis is greatly increased in both women with TS and POI suggests that factors associated with ovarian insufficiency per se promote this form of autoimmunity. The absence of a normal second X-chromosome further contributes to increased autoimmunity in TS. PMID:22342295

  11. The role of the Epstein-Barr virus in the pathogenesis of some autoimmune disorders - Similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Füst, G

    2011-12-01

    After a brief summary on the properties of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the course and latency stages of the infection, the characteristics of infectious mononucleosis (IM), and other disorders caused by this virus, as well as the course of the serological responses to EBV, the current paper focuses on the role of EBV in two autoimmune disorders: multiple sclerosis (MS), and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Diverse evidence suggests that infection by EBV during late childhood or young adulthood may have a role in the pathogenesis of MS. These include the similarity between the geographical distribution of IMand MS, the high risk of contracting MS by individuals who have recovered from IM, the elevation of the titers of IgG antibodies against EBV nuclear antigens occurring years before the initial manifestations of MS, and the extremely rare occurrence of MS in individuals seronegative for EBV. However, the data on the mechanism underlying the relationship between EBV and MS are controversial. Moreover, many observations indicate that EBV contributes also to the pathomechanism of SLE. However, this contribution differs from the relationship between EBV and MS, as shown by the lack of any increase in the risk of SLE after IM. In SLE, EBV serology is quantitatively and qualitatively different from the normal response - that is, EBV viral load is higher and a strong cross-reaction can be detected between certain EBV antigens and autoantigens of pathological importance. These observations, along with the findings pointing to a possible role of EBV in rheumatoid arthritis and myasthenia gravis indicate that infection by EBV may be one of the environmental factors, which can facilitate the development of some autoimmune disorders in genetically susceptible individuals. PMID:24516733

  12. PANDAS: Frequently Asked Questions about Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal ....

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 2 Items) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 Items) Schizophrenia (2 Items) Social Phobia (2 Items) Populations Children ... 2 Items) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (7 Items) Schizophrenia (2 Items) Social Phobia (2 Items) Populations Children ...

  13. Overlapping genetic susceptibility variants between three autoimmune disorders: rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Genome wide association studies, replicated by numerous well powered validation studies, have revealed a large number of loci likely to play a role in susceptibility to many multifactorial diseases. It is now well established that some of these loci are shared between diseases with similar aetiology. For example, a number of autoimmune diseases have been associated with variants in the PTPN22, TNFAIP3 and CTLA4 genes. Here we have attempted to define overlapping genetic variants between rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D) and coeliac disease (CeD). Methods We selected eight SNPs previously identified as being associated with CeD and six T1D-associated SNPs for validation in a sample of 3,962 RA patients and 3,531 controls. Genotyping was performed using the Sequenom MassArray platform and comparison of genotype and allele frequencies between cases and controls was undertaken. A trend test P-value < 0.004 was regarded as significant. Results We found statistically significant evidence for association of the TAGAP locus with RA (P = 5.0 × 10-4). A marker at one other locus, C1QTNF6, previously associated with T1D, showed nominal association with RA in the current study but did not remain statistically significant at the corrected threshold. Conclusions In exploring the overlap between T1D, CeD and RA, there is strong evidence that variation within the TAGAP gene is associated with all three autoimmune diseases. Interestingly a number of loci appear to be specific to one of the three diseases currently studied suggesting that they may play a role in determining the particular autoimmune phenotype at presentation. PMID:20854658

  14. Role of renal anemia in the functional, morphological and autoimmune thyroid disorders in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Jusufovic, Selma; Hodzic, Emir; Halilcevic, Alma

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid disorders are common in chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the role of renal anemia on thyroid function, morphology and autoimmunity in clinically euthyroid patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Prospective study during 12 months period included 40 stable patients on chronic HD treatment. Patients were divided into two groups according to the serum hemoglobin level (group A Hgb > 125 g / L and group B Hgb < 125 g / L). Blood samples were taken for determination total and free thyroid hormones, thyroid antibodies and standard biochemical tests. Thyroid ultrasonography was performed with a 7.5 MHz transducer, 50 mm linear transducer. Thyroid volume was calculated, echostructure assessed and presence of nodular changes. In group A, was found significantly lower levels of total T3 (1.29 +/- 0469 vs. 1.55 +/- 0352, p < 0.1); higher prevalence of low T3 syndrome (17.24% (n = 5) vs. 0.00 (n = 0), p < 0.05); ultrasound findings suggestive for Hashimoto thyroiditis (13.79 (n = 4) vs. 0.00% (n = 0), p < 0.05) and multinodular goiter (13.79% (n = 4) vs. 0.00% (n = 0), p < 0.05). We found no statistically significant difference in the mean values of of thyroid antibodies levels, as well as in their percentage representation among groups. Morphological, functional and autoimmune disorders of thyroid gland are more common in patients on HD with Hgb level < 125 g/L. These findings suggest a role of renal anemia in the pathogenesis of these, and need for periodical screening of thyroid function, morphology, and titer of thyroid antibodies in patients HD, as well as more effective diagnosis and more aggressive treatment of renal anemia. PMID:21950230

  15. Translational Mini-Review Series on B Cell-Directed Therapies: Recent advances in B cell-directed biological therapies for autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, M C

    2009-01-01

    B cell-directed therapies are promising treatments for autoimmune disorders. Besides targeting CD20, newer B cell-directed therapies are in development that target other B cell surface molecules and differentiation factors. An increasing number of B cell-directed therapies are in development for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. Like rituximab, which is approved as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), many of these newer agents deplete B cells or target pathways essential for B cell development and function; however, many questions remain about their optimal use in the clinic and about the role of B cells in disease pathogenesis. Other therapies besides rituximab that target CD20 are the furthest along in development. Besides targeting CD20, the newer B cell-directed therapies target CD22, CD19, CD40–CD40L, B cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). Rituximab is being tested in an ever-increasing number of autoimmune disorders and clinical studies of rituximab combined with other biological therapies are being pursued for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). B cell-directed therapies are being tested in clinical trials for a variety of autoimmune disorders including RA, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, vasculitis, multiple sclerosis (MS), Graves' disease, idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP), the inflammatory myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis) and the blistering skin diseases pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Despite the plethora of clinical studies related to B cell-directed therapies and wealth of new information from these trials, much still remains to be discovered about the pathophysiological role of B cells in autoimmune disorders. PMID:19604259

  16. Stress and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcello Bagnasco; Irene Bossert; Giampaola Pesce

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are the far most common autoimmune disorders, their prevalence in Western countries exceeding 5% of the general population. In the large majority of individual cases the clinical impact of AITD is not severe, however, their widespread diffusion renders them a significant health problem. AITD are heterogeneous in their clinical presentation: the two main forms are autoimmune

  17. Update in Endocrine Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Synthesis: Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Conclusion: Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders. PMID:18842982

  18. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pärt Peterson

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a monogenic autoimmune disease with organ-specific autoimmune destruction\\u000a of several endocrine tissues. Most common disorders of the syndrome are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyoidism\\u000a and Addison’s disease but the clinical spectrum may vary. The disease is caused by the mutations in autoimmune regulator (AIRE)\\u000a gene. More than 50 mutations have been described, which are

  19. Retroperitoneal disorders associated with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Takeda, Keisuke; Zen, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently accompanied by relevant lesions in the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal organs, which cause various clinical problems, ranging from non-specific back pain or bladder outlet obstruction to renal failure. The diagnosis of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including serological tests, histological examination, imaging analysis, and susceptibility to steroid therapy. Radiological examinations are helpful to diagnose this condition, but surgical resection is occasionally unavoidable to exclude malignancy, particularly for patients with isolated retroperitoneal involvement. Steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for this condition, the same as for other manifestations of IgG4-related disease. For patients with severe ureteral obstruction, additional ureteral stenting needs to be considered prior to steroid therapy to preserve the renal function. Some papers have suggested that IgG4-related disease can affect male reproductive organs including the prostate and testis. IgG4-related prostatitis usually causes lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria and pollakisuria. Patients sometimes state that corticosteroids given for IgG4-related disease at other sites relieve their lower urinary tract symptoms, which leads us to suspect prostatic involvement in this condition. Because of the limited number of publications available, further studies are warranted to better characterize IgG4-related disease in male reproductive organs. PMID:25469023

  20. Retroperitoneal disorders associated with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Takeda, Keisuke; Zen, Yoh

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently accompanied by relevant lesions in the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal organs, which cause various clinical problems, ranging from non-specific back pain or bladder outlet obstruction to renal failure. The diagnosis of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including serological tests, histological examination, imaging analysis, and susceptibility to steroid therapy. Radiological examinations are helpful to diagnose this condition, but surgical resection is occasionally unavoidable to exclude malignancy, particularly for patients with isolated retroperitoneal involvement. Steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for this condition, the same as for other manifestations of IgG4-related disease. For patients with severe ureteral obstruction, additional ureteral stenting needs to be considered prior to steroid therapy to preserve the renal function. Some papers have suggested that IgG4-related disease can affect male reproductive organs including the prostate and testis. IgG4-related prostatitis usually causes lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria and pollakisuria. Patients sometimes state that corticosteroids given for IgG4-related disease at other sites relieve their lower urinary tract symptoms, which leads us to suspect prostatic involvement in this condition. Because of the limited number of publications available, further studies are warranted to better characterize IgG4-related disease in male reproductive organs. PMID:25469023

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 On this page: Description ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed August 2007 What is autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1? Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type ...

  2. Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome, a rare neurological disease in children: a new autoimmune disorder?

    PubMed

    Fazzi, Elisa; Cattalini, Marco; Orcesi, Simona; Tincani, Angela; Andreoli, L; Balottin, U; De Simone, M; Fredi, M; Facchetti, F; Galli, J; Giliani, S; Izzotti, A; Meini, A; Olivieri, I; Plebani, A

    2013-02-01

    Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome (AGS), described by J. Aicardi and F. Goutieres in 1984, is a rare neurological disease with onset in infancy. It is often misdiagnosed as a sequela of congenital infection or recognized later. Nowadays almost 200 cases are reported all over the world, most of them collected by the International Aicardi-Goutieres Syndrome Association (IAGSA), founded in Pavia (Italy) in 2000. AGS (MIM 225750) is a genetically-determined encephalopathy characterized by severe neurological dysfunction, acquired microcephaly associated with severe prognosis quoad valetudinem, and less frequently also quoad vitam. Some AGS children also develop some symptoms overlapping with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Intracranial calcification, white matter involvement and brain atrophy revealed on MRI, lymphocytosis and elevated levels of interferon alpha (IFN-?) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are features of both AGS and congenital viral infection. No evidence of congenital infection at serological exams has ever been found. A genetic etiology was hypothesized since the first descriptions, because of the recurrence in families, and demonstrated some years ago. Nowadays five genes (AGS1-5), if mutated, can be responsible for 90% of the cases. The transmission is autosomal recessive but there are also rare "de novo" autosomal dominant cases. Even if pathogenesis is still almost unknown, it seems that responsible genes are involved in nucleic acid reparation mechanisms and consequently in a secondary activation of innate autoimmunity. The relative lack of precise information on pathogenesis and on the evolution of the disease over time has not yet allowed the creation of codified diagnostic and therapeutic models and programs. PMID:22940555

  3. Functional Energetics of CD4+-Cellular Immunity in Monoclonal Antibody-Associated Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in Autoimmune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haghikia, Aiden; Perrech, Moritz; Pula, Bartosz; Ruhrmann, Sabrina; Potthoff, Anja; Brockmeyer, Norbert H.; Goelz, Susan; Wiendl, Heinz; Lindå, Hans; Ziemssen, Tjalf; Baranzini, Sergio E.; Käll, Tor-Björn; Bengel, Dietmar; Olsson, Tomas; Gold, Ralf; Chan, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Background Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an opportunistic central nervous system- (CNS-) infection that typically occurs in a subset of immunocompromised individuals. An increasing incidence of PML has recently been reported in patients receiving monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, particularly those treated with natalizumab, efalizumab and rituximab. Intracellular CD4+-ATP-concentration (iATP) functionally reflects cellular immunocompetence and inversely correlates with risk of infections during immunosuppressive therapy. We investigated whether iATP may assist in individualized risk stratification for opportunistic infections during mAb-treatment. Methodology/Principal Findings iATP in PHA-stimulated, immunoselected CD4+-cells was analyzed using an FDA-approved assay. iATP of mAb-associated PML (natalizumab (n?=?8), rituximab (n?=?2), efalizumab (n?=?1)), or other cases of opportunistic CNS-infections (HIV-associated PML (n?=?2), spontaneous PML, PML in a psoriasis patient under fumaric acids, natalizumab-associated herpes simplex encephalitis (n?=?1 each)) was reduced by 59% (194.5±29 ng/ml, mean±SEM) in comparison to healthy controls (HC, 479.9±19.8 ng/ml, p<0.0001). iATP in 14 of these 16 patients was at or below 3rd percentile of healthy controls, similar to HIV-patients (n?=?18). In contrast, CD4+-cell numbers were reduced in only 7 of 15 patients, for whom cell counts were available. iATP correlated with mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m) (iATP/??m?correlation:tau?=?0.49, p?=?0.03). Whereas mean iATP of cross-sectionally analysed natalizumab-treated patients was unaltered (448.7±12 ng/ml, n?=?150), iATP was moderately decreased (316.2±26.1 ng/ml, p?=?0.04) in patients (n?=?7) who had been treated already during the pivotal phase III trials and had received natalizumab for more than 6 years. 2/92 (2%) patients with less than 24 months natalizumab treatment revealed very low iATP at or below the 3rd percentile of HC, whereas 10/58 (17%) of the patients treated for more than 24 months had such low iATP-concentrations. Conclusion Our results suggest that bioenergetic parameters such as iATP may assist in risk stratification under mAb-immunotherapy of autoimmune disorders. PMID:21533133

  4. Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Summary – Sept. 25, 2013 Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune ... an HSCT may help your child. Understanding Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplants What are hematopoietic stem cells? Hematopoietic stem ...

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Autoimmune hepatitis is inflammation of the liver that occurs when immune cells mistake the liver's normal cells ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune ... body tissue and harmful, outside substances. The result is an ...

  6. Heat-solubilized curry spice curcumin inhibits antibody-antigen interaction in in vitro studies: A possible therapy to alleviate autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kurien, Biji T.; D'Souza, Anil; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Chronic and complex autoimmune diseases, currently treated palliatively with immunosuppressives, require multi-targeted therapy for greater effectiveness. The naturally occurring polyphenol curcumin has emerged as a powerful “nutraceutical” that interacts with multiple targets to regress diseases safely and inexpensively. Upto 8 g/day of curcumin for 18 months was non-toxic to humans. However, curcumin's utility is limited by its aqueous insolubility. We have demonstrated a heat-mediated 12-fold increase in curcumin's aqueous solubility. Here we show by, SDS-PAGE and SPR, that heat-solubilized curcumin binds to proteins. Based on this binding we hypothesized that heat-solubilized curcumin or turmeric would prevent autoantibody targeting of cognate autoantigens. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric significantly decreased binding of autoantibodies from Sjögren's syndrome (SS) (up to 43/70 % respectively) and SLE (up to 52/70 % respectively) patients as well as an animal model of SS (up to 50/60 % respectively) to their cognate antigens. However, inhibition was not specific to autoimmunity. Heat-solubilized curcumin/turmeric also inhibited binding of polyclonal anti-spectrin to spectrin (50/56 % respectively). Thus, we suggest that the multifaceted heat-solubilized curcumin can ameliorate autoimmune disorders. In addition, the non-toxic curcumin could serve as a new protein stain in SDS-PAGE even though it is less sensitive than the Coomassie system which involves toxic chemicals. PMID:20146265

  7. Inflammasomes and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Patrick J.; McDermott, Michael F.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2010-01-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members are cytosolic sensors of microbial components and danger signals. A subset of NLRs control inflammasome assembly that results in caspase-1 activation and, in turn, IL-1? and IL-18 production. Excessive inflammasome activation can cause autoinflammatory disorders, including the hereditary periodic fevers. Autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases form a disease spectrum of aberrant, immune-mediated inflammation against self, through innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disease is less clear than in autoinflammation, despite the numerous effects IL-1? and IL-18 can have on shaping adaptive immunity. We summarize the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disorders, highlight the need for a better understanding of inflammasomes in these conditions and offer suggestions for future research directions. PMID:21163704

  8. Inflammasomes and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Patrick J; McDermott, Michael F; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2011-02-01

    The NOD-like receptor (NLR) family members are cytosolic sensors of microbial components and danger signals. A subset of NLRs control inflammasome assembly that results in caspase-1 activation and, in turn, IL-1? and IL-18 production. Excessive inflammasome activation can cause autoinflammatory disorders, including the hereditary periodic fevers. Autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases form a disease spectrum of aberrant, immune-mediated inflammation against self, through innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disease is less clear than in autoinflammation, despite the numerous effects IL-1? and IL-18 can have on shaping adaptive immunity. We summarize the role of inflammasomes in autoimmune disorders, highlight the need for a better understanding of inflammasomes in these conditions and offer suggestions for future research directions. PMID:21163704

  9. The Role of AhR in Autoimmune Regulation and Its Potential as a Therapeutic Target against CD4 T Cell Mediated Inflammatory Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Conghui; Xie, Qunhui; Zhao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    AhR has recently emerged as a critical physiological regulator of immune responses affecting both innate and adaptive systems. Since the AhR signaling pathway represents an important link between environmental stimulators and immune-mediated inflammatory disorder, it has become the object of great interest among researchers recently. The current review discusses new insights into the mechanisms of action of a select group of inflammatory autoimmune diseases and the ligand-activated AhR signaling pathway. Representative ligands of AhR, both exogenous and endogenous, are also reviewed relative to their potential use as tools for understanding the role of AhR and as potential therapeutics for the treatment of various inflammatory autoimmune diseases, with a focus on CD4 helper T cells, which play important roles both in self-immune tolerance and in inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Evidence indicating the potential use of these ligands in regulating inflammation in various diseases is highlighted, and potential mechanisms of action causing immune system effects mediated by AhR signaling are also discussed. The current review will contribute to a better understanding of the role of AhR and its signaling pathway in CD4 helper T cell mediated inflammatory disorder. Considering the established importance of AhR in immune regulation and its potential as a therapeutic target, we also think that both further investigation into the molecular mechanisms of immune regulation that are mediated by the ligand-specific AhR signaling pathway, and integrated research and development of new therapeutic drug candidates targeting the AhR signaling pathway should be pursued urgently. PMID:24905409

  10. Leflunomide (HWA 486), a novel immunomodulating compound for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and reactions leading to transplantation rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Bartlett; M. Dimitrijevic; T. Mattar; T. Zielinski; T. Germann; E. Rüde; G. H. Thoenes; C. C. A. Küchle; H.-U. Schorlemmer; E. Bremer; A. Finnegan; R. Schleyerbach

    1991-01-01

    Leflunomide has been shown to be very effective in preventing and curing several autoimmune animal diseases. Further, this agent is as effective as cyclosporin A in preventing the rejection of skin and kidney transplants in rats. Preliminary results from patients suffering from severe cases of rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated that clinical and immunological parameters could be improved with leflunomide therapy. Mode

  11. Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-01-01

    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients’ populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases. PMID:25848462

  12. Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-03-27

    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients' populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases. PMID:25848462

  13. Multiple Autoimmune Syndromes Associated with Psoriasis: A Rare Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Sadia; Sajid, Sara; Jafferani, Asif; Tabassum, Saadia; Ansar, Sobia

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are known to have association with each other but it is very rare to see multiple autoimmune diseases in one patient. The combination of at least three autoimmune diseases in the same patient is referred to as multiple autoimmune syndrome. The case we are reporting features multiple autoimmune syndrome with five different conditions. The patient had type 1 diabetes mellitus, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, vitiligo, and psoriasis. Psoriasis has rarely been reported previously under the spectrum of autoimmune syndrome. Although the relationship of autoimmune conditions with each other has been explored in the past, this case adds yet another dimension to the unique evolution of autoimmune pathologies. The patient presented with a combination of five autoimmune diseases, which makes it consistent type three multiple autoimmune syndromes with the addition of psoriasis. The current case is unique in this aspect that the combination of these five autoimmune disorders has never been reported in the past. PMID:24715941

  14. Movement Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tremors are a type of dyskinesia. Nerve diseases cause many movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Other causes include injuries, autoimmune diseases, infections and certain medicines. ...

  15. Autoimmune Retinopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer K. Hall; Nicholas J. Volpe

    ? Autoimmune retinopathies should be included in the neuroophthalmic differential diagnosis for subacute vision loss with\\u000a minimal fundus changes. \\u000a \\u000a ? Particularly relevant are paraneoplastic retinopathies [cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy\\u000a (MAR), bilateral diffuse uveal melanocytic proliferation (BDUMP)], autoimmune-related retinopathy and optic neuropathy (ARRON),\\u000a and the acute outer retinopathies with blind spot enlargement [acute idiopathic blind spot enlargement (AIBSE), multiple evanescent

  16. Rheumatic symptoms in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Tagoe, Clement E

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune thyroiditis (ATD) is generally regarded as a classic example of single organ autoimmunity with a high association with endocrine thyroid disorders. However, it is closely associated with several autoimmune diseases including rheumatologic syndromes and has long been known to have several rheumatic manifestations particularly in association with hypothyroidism. More recently, it has also been implicated in rheumatologic syndromes in the absence of hypothyroidism or subclinical hypothyroidism. There is also an emerging body of evidence that ATD is highly linked to chronic generalized pain syndromes including fibromyalgia. This review examines the rheumatic symptoms of ATD described in the current literature and discusses the clinical relevance of ATD in general rheumatology. PMID:25618571

  17. Associated Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre M. J. Zelissen; Egbert J. E. G. Bast; Ronald J. M. Croughs

    1995-01-01

    As the last extensive series of patients with Addison's disease and coincident autoimmune phenomena were published approximately two decades ago, we studied the cause of the disease, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and the frequency of occurrence of autoantibodies in 91 patients (31 men and 60 women, mean age 45.3-years-old, range 12–77) with Addison's disease.The cause of Addison's disease in

  18. Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Mediated Syncope (NMS) Familial Dysautonomia (FD) Learn More Autoimmune Autonomic Ganglionopathy What is autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG)? Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is ...

  19. Two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to brucellosis: a review of hemolytic disorders in patients with brucellosis.

    PubMed

    Eskazan, Ahmet Emre; Dal, Mehmet Sinan; Kaya, Safak; Dal, Tuba; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Soysal, Teoman

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease associated with hemolytic complications, including thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and hemolytic anemia. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare clinical presentation of this disease. In this report, we describe the cases of two patients with brucellosis who presented with Coombs-positive AIHA. We also include a review of the literature on the hemolytic complications of brucellosis. Both patients were successfully treated with a combination of doxycycline and rifampicin in addition to steroids. In the medical literature, there are several cases of TMA associated with brucellosis, although only a few cases of Coombs test-positive AIHA have been reported. Antibiotic therapy is the mainstay of treatment, and the selection of antibiotics and duration of treatment do not differ between brucellosis patients with and without hemolysis. Although rare, the potential for brucellosis should always be kept in mind in patients who present with hemolysis, especially those living in areas where brucellosis is endemic. PMID:24881740

  20. The IRF5-TNPO3 association with systemic lupus erythematosus has two components that other autoimmune disorders variably share.

    PubMed

    Kottyan, Leah C; Zoller, Erin E; Bene, Jessica; Lu, Xiaoming; Kelly, Jennifer A; Rupert, Andrew M; Lessard, Christopher J; Vaughn, Samuel E; Marion, Miranda; Weirauch, Matthew T; Namjou, Bahram; Adler, Adam; Rasmussen, Astrid; Glenn, Stuart; Montgomery, Courtney G; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Xie, Gang; Coltescu, Catalina; Amos, Chris; Li, He; Ice, John A; Nath, Swapan K; Mariette, Xavier; Bowman, Simon; Rischmueller, Maureen; Lester, Sue; Brun, Johan G; Gøransson, Lasse G; Harboe, Erna; Omdal, Roald; Cunninghame-Graham, Deborah S; Vyse, Tim; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Brennan, Michael T; Lessard, James A; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie; Kvarnström, Marika; Illei, Gabor G; Witte, Torsten; Jonsson, Roland; Eriksson, Per; Nordmark, Gunnel; Ng, Wan-Fai; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rhodus, Nelson L; Segal, Barbara M; Merrill, Joan T; James, Judith A; Guthridge, Joel M; Scofield, R Hal; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A; Criswell, Lindsey A; Gilkeson, Gary; Kamen, Diane L; Jacob, Chaim O; Kimberly, Robert; Brown, Elizabeth; Edberg, Jeffrey; Alarcón, Graciela S; Reveille, John D; Vilá, Luis M; Petri, Michelle; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Freedman, Barry I; Niewold, Timothy; Stevens, Anne M; Tsao, Betty P; Ying, Jun; Mayes, Maureen D; Gorlova, Olga Y; Wakeland, Ward; Radstake, Timothy; Martin, Ezequiel; Martin, Javier; Siminovitch, Katherine; Moser Sivils, Kathy L; Gaffney, Patrick M; Langefeld, Carl D; Harley, John B; Kaufman, Kenneth M

    2015-01-15

    Exploiting genotyping, DNA sequencing, imputation and trans-ancestral mapping, we used Bayesian and frequentist approaches to model the IRF5-TNPO3 locus association, now implicated in two immunotherapies and seven autoimmune diseases. Specifically, in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), we resolved separate associations in the IRF5 promoter (all ancestries) and with an extended European haplotype. We captured 3230 IRF5-TNPO3 high-quality, common variants across 5 ethnicities in 8395 SLE cases and 7367 controls. The genetic effect from the IRF5 promoter can be explained by any one of four variants in 5.7 kb (P-valuemeta = 6 × 10(-49); OR = 1.38-1.97). The second genetic effect spanned an 85.5-kb, 24-variant haplotype that included the genes IRF5 and TNPO3 (P-valuesEU = 10(-27)-10(-32), OR = 1.7-1.81). Many variants at the IRF5 locus with previously assigned biological function are not members of either final credible set of potential causal variants identified herein. In addition to the known biologically functional variants, we demonstrated that the risk allele of rs4728142, a variant in the promoter among the lowest frequentist probability and highest Bayesian posterior probability, was correlated with IRF5 expression and differentially binds the transcription factor ZBTB3. Our analytical strategy provides a novel framework for future studies aimed at dissecting etiological genetic effects. Finally, both SLE elements of the statistical model appear to operate in Sjögren's syndrome and systemic sclerosis whereas only the IRF5-TNPO3 gene-spanning haplotype is associated with primary biliary cirrhosis, demonstrating the nuance of similarity and difference in autoimmune disease risk mechanisms at IRF5-TNPO3. PMID:25205108

  1. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  2. Autoimmune Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Grange, Landon; Dalal, Monica; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Sen, H. Nida

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To provide a detailed review of current clinical guidelines for the diagnosis, work-up and treatment of autoimmune retinopathy, and briefly preview possible future therapies. Design Perspective based on literature review and clinical expertise. Methods Interpretation of current literature, relying on the authors’ clinical experience. Results Autoimmune retinopathy is a rare immunologic disease characterized by the presence of circulating anti-retinal antibodies along with electroretinographic (ERG) and visual field abnormalities. Ophthalmic exam can be normal or show minimal findings. The diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy is made difficult by diagnostic criteria which are both limited and non-standardized. Currently, the diagnosis is made based on the demonstration of serum antiretinal antibodies and the presence of clinical manifestations (including abnormal ERGs). The mere presence of these antibodies is not diagnostic. Lack of an accepted gold standard for antiretinal antibodies detection and poor inter-laboratory concordance makes the diagnosis challenging. There are anecdotal reports on immunosuppressive therapy in autoimmune retinopathy; however, the response to treatment is variable, with more favorable results achieved in paraneoplastic retinopathy, particularly cancer-associated retinopathy, with a combination of chemotherapy and immunosuppression. Whether an earlier attempt to treat non-paraneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy would be more beneficial is unknown. Early treatment attempts are limited by lack of sensitive and specific assays and definitive clinical criteria. Conclusions Little is known about the clinical course, prognosis and treatment of autoimmune retinopathy. Additional studies should examine the specificity and pathogenicity of antiretinal antibodies, screen for biomarkers, and should be conducted concurrently with studies seeking to identify appropriate treatment. PMID:24315290

  3. Comorbidity of Allergic and Autoimmune Diseases in Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Previous clinical and genetic studies have suggested autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is associated with immunological abnormalities involving cytokines, immunoglobulins, inflammation, and cellular immunity, but epidemiological reports are still limited. Patients with ASDs were identified in the National Health Insurance Database from 1996 to…

  4. Concise review: engineering the fusion of cytokines for the modulation of immune cellular responses in cancer and autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Ng, Spencer; Galipeau, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    As our understanding of the basic precepts of immunobiology continue to advance at a rapid pace, translating such discoveries into meaningful therapies for patients has proved challenging. This is especially apparent in the use of cytokine-based immunotherapies for cancer. Unanticipated and serious side effects, as well as low objective response rates seen in clinical trials, have dealt setbacks to the field. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and common ?-chain (?-c) interleukins are cytokines that have been used as stand-alone immunotherapies with moderate success. Our group has found that the fusion of GM-CSF to members of ?-c interleukins results in the generation of novel proteins with unique signaling properties and unheralded biological effects. These fusion proteins, termed GIFT (GM-CSF interleukin fusion transgenes) fusokines, are the result of combining GM-CSF and a ?-c interleukin into a single, bifunctional polypeptide. In our experience, GIFT fusokines often confer immune cells with a gain of function that cannot be explained by the mere sum of their constituent moieties. They act as bispecific ligands, coupling activated GM-CSF and interleukin receptors together to drive unique downstream signaling events. The synergy that arises from these fusions has shown great promise in its ability to modulate the immune response and overcome maladaptive biological processes that underlie diseases such as cancer and autoimmune conditions. In this review, we discuss the ways in which the GIFT fusokines are able to alter the immune response, particularly in disease states, with a special emphasis on how these novel molecules may be translated into effective therapies in the clinical setting. PMID:25391644

  5. The Future of Stem Cell Transplantation in Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ikehara

    2010-01-01

    We have previously found that conventional allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo BMT) can be used to treat various\\u000a spontaneously developed autoimmune diseases in mice. In addition, we have found that autoimmune diseases can be transferred\\u000a into the normal mice by conventional BMT from autoimmune-prone mice. Based on these findings, we have proposed that autoimmune\\u000a diseases are “stem cell disorders.” To

  6. Leptin in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; Mantzoros, Christos S; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The past twenty years of research on leptin has provided crucial information on the link between metabolic state and immune system function. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response, through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. Initially described as an antiobesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown also to influence hematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect thymic homeostasis and the secretion of acute-phase reactants such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Leptin links nutritional status and proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses and the decrease in leptin plasma concentration during food deprivation leads to impaired immune function. Conversely, elevated circulating leptin levels in obesity appear to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory background which makes obese individuals more susceptible to increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or degenerative disease including autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances on the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders that may be of particular relevance in the modulation of the autoimmune attack through metabolic-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25467840

  7. Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the booklet in this Web page . Plasmapheresis and Autoimmune Disease Many diseases, including myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton ... and others, are caused by a so-called autoimmune, or self-immune, process. In autoimmune conditions, the ...

  8. Autoimmune Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Quek, Amy M. L.; Britton, Jeffrey W.; McKeon, Andrew; So, Elson; Lennon, Vanda A.; Shin, Cheolsu; Klein, Christopher J.; Watson, Robert E.; Kotsenas, Amy L.; Lagerlund, Terrence D.; Cascino, Gregory D.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Nickels, Katherine C.; Aksamit, Allen J.; Noe, Katherine H.; Pittock, Sean J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe clinical characteristics and immunotherapy responses in patients with autoimmune epilepsy. Design Observational, retrospective case series. Setting Mayo Clinic Health System. Patients Thirty-two patients with an exclusive (n=11) or predominant (n = 21) seizure presentation in whom an autoimmune etiology was suspected (on the basis of neural autoantibody [91%], inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid [31%], or magnetic resonance imaging suggesting inflammation [63%]) were studied. All had partial seizures: 81% had failed treatment with 2 or more anti-epileptic drugs and had daily seizures and 38% had seizure semiologies that were multifocal or changed with time. Head magnetic resonance imaging was normal in 15 (47%) at onset. Electroencephalogram abnormalities included interictal epileptiform discharges in 20; electrographic seizures in 15; and focal slowing in 13. Neural autoantibodies included voltage-gated potassium channel complex in 56% (leucine-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 specific, 14; contactin-associated proteinlike 2 specific, 1); glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 in 22%; collapsin response-mediator protein 5 in 6%; and Ma2, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, and ganglionic acetylcholine receptor in 1 patient each. Intervention Immunotherapy with intravenous methylprednisolone; intravenous immune globulin; and combinations of intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immune globulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclo-phosphamide. Main Outcome Measure Seizure frequency. Results After a median interval of 17 months (range, 3–72 months), 22 of 27 (81%) reported improvement postimmunotherapy; 18 were seizure free. The median time from seizure onset to initiating immunotherapy was 4 months for responders and 22 months for nonresponders (P<.05). All voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patients reported initial or lasting benefit (P<.05). One voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody–positive patient was seizure free after thyroid cancer resection; another responded to antiepileptic drug change alone. Conclusion When clinical and serological clues suggest an autoimmune basis for medically intractable epilepsy, early-initiated immunotherapy may improve seizure outcome. PMID:22451162

  9. Unmasking Evans syndrome: T-cell phenotype and apoptotic response reveal autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Teachey; Catherine S. Manno; Kelly M. Axsom; Timothy Andrews; John K. Choi; Barbara H. Greenbaum; Joseph M. McMann; Kathleen E. Sullivan; Susan F. Travis; Stephan A. Grupp

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syn- drome (ALPS) is a rare disorder of dis- rupted lymphocyte homeostasis. Clinical manifestations of ALPS vary but typically include autoimmune cytopenias, organo- megaly, lymphadenopathy, and increased risk of malignancies. A similar spectrum of symptoms may be seen in some pa- tients with Evans syndrome (ES), a hema- tologic disorder defined by autoimmune destruction of at least 2

  10. Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironori Ueda; Joanna M. M. Howson; Laura Esposito; Joanne Heward; Hywel Snook; Giselle Chamberlain; Daniel B. Rainbow; Kara M. D. Hunter; Annabel N. Smith; Gianfranco Di Genova; Mathias H. Herr; Ingrid Dahlman; Felicity Payne; Deborah Smyth; Christopher Lowe; Rebecca C. J. Twells; Sarah Howlett; Barry Healy; Sarah Nutland; Helen E. Rance; Vin Everett; Luc J. Smink; Alex C. Lam; Heather J. Cordell; Neil M. Walker; Cristina Bordin; John Hulme; Costantino Motzo; Francesco Cucca; J. Fred Hess; Michael L. Metzker; Jane Rogers; Simon Gregory; Amit Allahabadia; Ratnasingam Nithiyananthan; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Polly Bingley; Kathleen M. Gillespie; Dag E. Undlien; Kjersti S. Rønningen; Cristian Guja; Constantin Ionescu-Tîrgoviste; David A. Savage; A. Peter Maxwell; Dennis J. Carson; Chris C. Patterson; Jayne A. Franklyn; David G. Clayton; Laurence B. Peterson; Linda S. Wicker; John A. Todd; Stephen C. L. Gough

    2003-01-01

    Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)-which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system-as candidates for primary determinants of risk of the common autoimmune disorders Graves' disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism

  11. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome disguised as mental illness.

    PubMed

    Wei, Randy; Chang, Allen; Rockoff, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Our case acts to highlight the numerous presentations of polyglandular autoimmune syndromes. A 62-year-old Taiwanese woman with a history of schizophrenia presented to our emergency department with a brain tumour causing her headaches. She was admitted due to severe anaemia, and after further investigation, the patient was discovered to have pernicious anaemia and autoimmune thyroiditis-consistent with the diagnosis of polyglandular autoimmune syndrome IIIb. Her underlying primary psychiatric diagnosis was then questioned. The diagnosis of her endocrinopathies were likely delayed for many years due to the psychiatric disorder which may have been due to her long-standing autoimmune hypothyroidism and/or vitamin B12 deficiency. Initial treatment brought about major behavioural improvement, and encourages physicians to investigate secondary causes of psychosis and other coexisting autoimmune diseases when a patient presents with one endocrinopathy. PMID:23632176

  12. Environmental estrogen bisphenol A and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Jochmanová, I; Lazúrová, Z; Rudnay, M; Ba?ová, I; Mareková, M; Lazúrová, I

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years, there has been evidence of the increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases consist of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens. The immune system, and its function, is under complex and integrated control and its disruption can be triggered by multiple factors. Autoimmunity development is influenced by multiple factors and is thought to be a result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here, we review the role of a specific environmental factor, bisphenol A (BPA), in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. BPA belongs to the group of environmental estrogens that have been identified as risk factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25801882

  13. Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder after high-dose immunosuppressive therapy and autologous CD34-selected hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Nash, Richard A; Dansey, Roger; Storek, Jan; Georges, George E; Bowen, James D; Holmberg, Leona A; Kraft, George H; Mayes, Maureen D; McDonagh, Kevin T; Chen, Chien-Shing; Dipersio, John; Lemaistre, C Fred; Pavletic, Steven; Sullivan, Keith M; Sunderhaus, Julie; Furst, Daniel E; McSweeney, Peter A

    2003-09-01

    High-dose immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is currently being evaluated for the control of severe autoimmune diseases. The addition of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) to high-dose chemoradiotherapy in the high-dose immunosuppressive therapy regimen and CD34 selection of the autologous graft may induce a higher degree of immunosuppression compared with conventional autologous HSCT for malignant diseases. Patients may be at higher risk of transplant-related complications secondary to the immunosuppressed state, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD), but this is an unusual complication after autologous HSCT. Fifty-six patients (median age, 42 years; range, 23-61 years) with either multiple sclerosis (n = 26) or systemic sclerosis (n = 30) have been treated. The median follow-up has been 24 months (range, 2-60 months). Two patients (multiple sclerosis, n = 1; systemic sclerosis, n = 1) had significant reactivations of herpesvirus infections early after HSCT and then developed aggressive EBV-PTLD and died on days +53 and +64. Multiorgan clonal B-cell infiltrates that were EBV positive by molecular studies or immunohistology were identified at both autopsies. Both patients had positive screening skin tests for equine ATG (Atgam) and had been converted to rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin) from the first dose. Of the other 54 patients, 2 of whom had partial courses of rabbit ATG because of a reaction to the intravenous infusion of equine ATG, only 1 patient had a significant clinical reactivation of a herpesvirus infection (herpes simplex virus 2) early after HSCT, and none developed EBV-PTLD. The T-cell count in the peripheral blood on day 28 was 0/microL in all 4 patients who received rabbit ATG; this was significantly less than in patients who received equine ATG (median, 174/microL; P =.001; Mann-Whitney ranked sum test). Although the numbers are limited, the time course and similarity of the 2 cases of EBV-PTLD and the effect on day 28 T-cell counts support a relationship between the development of EBV-PTLD and the administration of rabbit ATG. The differences between equine and rabbit ATG are not yet clearly defined, and they should not be considered interchangeable in this regimen without further study. PMID:14506660

  14. Autoimmune disorders after immunisation with Influenza A/H1N1 vaccines with and without adjuvant: EudraVigilance data and literature review.

    PubMed

    Isai, Alina; Durand, Julie; Le Meur, Steven; Hidalgo-Simon, Ana; Kurz, Xavier

    2012-11-19

    All suspected autoimmune disorders (AID) reported as adverse reactions to EudraVigilance from 1 October 2009 to 31 December 2010 for adjuvanted (Celtura™, Fluval P™, Focetria™ and Pandemrix™) and non-adjuvanted (Cantgrip™, Celvapan™ and Panenza™) pandemic Influenza A/H1N1 vaccines were analysed to determine whether adjuvanted vaccines were associated with higher reporting of AID than non-adjuvanted ones. AID were identified based on the corresponding MedDRA High Level Group Term. Reports of type 1 diabetes mellitus and multiple sclerosis were also included in the analysis. Causality was assessed based on WHO causality assessment for adverse events following immunisation and Brighton Collaboration criteria for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Of the 50,221 adverse reactions received in EudraVigilance for A/H1N1 vaccines (adjuvanted: 46,173, non-adjuvanted: 4048), 314 were AID (adjuvanted: 276, non-adjuvanted: 38). GBS was the AID with the highest number of reports (125, adjuvanted: 109, non-adjuvanted: 16). Reporting ratios as calculated by the percentages of AID amongst all reported adverse reactions were 0.60% (95% CI: 0.53-0.67) and 0.94% (95% CI: 0.64-1.24) for adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines, and were 0.26% (95% CI: 0.22-0.31) and 0.37% (95% CI: 0.18-0.56) in a restricted analysis based on diagnostic certainty, causal relationship and plausible temporal association. Reporting rates for all reports of AID using the estimated number of vaccinees as denominator were 6.87 (95% CI: 6.06-7.68) and 9.98 (95% CI: 6.81-13.16) per million for adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted vaccines, and 3.01 (95% CI: 2.47-3.55) and 3.94 (95% CI: 1.95-5.94) per million in the restricted analysis. These results do not suggest a difference in the reporting of AID between adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted A/H1N1 vaccines. In a literature review performed on 31 August 2011, GBS was also the AID the most frequently discussed in association with A/H1N1 vaccination; reporting rates were generally within expected background rates. PMID:23022149

  15. The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) preserves fertility in male and female Balb/c mice.

    E-print Network

    Warren, Bryce

    2014-12-31

    The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) contributes to central immune tolerance through the induction of self-antigen expression within the thymus. In humans, a defect in AIRE results in a multi-organ autoimmune disorder known as ...

  16. Autoimmune manifestations in patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia.

    PubMed

    Bockorny, Bruno; Atienza, Jonessa A; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2014-12-01

    Waldenström macroglobulinemia represents a lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with an indolent clinical course. The existing literature associates this hematologic malignancy with various autoimmune disorders. Notwithstanding, these autoimmune conditions have not been comprehensively characterized or systematized to date. As a result, their clinical implications remain largely unknown. The authors offer a comprehensive review of the existing literature on various hematologic and nonhematologic autoimmune disorders documented in the course of Waldenström macroglobulinemia. Whereas some of them are thought to be secondary to a dysfunctional immune response associated with an underlying malignant process, others might be primary and might even play a role in its pathogenesis. Moreover, the observations that personal history and family history of certain autoimmune diseases were associated with an increased risk of subsequent Waldenström macroglobulinemia strengthen further the hypothesis that shared susceptibility genes and chronic antigenic stimulation might predispose individuals to both conditions. PMID:25022601

  17. Autoimmune retinopathy: A review and summary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John R. Heckenlively; Henry A. Ferreyra

    2008-01-01

    Three main forms of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) have been identified over the last 15 years: cancer-associated retinopathy\\u000a (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and nonneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR). In this chapter, the term\\u000a AIR will be used to encompass all three disorders where there is commonality to their features. Complicating the issue is\\u000a that AIR can be a secondary complication of other conditions

  18. Autoimmune oophoritis: A rarely encountered ovarian lesion.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Sunitha; Koc, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune oophoritis is a rare disorder causing ovarian failure clinically characterized by amenorrhea and infertility. It often occurs in a setting of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. A 38-year-old female presented with a 3 years history of secondary amenorrhea. She was on treatment for Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Addison's disease. The ovaries were cystic and histologically featured by folliculotropic lymphoplasmacytic inflammatory infiltrate concentrated in the theca interna layer of developing follicles, but sparing the primordial follicles. PMID:25885148

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2011-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease that mainly affects females. It is characterized histologically by interface hepatitis, biochemically by increased aspartate and alanine aminotransferase levels, and serologically by the presence of autoantibodies and increased levels of immunoglobulin G. AIH affects both adults and children, and is particularly aggressive in the latter group. It is a relatively rare but devastating disease, which progresses rapidly unless immunosuppressive treatment is started promptly. With appropriate treatment 80% of patients achieve remission and long-term survival. Those patients who progress to end-stage liver disease because they are unresponsive or nonadherent to treatment, and those with fulminant liver failure (encephalopathy grade II-IV) at diagnosis, require liver transplantation. Seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibodies defines type 1 AIH, while positivity for liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies defines type 2 AIH. The primary cause of AIH is unknown; however, considerable knowledge about the mechanisms of liver damage involved has been gathered over the past 30 years, which is likely to provide the basis for specific modes of treatment and a possible cure. PMID:21537351

  20. Questions and Answers on Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dermatomyositis. What are some of the treatments for autoimmune diseases? Of first importance in treating any autoimmune ... being researched. What is the family connection in autoimmune diseases? The ability to develop an autoimmune disease ...

  1. Neurocognitive Function in Systemic Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy H. Kao; Carol M. Greco; Suzanne L. Gharib; Sue R. Beers

    \\u000a An autoimmune disease is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks itself. The dysregulation of the immune system\\u000a associated with systemic autoimmune diseases can affect various organs systems, including the brain. This chapter will review\\u000a the neuropsychological involvement and the resulting cognitive changes associated with three systemic autoimmune or rheumatic\\u000a diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA),

  2. Analysis of thyroglobulin gene polymorphisms in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mariela Caputo; Carina M. Rivolta; Teresa Mories; Juan J. Corrales; Purificación Galindo; Rogelio González-Sarmiento; Héctor M. Targovnik; José M. Miralles-García

    2010-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid disease is a complex disorder caused by a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental factors,\\u000a which are believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Identification of the susceptibility genes has\\u000a found that unique and diverse genetic factors are in association with Graves’ disease and autoimmune thyroiditis. The thyroglobulin\\u000a gene is an identified thyroid-specific gene associated

  3. Toxicology of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hultman, Per; Kono, Dwight H.

    2010-01-01

    Susceptibility to most autoimmune diseases is dependent on polygenic inheritance, environmental factors, and poorly defined stochastic events. One of the significant challenges facing autoimmune disease research is in identifying the specific events that trigger loss of tolerance and autoimmunity. Although many intrinsic factors, including age, sex, and genetics, contribute to autoimmunity, extrinsic factors such as drugs, chemicals, microbes, or other environmental factors can also act as important initiators. This review explores how certain extrinsic factors, namely drugs and chemicals, can promote the development of autoimmunity, focusing on a few better characterized agents that, in most instances, have been shown to produce autoimmune manifestations in human populations. Mechanisms of autoimmune disease induction are discussed in terms of research obtained using specific animal models. Although a number of different pathways have been delineated for drug/chemical-induced autoimmunity some similarities do exist and a working model is proposed. PMID:20078109

  4. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  5. Autoimmune blistering dermatoses as systemic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, Snejina; Drenovska, Kossara; Manuelyan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune blistering dermatoses are examples of skin-specific autoimmune disorders that can sometimes represent the cutaneous manifestation of a multiorgan disease due to potential common pathogenic mechanisms. As soon as a distinct autoimmune blistering dermatosis is diagnosed, it is imperative to consider its potential systemic involvement, as well as the autoimmune and inflammatory conditions that are frequently associated with it. In paraneoplastic pemphigus/paraneoplastic autoimmune multiorgan syndrome, the internal organs (particularly the lungs) are affected by the autoimmune injury. Pemphigus erythematosus may manifest with overlapping serologic and immunohistologic features of lupus erythematosus. In patients with bullous pemphigoid, there is a greater prevalence of neurologic disease, possibly caused by cross-reactivity of the autoantibodies with isoforms of bullous pemphigoid antigens expressed in the skin and brain. Anti-laminin 332 pemphigoid shows an increased risk for adenocarcinomas. Patients with anti-p200 pemphigoid often suffer from psoriasis. A rare form of pemphigoid with antibodies against the ?5 chain of type IV collagen is characterized by underlying nephropathia. Particularly interesting is the association of linear IgA disease or epidermolysis bullosa acquisita with inflammatory bowel disease. Dermatitis herpetiformis is currently regarded as the skin manifestation of gluten sensitivity. Bullous systemic lupus erythematosus is part of the clinical spectrum of systemic lupus erythematosus, a prototypic autoimmune disease with multisystem involvement. PMID:24767184

  6. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  7. Chronic Granulomatous Disease as a Risk Factor for Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Ravin, Suk See; Naumann, Nora; Cowen, Edward W.; Friend, Julia; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; Balow, James E.; Barron, Karyl S.; Turner, Maria L.; Gallin, John I.; Malech, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation. In addition, we have observed a number of diverse autoimmune conditions in our CGD population, suggesting that patients with CGD are at an elevated risk for development of autoimmune (AI) disorders. In this report, we describe antiphospholipid syndrome (aPL), recurrent pericardial effusion, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), IgA nephropathy, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune pulmonary disease in the setting of CGD. The presence and type of autoimmune disease has important treatment implications for patients with CGD. PMID:18823651

  8. Sirolimus for Autoimmune Disease of Blood Cells

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-17

    Autoimmune Pancytopenia; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS); Evans Syndrome; Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura; Anemia, Hemolytic, Autoimmune; Autoimmune Neutropenia; Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Rheumatoid Arthritis

  9. Celiac Disease-Associated Autoimmune Endocrinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Wortsman, Jacobo

    2001-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten intake in genetically susceptible individuals. It is characterized by the presence of serum antibodies to endomysium, reticulin, gliadin, and tissue transglutaminase. The incidence of CD in various autoimmune disorders is increased 10- to 30-fold in comparison to the general population, although in many cases CD is clinically asymptomatic or silent. The identification of such cases with CD is important since it may help in the control of type I diabetes or endocrine functions in general, as well as in the prevention of long-term complications of CD, such as lymphoma. It is believed that CD may predispose an individual to other autoimmune disorders such as type I diabetes, autoimmune thyroid, and other endocrine diseases and that gluten may be a possible trigger. The onset of type I diabetes at an early age in patients with CD, compared to non-CD, and the prevention or delay in onset of diabetes by gluten-free diet in genetically predisposed individuals substantiates this antigen trigger hypothesis. Early identification of CD patients in highly susceptible population may result in the treatment of subclinical CD and improved control of associated disorders. PMID:11427410

  10. PTPN22: Setting thresholds for autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter K. Gregersen; Hye-Soon Lee; Franak Batliwalla; Ann B. Begovich

    2006-01-01

    The 620W allelic variant of the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase, PTPN22, is associated with a number of different autoimmune disorders, and this provides direct evidence for common mechanisms underlying many of these diseases. The associated allele appears to influence thresholds for T cell receptor signaling, and a variety of disease models involving both central and peripheral tolerance can be proposed. However,

  11. Autoimmune liver disease in Noonan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Loddo, Italia; Romano, Claudio; Cutrupi, Maria Concetta; Sciveres, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Salpietro, Annamaria; Ferraù, Valeria; Gallizzi, Romina; Briuglia, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    Noonan Syndrome (NS) is characterized by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. The incidence of NS is estimated to be between 1:1000 and 1:2500 live births. The syndrome is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. In approximately 50% of cases, the disease is caused by missense mutations in the PTPN11 gene on chromosome 12, resulting in a gain of function of the non-receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2 protein. Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is a cryptogenic, chronic and progressive necroinflammatory liver disease. Common features of AIH are hypergammaglobulinemia (IgG), presence of circulating autoantibodies, histological picture of interface hepatitis and response to immunosuppressant drugs. Conventional treatment with Prednisone and Azathioprine is effective in most patients. We describe the case of a 6 years-old girl with Noonan Syndrome and Autoimmune Hepatitis type 1. Molecular analysis of PTPN11 gene showed heterozygous mutation c.923A>G (Asn308Ser) in exon 8. Though association between NS and autoimmune disorders is known, this is the second case of association between Noonan Syndrome and Autoimmune Hepatitis type 1 described in literature. In the management of NS, an accurate clinical evaluation would be recommended. When there is a clinical suspicion of autoimmune phenomena, appropriate laboratory tests should be performed with the aim of clarifying whether the immune system is involved in NS. We think that autoimmunity represents a characteristic of NS, even if the etiopathogenesis is still unknown. PMID:25595571

  12. Solving the puzzle of autoimmunity: critical questions.

    PubMed

    Smilek, Dawn E; St Clair, E William

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease, the puzzle that reveals the true picture of these diverse immunological disorders is yet to be solved. We know that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci as well as many different genetic susceptibility loci with relatively small effect sizes predispose to various autoimmune diseases and that environmental factors are involved in triggering disease. Models for mechanisms of disease become increasingly complex as relationships between components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems are untangled at the molecular level. In this article, we pose some of the important questions about autoimmunity where the answers will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improve the rational design of novel therapies. How is autoimmunity triggered, and what components of the immune response drive the clinical manifestations of disease? What determines whether a genetically predisposed individual will develop an autoimmune disease? Is restoring immune tolerance the secret to finding cures for autoimmune disease? Current research efforts seek answers to these big questions. PMID:25750735

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the ?-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28? T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:24967373

  14. Autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Yamakami, L Y S; Aikawa, N E; Araujo, D B; Carvalho, J F; Bonfá, E

    2014-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as sustained amenorrhea, increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen levels, whereas diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is characterized as regular menses and alterations of ovarian reserve tests. POI of autoimmune origin may be associated with adrenal autoimmunity, non-adrenal autoimmunity or isolated. This autoimmune disease is characterized by serum ovarian, adrenocortical or steroidogenic cell autoantibodies. POI of adrenal autoimmune origin is the most frequent type observed in 60-80% of patients. Clinically, amenorrhea is the hallmark of POI, however before menstruation stops completely, irregular cycles occur. Infertility, hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and dyspareunia are also common. Autoimmune oophoritis is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the theca cells of growing follicles, with early stage follicles without lymphocytic infiltration. This infiltrate includes plasma, B and T-cells. A novel classification criterion for autoimmune POI/DOR is proposed subdividing in three distinct categories (possible, probable and confirmed) according to autoantibodies, autoimmune disease and ovarian histology. Unfortunately, up to date guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune oophoritis are not available. Strategies to POI treatment include hormone replacement and infertility therapy. Assisted conception with donated oocytes has been proven to achieve pregnancy by intra cytoplasmic sperm injection in POI women. PMID:24418305

  15. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal-induced renal autoimmunity have the potential to produce new knowledge with relevance to autoimmune disease caused by xenobiotics in general as well as to idiopathic autoimmunity. PMID:10502542

  16. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Bass, Garrett F; Tuscano, Emily T; Tuscano, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Uncompensated autoantibody-mediated red blood cell (RBC) consumption is the hallmark of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). Classification of AIHA is pathophysiologically based and divides AIHA into warm, mixed or cold-reactive subtypes. This thermal-based classification is based on the optimal autoantibody-RBC reactivity temperatures. AIHA is further subcategorized into idiopathic and secondary with the later being associated with a number of underlying infectious, neoplastic and autoimmune disorders. In most cases AIHA is confirmed by a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT). The standard therapeutic approaches to treatment of AIHA include corticosteroids, splenectomy, immunosuppressive agents and monoclonal antibodies. PMID:24418298

  17. Autoimmunity: Alopecia Areata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hordinsky; Marna Ericson

    2004-01-01

    Strong direct and indirect evidence supports an autoimmune etiology for alopecia areata. T lymphocytes that have been shown to be oligoclonal and autoreactive are predominantly present in the peribulbar inflammatory infiltrate. Alopecia areata frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune diseases, such as thyroiditis and vitiligo, and autoantibodies to follicular components have been detected. Finally, the use of immune modulating

  18. Neuroendocrinology of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Harbuz

    2002-01-01

    The HPA axis is fundamental for long-term survival and protection from the ravages of autoimmune disease. Continuing investigations suggest that the hypothesis linking susceptibility to autoimmune dissease and a hyporesponsive HPA axis is somewhat simplistic. Instead, data from a number of different human diseases and from preclinical studies in a variety of models have suggested a more complicated picture. Alterations

  19. Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, there were striking increases in the incidences of many chronic inflammatory disorders in the rich developed countries. These included autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Although genetics and specific triggering mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and viruses are likely to be involved, the increases have been so rapid that any explanation that omits environmental change is incomplete. This chapter suggests that a series of environmental factors, most of them microbial, have led to a decrease in the efficiency of our immunoregulatory mechanisms because we are in a state of evolved dependence on organisms with which we co-evolved (and that had to be tolerated) as inducers of immunoregulatory circuits. These organisms ("Old Friends") are depleted from the modern urban environment. Rather than considering fetal programming by maternal microbial exposures, neonatal programming, the hygiene hypothesis, gut microbiota, and diet as separate and competing hypotheses, I attempt here to integrate these ideas under a single umbrella concept that can provide the missing immunoregulatory environmental factor that is needed to explain the recent increases in autoimmune disease. PMID:22090147

  20. Autoimmune Cholangitis: A Variant Syndrome of Autoimmune Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Brij; Raina, Sujeet; Sharma, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis (AIC) or autoimmune cholangiopathy is a chronic inflammation of liver and a variant syndrome of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). We present a case of an adult female who had biochemical features of cholestasis and transaminasemia but aminotransferases were not in the hepatitis range and had histological evidence of bile duct injury which was subsequently diagnosed as autoimmune cholangitis. PMID:25374727

  1. Molecular Diagnosis in Autoimmune Skin Blistering Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Otten, J.V.; Hashimoto, T.; Hertl, M.; Payne, A.S.; Sitaru, C.

    2014-01-01

    Blister formation in skin and mucous membranes results from a loss of cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion and is a common outcome of pathological events in a variety of conditions, including autoimmune and genetic diseases, viral and bacterial infections, or injury by physical and chemical factors. Autoantibodies against structural components maintaining cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion induce tissue damage in autoimmune blistering diseases. Detection of these autoantibodies either tissue-bound or circulating in serum is essential to diagnose the autoimmune nature of disease. Various immunofluorescence methods as well as molecular immunoassays, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting, belong to the modern diagnostic algorithms for these disorders. There is still a considerable need to increase awareness of the rare autoimmune blistering diseases, which often show a severe, chronic-relapsing course, among physicians and the public. This review article describes the immunopathological features of autoimmune bullous diseases and the molecular immunoassays currently available for their diagnosis and monitoring. PMID:24160488

  2. [Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 in pregnancy: a case report].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterized by the association of two or more organ-specific disorders. On the basis of the clinical picture, they are divided into four different types. If undiagnosed and untreated, autoimmune polyglandular syndromes may pose a serious risk to patients. We report here a case of a pregnant woman with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2. She was diagnosed with Addison's disease 11 months before the onset of the pregnancy and until the end of the first trimester the disease was effectively controlled by hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone treatment. In the tenth week of gestation, the patient developed Graves' disease and the treatment with propylthiouracil was started treatment leading to the unmasking of adrenal insufficiency, which required titration of hydrocortisone dose. Our study shows that autoimmune polyglandular syndromes should be considered in every pregnant woman with any autoimmune endocrine disease and that the treatment of these syndromes during gestation may be challenging. PMID:23789305

  3. Autoimmunity and the Gut

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have increased dramatically worldwide since World War II. This is coincidental with the increased production and use of chemicals both in industrial countries and agriculture, as well as the ease of travel from region to region and continent to continent, making the transfer of a pathogen or pathogens from one part of the world to another much easier than ever before. In this review, triggers of autoimmunity are examined, principally environmental. The number of possible environmental triggers is vast and includes chemicals, bacteria, viruses, and molds. Examples of these triggers are given and include the mechanism of action and method by which they bring about autoimmunity. PMID:24900918

  4. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

  5. Evaluation of Basal Ganglia and Thalamic Inflammation in Children With Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infection and Tourette Syndrome: A Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) Study Using 11C-[R]-PK11195.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Williams, Mitchel T; Chugani, Harry T

    2014-08-12

    We applied PET scanning with (11)C-[R]-PK11195 (PK) to evaluate neuroinflammatory changes in basal ganglia and thalamus in children with clinically diagnosed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and Tourette syndrome. Seventeen children with PANDAS (mean age: 11.4 ± 2.6 years; 13 males), 12 with Tourette syndrome (mean age: 11.0 ± 3.0 years; 10 males), and 15 normal adults (mean age: 28.7 ± 7.9 years; 8 males) underwent dynamic PK PET imaging and binding potential, a measure of ligand-TSPO receptor (expressed by activated microglia) binding, was calculated for basal ganglia and thalamus. Binding potential values, suggesting underlying activated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, were found to be increased in bilateral caudate and bilateral lentiform nucleus in the PANDAS group and in bilateral caudate nuclei only in the Tourette syndrome group, compared to control group. These differences in the pattern and extent of neuroinflammation also signify a possible difference in pathophysiological etiology between PANDAS and Tourette syndrome patients. PMID:25117419

  6. Stress proteins, autoimmunity, and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Winfield, J B; Jarjour, W N

    1991-01-01

    At birth, the immune system is biased toward recognition of microbial antigens in order to protect the host from infection. Recent data suggest that an important initial line of defense in this regard involves autologous stress proteins, especially conserved peptides of hsp60, which are presented to T cells bearing gamma delta receptors by relatively nonpolymorphic class lb molecules. Natural antibodies may represent a parallel B cell mechanism. Through an evolving process of "physiological" autoreactivity and selection by immunodominant stress proteins common to all prokaryotes, B and T cell repertoires expand during life to meet the continuing challenge of infection. Because stress proteins of bacteria are homologous with stress proteins of the host, there exists in genetically susceptible individuals a constant risk of autoimmune disease due to failure of mechanisms for self-nonself discrimination. That stress proteins actually play a role in autoimmune processes is supported by a growing body of evidence which, collectively, suggests that autoreactivity in chronic inflammatory arthritis involves, at least initially, gamma delta cells which recognize epitopes of the stress protein hsp60. Alternate mechanisms for T cell stimulation by stress proteins undoubtedly also exist, e.g., molecular mimicry of the DR beta third hypervariable region susceptibility locus for rheumatoid arthritis by a DnaJ stress protein epitope in gram-negative bacteria. While there still is confusion with respect to the most relevant stress protein epitopes, a central role for stress proteins in the etiology of arthritis appears likely. Furthermore, insight derived from the work thus far in adjuvant-induced arthritis already is stimulating analyses of related phenomena in autoimmune diseases other than those involving joints. Only limited data are available in the area of humoral autoimmunity to stress proteins. Autoantibodies to a number of stress proteins have been identified in SLE and rheumatoid arthritis, but their pathogenetic significance remains to be established. Nevertheless, the capacity of certain stress proteins to bind to multiple proteins in the nucleus and cytoplasm both physiologically and during stress or injury to cells, suggests that stress proteins may be important elements in the "immunogenic particle" concept of the origin of antinuclear and other autoantibodies. In short, this fascinating group of proteins, so mysterious only a few years ago, has impelled truly extraordinary new lines of investigation into the nature of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. PMID:2055095

  7. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  8. Resolution of Autoimmune Oophoritis after Thymectomy in a Myasthenia Gravis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Özlem; Eren, Erdal; Sa?lam, Halil; Okan, Mehmet; Tar?m, Ömer Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors. MG is generally an isolated disorder but may occur concomitantly with other autoimmune diseases. We describe an eighteen-year-old girl with MG who was admitted to our clinic with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed as autoimmune oophoritis. Since her myasthenic symptoms did not resolve with anticholinesterase therapy, thymectomy was performed. After thymectomy, her menses have been regular without any hormonal replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a patient with autoimmune ovarian insufficiency and MG in whom premature ovarian insufficiency resolved after thymectomy, without hormonal therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22155465

  9. Resolution of autoimmune oophoritis after thymectomy in a myasthenia gravis patient.

    PubMed

    Çak?r, Esra Deniz Papatya; Özdemir, Özlem; Eren, Erdal; Sa?lam, Halil; Okan, Mehmet; Tar?m, Ömer Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors. MG is generally an isolated disorder but may occur concomitantly with other autoimmune diseases. We describe an eighteen-year-old girl with MG who was admitted to our clinic with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed as autoimmune oophoritis. Since her myasthenic symptoms did not resolve with anticholinesterase therapy, thymectomy was performed. After thymectomy, her menses have been regular without any hormonal replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a patient with autoimmune ovarian insufficiency and MG in whom premature ovarian insufficiency resolved after thymectomy, without hormonal therapy. PMID:22155465

  10. Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sophie Bensing; S. O. Fetissov; Jan Mulder; Jaakko Perheentupa; Jan Gustafsson; E. S. Husebye; Mikael Oscarson; Olov Ekwall; P. A. Crock; T. Hokfelt; A.-L. Hulting; O. Kampe

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. High titer autoantibodies (Aabs) toward intracellular enzymes are a hallmark for APS1 and serve as diagnostic markers and predictors for disease manifestations. In this study, we aimed to identify pituitary autoantigens in patients with APS1. A pituitary cDNA expression

  11. Autoimmune neutropenia preceding Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma with nodal dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Saori; Yamazaki, Sho; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Morita, Ken; Yoshimi, Akihide; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), resulting from granulocyte-specific autoantibodies, is much less frequent than other autoimmune hematologic disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These autoimmune disorders may precede, synchronize, or follow collagen disorders, viral infections, and lymphoid neoplasms. Herein we present the first case of AIN in association with Helicobacter pylori-negative mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with nodal dissemination. In our case, AIN, accompanied by ITP, occurred prior to the clinical manifestation of lymphoma. AIN and ITP were well managed afterwards, but they relapsed in accordance with the recurrence of lymphoma. The administration of prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg daily alleviated the cytopenias within a week. In general, combination chemotherapy is performed for the treatment of lymphoma-associated autoimmune hematologic disorders and indeed seems to be effective. Our case indicates that corticosteroid monotherapy may be effective for lymphoma-associated AIN especially when AIN precedes the onset of lymphoma. PMID:25337296

  12. Autoimmune neutropenia preceding Helicobacter pylori-negative MALT lymphoma with nodal dissemination.

    PubMed

    Harada, Saori; Yamazaki, Sho; Nakamura, Fumihiko; Morita, Ken; Yoshimi, Akihide; Shinozaki-Ushiku, Aya; Fukayama, Masashi; Kurokawa, Mineo

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune neutropenia (AIN), resulting from granulocyte-specific autoantibodies, is much less frequent than other autoimmune hematologic disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). These autoimmune disorders may precede, synchronize, or follow collagen disorders, viral infections, and lymphoid neoplasms. Herein we present the first case of AIN in association with Helicobacter pylori-negative mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma with nodal dissemination. In our case, AIN, accompanied by ITP, occurred prior to the clinical manifestation of lymphoma. AIN and ITP were well managed afterwards, but they relapsed in accordance with the recurrence of lymphoma. The administration of prednisolone at 0.5 mg/kg daily alleviated the cytopenias within a week. In general, combination chemotherapy is performed for the treatment of lymphoma-associated autoimmune hematologic disorders and indeed seems to be effective. Our case indicates that corticosteroid monotherapy may be effective for lymphoma-associated AIN especially when AIN precedes the onset of lymphoma. PMID:25337296

  13. [A case of acute autoimmune hepatitis associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Hanai, Tatsunori; Naiki, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Manabu; Imai, Kenji; Kitagawa, Junichi; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Takai, Koji; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Tsurumi, Hisashi; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2013-10-01

    A 61-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with severe jaundice and anemia. She was diagnosed with severe acute hepatitis secondary to autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) on the basis of positive anti-nuclear antibody titers, high serum IgG levels, and liver biopsy. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) was diagnosed because of the presence of reticulocytosis, decreased haptoglobin, positive direct Coombs test, and erythroid hyperplasia in the bone marrow. Although AIH occurs in association with various immunological disorders, an association with AIHA is rarely reported. We report a rare case of severe AIH associated with AIHA. PMID:24097153

  14. Spontaneous Autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL\\/6 Mice—Implications for Autoimmunity Described in Gene-Targeted Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. Bygrave; Kirsten L. Rose; Josefina Cortes-Hernandez; Joanna Warren; Robert J. Rigby; H. Terence Cook; Mark J. Walport; Timothy J. Vyse; Marina Botto

    2004-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder in which complex genetic factors play an important role. Several strains of gene-targeted mice have been reported to develop SLE, implicating the null genes in the causation of disease. However, hybrid strains between 129 and C57BL\\/6 mice, widely used in the generation of gene-targeted mice, develop spontaneous autoimmunity. Furthermore, the genetic

  15. Is Tourette's syndrome an autoimmune disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P J Hoekstra; C G M Kallenberg; J Korf; R B Minderaa

    2002-01-01

    We provide a review of recent research findings which support the involvement of autoimmunity in childhood-onset tic disorders, in particular the presence of antineuronal autoantibodies, D8\\/17 B lymphocyte overexpression, a marker of chorea associated with streptococcal infection, and possible beneficial effects of immunomodulatory intervention. One of the most controversial areas in this field is the validity of the proposed PANDAS

  16. Safety of vaccine adjuvants: Focus on autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Jan Willem; Gould, Sarah; Tanir, Jennifer Y

    2015-03-24

    Questions have been recently raised regarding the safety of vaccine adjuvants, particularly in relation to autoimmunity or autoimmune disease(s)/disorder(s) (AID). The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) formed a scientific committee and convened a 2-day workshop, consisting of technical experts from around the world representing academia, government regulatory agencies, and industry, to investigate and openly discuss the issues around adjuvant safety in vaccines. The types of adjuvants considered included oil-in-water emulsions and toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists. The state of science around the use of animal models and biomarkers for the evaluation and prediction of AID were also discussed. Following extensive literature reviews by the HESI committee, and presentations by experts at the workshop, several key points were identified, including the value of animal models used to study autoimmunity and AID toward studying novel vaccine adjuvants; whether there is scientific evidence indicating an intrinsic risk of autoimmunity and AID with adjuvants, or a higher risk resulting from the mechanism of action; and if there is compelling clinical data linking adjuvants and AID. The tripartite group of experts concluded that there is no compelling evidence supporting the association of vaccine adjuvants with autoimmunity signals. Additionally, it is recommended that future research on the potential effects of vaccine adjuvants on AID should consider carefully the experimental design in animal models particularly if they are to be used in any risk assessment, as an improper design and model could result in misleading information. Finally, studies on the mechanistic aspects and potential biomarkers related to adjuvants and autoimmunity phenomena could be developed. PMID:25659277

  17. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  18. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kazushige; Fukui, Toshiro; Matsushita, Mitsunobu; Takaoka, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of autoimmune pancreatitis remains unclear, this report presents recent evidence of the clinical aspects of this disease: mild abdominal symptoms, usually without acute attacks of pancreatitis; occasional presence of obstructive jaundice; elevated levels of serum gammaglobulin, immunoglobulin (Ig)G, or IgG4; presence of autoantibodies; diffuse enlargement of the pancreas; irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct (sclerosing pancreatitis), often with intrapancreatic biliary stenosis or coexisting biliary lesions (sclerosing cholangitis similar to primary sclerosing cholangitis) seen on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; fibrotic changes with lymphocyte and IgG4-positive plasmacyte infiltration and obliterative phlebitis; occasional association with other systemic lesions (such as sialadenitis), retroperitoneal fibrosis, and interstitial renal tubular disorders; and response to steroid therapy. Based upon these findings, several sets of diagnostic criteria have been proposed. Further studies and international consensus for diagnostic criteria and pathogenetic mechanisms are needed. PMID:21904518

  19. Reconceiving autoimmunity: An overview.

    PubMed

    Tauber, Alfred I

    2014-05-29

    Three interconnected positions are advocated: (1) although serving as a useful model, the immune self does not exist as such; (2) instead of a self/nonself demarcation, the immune system 'sees' itself, i.e., it does not ignore the 'self' or attack the 'other;' but exhibits a spectrum of responses, which when viewed from outside the system appear as discrimination of 'self' and 'nonself' based on certain criteria of reactivity. When immune reactions are conceived in terms of normal physiology and open exchange with the environment, where borders dividing host and foreign are elusive and changing, host defense is only part of the immune system's functions, which actually comprise two basic tasks: protection, i.e., to preserve host integrity, and maintenance of organismic identity. And thus (3) if the spectrum of immunity is enlarged, differentiating low reactive 'autoimmune' reactions from activated immune responses against the 'other' is only a matter of degree. Simply, all immunity is 'autoimmunity,' and the pathologic state of immunity directed at normal constituents of the organism is a particular case of dis-regulation, which appropriately is designated, autoimmune. Other uses of 'autoimmunity' and its congeners function as the semantic remnants of Burnet's original self/nonself theory and should be replaced. A new nomenclature is proposed, concinnity, which more accurately designates the physiology of the animal's ordinary housekeeping economy mediated by the immune system than 'autoimmunity' when used to describe such normal functions. PMID:24880023

  20. Autoimmunity and asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Pfau, Jean C; Serve, Kinta M; Noonan, Curtis W

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  1. Primary autoimmune myelofibrosis in a 36-year old patient presenting with isolated extreme anemia

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fabio P S; Konoplev, Sergej N; Lu, Huifang; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2015-01-01

    Primary autoimmune myelofibrosis is a very rare condition characterized by peripheral blood cytopenias, bone marrow fibrosis with lymphoid aggregates, and by the finding of autoantibodies in peripheral blood, suggesting a systemic autoimmune process. Patients can be frequently misdiagnosed as having the more common disorder primary myelofibrosis, a myeloproliferative neoplasm. We report the case of a patient with primary autoimmune myelofibrosis with emphasis on the clinical and pathological features that lead to the diagnosis. PMID:19748119

  2. [Autoimmune thyroid disease and associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Lapcevi?, Mirjana

    2005-10-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is a multifactorial, genetic disease. It is the sequelae of the impaired immunoregulation, tolerance and poor recognition of one's own proteins, oligopolysaccharides and polypeptides, due to development of somatic lymphocyte mutations. It is manifested by different clinical and morphological entities, inter-related by etiopathogenetic association, i.e., all of them are caused by disorder of immune system regulation. Chronic autoimmune thyroidism (Thyreoiditis lymphocytaria Hashimoto, HT), as well as immunogenic hyperthyroidism (Morbus Graves Basedow, MGB) are frequently associated with autoimmune diseases of other organs, such as: chronic insufficiency of salivary glands (Sy Sjögren), autoimmune hemolytic anemia, megalocytic pernicious anemia, thrombocytopenia, Rheumatoid arthritis, Diabetes mellitus (more often type 2, but also type 1), Morbus Addison, Coeliakia, and other autoimmune diseases such as systemic diseases of connecting tissue (Lupus erythematosus-SLE, Sclerodermia, Vasculitis superficialis). The incidence of autoimmune diseases has been at increase in all age groups of our population. The prevalence of organ-specific and organ-nonspecific antibodies increases with the age. Antigenicity of thyroid epithelial cell may be triggered by different chemical and biological agents (repeated viral infections), repeated stress, and in individuals with genetic propensity. Unrecognized ATD progressively leads to hypothyroidism with hyperlipidemia, blood vessel changes, osteoporosis, deformities, invalidity which substantially reduces the quality of life of patient and requires medical attention and expensive treatment on what account it is medically and socio-economically significant. Multiple diagnostic procedures contribute to faster recognition of this condition. The goal of the primary health care physician (given that preclinical phase of ATD and other associated diseases have different duration) and other specialists is to recognize ATD and, by early diagnosis and multidisciplinary treatment, to take secondary preventive measures of manifestation of above-mentioned associated autoimmune diseases, and in that way, to avoid the development of comorbidity and complications. It is particularly supported by medical doctrine based on evidence of application of corticosteroids, cytostatics, thyro-suppressive and substitution therapy, antilipemics, bisphosphonates and other drugs, significant for autoimmune diseases. PMID:16405263

  3. Epigenetics and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Quintero-Ronderos, Paula; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis

    2012-01-01

    Epigenetics is defined as the study of all inheritable and potentially reversible changes in genome function that do not alter the nucleotide sequence within the DNA. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential to carry out key functions in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, the epigenetic mechanisms are a window to understanding the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of complex diseases such as autoimmune diseases. It is noteworthy that autoimmune diseases do not have the same epidemiology, pathology, or symptoms but do have a common origin that can be explained by the sharing of immunogenetic mechanisms. Currently, epigenetic research is looking for disruption in one or more epigenetic mechanisms to provide new insights into autoimmune diseases. The identification of cell-specific targets of epigenetic deregulation will serve us as clinical markers for diagnosis, disease progression, and therapy approaches. PMID:22536485

  4. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... VEDA” to receive a 15% discount. Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease What is autoimmunity? How is it connected ... reaction. The immune system can attack just the ear, attack the ear and some other body part ...

  5. Recent Advances in the Genetics of Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gregersen, Peter K.; Olsson, Lina M.

    2010-01-01

    Extraordinary technical advances in the field of human genetics over the past few years have catalyzed an explosion of new information about the genetics of human autoimmunity. In particular, the ability to scan the entire genome for common polymorphisms that associate with disease has led to the identification of numerous new risk genes involved in autoimmune phenotypes. Several themes are emerging. Autoimmune disorders have a complex genetic basis; multiple genes contribute to disease risk, each with generally modest effects independently. In addition, it is now clear that common genes underlie multiple autoimmune disorders. There is also heterogeneity among subphenotypes within a disease and across major racial groups. The current crop of genetic associations are only the start of a complete catalog of genetic factors for autoimmunity, and it remains unclear to what extent common variation versus multiple rare variants contribute to disease susceptibility. The current review focuses on recent discoveries within functionally related groups of genes that provide clues to novel pathways of pathogenesis for human autoimmunity. PMID:19302045

  6. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yueh-Chen

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  7. Pregnancy, postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis, and autoimmune hypophysitis: intimate relationships

    PubMed Central

    Landek-Salgado, Melissa A.; Gutenberg, Angelika; Lupi, Isabella; Kimura, Hiroaki; Mariotti, Stefano; Rose, Noel R.; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases comprise a group of about 85 heterogeneous conditions that can affect virtually any organ and tissue in the body. Many autoimmune diseases change significantly during pregnancy: some ameliorate, some worsen, and others are unaffected. Two autoimmune diseases present prominently in relation to pregnancy: postpartum autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune hypophysitis. This article will review the current state of knowledge of the immunological changes that occur during normal pregnancy, and will explore the striking temporal association with pregnancy observed in thyroiditis and hypophysitis. PMID:19539059

  8. The role of gut microbiota in immune homeostasis and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hsin-Jung; Wu, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Keeping a delicate balance in the immune system by eliminating invading pathogens, while still maintaining self-tolerance to avoid autoimmunity, is critical for the body’s health. The gut microbiota that resides in the gastrointestinal tract provides essential health benefits to its host, particularly by regulating immune homeostasis. Moreover, it has recently become obvious that alterations of these gut microbial communities can cause immune dysregulation, leading to autoimmune disorders. Here we review the advances in our understanding of how the gut microbiota regulates innate and adaptive immune homeostasis, which in turn can affect the development of not only intestinal but also systemic autoimmune diseases. Exploring the interaction of gut microbes and the host immune system will not only allow us to understand the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases but will also provide us new foundations for the design of novel immuno- or microbe-based therapies. PMID:22356853

  9. Renal involvement in autoimmune connective tissue diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Connective tissue diseases (CTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders that share certain clinical presentations and a disturbed immunoregulation, leading to autoantibody production. Subclinical or overt renal manifestations are frequently observed and complicate the clinical course of CTDs. Alterations of kidney function in Sjögren syndrome, systemic scleroderma (SSc), auto-immune myopathies (dermatomyositis and polymyositis), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy (APSN) as well as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are frequently present and physicians should be aware of that. In SLE, renal prognosis significantly improved based on specific classification and treatment strategies adjusted to kidney biopsy findings. Patients with scleroderma renal crisis (SRC), which is usually characterized by severe hypertension, progressive decline of renal function and thrombotic microangiopathy, show a significant benefit of early angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitor use in particular and strict blood pressure control in general. Treatment of the underlying autoimmune disorder or discontinuation of specific therapeutic agents improves kidney function in most patients with Sjögren syndrome, auto-immune myopathies, APSN and RA. In this review we focus on impairment of renal function in relation to underlying disease or adverse drug effects and implications on treatment decisions. PMID:23557013

  10. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Londei; G. Franco Bottazzo; Marc Feldmann

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves'

  11. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Autoimmune Disease: Updates from Europe and the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith M. Sullivan; Paolo Muraro; Alan Tyndall

    2010-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the immunobiology of autoimmune disease and its treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In autoimmune disorders, the reconsti- tuted immune system following lymphoablation and autologous HCTyields qualitative changes in immune defects and modifications in adaptive immune responses. Seminal experiments in animals demonstrated that allogeneic or autologous HCT could prevent progression or

  12. Gut Microbiome Metagenomics Analysis Suggests a Functional Model for the Development of Autoimmunity

    E-print Network

    Casella, George

    of Autoimmunity for Type 1 Diabetes Christopher T. Brown1 , Austin G. Davis-Richardson1 , Adriana Giongo1 , Kelsey of Clinical Microbiology, University of Kuopio, Kuopio, Finland, 4 Hospital for Children and Adolescents role in the development of autoimmune disorders including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Over 30 billion

  13. MDSC in autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James G. Cripps; James D. Gorham

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) were first described nearly two decades ago. Until recently, however, descriptions of MDSC populations were found almost exclusively in animal models of cancer or in cancer patients. Over the last few years, an increasing number of reports have been published describing populations of myeloid cells with MDSC-like properties in murine models of autoimmune disease. In

  14. NEWS AND COMMENTARY Autoimmunity

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    susceptibility to autoimmunity include increased immune priming or reduced resistance to inflamma- tion. Enhanced levels of immune priming could occur through altered barrier perme- ability allowing increased leukocyte traffic through the tissue, or by increased sponta- neous apoptosis in the tissue seeding the draining

  15. Mechanisms of autoimmune liver disease.

    PubMed

    Baier, Julia L C; Mattner, Jochen

    2014-11-01

    The immune system of the liver is characterized by a predominant innate component. Several innate immune cell populations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated hepatic diseases, which are frequently associated with systemic symptoms or with co-morbidities affecting other organ systems. Thus, next to tissue-specific factors, general tolerance mechanisms are affected in devastating hepatic disorders like primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), or primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The innate immune cell populations abundantly detected within the liver and endowed with potent immunomodulatory capacities include innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) and natural killer T (NKT) cells. While both ILCs and NKT cells can be activated by different cytokines and/or chemokines, NKT cells also respond to (glyco-) lipid antigens engaging their canonical, semi-invariant TCR. Once activated, ILCs and NKT cells release copious amounts of Th1, Th2, and/or Th17 cytokines that shape subsequent innate and adaptive immune responses. Those immunomodulatory features as well as the recently described antigen-presenting capacity of ILCs and/or the bi-directional functional role of NKT cells might not only underlie the pathogenic mechanisms in the respective disorders, but also provide promising targets for clinical intervention. We will discuss these novel aspects as well as the role of alarmin-like cytokines such as IL-33 in the context of ILC and NKT cell activation and the consequences for the induction and progress of hepatic tissue damage and fibrosis. PMID:25425466

  16. Immunotherapeutic strategies in autoimmune uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Papotto, Pedro Henrique; Marengo, Eliana Blini; Sardinha, Luiz Roberto; Goldberg, Anna Carla; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune uveitis is an organ-specific disorder characterized by irreversible lesions to the eye that predominantly affect people in their most productive years and is among the leading causes of visual deficit and blindness. Currently available therapies are effective in the treatment of a wide spectrum of uveitis, but are often associated with severe side effects. Here, we review ongoing research with promising immunomodulatory therapeutic strategies, describing their specific features, interactions and the responses triggered by the targeted immune molecules that aim to minimize clinical complications and the likelihood of disease relapse. We first review the main features of the disease, diagnostic tools, and traditional forms of therapy, as well as the animal models predominantly used to understand the pathogenesis and test the novel intervention approaches aiming to control the acute immune and inflammatory responses and to dampen chronic responses. Both exploratory research and clinical trials have targeted either the blockade of effector pathways or of their companion co-stimulatory molecules. Examples of targets are T cell receptors (CD3), their co-stimulatory receptors (CD28, CTLA-4) and corresponding ligands (B7-1 and B7-2, also known as CD80 and CD86), and cytokines like IL-2 and their receptors. Here, we summarize the available evidence on effectiveness of these treatments in human and experimental uveitis and highlight a novel CD28 antagonist monovalent Fab? antibody, FR104, which has shown preclinical efficacy suppressing effector T cells while enhancing regulatory T cell function and immune tolerance in a humanized graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) mice model and is currently being tested in a mouse autoimmune uveitis model with encouraging results. PMID:24833504

  17. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia].

    PubMed

    Marmont, A; Zanella, A

    2000-10-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemias (AIHAs) are the most ancient and well known example of clinical autoimmunity. They may be still distinguished in two main groups, that is with "warm" or "cold" antibodies, according to the optimal temperature at which they react with the erythrocyte antigens in vivo and in vitro. There is also a subgroup where both kinds of autoantibodies coexist. AIHAs may be idiopathic or secondary. The immunologic techniques for the demonstration of the antibodies are well established, but one must remember that there are infrequent cases with negative DAT (Coombs) test when performed with conventional procedures. The fundamental concepts of therapy are discussed, and the detailed review of the principal procedures is performed, including blood transfusions (when and how), plasma exchanges, high-dose immunoglobulins, glycocorticosteroids, splenectomy, cytotoxic agents and stem cell transplantation, autologous and allogeneic. PMID:11072741

  18. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia with a paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria-like defect: report of one case].

    PubMed

    Tong, Juxian; Kou, Wei; Chen, Qi; Xiao, Duan

    2013-12-01

    Both autoimmune hemolytic anemia and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria are common hemolytic diseases. The former causes hemolysis because of immune disorder, and the latter is an acquired clonal hematologic disorder of stem cells. The two entities are often separate diseases, but can also occur concomitantly or secondary to each other. paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria-like defect-like defect is a special type of autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and should be distinguished from typical paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria-like defect. PMID:24369265

  19. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvia C. L. Farhat; Clovis A. Silva; Maria Angelica M. Orione; Lucia M. A. Campos; Adriana M. E. Sallum; Alfésio L. F. Braga

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This

  20. Annotation: PANDAS--A Model for Human Autoimmune Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swedo, Susan E.; Grant, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS) is a recently recognized syndrome in which pre-adolescent children have abrupt onsets of tics and/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a recurring and remitting course of illness temporally related to streptococcal infections, and associated…

  1. Etiopathogenesis of insulin autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kanatsuna, Norio; Papadopoulos, George K; Moustakas, Antonis K; Lenmark, Ake

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmunity against pancreatic islet beta cells is strongly associated with proinsulin, insulin, or both. The insulin autoreactivity is particularly pronounced in children with young age at onset of type 1 diabetes. Possible mechanisms for (pro)insulin autoimmunity may involve beta-cell destruction resulting in proinsulin peptide presentation on HLA-DR-DQ Class II molecules in pancreatic draining lymphnodes. Recent data on proinsulin peptide binding to type 1 diabetes-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 is reviewed and illustrated by molecular modeling. The importance of the cellular immune reaction involving cytotoxic CD8-positive T cells to kill beta cells through Class I MHC is discussed along with speculations of the possible role of B lymphocytes in presenting the proinsulin autoantigen over and over again through insulin-carrying insulin autoantibodies. In contrast to autoantibodies against other islet autoantigens such as GAD65, IA-2, and ZnT8 transporters, it has not been possible yet to standardize the insulin autoantibody test. As islet autoantibodies predict type 1 diabetes, it is imperative to clarify the mechanisms of insulin autoimmunity. PMID:22567309

  2. Targeting dendritic cell function during systemic autoimmunity to restore tolerance.

    PubMed

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan P; Vega, Fabián; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2014-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

  3. The Immunopathogenesis of Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis One Century after Hashimoto

    PubMed Central

    Weetman, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    Hakaru Hashimoto described 4 patients with a hitherto unknown cause for goitre, struma lymphomatosa, a century ago. He was careful to distinguish this from Riedel thyroiditis but it has become clear that fibrosis and atrophy of the thyroid are indeed components of Hashimoto thyroiditis, and in rare cases IgG4-related sclerosing disease may be an outcome. Although the cause of the lymphocytic infiltration was unknown to Hashimoto, we now know through the pioneering studies of N.R. Rose and E. Witebsky [J Immunol 1956;76:417–427] that this condition is the archetype for autoimmune destruction as a disease mechanism. In the last two decades in particular, there has been huge interest in unravelling the genetic basis for this and related autoimmune disorders. The list of polymorphisms associated with autoimmune thyroid disease grows each year, and in the case of vitiligo, which is frequently found in association with thyroid autoimmunity, we know that 27 separate susceptibility loci account for less than 20% of the heritability of this condition. Environmental and existential factors may turn out to be just as complex in number and in interactions. We can thus imagine a ‘Swiss cheese’ model for the causation of autoimmune thyroid disease, in which the effects of cumulative weaknesses line up – like the holes in slices of cheese – to allow the catastrophic event of autoimmune destruction to occur. PMID:24783026

  4. High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

  5. Targeting Dendritic Cell Function during Systemic Autoimmunity to Restore Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan P.; Vega, Fabián; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

  6. Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24435355

  7. Autoimmune thrombocytopenia: a complication of fludarabine therapy in the treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yujie; Peng, Hongjuan; Cui, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Dai; Sui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Lingyan; Xu, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Fludarabine is an effective purine analogue which has become extensive used in lymph proliferative malignancies. However, an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHIA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP) is reported with the use of fludarabine. The exact mechanism for fludarabine to exacerbate thrombocytopenia is not distinct. In our report, we describe a patient with WM developed a refractory, life-threatening and fludarabine-associated thrombocytopenia which could not be explained by the cytotoxic effects of fludarabine. Possible mechanisms of fludarabine on autoimmune disorders are discussed. PMID:25664138

  8. [Autoimmune diseases--principles and selected examples].

    PubMed

    Genser, N

    1993-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases present themselves as syndromes of different dysfunctions of the immune system due to multiple disturbances of immuninformation and regulation. Because of the lifelong persistence of the auto-antigen, chronic progredient diseases develop with a variety of symptoms and different stages within the clinical course. It may be that at first glance symptoms of lesser importance, like skin disorders or proteinuria, can be markers of a systemic manifestation of an immunopathy. The underwriting of proposal ought to be based on information of the own and family history as well as on recent clinical and serological findings and on the possible involvement of other organs. PMID:8128543

  9. Neuronal surface antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Linnoila, Jenny J; Rosenfeld, Myrna R; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-09-01

    In the past few years, many autoimmune encephalitides have been identified, with specific clinical syndromes and associated antibodies against neuronal surface antigens. There is compelling evidence that many of these antibodies are pathogenic and most of these encephalitides are highly responsive to immunotherapies. The clinical spectra of some of these antibody-mediated syndromes, especially those reported in only a few patients, are evolving. Others, such as anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, are well characterized. Diagnosis involves recognizing the specific syndromes and identifying the antibody in a patient's cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum. These syndromes are associated with variable abnormalities in CSF, magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography. Treatment is often multidisciplinary and should be focused upon neutralizing the effects of antibodies and eliminating their source. Overlapping disorders have been noted, with some patients having more than one neurologic autoimmune disease. In other patients, viral infections such as herpes simplex virus encephalitis trigger robust antineuronal autoimmune responses. PMID:25369441

  10. Spontaneous autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 mice-implications for autoimmunity described in gene-targeted mice.

    PubMed

    Bygrave, Anne E; Rose, Kirsten L; Cortes-Hernandez, Josefina; Warren, Joanna; Rigby, Robert J; Cook, H Terence; Walport, Mark J; Vyse, Timothy J; Botto, Marina

    2004-08-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder in which complex genetic factors play an important role. Several strains of gene-targeted mice have been reported to develop SLE, implicating the null genes in the causation of disease. However, hybrid strains between 129 and C57BL/6 mice, widely used in the generation of gene-targeted mice, develop spontaneous autoimmunity. Furthermore, the genetic background markedly influences the autoimmune phenotype of SLE in gene-targeted mice. This suggests an important role in the expression of autoimmunity of as-yet-uncharacterised background genes originating from these parental mouse strains. Using genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified several susceptibility loci, derived from 129 and C57BL/6 mice, mapped in the lupus-prone hybrid (129 x C57BL/6) model. By creating a C57BL/6 congenic strain carrying a 129-derived Chromosome 1 segment, we found that this 129 interval was sufficient to mediate the loss of tolerance to nuclear antigens, which had previously been attributed to a disrupted gene. These results demonstrate important epistatic modifiers of autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 mouse strains, widely used in gene targeting. These background gene influences may account for some, or even all, of the autoimmune traits described in some gene-targeted models of SLE. PMID:15314659

  11. Spontaneous Autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 Mice—Implications for Autoimmunity Described in Gene-Targeted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bygrave, Anne E; Rose, Kirsten L; Cortes-Hernandez, Josefina; Warren, Joanna; Rigby, Robert J; Cook, H. Terence; Walport, Mark J; Vyse, Timothy J

    2004-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disorder in which complex genetic factors play an important role. Several strains of gene-targeted mice have been reported to develop SLE, implicating the null genes in the causation of disease. However, hybrid strains between 129 and C57BL/6 mice, widely used in the generation of gene-targeted mice, develop spontaneous autoimmunity. Furthermore, the genetic background markedly influences the autoimmune phenotype of SLE in gene-targeted mice. This suggests an important role in the expression of autoimmunity of as-yet-uncharacterised background genes originating from these parental mouse strains. Using genome-wide linkage analysis, we identified several susceptibility loci, derived from 129 and C57BL/6 mice, mapped in the lupus-prone hybrid (129 × C57BL/6) model. By creating a C57BL/6 congenic strain carrying a 129-derived Chromosome 1 segment, we found that this 129 interval was sufficient to mediate the loss of tolerance to nuclear antigens, which had previously been attributed to a disrupted gene. These results demonstrate important epistatic modifiers of autoimmunity in 129 and C57BL/6 mouse strains, widely used in gene targeting. These background gene influences may account for some, or even all, of the autoimmune traits described in some gene-targeted models of SLE. PMID:15314659

  12. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  13. Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70–85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6–12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80–90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

  14. The Autoimmune Basis of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  15. Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias.

    PubMed

    Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70-85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6-12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80-90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

  16. Treatment of autoimmune diseases and systemic vasculitis with pooled human intravenous immune globulin.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, S C; Toyoda, M

    1994-01-01

    Treatment of autoimmune and vasculitic disorders with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) has shown great promise. IVIG appears to provide large amounts of immunoregulatory substances that have the capacity to regulate the immune system in various ways. The ability of IVIG to regulate deleterious autoimmune responses and disease is largely directly related to its ability to stimulate the production of anti-idiotypic autoantibodies after infusion. In this respect, IVIG represents a novel immunoregulatory agent with the ability to control autoimmune and vasculitic disorders without subsequent predisposition to infectious complications. Future work and controlled clinical trials will be necessary to prove the efficacy of this therapy for specific autoimmune and vasculitic disorders. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8033432

  17. Emerging role of interleukin-33 in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Cheng; Barbour, Mark; Fairlie-Clarke, Karen J; Allan, Debbie; Mu, Rong; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family. It predominantly induces type 2 immune responses and thus is protective against atherosclerosis and nematode infections but contributes to allergic airway inflammation. Interleukin-33 also plays a pivotal role in the development of many autoimmune diseases through mechanisms that are still not fully understood. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in understanding of the expression and function of IL-33 in some autoimmune disorders, aiming to provide insight into its potential role in disease development. PMID:24116703

  18. Antibodies to neurofascin exacerbate adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weixing; Nguyen, Toan; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ji, Qiuhong; Yiannikas, Con; Pollard, John D; Mathey, Emily K

    2014-12-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are autoimmune disorders of the peripheral nervous system in which autoantibodies are implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Recent work has focused on the nodal regions of the myelinated axon as potential autoantibody targets. Here we screened patient sera for autoantibodies to neurofascin and assessed the pathophysiological relevance of anti-neurofascin antibodies in vivo. Levels of anti-neurofascin antibodies were higher in sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy when compared with those of controls. Anti-neurofascin antibodies exacerbated and prolonged adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune neuritis and caused conduction defects when injected intraneurally. PMID:25262157

  19. Fueling Autoimmunity: Type I Interferon in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Di Domizio, Jeremy; Cao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years, active research using genomic, cellular and animal modeling approaches has revealed the fundamental forces driving the development of autoimmune diseases. Type I IFN (IFN) imprints unique molecular signatures in a list of autoimmune diseases. IFN is induced by diverse nucleic acid-containing complexes, which trigger innate immune activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). IFN primes, activates or differentiates various leukocyte populations to promote autoimmunity. Accordingly, IFN signaling is essential for the initiation and/or progression of lupus in several experimental models. However, the heterogeneous nature of SLE requires better characterization on how IFN pathways are activated and subsequently promote the advancement of autoimmune diseases. Given the central role of type I IFN, various strategies are devised to target these cytokines or related pathways to curtail the progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23445195

  20. Infections and autoimmunity: role of human cytomegalovirus in autoimmune endothelial cell damage.

    PubMed

    Dolcino, M; Puccetti, A; Barbieri, A; Bason, C; Tinazzi, E; Ottria, A; Patuzzo, G; Martinelli, N; Lunardi, C

    2015-04-01

    Molecular mimicry between infectious agents and normal human host cell proteins represents one of the possible mechanisms responsible for autoimmunity. Among infectious agents, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an ideal candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders because of its lifelong persistence through periods of reactivation and latency and because of the extensive manipulation of innate and adaptive immunity. HCMV has been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular damage in systemic sclerosis (SSc) and atherosclerosis. Based on our data, which demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between HCMV and endothelial cell aggression in SSc and atherosclerosis, we propose that immune responses to particular HCMV proteins may result in autoaggression through a mechanism of molecular mimicry of normally expressed endothelial cell surface molecules. PMID:25801885

  1. Immunomodulation of Autoimmune Arthritis by Herbal CAM

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesha, Shivaprasad H.; Rajaiah, Rajesh; Berman, Brian M.; Moudgil, Kamal D.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a debilitating autoimmune disease of global prevalence. The disease is characterized by synovial inflammation leading to cartilage and bone damage. Most of the conventional drugs used for the treatment of RA have severe adverse reactions and are quite expensive. Over the years, increasing proportion of patients with RA and other immune disorders are resorting to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for their health needs. Natural plant products comprise one of the most popular CAM for inflammatory and immune disorders. These herbal CAM belong to diverse traditional systems of medicine, including traditional Chinese medicine, Kampo, and Ayurvedic medicine. In this paper, we have outlined the major immunological pathways involved in the induction and regulation of autoimmune arthritis and described various herbal CAM that can effectively modulate these immune pathways. Most of the information about the mechanisms of action of herbal products in the experimental models of RA is relevant to arthritis patients as well. The study of immunological pathways coupled with the emerging application of genomics and proteomics in CAM research is likely to provide novel insights into the mechanisms of action of different CAM modalities. PMID:21234398

  2. Stroke preceding autoimmune encephalitis with neuronal potassium channel antibody

    PubMed Central

    Simal, Patricia; Garcia-García, Ana Maria; Serna-Candel, Carmen; Egido, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis related to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies can occur as a complication of cancer but, more frequently, as a non-paraneoplastic disorder. The prompt recognition and treatment could mitigate the morbidity associated with this entity, but the broad-spectrum of neurological manifestations often makes the diagnosis a challenge. The authors describe, here, a unique case of autoimmune encephalitis related to VGKC antibodies preceded by an ischaemic stroke. Conditions associated with the stroke (infection, seizures, metabolic disturbances) had delayed the diagnosis. The authors suggest that autoimmune encephalitis needs to be taken into consideration as part of a differential diagnosis in patients with prolonged encephalopathy following an ischaemic stroke. Infection may trigger an inflammatory response. In addition, the rupture of blood brain barrier that occurs in stroke may have a pathogenic role by allowing antibodies to gain access to the central nervous system. PMID:22605845

  3. Immunodeficiency and autoimmune enterocolopathy linked to NFAT5 haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Boland, Brigid S; Widjaja, Christella E; Banno, Asoka; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Stephanie H; Stoven, Samantha; Peterson, Michael R; Jones, Marilyn C; Su, H Irene; Crowe, Sheila E; Bui, Jack D; Ho, Samuel B; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Goel, Ajay; Marietta, Eric V; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Jepsen, Kristen; Aramburu, Jose; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Sandborn, William J; Murray, Joseph A; Harismendy, Olivier; Chang, John T

    2015-03-15

    The link between autoimmune diseases and primary immunodeficiency syndromes has been increasingly appreciated. Immunologic evaluation of a young man with autoimmune enterocolopathy and unexplained infections revealed evidence of immunodeficiency, including IgG subclass deficiency, impaired Ag-induced lymphocyte proliferation, reduced cytokine production by CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and decreased numbers of NK cells. Genetic evaluation identified haploinsufficiency of NFAT5, a transcription factor regulating immune cell function and cellular adaptation to hyperosmotic stress, as a possible cause of this syndrome. Inhibition or deletion of NFAT5 in normal human and murine cells recapitulated several of the immune deficits identified in the patient. These results provide evidence of a primary immunodeficiency disorder associated with organ-specific autoimmunity linked to NFAT5 deficiency. PMID:25667416

  4. Autoimmune Hepatitis Triggered by Anti-TNF-? Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is occasionally triggered by drug treatments. Recently, as biological agents are becoming widely used for autoimmune disorders, there have been a growing number of reports of the development of autoimmune processes related to these agents. A 52-year-old Japanese woman with psoriasis developed liver damage two months after initiation of anti-TNF-? therapy with adalimumab. Liver histological findings were compatible with AIH, and positive conversions of ANAs were detected. The patient was treated with prednisolone and had a good response. While some cases of AIH triggered by anti-TNF-? therapies have been reported, the pathogenesis remains unspecified. When elevation of liver enzymes is observed with high IgG levels and seropositivity of ANA during the course of anti-TNF-? therapy, liver biopsy findings may be essential and important to make definitive diagnosis of AIH. PMID:24082887

  5. Epigenetics and autoimmune diseases: the X chromosome-nucleolus nexus

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Wesley H.; Renaudineau, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur more often in females, suggesting a key role for the X chromosome. X chromosome inactivation, a major epigenetic feature in female cells that provides dosage compensation of X-linked genes to avoid overexpression, presents special vulnerabilities that can contribute to the disease process. Disruption of X inactivation can result in loss of dosage compensation with expression from previously sequestered genes, imbalance of gene products, and altered endogenous material out of normal epigenetic context. In addition, the human X has significant differences compared to other species and these differences can contribute to the frequency and intensity of the autoimmune disease in humans as well as the types of autoantigens encountered. Here a link is demonstrated between autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, and the X chromosome by discussing cases in which typically non-autoimmune disorders complicated with X chromosome abnormalities also present lupus-like symptoms. The discussion is then extended to the reported spatial and temporal associations of the inactive X chromosome with the nucleolus. When frequent episodes of cellular stress occur, the inactive X chromosome may be disrupted and inadvertently become involved in the nucleolar stress response. Development of autoantigens, many of which are at least transiently components of the nucleolus, is then described. Polyamines, which aid in nucleoprotein complex assembly in the nucleolus, increase further during cell stress, and appear to have an important role in the autoimmune disease process. Autoantigenic endogenous material can potentially be stabilized by polyamines. This presents a new paradigm for autoimmune diseases: that many are antigen-driven and the autoantigens originate from altered endogenous material due to episodes of cellular stress that disrupt epigenetic control. This suggests that epigenetics and the X chromosome are important aspects of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25763008

  6. Frequency of autoimmune diseases in those suffering from vitiligo in comparison with normal population.

    PubMed

    Nejad, Shahla Babaee; Qadim, Hamideh Herizchi; Nazeman, Leila; Fadaii, Roohollah; Goldust, Mohamad

    2013-06-15

    Vitiligo is more common in people with certain autoimmune diseases. Here we studied the association between vitiligo and autoimmune diseases. In this case control study, 86 patients with vitiligo were questioned about the location of vitiligo, family history, treatment and therapeutic response. All patients were examined both clinically and with laboratory tests to detect the presence of autoimmune disorders including autoimmune thyroid disease, pernicious anemia, insulin dependent diabetes, and Systemic Lupus Erythematic (SLE) and Addison disease. We compared the prevalence of autoimmune disorder in vitiligo patients with that in a group of age-and gender-matched normal population. Average age of disease onset was 21.8 +/- 11 years; 61% of patients were female and 39% were male. The most common locations of vitiligo were hands (33.7%) and face (32.1%). The most common pattern of onset was vulgaris type (40%). Nearly one-fourth of patients had a positive family history of vitiligo. Prevalence of thyroid disorders in vitiligo patients and control group was 21.1 and 7%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p = 0.008). The most common autoimmune disorder in patient with vitiligo was hypothyroidism. Family history had a poor prognostic effect on response to therapy. PMID:24494526

  7. Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    Cappa, Marco; Bizzarri, Carla; Crea, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    The two major autoimmune thyroid diseases (ATDs) include Graves' disease (GD) and autoimmune thyroiditis (AT); both of which are characterized by infiltration of the thyroid by T and B cells reactive to thyroid antigens, by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and by abnormal thyroid function (hyperthyroidism in GD and hypothyroidism in AT). While the exact etiology of thyroid autoimmunity is not known, it is believed to develop when a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental encounters leads to breakdown of tolerance. It is important to recognize thyroid dysfunction at an early stage by maintaining an appropriate index of suspicion. PMID:21209713

  8. A common and recurrent 13-bp deletion in the autoimmune regulator gene in British kindreds with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, S H; Cheetham, T; Imrie, H; Vaidya, B; Barnes, N D; Bilous, R W; Carr, D; Meeran, K; Shaw, N J; Smith, C S; Toft, A D; Williams, G; Kendall-Taylor, P

    1998-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type 1 (APS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by autoimmune hypoparathyroidism, autoimmune adrenocortical failure, and mucocutaneous candidiasis. Recently, an autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE-1), which is located on chromosome 21q22.3, has been identified, and mutations in European kindreds with APS1 have been described. We used SSCP analysis and direct DNA sequencing to screen the entire 1,635-bp coding region of AIRE-1 in 12 British families with APS1. A 13-bp deletion (964del13) was found to account for 17 of the 24 possible mutant AIRE-1 alleles, in our kindreds. This mutation was found to occur de novo in one affected subject. A common haplotype spanning the AIRE-1 locus was found in chromosomes that carried the 964del13 mutation, suggesting a founder effect in our population. One of 576 normal subjects was also a heterozygous carrier of the 964del13 mutation. Six other point mutations were found in AIRE-1, including two 1-bp deletions, three missense mutations (R15L, L28P, and Y90C), and a nonsense mutation (R257*). The high frequency of the 964del13 allele and the clustering of the other AIRE-1 mutations may allow rapid molecular screening for APS1 in British kindreds. Furthermore, the prevalence of the 964del13 AIRE-1 mutation may have implications in the pathogenesis of the more common autoimmune endocrinopathies in our population. PMID:9837820

  9. Rheumatic fever, autoimmunity, and molecular mimicry: the streptococcal connection.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Madeleine W

    2014-01-01

    The group A streptococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and its link to autoimmune sequelae, has acquired a new level of understanding. Studies support the hypothesis that molecular mimicry between the group A streptococcus and heart or brain are important in directing immune responses in rheumatic fever. Rheumatic carditis, Sydenham chorea and a new group of behavioral disorders called pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections are reviewed with consideration of autoantibody and T cell responses and the role of molecular mimicry between the heart, brain and group A streptococcus as well as how immune responses contribute to pathogenic mechanisms in disease. In rheumatic carditis, studies have investigated human monoclonal autoantibodies and T cell clones for their crossreactivity and their mechanisms leading to valve damage in rheumatic heart disease. Although studies of human and animal sera from group A streptococcal diseases or immunization models have been crucial in providing clues to molecular mimicry and its role in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever, study of human monoclonal autoantibodies have provided important insights into how antibodies against the valve may activate the valve endothelium and lead to T cell infiltration. Passive transfer of anti-streptococcal T cell lines in a rat model of rheumatic carditis illustrates effects of CD4+ T cells on the valve. Although Sydenham chorea has been known as the neurological manifestation of rheumatic fever for decades, the combination of autoimmunity and behavior is a relatively new concept linking brain, behavior and neuropsychiatric disorders with streptococcal infections. In Sydenham chorea, human mAbs and their expression in transgenic mice have linked autoimmunity to central dopamine pathways as well as dopamine receptors and dopaminergic neurons in basal ganglia. Taken together, the studies reviewed provide a basis for understanding streptococcal sequelae and how immune responses against group A streptococci influence autoimmunity and inflammatory responses in the heart and brain. PMID:24892819

  10. Distal renal tubular acidosis with multiorgan autoimmunity: a case report.

    PubMed

    van den Wildenberg, Maria J; Hoorn, Ewout J; Mohebbi, Nilufar; Wagner, Carsten A; Woittiez, Arend-Jan; de Vries, Peter A M; Laverman, Gozewijn D

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman with a history of pernicious anemia presented with progressive muscle weakness and dysarthria. Hypokalemic paralysis (serum potassium, 1.4 mEq/L) due to distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) was diagnosed. After excluding several possible causes, dRTA was considered autoimmune. However, the patient did not meet criteria for any of the autoimmune disorders classically associated with dRTA. She had very high antibody titers against parietal cells, intrinsic factor, and thyroid peroxidase (despite normal thyroid function). The patient consented to a kidney biopsy, and acid-base transporters, anion exchanger type 1 (AE1), and pendrin were undetectable by immunofluorescence. Indirect immunofluorescence detected diminished abundance of AE1- and pendrin-expressing intercalated cells in the kidney, as well as staining by the patient's serum of normal human intercalated cells and parietal cells expressing the adenosine triphosphatase hydrogen/potassium pump (H(+)/K(+)-ATPase) in normal human gastric mucosa. The dRTA likely is caused by circulating autoantibodies against intercalated cells, with possible cross-reactivity against structures containing gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase. This case demonstrates that in patients with dRTA without a classic autoimmune disorder, autoimmunity may still be the underlying cause. The mechanisms involved in autoantibody development and how dRTA can be caused by highly specific autoantibodies against intercalated cells have yet to be determined. PMID:25533600

  11. Population Based Study of 12 Autoimmune Diseases in Sardinia, Italy: Prevalence and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Sardu, Claudia; Cocco, Eleonora; Mereu, Alessandra; Massa, Roberta; Cuccu, Alessandro; Marrosu, Maria Giovanna; Contu, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Background The limited availability of prevalence data based on a representative sample of the general population, and the limited number of diseases considered in studies about co-morbidity are the critical factors in study of autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the prevalence of 12 autoimmune diseases in a representative sample of the general population in the South of Sardinia, Italy, and tests the hypothesis of an overall association among these diseases. Methods Data were obtained from 21 GPs. The sample included 25,885 people. Prevalence data were expressed with 95% Poisson C.I. The hypothesis of an overall association between autoimmune diseases was tested by evaluating the co-occurrence within individuals. Results Prevalence per 100,000 are: 552 rheumatoid arthritis, 124 ulcerative colitis, 15 Crohn's disease, 464 type 1 diabetes, 81 systemic lupus erythematosus, 124 celiac disease, 35 myasthenia gravis, 939 psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis, 35 systemic sclerosis, 224 multiple sclerosis, 31 Sjogren's syndrome, and 2,619 autoimmune thyroiditis . An overall association between autoimmune disorders was highlighted. Conclusions The comparisons with prevalence reported in current literature do not show outlier values, except possibly for a few diseases like celiac disease and myasthenia gravis. People already affected by a first autoimmune disease have a higher probability of being affected by a second autoimmune disorder. In the present study, the sample size, together with the low overall prevalence of autoimmune diseases in the population, did not allow us to examine which diseases are most frequently associated with other autoimmune diseases. However, this paper makes available an adequate control population for future clinical studies aimed at exploring the co-morbidity of specific pairs of autoimmune diseases. PMID:22396771

  12. [Autoimmune thyroid disease--clinical symptoms of associated autoimmunity].

    PubMed

    Djurica, Snezana; Trbojevi?, Bozo; Milosevi?, Dragoslav P; Markovi?, Natasa

    2005-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases are manifested in a broad spectrum. Classic examples of organ-specific autoimmune disease include Addison's disease, insulin-dependent type-1 Diabetes mellitus, Grave's disease (MGB), and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). The initial report of this autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) dates back to Hakira Hashimoto (1912). In HT, as an organ-specific autoimmune disease, massive infiltration of lymphoid cells and parenchyma destruction are a consistent feature. The infiltration appears to be immune-mediated, primarily lymphocytic (T helper, T suppressor cells), NK cells and B cells. The pathological characteristics of AITD include development of the goitre (atrophic form is not so frequent), impaired thyroid gland function (from hyperthyroidism to subclinical and manifested hypothyroidism) and the formation of antithyroidal antibodies against thyroglobulin (AbTg) and the microsomal antigen (Ab TPO). There is a very good correlation between the antibodies against TPO and the histological findings. Morbus Graves Basedow is characterized by autoimmune hyperthyroidism with goitre, and infiltrative orbitopathy. Autoantibodies against the TSH-receptor molecule on the plasma membrane of the thyroid gland follicles cause a nonphysiological activation and an increase of the cellular function. Besides this hyperthyroidal condition, an autoimmune attack against the retrobulbar tissue leading to endocrine orbitopathy, can be noted in about 40% of patients suffering from MGB. PMID:16405252

  13. Anti-inflammatory effects of bromocriptine in a patient with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2.

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Samborek, Malgorzata; Stojko, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Excessive prolactin release and/or receptor action may be implicated in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune disorders. We report here a case of a woman who developed Graves' disease and subclinical autoimmune adrenal failure, and was diagnosed as having autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2. Because of coexisting microprolactinoma she was treated with bromocriptine for 24 months. This treatment resulted in a normalization of thyroid and adrenal function tests (with the exception of 21-hydroxylase antibodies) and reduced monocyte cytokine release. Our study indicates that bromocriptine and probably also the remaining prolactin-lowering agents produce anti-inflammatory effects and may prevent or delay the progression of autoimmune disorders of endocrine glands. PMID:24977964

  14. The Open Autoimmunity Journal, 2009, 1, 27-32 27 1876-8946/09 2009 Bentham Open

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of Graves' disease [7] and Hashimoto's thyroiditis [8], the two main thyroid autoimmune disorders in humans diseases and cancer [4-6]. For instance, FasL ex- pression has been reported in TFC from patients suffering

  15. Case Study: A New Infection-Triggered, Autoimmune Subtype of Pediatric OCD and Tourette's Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert J. Allen; Henrietta L. Leonard; Susan E. Swedo

    1995-01-01

    A review of clinical observations and literature reports leads to the hypothesis that, via a process analogous to Sydenham's chorea, infections with group A ?-hemolytic streptococci, among others, may trigger autoimmune responses that cause or exacerbate some cases of childhood-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) or tic disorders (including Tourette's syndrome). If this hypothesis is correct, then immunological treatments should lead to

  16. Retroviruses and autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Kalden, J R; Gay, S

    1994-01-01

    In autoimmune rheumatic diseases, retroviruses have been repeatedly discussed as important etiologic factors. However, despite a considerable amount of indirect evidence that retroviruses might indeed be involved in triggering or perpetuating autoimmune rheumatic diseases, clear cut direct evidence is still missing. Studies on arthropathies associated with HIV-1 or HTLV-1 infection as well as new experimental animal models like the Tax transgene mice and new data from the MLR/lpr mouse model might help to answer the questions how and by what mechanisms retroviral infection may lead to autoimmune rheumatic diseases. From data obtained in the MLR/lpr mouse it seems obvious that a potential link of retroviruses, apoptosis and autogenes to autoimmune diseases opens exciting new approaches to the study of rheumatic disease pathogenesis. PMID:7923867

  17. American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for Updates Join Our Email List For Email Marketing you can trust. Contact AARDA National Office 22100 ... to develop an autoimmune disease? Do you need diagnostic tips? Download article here About AARDA Mission Statement ...

  18. Genes of the LMP\\/TAP cluster are associated with the human autoimmune disease vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C B Casp; J-X She; W T McCormack

    2003-01-01

    Genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), including genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases. We report here that the LMP\\/TAP gene region is significantly associated with vitiligo, a disorder in which biochemical defects and\\/or autoimmune destruction cause melanocyte loss and resulting skin depigmentation. Case\\/control

  19. Steroid-Resistant Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes. PMID:25657435

  20. Steroid-resistant autoimmune thrombocytopenia in systemic lupus erythematosus treated with rituximab.

    PubMed

    Sardesai, Vasudha V; Sardesai, Vidyadhar R; Agarwal, Trupti D

    2015-01-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystem disorder characterized by production of numerous autoantibodies, some of which have pathogenic consequences and result in considerable morbidity. Herein, we present a case of 48-year-old female with SLE having autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thrombocytopenia, renal involvement, and recurrent flares of skin manifestations. She did not respond to the conventional therapy and was controlled and treated with Rituximab, a chimeric, monoclonal antiCD20 antibody, which specifically depletes B lymphocytes. PMID:25657435

  1. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-10-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n?=?777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n?=?533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid-eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR)?=?2·18; P?=?0·002 and OR?=?6·52; P?autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were 'protective' for GD and thus linked to HT, OR?=?0·49 (P?autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P?autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  2. Disorders Related to (And Sometimes Confused with) OCD

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Like” OCD How This Disorder Differs from OCD PANDAS / PANS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal ... Kids Website. Children and teens with OCD and PANDAS/PANS both: Experience typical obsessions (fear of contamination; ...

  3. Autoimmune retinopathy: a review and summary.

    PubMed

    Heckenlively, John R; Ferreyra, Henry A

    2008-04-01

    Three main forms of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) have been identified over the last 15 years: cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), melanoma-associated retinopathy (MAR), and nonneoplastic autoimmune retinopathy (npAIR). In this chapter, the term AIR will be used to encompass all three disorders where there is commonality to their features. Complicating the issue is that AIR can be a secondary complication of other conditions such as retinitis pigmentosa, ocular trauma, birdshot retinopathy, acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR), or multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). The many forms of AIR tend to have common clinical features despite the fact that there has been no uniform set of anti-retinal antibodies circulating in these patients. Patients tend to have a wide variance of anti-retinal antibody activity often with three to six different antibodies found on immunoblots. Patients typically present with a sudden onset of photopsia, rapid visual loss, and abnormal electroretinograms (ERGs). Most patients have a panretinal degeneration without pigment deposits. PMID:18408929

  4. Drug-induced autoimmunity: experience of the French Pharmacovigilance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Vial; Brigitte Nicolas; Jacques Descotes

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions to a pharmacovigilance structure is a reasonable tool to detect new associations between drugs and a given toxic effect. An analysis of the French national database of pharmacovigilance was undertaken to evaluate how such a system is relevant to survey and\\/or detect drug-associated autoimmune disorders. Only 0.2% of reports were coded with terms

  5. Annotation: PANDAS: a model for human autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Swedo; Paul J. Grant

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infec- tions (PANDAS) is a recently recognized syndrome in which pre-adolescent children have abrupt onsets of tics and\\/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a recurring and remitting course of illness temporally related to streptococcal infections, and associated neurologic findings including adventitious move- ments, hyperactivity and emotional lability. Methods: Inspired by observations of similar symptoms in

  6. CD226 Gly307Ser association with multiple autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J P Hafler; L M Maier; J D Cooper; V Plagnol; A Hinks; M J Simmonds; H E Stevens; N M Walker; B Healy; J M M Howson; M Maisuria; S Duley; G Coleman; S C L Gough; J Worthington; V K Kuchroo; L S Wicker; J A Todd

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies provide insight into multigenic diseases through the identification of susceptibility genes and etiological pathways. In addition, the identification of shared variants among autoimmune disorders provides insight into common disease pathways. We previously reported an association of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs763361\\/Gly307Ser in the immune response gene CD226 on chromosome 18q22 with type 1 diabetes (T1D)

  7. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is increasingly being reported. The presentation and clinical image findings of AIP sometimes resemble those of several pancreatic malignancies, but the therapeutic strategy differs appreciably. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary for cases of AIP. To date, AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes from the viewpoints of etiology, serum markers, histology, other organ involvements, and frequency of relapse: type 1 is related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and type 2 is related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Both types of AIP are characterized by focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement accompanied with a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and both show dramatic responses to corticosteroid. Unlike type 2, type 1 is characteristically associated with increasing levels of serum IgG4 and positive serum autoantibodies, abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes, frequent extrapancreatic lesions, and relapse. These findings have led several countries to propose diagnostic criteria for AIP, which consist of essentially similar diagnostic items; however, several differences exist for each country, mainly due to differences in the definition of AIP and the modalities used to diagnose this disease. An attempt to unite the diagnostic criteria worldwide was made with the publication in 2011 of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP, established at the 2010 Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP). PMID:25469024

  8. Progesterone and autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Grant C

    2012-05-01

    Sexual dimorphism in human immune systems is most apparent in the female predominance of certain autoimmune diseases (ADs) like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Epidemiologic, observational and experimental evidence strongly suggest sex steroids are important modulators of genetic risk in human AD. In this regard, the roles of progesterone (Pg), an immunomodulatory female sex steroid, are poorly understood. Several lines of investigation indicate Pg and synthetic progestins impact risk of AD and immune-mediated injury in different ways depending on their concentrations and their engagement of various Pg receptors expressed in immune organs, immune cells or tissues targeted by immune attack. At low physiologic levels, Pg may enhance interferon-alpha (IFN-?) pathways important in SLE pathogenesis. Commonly used synthetic progestins may have the opposite effect. At pregnancy levels, Pg may suppress disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS) via inhibition of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th17 pathways and induction of anti-inflammatory molecules. Importantly, Pg's immunomodulatory effects differ from those of estrogens and androgens. An additional layer of complexity arises from apparent interdependence of sex hormone signaling pathways. Identifying mechanisms by which Pg and other sex steroids modulate risk of AD and immune-mediated injury will require clarification of their cellular and molecular targets in vivo. These future studies should be informed by recent genetic discoveries in human AD, particularly those revealing their sex-specific genetic associations. PMID:22193289

  9. Autoimmune cholangitis mimicking a klatskin tumor: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Autoimmune cholangitis remains an elusive manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-associated systemic disease most commonly encountered in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis. No strict diagnostic criteria have been described to date and diagnosis mainly relies on a combination of clinical and histopathologic findings. It is hence even more challenging to diagnose autoimmune cholangitis in patients with late or atypical presentations, such as without concomitant pancreatic involvement. Early diagnosis of this rare disorder can significantly improve outcomes considering high rates of surgical intervention, as well as high relapse rates in the absence of steroid treatment. To the best of our knowledge the literature is quite sparse on cases with atypical presentations of autoimmune cholangitis. Case presentation We report a case of a previously healthy 65-year-old man of Middle-Eastern origin, with a history of pancreatic insufficiency of unknown etiology, evaluated for elevated liver function tests found incidentally on a routine physical examination. Imaging studies revealed an atrophic pancreas and biliary duct dilatation consistent with obstruction. Subsequent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a bile duct narrowing pattern suggestive of cholangiocarcinoma, but brushings failed to reveal malignant cells. Our patient proceeded to undergo surgical resection. Histological examination of the resected mass revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with no malignant features. Our patient returned three months later with persistently high liver function tests and no evidence of biliary obstruction on imaging. A presumptive diagnosis of autoimmune cholangitis was made and our patient's symptoms resolved after a short course of an oral steroid regimen. Post factum staining of the resection specimen revealed an immunoglobulin G4 antibody positive immune cell infiltrate, consistent with the proposed diagnosis. Conclusion Our case thus highlights the importance of clinician awareness of the autoimmune spectrum of biliary pathologies when confronted with atypical clinical presentations, the paucity of diagnostic measures and the benefit from long-term steroid and/or immunosuppressive treatment. PMID:21955859

  10. Type 1 diabetes and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Eiji

    2014-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic ? cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. PMID:25374439

  11. Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic ? cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. PMID:25374439

  12. HLA DRB1 Alleles Discriminate the Manifestation of Autoimmune Hepatitis as Type 1 or Type 2 in North Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Navchetan; Minz, Ranjana W.; Anand, Shashi; Saikia, Biman; Aggarwal, Ritu; Das, Ashim; Thapa, Babu R.; Chawla, Yogesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autoimmune hepatitis is a polygenic disorder of unknown etiology, where genetic factors affect the occurrence and clinical phenotype of the disease. It has been reported as a rare disease entity in the Indian subcontinent. This study was undertaken to investigate the association of HLA alleles with autoimmune hepatitis type 1 and type 2 in north Indian population and to analyze if distinct human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles help in characterization of the subtypes of autoimmune hepatitis. Methods Sixty-eight patients with autoimmune hepatitis and 128 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Out of 68 patients, 55 were diagnosed with autoimmune hepatitis type 1 and 13 with autoimmune hepatitis type 2. The patients and the controls were typed for HLA class II alleles by PCR-SSP method. Results HLA DRB1*04 and DRB1*08 were found to be significantly associated with autoimmune hepatitis type 1 in north Indian population. It was also observed that DRB1*04, DRB1*13 were significantly associated with pediatric autoimmune hepatitis type 1 and DRB1*08 was significantly associated with adult autoimmune hepatitis type 1. DRB1*14 was significantly associated with autoimmune hepatitis type 2. Conclusion The study indicates that autoimmune hepatitis in north Indian population is associated with HLA alleles that may help to discriminate the subtypes as autoimmune hepatitis type 1 and type 2. The study also highlights the ethnic variations in the Indian subcontinent in context to the genetic association of HLA with autoimmune diseases. PMID:25755530

  13. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E.; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative. PMID:24101757

  14. Hypergammaglobulinemia in the pediatric population as a marker for underlying autoimmune disease: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The significance of hypergammaglobulinemia as a marker of immune activation is unknown, as a differential diagnosis for hypergammaglobulinemia in children has not been adequately established. The goal of this study was to identify conditions associated with hypergammaglobulinemia in children, with the hypothesis that elevated immunoglobulin levels may precede or predict the development of autoimmune conditions. Methods We reviewed the medical records for all children with IgG level ?2000 mg/dL treated at a tertiary care children’s hospital from January 1, 2000 through December 31, 2009. We compared clinical and laboratory features of these patients, and developed an algorithm to predict the likelihood of underlying autoimmunity based on these characteristics. Results After excluding children who had received IVIG, a total of 442 patients with hypergammaglobulinemia were identified. Of these, nearly half had autoimmune conditions, most frequently systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus-related disorders. Autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease were also common. Infectious diseases were the next largest category of diseases, followed with much less frequency by malignant, drug-related, and other conditions. In comparison with non-autoimmune conditions, patients with autoimmune disease had higher IgG levels, lower white blood cell counts, lower hemoglobin values, and lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Multivariable logistic regression confirmed that CRP (P?=?0.002), white blood cell count (P?autoimmune disease in patients with high IgG levels. Conclusions In a cohort of pediatric patients at a tertiary care children’s hospital, hypergammaglobulinemia was most commonly associated with autoimmune diseases. In female patients with hypergammaglobulinemia, the presence of leukopenia, anemia, and normal CRP was 95% predictive of underlying autoimmune disease. PMID:24180594

  15. Cellular Mechanisms of CCL22-Mediated Attenuation of Autoimmune Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Loraine; Alvarez, Sigrid; Dai, Derek L; Soukhatcheva, Galina; Orban, Paul C; Verchere, C Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing ? cells in type 1 diabetes and islet transplantation involves a variety of immune pathways but is primarily mediated by self-reactive T cells. Chemokines can modulate local immune responses in inflammation and tumors by recruiting immune cells. We have reported that expression of the chemokine CCL22 in pancreatic ? cells in the NOD mouse prevents autoimmune attack by recruiting T regulatory cells (Tregs), protecting mice from diabetes. In this study we show that invariant NKT cells are also recruited to CCL22-expressing islet transplants and are required for CCL22-mediated protection from autoimmunity. Moreover, CCL22 induces an influx of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which correlates with higher levels of IDO in CCL22-expressing islet grafts. In addition to its chemotactic properties, we found that CCL22 activates Tregs and promotes their ability to induce expression of IDO by dendritic cells. Islet CCL22 expression thus produces a tolerogenic milieu through the interplay of Tregs, invariant NKT cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which results in suppression of effector T cell responses and protection of ? cells. The immunomodulatory properties of CCL22 could be harnessed for prevention of graft rejection and type 1 diabetes as well as other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25740943

  16. Effect of TACI Signaling on Humoral Immunity and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Ya-Min; Zhang, Xiao-Ming; Tao, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane activator and calcium-modulating cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI) is one of the receptors of B cell activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). TACI is a regulator in the immune responses. TACI inhibits B cell expansion and promotes the differentiation and survival of plasma cells. The mechanisms underlying these effects probably involve changed expressions of some crucial molecules, such as B lymphocyte induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) and inducible T-cell costimulator ligand (ICOSL) in B cells and/or plasma cells. However, abnormal TACI signaling may relate to autoimmune disorders. Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) patients with heterozygous mutations in TACI alleles increase susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. Taci?/? mice and BAFF transgenic mice both develop signs of human SLE. These findings that indicate inappropriate levels of TACI signaling may disrupt immune system balance, thereby promoting the development of autoimmune diseases. In this review, we summarize the basic characteristics of the TACI ligands BAFF and APRIL, and detail the research findings on the role of TACI in humoral immunity. We also discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of CVID patients with TACI mutations to autoimmune diseases and the role of TACI in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  17. Causes and consequences of the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Koneti; Straus, Stephen E

    2006-02-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is the first autoimmune hematological disease whose genetic basis has been defined. It is a disorder of apoptosis in which the inability of lymphocytes to die leads to lymphadenopathy, hypersplenism, and autoimmune cytopenias of childhood onset. More than 200 ALPS patients have been studied over the last 15 years and followed by our colleagues and ourselves at the Clinical Center of the National Institutes of Health. Based upon this experience we have determined that patients with germline mutations of the intracellular domain of Fas protein, the most frequent single genetic cause of ALPS, have a significantly increased risk of developing Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), underscoring the critical role played by cell surface receptor-mediated apoptosis in eliminating redundant proliferating lymphocytes with autoreactive and oncogenic potential. The major determinants of morbidity and mortality in ALPS are the severity of the autoimmune disease, hypersplenism, asplenia-related sepsis, and the risk of lymphoma, which in itself requires long-term surveillance. Though most episodes of cytopenias respond to courses of conventional immunomodulatory agents, some ALPS patients, especially those with massive splenomegaly and hypersplenism, may require splenectomy and/or ongoing immunosuppressive treatment. Thus, ALPS highlights the importance of cell death pathways in health and disease. PMID:16522544

  18. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome: a model disease for systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Lee-Kirsch, M A; Wolf, C; Günther, C

    2014-01-01

    Systemic autoimmunity is a complex disease process that results from a loss of immunological tolerance characterized by the inability of the immune system to discriminate self from non-self. In patients with the prototypic autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), formation of autoantibodies targeting ubiquitous nuclear antigens and subsequent deposition of immune complexes in the vascular bed induces inflammatory tissue injury that can affect virtually any organ system. Given the extraordinary genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of SLE, one approach to the genetic dissection of complex SLE is to study monogenic diseases, for which a single gene defect is responsible. Considerable success has been achieved from the analysis of the rare monogenic disorder Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory encephalopathy that clinically resembles in-utero-acquired viral infection and that also shares features with SLE. Progress in understanding the cellular and molecular functions of the AGS causing genes has revealed novel pathways of the metabolism of intracellular nucleic acids, the major targets of the autoimmune attack in patients with SLE. Induction of autoimmunity initiated by immune recognition of endogenous nucleic acids originating from processes such as DNA replication/repair or endogenous retro-elements represents novel paradigms of SLE pathogenesis. These findings illustrate how investigating rare monogenic diseases can also fuel discoveries that advance our understanding of complex disease. This will not only aid the development of improved tools for SLE diagnosis and disease classification, but also the development of novel targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:23786362

  19. [Autoimmunity induced by drugs. Immunological characteristics and etiopathogenic hypotheses].

    PubMed

    Homberg, J C

    1984-12-15

    Drug-induced autoimmune diseases have two immunological peculiarities. Firstly, some autoantibodies are present, which are virtually never seen in spontaneous human diseases and may be regarded as specific. This applies to antimitochondria antibody type 3 (anti M3) in the lupus-like syndrome caused by Venocuran, to antimitochondria antibody type 6 (anti M6) in iproniazide-induced hepatitis, to anti-insulin antibody found after treatment with methimazole, and to anti liver/kidney microsome antibody type 2 (anti LKM2) associated with hepatitis induced by tielinic acid. Secondly, a search for other autoantibodies shows that the immune disorder is much more limited than in spontaneous autoimmune diseases. Thus, contrary to myasthenia and idiopathic autoimmune haemolytic anaemia, we never found autoantibodies specifically directed against the thyroid, the stomach or the adrenal gland during treatment with D-penicillamine and alpha-methyldopa. Only some hypotheses may account for these peculiarities. Cross-reaction between drug and autoantigen may occur, but the fact that the antigen-antibody reaction is not inhibited by the drug or its metabolites does not support this explanation. Much more attractive is the "T-cell bypass" theory, according to which autoreacting suppressor T-cells are circumvented by helper T-cells stimulated by the drug-modified autoantigen. In this case, the autoimmune reaction would indicate to which body substance the drug is bound, thus making it immunostimulant, and not a structural similarity between the drug and the autoantigen. PMID:6240048

  20. In silico study of potential autoimmune threats from rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Tapati; Das, Sukhen; Nandy, Papiya; Bhowmick, Rahul; Nandy, Ashesh

    2014-08-01

    Rotavirus, the major cause of infantile nonbacterial diarrhea, was found to be associated with development of diabetes-associated auto-antibodies. In our study we tried to find out further potential autoimmune threats of this virus using bioinformatics approach. We took rotaviral proteins to study similarity with Homo sapiens proteome and found most conserved structural protein VP6 matches at two regions with ryanodine receptor, an autoimmune target associated with myasthenia gravis. Myasthenia gravis, a chronic neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder with no typical known reason, is characterized by fluctuating muscle weakness which is typically enhanced during muscular effort. Affected patients generate auto antibodies against mainly acetyl choline receptor and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium-release channel protein ryanodine receptor. Further, we observed that two regions which matched with ryanodine receptor remain conserved in all circulating rotaviral strains and showed significant antigenecity with respect to myasthenia gravis associated HLA haplotypes. Overall, our study detected rotaviral VP6 as a potential threat for myasthenia gravis and enlighten an area of virus associated autoimmune research. PMID:24929545

  1. Type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Before the concept of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was established, this form of pancreatitis had been recognized as lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis or non-alcoholic duct destructive chronic pancreatitis based on unique histological features. With the discovery in 2001 that serum IgG4 concentrations are specifically elevated in AIP patients, this emerging entity has been more widely accepted. Classical cases of AIP are now called type 1 as another distinct subtype (type 2 AIP) has been identified. Type 1 AIP, which accounts for 2% of chronic pancreatitis cases, predominantly affects adult males. Patients usually present with obstructive jaundice due to enlargement of the pancreatic head or thickening of the lower bile duct wall. Pancreatic cancer is the leading differential diagnosis for which serological, imaging, and histological examinations need to be considered. Serologically, an elevated level of IgG4 is the most sensitive and specific finding. Imaging features include irregular narrowing of the pancreatic duct, diffuse or focal enlargement of the pancreas, a peri-pancreatic capsule-like rim, and enhancement at the late phase of contrast-enhanced images. Biopsy or surgical specimens show diffuse lymphoplasmacytic infiltration containing many IgG4+ plasma cells, storiform fibrosis, and obliterative phlebitis. A dramatic response to steroid therapy is another characteristic, and serological or radiological effects are normally identified within the first 2 or 3 weeks. Type 1 AIP is estimated as a pancreatic manifestation of systemic IgG4-related disease based on the fact that synchronous or metachronous lesions can develop in multiple organs (e.g. bile duct, salivary/lacrimal glands, retroperitoneum, artery, lung, and kidney) and those lesions are histologically identical irrespective of the organ of origin. Several potential autoantigens have been identified so far. A Th2-dominant immune reaction and the activation of regulatory T-cells are assumed to be involved in the underlying immune reaction. IgG4 antibodies have two unique biological functions, Fab-arm exchange and a rheumatoid factor-like activity, both of which may play immune-defensive roles. However, the exact role of IgG4 in this disease still remains to be clarified. It seems important to recognize this unique entity given that the disease is treatable with steroids. PMID:22151922

  2. Therapy of Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Wright; Dana P. Ascherman

    \\u000a The autoimmune diseases can be divided into two basic categories: organ specific and systemic. Organ specific autoimmune disease can affect virtually any tissue of the body and is associated most often with evidence\\u000a of both T and B cell autoimmune responses directed against the cells of the affected organ. Examples of organ specific autoimmune\\u000a disease include multiple sclerosis, Type I

  3. Autoimmune disease and hair loss.

    PubMed

    Moghadam-Kia, Siamak; Franks, Andrew G

    2013-01-01

    Once systemic disease is in remission, it is prudent to recognize the importance of alopecia in the patient's overall sense of well-being and quality-of-life clinical outcome. Scarring alopecia (scalp discoid lupus erythematosus) can be the presenting manifestation of lupus in more than half of affected individuals. Diffuse nonscarring alopecia in lupus is usually responsive to treatment of the systemic disease. Severe, often intractable burning pruritus of the scalp is a frequent complaint in dermatomyositis. Lichen planopilaris may mimic other autoimmune forms of scarring alopecia. Alopecia can also be caused by medications used to treat systemic autoimmune disease and fibromyalgia. PMID:23159178

  4. Autoimmunity as a Candidate for the Etiopathogenesis of Meniere's Disease: Detection of Autoimmune Reactions and Diagnostic Biomarker Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Huhn; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun Jin; Gi, Mia; Kim, Bo Gyung; Choi, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Meniere's disease is an inner ear disorder that can manifest as fluctuating vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. However, the pathologic mechanism of Meniere's disease is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated autoimmunity as a potential cause of Meniere's disease. In addition we tried to find useful biomarker candidates for diagnosis. We investigated the protein composition of human inner ear fluid using liquid column mass spectrometry, the autoimmune reaction between circulating autoantibodies in patient serum and multiple antigens using the Protoarray system, the immune reaction between patient serum and mouse inner ear tissues using western blot analysis. Nine proteins, including immunoglobulin and its variants and interferon regulatory factor 7, were found only in the inner ear fluid of patients with Meniere's disease. Enhanced immune reactions with 18 candidate antigens were detected in patients with Meniere's disease in Protoarray analysis; levels of 8 of these antigens were more than 10-fold higher in patients than in controls. Antigen-antibody reactions between mouse inner ear proteins with molecular weights of 23–48 kDa and 63–75 kDa and patient sera were detected in 8 patients. These findings suggest that autoimmunity could be one of the pathologic mechanisms behind Meniere's disease. Multiple autoantibodies and antigens may be involved in the autoimmune reaction. Specific antigens that caused immune reactions with patient's serum in Protoarray analysis can be candidates for the diagnostic biomarkers of Meniere's disease. PMID:25330336

  5. [Auto-immune diseases and cancers. Second part: auto-immune diseases complicating cancers and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Pasquet, F; Pavic, M; Ninet, J; Hot, A

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases may reveal or occur during the course of a neoplasia or its treatment. Autoimmune cytopenia, especially haemolytic anaemia, is common in lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphoid leukemia. The link between cancer and myositis is well established. Dermatomyositis is associated with an increased relative risk of cancer of 3.4 to 4.4. A combination of detection of antibodies against p155 and TEP-computed tomography may be the best approach to ascertain the presence of occult malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis. A cutaneous or a systemic vascularitis may reveal a cancer, most often a haematological malignancy such as hairy cell leukemia. Paraneoplastic polyarthritis have been described in particular with adenocardinoma of the lungs. Underlying neoplasia should be considered in male smokers patients with new onset polyarthritis and poor health status. The prevalence of autoimmune conditions in myelodysplastic syndromes is 10 to 30%. Vasculitis and relapsing polychondritis are the most commonly reported manifestations. Immune manifestations can also be related to treatment. The most common treatment complications are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with fludarabine and thyroiditis related to interferon and cervical radiotherapy. PMID:25106665

  6. Autoimmune hepatitis type 2 following anti-papillomavirus vaccination in a 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Della Corte, Claudia; Carlucci, Antonio; Francalanci, Paola; Alisi, Anna; Nobili, Valerio

    2011-06-24

    In the last years numerous reports describing a possible association between administration of vaccines and development of autoimmune phenomena and overt autoimmune disease were published. Possible mechanisms of induction of autoimmune phenomena by vaccines and their excipients are probably similar to those implicated in induction by infectious agents. Here we report the case of an 11-year-old girl who developed autoimmune hepatitis type II after four weeks from vaccination against human papillomavirus. The possible relationships between the use of adjuvated vaccine against papillomavirus and autoimmune hepatitis are discussed. Although we do not provide evidence for a causal link, we suggest that the occurrence of the autoimmune hepatitis may be related to the stimulation of immune system by adjuvated-vaccine, that could have triggered the disease in a genetically predisposed individual. Therefore a monitoring of liver function test following administration of vaccine against papillomavirus may be useful in adolescent girl with signs of hepatopathy, as jaundice, dark urine or hepatomegaly, to early identify and to promptly treat autoimmune liver disorders. PMID:21596082

  7. Bone Marrow Transplantation for Autoimmune Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susumu Ikehara

    1998-01-01

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is now becoming a powerful strategy for the treatment of patients with autoimmune diseases. Using various animal models for autoimmune diseases, we have previously found that allogeneic BMT (not autologous BMT) can be used to treat autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), immune thrombocytic purpura, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), chronic glomerulonephritis,

  8. Autoimmune liver disease: overlap and outliers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary K Washington

    2007-01-01

    The three main categories of autoimmune liver disease are autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC); all are well-defined entities with diagnosis based upon a constellation of clinical, serologic, and liver pathology findings. Although these diseases are considered autoimmune in nature, the etiology and possible environmental triggers of each remain obscure. The characteristic morphologic patterns

  9. Anticytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen-4 Induced Autoimmune Hypophysitis: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Korytkowski, Mary T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We describe a case of autoimmune hypophysitis induced by the anticytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) agent, ipilimumab. Methods. Case presentation and review of the literature. Results. Autoimmune hypophysitis, a previously described rare disorder, is being recognized more frequently as a side effect of novel immunomodulatory agents used in the treatment of malignancies such as melanoma. CTLA-4 agents are associated with immune-related adverse effects (irAE) which occur as a result of activation (or lack of inactivation) of the immune response. This impacts not only malignant cells but also different host organ-systems. Autoimmune hypophysitis is one of several endocrinopathies associated with these agents. Conclusion. It is important that endocrinologists become familiar with the endocrinopathies, such as autoimmune hypophysitis, associated with new immunomodulator agents which are being used with increasing frequency to treat a variety of malignancies. PMID:25694832

  10. Th17 Cells in Autoimmune and Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zambrano-Zaragoza, José Francisco; Romo-Martínez, Enrique Jhonatan; Durán-Avelar, Ma. de Jesús; García-Magallanes, Noemí; Vibanco-Pérez, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    The view of CD4 T-cell-mediated immunity as a balance between distinct lineages of Th1 and Th2 cells has changed dramatically. Identification of the IL-17 family of cytokines and of the fact that IL-23 mediates the expansion of IL-17-producing T cells uncovered a new subset of Th cells designated Th17 cells, which have emerged as a third independent T-cell subset that may play an essential role in protection against certain extracellular pathogens. Moreover, Th17 cells have been extensively analyzed because of their strong association with inflammatory disorders and autoimmune diseases. Also, they appear to be critical for controlling these disorders. Similar to Th1 and Th2 cells, Th17 cells require specific cytokines and transcription factors for their differentiation. Th17 cells have been characterized as one of the major pathogenic Th cell populations underlying the development of many autoimmune diseases, and they are enhanced and stabilized by IL-23. The characteristics of Th17 cells, cytokines, and their sources, as well as their role in infectious and autoimmune diseases, are discussed in this review. PMID:25152827

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) ? expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-? agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-? agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  12. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The "best match" or "least incompatible units" can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue "best match" packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

  13. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, R. K.; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The “best match” or “least incompatible units” can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue “best match” packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

  14. Screening Autoimmune Anti-neuronal Antibodies in Pediatric Patients with Suspected Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Hunmin; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe the pediatric autoimmune encephalitis cases positive for anti-neuronal antibody tests. Methods: Screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in 23 children with suspected autoimmune encephalitis was performed by cell-based indirect immunofluorescence test with patients’ serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Results: Among the 23 cases enrolled here, eight patients (35%) were positive for the anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody and one patient (4%) was positive for the anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody. In the anti-NMDA receptor antibody-positive group, seizure and movement disorders were the most prominent features and were present in all patients. A tumor was present in only one patient. Three patients with infant- and toddler-onset disease did not exhibit a classic multistage illness. In addition to seizure and dyskinesia, aphasia or mutism without severe consciousness impairment was present in all three patients. These atypical clinical presentations may suggest different pathomechanism of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis among these age groups. The patient who was positive for the anti-CASPR2 antibody was an 8-year-old girl who presented with fever, encephalopathy, and seizure. Neuromyotonia or other dyskinesia was not present. Conclusions: Eight anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients and one CASPR2 positive patient were identified from the screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in pediatric patients suspected with autoimmune encephalitis. Developmental regression specifically for language skills was suggested as one of the atypical clinical features in infants and toddler onset anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients. PMID:25625089

  15. Autoimmune Etiology of Generalized Vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Le Poole; R. Luiten

    2008-01-01

    Vitiligo is characterized by progressive skin depigmentation resulting from an autoimmune response targeting epidermal melanocytes. Melanocytes are particularly immunogenic by virtue of the contents of their melanosomes, generating the complex radical scavenging molecule melanin in a process that involves melanogenic enzymes and structural components, including tyrosinase, MART-1, gp100, TRP-2 and TRP-1. These molecules are also prime targets of the immune

  16. Paraneoplastic Autoimmunity in Thymus Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Anja; Wilisch, Annette; Helmreich, Markus; Nenninger, Regina; Müller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad

    1998-01-01

    Autoimmune phenomena are more frequent in thymic epithelial tumors (TET) than in any other human tumor. Mysthenia gravis (MG) is by far the most common autoimmune disease in thymoma patients. MG is characterized by muscle weakness due to autoantibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR), and CD4 +AChR-specific T cells play a pivotal role for the production of these autoantibodies. About 10% of MG patients have a thymoma and, interestingly, only such thymomas exhibit an MG association that maintains thymuslike morphological and functional features with respect to the homing and differentiation of immature T cells. Since AChR protein is not expressed in thymomas, the specificity of the autoimmunity in thymoma-associated MG is thought to be determined by nonreceptor proteins with AChR epitopes. Such proteins are overexpressed in cortical-type MG-associated thymomas, and medullary thymomas express these proteins at barely detectable levels. Aside from this quantitative difference, the pathogenesis of anti-AChR autoimmunity might be qualitatively different in these thymoma subtypes. Our findings suggest that an antigen-specific abnormal Tcell selection by cortical-type TET may contribute to the pathogenesis of paraneoplastic MG. In contrast, an abnormal (intratumorous) activation of autoreactive T cells may be operative in medullary thymomas. PMID:9716914

  17. Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    D'Elios, Mario Milco; Bergman, Mathijs P; Amedei, Amedeo; Appelmelk, Ben J; Del Prete, Gianfranco

    2004-12-01

    Host specific T-cell response is critical for the outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. In genetically susceptible individuals, H. pylori can activate gastric CD4+ Th1 cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes shared by H. pylori proteins and self H+, K+-ATPase, leading to gastric autoimmunity via molecular mimicry. PMID:15596126

  18. Helicobacter pylori and gastric autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Milco D’Elios; Mathijs P. Bergman; Amedeo Amedei; Ben J. Appelmelk; Gianfranco Del Prete

    2004-01-01

    Host specific T-cell response is critical for the outcome of Helicobacter pylori infection. In genetically susceptible individuals, H. pylori can activate gastric CD4+ Th1 cells that recognize cross-reactive epitopes shared by H. pylori proteins and self H+, K+-ATPase, leading to gastric autoimmunity via molecular mimicry.

  19. Autoimmune myasthenia gravis: emerging clinical and biological heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Meriggioli, Matthew N; Sanders, Donald B

    2009-01-01

    Acquired myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder of the neuromuscular junction in which patients experience fluctuating skeletal muscle weakness that often affects selected muscle groups preferentially. The target of the autoimmune attack in most cases is the skeletal muscle acetylcholine receptor (AChR), but in others, non-AChR components of the neuromuscular junction, such as the muscle-specific receptor tyrosine kinase, are targeted. The pathophysiological result is muscle endplate dysfunction and consequent fatigable muscle weakness. Clinical presentations vary substantially, both for anti-AChR positive and negative MG, and accurate diagnosis and selection of effective treatment depends on recognition of less typical as well as classic disease phenotypes. Accumulating evidence suggests that clinical MG subgroups might respond differently to treatment. In this Review, we provide current information about the epidemiology, immunopathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of MG, including emerging therapeutic strategies. PMID:19375665

  20. Gender and risk of autoimmune diseases: possible role of estrogenic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Hissong, B D; Verthelyi, D; Donner, K; Becker, K; Karpuzoglu-Sahin, E

    1999-01-01

    A striking common feature of many autoimmune diseases in humans and experimental animals, despite differences in pathology, is that females are highly susceptible to autoimmune conditions compared to males. In several animal models, estrogens promote, whereas androgens abrogate, B-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. To understand mechanisms by which estrogens regulate autoimmunity, it is first necessary to decipher estrogen effects on the normal immune system. Estrogen treatment of nonautoimmune mice diminished lymphocyte numbers in both developmental and mature lymphoid organs. Estrogen dysregulated T- and B-cell balance by inducing selective T-cell hypoactivity and B-cell hyperactivity. Even though estrogen did not alter the relative percentages of splenic T-cell subsets, splenic lymphocytes had a reduced proliferative response to T-cell stimulants and were refractory to rescue from activation-induced apoptosis compared to cells from placebo-treated mice. In contrast, estrogen induced B-cell hyperactivity (promoted autoantibodies to double-stranded DNA and phospholipids, increased numbers of plasma cells, and increased autoantibody yield per B cell). Note that treatment of normal mice with estrogen can alter T- and B-cell regulation and overcome B-cell tolerance to result in autoimmunity in normal individuals. Could environmental estrogens promote some human autoimmune disorders? Is there a link between environmental estrogens and autoimmune disorders, especially since these disorders are reported possibly more frequently? These provocative questions warrant investigation. Our findings on immunomodulatory effects may serve as a benchmark to examine whether endocrine-disrupting chemicals will have similar immunologic effects. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10502531

  1. Systemic Autoimmunity in TAM Triple Knockout Mice Causes Inflammatory Brain Damage and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun; Lu, Huayi; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) triply knockout (TKO) mice exhibit systemic autoimmune diseases, with characteristics of increased proinflammatory cytokine production, autoantibody deposition and autoreactive lymphocyte infiltration into a variety of tissues. Here we show that TKO mice produce high level of serum TNF-? and specific autoantibodies deposited onto brain blood vessels. The brain-blood barrier (BBB) in mutant brains exhibited increased permeability for Evans blue and fluorescent-dextran, suggesting a breakdown of the BBB in the mutant brains. Impaired BBB integrity facilitated autoreactive T cells infiltrating into all regions of the mutant brains. Brain autoimmune disorder caused accumulation of the ubiquitin-reactive aggregates in the mutant hippocampus, and early formation of autofluorescent lipofuscins in the neurons throughout the entire brains. Chronic neuroinflammation caused damage of the hippocampal mossy fibers and neuronal apoptotic death. This study shows that chronic systemic inflammation and autoimmune disorders in the TKO mice cause neuronal damage and death. PMID:23840307

  2. Immune complex-mediated autoimmunity in a patient With Smith-Magenis syndrome (del 17p11.2).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianying; Chandrasekharappa, Settara C; Vilboux, Thierry; Smith, Ann C M; Peterson, Erik J

    2014-08-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a sporadic congenital disorder involving multiple organ systems caused by chromosome 17p11.2 deletions. Smith-Magenis syndrome features craniofacial and skeletal anomalies, cognitive impairment, and neurobehavioral abnormalities. In addition, some SMS patients may exhibit hypogammaglobulinemia. We report the first case of SMS-associated autoimmunity in a woman who presented with adult onset of multiple autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and autoimmune hepatitis. Molecular analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism array confirmed a de novo 3.8-Mb deletion (breakpoints, chr17: 16,660,721-20,417,975), resulting in haploinsufficiency for TACI (transmembrane activator and CAML interactor). Our data are consistent with potential loss of function for the BAFF (B cell-activating factor) receptor TACI as a contributing factor to human autoimmune phenomena. PMID:25036569

  3. Immunoscreening of phage-displayed cDNA-encoded polypeptides identifies B cell targets in autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Helen Kemp; Laura M Herd; Elizabeth A Waterman; Anthony G Wilson; Anthony P Weetman; Philip F Watson

    2002-01-01

    Characterisation of self-antigens can contribute to an understanding of the aetiology of autoimmune disorders as well as to the development of new therapies and diagnostic methods. The present study was undertaken to investigate the applicability of complementary DNA (cDNA) phage-display technology to the identification of autoantigens recognised by the humoral response in autoimmune disease. Using systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as

  4. Autoimmune diseases and reproductive aging

    PubMed Central

    Bove, Riley

    2013-01-01

    As the population ages, more individuals with autoimmune diseases are experiencing reproductive senescence. Understanding the impact of menopause and age-related androgen decline on disease onset and course, as well as the potential for hormonal interventions, is critically important. In men, lupus erythematosis (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with lower androgen levels. However, the impact of age-related declines in testosterone, as well as of testosterone replacement, on disease course remains underexplored. In women, the course of all three diseases with onset after the age of menopause differs from that with onset before menopause. Early age at menopause is associated with increased disease risk, and after menopause, disease course changes in SLE and RA. Less is known about MS. This article summarizes what is known about the relationship between reproductive aging and autoimmune diseases in men and women, and highlights areas for further investigation. PMID:23522436

  5. Autoimmune diseases and reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Bove, Riley

    2013-11-01

    As the population ages, more individuals with autoimmune diseases are experiencing reproductive senescence. Understanding the impact of menopause and age-related androgen decline on disease onset and course, as well as the potential for hormonal interventions, is critically important. In men, lupus erythematosis (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and multiple sclerosis (MS) are associated with lower androgen levels. However, the impact of age-related declines in testosterone, as well as of testosterone replacement, on disease course remains underexplored. In women, the course of all three diseases with onset after the age of menopause differs from that with onset before menopause. Early age at menopause is associated with increased disease risk, and after menopause, disease course changes in SLE and RA. Less is known about MS. This article summarizes what is known about the relationship between reproductive aging and autoimmune diseases in men and women, and highlights areas for further investigation. PMID:23522436

  6. Animal Models of Autoimmune Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Soliven, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system (PNS) comprises the cranial nerves, the spinal nerves with their roots and rami, dorsal root ganglia neurons, the peripheral nerves, and peripheral components of the autonomic nervous system. Cell-mediated or antibody-mediated immune attack on the PNS results in distinct clinical syndromes, which are classified based on the tempo of illness, PNS component(s) involved, and the culprit antigen(s) identified. Insights into the pathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathy have been provided by ex vivo immunologic studies, biopsy materials, electrophysiologic studies, and experimental models. This review article summarizes earlier seminal observations and highlights the recent progress in our understanding of immunopathogenesis of autoimmune neuropathies based on data from animal models. PMID:24615441

  7. Extraintestinal manifestations of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Tomica; Kostic-Milosavljevic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Krstic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because clinical, serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Most affected patients have hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum levels of IgG, particularly IgG4. Recently published International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis include Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology, classifying AIP into types 1 and 2, using five cardinal features of AIP, namely imaging of pancreatic parenchyma and duct, serology, other organ involvement, pancreatic histology, and an optional criterion of response to steroid therapy. Extrapancreatic presentations can include sclerosing cholangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner tumor), lymphadenopathy, nephritis, and interstitial pneumonia. Increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate has been reported in sclerosing lesions from other organ sites, including inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver, breast, mediastinum, orbit, and aorta, and it has been observed with hypophysitis and IgG4-associated prostatitis. Abundant IgG4+ plasma cells were also confirmed in Riedel thyroiditis, sclerosing mesenteritis, and inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit and stomach. Extrapancreatic lesions could be synchronously or metachronously diagnosed with AIP, sharing the same pathological conditions, showing also a favorable result to corticosteroid therapy and distinct differentiation between IgG4-related diseases from the inherent lesions of the corresponding organs. PMID:22722443

  8. Infections and Autoimmunity: A Panorama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pordeus; M. Szyper-Kravitz; R. A. Levy; N. M. Vaz; Y. Shoenfeld

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, it was thought that malignant spirits caused diseases. By the end of nineteenth century, these\\u000a beliefs were displaced by more modern concepts of disease, namely, the formulation of the “germ theory,” which asserted that\\u000a bacteria or other microorganisms caused disease. With the emergence of chronic degenerative and of autoimmune diseases in\\u000a the last century, the causative

  9. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Primates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul A. Smith; Sandra Amor; Bert A. ’tHart

    Due to their genetic and immunological proximity to humans, the common marmoset, Callithrix jacchus, provides an important bridge between rodent-based research and the human disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis\\u000a (EAE) induced in the outbred common marmoset provides a highly reproducible model of multiple sclerosis (MS) phenotypically\\u000a characterised by neurological deficits, inflammatory lesions of the cerebral white matter and spinal cord, primary

  10. Substance P as an Immunomodulatory Neuropeptide in a Mouse Model for Autoimmune Hair Loss (Alopecia Areata)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank Siebenhaar; Andrey A. Sharov; Eva M. J. Peters; Tatyana Y. Sharova; Wolfgang Syska; Andrei N. Mardaryev; Pia Freyschmidt-Paul; John P. Sundberg; Marcus Maurer; Vladimir A. Botchkarev

    2007-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disorder of the hair follicle characterized by inflammatory cell infiltrates around actively growing (anagen) hair follicles. Substance P (SP) plays a critical role in the cutaneous neuroimmune network and influences immune cell functions through the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R). To better understand the role of SP as an immunomodulatory neuropeptide in AA, we studied its

  11. Auto-Immunity & Inflammation | ABSTRACTS The expression and role of KLF4 in psoriasis

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Auto-Immunity & Inflammation | ABSTRACTS 097 The expression and role of KLF4 in psoriasis K Kim, H, as measured by RT-PCR, was increased after the treatment of the psoriasis skin and the proliferation of Ha disorders, includ- ing psoriasis. 099 Inflammatory gammadelta T cells collaborate with Th17 cells

  12. CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY AND INTERFERON GAMMA IN AUTOIMMUNE VITILIGO OF SMYTH LINE CHICKENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vitiligo is a common acquired hypopigmentary disorder characterized by a loss of epidermal pigment cells (melanocytes). The Smyth line (SL) chicken is the only animal model for autoimmune vitiligo that recapitulates the entire spectrum of clinical and biological manifestations of the human disease....

  13. A lymphoproliferative disease in Manx cats with similarities to autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) in people

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Aberdein; JS Munday; KG Thompson; RA Fairley

    2011-01-01

    In 2009–2010, an unusual lymphoproliferative disease was identified in multiple siblings from successive litters of Manx cats, suggesting a genetic predisposition to development of this disease. Presentation of disease in the cats had multiple similarities with the human disease ALPS, a rare inherited disorder that causes persistent lymphoproliferation, together with variable manifestations of autoimmunity and increased susceptibility to neoplasia. The

  14. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  15. HYPERAUTOFLUORESCENT RING IN AUTOIMMUNE RETINOPATHY

    PubMed Central

    LIMA, LUIZ H.; GREENBERG, JONATHAN P.; GREENSTEIN, VIVIENNE C.; SMITH, R. THEODORE; SALLUM, JULIANA M. F.; THIRKILL, CHARLES; YANNUZZI, LAWRENCE A.; TSANG, STEPHEN H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the presence of a hyperautofluorescent ring and corresponding spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features seen in patients with autoimmune retinopathy. Methods All eyes were evaluated by funduscopic examination, full-fleld electroretinography, fundus autofluorescence, and SD-OCT. Further confirmation of the diagnosis was obtained with immunoblot and immunohistochemistry testing of the patient’s serum. Humphrey visual fields and microperimetry were also performed. Results Funduscopic examination showed atrophic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) associated with retinal artery narrowing but without pigment deposits. The scotopic and photopic full-field electroretinograms were nondetectable in three patients and showed a cone–rod pattern of dysfunction in one patient. Fundus autofluorescence revealed a hyperautofluorescent ring in the parafoveal region, and the corresponding SD-OCT demonstrated loss of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment junction with thinning of the outer nuclear layer from the region of the hyperautofluorescent ring toward the retinal periphery. The retinal layers were generally intact within the hyperautofluorescent ring, although the inner segment–outer segment junction was disrupted, and the outer nuclear layer and photoreceptor outer segment layer were thinned. Conclusion This case series revealed the structure of the hyperautofluorescent ring in autoimmune retinopathy using SD-OCT. Fundus autofluorescence and SD-OCT may aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune retinopathy and may serve as a tool to monitor its progression. PMID:22218149

  16. The Autoimmune Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Adams, D. D.; Knight, J. G.; Ebringer, A.

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is of mysterious causation. It is not infectious, not congenital, but shows familial aggregation, the Mendelian genetics indicating involvement of multiple codominant genes with incomplete penetrance. This is the pattern for autoimmune diseases, such as Graves' disease of the thyroid, where forbidden clones of B lymphocytes develop, and cause thyrotoxicosis by secreting autoantibodies that react with the thyroid gland's receptor for thyroid-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland. In 1982, Knight postulated that autoantibodies affecting the function of neurons in the limbic region of the brain are a possible cause of schizophrenia. Today, this is even more probable, with genes predisposing to schizophrenia having being found to be immune response genes, one in the MHC and two for antibody light chain V genes. Immune response genes govern the immune repertoire, dictating the genetic risk of autoimmune diseases. The simplest test for an autoimmune basis of schizophrenia would be trial of immunosuppression with prednisone in acute cases. The urgent research need is to find the microbial trigger, as done by Ebringer for rheumatoid arthritis and for ankylosing spondylitis. This could lead to prophylaxis of schizophrenia by vaccination against the triggering microbe. PMID:23738211

  17. Autoimmunity and primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mackay, I R

    2000-08-01

    The history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) began in 1851, with autoimmunity introduced in 1958 and expanded from the 1960s on. In PBC, autoantibodies are present to mitochondria-located antigens (AMA) and to nuclear-located antigens (ANA). The AMA react with E2 subunits of three members of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase complex family, but most frequently with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC); the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 contains a major B- and T-cell epitope. The ANA react with three nuclear components, centromeric proteins, nuclear dot proteins and nuclear pore complex. Autoimmune diseases including PBC reflect a failure in mechanisms of self-tolerance which is developed in central lymphoid tissues in embryonic life by deletion of self-reactive lymphocytes, and maintained in peripheral tissues in post-natal life by regulatory processes. Primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been identified with failure in any one particular tolerance mechanism. Genetic influences are revealed by familial occurrences and by associations with HLA alleles, and environmental influences by epidemiological data. A lead to pathogenesis is the accumulation uniquely in PBC of PDC-E2-like material at the plasma membrance of biliary epithelial cells (BECs). Although the origin of this accumulation of PDC-E2 at the surface of BECs is uncertain, it provides a credible 'tissue-specific' target for an autoimmune attack by T and B lymphocytes at the site of the actual pathology. PMID:10976012

  18. Role of dendritic cells in the initiation, progress and modulation of systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan Pablo; Llanos, Carolina; Vega, Fabián; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio; Riedel, Claudia A; Bueno, Susan M; Kalergis, Alexis M

    2015-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the activation of the immune response against pathogens, as well as in the modulation of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens (Ags). Furthermore, an imbalance in the activating/inhibitory receptors expressed on the surface of DCs has been linked to increased susceptibility to develop autoimmune diseases underscoring their immunogenicity potential. It has been described that modulation of activating or inhibitory molecules expressed by DCs, such as CD86, TLRs, PDL-1 and Fc?Rs, can define the immunogenic phenotype. On the other hand, T cell tolerance can be achieved by tolerogenic DCs, which have the capacity of blocking undesired autoimmune responses in several experimental models, mainly by inducing T cell anergy, expansion of regulatory T cells and limiting B cell responses. Due to the lack of specific therapies to treat autoimmune disorders and the tolerogenic capacity of DCs shown in experimental autoimmune disease models, autologous tolDCs are a potential therapeutic strategy for fine-tuning the immune system and reestablishing tolerance in human autoimmune diseases. New advances in the role of DCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis and the identification of pathogenic self-Ags may favor the development of novel tolDC based therapies with a major clinical impact. In this review, we discuss recent data relative to the role of DCs in systemic autoimmune pathogenesis and their use as a therapy to restore tolerance. PMID:25449681

  19. Early-onset lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations.

    PubMed

    Milner, Joshua D; Vogel, Tiphanie P; Forbes, Lisa; Ma, Chi A; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjørg; Niemela, Julie E; Lyons, Jonathan J; Engelhardt, Karin R; Zhang, Yu; Topcagic, Nermina; Roberson, Elisha D O; Matthews, Helen; Verbsky, James W; Dasu, Trivikram; Vargas-Hernandez, Alexander; Varghese, Nidhy; McClain, Kenneth L; Karam, Lina B; Nahmod, Karen; Makedonas, George; Mace, Emily M; Sorte, Hanne S; Perminow, Gøri; Rao, V Koneti; O'Connell, Michael P; Price, Susan; Su, Helen C; Butrick, Morgan; McElwee, Joshua; Hughes, Jason D; Willet, Joseph; Swan, David; Xu, Yaobo; Santibanez-Koref, Mauro; Slowik, Voytek; Dinwiddie, Darrell L; Ciaccio, Christina E; Saunders, Carol J; Septer, Seth; Kingsmore, Stephen F; White, Andrew J; Cant, Andrew J; Hambleton, Sophie; Cooper, Megan A

    2015-01-22

    Germline loss-of-function mutations in the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) cause immunodeficiency, whereas somatic gain-of-function mutations in STAT3 are associated with large granular lymphocytic leukemic, myelodysplastic syndrome, and aplastic anemia. Recently, germline mutations in STAT3 have also been associated with autoimmune disease. Here, we report on 13 individuals from 10 families with lymphoproliferation and early-onset solid-organ autoimmunity associated with 9 different germline heterozygous mutations in STAT3. Patients exhibited a variety of clinical features, with most having lymphadenopathy, autoimmune cytopenias, multiorgan autoimmunity (lung, gastrointestinal, hepatic, and/or endocrine dysfunction), infections, and short stature. Functional analyses demonstrate that these mutations confer a gain-of-function in STAT3 leading to secondary defects in STAT5 and STAT1 phosphorylation and the regulatory T-cell compartment. Treatment targeting a cytokine pathway that signals through STAT3 led to clinical improvement in 1 patient, suggesting a potential therapeutic option for such patients. These results suggest that there is a broad range of autoimmunity caused by germline STAT3 gain-of-function mutations, and that hematologic autoimmunity is a major component of this newly described disorder. Some patients for this study were enrolled in a trial registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:25359994

  20. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Kynurenine: Recent Advances in Autoimmune Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Trung; Nakahama, Taisuke; Le, Duc Hoang; Van Son, Le; Chu, Ha Hoang; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is thought to be a crucial factor in the regulation of immune responses. Many AHR-mediated immunoregulatory mechanisms have been discovered, and this knowledge may enhance our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory syndromes such as collagen-induced arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and experimental colitis. Recent findings have elucidated the critical link between AHR and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, which are key factors in a variety of human autoimmune diseases. Induction of IDO and IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism, together with its downstream products such as kynurenine, is an important immunoregulatory mechanism underlying immunosuppression, tolerance, and immunity. Recent studies revealed that induction of IDO depends on AHR expression. This review summarizes the most current findings regarding the functions of AHR and IDO in immune cells as they relate to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in response to various stimuli. We also discuss the potential link between AHR and IDO/tryptophan metabolites, and the involvement of several novel related factors (such as microRNA) in the development of autoimmune diseases. These novel factors represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:25400638

  1. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and kynurenine: recent advances in autoimmune disease research.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nam Trung; Nakahama, Taisuke; Le, Duc Hoang; Van Son, Le; Chu, Ha Hoang; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is thought to be a crucial factor in the regulation of immune responses. Many AHR-mediated immunoregulatory mechanisms have been discovered, and this knowledge may enhance our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory syndromes such as collagen-induced arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and experimental colitis. Recent findings have elucidated the critical link between AHR and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, which are key factors in a variety of human autoimmune diseases. Induction of IDO and IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism, together with its downstream products such as kynurenine, is an important immunoregulatory mechanism underlying immunosuppression, tolerance, and immunity. Recent studies revealed that induction of IDO depends on AHR expression. This review summarizes the most current findings regarding the functions of AHR and IDO in immune cells as they relate to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in response to various stimuli. We also discuss the potential link between AHR and IDO/tryptophan metabolites, and the involvement of several novel related factors (such as microRNA) in the development of autoimmune diseases. These novel factors represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:25400638

  2. Role of Cytokines in the Pathogenesis and Suppression of Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Balaji B.; Bhattacharya, Palash; Gopisetty, Anupama

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are one of the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorders, of which Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD) are 2 of the most common clinical expressions. HT is characterized by hypothyroidism that results from the destruction of the thyroid by thyroglobulin-specific T cell-mediated autoimmune response. In contrast, GD is characterized by hyperthyroidism due to excessive production of thyroid hormone induced by thyrotropin receptor-specific stimulatory autoantibodies. Cytokines play a crucial role in modulating immune responses that affect the balance between maintenance of self-tolerance and initiation of autoimmunity. However, the role of cytokines is often confusing and is neither independent nor exclusive of other immune mediators. A regulatory cytokine may either favor induction of tolerance against thyroid autoimmune disease or favor activation and/or exacerbation of autoimmune responses. These apparently contradictory functions of a given cytokine are primarily influenced by the nature of co-signaling delivered by other cytokines. Consequently, a thorough understanding of the role of a particular cytokine in the context of a specific immune response is essential for the development of appropriate strategies to modulate cytokine responses to maintain or restore health. This review provides a summary of recent research pertaining to the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of AITD with a particular emphasis on the therapeutic applications of cytokine modulation. PMID:21823922

  3. Genetic association, seasonal infections and autoimmune basis of narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abinav Kumar; Mahlios, Josh; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of potential autoimmune disorders affecting neurons in the central nervous system have been identified, including narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with irresistible sleep attacks, cataplexy (sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations, and abnormalities of Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Narcolepsy is generally a sporadic disorder and is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Studies have established that more than 90% of patients have a genetic association with HLA DQB1*06:02. Genome-wide association analysis shows a strong association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TCR? locus and weaker associations within TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H and the P2RY11-DNMT1 (purinergic receptor subtype P2Y11 to DNMT1, a DNA methytransferase) loci, suggesting an autoimmune basis. Mutations in DNMT1 have also been reported to cause narcolepsy in association with a complex neurological syndrome, suggesting the importance of DNA methylation in the pathology. More recently, narcolepsy was identified in association with seasonal streptococcus, H1N1 infections and following AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 influenza vaccination in Northern Europe. Potential immunological pathways responsible for the loss of hypocretin producing neurons in these cases may be molecular mimicry or bystander activation. Specific autoantibodies or T cells cross-reactive with hypocretin neurons have not yet been identified, however, thus narcolepsy does not meet Witebsky’s criteria for an autoimmune disease. As the brain is not an easily accessible organ, mechanisms of disease initiation and progression remain a challenge to researchers. PMID:23497937

  4. Linking iodine with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, N R; Rasooly, L; Saboori, A M; Burek, C L

    1999-01-01

    A great deal of circumstantial evidence has linked iodine with the rising incidence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the United States. In our investigations, we have shown directly that T cells from humans with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis proliferate in the presence of iodinated but not in the presence of noniodinated human thyroglobulin. Moreover, the proliferative response is restored when the thyroglobulin is iodinated artificially in vitro. Using a panel of monoclonal antibodies, we found evidence that the presence of iodine induces a number of stereochemical changes in the conformation of the molecule, resulting in the loss of some antigenic determinants and the appearance of others. One prominent determinant was associated with the iodine-containing amino acid thyroxine. Both the number and position of the iodine substituents determine the precise specificity of this epitope. A new model for the study of the role of iodine in inducing thyroid autoimmunity has become available in the form of the nonobese diabetic (NOD)-H2(h4) mouse. This animal develops autoimmune thyroiditis spontaneously but in relatively low prevalence. However, if iodine is added to the drinking water, the prevalence and severity of the thyroid lesions increase markedly. The immune response is specific for thyroglobulin, both in terms of the antibody response and T-cell proliferation. In fact, the appearance of lesions can be predicted by the presence of thyroglobulin-specific IgG2b antibody. The disease, moreover, can be transferred adoptively, using spleen cells from iodine-fed donors treated in vitro with iodinated thyroglobulin. The effects of iodine feeding are greater in conventional animals compared with those maintained under specific pathogen-free conditions. Based on T-cell proliferation, it appears that the NOD-H2(h4) strain of mice has innately a greater response to murine thyroglobulin than do other mouse strains and that the proliferation is increased even more by feeding iodine. We suggest, therefore, that the presence of iodine increases the autoantigenic potency of thyroglobulin, a major pathogenic antigen in the induction of autoimmune thyroiditis. This animal model provides a unique opportunity for investigating in detail the mechanisms by which an environmental agent can trigger a pathogenic autoimmune response in a susceptible host. PMID:10502541

  5. Autoimmune and neoplastic thyroid diseases associated with hepatitis C chronic infection.

    PubMed

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Politti, Ugo; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo; Antonelli, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographic signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender versus healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with "HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia" (MC + HCV), a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also versus HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC + HCV or HCV chronic infection show a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC + HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine, but normal levels of Th2 (C-C motif) ligand 2 chemokine, than patients without thyroiditis. HCV thyroid infection could act by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, which may lead to the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function, particularly where nodules occur, is recommended in HCV patients. PMID:25374602

  6. Autoimmune and Neoplastic Thyroid Diseases Associated with Hepatitis C Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Politti, Ugo; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographic signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender versus healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with “HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia” (MC + HCV), a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also versus HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC + HCV or HCV chronic infection show a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC + HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine, but normal levels of Th2 (C-C motif) ligand 2 chemokine, than patients without thyroiditis. HCV thyroid infection could act by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, which may lead to the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function, particularly where nodules occur, is recommended in HCV patients. PMID:25374602

  7. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement is peripheral neuropathy, with symptoms of numbness, sensory paresthesias, weakness, or gait imbalance. The neuropathy may be multifocal and asymmetric or, less frequently, distal and symmetric. PMID:25705295

  8. The Diagnostic Challenges of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Kata; Angst, Eliane; Seidel, Stefan; Flury-Frei, Renata; Hetzer, Franc Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis is a rare but important differential diagnosis from pancreatic cancer. This autoimmune disease can mimic pancreatic cancer by its clinical symptoms, including weight loss and jaundice. Furthermore imaging findings may include a mass of the pancreas. Here we present the case of a 67-year-old male patient diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis but showing the well-known symptoms of pancreatic cancer. This emphasizes the difficulties of histological findings and the importance of the correct diagnostic process. PMID:25802499

  9. Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1

    PubMed Central

    Bensing, Sophie; Fetissov, Sergueï O.; Mulder, Jan; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Gustafsson, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S.; Oscarson, Mikael; Ekwall, Olov; Crock, Patricia A.; Hökfelt, Tomas; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Kämpe, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. High titer autoantibodies (Aabs) toward intracellular enzymes are a hallmark for APS1 and serve as diagnostic markers and predictors for disease manifestations. In this study, we aimed to identify pituitary autoantigens in patients with APS1. A pituitary cDNA expression library was screened with APS1 sera and a tudor domain containing protein 6 (TDRD6) cDNA clone was isolated. Positive immunoreactivity against in vitro translated TDRD6 fragments was shown in 42/86 (49%) APS1 patients but not in patients with other autoimmune diseases or in healthy controls. By using immunohistochemistry, sera from 3/6 APS1 patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency showed immunostaining of a small number of guinea pig anterior pituitary cells, and 40–50% of these cells were GH-positive. No such immunostaining was seen with sera from healthy controls. The APS1 Aab-positive, GH-negative cells may represent a novel subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells. In addition, 4/6 patient sera showed staining of a fiber-plexus in the pituitary intermediate lobe recognizing enzymes of monoamine and GABA synthesis. Thus, we have identified TDRD6 as a major autoantigen in APS1 patients and shown that several sera from GH-deficient patients stain specific cell populations and nerves in the pituitary gland. PMID:17215373

  10. Lectins, agglutinins, and their roles in autoimmune reactivities.

    PubMed

    Vojdani, Aristo

    2015-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins present throughout nature that act as agglutinins. Approximately 30% of our food contains lectins, some of which may be resistant enough to digestion to enter the circulation. Because of their binding properties, lectins can cause nutrient deficiencies, disrupt digestion, and cause severe intestinal damage when consumed in excess by an individual with dysfunctional enzymes. These effects are followed by disruption of intestinal barrier integrity, which is the gateway to various autoimmunities. Shared amino acid motifs between dietary lectins, exogenous peptides, and various body tissues may lead to cross-reactivity, resulting in the production of antibodies against lectin and bacterial antigens, followed by autoimmunity. The detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG) or immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies against specific lectins may serve as a guide for the elimination of these lectins from the diet. It is proposed that this process can reduce the peripheral antigenic stimulus and, thereby, result in a diminution of disease symptoms in some-but not all-patients with autoimmune disorders. PMID:25599185

  11. Defective removal of ribonucleotides from DNA promotes systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Günther, Claudia; Kind, Barbara; Reijns, Martin A M; Berndt, Nicole; Martinez-Bueno, Manuel; Wolf, Christine; Tüngler, Victoria; Chara, Osvaldo; Lee, Young Ae; Hübner, Norbert; Bicknell, Louise; Blum, Sophia; Krug, Claudia; Schmidt, Franziska; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Koss, Sarah; Astell, Katy R; Ramantani, Georgia; Bauerfeind, Anja; Morris, David L; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S; Bubeck, Doryen; Leitch, Andrea; Ralston, Stuart H; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Gahr, Manfred; Witte, Torsten; Vyse, Timothy J; Melchers, Inga; Mangold, Elisabeth; Nöthen, Markus M; Aringer, Martin; Kuhn, Annegret; Lüthke, Kirsten; Unger, Leonore; Bley, Annette; Lorenzi, Alice; Isaacs, John D; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Conrad, Karsten; Dahl, Andreas; Roers, Axel; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Jackson, Andrew P; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is continuously challenged by the DNA damage that arises during normal cell metabolism. Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding the genome surveillance enzyme ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) cause Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS), a pediatric disorder that shares features with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we determined that heterozygous parents of AGS patients exhibit an intermediate autoimmune phenotype and demonstrated a genetic association between rare RNASEH2 sequence variants and SLE. Evaluation of patient cells revealed that SLE- and AGS-associated mutations impair RNase H2 function and result in accumulation of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA. The ensuing chronic low level of DNA damage triggered a DNA damage response characterized by constitutive p53 phosphorylation and senescence. Patient fibroblasts exhibited constitutive upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and an enhanced type I IFN response to the immunostimulatory nucleic acid polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and UV light irradiation, linking RNase H2 deficiency to potentiation of innate immune signaling. Moreover, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was markedly enhanced in ribonucleotide-containing DNA, providing a mechanism for photosensitivity in RNase H2-associated SLE. Collectively, our findings implicate RNase H2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest a role of DNA damage-associated pathways in the initiation of autoimmunity. PMID:25500883

  12. The prevalence of thyroid autoimmunity in patients with urticaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xi-Feng; Gu, Jian-Qiu; Shan, Zhong-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity is the most common organ-specific autoimmune disorder, which is characterized by the production of thyroid autoantibodies and lymphocytic infiltration into the thyroid. The majority cases of chronic urticaria have unknown (idiopathic) causes, with about 30-40 % possibly having an autoimmune substrate. Considering that autoimmune factors may be the common features of both thyroid autoimmunity and urticaria, it is likely that both entities may coexist within the same patient. A number of studies have investigated the association between thyroid autoimmunity and urticaria. However, most of these studies are relatively small sample size, the power achieved in those studies was not sufficient to detect whether there is an association between urticaria and thyroid autoimmunity. The aim of this study is to combine primary data from all relevant studies to produce reliable estimates of the associations between thyroid autoantibodies and urticaria. Literature databases were searched including Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese Wanfang, and CBM databases from January 1980 to December 2013. A total of 14,203 urticaria cases and 12,339 non-urticaria controls were included in this study. From these data, the odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) was calculated. The meta-analysis results showed that the prevalence of positive thyroid autoantibodies in patients with urticaria was higher than non-urticaria controls (TgAb: OR 6.55, 95 % CI 3.19-13.42, P < 0.00001, I (2) = 67 %; TmAb: OR 4.51, 95 % CI 2.78-7.33, P < 0.00001, I (2) = 47 %; TPOAb: OR 8.71, 95 % CI 6.89-11.01, P < 0.00001, I (2) = 20 %, respectively). The results of this meta-analysis suggested that patients with urticaria were more likely to have thyroid autoimmunity than the control groups. PMID:25064381

  13. Autoimmune Dysregulation and Purine Metabolism in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:22969765

  14. Autoimmune dysregulation and purine metabolism in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:22969765

  15. Thyroid disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid disorders include autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer. AITD mainly consist of autoimmune thyroiditis and Graves disease. The common characteristic of thyroid disorders is female preponderance in their prevalence. The female-to-male rate ratio is reported at 4~6:1 for AITD and about 3~4:1 for thyroid nodule. For PTC, it is greatest during reproductive age and drops from five and more in patients aged 20-24, to 3.4 in patients aged 35-44 to one in patients over 80. The effects of female gonadal hormones and X chromosome inactivation on thyroid gland and immune system greatly contribute to the female predilection of AITD. The former mainly include prolactin and estrogen. The direct actions of estrogen on the thyroid tissue contribute to the development of thyroid goiter, nodule and cancer in women. PMID:25668600

  16. Gender Disparities in Ocular Inflammatory Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Hatice Nida; Davis, Janet; Ucar, Didar; Fox, Austin; Chan, Chi Chao; Goldstein, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders disproportionately affect women, and the majority of affected women are of childbearing age. The role of sex or reproductive hormones has been proposed in many other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, and findings from non-ocular autoimmune diseases suggest a complex interaction between sex hormones, genetic factors and the immune system. However, despite the age and sex bias, factors that influence this disparity are complicated and unclear. This review aims to evaluate the gender disparities in prevalence, incidence and severity of the most common infectious and non-infectious ocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:24987987

  17. IL-23 in Infections, Inflammation, Autoimmunity and Cancer: Possible Role in HIV-1 and AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Yannam, Govardhana Rao; Gutti, Tanuja

    2011-01-01

    The growing family of interleukin (IL)-12-like cytokines produced by activated macrophages and dendritic cells became the important players in the control of infections, development of inflammation, autoimmunity and cancer. However, the role of one of them—heterodimer IL-23, which consists of IL12p40 and the unique p19 subunit in HIV-1 infection pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, represent special interest. We overviewed findings of IL-23 involvement in control of peripheral bacterial pathogens and opportunistic infection, central nervous system (CNS) viral infections and autoimmune disorders, and tumorogenesis, which potentially could be applicable to HIV-1 and AIDS. PMID:21947740

  18. Thymoma with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Inomata, Minehiko; Shiraishi, Shiori; Hayashi, Ryuji; Tobe, Kazuyuki

    2014-01-01

    A 38-year-old Japanese male was referred to our hospital with abnormal chest X-ray results and severe Coombs-positive hemolytic anemia. He was diagnosed with a stage IV, WHO type A thymoma and was treated with oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) and subsequent chemotherapy. After chemotherapy, the patient underwent surgical resection of the thymoma. Hemolysis rapidly disappeared and did not return after the discontinuation of oral corticosteroids. Corticosteroid therapy may be preferable to chemotherapy or thymoma surgical resection in the management of autoimmune hemolytic anemia with thymoma. PMID:25722666

  19. Autoimmune response in experimental hippocampal pathology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Martynenko; S. V. Magaeva; L. A. Basharova; M. V. Martynenko

    1986-01-01

    Previous investigations have shown that in pathology of the main part of the limbic system of the brain, autoimmune responses to brain tissue antigens (TA) are induced [2]. The aim of this investigation was to study the possibility of synthesis of autoantibodies to NA and 5-HT and autoimmune responses to antigens of the hippocampus and viscera. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experiments were

  20. Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University of Chagas heart disease is controversial. In this paper, we address the following questions regarding the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible

  1. Vectors for the treatment of autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D J Gould; P Favorov

    2003-01-01

    Gene therapy has been applied in a variety of experimental models of autoimmunity with some success. In this article, we outline recent developments in gene therapy vectors, discuss advantages and disadvantages of each, and highlight their recent applications in autoimmune models. We also consider progress in vector targeting and components for regulating transgene expression, which will both improve gene therapy

  2. Macrophage Activation Syndrome in Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean Deane; Carlo Selmi; Suzanne S. Teuber; M. Eric Gershwin

    2010-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a phenomenon characterized by cytopenia, organ dysfunction, and coagulopathy associated with an inappropriate activation of macrophages. Current diagnostic criteria are imprecise, but the syndrome is now recognized as a form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis that is characteristically associated with autoimmune diatheses. The diagnosis of incipient MAS in patients with autoimmune disease requires a high index of

  3. Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Magen, Eli; Delgado, Jorge-Shmuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet’s disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. PMID:24587626

  4. Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune gastritis.

    PubMed

    Toh, Ban-Hock

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune gastritis is a silent and highly prevalent disease that only becomes clinically manifested with progression to corpus atrophy and development of iron deficient or B12-deficient (pernicious) anaemia. Autoimmune gastritis is associated with autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Corpus atrophy may be complicated by gastric carcinoids and gastric cancer. Laboratory diagnosis of autoimmune gastritis rests on serum biomarkers of antibody to parietal cell H/K ATPase and intrinsic factor and corpus atrophy on serum biomarkers of gastrin and pepsinogen levels. Subjects with asymptomatic parietal cell antibody should be regularly assessed for serum biomarkers for progression to corpus atrophy, development of iron and B12 deficiency anaemia and for associated autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24424193

  5. Autoimmune hepatitis. Part A: pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2007-10-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a consequence of a triggering antigen and genetic factors that favor the presentation of autoantigens, polymorphisms that affect immunocyte activation and durability, cytokine alterations that promote proliferation of liver-infiltrating cytotoxic T cells, and perturbations in the number and function of immune-regulatory cell populations, including T regulatory cells and natural killer T cells. The triggering epitope is probably a short sequence peptide that is common in multiple infectious or toxic agents. Homologies between this epitope and self-antigens (molecular mimicry) may stimulate humoral and cellular responses that are cross-reactive. Sensitized immunocytes extend and perpetuate the inflammation through imprecise targeting of self-antigens that resemble foreign antigens (promiscuous behavior). The occurrence and clinical phenotype of the disease may relate to genetic susceptibility factors that favor protracted exposure to indigenous etiological agents, and these genetic factors can vary in different geographical regions and ethnic groups. The clinical phenotype within a population can be modified further by genetic polymorphisms that are not disease specific and that affect immunocyte activation, differentiation, proliferation and programmed death (apoptosis). Autoimmune hepatitis is a model of autoreactivity that reflects multiple disturbances in the counter-regulatory mechanisms essential for immune homeostasis. PMID:19072440

  6. The autoimmune concept of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Grundtman, Cecilia; Wick, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review This review summarizes the recent data on the ‘Autoimmune Concept of Atherosclerosis’, according to which the first stage of this disease is due to an autoimmune reaction against arterial endothelial cells expressing heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and adhesion molecules when stressed by classical atherosclerosis risk factors. Special emphasis is put on oxidized low-density lipoproteins as early endothelial stressors. Recent findings Plasma cholesterol and LDL levels considered ‘normal’ by the medical community are possibly too high from an evolutionary viewpoint. The proinflammatory milieu at sites of early atherosclerotic lesions could be conducive to oxidation of LDL in situ. LDL oxidation can also take place at nonvascular sites or in the circulation under general proinflammatory conditions explaining its proatherosclerotic role in ‘normocholesterolemic’ individuals. Summary We hypothesize that the plasma cholesterol and LDL levels currently considered normal are evolutionarily too high. Cholesterol and/or oxidized low-density lipoprotein, even as a mild HSP60-inducing endothelial stressor, function as a ubiquitous risk factor. If this hypothesis is true, most members of developed societies might be at risk to develop atherosclerotic plaques at anti-HSP60-immunity-triggered intimal inflammatory foci, irrespective of the primary risk-factor(s). PMID:21881502

  7. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  8. IP-10 in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Ruffilli, I; Ferrari, S M; Colaci, M; Ferri, C; Fallahi, P; Antonelli, A

    2014-08-01

    The interferon-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) was initially identified as a chemokine that is induced by interferon (IFN)-?. IP-10 exerts its function through binding to chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3). IP-10 and its receptor, CXCR3, appear to contribute to the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases, organ specific (such as type 1 diabetes, Graves' disease and ophthalmopathy), or systemic (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed cryoglobulinemia, Sjogren syndrome, or systemic sclerosis). The secretion of IP-10 by (CD)4+, CD8+, and natural killer is dependent on IFN-?. Under the influence of IFN-?, IP-10 is secreted by thyrocytes. Determination of high level of IP-10 in peripheral fluids is therefore a marker of a T helper 1 orientated immune response. High levels of circulating IP-10, have been shown in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (AT). Among patients with AT, IP-10 levels were significantly higher in those with a hypoechoic ultrasonographic pattern, which is a sign of a more severe lympho-monocytic infiltration, and in those with hypothyroidism. For these reasons, it has been postulated that IP-10 could be a marker of a stronger and more aggressive inflammatory response in the thyroid, subsequently leading to thyroid destruction and hypothyroidism. Further studies are needed to investigate whether IP-10 is a novel therapeutic target in AT. PMID:24977661

  9. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  10. The immunology of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Soares, Jair C; Teixeira, Antonio L

    2014-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a psychiatric condition associated with elevated frequency of clinical co-morbidities and cognitive impairment. The neurobiology of bipolar disorder is not completely understood. Recent evidence has implicated immune dysfunction in its physiopathology. Here, we review several data supporting the presence of immunological dysfunction in bipolar disorder: (i) increased frequency of autoimmune diseases; (ii) distinct immune cells profile; (iii) altered/ release of cytokines by stimulated mononuclear cells; (iv) elevated levels of circulating immune markers; and (vi) inflammatory changes in the central nervous system. We also discussed the interplay between immunological dysfunction and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder. PMID:24557044

  11. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844

  12. Autoimmune bullous skin diseases. Part 1: Clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Kneisel, Andrea; Hertl, Michael

    2011-10-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin diseases are characterized by autoantibodies against adhesion molecules of the skin. Pemphigus is a disorder with an intraepidermal loss of adhesion and is characterized by fragile blisters and erosions. Pemphigus vulgaris often shows extensive lesions of the oral mucosa, while pemphigus foliaceus is commonly restricted to cutaneous involvement with puff pastry-like scale formation. Paraneoplastic pemphigus is obligatorily associated with malignancies and often presents as hemorrhagic stomatitis with multiforme-like exanthems. IgA pemphigus typically presents with pustules and annular plaques but not with mucosal involvement. The clinical spectrum of the pemphigoids includes tense blisters, urticarial plaques, and prurigo- like eczematous lesions. Pemphigoid gestationis mostly occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and mucous membrane pemphigoid primarily involves the oral mucosa and conjunctivae and leads to scarring. Linear IgA bullous dermatosis manifests with tense blisters in a "cluster of jewels"-like pattern in childhood and is more heterogeneous in adulthood. Classical epidermolysis bullosa acquisita shows extensive skin fragility. Dermatitis herpetiformis is associated with gluten-sensitive enteropathy and manifests clinically with severe itching and papulovesicles on the extensor surfaces of the extremities and the lumbosacral area. The intention of the review is to demonstrate the heterogeneous clinical spectrum of autoimmune bullous disorders. PMID:21955378

  13. Selective IgA Deficiency in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Shen, Nan; Vyse, Timothy J; Anand, Vidya; Gunnarson, Iva; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Elvin, Kerstin; Truedsson, Lennart; Andersson, Bengt A; Dahle, Charlotte; Örtqvist, Eva; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W; Hammarström, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. It has previously been suggested to be associated with a variety of concomitant autoimmune diseases. In this review, we present data on the prevalence of IgAD in patients with Graves disease (GD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), celiac disease (CD), myasthenia gravis (MG) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of both our own recent large-scale screening results and literature data. Genetic factors are important for the development of both IgAD and various autoimmune disorders, including GD, SLE, T1D, CD, MG and RA, and a strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been reported. In addition, non-MHC genes, such as interferon-induced helicase 1 (IFIH1) and c-type lectin domain family 16, member A (CLEC16A), are also associated with the development of IgAD and some of the above diseases. This indicates a possible common genetic background. In this review, we present suggestive evidence for a shared genetic predisposition between these disorders. PMID:21826374

  14. Selective IgA deficiency in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Shen, Nan; Vyse, Timothy J; Anand, Vidya; Gunnarson, Iva; Sturfelt, Gunnar; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Elvin, Kerstin; Truedsson, Lennart; Andersson, Bengt A; Dahle, Charlotte; Ortqvist, Eva; Gregersen, Peter K; Behrens, Timothy W; Hammarström, Lennart

    2011-01-01

    Selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in Caucasians. It has previously been suggested to be associated with a variety of concomitant autoimmune diseases. In this review, we present data on the prevalence of IgAD in patients with Graves disease (GD), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), celiac disease (CD), myasthenia gravis (MG) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on the basis of both our own recent large-scale screening results and literature data. Genetic factors are important for the development of both IgAD and various autoimmune disorders, including GD, SLE, T1D, CD, MG and RA, and a strong association with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region has been reported. In addition, non-MHC genes, such as interferon-induced helicase 1 (IFIH1) and c-type lectin domain family 16, member A (CLEC16A), are also associated with the development of IgAD and some of the above diseases. This indicates a possible common genetic background. In this review, we present suggestive evidence for a shared genetic predisposition between these disorders. PMID:21826374

  15. Targeting ion channels for the treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological targeting of ion channels has long been recognized as an attractive strategy for the treatment of various diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system with a prominent neurodegenerative component. A multitude of different cell types are involved in the complex pathophysiology of this disorder, including cells of the immune system (e.g. T and B lymphocytes and microglia), the neurovascular unit (e.g. endothelial cells and astrocytes) and the central nervous system (e.g. astrocytes and neurons). The pleiotropic expression and function of ion channels gives rise to the attractive opportunity of targeting different players and pathophysiological aspects of MS by the modulation of ion channel function in a cell-type and context-specific manner. We discuss the emerging knowledge about ion channels in the context of autoimmune neuroinflammation. While some pharmacological targets are at the edge of clinical translation, others have only recently been discovered and are still under investigation. Special focus is given to those candidates that could be attractive novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in neuroimmune autoinflammation. PMID:23997817

  16. Neonatal autoimmune diseases: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Chang, Christopher

    2012-05-01

    Neonatal autoimmune diseases are distinctly rare. Most neonatal autoimmune diseases result from the transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies directed against fetal or neonatal antigens in various tissues. In neonatal lupus, the heart seems to be particularly susceptible. Primary autoimmunity in newborns, with the exception of familial autoinflammatory diseases, is virtually non-existent. The pathophysiologic basis for the development of neonatal autoimmunity is not entirely clear, but differences in the neonatal immune system compared with the adult immune system, as well as unique characteristics of target antigens in the newborn period may be important factors. Neonatal lupus is the most common presentation of autoimmunity in the newborn. But the characteristics defining neonatal lupus are not well defined and the presentation of neonatal lupus differs from that of classical lupus. Other neonatal autoimmune diseases involving the interaction between maternal antibodies and fetal/neonatal antigens include neonatal anti-phospholipid syndrome, Behcet's disease, neonatal autoimmune thyroid disease, neonatal polymyositis and dermatomyositis, neonatal scleroderma and neonatal type I diabetes mellitus. While autoantibodies have been detected in patients with neonatal autoimmune disease, the pathogenic role of autoantibodies has not been well defined. Other mechanisms may play a role in the development of neonatal autoimmunity, including fetal/maternal microchimerism and aberrant apoptosis of fetal cells. The autoinflammatory syndromes are a completely different category, but are also included in discussion of neonatal autoimmune diseases. The autoinflammatory syndromes include the cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) - familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), neonatal onset multisystem inflammatory disease (NOMID) and Muckle-Wells syndrome, which all share a common pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:22402339

  17. How Does Age at Onset Influence the Outcome of Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Amador-Patarroyo, Manuel J.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis

    2012-01-01

    The age at onset refers to the time period at which an individual experiences the first symptoms of a disease. In autoimmune diseases (ADs), these symptoms can be subtle but are very relevant for diagnosis. They can appear during childhood, adulthood or late in life and may vary depending on the age at onset. Variables like mortality and morbidity and the role of genes will be reviewed with a focus on the major autoimmune disorders, namely, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), multiple sclerosis (MS), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D), Sjögren's syndrome, and autoimmune thyroiditis (AITD). Early age at onset is a worst prognostic factor for some ADs (i.e., SLE and T1D), while for others it does not have a significant influence on the course of disease (i.e., SS) or no unanimous consensus exists (i.e., RA and MS). PMID:22195277

  18. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  19. T Cell Subsets in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Barber; P. Toren; A. Achiron; S. Noy; L. Wolmer; R. Weizman; N. Laor

    1996-01-01

    Stress can produce immunosuppression leading to increased susceptibility to infection, tumor growth or autoimmune disease. It has been recently noted, however, that certain kinds of stress need not increase the risk of immune pathology. The present study looked for immune pathology in an anxiety-related disorder. Acute exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), an anxiety spectrum disorder, served as a model for

  20. Low-Dose Interleukin-2 Therapy: A Driver of an Imbalance between Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kosmaczewska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    For many years, the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in autoimmune responses was established as a cytokine possessing strong pro-inflammatory activity. Studies of the past few years have changed our knowledge on IL-2 in autoimmune chronic inflammation, suggesting its protective role, when administered at low-doses. The disrupted balance between regulatory and effector T cells (Tregs and Teffs, respectively) is a characteristic of autoimmune diseases, and is dependent on homeostatic cytokines, including IL-2. Actually, inherent defects in the IL-2 signaling pathway and/or levels leading to Treg compromised function and numbers as well as Th17 expansion have been attributed to autoimmune disorders. In this review, we discuss the role of IL-2 in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. In particular, we highlight the impact of the dysregulated IL-2 pathway on disruption of the Treg/Th17 balance, reversal of which appears to be a possible mechanism of the low-dose IL-2 treatment. The negative effects of IL-2 on the differentiation of follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and pathogenic Th17 cells, both of which contribute to autoimmunity, is emphasized in the paper as well. We also compare the current IL-2-based therapies of animal and human subjects with immune-mediated diseases aimed at boosting the Treg population, which is the most IL-2-dependent cell subset desirable for sufficient control of autoimmunity. New perspectives of therapeutic approaches focused on selective delivery of IL-2 to inflamed tissues, thus allowing local activity of IL-2 to be combined with its reduced systemic and pleiotropic toxicity, are also proposed in this paper. PMID:25322151

  1. Autoimmune associations and autoantibody screening show focused recognition in patient subgroups with generalized myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Reinhild; Marx, Alexander; Ströbel, Philipp; Schalke, Berthold; Nix, Wilfred; Willcox, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune associations in myasthenia gravis (MG)-patients and their relatives have not been re-assessed since their separation into early- or late-onset MG (EOMG, LOMG), or thymoma-associated MG. Here, we analysed 226 EOMG-, 97 LOMG-, and 150 thymoma-patients for autoimmune disorders in themselves and their relatives. From 283 of them sera were tested for different organ- and non-organ-specific autoantibodies (autoAbs) by immunofluorescence test (IFT) and ELISA; genotyping was performed in 213 patients. Relatives with autoimmune disorders were reported by more patients with EOMG (40% of 210) than LOMG (20% of 89; p < 0.01) than thymomas (8% of 150; p < 0.001). In 150 genotyped EOMG-females, the known risk allele of the immuno-regulatory PTPN2 2 (R620W) appeared commoner in those with second autoimmune diseases (p ? 0.06), or with autoimmune relatives (p ? 0.03), than in those without. Organ-specific autoAbs were found in ? 30% of all MG-patients, autoAbs to striated muscle only in patients with thymoma-MG (62%) or LOMG (61%). Titers against adrenal cortex were lower in LOMG-patients. Disease-associated autoAbs against systemic targets or 'natural autoAbs' - except of autoAbs to nuclei - were uncommon in all groups (< 13%). Thus-with rare exceptions in EOMG and LOMG-we found minimal support for the notion that autoimmune patients have wide-ranging autoreactivity that causes disease only if it targets such Achilles' heels as the muscle acetylcholine receptor; even in thymoma-patients the autoAbs are sharply focused on a restricted range of muscle, cytokine and endocrine targets. PMID:23792059

  2. Proliferating brain cells are a target of neurotoxic CSF in systemic autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakic, Boris; Kirkham, David L.; Ballok, David A.; Mwanjewe, James; Fearon, Ian M.; Macri, Joseph; Yu, Guanhua; Sidor, Michelle M.; Denburg, Judah A.; Szechtman, Henry; Lau, Jonathan; Ball, Alexander K.; Doering, Laurie C.

    2006-01-01

    Brain atrophy, neurologic and psychiatric (NP) manifestations are common complications in the systemic autoimmune disease, lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we show that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from autoimmune MRL-lpr mice and a deceased NP-SLE patient reduce the viability of brain cells which proliferate in vitro. This detrimental effect was accompanied by periventricular neurodegeneration in the brains of autoimmune mice and profound in vivo neurotoxicity when their CSF was administered to the CNS of a rat. Multiple ionic responses with microfluorometry and protein peaks on electropherograms suggest more than one mechanism of cellular demise. Similar to the CSF from diseased MRL-lpr mice, the CSF from a deceased SLE patient with a history of psychosis, memory impairment, and seizures, reduced viability of the C17.2 neural stem cell line. Proposed mechanisms of cytotoxicity involve binding of intrathecally synthesized IgG autoantibodies to target(s) common to different mammalian species and neuronal populations. More importantly, these results indicate that the viability of proliferative neural cells can be compromised in systemic autoimmune disease. Antibody-mediated lesions of germinal layers may impair the regenerative capacity of the brain in NP-SLE and possibly, brain development and function in some forms of CNS disorders in which autoimmune phenomena have been documented. PMID:16198428

  3. Tolerogenic dendritic cell vaccines to treat autoimmune diseases: can the unattainable dream turn into reality?

    PubMed

    Van Brussel, Ilse; Lee, Wai Ping; Rombouts, Miche; Nuyts, Amber H; Heylen, Marthe; De Winter, Benedicte Y; Cools, Nathalie; Schrijvers, Dorien M

    2014-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect about one in 15 individuals in developed countries and are characterized by a breakdown in immune tolerance. Current therapeutic approaches against destructive immune responses in autoimmune diseases are based on non-specific agents systemically suppressing the function of many immune effector cells. This indiscriminate immunosuppression, however, often causes serious and sometimes life-threatening side effects. Therefore, the need for more specific treatments resulting in lower toxicity and longer-term solutions is high. Because of the established role of dendritic cells (DCs) in maintaining the balance between immunity and tolerance, tolerogenic (tol)DCs might be novel therapeutic targets to prevent undesirable (auto-)immune responses. The idea behind tolDC therapy is that it is a highly targeted, antigen-specific treatment that only affects the auto-reactive inflammatory response. The therapeutic potential of tolDCs has already been proven in experimental animal models of different autoimmune disorders as well as with in vitro experiments using ex vivo generated human tolDCs, thus the challenge remains in bringing tolDC therapy to the clinic, although first clinical trials have been conducted. In this review, we will extensively discuss the use of tolDCs for induction of antigen-specific tolerance in several autoimmune disease settings, from bench to bedside, including currently applied strategies to generate tolDCs as well as technical difficulties and challenges in the field. PMID:24120737

  4. Transmethylation in immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Brian R; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Tardif, Virginie; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Baccala, Roberto; Kono, Dwight H; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N

    2012-04-01

    The activation of immune cells is mediated by a network of signaling proteins that can undergo post-translational modifications critical for their activity. Methylation of nucleic acids or proteins can have major effects on gene expression as well as protein repertoire diversity and function. Emerging data indicate that indeed many immunologic functions, particularly those of T cells, including thymic education, differentiation and effector function are highly dependent on methylation events. The critical role of methylation in immunocyte biology is further documented by evidence that autoimmune phenomena may be curtailed by methylation inhibitors. Additionally, epigenetic alterations imprinted by methylation can also exert effects on normal and abnormal immune responses. Further work in defining methylation effects in the immune system is likely to lead to a more detailed understanding of the immune system and may point to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22364920

  5. Immunomodulatory vaccination in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Ruiz, Irene; Ruiz, Pedro J; Steinman, Lawrence; Fathman, C Garrison

    2002-06-01

    The development of vaccines is arguably the most significant achievement in medicine to date. The practice of innoculation with the fluid from a sore to protect from a disease actually dates back to ancient China; however, with the introduction of Jenner's smallpox vaccine, and greater understanding of the immune system, vaccines have become specific and systematic. Traditional vaccines have used killed pathogens (hepatitis A and the Salk polio vaccines), immunogenic subunits of a given pathogen (hepatitis B subunit vaccine), or live attenuated pathogens (measles, mumps, rubella, Sabin polio vaccines) to generate protective immunity. Currently, a new generation of vaccines that use the genetic material of a pathogen to elicit protective immunity are being developed. Although the most widespread and successful use of vaccines today remains in the arena of infectious diseases, manipulations of immune responses to protect against cancers, neurologic diseases, and autoimmunity are being explored rigorously. PMID:12092460

  6. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a surgical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Perez, David; Vaquero, Eva C; Ayuso, Juan R; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is defined as a particular form of pancreatitis that often manifests as obstructive jaundice associated with a pancreatic mass or an obstructive bile duct lesion, and that has an excellent response to corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of AIP worldwide is unknown, and it is considered as a rare entity. The clinical and radiological presentation of AIP can mimic bilio-pancreatic cancer, presenting difficulties for diagnosis and obliging the surgeon to balance decision-making between the potential risk presented by the misdiagnosis of a deadly disease against the desire to avoid unnecessary major surgery for a disease that responds effectively to corticosteroid treatment. In this review we detail the current and critical points for the diagnosis, classification and treatment for AIP, with a special emphasis on surgical series and the methods to differentiate between this pathology and bilio-pancreatic cancer. PMID:25066570

  7. Liver transplantation and autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomohiro; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2015-02-01

    Liver Transplantation (LT) is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Indication for LT for AIH does not differ basically from other liver diseases including both acute and chronic types of disease progression, although it is reported to be an infrequent indication for LT worldwide due to the therapeutic advances of immunosuppression. The outcome following LT is feasible, with current patient and graft survival exceeding 75% at 5 years. Recurrent and de-novo AIH posttranslant has also been reported; and this seems to have important clinical implications because its management differs from the standard treatment for allograft rejection. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of AIH, focusing on the indication for LT and issues raised following LT. PMID:25674386

  8. n-3 fatty acids and the immune system in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ergas, David; Eilat, Eran; Mendlovic, Shlomo; Sthoeger, Zeev M

    2002-01-01

    In short-term studies, both in animals and in humans, fish oil seems to exert anti-inflammatory effects. However, these effects may vanish during long-term treatment. There is a possibility that in autoimmune diseases, supplementation of dietary n-3 fatty acids might lead to a decrease in the number of autoreactive T cells via apoptosis, as demonstrated in (NZBXNZW) F1 lupus mice [40]. Thus, the "fade away" effect might be due to regrowth of pathogenic autoreactive cells. In animal models of autoimmune diseases, diets high in n-3 fatty acids from fish oil increase survival and reduce disease severity in spontaneous autoantibody-mediated disease, while n-6 linoleic acid-rich diets appear to increase disease severity. The situation in human disease is probably more complex. Some of the discrepancy between studies can be attributed to methodologic problems. The effect of fish oil is dose, time and disease-dependent. Since the anti-inflammatory effects depend on the balance between n-3 and n-6 fatty acids, the relative proportion of EPA and DHA and possibly co-treatment with dietary vitamin E, the dose/effect ratio may vary between individuals. Furthermore, some animal studies demonstrating efficacy used very high doses that may be incompatible with human consumption. It seems that fish oil is only mildly effective in acute inflammation. In those chronic inflammatory disorders where it was found to be effective, several weeks are necessary to exhibit results. Yet, this mild anti-inflammatory effect, possibly through downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leads to striking therapeutic improvement in critically ill patients. Fish oil supplementation seems advantageous especially in acute and chronic disorders where inappropriate activation of the immune system occurs. Fish oil has only a mild effect on active inflammation of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, SLE and Crohn's disease, but it could prevent relapse (in some of the studies). In diseases where the inflammation is mild, such as IgA nephropathy, fish oil may slow or even prevent disease progression. The above could explain the observation in some populations of a decreased incidence of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases [3], since the constant consumption of n-3 fatty acids could suppress any autoreactive (or hyper-reactive) T cells. However, if there is already an existing disease, increased consumption might not be beneficial over a long period. Therefore, the use of n-3 fatty acids can be recommended to the general healthy population, not only to prevent atherosclerosis but possibly also to reduce the risk of autoimmunity. PMID:11802309

  9. Pemphigus autoimmunity: Hypotheses and realities

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Sergei A

    2011-01-01

    The goal of contemporary research in pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus is to achieve and maintain clinical remission without corticosteroids. Recent advances of knowledge on pemphigus autoimmunity scrutinize old dogmas, resolve controversies, and open novel perspectives for treatment. Elucidation of intimate mechanisms of keratinocyte detachment and death in pemphigus has challenged the monopathogenic explanation of disease immunopathology. Over 50 organ-specific and non-organ-specific antigens can be targeted by pemphigus autoimmunity, including desmosomal cadherins and other adhesion molecules, PERP cholinergic and other cell membrane (CM) receptors, and mitochondrial proteins. The initial insult is sustained by the autoantibodies to the cell membrane receptor antigens triggering the intracellular signaling by Src, epidermal growth factor receptor kinase, protein kinases A and C, phospholipase C, mTOR, p38 MAPK, JNK, other tyrosine kinases, and calmodulin that cause basal cell shrinkage and ripping desmosomes off the CM. Autoantibodies synergize with effectors of apoptotic and oncotic pathways, serine proteases, and inflammatory cytokines to overcome the natural resistance and activate the cell death program in keratinocytes. The process of keratinocyte shrinkage/detachment and death via apoptosis/oncosis has been termed apoptolysis to emphasize that it is triggered by the same signal effectors and mediated by the same cell death enzymes. The natural course of pemphigus has improved due to a substantial progress in developing of the steroid-sparing therapies combining the immunosuppressive and direct anti-acantholytic effects. Further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms mediating immune dysregulation and apoptolysis in pemphigus should improve our understanding of disease pathogenesis and facilitate development of steroid-free treatment of patients. PMID:21939410

  10. Is Multiple Sclerosis an Autoimmune Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Wootla, Bharath; Eriguchi, Makoto; Rodriguez, Moses

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with varied clinical presentations and heterogeneous histopathological features. The underlying immunological abnormalities in MS lead to various neurological and autoimmune manifestations. There is strong evidence that MS is, at least in part, an immune-mediated disease. There is less evidence that MS is a classical autoimmune disease, even though many authors state this in the description of the disease. We show the evidence that both supports and refutes the autoimmune hypothesis. In addition, we present an alternate hypothesis based on virus infection to explain the pathogenesis of MS. PMID:22666554

  11. Phosphodiesterase 4-targeted treatments for autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in phosphodiesterase (PDE)-targeted therapies have shown promise in recent years for treating patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the development of PDE4 inhibitors and the associated literature with a focus on treatments for autoimmune diseases. After the initial investigations of the prototypic PDE inhibitor, rolipram, more selective inhibitors targeting the PDE4 isozyme have been developed. With phase II and phase III clinical trials currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the latest generation of PDE4 inhibitors, namely apremilast, a new class of treatments may be around the corner for patients suffering from chronic, autoimmune diseases. PMID:23557064

  12. Phosphodiesterase 4-targeted treatments for autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Neal; Goldminz, Ari M; Kim, Noori; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2013-01-01

    Advancements in phosphodiesterase (PDE)-targeted therapies have shown promise in recent years for treating patients with a variety of autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes the development of PDE4 inhibitors and the associated literature with a focus on treatments for autoimmune diseases. After the initial investigations of the prototypic PDE inhibitor, rolipram, more selective inhibitors targeting the PDE4 isozyme have been developed. With phase II and phase III clinical trials currently underway to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the latest generation of PDE4 inhibitors, namely apremilast, a new class of treatments may be around the corner for patients suffering from chronic, autoimmune diseases. PMID:23557064

  13. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and CREST syndrome].

    PubMed

    Jordana, R; Tolosa, C; Selva, A; Ordi, J

    1990-05-19

    There are few studies addressing the frequency and etiology of anemia in progressive systemic sclerosis. Anemia is present in about 25% of these patients. Among the implicated causes are ferropenia, generally associated with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and renal failure. In a considerable number of patients, the specific etiology of anemia remained unknown. We report a 59-year-old female with autoimmune hemolytic anemia and incomplete CREST syndrome. We emphasize the rarity of autoimmune hemolysis as a cause of anemia in systemic sclerosis, and we discuss its significance as indirectly supporting the possible autoimmune pathogenesis of that condition. PMID:2201843

  14. Autoimmune cytopenias in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Visco, Carlo; Barcellini, Wilma; Maura, Francesco; Neri, Antonino; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Rodeghiero, Francesco

    2014-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is frequently complicated by secondary autoimmune cytopenias (AIC) represented by autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), pure red cell aplasia, and autoimmune granulocytopenia. The distinction of immune cytopenias from cytopenias due to bone marrow infiltration, usually associated with a worse outcome and often requiring a different treatment, is mandatory. AIHA and ITP are more frequently found in patients with unfavorable biological risk factors for CLL. AIC secondary to CLL respond less favorably to standard treatments than their primary forms, and treating the underlying CLL with chemotherapy or monoclonal antibodies may ultimately be necessary. PMID:24912821

  15. Regulation of neurovascular coupling in autoimmunity to water and ion channels.

    PubMed

    Jukkola, Peter; Gu, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding autoimmune channelopathies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not always clear due to broad expression of some channel proteins. Recent studies show that autoimmune conditions that interfere with neurovascular coupling in the central nervous system (CNS) can lead to neurodegeneration. Cerebral blood flow that meets neuronal activity and metabolic demand is tightly regulated by local neural activity. This process of reciprocal regulation involves coordinated actions of a number of cell types, including neurons, glia, and vascular cells. In particular, astrocytic endfeet cover more than 90% of brain capillaries to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) function, and wrap around synapses and nodes of Ranvier to communicate with neuronal activity. In this review, we highlight four types of channel proteins that are expressed in astrocytes, regarding their structures, biophysical properties, expression and distribution patterns, and related diseases including autoimmune disorders. Water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir4.1) channels are concentrated in astrocytic endfeet, whereas some voltage-gated Ca(2+) and two-pore domain K(+) channels are expressed throughout the cell body of reactive astrocytes. More channel proteins are found in astrocytes under normal and abnormal conditions. This research field will contribute to a better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying autoimmune disorders. PMID:25462580

  16. Thyroid autoimmunity in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Eui Seok; Han, Dong Kyun; Yang, Eun Mi; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Dae-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study aim to investigate the occurrence of autoimmune thyroid disease in children and adolescents at onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and to assess whether the presence of diabetes-specific autoantibodies can predict the autoimmune thyroid disorder. Methods Seventy-three children with T1DM were recruited. Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADA), islet cell antibodies (ICA), insulin autoantibodies (IAA), and thyroid antibodies were determined in all patients at the time of diagnosis. Results The majority of patients (87.7%) had at least one pancreatic antibody (74.0% for GADA, 20.5% for ICA, and 24.7% for IAA). Thyroid autoantibodies were found in 19 of 73 patients (26.0%) at diagnosis. Thyroid autoimmunity (TA) incidence was not statistically significant by GADA or ICA positivity, but significantly higher by IAA positivity (P=0.03), and IAA positivity showed odds ratio, 4.931; 95% confidence interval, 1.323-18.381 for TA. Conclusion The IAA positivity in children and adolescents with TIDM was strongly related to positivity of thyroid autoantibodies and thus it could serve as an index for early prediction of the development of the thyroid autoimmune disorder among children and adolescents with TIDM. PMID:25077089

  17. Nanoparticle-mediated codelivery of myelin antigen and a tolerogenic small molecule suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Ada; Nadeau, Meghan; Burns, Evan J.; Weiner, Howard L.; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    The immune response is normally controlled by regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, Treg deficits are found in autoimmune diseases, and therefore the induction of functional Tregs is considered a potential therapeutic approach for autoimmune disorders. The activation of the ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor by 2-(1?H-indole-3?-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester (ITE) or other ligands induces dendritic cells (DCs) that promote FoxP3+ Treg differentiation. Here we report the use of nanoparticles (NPs) to coadminister ITE and a T-cell epitope from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55 to promote the generation of Tregs by DCs. NP-treated DCs displayed a tolerogenic phenotype and promoted the differentiation of Tregs in vitro. Moreover, NPs carrying ITE and MOG35–55 expanded the FoxP3+ Treg compartment and suppressed the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an experimental model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, NPs are potential new tools to induce functional Tregs in autoimmune disorders. PMID:22745170

  18. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune-Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lauret, Eugenia; Rodrigo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage. PMID:23984314

  19. Autoimmune disease preceding amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Goldacre, Raph; Ramagopalan, Sreeram; Talbot, Kevin; Goldacre, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study whether the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is increased in people with prior autoimmune disease. Methods: An all-England hospital record-linkage dataset spanning 1999–2011 was used. Cohorts were constructed of people with each of a range of autoimmune diseases; the incidence of ALS in each disease cohort was compared with the incidence of ALS in a cohort of individuals without prior admission for the autoimmune disease. Results: There were significantly more cases than expected of ALS associated with a prior diagnosis of asthma, celiac disease, younger-onset diabetes (younger than 30 years), multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, myxedema, polymyositis, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ulcerative colitis. Conclusions: Autoimmune disease associations with ALS raise the possibility of shared genetic or environmental risk factors. PMID:23946298

  20. Porous silicon biosensor for the detection of autoimmune diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jane, Andrew O.; Szili, Endre J.; Reed, Joanne H.; Gordon, Tom P.; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2007-12-01

    Advances in porous silicon (pSi) technology have led to the development of new sensitive biosensors. The unique optical properties of pSi renders the material a perfect candidate for optical transducers exploiting photoluminescence or white light interference effects. The ability of biosensors exploiting these transduction mechanisms to quickly and accurately detect biological target molecules affords an alternative to current bioassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Here, we present a pSi biosensor that was developed to detect antibodies against the autoimmune protein La. This protein is associated with autoimmune diseases including rheumatic disorders, systematic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjogren's syndrome (SS). A fast and sensitive detection platform such as the one described here can be applied to the rapid diagnosis of these debilitating autoimmune diseases. The immobilisation of the La protein onto pSi films gave a protein receptor-decorated sensor matrix. A cascade of immunological reactions was then initiated to detect anti-La antibody on the functionalised pSi surface. In the presence of o-phenylenediamine (OPD), horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/H IIO II catalysed the formation of an oxidised radical species that accelerated pSi corrosion. pSi corrosion was detected as a blue-shift in the generated interference pattern, corresponding to a decrease in the effective optical thickness (EOT) of the pSi film. Compared to an ELISA, the pSi biosensor could detect the anti-La antibody at a similar concentration (500 - 125 ng/ml). Furthermore, we found that the experimental process can be significantly shortened resulting in detection of the anti-La antibody in 80 minutes compared to a minimum of 5 hours required for ELISA.

  1. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  2. Autoimmunity and Environment: Am I at risk?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Smyk; Eirini I. Rigopoulou; Harold Baum; Andrew K. Burroughs; Diego Vergani; Dimitrios P. Bogdanos

    The complex interplay between environmental factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in disease pathogenesis.\\u000a This is especially true for autoimmunity, where clinical reports, genomic and epidemiological studies, as well as animal models\\u000a have identified several environmental and genetic risk factors associated with autoimmune disease. The complexity of this\\u000a relationship is demonstrated by the vast array of environmental factors

  3. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  4. Intermittent cyclophosphamide treatment of autoimmune thrombocytopenia

    PubMed Central

    Weinerman, Brian; Maxwell, Ian; Hryniuk, William

    1974-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide was given intermittently rather than daily to 14 patients with autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. Eight patients responded and six did not. In those who responded the rise in platelet count was rapid, and in all patients the lack of toxicity was striking. Intermittent cyclophosphamide seems effective in some cases of autoimmune thrombocytopenia and is safe, at least in the short term. Controlled trials would be required to prove that intermittent is better than daily administration. PMID:4473260

  5. Autoimmune encephalitis and its relation to infection.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arun; Benavides, David R

    2015-03-01

    Encephalitis, an inflammatory condition of the brain that results in substantial morbidity and mortality, has numerous causes. Over the past decade, it has become increasingly recognized that autoimmune conditions contribute significantly to the spectrum of encephalitis causes. Clinical suspicion and early diagnosis of autoimmune etiologies are of particular importance due to the need for early institution of immune suppressive therapies to improve outcome. Emerging clinical observations suggest that the most commonly recognized cause of antibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis, may in some cases be triggered by herpes virus infection. Other conditions such as Rasmussen's encephalitis (RE) and febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) have also been posited to be autoimmune conditions triggered by infectious agents. This review focuses on emerging concepts in central nervous system autoimmunity and addresses clinical and mechanistic findings linking autoimmune encephalitis and infections. Particular consideration will be given to anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and its relation to herpes simplex encephalitis. PMID:25637289

  6. NK Cell Autoreactivity and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences have pointed out the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. NK cells bear a plethora of activating and inhibiting receptors that can play a role in regulating reactivity with autologous cells. The activating receptors recognize natural ligands up-regulated on virus-infected or stressed or neoplastic cells. Of note, several autoimmune diseases are thought to be linked to viral infections as one of the first event in inducing autoimmunity. Also, it is conceivable that autoimmunity can be triggered when a dysregulation of innate immunity occurs, activating T and B lymphocytes to react with self-components. This would imply that NK cells can play a regulatory role during adaptive immunity; indeed, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising the classical CD56+ NK cells, have a role in maintaining or alternating tissue homeostasis secreting protective and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, NK cells display activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity and the activating isoforms of receptors for HLA class I that can interact with healthy host cells and induce damage without any evidence of viral infection or neoplastic-induced alteration. In this context, the interrelationship among ILC, extracellular-matrix components, and mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered a key point for the control of homeostasis. Herein, we summarize evidences for a role of NK cells in autoimmune diseases and will give a point of view of the interplay between NK cells and self-cells in triggering autoimmunity. PMID:24550913

  7. 78 FR 36305 - Proposed Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ...Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune, Crystalline and Infectious Arthritis...Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis...Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious...

  8. 78 FR 65450 - Agency Information Collection (Non-Degenerative Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...Arthritis (Including Inflammatory, Autoimmune, Crystalline and Infectious Arthritis...Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious arthritis...Arthritis (including inflammatory, autoimmune, crystalline and infectious...

  9. Expansion of CD4CD25 regulatory T cells by intravenous immunoglobulin: a critical factor in controlling experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amal Ephrem; Catherine Miquel; Sylvain Fisson; Luc Mouthon; Giuseppina Caligiuri; Sandrine Delignat; Sriramulu Elluru; Jagadeesh Bayry; Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Benoît L. Salomon; Michel D. Kazatchkine; Srini V. Kaveri; Namita Misra; Marie Curie-Paris

    2010-01-01

    The clinical use of intravenous immuno- globulin (IVIg) based on its immuno- modulatory and anti-inflammatory poten- tial remains an ongoing challenge. Fc receptor-mediated effects of IVIg, al- though well elucidated in certain patholo- gies, cannot entirely account for its proven benefit in several autoimmune disorders mediated by autoreactive T cells. In this study, we show that prophy- lactic infusion of

  10. Expert Panel Workshop Consensus Statement on the Role of the Environment in the Development of Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Christine G.; Miller, Frederick W.; Pollard, Kenneth Michael; Selmi, Carlo; Germolec, Dori; Joyce, Kelly; Rose, Noel R.; Humble, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases include 80 or more complex disorders characterized by self-reactive, pathologic immune responses in which genetic susceptibility is largely insufficient to determine disease onset. In September 2010, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) organized an expert panel workshop to evaluate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases, and the state of the science regarding relevant mechanisms, animal models, and human studies. The objective of the workshop was to analyze the existing data to identify conclusions that could be drawn regarding environmental exposures and autoimmunity and to identify critical knowledge gaps and areas of uncertainty for future study. This consensus document summarizes key findings from published workshop monographs on areas in which “confident” and “likely” assessments were made, with recommendations for further research. Transcribed notes and slides were reviewed to synthesize an overview on exposure assessment and questions addressed by interdisciplinary panels. Critical advances in the field of autoimmune disease research have been made in the past decade. Collaborative translational and interdisciplinary research is needed to elucidate the role of environmental factors in autoimmune diseases. A focus on exposure assessment methodology is needed to improve the effectiveness of human studies, and more experimental studies are needed to focus on causal mechanisms underlying observed associations of environmental factors with autoimmune disease in humans. PMID:25196523

  11. Combined short-term immunotherapy for experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Pestronk, A.; Drachman, D.B.; Teoh, R.; Adams, R.N.

    1983-08-01

    A therapeutic strategy was designed to eliminate the humoral immune response to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in ongoing experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Rats with EAMG were treated with a protocol consisting of three components: (1) A single high dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) was used to produce a rapid and sustained fall in the anti-AChR antibody levels by preferential destruction of antibody-producing B-lymphocytes. ''Memory'' lymphocytes were not eliminated by cyclophosphamide. (2) Irradiation (600 rads) was used to eliminate the ''memory'' cells. It eliminated the anamnestic response to a challenge with the antigen AChR. (3) Bone marrow transplantation was used to repopulate the hematopoietic system after the otherwise lethal dose of cyclophosphamide. We used bone marrow from syngeneic rats with active EAMG to simulate an autologous transplant. Rats with EAMG treated with this combined protocol showed a prompt and sustained fall in the anti-AChR antibody levels and had no anamnestic response to a challenge with AChR. Thus, an affected animal's own marrow could be stored and used later for repopulation after cyclophosphamide-irradiation treatment. This treatment eliminates the animal's ongoing immune responses and reconstitutes the immune system in its original state. The success of this approach suggests that, if their safety could be established, similar ''curative'' strategies might be developed for the treatment of patients with severe antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.

  12. CD226 Gly307Ser association with multiple autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Hafler, J P; Maier, L M; Cooper, J D; Plagnol, V; Hinks, A; Simmonds, M J; Stevens, H E; Walker, N M; Healy, B; Howson, J M M; Maisuria, M; Duley, S; Coleman, G; Gough, S C L; Worthington, J; Kuchroo, V K; Wicker, L S; Todd, J A

    2009-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies provide insight into multigenic diseases through the identification of susceptibility genes and etiological pathways. In addition, the identification of shared variants among autoimmune disorders provides insight into common disease pathways. We previously reported an association of a nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs763361/Gly307Ser in the immune response gene CD226 on chromosome 18q22 with type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. Here, we report efforts toward identifying the causal variant by exonic resequencing and tag SNP mapping of the 18q22 region in both T1D and multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to the analysis of newly available samples in T1D (2088 cases and 3289 controls) and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) (821 cases and 1920 controls), resulting in strong support for the Ser(307) association with T1D (P=3.46 x 10(-9)) and continued potential evidence for AITD (P=0.0345), we provide evidence for association of Gly307Ser with MS (P=4.20 x 10(-4)) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (P=0.017). The Ser(307) allele of rs763361 in exon 7 of CD226 predisposes to T1D, MS, and possibly AITD and RA, and based on the tag SNP analysis, could be the causal variant. PMID:18971939

  13. Current approaches for the treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Jaime-Pérez, José Carlos; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marisol; Gómez-de-León, Andrés; Tarín-Arzaga, Luz; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2013-10-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is an infrequent group of diseases defined by autoantibody mediated red blood cell destruction. Correct diagnosis and classification of this condition are essential to provide appropriate treatment. AIHA is divided into warm and cold types according to the characteristics of the autoantibody involved and by the presence of an underlying or associated disorder into primary and secondary AIHA. Due to its low frequency, treatment for AIHA is largely based on small prospective trials, case series, and empirical observations. This review describes in detail the different treatment approaches for autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Warm antibody type AIHA should be treated with steroids, to which most patients respond, although relapse can occur and maintenance doses are frequently required. Splenectomy is an effective second line treatment and can provide long-term remission without medication. Rituximab is a useful alternative for steroid refractory patients, those requiring high maintenance doses and unfavorable candidates for surgery. Promising therapeutic modifications with this monoclonal antibody are emerging including drug combinations, lower doses, and long-term use. Primary cold agglutinin disease has been recognized as having a lymphoproliferative monoclonal origin. It is unresponsive to both steroids and splenectomy. Rituximab is currently the best therapeutic alternative for this condition, and several treatment regimens are available with variable responses. PMID:23689532

  14. JAKpot! New small molecules in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ghoreschi, Kamran; Gadina, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Cytokines are key mediators of the development and homeostasis of hematopoietic cells, critical for host defense, but also for the development of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases like psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Blocking cytokines activity by interfering with the ligand-receptor association has been successfully employed to treat several immune disorders. A subgroup of cytokines signals through receptors requiring the association with a family of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases known as Janus kinases (Jaks). Jaks have recently gained significant attention as therapeutic targets in inflammation and autoimmunity and several Jak inhibitory small molecules have been developed. The first two Jak inhibitors, tofacitinib and ruxolitinib, have been approved for the treatment of RA and primary myelofibrosis, respectively. Efficacy and safety data suggest that some of these oral Jak inhibitors as well as their topical formulations may soon enter the daily clinical practice for treating patients with psoriasis, lupus erythematosus or other inflammatory skin diseases. While biologics typically target one single cytokine, these new immunomodulators can inhibit signals from multiple cytokines intracellularly and therefore could be useful when other therapies are ineffective. Thus, Jak inhibitors may replace some traditional immunosuppressive agents and help patients not responding to previous therapies. PMID:24131352

  15. REGULATION OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AUTOIMMUNITY BY THE ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    The ligand-activated transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor controls the activity of several components of the immune system, many of which play an important role in neuroinflammation. This review discusses the role of AhR in T cells and dendritic cells, its relevance for the control of autoimmunity in the central nervous system, and its potential as a therapeutic target for immune mediated disorders. PMID:23999753

  16. Selective IgA deficiency in chickens with spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I. Luster; Gerrie A. Leslie; RANDALL K. COLE

    1976-01-01

    SELECTIVE IgA deficiency is believed to be the commonest form of human immunodeficiency disease, and occurs with a frequency of between 1: 500 and 1: 700 in random populations1,2. Although the isolated deficiency is often considered non-pathological, there is clinical and laboratory evidence that IgA-deficient individuals suffer more sinopulmonary infection and autoimmune and gastrointestinal disorders3,4. Family studies have suggested a

  17. 47,XXX in an Adolescent with Premature Ovarian Failure and Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M Holland

    2001-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) may be idiopathic or may be associated with genetic or autoimmune disorders. The 47,XXX karyotype has been associated with POF and other genitourinary anomalies.Case: A 17-year-old woman with a history of immune thrombocytopenic purpura was referred to the adolescent medicine clinic for evaluation of oligomenorrhea with secondary amenorrhea. Evaluation revealed hypergonadotrophic premature ovarian failure, a

  18. Autoimmune thyroiditis: Centennial jubilee of a social disease and its comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Churilov, L P; Stroev, Yu I; Serdyuk, I Yu; Kaminova-Mudzhikova, O M; Belyaeva, I V; Gvozdetsky, A N; Nitsa, N A; Mikhailova, L R

    2014-06-01

    The history of autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and its role in pathophysiology of transition from adolescent hypothalamic syndrome (obesity with rose striae) into early metabolic syndrome is reviewed. Marfanoid phenotype and chronic disequilibrium between local, autacoid-mediated and systemic, hormone-mediated regulation, typical for inherited connective tissue disorders, may promote this transition. Pathogenetic roles of hyperprolactinemia and cytokine misbalance are evaluated and discussed in its pathogenesis. PMID:24274975

  19. Autoimmune hepatitis 2013 and beyond.

    PubMed

    Weiler-Normann, C; Sebode, M; Lohse, A W

    2013-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease leading to cirrhosis and its complications if left untreated. Clinical features include elevated transaminases, elevated immunoglobulin G and the presence of autoantibodies. A liver biopsy is necessary for the establishment of the diagnosis. If treated properly and timely, prognosis of AIH is excellent. Standard treatment today consists of azathioprine and prednisolone and leads to remission in the vast majority of patients. Intolerance to standard treatment or incomplete remission as well as special patient groups such as pregnant patients or elderly patients require second- or sometimes even third-line treatments. For those patients, a number of effective drugs are available off-label and induction of remission will be possible in the vast majority of patients. Choice of drug regimen is important as drug-drug-interactions, concomitant diseases, age and gender of the patients have to be taken into account to achieve a tolerable side effect profile and good quality of life in patients. Mycophenolate mofetil is the drug of first choice in azathioprine intolerance. Other treatments may include the use of cyclosporine, tacrolimus, cyclophosphamide or biologicals such as rituximab or infliximab. Close monitoring of the patients will be necessary as side effects may occur. PMID:23831905

  20. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, E; Pöntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology. PMID:25689230

  1. Hepatitis C virus infection in a child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 is a rare disorder. Its prevalence in western populations has been reported as 1.5 to 4.5/100,000. On the other hand, its prevalence in Egypt is unknown. It is characterized by the association of autoimmune Addison’s disease with thyroid autoimmune diseases and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Hepatitis C virus infection is an important public health issue worldwide. Egypt has the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection of any country in the world. It is estimated to be 8% in urban and 25% in rural areas. We present the case of an Egyptian child with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 associated with chronic hepatitis C infection. Case presentation A 14-year-old Egyptian boy with type 1 diabetes mellitus was referred to our institution for an evaluation of recurrent attacks of hypoglycemia of two months duration. The initial clinical examination revealed hypotension as well as vitiligo of the skin. He had high potassium, low sodium, low cortisol, high adrenocorticotropic hormone, slightly high thyroid stimulating levels with strong positivity of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies. The hepatitis C antibody and hepatitis C virus–polymerase chain reaction were positive. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 with chronic hepatitis C was made. He was started on hydrocortisone (10mg twice daily), fludrocortisone (0.1mg twice daily) and multiple daily doses of insulin. He showed great?improvement of his symptoms on the prescribed treatment. Conclusions The importance of the early diagnosis of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 and the possibility of its association with chronic hepatitis C infection should be considered in order to implement the proper management of such cases. PMID:22839422

  2. Autoimmune and other cytopenias in primary immunodeficiencies: pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmunity and immune dysregulation may lead to cytopenia and represent key features of many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Especially when cytopenia is the initial symptom of a PID, the order and depth of diagnostic steps have to be performed in accordance with both an immunologic and a hematologic approach and will help exclude disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, common variable immunodeficiency, and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes, hemophagocytic disorders, lymphoproliferative diseases, and novel differential diagnoses such as MonoMac syndrome (GATA2 deficiency), CD27 deficiency, lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency, activated PI3KD syndrome (APDS), X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect (MAGT1 deficiency), and others. Immunosuppressive treatment often needs to be initiated urgently, which impedes further relevant immunologic laboratory analyses aimed at defining the underlying PID. Awareness of potentially involved disease spectra ranging from hematologic to rheumatologic and immunologic disorders is crucial for identifying a certain proportion of PID phenotypes and genotypes among descriptive diagnoses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, chronic immune thrombocytopenia, Evans syndrome, severe aplastic anemia/refractory cytopenia, and others. A synopsis of pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and advances in treatment options for cytopenias in PID is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary management and to bridge different approaches. PMID:25163701

  3. Saving Death: Apoptosis for Intervention in Transplantation and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alice; Ojogho, Okechukwu; Escher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Long considered immunologically “bland,” apoptotic cells are now recognized as important modulators of immune responses. The role of apoptosis in immunological homeostasis has been inferred from several findings, for example, induction of tolerance after injection of apoptotic cells and the capacity of APCs like macrophages and DCs to induce and maintain tolerance after phagocytosis of dead cells. Processing of apoptotic cells by DCs is of particular interest, because DCs are the only known APCs capable of activating naïve T lymphocytes to become effector or regulatory cells. In that regard, recent evidence suggests that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by DCs can induce Tregs, a finding that has significant implications for the treatment of a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Here, we review the relationship between apoptotic cells, DCs, and Tregs, and its impact on prevention of transplant rejection and treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:17162368

  4. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type II - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Azad, A K; Islam, M S; Quayum, S L

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome also known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II is characterized by the presence of Addison's disease, in association with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Here a 14 year old girl is reported with Addison's disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II occurs most often in middle aged female and is quite rare in children but one should think to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II in patient at any age especially in patients with Addison's disease. PMID:25725692

  5. Hypothetical review: thymic aberrations and type-I interferons; attempts to deduce autoimmunizing mechanisms from unexpected clues in monogenic and paraneoplastic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Meager, A; Peterson, P; Willcox, N

    2008-10-01

    In sporadic autoimmune disorders, dendritic cells are increasingly being incriminated as agents provocateurs. However, the mechanisms and any 'danger signals' that induce them to autoimmunize remain enigmatic. Here, we focus on unexpected clues from two prototypic/ highly informative autoimmune syndromes, acquired thymoma-associated myasthenia gravis and the monogenic autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS1), caused by mutations in the AutoImmune Regulator (AIRE). Both involve the thymus, and in both we find early, persistent, highly prevalent and high-titre neutralizing autoantibodies against type-I interferons, regardless of the exact AIRE genotype or the characteristically variable clinical phenotype in APS1. Thus these key innate<-->adaptive immune intermediaries are now implicated in APS1 and paraneoplastic myasthenia as well as in systemic lupus erythematosus and other sporadic autoimmune disorders. The currently accepted notion that autoimmunization proceeds automatically (by 'default') does not explain how, when or where autoimmune responses are initiated against which targets in APS1, or whether exogenous or internal danger signals are involved, or predict whether the primary auto-immunogenic targets are AIRE-dependent. As the parallels between these syndromes must hold novel clues to these puzzles, they demand explanations. To unify these and other findings, we propose that autoimmunization occurs centrally in aberrant thymic environments rendered 'dangerous' by AIRE-deficiency (possibly by excess undegraded nucleic acids/dead cell debris). The ensuing autoreactivity focuses early on the locally abundant type I interferons and then on other peripheral tissue autoantigens that are still expressed despite the absence of AIRE. These ideas raise numerous questions that others may already have the materials to address. PMID:18727623

  6. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, João Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  7. Enhanced Autoimmunity Associated with Induction of Tumor Immunity in Thyroiditis-Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kari, Suresh; Flynn, Jeffrey C.; Zulfiqar, Muhammad; Snower, Daniel P.; Elliott, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Immunotherapeutic modalities to bolster tumor immunity by targeting specific sites of the immune network often result in immune dysregulation with adverse autoimmune sequelae. To understand the relative risk for opportunistic autoimmune disorders, we studied established breast cancer models in mice resistant to experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT). EAT is a murine model of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, an autoimmune syndrome with established MHC class II control of susceptibility. The highly prevalent Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a prominent autoimmune sequela in immunotherapy, and its relative ease of diagnosis and treatment could serve as an early indicator of immune dysfunction. Here, we examined EAT-susceptible mice as a combined model for induction of tumor immunity and EAT under the umbrella of disrupted regulatory T cell (Treg) function. Methods: Tumor immunity was evaluated in female CBA/J mice after depleting Tregs by intravenous administration of CD25 monoclonal antibody and/or immunizing with irradiated mammary adenocarcinoma cell line A22E-j before challenge; the role of T cell subsets was determined by injecting CD4 and/or CD8 antibodies after tumor immunity induction. Tumor growth was monitored 3×/week by palpation. Subsequent EAT was induced by mouse thyroglobulin (mTg) injections (4 daily doses/week over 4 weeks). For some experiments, EAT was induced before establishing tumor immunity by injecting mTg+interleukin-1, 7 days apart. EAT was evaluated by mTg antibodies and thyroid infiltration. Results: Strong resistance to tumor challenge after Treg depletion and immunization with irradiated tumor cells required participation of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. This immunity was not altered by induction of mild thyroiditis with our protocol of Treg depletion and adjuvant-free, soluble mTg injections. However, the increased incidence of mild thyroiditis can be directly related to Treg depletion needed to achieve strong tumor immunity. Moreover, when a subclinical, mild thyroiditis was induced with soluble mTg and low doses of interleukin-1, to simulate pre-existing autoimmunity in patients subjected to cancer immunotherapy, mononuclear infiltration into the thyroid was enhanced. Conclusions: Our current findings indicate that genetic predisposition to autoimmune disease could enhance autoimmunity during induction of tumor immunity in thyroiditis-susceptible mice. Thus, HLA genotyping of cancer patients should be part of any risk assessment. PMID:23777580

  8. Accelerated Course of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in PD-1-Deficient Central Nervous System Myelin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Kroner, Antje; Schwab, Nicholas; Ip, Chi Wang; Ortler, Sonja; Göbel, Kerstin; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Mäurer, Mathias; Martini, Rudolf; Wiendl, Heinz

    2009-01-01

    It is assumed that the onset and course of autoimmune inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) disorders (eg, multiple sclerosis) are influenced by factors that afflict immune regulation as well as CNS vulnerability. We challenged this concept experimentally by investigating how genetic alterations that affect myelin (primary oligodendrocyte damage in PLPtg mice) and/or T-cell regulation (deficiency of PD-1) influence both the onset and course of an experimental autoimmune CNS inflammatory disease [MOG35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)]. We observed that double pathology was associated with a significantly earlier onset of disease, a slight increase in the neurological score, an increase in the number of infiltrating cells, and enhanced axonal degeneration compared with wild-type mice and the respective, single mutant controls. Double-mutant PLPtg/PD-1?/? mice showed an increased production of interferon-? by CNS immune cells at the peak of disease. Neither PD-1 deficiency nor oligodendropathy led to detectable spread of antigenic MHC class I- or class II-restricted epitopes during EAE. However, absence of PD-1 clearly increased the propensity of T lymphocytes to expand, and the number of clonal expansions reliably reflected the severity of the EAE disease course. Our data show that the interplay between immune dysregulation and myelinopathy results in a stable exacerbation of actively induced autoimmune CNS inflammation, suggesting that the combination of several pathological issues contributes significantly to disease susceptibility or relapses in human disease. PMID:19443704

  9. Association of autoimmune hepatitis and systemic lupus erythematodes: A case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Beisel, Claudia; Weiler-Normann, Christina; Teufel, Andreas; Lohse, Ansgar W

    2014-01-01

    Liver test abnormalities have been described in up to 60% of patients with systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE) at some point during the course of their disease. Prior treatment with potentially hepatotoxic drugs or viral hepatitis is commonly considered to be the main cause of liver disease in SLE patients. However, in rare cases elevated liver enzymes may be due to concurrent autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). To distinguish whether the patient has primary liver disease with associated autoimmune clinical and laboratory features resembling SLE - such as AIH - or the elevation of liver enzymes is a manifestation of SLE remains a difficult challenge for the treating physician. Here, we present six female patients with complex autoimmune disorders and hepatitis. Patient charts were reviewed in order to investigate the complex relationship between SLE and AIH. All patients had coexisting autoimmune disease in their medical history. At the time of diagnosis of AIH, patients presented with arthralgia, abdominal complaints, cutaneous involvement and fatigue as common symptoms. All patients fulfilled the current diagnostic criteria of both, AIH and SLE. Remission of acute hepatitis was achieved in all cases after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to this case study a literature review was conducted. PMID:25253972

  10. Canonical wnt signaling in dendritic cells regulates th1/th17 responses and suppresses autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Amol; Manoharan, Indumathi; Hong, Yuan; Swafford, Daniel; Majumdar, Tanmay; Taketo, M Mark; Manicassamy, Balaji; Koni, Pandelakis A; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Sun, Zuoming; Mellor, Andrew L; Munn, David H; Manicassamy, Santhakumar

    2015-04-01

    Breakdown in immunological tolerance to self-Ags or uncontrolled inflammation results in autoimmune disorders. Dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in regulating the balance between inflammatory and regulatory responses in the periphery. However, factors in the tissue microenvironment and the signaling networks critical for programming DCs to control chronic inflammation and promote tolerance are unknown. In this study, we show that wnt ligand-mediated activation of ?-catenin signaling in DCs is critical for promoting tolerance and limiting neuroinflammation. DC-specific deletion of key upstream (lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP]5/6) or downstream (?-catenin) mediators of canonical wnt signaling in mice exacerbated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis pathology. Mechanistically, loss of LRP5/6-?-catenin-mediated signaling in DCs led to an increased Th1/Th17 cell differentiation but reduced regulatory T cell response. This was due to increased production of proinflammatory cytokines and decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-27 by DCs lacking LRP5/6-?-catenin signaling. Consistent with these findings, pharmacological activation of canonical wnt/?-catenin signaling delayed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset and diminished CNS pathology. Thus, the activation of canonical wnt signaling in DCs limits effector T cell responses and represents a potential therapeutic approach to control autoimmune neuroinflammation. PMID:25710911

  11. Hot topics in autoimmune diseases: perspectives from the 2013 Asian Congress of Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and possible treatments of autoimmune diseases has significantly increased over the past decade. Nonetheless, numerous major issues remain open and such issues span from epidemiology to clinimetrics and from the role of infectious agents to the search for accurate biomarkers in paradigmatic conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and spondyloarthropathies. In the case of cardiovascular comorbidities of autoimmune diseases or, more generally, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, fascinating evidence points to a central role of autoimmunity and metabolic dysfunctions and a possible role of therapies targeting inflammation to ameliorate both conditions. Basic science and translational medicine contribute to identify common mechanisms that underlie different autoimmune diseases, as in the case of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and more recently vitamin D, autoantibodies, T and B regulatory cells, and microRNA. Finally, new therapies are expected to significantly change our approach to autoimmune diseases, as represented by the recent FDA approval of the first oral JAK inhibitor. The present article moves from the major topics that were discussed at the 2013 Asian Congress of Autoimmunity in Hong Kong to illustrate the most recent data from leading journals in autoimmunity and immunology. PMID:24833503

  12. Autoimmune disease triggered by infection with alphaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Javid P; Mattner, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Despite having long been postulated, compelling evidence for the theory that microbial triggers drive autoimmunity has only recently been reported. A specific association between Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been uncovered in patients with PBC. Notably, the association between Novosphingobium infection and PBC has been confirmed in a mouse model in which infection leads to the development of liver lesions resembling PBC concomitant with the production of anti-PDC-E2 antibodies that cross-react with conserved PDC-E2 epitopes shared by Novosphingobium. The discovery of infectious triggers of autoimmunity is likely to change our current concepts about the etiology of various autoimmune syndromes and may suggest new and simpler ways to diagnose and treat these debilitating diseases. PMID:20161124

  13. Commensal microbiota influence systemic autoimmune responses.

    PubMed

    Van Praet, Jens T; Donovan, Erin; Vanassche, Inge; Drennan, Michael B; Windels, Fien; Dendooven, Amélie; Allais, Liesbeth; Cuvelier, Claude A; van de Loo, Fons; Norris, Paula S; Kruglov, Andrey A; Nedospasov, Sergei A; Rabot, Sylvie; Tito, Raul; Raes, Jeroen; Gaboriau-Routhiau, Valerie; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Van de Wiele, Tom; Eberl, Gérard; Ware, Carl F; Elewaut, Dirk

    2015-02-12

    Antinuclear antibodies are a hallmark feature of generalized autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis. However, the processes underlying the loss of tolerance against nuclear self-constituents remain largely unresolved. Using mice deficient in lymphotoxin and Hox11, we report that approximately 25% of mice lacking secondary lymphoid organs spontaneously develop specific antinuclear antibodies. Interestingly, we find this phenotype is not caused by a defect in central tolerance. Rather, cell-specific deletion and in vivo lymphotoxin blockade link these systemic autoimmune responses to the formation of gut-associated lymphoid tissue in the neonatal period of life. We further demonstrate antinuclear antibody production is influenced by the presence of commensal gut flora, in particular increased colonization with segmented filamentous bacteria, and IL-17 receptor signaling. Together, these data indicate that neonatal colonization of gut microbiota influences generalized autoimmunity in adult life. PMID:25599993

  14. Possible pathomechanism of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Prandota, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The hepatotropic viruses, measles, and herpesviruses as well as different drugs were repeatedly shown to act presumably as a trigger in patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AI-H). On the other hand, it is known that viral infections stimulate interferon production, which inactivates the cytochrome P-450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of several endogenous substances and exogenous environmental agents. Moreover, it was reported that several cytokines, including interferons, as well as transforming growth factor beta1 and human hepatocyte growth factor, which are abundantly produced and released in the body during infections, also downregulated expression of major cytochrome P-450 and/or other biotransformation enzymes. It seems that all these factors, in addition to individual immune response and the nature and amount of the neoantigen(s) produced, impair the equilibrium of bioactivation and detoxication pathways, thus leading to the development of AI-H in a genetically predisposed person continually exposed to harmful environmental factor(s). Possible increased/decreased density of lysine residues at position D-related human leukocyte antigen locus (DR)beta71 of the antigen-binding groove may affect the eventual steroid-sparing effect of this critical amino acid at the cellular level. In addition, some food additives, such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or aspartame regularly consumed in excessive amounts, may eventually disturb the delicate balance between a positively charged amino acid residue at position DRbeta71 (lysine or arginine) and a negatively charged amino acid residue at position P4 on the antigenic peptide (glutamic acid or aspartic acid). This may favor formation of a salt bridge between these amino acid residues within the hypervariable region 3 on the alpha-helix of the DRbeta polypeptide and facilitate autoantigen presentation and CD4 T-helper cell activation. MSG and aspartate may also depress serum concentrations of growth hormone, which downregulate the activity of several cytochrome P-450 hepatic and other drug-metabolizing enzymes, thus increasing sensitivity to some environmental agents and possibly influencing efficacy of treatment regimens and final outcome of patients with type 1 AI-H. PMID:12522521

  15. Autoimmune Myocarditis, Valvulitis, and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer M.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Huber, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease initiated by CD4+ T cells (Smith and Allen 1991; Li, Heuser et al. 2004). It is a paradigm of the immune-mediated cardiac damage believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of postinfectious human cardiomyopathies (Rose, Herskowitz et al. 1993). Myocarditis is induced in susceptible mice by immunization with purified cardiac myosin (Neu, Rose et al. 1987) or specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Donermeyer, Beisel et al. 1995; Pummerer, Luze et al. 1996) (see Basic Protocol 1), or by adoptive transfer of myosin-reactive T cells (Smith and Allen 1991) (see Alternate Protocol). Myocarditis has been induced in Lewis rats by immunization with purified rat or porcine cardiac myosin (Kodama, Matsumoto et al. 1990; Li, Heuser et al. 2004) (see Basic Protocol 2) or S2-16 peptide (Li, Heuser et al. 2004), or by adoptive transfer of T cells stimulated by specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Wegmann, Zhao et al. 1994). Myocarditis begins 12 to 14 days after the first immunization, and is maximal after 21 days. Other animal models commonly used to study myocarditis development include the pathogen-induced models in which disease is initiated by viral infection. The first murine model of acute viral myocarditis causes sudden death via viral damage to cardiomyocytes (Huber, Gauntt et al. 1998; Horwitz, La Cava et al. 2000; Fong 2003; Fuse, Chan et al. 2005; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) whereas the second model is based on inoculation with heart-passaged coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) that includes damaged heart proteins (Fairweather, Frisancho-Kiss et al. 2004; Fairweather D 2004; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) In addition to the protocols used to induce EAM in mice and rats, support protocols are included for preparing purified cardiac myosin using mouse or rat heart tissue (see Support Protocol 1), preparing purified cardiac myosin for injection (see Support Protocol 2), and collecting and assessing hearts by histopathological means (see Support Protocol 3). PMID:23564686

  16. Myasthenia and related disorders of the neuromuscular junction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Spillane; David J Beeson; Dimitri M Kullmann

    2010-01-01

    Our understanding of transmission at the neuromuscular junction has increased greatly in recent years. We now recognise a wide variety of autoimmune and genetic diseases that affect this specialised synapse, causing muscle weakness and fatigue. These disorders greatly affect quality of life and rarely can be fatal. Myasthenia gravis is the most common disorder and is most commonly caused by

  17. AntiInterferon Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Syndrome Type 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Meager; Kumuthini Visvalingam; Pärt Peterson; Kaidi Möll; Astrid Murumägi; Kai Krohn; Petra Eskelin; Jaakko Perheentupa; Eystein Husebye; Yoshihisa Kadota; Nick Willcox

    2006-01-01

    BackgroundThe autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene influences thymic self-tolerance induction. In autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1 (APS1; OMIM 240300), recessive AIRE mutations lead to autoimmunity targetting endocrine and other epithelial tissues, although chronic candidiasis usually appears first. Autoimmunity and chronic candidiasis can associate with thymomas as well. Patients with these tumours frequently also have high titre immunoglobulin G autoantibodies neutralising type

  18. Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Murphy; Amanda Phelps; Markus Braun-Falco

    \\u000a Inflammatory disorders of the skin, including eczematous, psoriasiform, lichenoid-interface, ­autoimmune, and neutrophilic\\u000a dermatoses, probably represent the group of cutaneous diseases in which molecular pathology currently has the least impact\\u000a in daily clinical practice. Many of these diseases are readily diagnosed through the correlation of clinical features with\\u000a histopathological findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H + E)-stained tissue sections. In general,

  19. Requirements for innate immune pathways in environmentally induced autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that environmental triggers in combination with genetic and stochastic factors play an important role in spontaneous autoimmune disease. Although the specific environmental agents and how they promote autoimmunity remain largely unknown, in part because of diverse etiologies, environmentally induced autoimmune models can provide insights into potential mechanisms. Studies of idiopathic and environmentally induced systemic autoimmunity show that they are mediated by common adaptive immune response genes. By contrast, although the innate immune system is indispensable for autoimmunity, there are clear differences in the molecular and cellular innate components that mediate specific systemic autoimmune diseases, suggesting distinct autoimmune-promoting pathways. Some of these differences may be related to the bifurcation of toll-like receptor signaling that distinguishes interferon regulatory factor 7-mediated type I interferon production from nuclear factor-?B-driven proinflammatory cytokine expression. Accordingly, idiopathic and pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity require both type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines whereas the less aggressive mercury-induced autoimmunity, although dependent on nucleic acid-binding toll-like receptors, does not require type I interferon but needs proinflammatory cytokines. Scavenger receptors and the inflammasome may contribute to silica-induced autoimmunity. Greater understanding of the innate mechanisms responsible for idiopathic and environmentally induced autoimmunity should yield new information into the processes that instigate and drive systemic autoimmunity. PMID:23557436

  20. Paraneoplastic syndromes and autoimmune encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Myrna R.; Titulaer, Maarten J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary We review novel findings in paraneoplastic syndromes including the Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, and then focus on the novel disorders associated with antibodies against cell surface antigens, discussing the importance and caveats of antibody testing, and providing an algorithm for interpretation of results. In anti-NMDAR encephalitis 2 novel findings include the recognition of a characteristic EEG pattern (“extreme delta brush”) in 30% of patients and the demonstration of a fronto-temporo-occipital gradient of glucose metabolism that correlates with disease activity. In limbic encephalitis, antibodies to GABA(B) receptor are the most frequently detected in patients with small-cell lung cancer who are anti-Hu negative, and antibodies to mGluR5 distinctively associate with Hodgkin lymphoma (Ophelia syndrome). We also address the syndromes associated with “VGKC-complex antibodies,” a problematic term that groups well-characterized immune-mediated disorders (LGI1, Caspr2) with others that lack syndrome specificity, are less responsive to treatment, and for which the target antigens are unknown. PMID:23634368

  1. Impairment of Regulatory T-Cell Function in Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Glick, Abigail B.; Wodzinski, Alaina; Fu, Pingfu

    2013-01-01

    Background Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) pathogenesis may result from a loss of immune tolerance to thyroid antigens. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) control immune responses, prevent excessive inflammation, and may be dysfunctional in AITD. We investigated the role of Tregs in Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and Graves' disease (GD), complicated by Down syndrome (DS). Our goal was to identify differences in CD4+CD25high Treg function or number in patients with GD and HT, compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Treg number was assessed by flow cytometric analysis in samples from 20 AITD patients (seven GD, 13 HT), nine HC, and seven individuals with DS, a genetic disorder associated with multiple autoimmune disorders including AITD. Treg function was assessed by the inhibition of proliferation (radioactive thymidine incorporation into DNA) of blood-derived T effector (Teff) cells by Tregs in a coculture. Various methods of stimulation were contrasted. Cytokine levels were determined in conditioned media from the co-cultures. Results No differences were found in the frequency of Tregs as a percentage of CD4+ cells between AITD and HC. AITD Tregs were less capable of inhibiting the proliferation of Teff cells when compared to HC; however, the impairment was dependent on the type of stimulation used. DS patients without AITD exhibited normal Treg function. We observed few differences in cytokine production between HC and AITD patients. Conclusions Tregs from AITD patients are partly dysfunctional, possibly explaining their autoimmunity. Future work will elucidate the diagnostic potential and pathophysiology of Tregs in AITD. PMID:23379353

  2. Breaking peripheral immune tolerance to CNS antigens in neurodegenerative diseases: boosting autoimmunity to fight-off chronic neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Baruch, Kuti

    2014-11-01

    Immune cell infiltration to the brain's territory was considered for decades to reflect a pathological process in which immune cells attack the central nervous system (CNS); such a process is observed in the inflammatory autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). As neuroinflammatory processes within the CNS parenchyma are also common to other CNS pathologies, regardless of their etiology, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), these pathologies have often been compared to MS, a disease that benefits from immunosuppressive therapy. Yet, over the last decade, it became clear that autoimmunity has a bright side, and that it plays a pivotal role in CNS repair following damage. Specifically, autoimmune T cells were found to facilitate CNS healing processes, such as in the case of sterile mechanical injuries to the brain or the spinal cord, mental stress, or biochemical insults. Even more intriguingly, autoimmune T cells were found to be involved in supporting fundamental processes of brain functional integrity, such as in the maintenance of life-long brain plasticity, including spatial learning and memory, and neurogenesis. Importantly, autoimmune T cells are part of a cellular network which, to operate efficiently and safely, requires tight regulation by other immune cell populations, such as regulatory T cells, which are indispensable for maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Here, we suggest that dysregulation of the balance between peripheral immune suppression, on one hand, and protective autoimmunity, on the other, is an underlying mechanism in the emergence and progression of the neuroinflammatory response associated with chronic neurodegenerative diseases and brain aging. Mitigating chronic neuroinflammation under these conditions necessitates activation, rather than suppression, of the peripheral immune response directed against self. Accordingly, we propose that fighting off acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions requires breaking peripheral immune tolerance to CNS self-antigens, in order to boost protective autoimmunity. Nevertheless, the optimal approach to fine tune such immune response must be individually explored for each condition. PMID:25199710

  3. Autoimmune Aspects of Depigmentation in Vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Caroline Le poole; Anna Wañkowicz-kaliñska; Rene MJGJ. Van den wijngaard; Brian J. Nickoloff; Pranab K. Das

    2004-01-01

    Autoimmune depigmentation of the skin, vitiligo, afflicts a considerable number of people, yet no effective therapeutic modalities have been developed to treat it. In part, this can be attributed to the obscure etiology of the disease, which has begun to reveal itself only recently. It is known that pigment is lost as a function of reduced melanocyte numbers in the

  4. Chagas Disease Etiology: Autoimmunity or Parasite Persistence?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Tarleton; L. Zhang

    1999-01-01

    The question of the cause and the mechanisms of disease in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infection continues to attract debate. Chagas disease, characterized by cardiomyopathy and\\/or megasyndrome involving the esophagus or colon, occurs in ?30% of individuals with chronic T. cruzi infections. Although the pathogenesis of Chagas disease is often attributed to autoimmune mechanisms, definitive proof of anti-self responses as the

  5. Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michal Harel-Meir; Yaniv Sherer; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Tobacco smoking has been linked to the development of rheumatic diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been shown to interact with genetic factors to create a significant combined risk of disease. Smoking also affects both the course and the outcome of rheumatic

  6. Behavioral aspects of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yehuda Pollak; Haim Ovadia; Inbal Goshen; Ronnie Gurevich; Keren Monsa; Ronit Avitsur; Raz Yirmiya

    2000-01-01

    Acute inflammation is known to induce a depressive-like sickness behavior syndrome in humans and in experimental animals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether a chronic neuroautoimmune inflammation is also associated with a similar behavioral syndrome. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in SJL\\/J female mice by adoptive transfer of lymph node cells, and sickness behavior symptoms, including

  7. Autism and Autoimmune Disease: A Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Described in a family in which the youngest boy has early infantile autism, Addison's disease, and moniliasis and two older boys have autoimmune disease with hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, moniliasis, and either alopecia totalis or diabetes mellitus, while the oldest boy and parents are symptom free. (KW)

  8. Metabolic Regulation in Progression to Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Sysi-Aho, Marko; Ermolov, Andrey; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti V.; Tripathi, Abhishek; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Maukonen, Johanna; Mattila, Ismo; Ruohonen, Suvi T.; Vähätalo, Laura; Yetukuri, Laxman; Härkönen, Taina; Lindfors, Erno; Nikkilä, Janne; Ilonen, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Saarela, Maria; Knip, Mikael; Kaski, Samuel; Savontaus, Eriika; Oreši?, Matej

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence from serum metabolomics indicates that specific metabolic disturbances precede ?-cell autoimmunity in humans and can be used to identify those children who subsequently progress to type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms behind these disturbances are unknown. Here we show the specificity of the pre-autoimmune metabolic changes, as indicated by their conservation in a murine model of type 1 diabetes. We performed a study in non-obese prediabetic (NOD) mice which recapitulated the design of the human study and derived the metabolic states from longitudinal lipidomics data. We show that female NOD mice who later progress to autoimmune diabetes exhibit the same lipidomic pattern as prediabetic children. These metabolic changes are accompanied by enhanced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, normoglycemia, upregulation of insulinotropic amino acids in islets, elevated plasma leptin and adiponectin, and diminished gut microbial diversity of the Clostridium leptum group. Together, the findings indicate that autoimmune diabetes is preceded by a state of increased metabolic demands on the islets resulting in elevated insulin secretion and suggest alternative metabolic related pathways as therapeutic targets to prevent diabetes. PMID:22046124

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Toward defining the autoimmune microbiome

    E-print Network

    Casella, George

    U N C O R R EC TED PR O O F ORIGINAL ARTICLE Toward defining the autoimmune microbiome for type 1, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Several studies have shown that gut bacteria that support the notion that, as healthy infants approach the toddler stage, their microbiomes become healthier

  10. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

  11. The HLA-G low expressor genotype confers protection against Bipolar Disorder

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 The HLA-G low expressor genotype confers protection against Bipolar Disorder Monojit Debnath 1 processes such as inflammation and autoimmunity in bipolar disorder (BD) has recently gained increasing2013 #12;3 Key words Bipolar disorders HLA-G Polymorphism Immune modulation Seasonality of birth inserm

  12. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2: a rare condition in childhood.

    PubMed

    K?rm?z?bekmez, Heves; Ye?iltepe Mutlu, Rahime Gül; Demirk?ran Urganc?, Nafiye; Öner, Ay?e

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 is defined as the occurrence of Addison's disease concomitantly with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. An 11-year-old boy with Hashimoto's disease, Addison's disease, celiac disease and Langerhans islet cell autoimmunity is described in this case report. Treatment of an endocrine disease may also trigger the onset of another endocrine disease. This case report underlines the importance of early recognition and treatment of critical endocrine diseases as well as the necessity to investigate pediatric patients with autoimmune diseases for coexisting conditions. Furthermore, the role of psychological stress as an inducer of autoimmunity was also discussed. PMID:25800482

  13. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-?- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I?:?C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. PMID:24666275

  14. Phosphorylation of IRF4 by ROCK2 regulates IL-17 and IL-21 production and the development of autoimmunity in mice

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Partha S.; Gupta, Sanjay; Chang, Emily; Song, Li; Stirzaker, Roslynn A.; Liao, James K.; Bhagat, Govind; Pernis, Alessandra B.

    2010-01-01

    Deregulated production of IL-17 and IL-21 plays a key pathogenic role in many autoimmune disorders. A delineation of the mechanisms that underlie the inappropriate synthesis of IL-17 and IL-21 in autoimmune diseases can thus provide important insights into potential therapies for these disorders. Here we have shown that the serine-threonine kinase Rho-associated, coiled-coil–containing protein kinase 2 (ROCK2) becomes activated in mouse T cells under Th17 skewing conditions and phosphorylates interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4), a transcription factor that is absolutely required for the production of IL-17 and IL-21. We furthermore demonstrated that ROCK2-mediated phosphorylation of IRF4 regulated the synthesis of IL-17 and IL-21 and the differentiation of Th17 cells. Whereas CD4+ T cells from WT mice activated ROCK2 physiologically under Th17 conditions, CD4+ T cells from 2 different mouse models of spontaneous autoimmunity aberrantly activated ROCK2 under neutral conditions. Moreover, administration of ROCK inhibitors ameliorated the deregulated production of IL-17 and IL-21 and the inflammatory and autoantibody responses observed in these autoimmune mice. Our findings thus uncover a crucial link among ROCK2, IRF4, and the production of IL-17 and IL-21 and support the idea that selective inhibition of ROCK2 could represent an important therapeutic regimen for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:20697158

  15. Prenatal immunotoxicant exposure and postnatal autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Holladay, S D

    1999-01-01

    Reports in humans and rodents indicate that immune development may be altered following perinatal exposure to immunotoxic compounds, including chemotherapeutics, corticosteroids, polycyclic hydrocarbons, and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Effects from such exposure may be more dramatic or persistent than following exposure during adult life. For example, prenatal exposure to the insecticide chlordane or to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[(italic)a(/italic)]pyrene produces what appears to be lifelong immunosuppression in mice. Whether prenatal immunotoxicant exposure may predispose the organism to postnatal autoimmune disease remains largely unknown. In this regard, the therapeutic immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (CsA) crosses the placenta poorly. However, lethally irradiated rodents exposed to CsA postsyngeneic bone marrow transplant (i.e., during re-establishment of the immune system) develop T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting this drug may produce a fundamental disruption in development of self-tolerance by T cells. The environmental contaminant 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-(italic)p(/italic)-dioxin (TCDD) crosses the placenta and produces fetal thymic effects (italic)in vivo(/italic) similar to effects of CsA in fetal thymic organ culture, including inhibited thymocyte maturation and reduced expression of thymic major histocompatability complex class II molecules. These observations led to the suggestion that gestational exposure to TCDD may interfere with normal development of self-tolerance. Possibly supporting this hypothesis, when mice predisposed to development of autoimmune disease were treated with TCDD during gestation, postnatal autoimmunity was exacerbated. Similar results have been reported for mice exposed to diethylstilbestrol during development. These reports suggest that prenatal exposure to certain immunotoxicants may play a role in postnatal expression of autoimmunity. PMID:10502532

  16. AUTOIMMUNE STIFF PERSON SYNDROME AND RELATED MYELOPATHIES: UNDERSTANDING OF ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL PROCESSES

    PubMed Central

    Rakocevic, Goran; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2011-01-01

    Stiff Person Syndrome (SPS) is a disabling autoimmune CNS disorder characterized by progressive muscle rigidity and gait impairment with superimposed painful spasms that involve axial and limb musculature, triggered by heightened sensitivity to external stimuli. Impaired synaptic GABAergic inhibition resulting from intrathecal B-cell-mediated clonal synthesis of autoantibodies against various presynaptic and synaptic proteins in the inhibitory neurons of the brain and spinal cord is believed to be an underlying pathogenic mechanism. SPS is most often idiopathic, but it can occur as a paraneoplastic condition. Despite evidence that anti-GAD and related autoantibodies impair GABA synthesis, the exact pathogenic mechanism of SPS is not fully elucidated. The strong association with several MHC-II alleles and improvement of symptoms with immune-modulating therapies support an autoimmune etiology of SPS. In this review, we discuss the clinical spectrum, neurophysiological mechanisms, and therapeutic options, including a rationale for agents that modulate B cell function in SPS. PMID:22499087

  17. Molecular specificity and functional properties of autoreactive T-cell response in human gastric autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    D'Elios, Mario M; Amedei, Amedeo; Azzurri, Annalisa; Benagiano, Marisa; Del Prete, Gianfranco; Bergman, Mathijs P; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M; Appelmelk, Ben J

    2005-01-01

    Human autoimmune gastritis (AIG) is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the gastric corpus. We have defined the antigen repertoire and the functional properties of in vivo activated CD4+ T cells derived from the gastric mucosa of patients with AIG. A remarkable proportion of the CD4+ T cell clones proliferated in response to H+,K+-ATPase. Six epitopes identified in the alpha chain, and 5 in the beta chain, of gastric K+,K+-ATPase were recognized by autoreactive gastric T cell clones. The majority of the autoreactive T cell clones secreted IFN-gamma and showed a T helper 1 (Th1) profile. All clones produced TNF-alpha,provided help for B cell immunoglobulin production, expressed perforin-mediated cytotoxicity, and most induced Fas-Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis. Data suggest that activation of gastric H+,K+-ATPase-specific Th1 T cells is crucial in the pathogenesis of human gastric autoimmunity and atrophy. PMID:15763992

  18. Candidate gene discovery in autoimmunity by using extreme phenotypes, next generation sequencing and whole exome capture.

    PubMed

    Johar, Angad S; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Andrews, Dan; Patel, Hardip R; Field, Matthew; Goodnow, Chris; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a widely used strategy for detection of protein coding and splicing variants associated with inherited diseases. Many studies have shown that the strategy has been broad and proficient due to its ability in detecting a high proportion of disease causing variants, using only a small portion of the genome. In this review we outline the main steps involved in WES, the comprehensive analysis of the massive data obtained including the genomic capture, amplification, sequencing, alignment, curating, filtering and genetic analysis to determine the presence of candidate variants with potential pathogenic/functional effect. Further, we propose that the multiple autoimmune syndrome, an extreme phenotype of autoimmune disorders, is a very well suited trait to tackle genomic variants of major effect underpinning the lost of self-tolerance. PMID:25447288

  19. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: clinical utility in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Snyder, Melissa R

    2015-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production is amplified in several autoimmune disorders. In the 1990s, it became a validated therapeutic target used for the treatment of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Biologic drugs targeting TNF include engineered monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Currently, there are 5 Food and Drug Administration-approved TNF inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab), representing close to $20 billion in sales. Clinical trials remain open to test their efficacy and safety compared with one another, as well as to measure clinical outcomes in different conditions and patient populations. The industry is also eager to develop biotherapeutics that are similar but cheaper than the currently existing biologics or are safer with higher efficacy; these are the so-called "biosimilars." Clinical utility of TNF inhibitors and indications of mono- or combined therapy with immunomodulators are reviewed here. Pharmacokinetics of the TNF inhibitors is affected by routes of administration, clearance mechanisms of immunoglobulins, and immunogenicity. Finally, strategies for management of treatment efficacy and increasing evidence for monitoring of serum concentration of TNF inhibitors are discussed, assessing for the presence of the antidrug antibodies and the different analytical methods available for laboratory testing. As clinical applications of the TNF inhibitors expand, and other classes join the revolution in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders, therapeutic drug monitoring of biologics will become increasingly important, with the potential to dramatically improve patient care and management. PMID:25305470

  20. Anxiety Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Loebach Wetherell; Ariel J. Lang; Murray B. Stein

    The psychiatric disorders that are designated as anxiety disorders include the specific diagnoses of panic disorder with and\\u000a without agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, specific phobia, social phobia, obsessive-compulsive disorder\\u000a (OCD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), acute stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), anxiety disorder due\\u000a to a general medical condition, substance-induced anxiety disorder, and anxiety disorder not otherwise

  1. SAMHD1 prevents autoimmunity by maintaining genome stability

    PubMed Central

    Kretschmer, Stefanie; Wolf, Christine; König, Nadja; Staroske, Wolfgang; Guck, Jochen; Häusler, Martin; Luksch, Hella; Nguyen, Laura A; Kim, Baek; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Dahl, Andreas; Rapp, Alexander; Cardoso, M Cristina; Shevchenko, Anna; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The HIV restriction factor, SAMHD1 (SAM domain and HD domain-containing protein 1), is a triphosphohydrolase that degrades deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs). Mutations in SAMHD1 cause Aicardi–Goutières syndrome (AGS), an inflammatory disorder that shares phenotypic similarity with systemic lupus erythematosus, including activation of antiviral type 1 interferon (IFN). To further define the pathomechanisms underlying autoimmunity in AGS due to SAMHD1 mutations, we investigated the physiological properties of SAMHD1. Methods Primary patient fibroblasts were examined for dNTP levels, proliferation, senescence, cell cycle progression and DNA damage. Genome-wide transcriptional profiles were generated by RNA sequencing. Interaction of SAMHD1 with cyclin A was assessed by coimmunoprecipitation and fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy. Cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation of SAMHD1 was examined in synchronised HeLa cells and using recombinant SAMHD1. SAMHD1 was knocked down by RNA interference. Results We show that increased dNTP pools due to SAMHD1 deficiency cause genome instability in fibroblasts of patients with AGS. Constitutive DNA damage signalling is associated with cell cycle delay, cellular senescence, and upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. SAMHD1 is phosphorylated by cyclin A/cyclin-dependent kinase 1 in a cell cycle-dependent manner, and its level fluctuates during the cell cycle, with the lowest levels observed in G1/S phase. Knockdown of SAMHD1 by RNA interference recapitulates activation of DNA damage signalling and type 1 IFN activation. Conclusions SAMHD1 is required for genome integrity by maintaining balanced dNTP pools. dNTP imbalances due to SAMHD1 deficiency cause DNA damage, leading to intrinsic activation of IFN signalling. These findings establish a novel link between DNA damage signalling and innate immune activation in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. PMID:24445253

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with Malaria.

    PubMed

    Sonani, Rajesh; Bhatnagar, Nidhi; Maitrey, Gajjar

    2013-07-01

    Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA), a very infrequent condition which represents a group of disorders in which presence of autoantibodies directed against self-antigens leads to shortened red cell survival. Till date, a very few cases of AIHA in Malaria patients are reported worldwide but still AIHA should be considered a relatively rare cause of anemia in malaria. A 20 year male presented with intermittent fever since seven days and yellowish discoloration of urine and sclera since 5 days. He was transfused three units of blood at a private clinic before one month. On examination, pallor, icterus and spelnomegaly were present. Hemoglobin (Hb) was 3.2 gm% and peripheral smear revealed ring forms of both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Serum LDH and Serum billirubin (Indirect and Direct) were high. This patient's blood group was B +ve with positive autocontrol. Indirect Antiglobulin Test (IAT), antibody screening and antibody identification were pan-positive with reaction strength of +4 against each cell. Direct Antiglobulin Test was +4 positive anti IgG and negative with anti C3. He was treated with Artesunate and methylprednisone. Least incompatible, saline washed O Neg and B neg red cells were transfused on the 2(nd) day of starting treatment. Hb was raised to 6.1 gm% on 4(th) day. Patient was discharged on 9th day with Hb 7.0 gm% with oral tapering dose of steroids. In the above case, patient was suffering from high grade malarial parasitemia with co-existing autoimmune RBC destruction by IgG auto-antibodies which led to sudden drop in Hb and rise in serum LDH and indirect billirubin. Least incompatible packed red cells along with antimalarials and steroids led to clinical improvement. So far, one case report each from India, Korea, Canada and Germany and one case series report of three cases from India have been reported. Under-reporting or rarity of this phenomenon may be accountable for this. PMID:24014948

  4. Epilepsy-related psychosis: a role for autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Pollak, T A; Nicholson, T R; Mellers, J D C; Vincent, A; David, A S

    2014-07-01

    Postictal psychosis (PIP) is a serious psychiatric complication of epilepsy that occurs in approximately 6% of patients following multiple complex partial or generalized seizures. The psychosis is classically described as having a pleomorphic phenomenology, including paranoid, grandiose, and religious delusions as well as multimodal hallucinations with prominent affective changes and agitation. Little is understood about the pathophysiology of the condition. There has been a recent increase in interest in the relevance of autoimmunity to the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and psychosis. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies directed against synaptic autoantigens (such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor or the voltage-gated potassium channel complex) in approximately 10% of cases of sporadic epilepsy. These same autoantibodies are known to cause encephalopathy syndromes which feature psychiatric symptoms, usually psychosis, as a prominent part of the phenotype as well as other neurological features such as seizures, movement disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. It is beginning to be asked if these antibodies can be associated with a purely psychiatric phenotype. Here, we hypothesize that PIP may be an autoimmune phenomenon mediated by autoantibodies against synaptic antigens. More specifically, we outline a potential mechanism whereby long or repeated seizures cause short-lived blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction during which the brain becomes exposed to pathogenic autoantibodies. In essence, we propose that PIP is a time-limited, seizure-dependent, autoantibody-mediated encephalopathy syndrome. We highlight a number of features of PIP that may be explained by this mechanism, such as the lucid interval between seizures and onset of psychosis and the progression in some cases to a chronic, interictal psychosis. PMID:24840753

  5. Neurological Disorders in Primary Sjögren's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tobón, Gabriel J.; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie; Youinou, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by an autoimmune exocrinopathy involving mainly salivary and lacrimal glands. The histopathological hallmark is periductal lymphocytic infiltration of the exocrine glands, resulting in loss of their secretory function. Several systemic manifestations may be found in patients with Sjögren's syndrome including neurological disorders. Neurological involvement ranges from 0 to 70% among various series and may present with central nervous system and/or peripheral nervous system involvement. This paper endeavors to review the main clinical neurological manifestations in Sjögren syndrome, the physiopathology, and their therapeutic response. PMID:22474573

  6. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions called depressive disorders. Depressive disorders affect the way a ... for doctors to diagnose. Back Continue What Causes Bipolar Disorder? Doctors and scientists don't know the ...

  7. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lymphocytic Leukocytosis Monocyte Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Basophilic Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Blood Disorders > White Blood Cell Disorders ...

  8. Eating Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > Body Image > Eating disorders Body Image Eating disorders About eating disorders Over-exercising More information on eating disorders About eating disorders "Mirror, Mirror on the wall...who's the thinnest ...

  9. The recognition and treatment of autoimmune epilepsy in children.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Jehan; Dale, Russell C

    2015-05-01

    There is emerging interest in autoimmune epilepsy, which represents a small but potentially treatable form of epilepsy. Most insights into autoimmune epilepsy derive from the recent descriptions of autoimmune encephalitis that takes two general forms: a focal encephalitis (such as limbic) or a diffuse encephalitis (such as anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor [NMDAR] encephalitis). The features of autoimmune epilepsy include acute or subacute onset of seizures, usually in the context of encephalopathy, and inflammation of the central nervous system on testing cerebrospinal fluid or magnetic resonance imaging. Neuronal antibodies associated with autoimmune encephalitis and seizures in children include NMDAR, voltage-gated potassium channel complex, glycine receptor, ?-Aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R), ?-Aminobutyric acid type B receptor (GABAB R), and glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. These antibodies support the diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy, but are not essential for diagnosis. When autoimmune epilepsy is suspected, first-line immune therapy with corticosteroids in addition to intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange should be considered. Second-line therapy with rituximab or cyclophosphamide can be considered if the syndrome is severe. A response to immune therapy supports the diagnosis of autoimmune epilepsy. Neuronal antibodies are increasingly found in patients with focal epilepsy of unknown cause who do not have 'encephalitis'. Recent epidemiological studies support the link between epilepsy and autoimmune diseases. Future studies need to define the spectrum of autoimmune epilepsy and focus on early identification and treatment. PMID:25483277

  10. Autoimmunity in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Johnson, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension affects more than one-third of the adult population of the world. However, the cause of high blood pressure is unknown in the vast majority of patients, classified as patients with essential hypertension. Evidence accumulated over the past decade supports the participation of inflammation in the development of experimental hypertension. Investigations have also demonstrated that immune reactivity to overexpressed heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is involved in the pathogenesis of salt-induced hypertension. This article reviews, first, the role of T cell-induced inflammation in the arteries, kidney and central nervous system in hypertension and the amelioration of hypertension induced by regulatory T cells. Second, experiments showing that autoimmunity directed to HSP70 in the kidney impairs the pressure natriuresis relationship and has a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of salt sensitive hypertension. Finally, we highlight the clinical evidence that supports the participation of autoimmunity in essential hypertension. PMID:24247285

  11. Autoimmunity vs. cancer: predator vs. alien?

    PubMed

    Berens, Christian; Lauber, Kirsten; Herrmann, Martin

    2013-08-01

    "The enemy of my enemy is my friend." According to this motto, the human protagonists in Paul W. S. Anderson's science-fiction movie "Alien vs. Predator" (2004) solidarize with a predator in order to fight the aliens. Can this ancient and simple logic be transferred to the field of oncology and cancer immunotherapy? Can we utilize mechanisms known from the context of autoimmunity to fight cancer? Here, we summarize immune cell-mediated detection of danger and damage, central and peripheral tolerance, immunoregulation and immune privilege--processes known to be deregulated in the context of autoimmunity. We discuss them with special regard towards their misusage by tumors and pathogens and how they might be instrumentalized in the context of anti-cancer immunotherapy. PMID:23706137

  12. Th17 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently published studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have demonstrated an association between the development of demyelinating plaques and the accumulation of Th17 cells in the central nervous system and periphery. However, a causal relationship has been difficult to establish. In fact, in reports published thus far, interleukin (IL)-17A deficiency or neutralization in vivo attenuates, but does not completely abrogate, EAE. There is growing evidence that clinically similar forms of autoimmune demyelinating disease can be driven by myelin-specific T cells of distinct lineages with different degrees of dependence on IL-17A production to achieve their pathological effects. While such observations cast doubts about the potential therapeutic efficacy of Th17 blocking agents in MS, the collective data suggest that IL-17A expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells could serve as a surrogate biomarker of neuroinflammation and plaque formation and be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials. PMID:20195867

  13. Cancer and autoimmunity: autoimmune and rheumatic features in patients with malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Shakra, M; Buskila, D; Ehrenfeld, M; Conrad, K; Shoenfeld, Y

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To review the autoimmune and rheumatic manifestations of patients with malignancy.?METHODS—A Medline search of all published papers using keywords related to malignancies, autoimmunity, rheumatic diseases, and paraneoplastic syndromes.?RESULTS—Patients with malignant diseases may develop autoimmune phenomena and rheumatic diseases as a result of (a) generation of autoantibodies against various autoantigens, including oncoproteins (P185, 1-myc, c-myc, c-myb), tumour suppression genes (P53), proliferation associated antigens (cyclin A, B1, D1, E; CENP-F; CDK, U3-RNP), onconeural antigens (Hu, Yo, Ri, Tr), cancer/testis antigens (MAGE, GAGE, BAGE, SSX, ESO, SCP, CT7), and rheumatic disease associated antigens (RNP, Sm). The clinical significance of the various autoantibodies is not clear. Anti-oncoprotein and anti-tumour suppression gene antigens are detected before the diagnosis of the cancer or in the early stages of the malignant disease, suggesting a potential diagnostic or prognostic role. Anti-onconeural antibodies are pathogenic and are associated with specific clinical neurological syndromes (anti-Hu syndrome and others). (b) Paraneoplastic syndromes, a wide range of clinical syndromes, including classic autoimmune rheumatic diseases that develop among patients with cancer. (c) Rheumatism after chemotherapy, a clinical entity characterised by the development of musculoskeletal symptoms after combination chemotherapy for malignancy.?CONCLUSION—Autoimmune and rheumatic features are not rare among patients with malignancies. They are the result of various diverse mechanisms and occasionally they may be associated with serious clinical entities.?? PMID:11302861

  14. Primary biliary cirrhosis - autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome associated with dermatomyositis, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pamfil, Cristina; Candrea, Elisabeta; Berki, Emese; Popov, Horatiu I; Radu, Pompilia I; Rednic, Simona

    2015-03-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases may be associated with extrahepatic autoimmune pathology. We report the case of a 52-year old woman who initially presented to the gastroenterology department for extreme fatigue, pale stools, dark urine and pruritus. Laboratory tests showed significant cholestasis and elevation of aminotransferase levels. Immunological tests revealed positive antinuclear (ANA=1:320) and antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA=1:40) with negative anti-smooth muscle and liver kidney microsomal type 1 antibodies. The biopsy was compatible with overlap syndrome type 1. The patient was commenced on immunosuppressive therapy according to standard of care (azathioprine 50mg, ursodeoxycholic acid and prednisone 0.5mg/kg), with moderate biochemical improvement. She subsequently developed proximal symmetrical weakness and cutaneous involvement and was diagnosed with biopsy-proven dermatomyositis. The immunosuppressive regimen was intensified to 150 mg azathioprine. At the three-month follow-up, her symptoms subsided and aminotransferases and muscle enzymes normalized. Upon further investigation the patient was diagnosed with autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case of primary biliary cirrhosis - autoimmune hepatitis overlap syndrome associated with dermatomyositis, autoimmune thyroiditis and antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:25822440

  15. Natural regulatory T cells in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lourenço, Elaine V.; La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The suppressive/immunomodulatory function of CD4+CD25+Foxp+ regulatory T (Treg) cells is crucial for the maintenance of immune homeostasis, which helps to prevent autoimmunity and reduce the inflammation induced by pathogens and environmental insults. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the types and mechanisms of action of Treg cells and their role in the immune tolerance to self antigens, with a particular focus on naturally occurring Treg cells. PMID:21091291

  16. Self, Nonself and the Paradoxes of Autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert S. Root-Bernstein

    \\u000a It is difficult to know where to begin an essay on the problem of immunological discrimination between “self” and “nonself”\\u000a and the paradoxes created for this discrimination by the phenomenon of autoimmunity. As Sherlock Holmes once commented, “These\\u000a are much deeper waters than I had thought.” [1] Much of my subject is mysterious not only to me but apparently to

  17. IgA deficiency and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Karmtej; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-02-01

    IgA is the most abundant immunoglobulin in the human body, and performs a very specialized role which involves mucosal immunity, development of tolerance and protection against infection. IgA is the key immunoglobulin in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, which provide the most intimate interface between the environment and self. Normal levels of IgA are based on early studies consisting of only small numbers of patients. The international consensus definition of IgA deficiency is a level of 0.07g/l after the age of four years in the absence of IgG and IgM deficiencies. The epidemiology of IgA deficiency reveals interesting variances between geographical regions - the incidence in Caucasians being much higher than that in Asians. IgA deficiency has also been found to co-exist with autoimmune diseases, allergies and malignancies. The association with autoimmunity is particularly interesting because it suggests a common genetic linkage that could potentially also explain the diversity in geoepidemiology. Both MHC and non-MHC associations have been described and the 8.1 haplotype has been significantly associated with autoimmunity in IgA deficiency patients over controls. Non-MHC genetic associations include IFIH1 and CLEC16A. The mutations leading to IgA deficiency have not been defined, but in some cases of IgA deficiency it has been suggested that the pathogenesis involves a failure in switched memory B cells that can lead to this cohort experiencing an increased incidence of recurrent bacterial infections or autoimmune diseases. Attempts to investigate the role of cytokines that can induce IgA synthesis in cells of patients with IgA deficiency, such as IL21 or the combination of CD40L/anti-CD40, IL-4 and IL10, are underway. PMID:24157629

  18. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  19. Sirtuin 1 in immune regulation and autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinyi Kong; Michael W McBurney; Deyu Fang; D Fang

    2012-01-01

    The NAD-dependent histone deacetylase sirtuin (Sirt)1 is implicated in a wide variety of physiological processes, ranging from tumorigenesis to mitochondrial biogenesis to neuronal development. Recent studies indicate that Sirt1 is a critical regulator of both the innate and adaptive immune response in mice and its altered functions are likely involved in autoimmune diseases. Small molecules that modulate Sirt1 functions are

  20. Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Stephen D.; Karpus, William J.; Davidson, Todd Scott

    2010-01-01

    This unit details the materials and methods required for both active induction and adoptive transfer of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the SJL mouse strain using intact proteins or peptides from the two major myelin proteins: proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin basic protein (MBP). Detailed materials and methods required for the purification of both PLP and MBP are also described. Modifications of the specified protocols may be necessary for efficient induction of active or adoptive EAE in other mouse strains. PMID:18432984

  1. Targeting the Fc receptor in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinrui; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Fc receptors and their interaction with immunoglobulin and innate immune opsonins such as CRP are key players in humoral and cellular immune responses. As the effector mechanism for some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and often a contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmunity, FcRs are promising targets for treating autoimmune diseases. Areas covered This review discusses the nature of different Fc receptors and the various mechanisms of their involvement in initiating and modulating immunocyte functions and their biological consequences. It describes a range of current strategies in targeting Fc receptors and manipulating their interaction with specific ligands while presenting the pros and cons of these approaches. This review also discusses potential new strategies including regulation of FcR expression and receptor cross-talk. Expert opinion Fc receptors are appealing targets in the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, there are still knowledge limitations and technical challenges, the most important being a better understanding of the individual roles of each of the Fc receptors and enhancement of the specificity in targeting particular cell types and specific Fc receptors. PMID:24521454

  2. Avian models with spontaneous autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Georg; Andersson, Leif; Hala, Karel; Gershwin, M. Eric; Selmi, Carlo F.; Erf, Gisela F.; Lamont, Susan J.; Sgonc, Roswitha

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases in human patients only become clinically manifest when the disease process has developed to a stage where functional compensation by the afflicted organ or system is not possible any more. In order to understand the initial etiologic and pathogenic events that are generally not yet accessible in humans, appropriate animal models are required. In this respect, spontaneously developing models - albeit rare – reflect the situation in humans much more closely than experimentally induced models, including knockout and transgenic mice. The present review describes three spontaneous chicken models for human autoimmune diseases, the Obese strain (OS) with a Hashimoto-like autoimmune thyroiditis, the University of California at Davis lines 200 and 206 (UCD-200 and 206) with a scleroderma-like disease and the amelanotic Smyth line with a vitiligo-like syndrome (SLV). Special emphasis is given to the new opportunities to unravel the genetic basis of these diseases in view of the recently completed sequencing of the chicken genome. PMID:17145302

  3. Lupus autoimmunity altered by cellular methylation metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mei-Ling; Gee, Alaric J P; Gee, Renelle J; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I; Khare, Shilpi; Clarke, Steven G; Mamula, Mark J

    2013-02-01

    Modifications of both DNA and protein by methylation are key factors in normal T and B cell immune responses as well as in the development of autoimmune disease. For example, the failure to maintain the methylation status of CpG dinucleotides in DNA triggers T cell autoreactivity. Methylated proteins are known targets of autoimmunity, including the symmetrical dimethylarginine residues of SmD1 and SmD3 in SLE. Herein, we demonstrate that altering the metabolism of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the major methyl donor for transmethylation reactions, can suppress T cell immunity. A by-product of SAM metabolism, 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine (MTA), and an indirect inhibitor of methyltransferases, inhibits T cell responses including T cell activation markers, Th1/Th2 cytokines and TCR-related signaling events. Moreover, treatment of the lupus-prone MRL/lpr mouse with MTA markedly ameliorates splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, autoantibody titers as well as IgG deposition and cellular infiltration in the kidney. Incubation of cells with SAM, which increases intracellular MTA levels, inhibits both TCR-mediated T cell proliferation and BCR (anti-IgM)-triggered B cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies define the central role of MTA and SAM in immune responses and provide a simple approach to altering lymphocyte transmethylation and T cell mediated autoimmune syndromes. PMID:23039363

  4. The Dopaminergic System in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Rodrigo; Contreras, Francisco; Zouali, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Bidirectional interactions between the immune and the nervous systems are of considerable interest both for deciphering their functioning and for designing novel therapeutic strategies. The past decade has brought a burst of insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in neuroimmune communications mediated by dopamine. Studies of dendritic cells (DCs) revealed that they express the whole machinery to synthesize and store dopamine, which may act in an autocrine manner to stimulate dopamine receptors (DARs). Depending on specific DARs stimulated on DCs and T cells, dopamine may differentially favor CD4+ T cell differentiation into Th1 or Th17 inflammatory cells. Regulatory T cells can also release high amounts of dopamine that acts in an autocrine DAR-mediated manner to inhibit their suppressive activity. These dopaminergic regulations could represent a driving force during autoimmunity. Indeed, dopamine levels are altered in the brain of mouse models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and lupus, and in inflamed tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The distorted expression of DARs in peripheral lymphocytes of lupus and MS patients also supports the importance of dopaminergic regulations in autoimmunity. Moreover, dopamine analogs had beneficial therapeutic effects in animal models, and in patients with lupus or RA. We propose models that may underlie key roles of dopamine and its receptors in autoimmune diseases. PMID:24711809

  5. Immunotherapy Treatments of Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wangang

    2013-01-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA) is one of four clinical types of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA), with the characteristics of autoantibodies maximally active at body temperature. It produces a variable anemia—sometimes mild and sometimes severe. With respect to the absence or presence of an underlying condition, WAIHA is either idiopathic (primary) or secondary, which determines the treatment strategies in practice. Conventional treatments include immune suppression with corticosteroids and, in some cases, splenectomy. In recent years, the number of clinical studies with monoclonal antibodies and immunosuppressants in the treatment of WAIHA increased as the knowledge of autoimmunity mechanisms extended. This thread of developing new tools of treating WAIHA is well exemplified with the success in using anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, Rituximab. Following this success, other treatment methods based on the immune mechanisms of WAIHA have emerged. We reviewed these newly developed immunotherapy treatments here in order to provide the clinicians with more options in selecting the best therapy for patients with WAIHA, hoping to stimulate researchers to find more novel immunotherapy strategies. PMID:24106518

  6. Environmentally induced autoimmune diseases: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T; Richardson, B

    1999-01-01

    Environmental and other xenobiotic agents can cause autoimmunity. Examples include drug-induced lupus, toxic oil syndrome, and contaminated l-tryptophan ingestion. Numerous mechanisms, based on (italic)in vitro(/italic) evidence and animal models, have been proposed to explain how xenobiotics induce or accelerate autoimmunity. The majority of these can be divided into three general categories. The first is those inhibiting the processes involved in establishing tolerance by deletion. Inhibiting deletion can result in the release of newly generated autoreactive cells into the periphery. The second mechanism is the modification of gene expression in the cells participating in the immune response, permitting lymphocytes to respond to signals normally insufficient to initiate a response or allowing the antigen-presenting cells to abnormally stimulate a response. Abnormal gene expression can thus disrupt tolerance maintained by suppression or anergy, permitting activation of autoreactive cells. The third is the modification of self-molecules such that they are recognized by the immune system as foreign. Examples illustrating these concepts are presented, and related mechanisms that have the potential to similarly affect the immune system are noted. Some mechanisms appear to be common to a variety of agents, and different mechanisms appear to produce similar diseases. However, evidence that any of these mechanisms are actually responsible for xenobiotic-induced human autoimmune disease is still largely lacking, and the potential for numerous and as yet unidentified mechanisms also exists. PMID:10502539

  7. Mutational analysis of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene in sporadic autoimmune Addison's disease can reveal patients with unidentified autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boe; Per M Knappskog; Anne Grethe Myhre; Jan I Sørheim; Eystein S Husebye

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether patients with Addison's disease and polyendocrine syndromes have undiagnosed autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS I). Materials and methods: Forty patients with clinical manifestations resembling APS I and with autoanti- bodies typical of this condition were screened for Norwegian autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene mutations. Results: A 30-year old man who had developed Addison' s disease at

  8. Virus-driven autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation: the example of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Zignego, Anna Linda; Gragnani, Laura; Piluso, Alessia; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2015-01-01

    HCV chronic infection is characterized by possible development of both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. The infection by this both hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus is responsible for polyoligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, leading to several immune-mediated disorders. Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome that in some cases may evolve to frank B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the prototype of HCV-driven autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders. The HCV oncogenic potential has been suggested by several clinicoepidemiological and laboratory studies; it includes hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and papillary thyroid cancer. The definition HCV syndrome refers to the complex of HCV-driven diseases; these latter are characterized by heterogeneous geographical distribution, suggesting a role of other important genetic and/or environmental cofactors. The natural history of HCV syndrome is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process, which may evolve from mild manifestations to systemic autoimmune disorders, and less frequently to malignant neoplasias. The present updated review analyzes the clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the main HCV-associated diseases. PMID:25534977

  9. Open questions in autoimmunity: discussions from the 2013 Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent CORA (Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity) meeting held in 2013 represented a unique opportunity for rheumatologists to address several topics. Among these, four topics include: (i) the role of epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as shown by studies in monozygotic twins; (ii) the cardiovascular and atherosclerotic risk in patients with RA treated with biologics; (iii) the use of new biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of RA and other autoimmune diseases, as represented by the new automatic machines for anti-nuclear antibodies detection, or ultrasound imaging to follow RA progression; and (iv) the latest guidelines on how to use and manage biologic therapies in RA and other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. In summary, we will herein present these topics of discussion and underline the conclusions obtained by rheumatologists during the 2013 CORA Meeting. PMID:24642104

  10. Effector mechanisms of the autoimmune syndrome in the murine model of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1§

    PubMed Central

    DeVoss, Jason J.; Shum, Anthony K.; Johannes, Kellsey P.A.; Lu, Wen; Krawisz, Anna K.; Wang, Peter; Yang, Ting; LeClair, Norbert P.; Austin, Cecilia; Strauss, Erich C.; Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    Mutations in the Autoimmune regulator (Aire) gene result in a clinical phenomenon known as Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type I (APS1), which classically manifests as a triad of adrenal insufficiency, hypoparathyroidism, and chronic mucocutaneous infections. In addition to this triad, a number of other autoimmune diseases have been observed in APS1 patients including Sjögren's syndrome, vitiligo, alopecia, uveitis, and others. Aire-deficient mice, the animal model for APS1, have highlighted the role of the thymus in the disease process and demonstrated a failure in central tolerance in aire-deficient mice. However, autoantibodies have been observed against multiple organs in both mice and humans, making it unclear what the specific role of B and T cells are in the pathogenesis of disease. Utilizing the aire-deficient mouse as a preclinical model for APS1, we have investigated the relative contribution of specific lymphocyte populations, with the goal of identifying the cell populations which may be targeted for rational therapeutic design. Here we show that T cells are indispensable to the breakdown of self-tolerance, in contrast to B cells which play a more limited role in autoimmunity. Th1 polarized CD4+ T cells, in particular, are major contributors to the autoimmune response. With this knowledge, we go on to utilize therapies targeted at T cells to investigate their ability to modulate disease in vivo. Depletion of CD4+ T cells using a neutralizing antibody ameliorated the disease process. Thus, therapies targeted specifically at the CD4+ T cell subset may help control autoimmune disease in patients with APS1. PMID:18768863

  11. Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presenting as Confusion, Dysphasia, and Myoclonus

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, S. A.; Kennedy, C.; Harrington, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    Steroid response encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), or Hashimoto's encephalopathy, is a rare disorder believed to be immune-mediated. It is most often characterized by a subacute onset of confusion with altered level of consciousness, seizures, and myoclonus. We describe the case of a 48-year-old gentleman who presented with confusion and dysphasia. Specific clinical features and laboratory results led to a diagnosis of Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This case highlights the core features of this condition and the potential for complete response to steroid therapy. PMID:22754574

  12. Imaging of Focal Autoimmune Pancreatitis and Differentiating It from Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an inflammatory disorder of pancreas. Two types have been identified: the diffuse and the focal or mass forming. Clinical presentation of AIP overlaps that of pancreatic cancer (PC). Sometimes serum IgG4 and CA 19-9 levels are unable to differentiate AIP from PC. Various series have shown that 5%–21% of resected pancreatic masses for suspected malignancy turned out to be AIP. Accurate diagnosis of focal AIP can avoid unnecessary surgeries. This paper elaborates the various imaging modalities useful in differentiating focal AIP from PC. PMID:24967284

  13. Experimental autoimmune uveitis in HLA-B27 transgenic mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Willbanks; D. S. Rootman; V. Jay; B. Wiggert; J. Chamberlain; R. D. Inman

    1997-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene, HLA-B27 is strongly associated with autoimmune uveitis and spondyloarthropathies in humans. Experimental mouse models of autoimmune uveitis involve systemic immunization with the retinal autoantigen interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP). To assess possible roles of HLA-B27 in autoimmune uveitis, as well as to investigate a possible new animal model of human uveitis, inbred strains of

  14. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  15. Effects of glatiramer acetate in a spontaneous model of autoimmune neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Bittner, Stefan; Ruck, Tobias; Göbel, Kerstin; Henschel, Christian; Afzali, Ali Maisam; Göb, Eva; Müntefering, Thomas; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Wiendl, Heinz; Meuth, Sven G

    2014-07-01

    Glatiramer acetate (GA) (Copaxone), a well-established drug for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, is believed to modulate numerous pathways including antigen-presenting cells or cytokine responses. A new generation of spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse models has been developed that mimic certain aspects of multiple sclerosis spectrum disorders. We assessed the effects of GA in the opticospinal encephalomyelitis model, which involves MOG35-55 peptide-specific T cells and B cells. A nonsignificant trend toward lower disease incidence was found for GA treatment (started on postnatal day 20). Immunohistochemical evaluations revealed no significant differences for inflammatory lesions and demyelination, cytokine production, proliferation, and cell surface markers of immune cells between GA-treated and PBS-treated (control) mice. Although a good correlation was found between the disease score of individual mice and some readout parameters (eg, immunohistochemical staining), this was not the case for others (eg, IFN-? production). It seems plausible that a major effect of GA lies on alternative immunological pathways, such as initiating of an immune response that is not sufficiently reflected in this spontaneous experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. Thus, the main advantage of the opticospinal encephalomyelitis model in our hands lies in the elucidation of factors influencing the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (eg, susceptibility factors). The model seems less suitable for investigation of disease severity modifications after therapeutic interventions. PMID:24819960

  16. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londei, Marco; Bottazzo, G. Franco; Feldmann, Marc

    1985-04-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves' disease were cloned in mitogen-free interleukin-2 (T-cell growth factor). The clones were expanded and their specificity was tested. Three types of clones were found. One group, of T4 phenotype, specifically recognized autologous thyroid cells. Another, also of T4 phenotype, recognized autologous thyroid or blood cells and thus responded positively in the autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction. Other clones derived from cells that were activated in vivo were of no known specificity. These clones provide a model of a human autoimmune disease and their analysis should clarify mechanisms of pathogenesis and provide clues to abrogating these undesirable immune responses.

  17. Epidermolysis bullosa and the partnership with autoimmunity: what should we assimilate?

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Guez, Sophie; Manzoni, Francesca; Bosco, Annalisa; Rigante, Donato

    2015-02-01

    Bullous skin diseases are characterized by genetic abnormalities related to structural epidermal proteins or organ-specific autoantibodies against the same proteins and are revealed by blister formation on skin or mucous membranes, with differences in blister depth, morphology, and topography. Both inherited and autoimmune forms of these disorders can be framed in the context of epidermolysis bullosa. Their clinical spectrum varies from early lethal to mild variants with normal life expectancy, and several distinct phenotypes differ for age of onset, extent, location and depth of skin and mucous lesions, or scarring severity. Recently, different inflammatory processes blended with autoimmune phenomena have been demonstrated in both inherited and acquired epidermolysis bullosa, revealing that this overlapping might cause substantial implications in terms of disease course and outcome. Although several associations between epidermolysis bullosa in its different variants and autoimmune diseases have been reported, it is not yet completely clear how it happens and why this association occurs in only some patients. Autoantibodies are the primary cause of the disease in acquired epidermolysis bullosa, whereas they can be produced as a secondary event due to genetically determined skin damage in inherited epidermolysis bullosa, contributing significantly to the worsening of the disease. The awareness of this overlap may help in identifying new therapeutic approaches with immunosuppressive drugs that could have a significant impact in terms of prognosis. PMID:25412732

  18. Renal Failure Associated with APECED and Terminal 4q Deletion: Evidence of Autoimmune Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Owain, Mohammed; Kaya, Namik; Al-Zaidan, Hamad; Bin Hussain, Ibrahim; Al-Manea, Hadeel; Al-Hindi, Hindi; Kennedy, Shelley; Iqbal, M. Anwar; Al-Mojalli, Hamad; Al-Bakheet, Albandary; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). Terminal 4q deletion is also a rare cytogenetic abnormality that causes a variable syndrome of dysmorphic features, mental retardation, growth retardation, and heart and limb defects. We report a 12-year-old Saudi boy with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and adrenocortical failure consistent with APECED. In addition, he has dysmorphic facial features, growth retardation, and severe global developmental delay. Patient had late development of chronic renal failure. The blastogenesis revealed depressed lymphocytes' response to Candida albicans at 38% when compared to control. Chromosome analysis of the patient revealed 46,XY,del(4)(q33). FISH using a 4p/4q subtelomere DNA probe assay confirmed the deletion of qter subtelomere on chromosome 4. Parental chromosomes were normal. The deleted array was further defined using array CGH. AIRE full gene sequencing revealed a homozygous mutation namely 845_846insC. Renal biopsy revealed chronic interstitial nephritis with advanced fibrosis. In addition, there was mesangial deposition of C3, C1q, and IgM. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first paper showing evidence of autoimmune nephropathy by renal immunofluorescence in a patient with APECED and terminal 4q deletion. PMID:21197407

  19. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good

    PubMed Central

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2014-01-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly “remember” and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD4+ effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the TEM compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of TEM cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune TEM cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune TEM cells are “bad” due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their “good” in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  20. Epigenetics of Autoantigens: New Opportunities for Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Marko; Muller, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    The field of epigenetics requires that traditional divisions between scientific disciplines give way to cross-fertilization of concepts and ideas from different areas of investigation. Such is the case with research in autoimmunity. Recent discoveries of stimuli that induce autoimmunity reveal that epigenetic marks of autoantigens are recognized by autoreactive B and T cell receptors. Thus, insights into the initiation of autoimmunity, its prevention and therapy will arise from understanding the biochemistry, cell biology and microbiology of autoantigen epigenetics. Here, we highlight potential benefits from the inhibition of a histone modifying enzyme and the administration of a phosphorylated, spliceosome-derived peptide, in the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25512708

  1. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-11-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  2. [Diagnostic value of autoantibodies to asialoglycoprotein receptor in autoimmune hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Sagynbaeva, V É; Lazebnik, L B; Vinnitskaia, E V; Dorofeev, A S; Efremov, L I

    2013-01-01

    Among 106 patients with autoimmune liver disease in 12 (11.3%) were found autoantibodies to asialoglycoprotein receptor (anti-ASGPR): in 5 (9.1%) of 55 with PBC, and 4 (17.4%) of 23 with AIH and 3 (10.7%) of 28 patients with syndrome chiasm (PBC + AIH). Detection of antibodies against the ASGPR is an effective method for diagnosis of autoimmune hepatitis. Further improvement of this method allows for monitoring and disease. Anti-ASGPR levels correlate with biochemical parameters and with the severity and manifestation autoimmune processes in patients with autoimmune hepatitis. PMID:24933948

  3. Treatment of autoimmune liver disease: current and future therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Palak J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease spans three predominant processes, from the interface hepatitis of autoimmune hepatitis to the lymphocytic cholangitis of primary biliary cirrhosis, and finally the obstructive fibrosing sclerotic cholangiopathy of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although all autoimmune in origin, they differ in their epidemiology, presentation and response to immunosuppressive therapy and bile acid based treatments. With an ongoing better appreciation of disease aetiology and pathogenesis, treatment is set ultimately to become more rational. We provide an overview of current and future therapies for patients with autoimmune liver disease, with an emphasis placed on some of the evidence that drives current practice. PMID:23634279

  4. Fas\\/Apo1 mutations and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome in a patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L Pensati; A Costanzo; A Ianni; D Accapezzato; R Iorio; G Natoli; R Nisini; C Almerighi; C Balsano; P Vajro; A Vegnente; M Levrero

    1997-01-01

    Inherited mutations of the Fas\\/Apo1\\/CD95 gene, a cell-surface receptor involved in cell death signaling and in the control of self-reactivity, characterize the recently identified autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes. A patient with type 2 autoimmune hepatitis with the immunologic and genetic features of autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome is described. The clinical picture was dominated by liver disease with hepatosplenomegaly and positivity for anti-liver-kidney

  5. Intense immunosuppressive therapy followed by autologous peripheral blood selected progenitor cell reinfusion for severe autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Musso, M; Porretto, F; Crescimanno, A; Bondi, F; Polizzi, V; Scalone, R

    2001-02-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to be effective in curing a large spectrum of autoimmune disorders. Case reports are being collected in the EBMT/EULAR Autoimmune Disease Stem Cell Project registry, which reports transplant-related mortality (TRM) of 6%. In order to reduce TRM and preserve the anti-autoimmune effect we evaluated a more immunoablative as opposed to myeloablative conditioning regimen for the autotransplant of severe immunomediated diseases. We enrolled patients affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE: 3 patients), by autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura (AITP: one patient), by thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP: one patient), by pure red cell aplasia (PRCA: one patient), and by a severe cryoglobulinemia (one patient). All patients were mobilized with cyclophosphamide (Cy) 4 g/m2 + G-csf. Conditioning regimen consisted of Cy 50 mg/kg/day (days -6 and -5); anti-T-globulin (ATG) 10 mg/kg/day and 6-methylprednisolone (PDN) 1 g/day (days -4, -3, and -2). Immunomagnetically selected CD34+ cells were re-infused on day 0. In three patients neutrophil count fell below 0.5 x 10(9)/l, while a PLT count below 20 x 10(9)/l was registered in two patients. Extrahematological toxicity was very low. Four patients (2 SLE, 1 TTP, 1 cryoglobulinemia) are in complete corticosteroid-free remission with a median follow up of 335 days. The third SLE patient improved considerably; however, he still needs low-dose corticosteroid maintenance. The AITP and PRCA patients achieved a CR but soon relapsed; nevertheless, the procedure restored a steroid-sensitive status. The use of this immunoablative conditioning regimen in auto-HSCT transplant was shown to be effective in controlling disease progression and could be a valuable strategy in reducing TRM. PMID:11421302

  6. Apoptosis and autoimmunity as proposed pathogenetic links between Helicobacter pylori infection and idiopathic achalasia.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, Jannis; Zavos, Christos; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios

    2004-01-01

    Achalasia is a disorder of the oesophagus characterised by increased lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) tone, lack of LOS relaxation with swallowing and aperistalsis of the body of the oesophagus. The aetiology and pathogenesis of idiopathic achalasia are still unclear, although a viral cause, genetic influences (associations with HLA loci) and autoimmune processes have been postulated. Degeneration and significant loss of nerve fibres, associated with an inflammatory infiltrate of the myenteric plexus in idiopathic achalasia, provide evidence of an immune mediated destruction of the myenteric plexus, possibly through apoptotic process. This concept is reinforced by the concomitant appearance of achalasia and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and/or Parkinson's disease, where inappropriate initiation of apoptosis has been proposed to underlie the neuronal attrition. In the same respect, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with gastric autoimmunity, and patients infected with H. pylori have been shown to possess autoantibodies that cross-react with antigens expressed on the gastric mucosa. Furthermore, H. pylori is thought to be associated with the development of autoimmune sequelae observed in peripheral neuropathies and GBS, where autoantibodies to specific neural targets have been found to impair native neural function by inducing nerve tissue damage, possibly by apoptosis. Taken together, we assume that H. pylori infection might be a pathogenetic factor of achalasia through induction of autoimmunity and apoptosis. Whether eradication of H. pylori infection may indirectly offer benefit to the pathophysiology of idiopathic achalasia by ameliorating the apoptotic loss of ganglion cells and their axons in the oesophageal wall remains to be elucidated. PMID:15325006

  7. Repeated treatment with high dose cyclophosphamide for severe autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    DeZern, Amy E; Styler, Michael J; Drachman, Daniel B; Hummers, Laura K; Jones, Richard J; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    High dose cyclophosphamide (HiCY) without stem cell rescue has been shown to induce remissions in patients with severe autoimmune disorders (SADS). However, up to 80% of these patients ultimately relapse. Here we review the outcomes of seven patients treated with two cycles and one patient treated with three cycles of HiCY. The diseases re-treated were scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, three patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA), and three patients with myasthenia gravis (MG). All but two patients with SAA had received standard immunomodulatory therapy for their disease up front and had been refractory. All patients had complete hematologic recovery. Overall survival in this cohort was 100%. All patients relapsed after the initial cycle but event free survival thereafter was 93.3%. All are still in remission except two MG patients, one of whom relapsed after a severe GI infection requiring hospitalization, and the other relapsed 3 years after the second treatment and she did not respond to the third treatment. This shows that HiCY can be safely re-administered in patients with SAA and refractory SADS. The quality and duration of second remissions appears to be equal or superior to the first remission. PMID:23358715

  8. A possible link between genetic hemochromatosis and autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Tamagno, G; De Carlo, E; Murialdo, G; Scandellari, C

    2007-12-01

    The systemic involvement that often characterizes genetic hemochromatosis is well known. Although evidence of iron storage in endocrine glands has been reported, the possible functional changes due to altered thyroid in course of hemochromatosis have been not clearly defined so far. Thyroid may be directly affected by iron storage in the gland as well as functionally altered due to iron accumulation occurring in the pituitary. The prevalence and the pathogenetic mechanisms of primary thyroid illness in patients with genetic hemochromatosis are still largely unknown. Hereby, we describe two patients affected by genetic hemochromatosis who developed Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Taking into consideration the possible links occurring among iron overload, thyroid gland damage and thyroid dysfunction, we hypothesize that hemochromatosis could have been an enhancing factor for the development of primary thyroid disease in these patients. Potentially, this process might also determine new onset anti-thyroid autoimmunity or overlap it. We conclude that systematic studies in large and heterogeneous populations will be necessary in order to assess the risk of development of primary thyroid disorders in course of genetic hemochromatosis and, more generally, chronic iron overload conditions. In our mind, thyroid function should be periodically checked in all patients with chronic iron overload conditions. PMID:18299688

  9. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS).

    PubMed

    Teachey, David T; Obzut, Dana A; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K; Goldsmith, Kelly C; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S; Maris, John M; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Brown, Valerie I; Grupp, Stephan A

    2006-09-15

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti-double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans. PMID:16757690

  10. Rapamycin improves lymphoproliferative disease in murine autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS)

    PubMed Central

    Teachey, David T.; Obzut, Dana A.; Axsom, Kelly; Choi, John K.; Goldsmith, Kelly C.; Hall, Junior; Hulitt, Jessica; Manno, Catherine S.; Maris, John M.; Rhodin, Nicholas; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Brown, Valerie I.; Grupp, Stephan A.

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a disorder of abnormal lymphocyte survival caused by defective Fas-mediated apoptosis, leading to lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and an increased number of double-negative T cells (DNTs). Treatment options for patients with ALPS are limited. Rapamycin has been shown to induce apoptosis in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Since ALPS is caused by defective lymphocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that rapamycin would be effective in treating ALPS. We tested this hypothesis using rapamycin in murine models of ALPS. We followed treatment response with serial assessment of DNTs by flow cytometry in blood and lymphoid tissue, by serial monitoring of lymph node and spleen size with ultrasonography, and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti–double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) antibodies. Three-dimensional ultrasound measurements in the mice correlated to actual tissue measurements at death (r = .9648). We found a dramatic and statistically significant decrease in DNTs, lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and autoantibodies after only 4 weeks when comparing rapamycin-treated mice with controls. Rapamycin induced apoptosis through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. We compared rapamycin to mycophenolate mofetil, a second-line agent used to treat ALPS, and found rapamycin's control of lymphoproliferation was superior. We conclude that rapamycin is an effective treatment for murine ALPS and should be explored as treatment for affected humans. PMID:16757690

  11. Macrophages: a double-edged sword in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhilong; Jiang, Jack X; Zhang, Guang-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a debilitating neurological disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by activation and infiltration of leukocytes and dendritic cells into the CNS. In the initial phase of MS and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), peripheral macrophages infiltrate into the CNS, where, together with residential microglia, they participate in the induction and development of disease. During the early phase, microglia/macrophages are immediately activated to become classically activated macrophages (M1 cells), release pro-inflammatory cytokines and damage CNS tissue. During the later phase, microglia/macrophages in the inflamed CNS are less activated, present as alternatively activated macrophage phenotype (M2 cells), releasing anti-inflammatory cytokines, accompanied by inflammation resolution and tissue repair. The balance between activation and polarization of M1 cells and M2 cells in the CNS is important for disease progression. Pro-inflammatory IFN-? and IL-12 drive M1 cell polarization, while IL-4 and IL-13 drive M2 cell polarization. Given that polarized macrophages are reversible in a well-defined cytokine environment, macrophage phenotypes in the CNS can be modulated by molecular intervention. This review summarizes the detrimental and beneficial roles of microglia and macrophages in the CNS, with an emphasis on the role of M2 cells in EAE and MS patients. PMID:24698730

  12. Review of the diagnosis, classification and management of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Derek A; Malde, Deep J; Duncan, Trish; Rao, Madhu; Filobbos, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis, with as yet undetermined incidence and prevalence in the general population. Our understanding of it continues to evolve. In the last few years, 2 separate subtypes have been identified: type 1 AIP has been recognised as the pancreatic manifestation of a multiorgan disease, named immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease while type 2 AIP is a pancreas specific disorder not associated with IgG4. International criteria for the diagnosis of AIP have been defined: the HISORt criteria from the Mayo clinic, the Japan consensus criteria and, most recently, the international association of pancreatology “International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria”. Despite this, in clinical practice it can still be very difficult to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate AIP from a pancreatic cancer. There are no large studies into the long-term prognosis and management of relapses of AIP, and there is even less information at present regarding the Type 2 AIP subtype. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis, treatment and long-term outcomes of this disease. Critically for clinicians, making the correct diagnosis and differentiating the disease from pancreatic cancer is of the utmost importance and the greatest challenge. PMID:24891978

  13. Neuroantibody Biomarkers: Links and Challenges in Environmental Neurodegeneration and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    El-Fawal, Hassan A. N.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of neurodegenerative (ND) and autoimmune diseases (AID) remain idiopathic. The contribution of environmental chemicals to the development of these disorders has become of great interest in recent years. A convergence of mechanism between of ND and AID development has also emerged. In the case of ND, including neurotoxicity, the focus of this review, work over the last two decade in the realm of biomarker development, indicates that the immune response provides a venue whereby humoral immunity, in the form of autoantibodies to nervous system specific proteins, or neuroantibodies (NAb), may provide, once validated, a sensitive high throughput surrogate biomarker of effect with the potential of predicting outcome in absence of overt neurotoxicity/neurodegeneration. In addition, NAb may prove to be a contributor to the progression of the nervous system pathology, as well as biomarker of stage and therapeutic efficacy. There is a compelling need for biomarkers of effect in light of the introduction of new chemicals, such as nanoengineered material, where potential neurotoxicity remains to be defined. Furthermore, the convergence of mechanisms associated with ND and AID draws attention to the neglected arena of angiogenesis in defining the link between environment, ND, and AID. PMID:25045531

  14. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this brochure to find out more. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. ... get better and lead successful lives. Who develops bipolar disorder? Anyone can develop bipolar disorder. It often ...

  15. Personality Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... family, friends, and co-workers. What is a Personality Disorder? Those who struggle with a personality disorder have ... difficult to participate in social activities. Recognizing a Personality Disorder A personality disorder must fulfill several criteria. A ...

  16. Tongue Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Resources for Help and Information The One-Page Merck Manual of Health Medical Terms Conversion Tables Manuals available ... Lip and Tongue Disorders Lip Disorders Tongue Disorders Merck Manual > Patients & Caregivers > Mouth and Dental Disorders > Lip and ...

  17. Cytokines and Cytokine Profiles in Human Autoimmune Diseases and Animal Models of Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kunz, Manfred; Ibrahim, Saleh M.

    2009-01-01

    The precise pathomechanisms of human autoimmune diseases are still poorly understood. However, a deepened understanding of these is urgently needed to improve disease prevention and early detection and guide more specific treatment approaches. In recent years, many new genes and signalling pathways involved in autoimmunity with often overlapping patterns between different disease entities have been detected. Major contributions were made by experiments using DNA microarray technology, which has been used for the analysis of gene expression patterns in chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, among which were rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and type-1 diabetes. In systemic lupus erythematosus, a so-called interferon signature has been identified. In psoriasis, researchers found a particular immune signalling cluster. Moreover the identification of a new subset of inflammatory T cells, so-called Th17 T cells, secreting interleukin (IL)-17 as one of their major cytokines and the identification of the IL-23/IL-17 axis of inflammation regulation, have significantly improved our understanding of autoimmune diseases. Since a plethora of new treatment approaches using antibodies or small molecule inhibitors specifically targeting cytokines, cellular receptors, or signalling mechanisms has emerged in recent years, more individualized treatment for affected patients may be within reach in the future. PMID:19884985

  18. Adult Stem Cell Therapy for Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eun Wha

    2009-01-01

    Many studies of autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and allogeneic HSCT have been conducted for autoimmune disease in various animal models. Because of the substantial risk of morbidity and mortality associated with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, autologous transplants justified trying this approach in patient with severe autoimmune disease who were refractory to current treatments. Remission was achieved in some of the patients and some of them relapsed. Recently, many in vitro studies have reported that mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have immunomodulatory properties and immunosuppressive effects on MHC-mismatched lymphocytes proliferation by inhibiting naïve, memory and activated T cells, B cell, NK cells and dendritic cells. In addition, adipose tissue-derived MSC (AT-MSC) are becoming an alternative source of MSC for therapeutic applications because adipose tissues are abundant, easily accessible, easily obtainable with little patient discomfort and large amounts of AT-MSC can be easily obtained. A large body of in vitro research has shown that AT-MSC have same or similar immunomodulatory effects with bone marrow derived MSC. Drawing on this finding, the increasing numbers of researchers have turned on their attention to preclinical studies on AT-MSC. As this new path of research evolves with subsequent reports, MSC would make a significant contribution to stem cell therapy or combination therapy for ameliorating symptoms and curing autoimmune disease. By searching and studying the appropriate therapeutic gene, the therapeutic gene transfected stem cell therapy will be able to acquire the synergy effect and the combined advantage of gene therapy and stem cell therapy. PMID:24855531

  19. Treating prolactinoma can prevent autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Watad, Abdulla; Versini, Mathilde; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-11-10

    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone; in addition to a wide variety of endocrine effects, PRL also exhibits immunostimulating effects. Therefore, there is increasing evidence linking PRL with a large number of systemic and organ specific autoimmune diseases. Herein, we report the case of an adolescent girl diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) occurring in the context of untreated prolactinoma evolving since childhood. This raises the exciting question of the involvement of PRL in the pathogenesis of MS. It is likely that early treatment of hyperprolactinemia in this case would have significantly reduced the risk of developing MS or even prevented its occurrence. PMID:25468803

  20. Diagnosis and management of autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-02-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is characterized by increased serum aminotransferase levels, autoantibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and interface hepatitis. Presentation can be acute, severe (fulminant), asymptomatic, or chronic. Diagnosis requires multiple findings and exclusion of similar diseases. Treatment with prednisone or prednisolone with azathioprine is recommended. Budesonide with azathioprine has normalized laboratory test with few side effects, but histologic resolution, durability of response, and target population are uncertain. Progressive worsening, incomplete improvement, drug intolerance, and relapse after drug withdrawal are suboptimal outcomes. Calcineurin inhibitors and mycophenolate mofetil are salvage agents in small series and liver transplantation is effective for liver failure. PMID:25454297

  1. MODELING CYCLIC WAVES OF CIRCULATING T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    MODELING CYCLIC WAVES OF CIRCULATING T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES JOSEPH M. MAHAFFY AND LEAH EDELSTEIN-KESHET Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells, notably T diabetes result once a large enough fraction of these beta cells have been destroyed. Recent investigation

  2. The Role of Dendritic Cells in Tissue-Specific Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, William

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we explore the role of dendritic cell subsets in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. From the increasing list of dendritic cell subclasses, it is becoming clear that we are only at the beginning of understanding the role of these antigen presenting cells in mediating autoimmunity. Emerging research areas for the study of dendritic cell involvement in the onset and inhibition of tissue-specific autoimmunity are presented. Further, we compare tissue specific to systemic autoimmunity to demonstrate how development of dendritic cell-based therapies may be broadly applicable to both classes of autoimmunity. Continued development of these research areas will lead us closer to clinical assessment of novel immunosuppressive therapy for the reversal and prevention of tissue-specific autoimmunity. Through description of dendritic cell functions in the modulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity, we hope to stimulate a greater appreciation and understanding of the role dendritic cells play in the development and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:24877157

  3. Role of helicobacter pylori infection in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasni, Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The etiology of most autoimmune diseases remains elusive. Prevailing evidence suggests an environmental trigger in a genetically susceptible individual. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have managed to survive in a hostile environment in its host for long period and have evaded eradication by immune system. Its chronic interaction with the immune system and the ubiquitous presence worldwide makes H. pylori an ideal candidate to study as a trigger of autoimmune phenomena. In this review, we would present data regarding the interplay between H. pylori and various components of the immune system and its association with various autoimmune diseases. Recent findings Strong associations of H. pylori with some autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenia have been found; but most other autoimmune disease studies have revealed conflicting data. The chronic survival of H. pylori in humans is possible because of an overall downregulation of the body’s immune response. In addition to this overall effect on the immune system, there are clinical and epidemiological data suggestive of H. pylori infection having a protective role in some autoimmune diseases. Summary Based on our review H. pylori status should be checked and treated only in certain autoimmune diseases such as ITP. For majority of the autoimmune diseases role of H. pylori remains controversial signifying need for further research. PMID:22617822

  4. Autoimmunity in chagas disease cardiomyopathy: Fulfilling the criteria at last?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Kalil; E Cunha-Neto

    1996-01-01

    Here, Jorge Kalil and Edécio Cunha-Neto review the recent evidence for autoimmunity in chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) involving molecularly defined antigens and immunopathological mechanisms. They also discuss the criteria for assignment of CCC as an organ-specific autoimmune disease.

  5. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy Sa´rka Kan kova´1, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim

  6. The role of infection in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Noel R. Rose

    1998-01-01

    Autoimmune disease has long been considered a shadow following infectious diseases. Epidemiological evidence shows that rheumatic fever follows streptococcal infection andTrypanosoma cruziinfection is the instigator of Chagas’ disease. There is, however, very little information of the mechanism by which such a train of events is initiated. Autoimmunity, in a form of autoantibodies, is common after many infections and may well

  7. [Hodgkin disease and autoimmunity in children: 11 case reports].

    PubMed

    Jarrassé, C; Pagnier, A; Edan, C; Landman-Parker, J; Mazingue, F; Mansuy, L; Bertrand, Y; Paillard, C; Pellier, I; Margueritte, G; Plantaz, D

    2011-04-01

    The association of lymphoma and autoimmune manifestations has been predominantly studied in adults affected by non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Few publications exist in the literature concerning Hodgkin lymphoma, particularly in children and adolescents. The objectives of this study were to define the characteristics of the link between Hodgkin disease and autoimmunity in childhood. The present 25-year retrospective study was conducted in all centers affiliated with the French Society of Paediatric Oncology (SFCE). Eleven children with Hodgkin disease presented manifestations of disimmunity preceding or following their diagnosis. Four patients had thrombocytopenic purpura, the remaining 7 each had a different autoimmune pathology: lupus syndrome, antiphospholipid syndrome with transient ischemic attack, Evans syndrome, leukocytoclastic vasculitis, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, autoimmune thyroiditis, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Lymphoma relapse occurred in 3 patients. Two children died, death being directly attributed to the autoimmune disease in 1 case. Our data suggest that development of autoimmunity is related to significant morbidity. Possible pathophysiological mechanisms include lymphocyte proliferation secondary to chronic inflammation, cell-mediated immune deficiency in Hodgkin disease, molecular mimetics, and antineoplastic phenomena are discussed. A study with a larger patient population is needed to identify the group of children at high risk of autoimmunity for whom additional investigations and modified therapy may be indicated. PMID:21397466

  8. Bugs on trial: the case of Helicobacter pylori and autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben J Appelmelk; Gerhard Faller; Dirk Claeys; Thomas Kirchner; Christina M. J. E Vandenbroucke-Grauls

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces autoantibodies to gastric H+K+-ATPase similar to those found in autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anaemia (AIG\\/PA). Here, Ben Appelmelk and colleagues consider the possibility that H. pylori infection triggers an autoimmune process that leads to gastric atrophy and AIG\\/PA.

  9. Celiac disease in North Italian patients with autoimmune Addison's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Betterle; Francesca Lazzarotto; Aglaura Cinzia Spadaccino; Daniela Basso; Mario Plebani; Beniamino Pedini; Silvia Chiarelli; Mariapaola Albergoni

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Patients with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) are prone to develop other autoimmune manifestations. An increased prevalence of celiac disease (CD) has recently been demonstrated in Northern European patients with AAD. IgA deficiency is the most frequent type of immunodeficiency among humans and is present in about one in every 600 individuals in the population. IgA deficiency is frequent in

  10. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  11. Autoimmune myelofibrosis: an update on morphologic features in 29 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Lluri, Maria E; Piatek, Caroline I; Pullarkat, Vinod; Siddiqi, Imran N; O'Connell, Casey; Feinstein, Donald I; Brynes, Russell K

    2014-11-01

    Autoimmune myelofibrosis (AIMF) is a distinct clinicopathological entity associated with diffuse bone marrow fibrosis and a benign clinical course. Distinction from neoplastic etiologies of marrow fibrosis, particularly primary myelofibrosis, is imperative, but few studies have documented histopathologic features in a large series. We describe 29 patients with AIMF, defined as marrow reticulin fibrosis and lymphocytic infiltration in the context of an established autoimmune disorder (secondary AIMF) or autoantibodies without a defined disorder (primary AIMF). Excluded were cases with atypical megakaryocytes, dysplasia, basophilia, osteosclerosis, unexplained splenomegaly, or neoplasms associated with myelofibrosis (MF). All cases were stained for reticulin, CD3, and CD20, with a subset additionally stained for CD138, ?, ?, immunoglobulin G (IgG), and IgG4. Lymphoid aggregates, where present, were classified into T-cell and B-cell patterns of distribution. Most patients (93%) presented with cytopenias. Sixty-nine percent (n = 20) were considered secondary AIMF and the remainder primary AIMF (n = 9). Peripheral blood showed absent-to-rare blasts and teardrop erythrocytes and absence of eosinophilia or basophilia. Characteristic bone marrow findings included hypercellularity with erythroid and megakaryocytic hyperplasias, mild reticulin fibrosis, intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis, T-cell pattern in lymphoid aggregates, mild polytypic plasmacytosis, and absence of IgG4-positive plasma cells. Primary and secondary AIMF were pathologically indistinguishable, except for an increased incidence of granulocytic hyperplasia in primary AIMF. This series confirms and expands the utility of the original diagnostic criteria for AIMF. Recognizing the characteristic morphology of AIMF and its associated clinical and laboratory features distinguishes autoimmune from neoplastic causes of MF and guides further evaluation and management. PMID:25282037

  12. Psoriasis is not an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Fry, Lionel; Baker, Barbara S; Powles, Anne V; Engstrand, Lars

    2015-04-01

    The concept that psoriasis is an autoimmune disease needs to be questioned. The autoimmune label has been based on molecular mimicry between streptococcal and keratin proteins and the existence of homologous peptides between these proteins. However, it is only peripheral blood CD8, and not CD4, T lymphocytes that respond to the homologous peptides. This ignores the fact that it is CD4 T cells which are necessary to initiate psoriasis. Recent studies on skin bacterial microbiota have found a variety of bacteria in both normal skin and psoriatic lesions. In biopsy specimens, the most common phylum was Firmicutes and the most common genus streptococcus in both psoriasis and normal skin. The innate immune system is activated in psoriasis, and recent genetic findings have shown the majority of susceptibility loci are associated with innate immunity. There is a known clinical relationship between both Crohn's disease (CD) and periodontitis, and psoriasis, and patients with psoriasis share mutations in some innate immunity genes with individuals with CD. It is now accepted that CD is due to a breakdown of immune tolerance (dysbiosis) to bacteria in the intestine. These findings suggest that psoriasis is initiated by an abnormal response to bacteria in the skin due to genetic factors. PMID:25348334

  13. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. Conclusion High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone. PMID:25086829

  14. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis J.; Navarro, Carmen; Medina, Gabriela; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Blanco, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) are characterized by aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are a potent activator of the HPA axis. In consequence, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones such as estrogens and prolactin, and low levels of glucocorticoids, an anti-inflammatory hormone, have been described in the active phase of ARD. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines have also been frequently detected in organ involvement of patients with ARD, suggesting an abnormal local neuroendocrine immune interaction. There is evidence that hormonal changes may appear before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Therefore, it is possible that a pro-inflammatory hormone favors the rupture of tolerance, which is a key feature of autoimmune diseases. The interactions between the immune-neuroendocrine system have a major impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy of ARD. PMID:17162354

  15. Tobacco smoking and autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Harel-Meir, Michal; Sherer, Yaniv; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2007-12-01

    Autoimmune rheumatic diseases are considered to be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Tobacco smoking has been linked to the development of rheumatic diseases, namely systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and has been shown to interact with genetic factors to create a significant combined risk of disease. Smoking also affects both the course and the outcome of rheumatic diseases. Smoking increases the risk of dermatologic features and nephritis in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid nodules and multiple joint involvement in rheumatoid arthritis and digital ischemia in systemic sclerosis, as well as further increasing the risk of accelerated atherosclerosis in these diseases. Smoking is known to modulate the immune system through many mechanisms, including the induction of the inflammatory response, immune suppression, alteration of cytokine balance, induction of apoptosis, and DNA damage that results in the formation of anti-DNA antibodies. No sole mechanism, however, has been linked to any of the autoimmune illnesses, which therefore complicates full comprehension of the 'smoking effect'. Further studies, perhaps using animal models, are needed to analyze the exact effect of smoking on each disease separately. PMID:18037930

  16. Autoimmune pancreatitis can develop into chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) has been recognized as a distinct type of pancreatitis that is possibly caused by autoimmune mechanisms. AIP is characterized by high serum IgG4 and IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration in affected pancreatic tissue. Acute phase AIP responds favorably to corticosteroid therapy and results in the amelioration of clinical findings. However, the long-term prognosis and outcome of AIP remain unclear. We have proposed a working hypothesis that AIP can develop into ordinary chronic pancreatitis resembling alcoholic pancreatitis over a long-term course based on several clinical findings, most notably frequent pancreatic stone formation. In this review article, we describe a series of study results to confirm our hypothesis and clarify that: 1) pancreatic calcification in AIP is closely associated with disease recurrence; 2) advanced stage AIP might have earlier been included in ordinary chronic pancreatitis; 3) approximately 40% of AIP patients experience pancreatic stone formation over a long-term course, for which a primary risk factor is narrowing of both Wirsung’s and Santorini’s ducts; and 4) nearly 20% of AIP patients progress to confirmed chronic pancreatitis according to the revised Japanese Clinical Diagnostic Criteria, with independent risk factors being pancreatic head swelling and non-narrowing of the pancreatic body duct. PMID:24884922

  17. Towards the pathogenesis of autoimmune liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mackay, I R; Davies, J M; Rowley, M J

    1999-08-01

    There have been recent improvements in the clinical understanding and definition of the major types of autoimmune liver disease. However, still lacking is knowledge of their prevalence and pathogenesis. Three areas of study are in progress in our laboratory. First, in type 1 autoimmune hepatitis, the search continues to identify a liver/disease-specific autoantigenic reactant. Using hepatocyte membrane preparations, immunoblotting has underlined the problem of distinguishing, among multiple reactants, those that may be causally rather than consequentially related to hepatocellular damage. Second, in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the need for population screening to ascertain prevalence and detect preclinical cases can be met by a rapid automated procedure for detection, by specific enzyme inhibition in microtitre wells, of antibody (anti-M2) to the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex E2 subunit (PDC-E2). Third, the structure of the conformational epitope within the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2 is being investigated by screening random phage-displayed peptide libraries using PBC sera. This has yielded phage clones in which the sequence of the peptide insert portrays the structure of this epitope, as judged by clustering of PBC-derived sequences to particular branches of a guide-tree that shows relatedness of peptides, and by reactivity of selected phage clones with anti-PDC-E2. Thus phage display identifies a peptide 'mimotope' of the antibody epitope in the inner lipoyl domain of PDC-E2. PMID:10441182

  18. Epilepsy and autoimmunity in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bekta?, Ömer; Jacobson, Leslie; Tutkak, Hüseyin; Karagöl, Sema; Lang, Bethan; Clover, Linda; Vincent, Angela; Deda, Gülhis

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the presence and possible role of autoantibodies in epileptic patients with an undetermined etiology. Eighty epilepsy patients, who were referred to the Pediatric Neurology Department at Ankara University between November 2011 and April 2012, were enrolled in the study. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anticardiolipin IgG, antiphospholipid, antithyroid peroxidase, paraneoplastic, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies were studied in our university laboratory. In addition, NMDA receptor (NMDAR), voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex, leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) antibodies were studied at the Oxford University Immunology Laboratory. The study included 35 girls (44%) and 45 boys (56%) with a mean symptom age of 8.6?±?4.53 years. ANA was detected in 15 (18.8%), antiphospholipid Ab in 3 (3.75%), anticardiolipin Ab in 1 (1.25%), and antithyroid peroxidase in 3 (3.75%) epileptic patients. In addition, anti-GAD Ab was detected in 7 (8.75%), anti-Yo Ab in 3 (3.75%), and anti-Ma2 in 3 (3.75%) epileptic patients. Anti-VGKC was positive in 13 (16.25%) epileptic patients. We performed a pioneer study to investigate the association between autoimmunity and pediatric epilepsy and we conclude that autoimmunity should be considered in epileptic patients with an undetermined etiology. PMID:25290722

  19. Chapter 13: Olfactory disorders.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Decreased sense of smell can lead to significant impairment of quality of life, including taste disturbance and loss of pleasure from eating with resulting changes in weight, and difficulty in avoiding health risks such as spoiled food or leaking natural gas. Recent epidemiological reports have shown that despite fairly low self-reported prevalence of these disorders in large population studies, when validated smell identification or threshold tests are used they reveal quite a high prevalence of hyposmia and anosmia in certain groups, especially the elderly. Several different pathophysiological processes, such as head trauma, aging, autoimmunity, and toxic exposures, can contribute to smell impairment, with distinct implications concerning prognosis and possible treatment. Otolaryngologists are most likely to see this symptom in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis, and this now appears to be caused more by the mucosal inflammation than by physical airway obstruction. PMID:23711041

  20. The hygiene hypothesis and allergic disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo M. Matricardi; Eckard Hamelmann

    Allergic diseases are more frequent in the general population than other immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases\\u000a or immunodeficiencies. Therefore, epidemiological studies investigating the hygiene hypothesis in relation to allergic diseases\\u000a have been performed much more frequently than those investigating the hygiene hypothesis in relation to Crohn’s disease, multiple\\u000a sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis or other diseases related to dysregulation of the