Sample records for non-endocrine autoimmune disorders

  1. Autoimmune disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hormone, vitamin B12, or insulin, due to the autoimmune disease Blood transfusions if blood is affected Physical therapy ... The outcome depends on the disease. Most autoimmune diseases are chronic ... disorders can come and go. When symptoms get worse, it is ...

  2. [Associations of autoimmune disorders in endocrine diseases].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Csaba; Fehér, János

    2009-08-23

    Increasing data are known for dialogue between neuroendocrine and immune systems recently. Results of molecular genetic studies provided evidences for common languages of these systems by various signals including neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines. It is proved the immune system is able to produce neurotransmitters and hormones and endocrine organs can even result in cytokines. This new integrative approach allows to investigate the physiologic events and diseases as interactions between the psycho-neuro-endocrine-immune systems. The autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes constitute a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens. In spite of distinct clinical pictures, molecular genetic studies revealed a common molecular mechanism in the associations of organ-specific diseases. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-1 is characterized by associations at least two out of three cardinal signs: Addison's disease, autoimmune hypoparathyroidism and mucocutaneous candidiasis. This is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome induced by mutations in autoimmune regulator gene. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 occurs more frequently and defined as the coexistence of Addison's disease, autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type-1 diabetes mellitus. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 is characterized by association of autoimmune thyroid disease and type-1 diabetes mellitus. The HLA and other genes proved to be important in associations of the syndrome-2 and 3 in contrast to autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-1. Identification of predisposing genetic helps to understand the common mechanisms and provide possibility for early therapy and prevention as well. PMID:19648077

  3. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune Endocrinologic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katri Kaukinen; Pekka Collin; Anna-Helena Mykkanen; Jukka Partanen; Markku Maki; Jorma Salmi

    1999-01-01

    Patients with insulin-dependent diabetesmellitus, autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease,and alopecia areata are at increased risk of celiacdisease. We investigated whether patients with more than one autoimmune endocrinologic disorder areeven more susceptible to celiac disease or haveceliac-type mucosal inflammation. All 62 patients foundto have such multiple diseases in 1994-1996 were investigated. Small bowel biopsy was performedon all voluntary nonceliac subjects. The

  4. Natural killer cells in human autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play a critical role in early host defense against viruses. Through their cytolytic capacity and generation of cytokines and chemokines, NK cells modulate the activity of other components of the innate and adaptive immune systems and have been implicated in the initiation or maintenance of autoimmune responses. This review focuses on recent research elucidating a potential immunoregulatory role for NK cells in T-cell and B-cell-mediated autoimmune disorders in humans, with a particular focus on multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and systemic lupus erythematous. A better understanding of the contributions of NK cells to the development of autoimmunity may lead to novel therapeutic targets in these diseases. PMID:23856014

  5. Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders without and with autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) can coexist with non-organ-specific or organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the features between NMOSD without and with autoimmune diseases, and NMOSD with non-organ-specific and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Methods One hundred and fifty five NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases (n?=?115) and with autoimmune diseases (n?=?40) were enrolled. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases were divided by organ-specific autoimmune diseases. The clinical, laboratory and magnetic resonance imaging features between two groups were assessed. Results Motor deficit was less frequent in NMOSD patients with non-organ-specific autoimmune diseases (p?=?0.024). Cerebrospinal fluid white blood cell and protein, serum C-reactive protein and immunoglobulin G were lower in NMOSD patients without autoimmune diseases, while several autoantibodies seropositivity and thyroid indexes were significantly higher in NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases (p??0.05). NMOSD patients with autoimmune diseases had higher brain abnormalities than NMOSD without autoimmune diseases (p?autoimmune diseases were similar. NMOSD with autoimmune diseases have high frequency of brain abnormalities. PMID:25135481

  6. [microRNA in autoimmune disorders].

    PubMed

    Jinnin, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    microRNAs, short ribonucleic acid molecules which is typically 20-25 nucleotides long, can bind to complementary sequences in the three prime untranslated regions of target mRNAs, leading to the inhibition of translation or degradation of the mRNA. Theologically, human genome may have more than 1000 microRNAs, which target about 60% of human mRNAs. Thus, microRNAs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders. This paper discusses the present day understanding about the expression and role in various autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren syndrome, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, type I diabetis, and psoriasis. For example, the expression of miR-29, which targets type I collagen mRNA, is reported to be down-regulated in cultured dermal fibroblasts derived from scleroderma skin, contributing to excessive collagen production in this disease. Supplementation of the microRNA results in the decrease of collagen expression in scleroderma fibroblasts. In addition, serum miR-29a levels are significantly decreased in the very early stage of scleroderma. Investigation of the involvement of microRNAs in the pathogenesis of each autoimmune disease may lead to develop new biomarker and new therapeutic approach. PMID:22214804

  7. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 3c with Ectodermal Dysplasia, Immune Deficiency and Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Büyükçelik, Mithat; Keskin, Mehmet; Keskin, Özlem; Bay, Ali; Demircio?lu K?l?ç, Beltinge; Kor, Y?lmaz; K?l?nç, M. Arda; Balat, Ay?e

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) is a disorder which is associated with multiple endocrine gland insufficiency and also with non-endocrine manifestations. The pathophysiology of APS is poorly understood, but the hallmark evidence of APS is development of autoantibodies against multiple endocrine and non-endocrine organs. These autoantibodies are responsible for the dysfunction of the affected organs and sometimes may also cause non-endocrine organ dysfunction. The hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a serious and life-threatening disease which develops due to many etiological factors including autoimmune disorders. Here, we present an unusual case of APS. Ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency and HUS occurred concomitantly in the same patient with APS type 3c. Once the autoantibody generation was initiated in the human body, development of multiple disorders due to organ dysfunction and also autoantibody-related diseases may have occurred. PMID:24637310

  8. Development of a secondary autoimmune disorder after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases: role of conditioning regimen used

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yvonne Loh; Yu Oyama; Laisvyde Statkute; Kathleen Quigley; Kimberly Yaung; Elizabeth Gonda; Walter Barr; Borko Jovanovic; Robert Craig; Dusan Stefoski; Bruce Cohen; Richard K. Burt

    2007-01-01

    Patients undergoing autologous hemato- poietic stem cell transplantation (auto- HSCT) for autoimmune disease may have an added propensity to develop a second autoimmune disorder, given the genetic predisposition to autoimmunity. There- fore, we undertook a retrospective analy- sis of all patients who have undergone auto-HSCT for an autoimmune disease in our institution to determine the occur- rence of a second

  9. Systemic lupus erythematosus: a multisystem autoimmune disorder.

    PubMed

    Kuper, B C; Failla, S

    2000-03-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic illness that has no known cause. As an autoimmune, inflammatory disease, it can affect various organs in different ways. Because of its fluctuating, unpredictable qualities, it requires the implementation of physiologic and psychosocial interventions that may change daily. A plan of care unique to each individual with SLE is essential to its management. PMID:10673579

  10. Celiac disease in autoimmune cholestatic liver disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Umberto Volta; Luis Rodrigo; Alessandro Granito; Nunzio Petrolini; Paolo Muratori; Luigi Muratori; Antonio Linares; Lorenza Veronesi; Dolores Fuentes; Daniela Zauli; Francesco B. Bianchi

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:In this study, serological screening for celiac disease (CD) was performed in patients with autoimmune cholestasis to define the prevalence of such an association and to evaluate the impact of gluten withdrawal on liver disease associated with gluten sensitive enteropathy.METHODS:Immunoglobulin A endomysial, human and guinea pig tissue transglutaminase antibodies, and immunoglobulin A and G gliadin antibodies were sought in 255

  11. Secondary Erythermalgia Associated with an Autoimmune Disorder of Undetermined Significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. H. Drenth; J. J. M. Michiels; T. Van Joost; V. D. Vuzevski

    1995-01-01

    A 50-year-old female patient is described with an acquired, persisting and yet incurable erythermalgia featured by symmetric burning pain and red congestion of the extremities secondary to cutaneous vasculitis. A weakly positive antinuclear antibody titer and high titers of antibodies against gastric parietal mucosa cells pointed to an underlying but unclassifiable autoimmune disorder. It is concluded that histopathology of lesional

  12. Narrative Review: Celiac Disease: Understanding a Complex Autoimmune Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Armin Alaedini; Peter H. R. Green

    2005-01-01

    nce considered a rare childhood disorder, celiac dis- ease is now known to be a common condition that may have multiple complications. Nevertheless, the disease remains widely underrecognized. Use of new serologic markers in the diagnosis of celiac disease, in particular anti-transglutaminase antibody, has resulted in more effi- cient screening. Information on the pathogenic mechanism of the autoimmune response in

  13. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the therapy of autoimmune disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley A. Schwartz

    1990-01-01

    The weight of evidence from numerous clinical studies supports the use of IVIG, particularly at higher doses, in the treatment of a wide range of autoimmune disorders. Extensive experience has documented the safety of IVIG therapy but its present relatively high cost necessitates firmly establishing its efficacy. There is an acute need to define those disease states where IVIG is

  14. Genetics of autoimmune diseases — disorders of immune homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy W. Behrens; Peter K. Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    In the past few years, our extensive knowledge of the mammalian immune system and our increasing ability to understand the genetic causes of complex human disease have opened a window onto the pathways that lead to autoimmune disorders. In addition to the well-established role of genetic variation that affects the major histocompatibility complex, a number of rare and common variants

  15. Evaluation of autoimmune phenomena in patients with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Stagi, Stefano; Rigante, Donato; Lepri, Gemma; Bertini, Federico; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Falcini, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    The pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are basically characterized by obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics triggered by group-A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus infections. Poor data are available about the clear definition of PANDAS's autoimmune origin. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of autoimmune phenomena, including thyroid function abnormalities, specific celiac disease antibodies, and positivity of organ- or nonorgan-specific autoantibodies in a large cohort of Caucasian children and adolescents with PANDAS. Seventy-seven consecutive patients (59 males, 18 females; mean age 6.3±2.5 years, range 2.0-14.5 years) strictly fulfilling the clinical criteria for PANDAS diagnosis were recruited. In all subjects we evaluated serum concentrations of free-T3, free-T4, thyrotropin, and the following auto-antibodies: anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, anti-thyrotropin receptor, anti-gliadin, anti-endomysium, anti-tissue transglutaminase, anti-nuclear, anti-smooth muscle, anti-extractable nuclear antigens, anti-phospholipid, plus lupus-like anticoagulant. The results were compared with those obtained from 197 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (130 males, 67 females; mean age 6.8±2.9 years, range 2.3-14.8 years). The frequencies of subclinical (3.8% vs 3.6%) and overt hypothyroidism (1.2% vs 0%), autoimmune thyroiditis (2.46% vs 1.14%), celiac disease (1.2% vs 0.05%), and positivity of organ- and nonorgan-specific autoantibodies (5.1% vs 4.8%) were not statistically significant between patients with PANDAS and controls. Evaluating the overall disease duration, we did not observe any significant difference between patients with (3.4±2.15 years) and without (3.4±2.89 years) autoimmune abnormalities. However, PANDAS patients with autoimmune diseases or positivity for any organ- and nonorgan-specific antibodies showed significantly higher anti-streptolysin O and anti-DNAse B titers, as well as a history of more frequent throat infections than controls (p<0.0001). Abnormalities of thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune diseases, as well as the association with celiac disease or organ- and nonorgan-specific autoimmunity seem not more frequent in children and adolescents with PANDAS than in healthy controls. A potential relationship between autoimmunity and PANDAS should be assessed further in larger studies. Children and adolescents with PANDAS should not be actually screened for thyroid function, celiac disease and/or autoimmune diseases. PMID:25151976

  16. Psychiatric Disorders in First-Degree Relatives of Children With Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated With Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LORRAINE LOUGEE; SUSAN J. PERLMUTTER; ROB NICOLSON; MARJORIE A. GARVEY; SUSAN E. SWEDO

    2000-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the rates of psychiatric disorders in the first-degree relatives of children with infection-triggered obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and\\/or tics (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections; PANDAS).

  17. Association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depressive disorder in psychiatric outpatients.

    PubMed

    Degner, Detlef; Haust, Merle; Meller, Johannes; Rüther, Eckart; Reulbach, Udo

    2015-02-01

    Thyroid diseases are often associated with psychiatric disorders. The prevalence of autoimmune thyroiditis in the general population is estimated to be at about 5-14 %. A clinical study was conducted to evaluate the association between autoimmune thyroiditis and depression in psychiatric outpatients. Fifty-two patients with depression and nineteen patients with schizophrenia (serving as control group), attending a psychiatric outpatient unit, were included. In addition to the measurement of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine, free thyroxine, antithyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) antibodies, and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, ultrasound examination of the thyroid gland was performed. The proportion of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels in patients with depression was high. Furthermore, the distribution of pathologically increased anti-TPO levels was significantly (? (2) = 5.5; p = 0.019) different between patients with depression (32.7 %) and patients with schizophrenia (5.3 %). In a gender- and age-adjusted logistic regression, the odds ratio of uni- or bipolar patients with depression for an autoimmune thyroiditis was ten times higher (95 % CI = 1.2-85.3) when compared with schizophrenia patients. TSH basal level did not differ between patients with depression and patients with schizophrenia. Our study demonstrates a strong association between anti-TPO levels, which are considered to be of diagnostic value for autoimmune thyroiditis (in combination with a hypoechoic thyroid in ultrasonography) with uni- or bipolar depression. It should be noted that the routinely measured TSH level is not sufficient in itself to diagnose this relevant autoimmune comorbidity. PMID:25193677

  18. Post-infectious autoimmune disorders: Sydenham's chorea, PANDAS and beyond.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kyle A; Swedo, Susan E

    2015-08-18

    Infections, and the resulting immune response to these infections, have recently received increased recognition as pathogenic mechanisms for neuropsychiatric disorders. Sydenham's chorea (SC), a widely recognized post-streptococcal autoimmune disorder, represents a model for this proposed pathogenesis. In SC, a dysregulated immune response to a streptococcal infection is hypothesized to result in inflammation of neuronal networks, particularly the basal ganglia nuclei. The resulting dysfunction in the basal ganglia nuclei are hypothesized to lead to a constellation of adventitious movements and psychiatric symptoms, which investigations have shown are amenable to immunomodulatory therapies. PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections) has been proposed as a variant of SC, and is hypothesized to share a pathogenic mechanism, despite a unique symptom profile of predominantly psychiatric symptoms. In this review, we present the clinical aspects of both disorders, the data for potential shared etiopathogenesis between them, and the evidence for the therapeutic use of immunomodulatory therapies for the symptoms of SC and PANDAS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25301689

  19. Paedatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infection in an Indian Adolescent--A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Sachin; Vaish, Supriya; Chopra, Saurabh; Singh, Vindyaprakash; Sharma, Priyanka

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a unique constellation of signs and symptoms that exist in a subset of children with rapid onset or exacerbation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorders due to an initial autoimmune reaction to a Group A Beta Hemolytic…

  20. Manipulation of behavioral disorders in autoimmune mice via prolactin.

    PubMed

    Waters, N S; Badura, L L; Ahmed, S A; Gogal, R M; Denenberg, V H

    1997-11-01

    Autoimmune mice perform poorly in two-way active avoidance tasks, and the extent of this performance deficit appears to be related to the extent of autoimmunity following developmental manipulations. In the current study, the pituitary hormone prolactin, which has immune-enhancing effects, was used to manipulate this behavioral disorder in adulthood. Prolatinergic manipulation may be achieved by the use of dopaminergic drugs. In two experiments, autoimmune NZB X NZW F1 (BW) mice received either pimozide (PIM; a D2 antagonist) or bromocriptine (CB154; a dopamine agonist) in their drinking water. Control subjects received plain water. Following treatment, subjects were tested in an activity monitor, and active avoidance learning. Circulating PRL levels, as measured by RIA, were significantly increased by PIM and significantly decreased by CB154. Neither drug affected circulating levels of autoantibodies to DNA or cardiolipin, a phospholipid. In Experiment 1, in which mice were tested at 12 weeks of age, after 6 weeks of drug treatment, PIM treated animals of both sexes showed significantly more failures to escape the shock in avoidance conditioning, while CB154 did not have significant effects. In Experiment 2, in which mice were tested at 16 weeks of age, after 12 weeks of drug treatment, CB154 treated females (males were not tested) showed significantly fewer failures to escape, while PIM did not have significant effects. The effects of PRL on behavior, and its relation to immune system function, are discussed. PMID:9333190

  1. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections: an overview.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Bianchini, S; Baggi, E; Fattizzo, M; Rigante, D

    2014-12-01

    The acronym PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections) has been used to describe a syndrome characterized by various obsessions, compulsions, tics, hyperactivity, motor stereotypies, and paroxysmal movement disorders that are correlated with prior infection by group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (GABHS) infections. Five clinical criteria can be used to diagnose PANDAS: (1) the presence of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or any other tic disorders; (2) prepuberal onset (between 3 years of age and the start of puberty); (3) abrupt onset and relapsing-remitting symptom course; (4) a distinct association with GABHS infection; and (5) association with neurological abnormalities during exacerbations (adventitious movements or motoric hyperactivity). The exact pathogenesis of PANDAS remains unclear, and several theories that focus on multiple etiologic or contributive factors have emerged. PANDAS appears to be a neurobiological disorder that potentially complicates GABHS infections in genetically susceptible individuals. The current standard of care for PANDAS patients remains symptomatic, and cognitive behavioral therapy, such as exposure and response prevention, combined with family counseling and psychoeducation, should be the first approach for treating PANDAS. This review examines current theories of PANDAS pathogenesis, identifies possible treatments for managing this complex condition, and highlights areas for future research. Moving forward, developing more standardized diagnostic criteria and identifying specific laboratory markers to facilitate PANDAS diagnoses are crucial. PMID:24953744

  2. Dual action of glatiramer acetate (Cop1) in the treatment of CNS autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan Kipnis; Michal Schwartz

    2002-01-01

    Protective autoimmunity is the body's defense mechanism against destructive self-compounds such as those commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Autoimmune disease and neurodegenerative disorders can thus be viewed as two extreme manifestations of the same process. Therefore, when designing therapy, it is important to avoid an approach that will cure the one by invoking the other. One way to stop, or

  3. Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and autoimmune disorders (AD): cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Braun, Thorsten; Fenaux, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) and Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia (CMML) are frequently associated with clinical manifestations of autoimmune disorders (AD) and inflammatory response of the immune system. AD accompanying MDS and CMML include vasculitis, seronegative polyarthritis and neutrophilic dermatosis. Rare AD including relapsing polychondritis is strongly associated with MDS as in a high proportion of those patients MDS is diagnosed during disease course. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are frequently found among MDS patients without clinical manifestation of AD. In a subset of patients, MDS and resulting cytopenias appear to be the consequence of auto reactive immunologic activity and may respond to immunosuppressive treatment (IST). Increased release of inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-? and interferon (IF)-? triggers apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells leading to cytopenias. Impaired function of immune cells including cytotoxic, regulatory (Treg), helper (Th17) T cells and NK cells also appears to predict response to IST, outcome and occurrence of AD. PMID:24507810

  4. Secondary adrenal insufficiency associated with autoimmune disorders: a report of twenty-five cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Kasperlik-Za?uska; B. Czarnocka; W. Czech; J. Walecki; A. M. Makowska; J. Brzezi?ski; J. Aniszewski

    1998-01-01

    Summary OBJECTIVE Addison's disease is frequently a com- ponent of autoimmune polyendocrinopathies while secondary adrenal insufficiency associated with auto- immune disorders is believed to be a rare event. We present a series of patients with secondary adrenal insufficiency coexisting with autoimmune diseases and\\/or antithyroid autoantibodies. DESIGN AND PATIENTS Among a group of 102 patients with secondary adrenal failure of unknown

  5. Intravenous immunoglobulin in autoimmune disorders: An insight into the immunoregulatory mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagadeesh Bayary; Sooryasarathi Dasgupta; Namita Misra; Amal Ephrem; Jean-Paul Duong Van Huyen; Sandrine Delignat; Gazzala Hassan; Giuseppina Caligiuri; Antonino Nicoletti; Sebastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Michel D. Kazatchkine; Srini Kaveri

    2006-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IGIV) has increasingly been used for the treatment of autoimmune and systemic inflammatory diseases in addition to supportive therapy of immunodeficient patients. IGIV is beneficial in several diseases, including acute and chronic\\/relapsing diseases, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory disorders. Therapeutic efficacy of IGIV has also been established in a number of dermatologic diseases. Although a considerable progress has been

  6. Hair disorders associated with autoimmune connective tissue diseases.

    PubMed

    Cassano, N; Amerio, P; D'Ovidio, R; Vena, G A

    2014-10-01

    Hair disorders are frequently observed in various systemic diseases, including autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), with predilection of lupus erythematosus (LE), followed by dermatomyositis (DM) and scleroderma. Hair disorders in CTDs may manifest as various clinical patterns, such as telogen hair loss, diffuse thinning or fragility of hair, and scarring alopecia. Less common hair disorders include anagen effluvium, alopecia areata, and trichomegaly. Some drugs used to treat CTDs may cause hair loss in a drug-related manner or hyperthrichosis. In the assessment of common hair loss patterns, such as telogen effluvium, the possible association with CTDs must be borne in mind and should not be overlooked. Alopecia appears to be a significant sign in the course of LE and especially systemic LE. In DM, the involvement of the scalp is common, and is often characterized by a diffuse, violaceous, scaly, non-scarring and symptomatic hair loss. Linear scleroderma en coup de sabre is an uncommon localized form of morphea with involvement of the paramedian forehead and frontal scalp, where it is associated with cicatricial alopecia. The most important variant of scarring alopecia in the context of CTDs is that associated with discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE). In the diagnostic work-up of DLE-related cicatrical alopecia, histopathological and immunopathological studies are useful, and a relevant role has been attributed to dermatoscopy (trichoscopy) over the last years. Hair loss has been reported in several other CTDs, including mixed and undifferentiated CTDs, and primary Sjögren's syndrome, although it is likely to be underestimated in such diseases. PMID:24975949

  7. HLA antigens in patients with interferon-?-induced autoimmune thyroid disorders in chronic hepatitis C

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoru Kakizaki; Hitoshi Takagi; Masami Murakami; Hisashi Takayama; Masatomo Mori

    1999-01-01

    Background\\/Aims: To determine the immunological predisposition to autoimmune thyroid disorders induced by interferon-? therapy, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) was analyzed in patients with chronic hepatitis C who developed autoimmune thyroid disorders during or after treatment with interferon-?.Methods: Four hundred and thirty-nine patients with chronic hepatitis C (278 males and 161 females, aged 20–73 years) were treated with interferon-? (natural-?, 169;

  8. Most nuclear systemic autoantigens are extremely disordered proteins: implications for the etiology of systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Carl, Philip L; Temple, Brenda RS; Cohen, Philip L

    2005-01-01

    Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases usually produce high levels of antibodies to self-antigens (autoantigens). The repertoire of common autoantigens is remarkably limited, yet no readily understandable shared thread links these apparently diverse proteins. Using computer prediction algorithms, we have found that most nuclear systemic autoantigens are predicted to contain long regions of extreme structural disorder. Such disordered regions would generally make poor B cell epitopes and are predicted to be under-represented as potential T cell epitopes. Consideration of the potential role of protein disorder may give novel insights into the possible role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. The recognition of extreme autoantigen protein disorder has led us to an explicit model of epitope spreading that explains many of the paradoxical aspects of autoimmunity – in particular, the difficulty in identifying autoantigen-specific helper T cells that might collaborate with the B cells activated in systemic autoimmunity. The model also explains the experimentally observed breakdown of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class specificity in peptides associated with the MHC II proteins of activated autoimmune B cells, and sheds light on the selection of particular T cell epitopes in autoimmunity. Finally, the model helps to rationalize the relative rarity of clinically significant autoimmunity despite the prevalence of low specificity/low avidity autoantibodies in normal individuals. PMID:16277689

  9. TGF-?/BMPs: crucial crossroad in neural autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Voumvourakis, Konstantine I; Antonelou, Roubina Ch; Kitsos, Dimitrios K; Stamboulis, Eleftherios; Tsiodras, Sotirios

    2011-10-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) has a crucial role in the differentiation of ectodermal cells to neural or epidermal precursors. TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein molecules (BMPs) are involved in many developmental processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, mitotic arrest and intercellular interactions during morphogenesis. Additionally, the failure of central thymic tolerance mechanisms, leading to T cells with a skewed autoreactive response, is being described as a contributor in inflammatory processes in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Since TGF-? and BMP proteins are crucial for the development of the neural system and the thymus, as well as for the differentiation of T cells, it is essential to further investigate their role in the pathophysiology of this disorder by using references from embryonic experimental research. Available literature in the TGF/BMP signalling cascade, mostly during embryonic development of the nervous system is being reviewed. An attempt is made to further elucidate a potential role of TGF/BMP signalling in the pathophysiology of MS. During demyelination, BMP signaling, through various molecular mechanisms, directs the development of the adult neural stem cell in the astrocyte rather than the oligodendrocyte direction, therefore inhibiting the repair process. Further understanding of the above relationships could lead to the development of potentially efficient therapies for MS in the future. PMID:21718734

  10. Detecting pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder and tics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tanya K. Murphy; Muhammad Sajid; Ohel Soto; Nathan Shapira; Paula Edge; Mark Yang; Mark H. Lewis; Wayne K. Goodman

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundA subgroup of children with obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders are proposed to have an infectious trigger. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between group A streptococcal titers and symptom fluctuations in children with a clinical course resembling that described for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus.

  11. Cardiovascular Risk in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Autoimmune Rheumatic Disorders: a Suggested Model of Preventive Strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elena Bartoloni; Alessia Alunno; Onelia Bistoni; Roberto Gerli

    The pathogenesis of accelerated cardiovascular damage commonly characterizing patients affected by systemic chronic inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune rheumatic disorders is quite complex and still not fully clarified. However, it is well accepted that a strong\\u000a relationship between multiple factors, including both traditional cardiovascular risk factors and disease-related inflammatory\\u000a and autoimmune mechanisms, may in part explain the precocious atherosclerotic vessel damage and

  12. Autoimmune enteropathy and colitis: is there a generalised autoimmune gut disorder?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S M Hill; P J Milla; G F Bottazzo; R Mirakian

    1991-01-01

    Children with protracted diarrhoea, circulating enterocyte autoantibodies, and an enteropathy showing features of inappropriate HLA molecule expression on the jejunal crypt epithelium, often present with persistent blood and mucus in their stools. Eight children with autoimmune enteropathy were investigated for the presence of associated colonic disease. Six children with protracted diarrhoea, no circulating autoantibodies, and an enteropathy (in five of

  13. [Type 1 polyglandular autoimmune syndrome associated with C322fsx372 mutation].

    PubMed

    Roncalés-Samanes, P; de Arriba Muńoz, A; Lou Francés, G M; Ferrer Lozano, M; Justa Roldán, M L; Labarta Aizpun, J I

    2015-01-01

    Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes are rare diseases based on autoimmune mechanisms in which endocrine and non-endocrine disorders coexist. In type 1 the characteristic manifestations are chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and adrenal insufficiency. A case is presented of a patient with typical clinical sequence, along with other changes, and in whom a mutation in homozygosis, C322fsX372, was detected after performing a molecular analysis of autoimmunity regulator gene (AIRE). Inheritance is autosomal recessive, associated with mutations in the AIRE gene, which encodes a protein involved in autoimmunity and immunodeficiency. For diagnosis, At least two of the three major clinical manifestations are required for a diagnosis. However, only one of them is necessary in the study of relatives of affected patients. These syndromes must be diagnosed early, given their high morbidity and mortality. Every manifestation needs to be treated, in order to maintain the quality of life. PMID:24582129

  14. Pulmonary Autoimmunity as a Feature of Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome Type 1 and Identification of KCNRG as a Bronchial Autoantigen

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -specific autoantigens. Endocrine and also non-endocrine organs such as skin, hair follicles and liver are targeted) suffer from multiple organ-specific autoimmunity with autoantibodies against target tissue

  15. [Intravenous immunoglobulins in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders: beyond a simple substitution].

    PubMed

    Galeotti, C; Maddur, M S; Kazatchkine, M-D; Mouthon, L; Kaveri, S-V

    2009-05-01

    Despite their widespread use since many years in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, the mechanisms of action of IVIg have not been completely understood. These mechanisms depend on Fc and/or F(ab')2. IVIg interacts with the different components of the immune system: Fc receptors, complement, cytokines, T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, granulocytes and NK cells. Here, we discuss the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of action of IVIg, in particular the importance of the sialylated Fc fragment. These advances maybe help us conceive better therapeutic strategies against autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. PMID:19443254

  16. Biologics in children’s autoimmune disorders: efficacy and safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciana Breda; Marianna Del Torto; Sara De Sanctis; Francesco Chiarelli

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases have led to the discovery of mechanisms of inflammation and\\u000a autoimmunity and have made possible the invention of new target-specific drugs. Biologic drugs, designed to inhibit specific\\u000a components of the immune system, such as cytokines, cytokine gene expression, and their complex interactions, have revolutionized\\u000a the treatment options in pediatric rheumatology. Only three

  17. Left-Handedness, dyslexia, and autoimmune disorder: A critique

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Satz; Henry V. Soper

    1986-01-01

    Concerns are raised regarding recent claims of an association between left-handedness and autoimmune disease and\\/or dyslexia. The available data provide only marginal support at best for these claims which, in addition, contain potentially misleading implications about left-handedness. Furthermore, some of the theoretical bases for the proposed associations are inconsistent with the relevant literature. Revisions in the theory are suggested to

  18. Gastrointestinal Disorder Associated with Olmesartan Mimics Autoimmune Enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Meresse, Bertrand; Guegan, Nicolas; Brousse, Nicole; Verkarre, Virginie; Derrieux, Coralie; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Seksik, Philippe; Savoye, Guillaume; Cadiot, Guillaume; Vuitton, Lucine; Marthey, Lysiane; Carbonnel, Franck; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine; Cellier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Anti-hypertensive treatment with the angiotensin II receptor antagonist olmesartan is a rare cause of severe Sprue-like enteropathy. To substantiate the hypothesis that olmesartan interferes with gut immune homeostasis, clinical, histopathological and immune features were compared in olmesartan-induced-enteropathy (OIE) and in autoimmune enteropathy (AIE). Methods Medical files of seven patients with OIE and 4 patients with AIE enrolled during the same period were retrospectively reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were collected for central histopathological review, T cell Receptor clonality and flow cytometric analysis of isolated intestinal lymphocytes. Results Among seven olmesartan-treated patients who developed villous atrophy refractory to a gluten free diet, three had extra-intestinal autoimmune diseases, two had antibodies reacting with the 75 kilodalton antigen characteristic of AIE and one had serum anti-goblet cell antibodies. Small intestinal lesions and signs of intestinal lymphocyte activation were thus reminiscent of the four cases of AIE diagnosed during the same period. Before olmesartan discontinuation, remission was induced in all patients (7/7) by immunosuppressive drugs. After interruption of both olmesartan and immunosuppressive drugs in six patients, remission was maintained in 4 but anti-TNF-? therapy was needed in two. Conclusion This case-series shows that olmesartan can induce intestinal damage mimicking AIE. OIE usually resolved after olmesartan interruption but immunosuppressive drugs may be necessary to achieve remission. Our data sustain the hypothesis that olmesartan interferes with intestinal immuno regulation in predisposed individuals. PMID:26101883

  19. Incidence and Significance of Organ-Specific Autoimmune Disorders (Clinical, Latent or only Autoantibodies) in Patients with Vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Betterle; A. Caretto; A. De Zio; B. Pedini; C. Veller-Fornasa; A. Cecchetto; F. Accordi; A. Peserico

    1985-01-01

    The frequency of autoimmune disorders was determined in 373 vitiligo patients and in controls matched for sex, age and race. Vitiligo patients had an increased frequency of clinical autoimmune diseases of thyroid (7.5%), stomach (0.8%), parathyroid (1%), adrenal gland (1.3%). Vitiligo patients, without clinical signs of overt autoimmune diseases, also had a statistically significant increase in the frequency of gastric

  20. Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes: a pooled analysis within the InterLymph Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Ekstrom Smedby; Claire M. Vajdic; Michael Falster; Eric A. Engels; Otoniel Martő ´ nez-Maza; Jennifer Turner; Henrik Hjalgrim; Paolo Vineis; Adele Seniori Costantini; Paige M. Bracci; Elizabeth A. Holly; John J. Spinelli; Tongzhang Zheng; Brian C.-H. Chiu; Marc Maynadie; Paul Brennan; Scott Davis; James R. Cerhan; Elizabeth C. Breen; Andrew E. Grulich; Wendy Cozen

    2008-01-01

    Some autoimmune disorders are increas- ingly recognized as risk factors for non- Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) overall, but large-scale systematic assessments of risk of NHL subtypes are lacking. We performed a pooled analysis of self- reported autoimmune conditions and risk of NHL and subtypes, including 29 423 participants in 12 case-control studies. We computed pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence

  1. Genome-wide Association Study of Dermatomyositis Reveals Genetic Overlap with other Autoimmune Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Frederick W.; Cooper, Robert G.; Vencovsky, Jiri; Rider, Lisa G.; Danko, Katalin; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Pachman, Lauren M.; Reed, Ann M.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Padyukov, Leonid; Selva-O’Callaghan, Albert; Radstake, Timothy; Isenberg, David A.; Chinoy, Hector; Ollier, William E. R.; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Peng, Bo; Lee, Annette; Lamb, Janine A.; Chen, Wei; Amos, Christopher I.; Gregersen, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify new genetic associations with juvenile and adult dermatomyositis (DM). Methods We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of adult and juvenile DM patients of European ancestry (n = 1178) and controls (n = 4724). To assess genetic overlap with other autoimmune disorders, we examined whether 141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) outside the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, and previously associated with autoimmune diseases, predispose to DM. Results Compared to controls, patients with DM had a strong signal in the MHC region consisting of GWAS-level significance (P < 5x10?8) at 80 genotyped SNPs. An analysis of 141 non-MHC SNPs previously associated with autoimmune diseases showed that three SNPs linked with three genes were associated with DM, with a false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.05. These genes were phospholipase C like 1 (PLCL1, rs6738825, FDR=0.00089), B lymphoid tyrosine kinase (BLK, rs2736340, FDR=0.00031), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 21 (CCL21, rs951005, FDR=0.0076). None of these genes was previously reported to be associated with DM. Conclusion Our findings confirm the MHC as the major genetic region associated with DM and indicate that DM shares non-MHC genetic features with other autoimmune diseases, suggesting the presence of additional novel risk loci. This first identification of autoimmune disease genetic predispositions shared with DM may lead to enhanced understanding of pathogenesis and novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. PMID:23983088

  2. Autoimmune neurological disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection.

    PubMed

    Hachiya, Yasuo; Miyata, Rie; Tanuma, Naoyuki; Hongou, Kazuhisa; Tanaka, Keiko; Shimoda, Konomi; Kanda, Sachiko; Hoshino, Ai; Hanafusa, Yukiko; Kumada, Satoko; Kurihara, Eiji; Hayashi, Masaharu

    2013-08-01

    Although central nervous system (CNS) disorders associated with group-A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GABHS) infection occur only rarely, Sydenham's chorea is a well-recognized disease that can arise following infection. Children may develop a tic, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and extrapyramidal movement subsequent to GABHS infection. These disorders have been termed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococci (PANDAS). Herein we report one case each of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), PANDAS and subacute encephalitis associated with GABHS infection. To evaluate the pathogenesis of the CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection, we measured levels of neurotransmitters, cytokines, anti-neuronal autoantibodies, and performed immunohistochemistry using patient sera to stain human brain sections. All three cases showed psychiatric behavioral disorders. Immunotherapy was effective, and homovanillic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were elevated at the acute stage in all three cases. In each case of ADEM and PANDAS, immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal impairment in the basal ganglia during the acute stage. Neuronal immunoreactivity was visualized in the cerebral cortex at the acute stage in the case of subacute encephalitis. There was no direct correlation between immunoreactivity of patient sera on the brain sections and positivity of anti-neuronal autoantibodies or CSF biomarkers. The results suggest that autoimmune responses may modulate neurotransmission, and the use of patient serum for immunohistochemistry is a sensitive screening method for the detection of anti-neuronal autoantibodies in CNS disorders associated with GABHS infection. PMID:23142103

  3. Undiagnosed coeliac disease and risk of autoimmune disorders in subjects with Type I diabetes mellitus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Tommasini; G. Tonini; E. Buratti; M. Pocecco; C. Tortul; M. Valussi; G. Crichiutti; I. Berti; C. Trevisiol; E. Azzoni; E. Neri; G. Torre; S. Martelossi; M. Soban; A. Lenhardt; L. Cattin; A. Ventura

    2001-01-01

    Aims\\/hypothesis. We tested the hypothesis that silent coeliac disease is more frequent than expected in both patients with Type I (insulin-dependent)\\u000a diabetes mellitus and their first-degree relatives. We evaluated how the presence of other autoimmune disorders in diabetic\\u000a patients and their first-degree relatives is related to silent, unrecognized coeliac disease. Methods. Sera from 491 subjects with Type I diabetes, 824

  4. Autoimmune thyroid disorders in juvenile chronic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Mihailova, D; Grigorova, R; Vassileva, B; Mladenova, G; Ivanova, N; Stephanov, S; Lissitchky, K; Dimova, E

    1999-01-01

    The appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis in the course of other autoimmune diseases, which do not affect specific organs (systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and others), is more frequent than is usually believed. Nevertheless, it is scarcely studied, especially in children. The purpose of this study was to look for autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Twenty seven children having JCA and twelve children with SLE, aged 5 to 18 years, were enrolled into study. In all of them the disease was in an active phase. The serum levels of total thyroid hormones (T3, T4) and TSH, thyroid antibodies (TAB and MAB) and antinuclear antibodies (ANAB) were analyzed using respectively fluoroimmunologic, microhemagglutination and indirect immunofluorescention tests. According to our results, autoimmune thyroiditis was found in 12 out of 27 children with JCA (44.4%); 85.2% of them were euthyroid, 11.1% had a compensated hypothyroidism, and 3.7% had Hashi-toxicosis. From a clinical point of view, very interesting was the combination of JCA, autoimmune thyroiditis and pseudoxanthoma elasticum in a 13-year old girl. Positive thyroglobulin antibodies (1:80-1:5120) were found in 17 out of 27 cases of JCA (63%). The microsomal antibodies were elevated (1:100-1:1600) in 7 out of 27 (25.9%); antinuclear antibodies (1:80-1:640) were detected in 15 out of 27 cases of JCA (55.5%). A simultaneous elevation of all three kinds of antibodies was found in 14.8% of children with JCA, and of TAB and MAB--in 18.5%. Thyroid gland disorders were detected also in children suffering from SLE. Thyroglobulin antibodies were positive (1:80-1:5120) in 7 out of 12 cases. Antinuclear antibodies (1:320-1:2560) were detected in 8 out of 12 cases (66.7%). The serum levels of T3, T4 and TSH were in the reference limits in all children with SLE. The present study suggests that involvement of the thyroid gland is not uncommon in autoimmune disease in Autoimmune thyroiditis can occur in association with other autoimmune diseases, affecting some organs or systems, such as the insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, pernicious anaemia, thrombocytopenia, vitiligo, as well as some chromosomal aberrations--Turner's syndrome, Noonan's syndrome and Down's disease [1]. The appearance of autoimmune thyroiditis together with other autoimmune diseases which do not affect specific organs (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome) is the reason to classify them in a common subgroup of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes--type IIID [2]. The rheumatic diseases are--more frequently than suspected--associated with autoimmune thyroiditis, but this connection is not well studied. The literature offers very scarce information on the problem, especially for the childhood. The purpose of this study was to look for autoimmune lesions of the thyroid gland in children suffering from juvenile chronic arthritis (JCA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PMID:10599323

  5. Animal models for autoimmune demyelinating disorders of the nervous system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Gold; Hans-Peter Hartung; Klaus V Toyka

    2000-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that takes a relapsing–remitting or a progressive course (reviewed in Refs 1,2). Its counterpart in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) (reviewed in Ref. 3). In addition, there are acute, monophasic disorders, such as the inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy termed Guillain–Barré syndrome

  6. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): Experience at a Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Helm, Caitlin E.; Blackwood, R. Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics. Like Sydenham’s chorea, its presumed pathogenesis consists of autoantibodies cross-reacting with neurons in response to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (GASI). There are currently no diagnostic laboratory findings and management ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis to intravenous immunoglobulin to plasmapheresis. The diagnosis remains controversial, resulting in inconsistent referrals and significant patient anxiety. Methods A retrospective study was performed on all patients referred to the Pediatric Infectious Disease Division with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Patients were analyzed by demographics, medical history, co-morbidities, symptoms, prior treatment, laboratory tests, management strategies, and treatment outcomes. Results From 2003 to 2013, there were 21 patients with a pre-referral diagnosis of PANDAS. Only five met the diagnostic criteria. No patient at referral had an objective scale to monitor symptoms. Eight referrals had a major psychiatric disorder, and none fulfilled diagnostic criteria (p<0.01). Discussion The majority of the patients referred with a pre-diagnosis of PANDAS do not fulfill diagnostic criteria nor do they have objective criteria for symptom monitoring. Major psychiatric disorders do not seem to be associated with PANDAS, and better physician education may prevent misdiagnoses. Multidisciplinary management is recommended. PMID:26196024

  7. Antibodies to surface dopamine-2 receptor in autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Dale, Russell C; Merheb, Vera; Pillai, Sekhar; Wang, Dongwei; Cantrill, Laurence; Murphy, Tanya K; Ben-Pazi, Hilla; Varadkar, Sophia; Aumann, Tim D; Horne, Malcolm K; Church, Andrew J; Fath, Thomas; Brilot, Fabienne

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports of autoantibodies that bind to neuronal surface receptors or synaptic proteins have defined treatable forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Despite these developments, many cases of encephalitis remain unexplained. We have previously described a basal ganglia encephalitis with dominant movement and psychiatric disease, and proposed an autoimmune aetiology. Given the role of dopamine and dopamine receptors in the control of movement and behaviour, we hypothesized that patients with basal ganglia encephalitis and other putative autoimmune basal ganglia disorders harboured serum autoantibodies against important dopamine surface proteins. Basal ganglia encephalitis sera immunolabelled live surface cultured neurons that have high expression of dopamine surface proteins. To detect autoantibodies, we performed flow cytometry cell-based assays using human embryonic kidney cells to express surface antigens. Twelve of 17 children (aged 0.4-15 years, nine males) with basal ganglia encephalitis had elevated immunoglobulin G to extracellular dopamine-2 receptor, compared with 0/67 controls. Immunofluorescence on wild-type mouse brain showed that basal ganglia encephalitis sera immunolabelled microtubule-associated protein 2-positive neurons in striatum and also in cultured striatal neurons, whereas the immunolabelling was significantly decreased in dopamine-2 receptor knock-out brains. Immunocytochemistry confirmed that immunoreactivity localized to the surface of dopamine-2 receptor-transfected cells. Immunoabsorption of basal ganglia encephalitis sera on dopamine-2 receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells decreased immunolabelling of dopamine-2 receptor-transfected human embryonic kidney cells, neurons and wild-type mouse brain. Using a similar flow cytometry cell-based assay, we found no elevated immunoglobulin G binding to dopamine 1, 3 or 5 receptor, dopamine transporter or N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. The 12 dopamine-2 receptor antibody-positive patients with encephalitis had movement disorders characterized by parkinsonism, dystonia and chorea. In addition, the patients had psychiatric disturbance with emotional lability, attention deficit and psychosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed lesions localized to the basal ganglia in 50% of the patients. Elevated dopamine-2 receptor immunoglobulin G was also found in 10/30 patients with Sydenham's chorea, 0/22 patients with paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection and 4/44 patients with Tourette's syndrome. No dopamine-1 receptor immunoglobulin G was detected in any disease or control groups. We conclude that assessment of dopamine-2 receptor antibodies can help define autoimmune movement and psychiatric disorders. PMID:23065479

  8. From bone marrow transplantation to cellular therapies: possible therapeutic strategies in managing autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Taddio, Andrea; Biondi, Andrea; Piscianz, Elisa; Valencic, Erica; Biagi, Ettore; Badolato, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory disorders occurring in childhood represent a serious therapeutic challenge. However, available therapies seem not to be targeted on the pathogenic mechanism of the disease and are often not actively affecting the natural history of the disease. Emerging treatments might be of some benefit to many patients who did not respond to conventional therapeutic options. Biological therapies with monoclonal antibodies and other recombinant proteins have been introduced in clinical practice. At the same time, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have gained attention as a savage treatment in patients subjected to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation who develop severe graft versus host disease (GvHD); in addition, recent reports from clinical trials on larger cohorts of patients support their use as second-line treatment after failure of corticosteroid treatment. For analogy, they have been proposed for the treatment of intractable autoimmune disorders. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been shown to be effective for treatment of rheumatic disorder cases that were resistant to traditional therapies especially if combined with cell manipulation techniques, such as selection of regulatory T cell and depletion of harmful lymphocytes. We herein present the rationale of different strategies, the preliminary data obtained in clinical trials, unsolved problems and possible next developments of novel treatment protocols of autoimmune disorders. PMID:22726117

  9. A link between perianal strep and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Toufexis, Megan; Deoleo, Caroline; Elia, Josephine; Murphy, Tanya K

    2014-04-01

    Perianal streptococcal dermatitis is an infection caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). Children with a pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) phenotype may have tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms secondary to a systemic immune activation by GAS infecting perianal areas. In this retrospective case series, the authors describe three children with symptoms consistent with PANDAS and a confirmed perianal streptococcal dermatitis as the likely infectious trigger. Concomitant perianal dermatitis and new-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms and/or tics are strong indications for perianal culture and rapid antigen detection test in young children. PMID:24763762

  10. The expanding field of IgG4-mediated neurological autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Huijbers, M G; Querol, L A; Niks, E H; Plomp, J J; van der Maarel, S M; Graus, F; Dalmau, J; Illa, I; Verschuuren, J J

    2015-08-01

    At least 13 different disease entities affecting the central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and connective tissue of the skin or kidneys are associated with immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) immune reactivity. IgG4 has always been considered a benign, non-inflammatory subclass of IgG, in contrast to the well-known complement-activating pro-inflammatory IgG1 subclass. A comprehensive review of these IgG4 autoimmune disorders reveals striking similarities in epitope binding and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations. Mechanical interference of extracellular ligand-receptor interactions by the associated IgG4 antibodies seems to be the common/converging disease mechanism in these disorders. PMID:26032110

  11. Acute myocardial infarction associated with high dose intravenous immunoglobulin infusion for autoimmune disorders. A study of four cases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ori Elkayam; Daphna Paran; Ronny Milo; Yaron Davidovitz; Dorit Almoznino-Sarafian; David Zeltser; Michael Yaron; Dan Caspi

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVETo report on four patients with autoimmune disorders who developed acute myocardial infarction (MI) during or soon after treatment with high dose intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) and to determine the clinical profile of patients prone to this complication.METHODSThe clinical history of the four patients is reported with details concerning age, sex, indication for IVIG treatment, risk factors, timing of the MI

  12. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin in the treatment of twelve youths with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Miro; Grant, Paul; Swedo, Susan E

    2015-02-01

    This is a case series describing 12 youths treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS). Although it is a clinically based series, the case reports provide new information about the short-term benefits of IVIG therapy, and are the first descriptions of long-term outcome for PANDAS patients. PMID:25658609

  13. Inhibition of sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase for the treatment of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Bagdanoff, Jeffrey T; Donoviel, Michael S; Nouraldeen, Amr; Tarver, James; Fu, Qinghong; Carlsen, Marianne; Jessop, Theodore C; Zhang, Haiming; Hazelwood, Jill; Nguyen, Huy; Baugh, Simon D P; Gardyan, Michael; Terranova, Kristen M; Barbosa, Joseph; Yan, Jack; Bednarz, Mark; Layek, Suman; Courtney, Lawrence F; Taylor, Jerry; Digeorge-Foushee, Ann Marie; Gopinathan, Suma; Bruce, Debra; Smith, Traci; Moran, Liam; O'Neill, Emily; Kramer, Jeff; Lai, Zhong; Kimball, S David; Liu, Qingyun; Sun, Weimei; Yu, Sean; Swaffield, Jonathan; Wilson, Alan; Main, Alan; Carson, Kenneth G; Oravecz, Tamas; Augeri, David J

    2009-07-01

    During nearly a decade of research dedicated to the study of sphingosine signaling pathways, we identified sphingosine-1-phosphate lyase (S1PL) as a drug target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. S1PL catalyzes the irreversible decomposition of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) by a retro-aldol fragmentation that yields hexadecanaldehyde and phosphoethanolamine. Genetic models demonstrated that mice expressing reduced S1PL activity had decreased numbers of circulating lymphocytes due to altered lymphocyte trafficking, which prevented disease development in multiple models of autoimmune disease. Mechanistic studies of lymphoid tissue following oral administration of 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1(R),2(S),3(R),4-tetrahydroxybutyl)-imidazole (THI) 3 showed a clear relationship between reduced lyase activity, elevated S1P levels, and lower levels of circulating lymphocytes. Our internal medicinal chemistry efforts discovered potent analogues of 3 bearing heterocycles as chemical equivalents of the pendant carbonyl present in the parent structure. Reduction of S1PL activity by oral administration of these analogues recapitulated the phenotype of mice with genetically reduced S1PL expression. PMID:19489538

  14. Antigen and substrate withdrawal in the management of autoimmune thrombotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCrae, Keith R.; Zheng, X. Long; Sachais, Bruce S.; Luning Prak, Eline T.; Siegel, Don L.

    2012-01-01

    Prevailing approaches to manage autoimmune thrombotic disorders, such as heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, antiphospholipid syndrome and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, include immunosuppression and systemic anticoagulation, though neither provides optimal outcome for many patients. A different approach is suggested by the concurrence of autoantibodies and their antigenic targets in the absence of clinical disease, such as platelet factor 4 in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and ?2-glycoprotein-I (?2GPI) in antiphospholipid syndrome. The presence of autoantibodies in the absence of disease suggests that conformational changes or other alterations in endogenous protein autoantigens are required for recognition by pathogenic autoantibodies. In thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, the clinical impact of ADAMTS13 deficiency caused by autoantibodies likely depends on the balance between residual antigen, that is, enzyme activity, and demand imposed by local genesis of ultralarge multimers of von Willebrand factor. A corollary of these concepts is that disrupting platelet factor 4 and ?2GPI conformation (or ultralarge multimer of von Willebrand factor oligomerization or function) might provide a disease-targeted approach to prevent thrombosis without systemic anticoagulation or immunosuppression. Validation of this approach requires a deeper understanding of how seemingly normal host proteins become antigenic or undergo changes that increase antibody avidity, and how they can be altered to retain adaptive functions while shedding epitopes prone to elicit harmful autoimmunity. PMID:22966172

  15. Glassy Dynamics in the Immune System Prevents Auto-Immune Disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jun

    2005-03-01

    A model of protein evolution is introduced. Hierarchical structures of the protein sequences or modularities play an important role in the dynamics. Computer simulations of the dynamics show that different evolving mechanisms(DNA swapping + point mutation v.s. point mutation ) lead to different stable(metastable) states. From the immunological point of view, point mutation corresponding to the metastable state has the advantage of preventing auto-immune disorders. The energy of the equilibrium states is determined only by the dynamics and independent of the initial states. Differences in initial states leads to different times of reaching equilibrium, and the binding energy is linear to the difference. Analytical arguments will be given as well to explain these features.

  16. Dimethyl Fumarate Protects Pancreatic Islet Cells and Non-Endocrine Tissue in L-Arginine-Induced Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Lourdes; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Li, Shiri; Masuda, Yuichi; Takasu, Chie; Takasu, Mizuki; Vo, Kelly; Farzaneh, Seyed H.; Stamos, Michael J.; Ichii, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive disorder resulting in the destruction and fibrosis of the pancreatic parenchyma which ultimately leads to impairment of the endocrine and exocrine functions. Dimethyl Fumarate (DMF) was recently approved by FDA for treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. DMF's unique anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it an interesting drug to test on other inflammatory conditions. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of DMF on islet cells and non-endocrine tissue in a rodent model of L-Arginine-induced CP. Methods Male Wistar rats fed daily DMF (25 mg/kg) or vehicle by oral gavage were given 5 IP injections of L-Arginine (250 mg/100 g×2, 1 hr apart). Rats were assessed with weights and intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance tests (IPGTT, 2 g/kg). Islets were isolated and assessed for islet mass and viability with flow cytometry. Non-endocrine tissue was assessed for histology, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and lipid peroxidation level (MDA). In vitro assessments included determination of heme oxygenase (HO-1) protein expression by Western blot. Results Weight gain was significantly reduced in untreated CP group at 6 weeks. IPGTT revealed significant impairment in untreated CP group and its restoration with DMF therapy (P <0.05). Untreated CP rats had pancreatic atrophy, severe acinar architectural damage, edema, and fatty infiltration as well as elevated MDA and MPO levels, which were significantly improved by DMF treatment. After islet isolation, the volume of non-endocrine tissue was significantly smaller in untreated CP group. Although islet counts were similar in the two groups, islet viability was significantly reduced in untreated CP group and improved with DMF treatment. In vitro incubation of human pancreatic tissue with DMF significantly increased HO-1 expression. Conclusion Administration of DMF attenuated L-Arginine-induced CP and islet function in rats. DMF treatment could be a possible strategy to improve clinical outcome in patients with CP. PMID:25198679

  17. Autoimmune encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, Frank; Armangue, Thaís; Dalmau, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over the past 10 years, the continual discovery of novel forms of encephalitis associated with antibodies to cell-surface or synaptic proteins has changed the paradigms for diagnosing and treating disorders that were previously unknown or mischaracterized. We review here the process of discovery, the symptoms, and the target antigens of 11 autoimmune encephalitic disorders, grouped by syndromes and approached from a clinical perspective. Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, several subtypes of limbic encephalitis, stiff-person spectrum disorders, and other autoimmune encephalitides that result in psychosis, seizures, or abnormal movements are described in detail. We include a novel encephalopathy with prominent sleep dysfunction that provides an intriguing link between chronic neurodegeneration and cell-surface autoimmunity (IgLON5). Some of the caveats of limited serum testing are outlined. In addition, we review the underlying cellular and synaptic mechanisms that for some disorders confirm the antibody pathogenicity. The multidisciplinary impact of autoimmune encephalitis has been expanded recently by the discovery that herpes simplex encephalitis is a robust trigger of synaptic autoimmunity, and that some patients may develop overlapping syndromes, including anti-NMDAR encephalitis and neuromyelitis optica or other demyelinating diseases. PMID:25315420

  18. Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS): An Evolving Concept

    PubMed Central

    Macerollo, Antonella; Martino, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus infections (PANDAS) originated from the observational work of Swedo and collaborators, who formalized their definition in 1998 in a set of operational criteria. The application of these criteria, which focuses on tics and obsessive-compulsive symptoms as core symptoms, has encountered difficulties, eventually leading to a high rate of misdiagnosis. In particular, the core feature represented by the association between newly diagnosed infections and neuropsychiatric symptom relapses in youths with this diagnosis could not be demonstrated by longitudinal studies. Exploratory studies aiming to identify clinical or cognitive features that could discriminate PANDAS from other pediatric obsessive-compulsive and tic disorders present methodological limitations, and therefore are not conclusive. Other behavioral features, in addition to obsessive-compulsive symptoms and tics, have been included in pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndromes (PANS) and childhood acute neuropsychiatric syndromes (CANS), two new concepts recently proposed in order to define a much broader clinical spectrum encompassing etiologically diverse entities. Given the uncertainties on the clinical definition of PANDAS, it is not surprising that evidence in support of a post-infectious, immune-mediated pathophysiology is also insufficient. Anti-dopamine receptor antibodies might be relevant to both Sydenham’s chorea (SC)—the prototypical post-streptococcal neuropsychiatric disorder—and some rare forms of encephalitis targeting the basal ganglia specifically, but studies exploring their association with children fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS have been inconclusive. Moreover, we lack evidence in favor of the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis or tonsillectomy in patients fulfilling Swedo’s criteria for PANDAS, whereas a response to immune-mediated treatments like intravenous immunoglobulins has been documented by one study, but needs replication in larger trials. Overall, the available evidence does not convincingly support the concept that PANDAS are a well-defined, isolated clinical entity subdued by definite pathophysiological mechanisms; larger, prospective studies are necessary to reshape the nosography and disease mechanisms of post-streptococcal acute neuropsychiatric disorders other than SC. Research is also under way to shed further light on a possible relationship between streptococcal infections, other biological and psychosocial stressors, and the complex pathobiology of chronic tic disorders. PMID:24106651

  19. A review of high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (hdIVIg) in the treatment of the autoimmune blistering disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Jolles

    2001-01-01

    Summary High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (hdIVIg) is being used increasingly for dermatological indications. Its mode of action is via a number of proposed mechanisms and it is not associated with the many side-effects of steroids and other immunosuppressive agents. The evidence for using hdIVIg in the treatment of autoimmune bullous disorders is based on uncontrolled trials and case reports. However, there

  20. Immunological Profile of HTLV-1-Infected Patients Associated with Infectious or Autoimmune Dermatological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Mariana Costa; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Peruhype-Magalhăes, Vanessa; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; dos Santos Dias, Raquel; Martins, Marina Lobato; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara de Freitas; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+ T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-?/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection. PMID:23936564

  1. Immunological profile of HTLV-1-infected patients associated with infectious or autoimmune dermatological disorders.

    PubMed

    Coelho-dos-Reis, Jordana Grazziela Alves; Passos, Livia; Duarte, Mariana Costa; Araújo, Marcelo Grossi; Campi-Azevedo, Ana Carolina; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Peruhype-Magalhăes, Vanessa; Trindade, Bruno Caetano; Dos Santos Dias, Raquel; Martins, Marina Lobato; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara de Freitas; Guedes, Antônio Carlos; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the frequency, the activation and the cytokine and chemokine profile of HTLV-1 carriers with or without dermatological lesions were thoroughly described and compared. The results indicated that HTLV-1-infected patients with dermatological lesions have distinct frequency and activation status when compared to asymptomatic carriers. Alterations in the CD4(+)HLA-DR(+), CD8(+) T cell, macrophage-like and NKT subsets as well as in the serum chemokines CCL5, CXCL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 were observed in the HTLV-1-infected group with skin lesions. Additionally, HTLV-1 carriers with dermatological skin lesions showed more frequently high proviral load as compared to asymptomatic carriers. The elevated proviral load in HTLV-1 patients with infectious skin lesions correlated significantly with TNF-?/IL-10 ratio, while the same significant correlation was found for the IL-12/IL-10 ratio and the high proviral load in HTLV-1-infected patients with autoimmune skin lesions. All in all, these results suggest a distinct and unique immunological profile in the peripheral blood of HTLV-1-infected patients with skin disorders, and the different nature of skin lesion observed in these patients may be an outcome of a distinct unbalance of the systemic inflammatory response upon HTLV-1 infection. PMID:23936564

  2. Assessment of thyroid disorders and autoimmunity in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Acay, Akif; Ulu, Memnune Sena; Ahsen, Ahmet; Eroglu, Selma; Ozuguz, Ufuk; Yuksel, Seref; Acarturk, Gursel

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether there was a significant increase in thyroid autoimmunity, and disorders in patients with rheumatic diseases (RDs). We enrolled 201 patients with RDs (41 with ankylosing spondylitis, 15 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 80 with rheumatoid arthritis [RA], 65 with familial Mediterranean fever), and 122 healthy controls. Serum levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4), C-reactive protein, and thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase) were measured in all participants. There were no significant differences between the ages of the patients and controls. The mean TSH values of the patients with RDs and the controls were 3.1 ± 2.68 mIU/L and 1.9 ± 0.83 mIU/L, respectively (P = 0.004). The mean fT4 value of the patients with RDs was 1.43 ± 0.67 ng/dL whereas that of the controls was 1.58 ± 0.68 ng/dL (P <0.001). Subclinical hypothyroidism was detected in 24 patients with RDs. Thyroid antibodies were detected in 16 of 201 (8%) patients with RDs. Three of these patients had subclinical hypothyroidism, while the others were euthyroid. Thyroid autoantibodies were significantly higher in patients with RDs (P <0.001). Additionally, thyroid disorders were observed more frequently in patients with RDs than in the healthy controls. Based on our findings, we recommend that thyroid function tests should better be included in the clinical evaluation of patients with RDs. PMID:24965722

  3. Genetic control of autoimmunity in Type I diabetes and associated disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Redondo; G. S. Eisenbarth

    2002-01-01

    Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with major subdivisions termed Type 1A (immune-mediated)\\u000a and Type 1B. Immune-mediated diabetes is also heterogeneous with “monogenic”, oligogenic, and polygenic forms present in humans\\u000a and in animal models. Single-gene mutations of two transcription factors have been recently identified in rare syndromes of\\u000a autoimmunity with type 1A diabetes: autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type

  4. A Possible Mechanism behind Autoimmune Disorders Discovered By Genome-Wide Linkage and Association Analysis in Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Östensson, Malin; Montén, Caroline; Bacelis, Jonas; Gudjonsdottir, Audur H.; Adamovic, Svetlana; Ek, Johan; Ascher, Henry; Pollak, Elisabet; Arnell, Henrik; Browaldh, Lars; Agardh, Daniel; Wahlström, Jan; Nilsson, Staffan; Torinsson-Naluai, Ĺsa

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease is a common autoimmune disorder characterized by an intestinal inflammation triggered by gluten, a storage protein found in wheat, rye and barley. Similar to other autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis, celiac disease is the result of an immune response to self-antigens leading to tissue destruction and production of autoantibodies. Common diseases like celiac disease have a complex pattern of inheritance with inputs from both environmental as well as additive and non-additive genetic factors. In the past few years, Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have been successful in finding genetic risk variants behind many common diseases and traits. To complement and add to the previous findings, we performed a GWAS including 206 trios from 97 nuclear Swedish and Norwegian families affected with celiac disease. By stratifying for HLA-DQ, we identified a new genome-wide significant risk locus covering the DUSP10 gene. To further investigate the associations from the GWAS we performed pathway analyses and two-locus interaction analyses. These analyses showed an over-representation of genes involved in type 2 diabetes and identified a set of candidate mechanisms and genes of which some were selected for mRNA expression analysis using small intestinal biopsies from 98 patients. Several genes were expressed differently in the small intestinal mucosa from patients with celiac autoimmunity compared to intestinal mucosa from control patients. From top-scoring regions we identified susceptibility genes in several categories: 1) polarity and epithelial cell functionality; 2) intestinal smooth muscle; 3) growth and energy homeostasis, including proline and glutamine metabolism; and finally 4) innate and adaptive immune system. These genes and pathways, including specific functions of DUSP10, together reveal a new potential biological mechanism that could influence the genesis of celiac disease, and possibly also other chronic disorders with an inflammatory component. PMID:23936387

  5. Possible roles and determinants of microchimerism in autoimmune and other disorders.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Kakali; Miller, Frederick W

    2004-08-01

    Microchimerism is the presence of a low level of non-host stem cells or their progeny in an individual. The most common source of microchimerism is pregnancy. During pregnancy, bi-directional trafficking of hematopoietic cells occurs through the placenta and these microchimeric cells persist for decades after childbirth. A possible role of microchimerism in the pathogenesis of some (systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune thyroid diseases and juvenile myositis) but not all autoimmune diseases has been suggested by recent studies. Contradictory reports exist regarding HLA allelic associations with persistent T lymphocyte microchimerism. Although much of the focus of past studies has been on microchimerism in the effector arm of the immune system, increasing evidence suggests that microchimeric cells may differentiate into many lineages in different tissues raising additional possible roles for these cells. The possibility of microchimerism in many organs should induce an exploration of how persistent mixtures of cells of different genetic backgrounds throughout the body may influence diverse physiologic processes during life. In the present review, we discuss possible influencing factors and roles of all forms of microchimerism in autoimmune and non-autoimmune diseases. A better understanding of the immune mechanisms, along with the identification of environmental and genetic risk factors, is crucial for further deciphering the many possible implications of maternal-fetal and fetal-maternal cell trafficking in health and disease. PMID:15351311

  6. AUTOIMMUNE DISORDERS IN WOMEN WITH TURNER SYNDROME AND WOMEN WITH KARYOTYPICALLY NORMAL PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY

    PubMed Central

    Bakalov, Vladimir K.; Gutin, Liat; Cheng, Clara M; Zhou, Jian; Sheth, Puja; Shah, Kavita; Arepalli, Sruthi; Vanderhoof, Vien; Nelson, Lawrence M.; Bondy, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The higher prevalence of autoimmune diseases in women compared to men could be due to effects of ovarian hormones, pregnancy and/or the presence of a 2nd X chromosome. To elucidate the role of these factors, we investigated the prevalence and spectrum of autoimmune diagnoses in women with primary ovarian insufficiency associated with X chromosome monosomy (Turner syndrome, TS, n=244) and women with karyotypically normal (46,XX) primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, n=457) in a prospective study, conducted at the National Institutes of Health. We compared the study group prevalence to normative data for the U.S. population of women. Chronic lymphocytic (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis (HT) occurred in 37% of women with TS vs. 15% with POI (P<0.0001); HT prevalence in both ovarian insufficiency groups significantly exceeded that in U.S. population of women (5.8%). Inflammatory bowel (IBD, 4%) and celiac disease (CD, 2.7%) were significantly increased in TS, but not in POI. No other autoimmune diagnosis, including Graves’ disease or Type 1 diabetes appears to be significantly increased in either group. Women with TS had higher pro-inflammatory IL6 and TGF ?1 levels (p<0.0001 for both), and lower anti-inflammatory IL10 and TGF ?2 levels (p<0.005 for both) compared to POI and to normal volunteers. Lifetime estrogen exposure and parity were significantly lower in TS compared to POI, which were in turn lower than the general population of women. The finding that lymphocytic thyroiditis is greatly increased in both women with TS and POI suggests that factors associated with ovarian insufficiency per se promote this form of autoimmunity. The absence of a normal second X-chromosome further contributes to increased autoimmunity in TS. PMID:22342295

  7. Autoimmunity and reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eli Geva; Ami Amit; Liat Lerner-Geva; Joseph B. Lessing

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To review the association between autoimmunity and reproductive failure.Design: A MEDLINE search done from 1965 to 1996. More than 300 original and review articles were evaluated, from which the most relevant were selected.Result(s): Autoimmune processes now are accepted widely as one of the possible mechanisms of many human diseases. The presence of autoimmune disorders has been associated repeatedly with

  8. Vasoactive intestinal peptide induces regulatory dendritic cells with therapeutic effects on autoimmune disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejo Chorny; Elena Gonzalez-Rey; Amelia Fernandez-Martin; David Pozo; Doina Ganea; Mario Delgado

    2005-01-01

    The induction of antigen-specific tolerance is critical for the prevention of autoimmunity and maintenance of immune tolerance. In addition to their classical role as sentinels of the immune response-inducing T cell reactivity, dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in maintaining peripheral tolerance through the induction\\/activation of regulatory T cells (Tr). The possibility to generate tolerogenic DCs opens new therapeutic

  9. On the connection between autoimmunity, tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders: a meta-analysis on anti-streptolysin O titres.

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Marco; Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Perrotta, Cristiana; Radice, Sonia; Clementi, Emilio

    2014-12-01

    Anti-streptolysin O (ASO) titration is useful in the context of autoimmune pathologies, including specific cases of tic and obsessive-compulsive disorders occurring after streptococcal infections. There is currently a lack of consensus on the use of ASO titres; therefore we performed a meta-analysis to systematise available data and clarify the role of ASO titres in the context of neuropsychiatric disorders. A meta-analysis was performed on ASO titration in neuropsychiatric patients, including tic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Included studies reported numbers of positive subjects, depending on a chosen threshold, or detailed ASO titrations. Three hundred and twenty nine studies were identified, of which 13 were eligible for meta-analysis. Due to limited available data, only tic disorders were evaluated. The odds ratio of finding an abnormal ASO titre in patients was 3.22 (95% C.I. 1.51-6.88) as compared to healthy controls and 16.14 (95% C.I. 8.11-32.11) as compared to non-psychiatric patients. Studies using different thresholds were generally concordant. ASO titres were also compared quantitatively, finding an overall difference of the means of 70.50 U/ml (95% C.I. 25.21-115.80) in favour of patients with tic disorders. Based on current evidence, tic disorders are associated with a significant increase in ASO titres, evident both in a threshold-level perspective and on a quantitative level. These results encourage the systematisation of ASO titration in the context of tic disorders. PMID:25091468

  10. Cyclooxygenase2 and thromboxane synthase in non-endocrine and endocrine tumors: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Onder Onguru; Mary B. Casey; Sabine Kajita; Nobuki Nakamura; Ricardo V. Lloyd

    2005-01-01

    Prostaglandins (PG) are members of a large group of hormonally active fatty acids derived from free fatty acids. They are\\u000a formed from arachidonic acid—the major PG precursor. Cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 are the rate-limiting steps in PG synthesis.\\u000a COX-2 is overexpressed in many human non-endocrine and endocrine tumors including colon, breast, prostate, brain, thyroid,\\u000a and pituitary. COX-2 has an important

  11. Hairy-Cell Leukaemia Associated with AutoImmune Disorders in the Form of a ‘Lupus-Type’ Anticoagulant and a Positive Direct Coombs’ Test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Richard; M. C. Sedano; F. Mázorra; M. Redo; M A Cuadrado; C. Bello; M. A. Gandarillas; A. Zubizarreta

    1986-01-01

    An account is given of a case of hairy-cell leukaemia associated with a ‘lupus-type’ anticoagulant and a positive direct Coombs’ test, both of which were clinically symptom free. This is yet another example of the coexistence of hairy-cell leukaemia and an auto-immune disorder, but the disorder in question has not been described previously.Copyright © 1986 S. Karger AG, Basel

  12. Neutropénies auto-immunes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Martin; M. Audrain; C. Durant; M. Rimbert; P. Fromont; M. Hamidou

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune neutropenias (AIN) are classically divided into primary AIN and secondary AIN. The latter are associated with autoimmune disorders, hematologic malignancies, primary immune deficiencies, drug exposure or infections. In this review we will focus on the major aetiologies of AIN, their differential diagnosis, the various methods in biological diagnosis, and the treatment.

  13. Genetic control of autoimmunity in Type I diabetes and associated disorders.

    PubMed

    Redondo, M J; Eisenbarth, G S

    2002-05-01

    Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease with major subdivisions termed Type 1A (immune-mediated) and Type 1B. Immune-mediated diabetes is also heterogeneous with "monogenic", oligogenic, and polygenic forms present in humans and in animal models. Single-gene mutations of two transcription factors have been recently identified in rare syndromes of autoimmunity with type 1A diabetes: autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1) and X-linked polyendocrinopathy, immune dysfunction and diarrhoea (XPID). For more common forms of diabetes, susceptibility loci within the major histocompatibility complex and at the insulin locus have been identified. Both DQ(*) and DR* alleles provide susceptibility and certain alleles dominant protection. In the Diabetes Autoimmunity Study of the Young approximately 50 % of the siblings studied with the highest-risk HLA genotype develop anti-islet autoantibodies by age 3. Insulin could be a crucial autoantigen related to genetic susceptibility. The crystal structure of the high-risk allele, HLA-DQ8, complexed with an insulin peptide has just been reported. Insulin production by macrophage-dendritic cells within the thymus and lymphoid organs could underlie insulin gene polymorphisms influencing the risk of diabetes. Genome-wide scans for linkage in animal models and in humans have not conclusively identified other susceptibility genes though many loci have been implicated. We favour the hypothesis that HLA is a major determinant of susceptibility in animal models and in most families, and that the search for diabetogenes should concentrate on unique families to decrease heterogeneity and favour the eventual discovery of genes influencing risk. PMID:12107741

  14. Altered regulatory mechanisms governing cell survival in children affected with clustering of autoimmune disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clustering of Autoimmune Diseases (CAD) is now emerging as a novel clinical entity within monogenic immune defects with a high familial occurrence. Aim of this study is to evaluate the regulatory mechanisms governing cell survival, paying a particular attention to Fas-induced apoptosis, in a cohort of 23 children affected with CAD. In 14 patients, Fas stimulation failed to induce cell apoptosis and in 1 case it was associated with Fas gene mutation. Our study highlights the importance to evaluate cell apoptosis in the group of children with CAD, which, with this regard, represents a distinct clinical entity. PMID:22971828

  15. Altered regulatory mechanisms governing cell survival in children affected with clustering of autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Palamaro, Loredana; Giardino, Giuliana; Santamaria, Francesca; Ramenghi, Ugo; Dianzani, Umberto; Pignata, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Clustering of Autoimmune Diseases (CAD) is now emerging as a novel clinical entity within monogenic immune defects with a high familial occurrence. Aim of this study is to evaluate the regulatory mechanisms governing cell survival, paying a particular attention to Fas-induced apoptosis, in a cohort of 23 children affected with CAD. In 14 patients, Fas stimulation failed to induce cell apoptosis and in 1 case it was associated with Fas gene mutation. Our study highlights the importance to evaluate cell apoptosis in the group of children with CAD, which, with this regard, represents a distinct clinical entity. PMID:22971828

  16. Immune and Autoimmune Enteropathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip M. Sherman; Ernest Cutz; Olivier Goulet

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune enteropathy characteristically presents in infancy with protracted diarrhea. Underlying disorders of immune function, including regulatory T cells, must be excluded. Treatment options include nutritional rehabilitation, immune suppression, and, in select cases, bone marrow transplant.

  17. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Syndrome (ALPS) Top Banner Content Area Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare genetic disorder of the immune system that affects both children and adults. In ALPS, unusually high numbers of ...

  18. Comparative analysis of epitope recognition of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) by autoantibodies from different autoimmune disorders.

    PubMed

    Powers, A C; Bavik, K; Tremble, J; Daw, K; Scherbaum, W A; Banga, J P

    1999-12-01

    Autoantibodies to GAD, an important marker of the autoimmune process in type I or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), are also found in non-diabetic individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1), APS2, and stiff man syndrome (SMS). Most IDDM sera contain two distinct GAD antibody specificities, one of which targets an epitope region in the middle-third of GAD65 (IDDM-E1; amino acids 221-359) and one of which targets the carboxy-third of GAD65 (IDDM-E2; amino acids 453-569). Using 11 chimeric GAD65/GAD67 proteins to maintain conformation-dependent epitopes of GAD65, we compared the humoral repertoire of IgG antibodies from an individual with APS2-like disease (b35, b78, and b96) and MoAbs from an IDDM patient (MICA-2, MICA-3, and MICA-4). Neither the APS2 IgG antibodies nor the IDDM MoAbs bind the amino-terminal third of GAD65, but instead target the carboxy-terminal two-thirds of GAD65. Amino acids 270-359 (IDDM-E1) are targeted by one APS2 IgG antibody and MICA-4, while two other APS2 IgG antibodies, MICA-2 and MICA-3, target amino acids 443-585 (IDDM-E2). Using GAD65/67 chimera that span the IDDM-E2 region, we found that MICA-2 binds amino acids 514-528 of GAD65, but two APS2 IgG antibodies require this region and amino acids 529-570. In contrast, the binding of MICA-3 requires two discontinuous amino acid segments of GAD65 (452-513 and 528-569), but not amino acids 514-528. These results indicate that there are both similarities and differences in the humoral response to GAD65 in APS2 and IDDM. PMID:10594551

  19. [Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopien, Bogustaw; Bo?dys, Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndromes are conditions characterised by the association of two or more organ-specific disorders. On the basis of the clinical picture, they are divided into four different types. Type 1 is a monogenic autoimmune syndrome, which is caused by defect in AIRE gene located on chromosome 21. Its major components include mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism and Addison's disease. Type 2 is defined as the combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Type 3 is composed of autoimmune thyroid diseases associated with other autoimmune conditions with the exception of Addison's disease. The remaining autoimmune combinations not included in the previous groups belong to type 4. Proper care of individuals with autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes requires knowledge of the problems that may arise, and the best approaches to detect and care for the manifestations of these incurable, but manageable, diseases. The objective of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune polyglandular syndromes with a special emphasis on the most recent literature. PMID:19140388

  20. Retroperitoneal disorders associated with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Takeda, Keisuke; Zen, Yoh

    2014-11-28

    IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently accompanied by relevant lesions in the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal organs, which cause various clinical problems, ranging from non-specific back pain or bladder outlet obstruction to renal failure. The diagnosis of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including serological tests, histological examination, imaging analysis, and susceptibility to steroid therapy. Radiological examinations are helpful to diagnose this condition, but surgical resection is occasionally unavoidable to exclude malignancy, particularly for patients with isolated retroperitoneal involvement. Steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for this condition, the same as for other manifestations of IgG4-related disease. For patients with severe ureteral obstruction, additional ureteral stenting needs to be considered prior to steroid therapy to preserve the renal function. Some papers have suggested that IgG4-related disease can affect male reproductive organs including the prostate and testis. IgG4-related prostatitis usually causes lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria and pollakisuria. Patients sometimes state that corticosteroids given for IgG4-related disease at other sites relieve their lower urinary tract symptoms, which leads us to suspect prostatic involvement in this condition. Because of the limited number of publications available, further studies are warranted to better characterize IgG4-related disease in male reproductive organs. PMID:25469023

  1. Retroperitoneal disorders associated with IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Noboru; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Takeda, Keisuke; Zen, Yoh

    2014-01-01

    IgG4-related autoimmune pancreatitis is frequently accompanied by relevant lesions in the genitourinary tract and retroperitoneal organs, which cause various clinical problems, ranging from non-specific back pain or bladder outlet obstruction to renal failure. The diagnosis of IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including serological tests, histological examination, imaging analysis, and susceptibility to steroid therapy. Radiological examinations are helpful to diagnose this condition, but surgical resection is occasionally unavoidable to exclude malignancy, particularly for patients with isolated retroperitoneal involvement. Steroid therapy is the treatment of choice for this condition, the same as for other manifestations of IgG4-related disease. For patients with severe ureteral obstruction, additional ureteral stenting needs to be considered prior to steroid therapy to preserve the renal function. Some papers have suggested that IgG4-related disease can affect male reproductive organs including the prostate and testis. IgG4-related prostatitis usually causes lower urinary tract symptoms, such as dysuria and pollakisuria. Patients sometimes state that corticosteroids given for IgG4-related disease at other sites relieve their lower urinary tract symptoms, which leads us to suspect prostatic involvement in this condition. Because of the limited number of publications available, further studies are warranted to better characterize IgG4-related disease in male reproductive organs. PMID:25469023

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 On this page: Description Genetic changes Inheritance Diagnosis ... August 2007 What is autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1? Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, type 1 is an inherited ...

  3. Autoantibody Testing in the Diagnosis and Management of Autoimmune Disorders of Neuromuscular Transmission and Related Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark A. Agius; David P. Richman; Angela Vincent

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the synapse between the motor nerve and the muscle fiber, includes the motor nerve terminal, the synaptic cleft, and the ‘‘endplate’’ region of the postsynaptic muscle fiber. A number of molecules, which include ion channels and other proteins at the NMJ, may be targeted by the immune system resulting in disordered neuromuscular transmission. Antibodies to acetylcholine

  4. The Stiff-Person Syndrome: An Autoimmune Disorder Affecting Neurotransmission of g-Aminobutyric Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucien M. Levy; Marinos C. Dalakas; Mary Kay Floeter

    1999-01-01

    The stiff-person syndrome, a rare and disabling disorder, is characterized by muscle rigidity and episodic spasms that involve axial and limb musculature. Continuous contrac- tion of agonist and antagonist muscles caused by involun- tary motor-unit firing at rest are the hallmark clinical and electrophysiologic signs of the disease. Except for global muscle stiffness, results of neurologic examination are usu- ally

  5. Hashimoto thyroiditis, distal renal tubular acidosis, pernicious anaemia and encephalopathy: A rare combination of auto-immune disorders in a 12-year-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Suzuki; R. Mitamura; H. Ohmi; Y. Itoh; K. Yano; A. Okuno; M. Tateno; T. Itoh

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 12-year-old girl with a multiple auto-immune disorder is reported. She showed Hashimoto thyroiditis which subsequently developed to hashitoxicosis and distal renal tubular acidosis at 5 years of age, pernicious anaemia at the age of 9 and severe encephalopathy at the age of 12. Laboratory studies revealed very high titres of anti-microsomal and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies and positive

  6. There is no evidence of an inverse relationship between T H2-mediated atopy and T H1-mediated autoimmune disorders: Lack of support for the hygiene hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aziz Sheikh; Liam Smeeth; Richard Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    Background: The findings of an inverse relationship between TH1- and TH2-mediated disorders would provide strong empiric support to the hygiene hypothesis. Objective: We sought to investigate the relationship between TH2-mediated atopic allergy and TH1-mediated autoimmune conditions in a nationally representative population. Methods: We used logistic regression to analyze adult data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data

  7. Familial characteristics of autoimmune and hematologic disorders in 8,406 multiple myeloma patients: A population-based case-control study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ola Landgren; Martha S. Linet; Mary L. McMaster; Gloria Gridley; Kari Hemminki; Lynn R. Goldin

    2006-01-01

    A population-based case-control study was conducted to evaluate risk of developing multiple myeloma (MM) associated with per- sonal history of autoimmune diseases and occurrence of autoim- mune and selected hematologic disorders in first-degree relatives. Data were obtained for all (n 5 8,406) MM cases diagnosed in Sweden (1958-1998), with linkable relatives, 16,543 matched con- trols and first-degree relatives of cases

  8. Neurogenesis and Neuroprotection in the CNS — Fundamental Elements in the Effect of Glatiramer Acetate on Treatment of Autoimmune Neurological Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth Arnon; Rina Aharoni

    2007-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is no longer considered to be simply an autoimmune disease. In addition to inflammation and demyelination,\\u000a axonal injury and neuronal loss underlie the accumulation of disability and the disease progression. Specific treatment strategies\\u000a should thus aim to act within the central nervous system (CNS) by interfering with both neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration.\\u000a Specific treatment strategies to autoimmune neurological

  9. Microbiota and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Chervonsky, Alexander V.

    2013-01-01

    The commensal microbiota affects many aspects of mammalian health including control of the immune system to such a extent that a “commensalocentric” view of the maintenance of overall health could be suggested. Autoimmunity is a case of mistaken identity: The immune system reacts to self-tissues and cells as if they were pathogens. Autoimmune reactions can be both advanced or blocked by the commensal microbiota, which can affect innate and adaptive arms of immune responses as well as the mechanisms of “innate–adaptive connection.” Whether specific microbial lineages affect immunity and autoimmunity (the “specific lineage hypothesis”) or multiple lineages can tip the homeostatic balance that regulates host/microbiota homeostasis toward reduced or enhanced host reactivity (the “balanced signal hypothesis”) is yet unknown. The complexity of host/microbiota interactions needs to be fully appreciated in order to find the means for prophylaxis and treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:23457255

  10. Evaluation of serum vitamin B12 levels and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody in patients with autoimmune thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Jaya Kumari, S; Bantwal, Ganapathy; Devanath, Anitha; Aiyyar, Vageesh; Patil, Madhuri

    2015-04-01

    Vitamin B12 deficiency has been reported in patients with Autoimmune thyroid disorders. However there is limited data on exact prevalence of low B12 and its correlation with anti-thyroperoxidase antibody (anti-TPO) levels in these patients. The aim of our study was to estimate serum vitamin B12 levels in autoimmune thyroid disorders and to correlate B12 levels with anti-TPO. 350 patients were selected by convenient sampling. Vitamin B12 levels and thyroid parameters were estimated using fully automated chemiluminescence method on Access 2. Results of our study shows that using the manufacturer's cut-off of 145 pg/mL, the prevalence of low serum vitamin B12 was found to be 45.50 %. Higher prevalence (55 %) was seen based on the published cut-off of 200 pg/mL The study however did not demonstrate any significant correlation between vitamin B12 levels and anti-TPO (r = -0.11 and p value of 0.30). PMID:25883432

  11. Hepatitis C virus syndrome: A constellation of organ- and non-organ specific autoimmune disorders, B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Clodoveo; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Colaci, Michele; Fallahi, Poupak; Piluso, Alessia; Antonelli, Alessandro; Zignego, Anna Linda

    2015-01-01

    The clinical course of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by possible development of both liver and extrahepatic disorders. The tropism of HCV for the lymphoid tissue is responsible for several immune-mediated disorders; a poly-oligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, commonly observed in a high proportion of patients with HCV infection, are responsible for the production of different autoantibodies and immune-complexes, such as mixed cryoglobulins. These serological alterations may characterize a variety of autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis due to small-vessel deposition of circulating mixed cryoglobulins is the prototype of HCV-driven immune-mediated and lymphoproliferative disorders; interestingly, in some cases the disease may evolve to frank malignant lymphoma. In addition, HCV shows an oncogenic potential as suggested by several clinico-epidemiological and laboratory studies; in addition to hepatocellular carcinoma that represents the most frequent HCV-related malignancy, a causative role of HCV has been largely demonstrated in a significant percentage of patients with isolated B-cells non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. The same virus may be also involved in the pathogenesis of papillary thyroid cancer, a rare neoplastic condition that may complicate HCV-related thyroid involvement. Patients with HCV infection are frequently asymptomatic or may develop only hepatic alteration, while a limited but clinically relevant number can develop one or more autoimmune and/or neoplastic disorders. Given the large variability of their prevalence among patients’ populations from different countries, it is possible to hypothesize a potential role of other co-factors, i.e., genetic and/or environmental, in the pathogenesis of HCV-related extra-hepatic diseases. PMID:25848462

  12. Leflunomide (HWA 486), a novel immunomodulating compound for the treatment of autoimmune disorders and reactions leading to transplantation rejection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Bartlett; M. Dimitrijevic; T. Mattar; T. Zielinski; T. Germann; E. Rüde; G. H. Thoenes; C. C. A. Küchle; H.-U. Schorlemmer; E. Bremer; A. Finnegan; R. Schleyerbach

    1991-01-01

    Leflunomide has been shown to be very effective in preventing and curing several autoimmune animal diseases. Further, this agent is as effective as cyclosporin A in preventing the rejection of skin and kidney transplants in rats. Preliminary results from patients suffering from severe cases of rheumatoid arthritis demonstrated that clinical and immunological parameters could be improved with leflunomide therapy. Mode

  13. Celiac Disease-Associated Autoimmune Endocrinopathies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijay Kumar; Manoj Rajadhyaksha; Jacobo Wortsman

    2001-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder induced by gluten intake in genetically susceptible individ- uals. It is characterized by the presence of serum antibodies to endomysium, reticulin, gliadin, and tissue transglutaminase. The incidence of CD in various autoimmune disorders is increased 10- to 30-fold in comparison to the general population, although in many cases CD is clinically asymptomatic or

  14. Differential Mucosal IL17 Expression in Two Gliadin-Induced Disorders: Gluten Sensitivity and the Autoimmune Enteropathy Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Sapone; Karen M. Lammers; Giuseppe Mazzarella; Irina Mikhailenko; Maria Carteně; Vincenzo Casolaro; Alessio Fasano

    2010-01-01

    Background: The immune-mediated enteropathy, celiac disease (CD), and gluten sensitivity (GS) are two distinct clinical conditions that are both triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadin. CD, but not GS, is associated with and possibly mediated by an autoimmune process. Recent studies show that gliadin may induce the activation of IL-17-producing T cells and that IL-17 expression in the CD

  15. Recalcitrant hypocalcaemia in autoimmune enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Myfanwy; Fairchild, Jan; Moore, David; Moore, Lynette; Henning, Paul; Tham, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome is a monogenic disorder associated with autoimmune destruction of both endocrine and nonendocrine tissues. The classic triad includes candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison disease. Up to 25% of patients with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy syndrome also have gastrointestinal manifestations, which can have an impact on the management of other aspects of the disease. The management of the case discussed was challenging because of the complex interplay between the manifestations and treatment of his hypoparathyroidism, Addison disease, and autoimmune enteropathy. Attempts at management of hypocalcemia were largely unsuccessful until the introduction of immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune enteropathy. This case supports early consideration of immunosuppression in this condition. PMID:25404718

  16. Putting together the autoimmunity puzzle.

    PubMed

    La Cava, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases classically present with a complex etiology in which different factors concur in the generation and maintenance of autoreactive immune responses. Some mechanisms and pathways that lead to the development of imbalanced immune homeostasis and loss of self-tolerance have been identified as common to multiple autoimmune disorders. This Review series focuses on the general concepts of development and progression to pathogenic autoimmune phenotypes. A mechanistic discussion of the most recent advances in the field, together with related considerations of possible therapies, make this series of particular interest to both the basic and translational science communities. PMID:26030226

  17. Autoimmune hepatitis

    MedlinePLUS

    Lupoid hepatitis; Chronic acute liver disease ... This form of hepatitis is an autoimmune disease . The body's immune system cannot tell the difference between healthy body tissue and harmful, outside ...

  18. Associated Autoimmunity in Addison's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre M. J. Zelissen; Egbert J. E. G. Bast; Ronald J. M. Croughs

    1995-01-01

    As the last extensive series of patients with Addison's disease and coincident autoimmune phenomena were published approximately two decades ago, we studied the cause of the disease, the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and the frequency of occurrence of autoantibodies in 91 patients (31 men and 60 women, mean age 45.3-years-old, range 12–77) with Addison's disease.The cause of Addison's disease in

  19. Associated autoimmune diseases in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM).

    PubMed

    Kakleas, Kostas; Soldatou, Alexandra; Karachaliou, Feneli; Karavanaki, Kyriaki

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with aberrant immune responses to specific ?-cell autoantigens, resulting in insulin deficiency. Children and adolescents with T1DM may also develop organ-specific multiple autoimmunity in the context of APS (autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome) type 1, 2 or 3. The most frequently encountered associated autoimmune disorders in T1DM are autoimmune thyroid, followed by celiac, autoimmune gastric disease and other rare autoimmune conditions. There are limited previous studies on the prevalence of associated autoimmunity, especially multiple, in children with T1DM. The present review reports on the classification of autoimmune diabetes, and on the prevalence, pathogenesis, predictive factors and clinical presentation of pancreatic autoimmunity and of all associated autoimmune disorders in children with T1DM. The impact of associated autoimmunity on diabetes control and general health is also discussed, along with suggestions regarding screening strategies and follow-up for early detection and management of the autoimmunity. PMID:26001590

  20. Neurological and autoimmune disorders after vaccination against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with a monovalent adjuvanted vaccine: population based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine the risk of neurological and autoimmune disorders of special interest in people vaccinated against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) with Pandemrix (GlaxoSmithKline, Middlesex, UK) compared with unvaccinated people over 8-10 months. Design Retrospective cohort study linking individualised data on pandemic vaccinations to an inpatient and specialist database on healthcare utilisation in Stockholm county for follow-up during and after the pandemic period. Setting Stockholm county, Sweden. Population All people registered in Stockholm county on 1 October 2009 and who had lived in this region since 1 January 1998; 1?024?019 were vaccinated against H1N1 and 921?005 remained unvaccinated. Main outcome measures Neurological and autoimmune diagnoses according to the European Medicines Agency strategy for monitoring of adverse events of special interest defined using ICD-10 codes for Guillain-Barré syndrome, Bell’s palsy, multiple sclerosis, polyneuropathy, anaesthesia or hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia, narcolepsy (added), and autoimmune conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes; and short term mortality according to vaccination status. Results Excess risks among vaccinated compared with unvaccinated people were of low magnitude for Bell’s palsy (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.48) and paraesthesia (1.11, 1.00 to 1.23) after adjustment for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and healthcare utilisation. Risks for Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, and rheumatoid arthritis remained unchanged. The risks of paraesthesia and inflammatory bowel disease among those vaccinated in the early phase (within 45 days from 1 October 2009) of the vaccination campaign were significantly increased; the risk being increased within the first six weeks after vaccination. Those vaccinated in the early phase were at a slightly reduced risk of death than those who were unvaccinated (0.94, 0.91 to 0.98), whereas those vaccinated in the late phase had an overall reduced mortality (0.68, 0.64 to 0.71). These associations could be real or explained, partly or entirely, by residual confounding. Conclusions Results for the safety of Pandemrix over 8-10 months of follow-up were reassuring —notably, no change in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, or rheumatoid arthritis. Relative risks were significantly increased for Bell’s palsy, paraesthesia, and inflammatory bowel disease after vaccination, predominantly in the early phase of the vaccination campaign. Small numbers of children and adolescents with narcolepsy precluded any meaningful conclusions. PMID:21994316

  1. Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Severe Forms of Autoimmune Disorders or Certain Types of ...

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cells, not stem cells from a donor. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus erythematosus (pronounced sis-TEM-ick LOO-pus AIR- ... the disorder after no other treatment worked: Systemic lupus erythematosus 17 patients Symptoms improved enough for the ...

  2. The autoimmune diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, N.R.; Mackay, I.R.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 25 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Genetic Predisposition to Autoimmune Diseases; Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Autoimmune Aspects of Rheumatoid Arthritis; Immunology of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes; and Adrenal Autoimmunity and Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndromes.

  3. CNS intravascular large cell lymphoma in a patient with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

    E-print Network

    2015-01-01

    O, Turner J, et al. Autoimmune disorders and risk of non-autoimmune hemolytic anemia, leukoencephalopathy INTRODUCTION Intravascular large cell lymphoma (IVLCL) is a rare and aggressive lymphoproliferative disorder

  4. Stress and AutoImmune Endocrine Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Leclčre; G. Weryha

    1989-01-01

    Auto-immunity may occur in all endocrine tissues, with a particular prevalence in thyroid and pancreatic islets. The most demonstrative clinical expressions of this auto-immunity are Graves’ disease and insulin dependent diabetes. In the former, extensive data are available upon the immunological disorders seen in peripheral blood as well as in the thyroid itself. The predisposal profile of such diseases is

  5. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  6. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome: current concepts.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerson, J; Lechuga-Gomez, E E; Bigazzi, P E; Walfish, P G

    1988-01-01

    The polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (PGAS) is characterized by the association of two or more endocrine disorders that are mediated by autoimmune mechanisms and usually lead to a hypofunctional state. In this review we classify the various types of PGAS and discuss their clinical features and the pathophysiologic autoimmune mechanisms that are thought to play an important role. Circulating organ- and cell-specific autoantibodies are frequently detected in patients with the syndrome and may be a marker of future organ failure. PGAS should be considered in patients with one or more of the disorders constituting the syndrome; this should facilitate early diagnosis and perhaps even prevention of other components of the disease. Early recognition and replacement therapy can be life-saving, particularly when there is adrenal or thyroid insufficiency. PMID:3281737

  7. Achalasia in a Patient with Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II.

    PubMed

    Amr, Bashar S; Mamillapalli, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The etiology of this disease remains unknown. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a well-identified disease characterized by the occurrence of autoimmune Addison's disease in combination with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report a case that suggests autoimmunity and immunogenicity as a probable contributing factor for association of these two rare disorders. PMID:26078736

  8. Achalasia in a Patient with Polyglandular Autoimmune Syndrome Type II

    PubMed Central

    Amr, Bashar S.; Mamillapalli, Chaitanya

    2015-01-01

    Achalasia is a rare disease characterized by aperistalsis of the esophageal body and failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax. The etiology of this disease remains unknown. Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type II is a well-identified disease characterized by the occurrence of autoimmune Addison's disease in combination with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report a case that suggests autoimmunity and immunogenicity as a probable contributing factor for association of these two rare disorders. PMID:26078736

  9. Cytopénies auto-immunes périphériques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Suarez; D. Ghez; R. Delarue; O. Hermine

    2005-01-01

    Immune cytopenias constitute a difficult diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Because of the heterogeneity of their etiologies and of their clinical presentations (infections, auto-immune and lymphoproliferative disorders), they are frequently underrecognized by nonspecialists. Nevertheless, immune cytopenias can be life threatening and require intensive care. Several mechanisms can account for hematopoietic cell destruction by the immune system. Pathogenic auto-antibody coated cells can

  10. Autoimmune hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diego Vergani; Maria Serena Longhi; Dimitrios P. Bogdanos; Yun Ma; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is an inflammatory liver disease affecting mainly females and characterised histologically by interface\\u000a hepatitis, biochemically by elevated transaminase levels and serologically by the presence of autoantibodies and increased\\u000a levels of immunoglobulin G. AIH responds to immunosuppressive treatment, which should be instituted as soon as diagnosis is\\u000a made. Seropositivity for smooth muscle and\\/or anti-nuclear antibody defines type 1

  11. Leptin in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; Mantzoros, Christos S; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The past twenty years of research on leptin has provided crucial information on the link between metabolic state and immune system function. Adipocytes influence not only the endocrine system but also the immune response, through several cytokine-like mediators known as adipokines, which include leptin. Initially described as an antiobesity hormone, leptin has subsequently been shown also to influence hematopoiesis, thermogenesis, reproduction, angiogenesis, and more importantly immune homeostasis. As a cytokine, leptin can affect thymic homeostasis and the secretion of acute-phase reactants such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor-necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?). Leptin links nutritional status and proinflammatory T helper 1 (Th1) immune responses and the decrease in leptin plasma concentration during food deprivation leads to impaired immune function. Conversely, elevated circulating leptin levels in obesity appear to contribute to the low-grade inflammatory background which makes obese individuals more susceptible to increased risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, or degenerative disease including autoimmunity and cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of recent advances on the role of leptin in the pathogenesis of several autoimmune disorders that may be of particular relevance in the modulation of the autoimmune attack through metabolic-based therapeutic approaches. PMID:25467840

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection and autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Paroli, Marino; Iannucci, Gino; Accapezzato, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a number of extrahepatic disorders. The most studied conditions associated with HCV are type II mixed cryoglobulinemia and B cell lymphoma. However, many reports suggest that HCV might also be associated with a number of autoimmune disorders, both organ-specific and not organ-specific. Although concomitant treatment of HCV infection is a confounding factor when ascertaining the actual role of HCV in inducing autoimmune disease, a considerable amount of experimental data indicates that HCV is able to subvert the immune system and consequently induce autoimmunity. In the present review, we report a series of observations which associate chronic HCV infection with the onset of autoimmune disorders. PMID:23118549

  13. Autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Sahebjam, Farhad; Vierling, John M

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic liver disease putatively caused by loss of tolerance to hepatocytespecific autoantigens. It is characterized by female predilection, elevated aminotransferase levels, autoantibodies, increased ?-globulin or IgG levels and biopsy evidence of interface hepatitis. It is currently divided into types 1 and 2, based on expression of autoantibodies. Autoantigenic epitopes have been identified only for the less frequent type 2. Although autoimmune hepatitis occurs in childhood, this review focuses on disease in adults. In the absence of pathognomonic biomarkers, diagnosis requires consideration of clinical, biochemical, serological and histological features, which have been codified into validated diagnostic scoring systems. Since many features also occur in other chronic liver diseases, these scoring systems aid evaluation of the differential diagnosis. New practice guidelines have redefined criteria for remission to include complete biochemical and histological normalization on immunosuppressive therapy. Immunosuppression is most often successful using prednisone or prednisolone and azathioprine; however, the combination of budesonide and azathioprine for non-cirrhotic patients offers distinct advantages. Patients failing standard immunosuppression are candidates for alternative immunosuppressive regimens, yet none of the options has been studied in a randomized, controlled trial. Overlap syndromes with either primary sclerosing cholangitis or primary biliary cirrhosis occur in a minority. Liver transplantation represents a life-saving option for patients presenting with acute liver failure, severely decompensated cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Transplant recipients are at risk for recurrent autoimmune hepatitis in the allograft, and de novo disease may occur in patients transplanted for other indications. Patients transplanted for AIH are also at risk for recurrent or de novo inflammatory bowel disease. Progress in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis should lead to identification of specific diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25749982

  14. [Type 1 diabetes and autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes].

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Márcia S

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT), celiac disease (CD), Addison's disease (AD), and other autoimmune diseases. These diseases can occur simultaneously in defined syndromes with distinct pathophysiology and characteristics: autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APSs) and the immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome (IPEX). APSs were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. APS-1 is characterized by the evidence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, AD and T1D could be present as part of this syndrome. The combination of autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with AIT and/or type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus defines APS-2. AIT associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding AD and/or hypoparathyroidism) are the main characteristics of APS-3. Different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases which were not included in the previous groups are the characteristics of APS-4. IPEX is a recessive disorder characterized by the neonatal onset of T1D, infections, enteropathy, thrombocytopenia and anemia, as well as endocrinopathy, eczema and cachexia. These disorders are not common, but their consequences can be life threatening when the diagnosis is overlooked, and the treatment is the same prescribed for isolated disease presentation. PMID:18438530

  15. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Zekeridou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context. The goals of treatment are to minimize neurologic disability in the acute attack and thereafter to prevent relapses and cumulative disability. The disease specificity of AQP4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G approaches 100% using optimized molecular-based detection assays. Clinical, immunohistopathologic, and in vitro evidence support this antibody being central to NMO pathogenesis. Current animal models yield limited histopathologic characteristics of NMO, with no clinical deficits to date. Recent descriptions of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody in a minority of patients with NMO spectrum phenotype who lack AQP4-IgG predict serologic delineation of additional distinctive disease entities. PMID:26185772

  16. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Zekeridou, Anastasia; Lennon, Vanda A

    2015-08-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and a related spectrum of inflammatory CNS disorders are unified by detection of a serum autoantibody specific for the aquaporin-4 (AQP4) water channel, which is abundant in astrocytic foot processes. The classic clinical manifestations of NMO are optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Newly recognized manifestations of AQP4 autoimmunity include lesions of circumventricular organs and skeletal muscle. NMO is commonly relapsing, is frequently accompanied by other autoimmune disorders, and sometimes occurs in a paraneoplastic context. The goals of treatment are to minimize neurologic disability in the acute attack and thereafter to prevent relapses and cumulative disability. The disease specificity of AQP4 immunoglobulin (Ig) G approaches 100% using optimized molecular-based detection assays. Clinical, immunohistopathologic, and in vitro evidence support this antibody being central to NMO pathogenesis. Current animal models yield limited histopathologic characteristics of NMO, with no clinical deficits to date. Recent descriptions of a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein autoantibody in a minority of patients with NMO spectrum phenotype who lack AQP4-IgG predict serologic delineation of additional distinctive disease entities. PMID:26185772

  17. Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hironori Ueda; Joanna M. M. Howson; Laura Esposito; Joanne Heward; Hywel Snook; Giselle Chamberlain; Daniel B. Rainbow; Kara M. D. Hunter; Annabel N. Smith; Gianfranco Di Genova; Mathias H. Herr; Ingrid Dahlman; Felicity Payne; Deborah Smyth; Christopher Lowe; Rebecca C. J. Twells; Sarah Howlett; Barry Healy; Sarah Nutland; Helen E. Rance; Vin Everett; Luc J. Smink; Alex C. Lam; Heather J. Cordell; Neil M. Walker; Cristina Bordin; John Hulme; Costantino Motzo; Francesco Cucca; J. Fred Hess; Michael L. Metzker; Jane Rogers; Simon Gregory; Amit Allahabadia; Ratnasingam Nithiyananthan; Eva Tuomilehto-Wolf; Jaakko Tuomilehto; Polly Bingley; Kathleen M. Gillespie; Dag E. Undlien; Kjersti S. Rřnningen; Cristian Guja; Constantin Ionescu-Tîrgoviste; David A. Savage; A. Peter Maxwell; Dennis J. Carson; Chris C. Patterson; Jayne A. Franklyn; David G. Clayton; Laurence B. Peterson; Linda S. Wicker; John A. Todd; Stephen C. L. Gough

    2003-01-01

    Genes and mechanisms involved in common complex diseases, such as the autoimmune disorders that affect approximately 5% of the population, remain obscure. Here we identify polymorphisms of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 gene (CTLA4)-which encodes a vital negative regulatory molecule of the immune system-as candidates for primary determinants of risk of the common autoimmune disorders Graves' disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism

  18. Environmental estrogen bisphenol A and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Jochmanová, I; Lazúrová, Z; Rudnay, M; Ba?ová, I; Mareková, M; Lazúrová, I

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years, there has been evidence of the increasing prevalence of autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases consist of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens. The immune system, and its function, is under complex and integrated control and its disruption can be triggered by multiple factors. Autoimmunity development is influenced by multiple factors and is thought to be a result of interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here, we review the role of a specific environmental factor, bisphenol A (BPA), in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. BPA belongs to the group of environmental estrogens that have been identified as risk factors involved in the development of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25801882

  19. Gastrointestinal Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, M.; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT In an autoimmune disease, the immune system attacks and harms the body's own tissues. The systemic autoimmune diseases include collagen vascular diseases, the systemic vasculitides, Wegener granulomatosis, and Churg-Strauss syndrome. These disorders can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, hepatobiliary system and pancreas. They can cause a variety of gastrointestinal manifestations that are influenced by the pathophysiologic characteristics of the underlying disease process. There is a wide variation of gastrointestinal manifestations from these autoimmune disorders including, but not limited to: oral ulcers, dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux disease, abdominal pain, constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, pseudo-obstruction, perforation and gastrointestinal bleeding. Clinical workup should be initiated by the patient's subjective complaints. In this review, we analyze the effects of autoimmune diseases on the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21977190

  20. Anetoderma: Is It a Sign of Autoimmunity?

    PubMed Central

    Al Buainain, Hessa; Allam, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Anetoderma is a rare elastolytic disorder characterized by circumscribed areas of flaccid skin due to the loss of elastic tissue in the dermis. Primary anetoderma is frequently observed in patients with autoimmune diseases or abnormalities especially with antiphospholipid antibodies with or without antiphospholipid syndrome. In this case report we discuss a patient with primary anetoderma with positive antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, which is consistent with autoimmune thyroiditis. PMID:20652064

  1. [Autoimmune neuropathy].

    PubMed

    Hansen, P R

    1989-10-30

    Chronic progressive polyneuropathy is frequently cryptogenic but occurs in association with monoclonal gammopathy. In cases of this type, a relatively mild, mainly axonal sensomotor neuropathy is frequently present and may be difficult to distinguish from carcinomatous neuropathy in malignant conditions without the presence of the M-component. In benign essential gammopathy (MGUS) with an M-component of IgM-kappa class, the neuropathy is frequently demyelinizing and the paraprotein reacts specifically with carbohydrate determinants in myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and other glycoproteins and glycolipids in peripheral nerve tissue. Demonstration is undertaken by immune fluorescence investigation (eg on skin biopsy material) whereas serological diagnosis involves difficulties. There is much evidence to suggest that the autoimmune reaction is of significance for the development of nerve damage and uncontrolled trials have shown beneficial effects of immune suppression including plasmapherisis. The latter treatment should be considered in the Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuropathy and HIV-infection and also in motor neurone disease and IgM-MGUS, in which autoimmunological mechanisms may also be of pathophysiological significance. PMID:2686140

  2. [Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 2 associated with autoimmune hypophysitis and coeliac disease].

    PubMed

    Hrubisková, K; Jackuliak, P; Vanuga, P; Pura, M; Payer, J

    2010-11-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) are organ-specific autoimmune disorders affecting multiple endocrine glands; these are gradually destroyed by action of autoantibodies. Similarly to other autoimmune diseases, the presence of certain genetic predisposition is an essential prerequisite to the disease development; polymorphism of the main histocompatible system (HLA in humans) appears to play the most important role. APS are categorized into four types, based on what combination of endocrine glands is affected. APS type 1, characterised by hypoparathyreosis, mucocutaneous candidiasis and Addison's disease, is frequently seen in childhood. For a more common APS type 2 to be diagnosed, Addison's disease together with autoimmune thyroiditis (Schmidt's syndrome) and/or together with diabetes mellitus type I (Carpenter's syndrome) must be present. The third type of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS type 3) involves the same disorder of endocrine glands as type 2 but usually without any defect of adrenal cortex. If the autoimmune endocrine gland disorder does not fulfil the criteria of APS 1-3, the disease may be categorized as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 4. The authors present a case of 33 years old APS type 2 patient who, over 20 years, developed a wide range of autoimmune endocrinopathies, including endocrinopathies that are less common, such as adenohypophysitis, and are associated with other organ-specific diseases (coeliac disease). The case is presented to demonstrate the fact that APS represent a dynamic process and that it is always important to keep in mind that, over time, a patient may develop other autoimmune diseases. To conclude, the authors emphasise the recommendation to test patients with monoglandular endocrinopathy for the presence of any secondary endocrine disorders. PMID:21250496

  3. Malignant lymphoma-associated autoimmune diseases - a descriptive epidemiological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    László Váróczy; Lajos Gergely; Margit Zeher; Gyula Szegedi; ÁrpÁd Illés

    2002-01-01

    Lymphoproliferative disorders and autoimmune diseases have some common aspects in their clinical appearance. We reviewed 940 patient charts with malignant lymphomas to assess the rate of associated autoimmune diseases. Of 421 non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) patients (230 males, 191 females), 32 (7.6%) had an autoimmune disease (26 females, six males, mean age 48.3 years). The most common diagnosis was Sjögren's syndrome.

  4. Neurocognitive Function in Systemic Autoimmune and Rheumatic Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy H. Kao; Carol M. Greco; Suzanne L. Gharib; Sue R. Beers

    \\u000a An autoimmune disease is a disorder in which the body’s immune system attacks itself. The dysregulation of the immune system\\u000a associated with systemic autoimmune diseases can affect various organs systems, including the brain. This chapter will review\\u000a the neuropsychological involvement and the resulting cognitive changes associated with three systemic autoimmune or rheumatic\\u000a diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA),

  5. ALOPECIA AREATA AND AUTOIMMUNITY: A CLINICAL STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Emy Abi; Kadyan, R S

    2008-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) frequently occur in association with other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disorders, anemias and other skin disorders with autoimmune etiology. Despite numerous studies related to individual disease associations in alopecia areata, there is paucity of literature regarding comprehensive studies on concomitant cutaneous and systemic diseases. The present study has been designed to determine if there is a significant association between alopecia areata and other autoimmune diseases. This study covers 71 patients with the diagnosis of alopecia areata as the case group and 71 patients with no evidence of alopecia areata as the control group. Among the cutaneous diseases associated with AA, atopic dermatitis (AD) showed maximum frequency with an O/E ratio of 2.5, which indicates that it is two to three times more common in patients with alopecia areata. In our study, thyroid disorders showed the highest frequency with on O/E ratio of 3.2 and a P value of 0.01, which is statistically highly significant. Among the thyroid disorders, hypothyroidism was the most frequent association (14.1%) in our study. Since systemic involvement is not infrequent in patients with alopecia areata, it is imperative to screen these patients for associated disorders, particularly atopy, thyroid diseases, anemias and other autoimmune disorders, especially if alopecia areata is chronic, recurrent and extensive. PMID:19881991

  6. Leaky gut and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Fasano, Alessio

    2012-02-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by tissue damage and loss of function due to an immune response that is directed against specific organs. This review is focused on the role of impaired intestinal barrier function on autoimmune pathogenesis. Together with the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and the neuroendocrine network, the intestinal epithelial barrier, with its intercellular tight junctions, controls the equilibrium between tolerance and immunity to non-self antigens. Zonulin is the only physiologic modulator of intercellular tight junctions described so far that is involved in trafficking of macromolecules and, therefore, in tolerance/immune response balance. When the zonulin pathway is deregulated in genetically susceptible individuals, autoimmune disorders can occur. This new paradigm subverts traditional theories underlying the development of these diseases and suggests that these processes can be arrested if the interplay between genes and environmental triggers is prevented by re-establishing the zonulin-dependent intestinal barrier function. Both animal models and recent clinical evidence support this new paradigm and provide the rationale for innovative approaches to prevent and treat autoimmune diseases. PMID:22109896

  7. Perspectives on autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, I.R.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: HLA and Autoimmunity; Self-Recognition and Symmetry in the Immune System; Immunology of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus; Multiple Sclerosis; Autoimmunity and Immune Pathological Aspects of Virus Disease; Analyses of the Idiotypes and Ligand Binding Characteristics of Human Monoclonal Autoantibodies to DNA: Do We Understand Better Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Autoimmunity and Rheumatic Fever; Autoimmune Arthritis Induced by Immunization to Mycobacterial Antigens; and The Interaction Between Genetic Factors and Micro-Organisms in Ankylosing Spondylitis: Facts and Fiction.

  8. Autoimmunity in thyroid disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanne Collins; Stephen Gough

    2002-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases, Graves' disease and autoimmune hypothyroidism, represent the two ends of a disease spectrum where an immune response is directed against the thyroid gland. In Graves' disease, antibodies directed against the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) lead to the development of glandular overactivity, while in autoimmune hypothyroidism, cell-mediated and humoral thyroid injury leads to destruction of thyroid tissue and

  9. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: cause or bystander.

    PubMed

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  10. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  11. Text-mining applied to autoimmune disease research: the Sjögrenżs syndrome knowledge base

    E-print Network

    Gorr, Sven-Ulrik; Wennblom, Trevor J; Horvath, Steve; Wong, David TW; Michie, Sara A

    2012-01-01

    of the most common autoimmune disorders in the U.S. , withautoimmune disease research: the Sjögren’s syndrome knowledge base. BMC Musculoskeletal DisordersDisorders 2012, 13:119 http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2474/13/119 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Text-mining applied to autoimmune

  12. Toward defining the autoimmune microbiome for type 1 diabetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Giongo; Kelsey A Gano; David B Crabb; Nabanita Mukherjee; Luis L Novelo; George Casella; Jennifer C Drew; Jorma Ilonen; Mikael Knip; Heikki Hyöty; Riitta Veijola; Tuula Simell; Olli Simell; Josef Neu; Clive H Wasserfall; Desmond Schatz; Mark A Atkinson; Eric W Triplett

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that gut bacteria have a role in diabetes in murine models. Specific bacteria have been correlated with the onset of diabetes in a rat model. However, it is unknown whether human intestinal microbes have a role in the development of autoimmunity that often leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune disorder in which insulin-secreting pancreatic

  13. L’épigénétique des maladies auto-immunes rhumatismales

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moncef Zouali

    2010-01-01

    Over the last years, epigenetics has undergone a tremendous progress. Studies in rheumatic autoimmune diseases revealed that, in addition to a genetic predisposition, this group of disorders exhibit epigenetic components linked to chromatin remodeling, transcription factors, alternative splicing, and microRNA. The contribution of epigenetic alterations to autoimmunity development has mainly been addressed in systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, but

  14. Immunotherapies in neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Graves, Donna; Vernino, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Therapy for autoimmune demyelinating disorders has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years to include traditional immunosuppressants as well as novel biologicals. Antibody-mediated neuromuscular disorders are treated with therapies that acutely modulate pathogenic antibodies or chronically inhibit the humoral immune response. In other inflammatory autoimmune disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system, corticosteroids, often combined with conventional immunosuppression, and immunomodulatory treatments are used. Because autoimmune neurologic disorders are so diverse, evidence from randomized controlled trials is limited for most of the immunotherapies used in neurology. This review provides an overview of the immunotherapies currently used for neurologic disorders. PMID:22703853

  15. Sexual dimorphism in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Rubtsova, Kira; Marrack, Philippa; Rubtsov, Anatoly V

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system attacks and destroys the organs and tissues of its own host. Autoimmunity is the third most common type of disease in the United States. Because there is no cure for autoimmunity, it is extremely important to study the mechanisms that trigger these diseases. Most autoimmune diseases predominantly affect females, indicating a strong sex bias. Various factors, including sex hormones, the presence or absence of a second X chromosome, and sex-specific gut microbiota can influence gene expression in a sex-specific way. These changes in gene expression may, in turn, lead to susceptibility or protection from autoimmunity, creating a sex bias for autoimmune diseases. In this Review we discuss recent findings in the field of sex-dependent regulation of gene expression and autoimmunity. PMID:25915581

  16. Chronic Granulomatous Disease as a Risk Factor for Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Ravin, Suk See; Naumann, Nora; Cowen, Edward W.; Friend, Julia; Hilligoss, Dianne; Marquesen, Martha; Balow, James E.; Barron, Karyl S.; Turner, Maria L.; Gallin, John I.; Malech, Harry L.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is characterized by recurrent infections and granuloma formation. In addition, we have observed a number of diverse autoimmune conditions in our CGD population, suggesting that patients with CGD are at an elevated risk for development of autoimmune (AI) disorders. In this report, we describe antiphospholipid syndrome (aPL), recurrent pericardial effusion, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), IgA nephropathy, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, and autoimmune pulmonary disease in the setting of CGD. The presence and type of autoimmune disease has important treatment implications for patients with CGD. PMID:18823651

  17. Autoimmune diseases and autoimmunity post-bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Sherer; Y Shoenfeld

    1998-01-01

    BMT can both transmit and eliminate autoimmune diseases, and hence it has been suggested as an optional treatment for severe autoimmune conditions. In this communication we deal with the question of whether chronic GVHD is an autoimmune disease in itself, review the literature reports of autoimmune diseases following BMT in humans, and describe the autoimmune nature of the post-BMT state.

  18. Incidence of AutoImmune Pemphigus in the Midi-Pyrénées Region in 2002–2006

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Thomas; C. Paul; E. Berard; F. Fortenfant; J. Mazereeuw-Hautier; C. Livideanu; R. Viraben; N. Meyer

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Auto-immune pemphigus is an organ-specific immune disorder due to pathogenic auto-antibodies. Both genetic and environmental factors have been associated with the occurrence of auto-immune pemphigus. Little is known about the epidemiology of auto-immune pemphigus in western Europe. Objective: To evaluate the incidence of auto-immune pemphigus in south-western France (namely the Midi-Pyrénées region) in a 5-year period between 2002 and

  19. The role of costimulation in autoimmune demyelination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K Racke; Robert B Ratts; LaChelle Arredondo; Peter J Perrin; Amy Lovett-Racke

    2000-01-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated, autoimmune disorder characterized by central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and demyelination, features reminiscent of the human disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to the signal the encephalitogenic T cell receives through the T cell receptor (TCR), a second signal, termed costimulation, is required for complete T cell activation. The B7 family of

  20. Auto-immune encephalitis as differential diagnosis of infectious encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Armangue, Thaís; Leypoldt, Frank; Dalmau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To describe the main types of autoimmune encephalitis with special emphasis on those associated with antibodies against neuronal cell surface or synaptic proteins, and the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Recent findings There is a continuous expansion of the number of cell surface or synaptic proteins that are targets of autoimmunity. The most recently identified include the mGluR5, DPPX, and the GABAAR. In these and previously known autoimmune encephalitis (NMDAR, AMPAR, GABABR, LGI1, CASPR2), the prodromal symptoms or types of presentations often suggest a viral encephalitis. We review here clues that help in the differential diagnosis with infectious encephalitis. Moreover, recent investigations indicate that viral encephalitis (e.g., herpes simplex) can trigger synaptic autoimmunity. In all these disorders immunotherapy is usually effective. Summary Autoimmune encephalitis comprises an expanding group of potentially treatable disorders that should be included in the differential diagnosis of any type of encephalitis. PMID:24792345

  1. Solving the puzzle of autoimmunity: critical questions

    PubMed Central

    Smilek, Dawn E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent advances in delineating the pathogenic mechanisms of autoimmune disease, the puzzle that reveals the true picture of these diverse immunological disorders is yet to be solved. We know that the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci as well as many different genetic susceptibility loci with relatively small effect sizes predispose to various autoimmune diseases and that environmental factors are involved in triggering disease. Models for mechanisms of disease become increasingly complex as relationships between components of both the adaptive and innate immune systems are untangled at the molecular level. In this article, we pose some of the important questions about autoimmunity where the answers will advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis and improve the rational design of novel therapies. How is autoimmunity triggered, and what components of the immune response drive the clinical manifestations of disease? What determines whether a genetically predisposed individual will develop an autoimmune disease? Is restoring immune tolerance the secret to finding cures for autoimmune disease? Current research efforts seek answers to these big questions. PMID:25750735

  2. Clinical aspects of autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Goldblatt, Fiona; O'Neill, Sean G

    2013-08-31

    Multisystem autoimmune rheumatic diseases are heterogeneous rare disorders associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Efforts to create international consensus within the past decade have resulted in the publication of new classification or nomenclature criteria for several autoimmune rheumatic diseases, specifically for systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's syndrome, and the systemic vasculitides. Substantial progress has been made in the formulation of new criteria in systemic sclerosis and idiopathic inflammatory myositis. Although the autoimmune rheumatic diseases share many common features and clinical presentations, differentiation between the diseases is crucial because of important distinctions in clinical course, appropriate drugs, and prognoses. We review some of the dilemmas in the diagnosis of these autoimmune rheumatic diseases, and focus on the importance of new classification criteria, clinical assessment, and interpretation of autoimmune serology. In this era of improvement of mortality rates for patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases, we pay particular attention to the effect of leading complications, specifically cardiovascular manifestations and cancer, and we update epidemiology and prognosis. PMID:23993190

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents a prototypic pathogenic member of the ?-subgroup of the herpesvirus family. A range of HCMV features like its lytic replication in multiple tissues, the lifelong persistence through periods of latency and intermitting reactivation, the extraordinary large proteome, and extensive manipulation of adaptive and innate immunity make HCMV a high profile candidate for involvement in autoimmune disorders. We surveyed the available literature for reports on HCMV association with onset or exacerbation of autoimmune disease. A causative linkage between HCMV and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), diabetes mellitus type 1, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is suggested by the literature. However, a clear association of HCMV seroprevalence and disease could not be established, leaving the question open whether HCMV could play a coresponsible role for onset of disease. For convincing conclusions population-based prospective studies must be performed in the future. Specific immunopathogenic mechanisms by which HCMV could contribute to the course of autoimmune disease have been suggested, for example, molecular mimicry by UL94 in SSc and UL83/pp65 in SLE patients, as well as aggravation of joint inflammation by induction and expansion of CD4+/CD28? T-cells in RA patients. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and to lay the grounds for targeted therapeutic intervention. PMID:24967373

  4. Autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Silva, C A; Yamakami, L Y S; Aikawa, N E; Araujo, D B; Carvalho, J F; Bonfá, E

    2014-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as sustained amenorrhea, increased follicle-stimulating hormone and low estrogen levels, whereas diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) is characterized as regular menses and alterations of ovarian reserve tests. POI of autoimmune origin may be associated with adrenal autoimmunity, non-adrenal autoimmunity or isolated. This autoimmune disease is characterized by serum ovarian, adrenocortical or steroidogenic cell autoantibodies. POI of adrenal autoimmune origin is the most frequent type observed in 60-80% of patients. Clinically, amenorrhea is the hallmark of POI, however before menstruation stops completely, irregular cycles occur. Infertility, hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and dyspareunia are also common. Autoimmune oophoritis is characterized by mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate in the theca cells of growing follicles, with early stage follicles without lymphocytic infiltration. This infiltrate includes plasma, B and T-cells. A novel classification criterion for autoimmune POI/DOR is proposed subdividing in three distinct categories (possible, probable and confirmed) according to autoantibodies, autoimmune disease and ovarian histology. Unfortunately, up to date guidelines for the treatment of autoimmune oophoritis are not available. Strategies to POI treatment include hormone replacement and infertility therapy. Assisted conception with donated oocytes has been proven to achieve pregnancy by intra cytoplasmic sperm injection in POI women. PMID:24418305

  5. Metals and kidney autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Bigazzi, P E

    1999-01-01

    The causes of autoimmune responses leading to human kidney pathology remain unknown. However, environmental agents such as microorganisms and/or xenobiotics are good candidates for that role. Metals, either present in the environment or administered for therapeutic reasons, are prototypical xenobiotics that cause decreases or enhancements of immune responses. In particular, exposure to gold and mercury may result in autoimmune responses to various self-antigens as well as autoimmune disease of the kidney and other tissues. Gold compounds, currently used in the treatment of patients with progressive polyarticular rheumatoid arthritis, can cause a nephrotic syndrome. Similarly, an immune-mediated membranous nephropathy frequently occurred when drugs containing mercury were commonly used. Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that occupational exposure to mercury does not usually result in autoimmunity. However, mercury induces antinuclear antibodies, sclerodermalike disease, lichen planus, or membranous nephropathy in some individuals. Laboratory investigations have confirmed that the administration of gold or mercury to experimental animals leads to autoimmune disease quite similar to that observed in human subjects exposed to these metals. In addition, studies of inbred mice and rats have revealed that a few strains are susceptible to the autoimmune effects of gold and mercury, whereas the majority of inbred strains are resistant. These findings have emphasized the importance of genetic (immunogenetic and pharmacogenetic) factors in the induction of metal-associated autoimmunity. (italic)In vitro(/italic) and (italic)in vivo(/italic) research of autoimmune disease caused by mercury and gold has already yielded valuable information and answered a number of important questions. At the same time it has raised new issues about possible immunostimulatory or immunosuppressive mechanisms of xenobiotic activity. Thus it is evident that investigations of metal-induced renal autoimmunity have the potential to produce new knowledge with relevance to autoimmune disease caused by xenobiotics in general as well as to idiopathic autoimmunity. PMID:10502542

  6. Revisiting the role of mast cells in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinhua; Kasprick, Anika; Petersen, Frank

    2015-09-01

    Beside their well known role in allergy, mast cells (MCs) are capable to sense multiple signals and have therefore the potential to be involved in many immune responses. MCs are actively present in the target tissues of some autoimmune disorders, suggesting a possible function in the manifestation of such diseases. This idea is strengthened by the evidence that KIT-dependent MC-deficient mice are protected from disease in many mouse models of autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis and autoimmune skin blistering diseases. Thus, the essential role of MCs in autoimmunity not only significantly extends the knowledge of MCs in the immune response but also provides novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of such diseases. However, recent studies using a new generation of KIT-independent MC-deficient strains could not confirm an essential participation of MCs in autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the observed discrepancies and to elucidate the role of MCs in autoimmune diseases. Here, we review the impact of MCs on the development of autoimmune diseases with focus on the controversial effects of MC deficiency in different mouse models of autoimmune diseases. We also try to clarify contradictory findings in mouse studies to finally elucidate the role of MCs in autoimmunity. PMID:25913139

  7. Autoimmunity: Alopecia Areata

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Hordinsky; Marna Ericson

    2004-01-01

    Strong direct and indirect evidence supports an autoimmune etiology for alopecia areata. T lymphocytes that have been shown to be oligoclonal and autoreactive are predominantly present in the peribulbar inflammatory infiltrate. Alopecia areata frequently occurs in association with other autoimmune diseases, such as thyroiditis and vitiligo, and autoantibodies to follicular components have been detected. Finally, the use of immune modulating

  8. Infections and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Bach

    2005-01-01

    The high percentage of disease-discordant pairs of monozygotic twins demonstrates the central role of environmental factors in the etiology of autoimmune diseases. Efforts were first focussed on the search for triggering factors. The study of animal models has clearly shown that infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, as in the case of Coxsackie B4 virus in type I diabetes and the

  9. Hygiene hypothesis and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W

    2012-02-01

    Throughout the twentieth century, there were striking increases in the incidences of many chronic inflammatory disorders in the rich developed countries. These included autoimmune disorders such as Type 1 diabetes and multiple sclerosis. Although genetics and specific triggering mechanisms such as molecular mimicry and viruses are likely to be involved, the increases have been so rapid that any explanation that omits environmental change is incomplete. This chapter suggests that a series of environmental factors, most of them microbial, have led to a decrease in the efficiency of our immunoregulatory mechanisms because we are in a state of evolved dependence on organisms with which we co-evolved (and that had to be tolerated) as inducers of immunoregulatory circuits. These organisms ("Old Friends") are depleted from the modern urban environment. Rather than considering fetal programming by maternal microbial exposures, neonatal programming, the hygiene hypothesis, gut microbiota, and diet as separate and competing hypotheses, I attempt here to integrate these ideas under a single umbrella concept that can provide the missing immunoregulatory environmental factor that is needed to explain the recent increases in autoimmune disease. PMID:22090147

  10. Autoimmune hypophysitis: new developments.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hypophysitis, often referred to as lymphocytic hypophysitis, is defined as an inflammatory condition of the pituitary gland of autoimmune etiology that leads to pituitary dysfunction. However, the pathogenesis of autoimmune hypophysitis is still incompletely defined. Although pathogenic autoantibodies in autoimmune hypophysitis have not yet been reported, it has been suggested that several antibodies may be closely related to pathogenesis. Novel clinical entities that are associated with hypophysitis, such as IgG4-related hypophysitis and anti-PIT-1 antibody syndrome, have recently been reported. The findings demonstrate the heterogeneity of the disease and provide important clues for understanding the pathogenesis and definition of hypophysitis, as well as the significance of antipituitary antibodies. This review focuses on new developments in autoimmune hypophysitis. PMID:25248604

  11. Regulation of NF-?B in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shao-Cong; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Jin, Jin

    2013-01-01

    NF-?B transcription factors are pivotal regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses, and perturbations of NF-?B signaling contribute to the pathogenesis of immunological disorders. NF-?B is a well-known proinflammatory mediator, and its deregulated activation is associated with the chronic inflammation of autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, NF-?B plays a crucial role in the establishment of immune tolerance, including both central tolerance and the peripheral function of regulatory T (Treg) cells. Thus, defect or deregulated activation of NF-?B may contribute to autoimmunity and inflammation, highlighting the importance of tightly controlled NF-?B signaling. This review will focus on the recent progress regarding NF-?B regulation and its association with autoimmunity. PMID:23434408

  12. CTLA-4 in autoimmune diseases – a general susceptibility gene to autoimmunity?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    OP Kristiansen; ZM Larsen; F Pociot

    2000-01-01

    For most autoimmune disorders, the pattern of inheritance is very complex. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene complex has been implicated as the major genetic component in the predisposition to these diseases but other genes are likely to be involved. Based on function and experimental data, the gene encoding cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA4) has been suggested as a

  13. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    SciTech Connect

    Godfrey, V.L.

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed autoimmune disorders such a rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and scleroderma. Women, the media pointed out, have a higher-than-average incidence of many autoimmune disorders. These events suggest the need to know more about what makes the immune system work so well and what makes it go awry. At ORNL's Biology Division, progress is being in understanding the underlying causes of immune disease by studying mice having a disease that causes them to be underdeveloped; to have scaly skin, small ears, and large spleens; to open their eyes late; and to die early. These [open quotes]scurfy[close quotes]mice are helping us better understand the role of the thymus gland in autoimmune disease.

  14. Autoimmune Channelopathies of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Kleopa, Kleopas A

    2011-01-01

    Ion channels are complex transmembrane proteins that orchestrate the electrical signals necessary for normal function of excitable tissues, including the central nervous system, peripheral nerve, and both skeletal and cardiac muscle. Progress in molecular biology has allowed cloning and expression of genes that encode channel proteins, while comparable advances in biophysics, including patch-clamp electrophysiology and related techniques, have made the functional assessment of expressed proteins at the level of single channel molecules possible. The role of ion channel defects in the pathogenesis of numerous disorders has become increasingly apparent over the last two decades. Neurological channelopathies are frequently genetically determined but may also be acquired through autoimmune mechanisms. All of these autoimmune conditions can arise as paraneoplastic syndromes or independent from malignancies. The pathogenicity of autoantibodies to ion channels has been demonstrated in most of these conditions, and patients may respond well to immunotherapies that reduce the levels of the pathogenic autoantibodies. Autoimmune channelopathies may have a good prognosis, especially if diagnosed and treated early, and if they are non-paraneoplastic. This review focuses on clinical, pathophysiologic and therapeutic aspects of autoimmune ion channel disorders of the nervous system. PMID:22379460

  15. Evaluation of autoimmune thyroid disease in melasma.

    PubMed

    Rostami Mogaddam, Majid; Iranparvar Alamdari, Manouchehr; Maleki, Nasrollah; Safavi Ardabili, Nastaran; Abedkouhi, Selma

    2015-06-01

    Melasma is one of the most frequently acquired hyperpigmentation disorders clinically characterized by symmetrical brown patches on sun-exposed areas. To date, few studies have been conducted about the relationship between thyroid autoimmun-ity and melasma. To evaluate the thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in nonpregnant women with melasma. A total of 70 women with melasma and 70 age-matched healthy women with no history of melasma were enrolled in the study. We studied the thyroid hormone profile in both groups. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Patients with melasma had 18.5% frequency of thyroid disorders, and 15.7% had positive anti-TPO, while subjects from the control group had a 4.3% frequency of thyroid abnormalities, and only 5.7% had positive anti-TPO. There was a significantly higher prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in women with melasma compared with control group (P = 0.008). This study suggests that there is a relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and melasma. However, to make recommendations on screening for thyroid disease in patients with melasma, future research of good methodological quality is needed. PMID:25810215

  16. Evaluation of basal ganglia and thalamic inflammation in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection and tourette syndrome: a positron emission tomographic (PET) study using 11C-[R]-PK11195.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Williams, Mitchel T; Chugani, Harry T

    2015-05-01

    We applied PET scanning with (11)C-[R]-PK11195 (PK) to evaluate neuroinflammatory changes in basal ganglia and thalamus in children with clinically diagnosed pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) and Tourette syndrome. Seventeen children with PANDAS (mean age: 11.4 ± 2.6 years; 13 males), 12 with Tourette syndrome (mean age: 11.0 ± 3.0 years; 10 males), and 15 normal adults (mean age: 28.7 ± 7.9 years; 8 males) underwent dynamic PK PET imaging and binding potential, a measure of ligand-TSPO receptor (expressed by activated microglia) binding, was calculated for basal ganglia and thalamus. Binding potential values, suggesting underlying activated microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, were found to be increased in bilateral caudate and bilateral lentiform nucleus in the PANDAS group and in bilateral caudate nuclei only in the Tourette syndrome group, compared to control group. These differences in the pattern and extent of neuroinflammation also signify a possible difference in pathophysiological etiology between PANDAS and Tourette syndrome patients. PMID:25117419

  17. Resolution of Autoimmune Oophoritis after Thymectomy in a Myasthenia Gravis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Özlem; Eren, Erdal; Sa?lam, Halil; Okan, Mehmet; Tar?m, Ömer Faruk

    2011-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by autoantibodies against acetylcholine receptors. MG is generally an isolated disorder but may occur concomitantly with other autoimmune diseases. We describe an eighteen-year-old girl with MG who was admitted to our clinic with secondary amenorrhea and diagnosed as autoimmune oophoritis. Since her myasthenic symptoms did not resolve with anticholinesterase therapy, thymectomy was performed. After thymectomy, her menses have been regular without any hormonal replacement therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first report on a patient with autoimmune ovarian insufficiency and MG in whom premature ovarian insufficiency resolved after thymectomy, without hormonal therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22155465

  18. Autoimmune diseases and venous thromboembolism: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Zöller, Bengt; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is major health problem and is sometimes complicated by lethal pulmonary embolism (PE). Disturbances of the coagulation and anticoagulation systems are important risk factors for VTE. Comparative studies suggest that coagulation and innate immunity have a shared evolutionary origin. It is therefore unsurprising that the immune and coagulation systems are linked, with many molecular components being important for both systems. Systemic inflammation modulates thrombotic responses by suppressing fibrinolysis, upregulating procoagulant, and downregulating anticoagulants, and autoimmune disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and Behçet’s syndrome have been linked to an increased risk of VTE. Recent reports have further shown that a majority of autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders are linked to an increased risk of venous thrombosis, PE, or VTE. For instance, a Swedish nationwide study found that the risk of PE was increased in the first year after hospitalization for 33 different autoimmune disorders. Especially high risks were noted for several autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenic purpura, polyarteritis nodosa, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, ulcerative colitis, and SLE. Another study from England, also based on hospitalization data, found that immune-mediated disorders were associated with an increased risk of VTE compared with other medical causes of hospitalization. Multiple mechanisms may operate and disease-specific factors, such as cardiolipin antibodies, have been identified. However, inflammation by itself appears to change the hemostatic balance in a thrombogenic direction. Recent epidemiological studies, together with previous experimental and clinical studies, indicate that autoimmune disorders should not only be viewed as inflammatory disorders, but also hypercoagulable disorders. Research to identify thrombotic risk factors, elucidate the mechanisms involved, and investigate prophylactic regiments is needed. The present review describes the epidemiological, clinical, and experimental evidence for the connection between VTE and autoimmune and immune-mediated disorders. PMID:22937487

  19. Understanding Autoimmune Diseases

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Autoimmune Diseases Progress and Promise Key Words The Immune System Your immune system is the network of cells and tissues throughout ... having two parts: the acquired and the innate immune systems. The acquired (or adaptive) immune system develops as ...

  20. Interleukin18 Correlates with Disease Severity in Chronic Autoimmune Urticaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samia A Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune urticaria represents a relatively recent diagnostic advance since the discovery of histamine releasing autoantibodies against IgE and IgE receptors. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is an immuno-regulatory cytokine and has roles in both allergic and autoimmune disorders. Aim: The aim of this work was to measure IL-18 in patients with chronic urticaria (CU) to find a correlation between IL-18 levels, clinical

  1. Chronic autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura. A 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Fotos, P G; Graham, W L; Bowers, D C; Perfetto, S P

    1983-06-01

    Idiopathic (autoimmune) thrombocytopenic purpura (ATP) is accepted to be a disorder resulting from accelerated platelet destruction attributed to an autoimmune process. The patient whose case is presented in this article was first seen by a dentist. The oral findings have been documented as the case was followed for 3 years through acute exacerbations, pregnancy, and delivery of an infant with thrombocytopenia. The patient was managed with intermittent steroid therapy and splenectomy. PMID:6576288

  2. Hyperprolactinemia and autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hedi Orbach; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2007-01-01

    The autoimmune diseases are more common in females.The sex hormones have an important role in this gender bias, mainly estrogen and prolactin (PRL) which modulate the immune response.PRL is secreted from the pituitary gland and other organs and cells mainly the lymphocytes. PRL has an immunostimulatory effect and promotes autoimmunity:PRL impairs the negative selection of autoreactive B lymphocytes occurring during

  3. Design of effective immunotherapy for human autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Feldmann; Lawrence Steinman

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the molecules involved in immune responses has identified many potential targets for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. But although successful therapies have been found for immune disorders in animal studies, few have passed the much harder test of treating human diseases. So far, non-antigen-specific approaches, such as the blocking of tumour-necrosis factor, are achieving some success

  4. Types of Vestibular Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... include complications from aging, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. Acoustic Neuroma Acoustic neuroma (also called a vestibular schwannoma) is a ... This nerve is also referred to as the acoustic nerve, hence the name.) As an acoustic neuroma ...

  5. Chromosome 18q deletion syndrome with autoimmune diabetes mellitus: putative genomic loci for autoimmunity and immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Hogendorf, Anna; Lipska-Zietkiewicz, Beata S; Szadkowska, Agnieszka; Borowiec, Maciej; Koczkowska, Magdalena; Trzonkowski, Piotr; Drozdz, Izabela; Wyka, Krystyna; Limon, Janusz; Mlynarski, Wojciech

    2014-11-18

    A girl with 18q deletion syndrome was diagnosed with autoimmune diabetes mellitus and Hashimoto's thyroiditis at the age of 3 yr. In addition, the girl suffered from recurrent infections due to immunoglobulin A and IgG4 deficiency. She was also found to have CD3+CD4+FoxP3+, CD3+CD4+FoxP3+CD25+, and CD3+CD4+CD25+CD127 regulatory T cells deficiency. The exceptional coincidence of the two autoimmune disorders occurring at an early age, and associated with immune deficiency, implies that genes located on deleted 19.4 Mbp region at 18q21.32-q23 (chr18:58,660,699-78,012,870) might play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity leading to ? cell destruction and diabetes. PMID:25403779

  6. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  7. Experimental Autoimmune Breast Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kesaraju, Pavani; Jaini, Ritika; Johnson, Justin M.; Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Gruden, Jessica J.; Sakalar, Cagri; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2013-01-01

    Mastitis is a substantial clinical problem in lactating women that may result in severe pain and abrupt termination of breastfeeding, thereby predisposing infants to long-term health risks. Many cases of mastitis involve no known infectious agent and may fundamentally be due to autoimmune-mediated inflammation of the breast. Herein, we develop a murine model of autoimmune mastitis and provide a detailed characterization of its resulting phenotype of breast failure and lactation insufficiency. To generate breast-specific autoimmunity, we immunized SWXJ mice with recombinant mouse ?-lactalbumin, a lactation-dependent, breast-specific differentiation protein critical for production of lactose. Mice immunized with ?-lactalbumin showed extensive T-cell–mediated inflammation in lactating normal breast parenchyma but none in nonlactating normal breast parenchyma. This targeted autoimmune attack resulted in breast failure characterized by lactation insufficiency and decreased ability to nurture offspring. Although immunization with ?-lactalbumin had no effect on fertility and birth numbers, pups nursed by ?-lactalbumin–immunized mice showed significantly disrupted growth often accompanied by kwashiorkor-like nutritional abnormalities, including alopecia, liver toxicity, and runting. This experimental model of autoimmune breast failure has useful applications for prophylactic breast cancer vaccination and for addressing inflammatory complications during breastfeeding. In addition, this model is suited for investigating nutritionally based “failure-to-thrive” issues, particularly regarding the long-term implications of postnatal nutritional deprivation. PMID:22901749

  8. The Relationship of X-Linked Primary Immune Deficiencies and Autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itai M. Pessach

    2010-01-01

    It is well-known that autoimmunity is significantly more prevalent in females. Growing evidence indicates that genes located\\u000a on the X chromosome may play a role in autoimmunity and immune dysregulation, as also indicated by the frequent association\\u000a of autoimmune phenomena in patients with X-linked primary immune deficiencies (PIDs). Hence, this group of genetic disorders\\u000a is of particular interest to study

  9. Pituitary autoimmune disease: nuances in clinical presentation.

    PubMed

    Glezer, A; Bronstein, M D

    2012-08-01

    Pituitary autoimmune disease is considered an autoimmune organ-specific disorder, characterized by a pituitary infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and plasma cells that could lead to loss of pituitary function. Hypophysitis may be secondary to systemic diseases or infections. Primary pituitary hypophysitis is classified into lymphocytic, granulomatous, xanthomatous, mixed forms (lymphogranulomatous, xanthogranulomatous), necrotizing and IgG4 plasmacytic, according to the histological findings. Concerning lymphocytic hypophysitis (LH), it is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and can be subclassified according to the affected area on: lymphocytic adenohypophysitis, lymphocytic infundibulo-neurohypophysitis and lymphocytic panhypophysitis. LH had always been considered a rare disease. Nevertheless, with improved imaging techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), LH diagnosis has been increased. This disease usually affects young women during pregnancy or postpartum period with headache, visual impairment, ACTH deficiency and a homogenous sellar mass with thickening of pituitary stalk in MRI. Definitive diagnosis depends on histopathological evaluation; nevertheless, a presumptive diagnosis could be done in a typical case. As no specific autoantigen was identified in LH, there is no antipituitary antibody (APA) method available for helping diagnosis. However, APA used in some centers for research could support an autoimmune origin for some hypopituitarism previously named as idiopathic, confirming nuances in clinical presentation of pituitary autoimmune disease. Therapeutic approach should be based on the grade of suspicious and clinical manifestations of LH. PMID:22426958

  10. Anticytokine gene therapy of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Prud'homme, G J; Lawson, B R; Theofilopoulos, A N

    2001-05-01

    Viral and nonviral gene therapy vectors have been successfully employed to deliver inflammatory cytokine inhibitors (anticytokines), or anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta 1), which protect against experimental autoimmune diseases. These vectors carry the relevant genes into a variety of tissues, for either localised or systemic release of the encoded protein. Administration of cDNA encoding soluble IFN-gamma receptor (IFN-gamma R)/IgG-Fc fusion proteins, soluble TNF-alpha receptors, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against either lupus, various forms of arthritis, autoimmune diabetes, or other autoimmune diseases. These inhibitors, unlike many cytokines, have little or no toxic potential. Similarly, TGF-beta 1 gene therapy protects against numerous forms of autoimmunity, though its administration entails more risk than anticytokine therapy. We have relied on the injection of naked plasmid DNA into skeletal muscle, with or without enhancement of gene transfer by in vivo electroporation. Expression plasmids offer interesting advantages over viral vectors, since they are simple to produce, non-immunogenic and nonpathogenic. They can be repeatedly administered and after each treatment the encoded proteins are produced for relatively long periods, ranging from weeks to months. Moreover, soluble receptors which block cytokine action, encoded by gene therapy vectors, can be constructed from non-immunogenic self elements that are unlikely to be neutralised by the host immune response (unlike monoclonal antibodies [mAbs]), allowing long-term gene therapy of chronic inflammatory disorders. PMID:11727511

  11. The Open Autoimmunity Journal, 2009, 1, 00-00 1 1876-8946/09 2009 Bentham Open

    E-print Network

    Iglic, Ales

    in different diseases such as autoimmune diseases [5-8], cardiovascular disorders [9, 10] and cancer [11The Open Autoimmunity Journal, 2009, 1, 00-00 1 1876-8946/09 2009 Bentham Open Open Access Blood. They were suggested to play an important role in many diseases including autoim- mune disorders, however

  12. Microparticles: Bridging the Gap between Autoimmunity and Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Niccolai, Elena; Emmi, Giacomo; Squatrito, Danilo; Silvestri, Elena; Emmi, Lorenzo; Amedei, Amedeo; Prisco, Domenico

    2015-06-01

    Microparticles (MPs) are irregularly shaped small vesicles of heterogeneous size released from the plasma membrane in a tightly controlled process, after different stimuli. MPs have been associated with proinflammatory effects and also with autoimmune processes, being a source of autoantigenic nuclear material, which can form immune complexes. In addition, recent reports have linked a large number of autoimmune disorders to an increased risk of thrombosis, and MPs seem to promote the potential for thrombotic events. A growing mass of evidence supports the idea that MPs could contribute to the generation of an inflammation-induced hypercoagulability state, having a relevant role in the pathogenesis of the thrombotic phenomena associated to autoimmune disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, and systemic vasculitis. In this review, we focus on the procoagulant properties of circulating MPs and analyze their contribution to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. PMID:25965903

  13. Epigenetic mechanisms in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hedrich, Christian M.; Tsokos, George C.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenic origin of autoimmune diseases can be traced to both genetic susceptibility and epigenetic modifications arising from exposure to the environment. Epigenetic modifications influence gene-expression and alter cellular functions without modifying the genomic sequence. CpG-DNA methylation, histone-tail modifications, and micro-RNAs (miRNAs) are the main epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the pathophysiology of autoimmune diseases is essential for the introduction of effective, target-directed, and tolerated therapies. In this review, we summarize recent findings that signify the importance of epigenetic modifications in autoimmune disorders while focusing on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We discuss future directions in basic research, autoimmune diagnostics, and applied therapy. PMID:21885342

  14. Myositis autoantibody inhibits histidyl-tRNA synthetase: a model for autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Mathews; Robert M. Bernstein

    1983-01-01

    In autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), autoantibodies are generated against a variety of macromolecules. Myositis is a human autoimmune disease characterized by weakness and wasting of muscle1. In American studies2,3, antibodies directed against soluble cellular constituents were detected by immunodiffusion in about 60% of cases; the commonest of these, found in 25% of patients,

  15. Human T-Cell Clones from Autoimmune Thyroid Glands: Specific Recognition of Autologous Thyroid Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Londei; G. Franco Bottazzo; Marc Feldmann

    1985-01-01

    The thyroid glands of patients with autoimmune diseases such as Graves' disease and certain forms of goiter contain infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and, unlike cells of normal glands, the epithelial follicular cells strongly express histocompatability antigens of the HLA-DR type. In a study of such autoimmune disorders, the infiltrating T cells from the thyroid glands of two patients with Graves'

  16. Autoimmune encephalitis: recent updates and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Sudarshini; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Brilot, Fabienne; Dale, Russell C

    2014-05-01

    The knowledge of immune dysregulation and autoimmunity in neurological disorders has expanded considerably in recent times. Recognition of clinical syndromes, reliable methods of diagnosis, and early targeted immunotherapy can lead to a favourable outcome in acute and subacute neurological disorders that may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality if left untreated. This review focuses on the rapidly expanding field of autoimmune encephalitis. We describe the differences between limbic encephalitis associated with antibodies targeting intracellular antigens, and neuronal surface antibody syndromes (NSAS) where the antigens are primarily receptors or synaptic proteins located on the neuronal cell surface. We chronologically highlight important developments in NSAS by focusing on voltage gated potassium channel complex-associated antibody mediated encephalitis, anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, and anti-dopamine 2 receptor antibody-associated basal ganglia encephalitis. Contentious issues such as the complexities of using serum antibodies as biomarkers, the initiation of central nervous system autoimmunity, and possible pathogenic mechanisms of these antibodies will be reviewed. The therapeutic challenges that clinicians face such as the timing of therapy and the role of second-line therapy will be discussed, with crucial concepts highlighted in the form of clinical vignettes. Future directions will involve the identification of novel antigens and methods to establish their pathogenicity, as well as evaluation of the most efficacious therapeutic strategies in patients with established NSAS. PMID:24246947

  17. Autophagy and Autoimmunity Crosstalks

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Abhisek; Eissa, N. Tony

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, initially viewed as a conserved bulk-degradation mechanism, has emerged as a central player in a multitude of immune functions. Autophagy is important in host defense against intracellular and extracellular pathogens, metabolic syndromes, immune cell homeostasis, antigen processing and presentation, and maintenance of tolerance. The observation that the above processes are implicated in triggering or exacerbating autoimmunity raises the possibility that autophagy is involved in mediating autoimmune processes, either directly or as a consequence of innate or adaptive functions mediated by the pathway. Genome-wide association studies have shown association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in autophagy related gene 5 (Atg5), and Atg16l1 with susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Crohn’s disease, respectively. Enhanced expression of Atg5 was also reported in blood of mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS), and in T cells isolated from blood or brain tissues from patients with active relapse of MS. This review explores the roles of autophagy pathway in the innate and adaptive immune systems on regulating or mediating the onset, progression, or exacerbation of autoimmune processes. PMID:23596443

  18. Leishmaniasis and autoimmune diseases in pediatric age.

    PubMed

    Nozzi, M; Del Torto, M; Chiarelli, F; Breda, L

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by the protozoa Leishmania, endemic in the Mediterranean countries. Clinical manifestations can be divided into three different forms: cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and the visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form which is potentially lethal if untreated. Immunology and pathogenesis are complex: many different aspects of immune response, resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania have been studied but many others remain to be clarified. The gold standard in diagnosis of visceral Leishmaniasis is the presence of amastigotes in bone marrow or tissue sections. Patients can be initially misdiagnosed as having an autoimmune disease because it may mimic diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus, autoimmune hepatitis, dermatomyositis or others disorders. As in pediatric age the risk of life-threatening complications is very high, leishmaniasis, must be kept in mind to the clinician, in order to avoid wrong diagnosis and an inappropriate immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:25240149

  19. A Case of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type II with Hypothyroidism, Hypoadrenalism, and Celiac Disease - A Rare Combination.

    PubMed

    Lakhotia, Manoj; Pahadia, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Tak, Sandeep

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular syndrome (APS) are rare condition characterised by presence of immune dysfunction of two or more endocrine glands and other non-endocrine organs. APS is divided into 2 major subtypes based on age of presentation, pattern of disease combinations and mode of inheritance. APS 1(juvenile) usually manifest in early adolescence or in infancy. It is characterised by multiple endocrinal deficiency with mucocutaneous candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy. Of the endocrine diseases, hypoparathyroidism form an important component followed by Addison's disease, type 1A diabetes, hypogonadism and thyroid disease. On the other hand APS II usually manifest in 3rd or 4th decade of life with female preponderance. Endocrine diseases commonly include autoimmune thyroid disease (graves or autoimmune thyroiditis), type 1A diabetes, and Addison's disease. Hypoparathyroidism is of rare occurrence and there is no mucocutaneous candidiasis. We report here a case of APS type II in a 29-year-old male who initially presented with hypothyroidism, which was soon followed by Addison's disease. The involvement of thyroid gland preceding the involvement of adrenal is of rare occurrence. The patient also had celiac disease which makes the combination further uncommon. PMID:26023582

  20. A Case of Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type II with Hypothyroidism, Hypoadrenalism, and Celiac Disease - A Rare Combination

    PubMed Central

    Pahadia, Hans Raj; Kumar, Harish; Singh, Jagdish; Tak, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular syndrome (APS) are rare condition characterised by presence of immune dysfunction of two or more endocrine glands and other non-endocrine organs. APS is divided into 2 major subtypes based on age of presentation, pattern of disease combinations and mode of inheritance. APS 1(juvenile) usually manifest in early adolescence or in infancy. It is characterised by multiple endocrinal deficiency with mucocutaneous candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy. Of the endocrine diseases, hypoparathyroidism form an important component followed by Addison’s disease, type 1A diabetes, hypogonadism and thyroid disease. On the other hand APS II usually manifest in 3rd or 4th decade of life with female preponderance. Endocrine diseases commonly include autoimmune thyroid disease (graves or autoimmune thyroiditis), type 1A diabetes, and Addison’s disease. Hypoparathyroidism is of rare occurrence and there is no mucocutaneous candidiasis. We report here a case of APS type II in a 29-year-old male who initially presented with hypothyroidism, which was soon followed by Addison’s disease. The involvement of thyroid gland preceding the involvement of adrenal is of rare occurrence. The patient also had celiac disease which makes the combination further uncommon. PMID:26023582

  1. [Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 3 in a patient after surgical treatment of Cushing syndrome].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Szkróbka, Witold; Okopie?, Bogus?aw

    2011-01-01

    In light of research carried out in recent years, it seems that autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes occur much more frequently than previously estimated. The underestimation of their real frequency probable results from physicians' inadequate knowledge of these clinical entities and sometimes their atypical clinical picture. On the basis of the clinical presentation, autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes may be divided into four different types. The most frequent of them, type 3, is composed of autoimmune thyroid disease associated with type 1 diabetes or other autoimmune conditions with the exception of Addison's disease and hypoparathyroidism. In this article, we report a case of a young woman, with a family history of autoimmune disorders, in whom type 3 autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome developed several months after adrenalectomy performed because of Cushing syndrome. We describe in details diagnostic and treatment strategies applied in our patient and their impact on the course and outcome of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. We conclude that immunosuppressive effects of glucocorticoid excess resulting from the presence of Cushing syndrome inhibited or reduced intensity of inflammatory processes responsible for the development of organ-specific autoimmune endocrine disorders. This case illustrates the need for clinical awareness of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in patients after surgically-induced normalization of adrenocortical hormone levels. PMID:22335143

  2. Apoptosis in feathers of Smyth line chickens with autoimmune vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X Wang; G. F Erf

    2004-01-01

    Vitiligo is an acquired dermatological disorder characterized by a loss of epidermal melanocytes resulting in depigmentation of the skin. Mechanisms underlying the destruction of melanocytes in vitiligo remain unclear. An animal model to study spontaneously occurring autoimmune vitiligo is the mutant Smyth line (SL) of chickens. This investigation was designed to determine whether the pathogenesis of depigmentation in Smyth line

  3. Low dose combination steroids control autoimmune mouse hearing loss

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis R. Trune; J. Beth Kempton

    2010-01-01

    The severe side effects of glucocorticoids prevent long term management of hearing loss. Alternative steroid treatments that minimize or eliminate these effects would significantly benefit therapeutic control of hearing disorders. A steroid treatment study of autoimmune mouse hearing loss was conducted to determine the efficacy of combining aldosterone and prednisolone at low doses. An assessment also was made of low

  4. Citrullination and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Valesini, Guido; Gerardi, Maria C; Iannuccelli, Cristina; Pacucci, Viviana A; Pendolino, Monica; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-06-01

    Autoimmune diseases are characterized by the body's own immune system attack to the self-tissues, a condition enabled, in predisposed subjects, by the reduction of self-tolerance. A central role has been recently recognized to post-translational modifications, since they can promote generation of neo-(auto)antigens and in turn an autoimmune response. During the last years great attention has been paid to citrullination, because of its role in inducing anti-citrullinated proteins/peptide antibodies (ACPA), a class of autoantibodies with diagnostic, predictive and prognostic value for Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Nonetheless, citrullination has been reported to be a process present in a wide range of inflammatory tissues. Indeed, citrullinated proteins have been detected also in other inflammatory arthritides and in inflammatory conditions other than arthritides (polymyositis, inflammatory bowel disease and chronic tonsillitis). Moreover, environmental exposure to cigarette smoke and nanomaterials of air pollution may be able to induce citrullination in lung cells prior to any detectable onset of inflammatory responses, suggesting that protein citrullination could be considered as a sign of early cellular damage. Accordingly, citrullination seems to be implicated in all those para-physiological processes, such as cells death pathways, in which intracellular calcium concentration raises to higher levels than in physiologic conditions: hence, peptidylarginine deiminases enzymes are activated during apoptosis, autophagy and NETosis, processes which are well-known to be implicated in autoimmunity. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that rather than being a disease-dependent process, citrullination is an inflammatory-dependent condition that plays a central role in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25636595

  5. MicroRNA control in the development of systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian immune responses are intended to eradicate microbial pathogens and thus protect individuals from the harmful effects of such infections. However, unresolved inflammation can be devastating to the host and cause tissue damage and organ malfunction. Immune responses can even mistakenly target self-antigens and mediate autoimmune inflammation. Consequently, a variety of cellular and molecular mechanisms have evolved to control the inflammatory responses, and many of these safeguards or triggers are perturbed in the setting of autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss the emerging roles of cellular non-coding RNAs, and in particular microRNAs (miRNAs), in the regulation of autoimmune inflammation. How miRNAs function to impact the onset, magnitude, and resolution of inflammatory responses and recent observations regarding links between miRNAs and specific autoimmune disorders will be addressed. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of miRNAs involved in autoimmunity will be considered. It is clear that, taken together, mammalian miRNAs are integral to the pathogenesis of mammalian autoimmune diseases and may be effective targets of next-generation therapeutics aimed at eradicating tissue inflammation. PMID:23379780

  6. Danger-free autoimmune disease in Aire-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Daniel H. D.; Gavanescu, Irina; Benoist, Christophe; Mathis, Diane

    2007-01-01

    The danger theory of immune tolerance asserts that environmental factors hold primacy over lymphocyte autoreactivity in initiating autoimmune disease. We sought to test this contention using the Aire-deficient mouse model of the human disease, autoimmune polyendocrinopathy–candidiasis–ectodermal dystrophy, a multiorgan autoimmune disorder rooted in a lesion in thymic tolerance. Compound screens stimulating a broad range of innate immune system pathways failed to show any modulation of disease characteristics in Aire?/? mice on either the C57BL/6 or NOD genetic backgrounds. Furthermore, deficiency in the Toll-like receptor adaptor Myd88 increased the lifespan of NOD.aire?/? mice but did not prevent the initiation of autoimmunity. Finally, germ-free NOD.aire?/? mice exhibited autoimmunity in all organs normally targeted in this model, indicating that microbial conditioning is not required for activation of autoreactive T cells relevant to this disease. Together, these data suggest that the stochastic genesis of dangerous T cell clones can initiate autoimmune disease without the need for environmental stimulation, underlining the importance of Aire-dependent thymic deletion. PMID:17991771

  7. Targeting Dendritic Cell Function during Systemic Autoimmunity to Restore Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Mackern-Oberti, Juan P.; Vega, Fabián; Llanos, Carolina; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic autoimmune diseases can damage nearly every tissue or cell type of the body. Although a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, current therapies have not been improved, remain unspecific and are associated with significant side effects. Because dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in promoting immune tolerance against self-antigens (self-Ags), current efforts are focusing at generating new therapies based on the transfer of tolerogenic DCs (tolDCs) during autoimmunity. However, the feasibility of this approach during systemic autoimmunity has yet to be evaluated. TolDCs may ameliorate autoimmunity mainly by restoring T cell tolerance and, thus, indirectly modulating autoantibody development. In vitro induction of tolDCs loaded with immunodominant self-Ags and subsequent cell transfer to patients would be a specific new therapy that will avoid systemic immunosuppression. Herein, we review recent approaches evaluating the potential of tolDCs for the treatment of systemic autoimmune disorders. PMID:25229821

  8. High Prevalence of Antinuclear Antibodies in Children with Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Segni, Maria; Pucarelli, Ida; Truglia, Simona; Turriziani, Ilaria; Serafinelli, Chiara; Conti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Background. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a hallmark of many autoimmune diseases and can be detected many years before disease onset. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are frequently associated with other organ- and non-organ-specific autoimmune disorders. Objectives. To assess the prevalence of ANA in pediatric patients with AITD and their clinical correlations. Methods. Ninety-three consecutive pediatric patients with AITD were enrolled (86 children with chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and 7 with Graves' disease). ANA, anti-double DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies, anti-extractable nuclear antigen (anti-ENA), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP), and rheumatoid factor (RF) was obtained. Signs and symptoms potentially related to rheumatic diseases in children were investigated by a questionnaire. Results. ANA positivity was found in 66/93 children (71%), anti-ENA in 4/93 (4.3%), anti-dsDNA in 1/93 (1.1%), RF in 3/93 (3.2%), and anti-CCP in none. No significant differences were found between the ANA-positive and ANA-negative groups with respect to age, sex, L-thyroxine treatment, or prevalence of other autoimmune diseases. Overall, parental autoimmunity was found in 23%. Conclusions. ANA positivity was demonstrated in 71% of children with AITD. ANA positivity was not related to overt immune-rheumatic diseases. However, because the positivity of ANA can occur even many years before the onset of systemic autoimmune diseases, prospective studies are warranted. PMID:24741574

  9. Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Jowairiyya; Tagoe, Clement E

    2014-07-01

    Fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain syndromes are among the commonest diseases seen in rheumatology practice. Despite advances in the management of these conditions, they remain significant causes of morbidity and disability. Autoimmune thyroid disease is the most prevalent autoimmune disorder, affecting about 10 % of the population, and is a recognized cause of fibromyalgia and chronic widespread pain. Recent reports are shedding light on the mechanisms of pain generation in autoimmune thyroid disease-associated pain syndromes including the role of inflammatory mediators, small-fiber polyneuropathy, and central sensitization. The gradual elucidation of these pain pathways is allowing the rational use of pharmacotherapy in the management of chronic widespread pain in autoimmune thyroid disease. This review looks at the current understanding of the prevalence of pain syndromes in autoimmune thyroid disease, their likely causes, present appreciation of the pathogenesis of chronic widespread pain, and how our knowledge can be used to find lasting and effective treatments for the pain syndromes associated with autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:24435355

  10. High prevalence of infections and autoimmunity in patients with thymoma.

    PubMed

    Holbro, Andreas; Jauch, Annaďse; Lardinois, Didier; Tzankov, Alexander; Dirnhofer, Stephan; Hess, Christoph

    2012-03-01

    The thymus selects T cells, thus ensuring T cell tolerance. Thymoma can be associated with immune dysregulation manifesting as autoimmunity and/or immunodeficiency. Immune dysregulation in thymoma patients has only been described in case reports and small case series. The current study was a retrospective single-center study, covering the period 1/2000 to 12/2010. Clinical data were collected by chart review. We identified 29 patients with thymoma. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years (range: 23-87). Median follow-up time was 1,326 days (range: 15-3,710), and 20 patients (69%) were alive at last follow-up. Overall, in 13 of 29 patients (45%) autoimmunity and infection were observed in 7 of 29 (24%) and 3 of 29 patients (10%) infection and autoimmunity only was observed, respectively. Both opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections were recorded. Myasthenia gravis (10 of 29 patients) was the most frequent autoimmune disease. Additional entities included pemphigus, pure red cell aplasia, lichen planus, Sjögren's syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 2 each), and cutaneous lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, vitiligo, polymyositis, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n = 1 each). Six of 29 patients (21%) had more than 1 autoimmune disorder. In thymoma patients, infection, autoimmunity, and in particular a combination of both pose a challenge to treating physicians. Prospective multicenter studies are required to more precisely define the thymoma-associated immune dysregulation syndrome. PMID:22261388

  11. Autoimmune thrombocytopenia: a complication of fludarabine therapy in the treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yujie; Peng, Hongjuan; Cui, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Dai; Sui, Xiaohui; Zhang, Lingyan; Xu, Hongzhi

    2014-01-01

    Fludarabine is an effective purine analogue which has become extensive used in lymph proliferative malignancies. However, an increased incidence of autoimmune disorders including autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AHIA) and idiopathic thrombocytopenia (ITP) is reported with the use of fludarabine. The exact mechanism for fludarabine to exacerbate thrombocytopenia is not distinct. In our report, we describe a patient with WM developed a refractory, life-threatening and fludarabine-associated thrombocytopenia which could not be explained by the cytotoxic effects of fludarabine. Possible mechanisms of fludarabine on autoimmune disorders are discussed. PMID:25664138

  12. Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, Manole; COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD) are a heterogeneous group of immunologically mediated inflammatory disorders including multiorgan involvement. As expected in a multisystem disease, the entire pulmonary system is vulnerable to injury. Any of its compartments may be independently or simultaneously affected. It is difficult to assess the true prevalence of lung disease in cases of SAD. In this article, we will review the pulmonary manifestations caused by systemic lupus erithematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, mixed connective tissue disease, Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome, Goodpasture's syndrome, and ankylosing spondylitis. PMID:22368703

  13. Paraneoplastic Pemphigus: A Paraneoplastic Autoimmune Multiorgan Syndrome or Autoimmune Multiorganopathy?

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Vikram K.; Sharma, Vikas; Chauhan, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karaninder S.; Sharma, Anju Lath; Abhinav, C.; Khatri, Gayatri; Prabha, Neel; Sharma, Saurabh; Negi, Muninder

    2012-01-01

    Paraneoplastic pemphigus (PNP), a clinically and immunopathologically distinct mucocutaneous blistering dermatosis, is a severe form of autoimmune multiorgan syndrome generally associated with poor therapeutic outcome and high mortality. This IgG-mediated disease is initiated by an obvious or occult lymphoproliferative disorder in most cases. Clinically severe mucositis, and polymorphic blistering skin eruptions, and histologically acantholysis, keratinocyte necrosis and interface dermatitis are its hallmark features. A 58-year-old female presented with recurrent, severe, recalcitrant stomatitis and widespread erosions/blistering lesions of one-year duration. Treatment with repeated courses of systemic corticosteroids at a peripheral center would provide temporary relief. She also had fever, productive cough, odynophagia and poor oral intake, herpes zoster ophthalmicus, pain in the abdomen, and watery diarrhea. An array of investigations revealed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), mediastinal and para-aortic lymphadenopathy, bronchiolitis obliterans, and vertebral osteoporosis/fractures. With the diagnosis of CLL-associated PNP she was managed with dexamethasone-cyclophosphamide pulse (DCP) therapy for 3 cycles initially, followed by COP regimen (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisolone) for 5 cycles. Remission is being maintained with chlorambucil and prednisolone pulse therapy once in 3 weeks with complete resolution of skin lesions and adequate control of CLL. PMID:23316398

  14. Acute Hemorrhagic Leukoencephalitis Associated With Autoimmune Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Neeta; Ahmed, Iftekhar; Duggal, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is a rare acute inflammatory myelinopathy of central nervous system with high mortality. We report a case of an unusual presentation of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis with autoimmune myopathy and a complete recovery with steroids and plasmapheresis. Methods A 24-year-old female admitted with generalized seizure, lethargy, but no focal neurological signs. Head scans revealed right frontal hypodensity with loss of basal cisterns, mild transfalcine shift to the left, a mass lesion with abnormal signal and multiple small hemorrhages. Biopsy pathology showed white matter demyelinating lesions with necrotizing destruction of small vessels and acute inflammation. EMG was consistent with demyelinating diffuse polyneuropathy and myopathy. Pathology of muscle showed myopathic changes suggestive of autoimmune myopathy. Results Patient was initially treated with Dexamethasone, Mannitol, Keppra, Antibiotics and Acyclovir. Later when she developed diffuse polyneuropathy and myopathy, she was given plasmapheresis. The patient responded to the treatment and made a full recovery. Conclusion Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis is a rare and usually fatal disorder. The etiology of AHLE remains clear; cross-reactivity between human myelin antigens and viral or bacterial antigens is thought to initiate an immune process causing demyelination. Usually the autoimmune process targets CNS myelin and spares the peripheral; however, in this case there was diffuse involvement of central and peripheral myelin and muscle. PMID:25422709

  15. Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Ponranjini, Vedeswari C.; Jayachandran, S; Kayal, L; Bakyalakshmi, K

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome (APS) Type 1 is a rare hereditary disorder that damages organs in the body. This disease entity is the result of a mutation in the AIRE gene. It is characterized by three classic clinical features - hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease, and chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. For a patient to be diagnosed as having APS Type 1 syndrome at least two of these features needs to be present. The third entity may develop as the disease progresses. We report a case of a 35-year-old female patient with a history of seizure from the age of 11 years, who was managed with anticonvulsant drugs. With worsening of the seizure episodes, patient was diagnosed to have hypoparathyroidism together with the manifestations of oral candidiasis, nails dystrophy, enamel hypoplasia, and hypogonadism. A diagnosis of APS-1 was considered. The facility for genetic analysis of the AIRE gene mutation was not accessible, as the test costs were prohibitive and not affordable for the patient. Patient management was directed to treating individual disease components. However, cerebral and dental changes were irreversible. PMID:23230544

  16. Treatment of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

    PubMed Central

    Zanella, Alberto; Barcellini, Wilma

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a relatively uncommon disorder caused by autoantibodies directed against self red blood cells. It can be idiopathic or secondary, and classified as warm, cold (cold hemagglutinin disease (CAD) and paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria) or mixed, according to the thermal range of the autoantibody. AIHA may develop gradually, or have a fulminant onset with life-threatening anemia. The treatment of AIHA is still not evidence-based. The first-line therapy for warm AIHA are corticosteroids, which are effective in 70–85% of patients and should be slowly tapered over a time period of 6–12 months. For refractory/relapsed cases, the current sequence of second-line therapy is splenectomy (effective approx. in 2 out of 3 cases but with a presumed cure rate of up to 20%), rituximab (effective in approx. 80–90% of cases), and thereafter any of the immunosuppressive drugs (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, mycophenolate mofetil). Additional therapies are intravenous immunoglobulins, danazol, plasma-exchange, and alemtuzumab and high-dose cyclophosphamide as last resort option. As the experience with rituximab evolves, it is likely that this drug will be located at an earlier point in therapy of warm AIHA, before more toxic immunosuppressants, and in place of splenectomy in some cases. In CAD, rituximab is now recommended as first-line treatment. PMID:25271314

  17. The Autoimmune Basis of Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K.; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  18. The autoimmune basis of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Mahlios, Josh; De la Herrán-Arita, Alberto K; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-10-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagonic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, and disturbed nocturnal sleep patterns. Narcolepsy is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Evidence, such as a strong association with HLA DQB1*06:02, strongly suggests an autoimmune basis targeting hypocretin neurons. Genome-wide association studies have strengthened the association between narcolepsy and immune system gene polymorphisms, including the identification of polymorphisms in the T cell receptor alpha locus, TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H (CTSH) the purinergic receptor P2RY11, and the DNA methyltransferase DNMT1. Recently, attention has been raised regarding a spike in cases of childhood narcolepsy in 2010 following the 2009 H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) in China and vaccination with Pandemrix, an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine that was used in Europe. How the immune system may be involved in disease initiation and/or progression remains a challenge to researchers. Potential immunological pathways that could lead to the specific elimination of hypocretin producing neurons include molecular mimicry or bystander activation, and are likely a combination of genetic and environmental factors, such as upper airway infections. PMID:23725858

  19. Antibodies to neurofascin exacerbate adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune neuritis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Weixing; Nguyen, Toan; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ji, Qiuhong; Yiannikas, Con; Pollard, John D; Mathey, Emily K

    2014-12-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are autoimmune disorders of the peripheral nervous system in which autoantibodies are implicated in the disease pathogenesis. Recent work has focused on the nodal regions of the myelinated axon as potential autoantibody targets. Here we screened patient sera for autoantibodies to neurofascin and assessed the pathophysiological relevance of anti-neurofascin antibodies in vivo. Levels of anti-neurofascin antibodies were higher in sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy when compared with those of controls. Anti-neurofascin antibodies exacerbated and prolonged adoptive transfer experimental autoimmune neuritis and caused conduction defects when injected intraneurally. PMID:25262157

  20. Fueling Autoimmunity: Type I Interferon in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Di Domizio, Jeremy; Cao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years, active research using genomic, cellular and animal modeling approaches has revealed the fundamental forces driving the development of autoimmune diseases. Type I IFN (IFN) imprints unique molecular signatures in a list of autoimmune diseases. IFN is induced by diverse nucleic acid-containing complexes, which trigger innate immune activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). IFN primes, activates or differentiates various leukocyte populations to promote autoimmunity. Accordingly, IFN signaling is essential for the initiation and/or progression of lupus in several experimental models. However, the heterogeneous nature of SLE requires better characterization on how IFN pathways are activated and subsequently promote the advancement of autoimmune diseases. Given the central role of type I IFN, various strategies are devised to target these cytokines or related pathways to curtail the progression of autoimmune diseases. PMID:23445195

  1. Mast Cell and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yunzhi; Chen, Guangjie

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are important in innate immune system. They have been appreciated as potent contributors to allergic reaction. However, increasing evidence implicates the important role of mast cells in autoimmune disease like rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. Here we review the current stage of knowledge about mast cells in autoimmune diseases. PMID:25944979

  2. Extraintestinal Manifestations of Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomica Milosavljevic; Mirjana Kostic-Milosavljevic; Ivan Jovanovic; Miodrag Krstic

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because

  3. Novel autoantigens in autoimmune hypophysitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isabella Lupi; Karl W. Broman; Shey-Cherng Tzou; Angelika Gutenberg; Enio Martino; Patrizio Caturegli

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Pituitary autoantibodies are found in autoimmune hypophysitis and other conditions. They are a marker of pituitary autoimmunity but currently have limited clinical value. The methods used for their detection lack adequate sensitivity and specificity, mainly because the pathogenic pituitary autoantigen(s) are not known and therefore antigen-based immunoassays have not been developed. Objectives This study aimed to identify novel

  4. Neuroimmunology: An Expanding Frontier in Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Höftberger, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Anti-neuronal autoimmune encephalitis (AIE) comprises a recently characterized group of immune-mediated disorders that result in limbic, multifocal, or diffuse encephalitis due to direct interaction of autoantibodies with neuronal surface or synaptic proteins. The pathological effects of the autoantibodies vary according to the target antigen but when they are removed, neuronal dysfunction is commonly reversed. Ongoing research on AIE constantly increases the number of novel autoantibodies and expands the spectrum of neurological syndromes that are important in the differential diagnosis of psychiatric illness, dementia, or viral encephalitis. This review summarizes recent advances in AIE, focusing on pathogenetic mechanisms and novel associations with other CNS disorders such as neurodegeneration, relapsing symptoms post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis, and demyelinating diseases. In addition, an algorithmic approach to detect and characterize neuronal cell surface autoantibodies is proposed. PMID:25972873

  5. B Cells in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, Christiane S.

    2012-01-01

    The role of B cells in autoimmune diseases involves different cellular functions, including the well-established secretion of autoantibodies, autoantigen presentation and ensuing reciprocal interactions with T cells, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and the generation of ectopic germinal centers. Through these mechanisms B cells are involved both in autoimmune diseases that are traditionally viewed as antibody mediated and also in autoimmune diseases that are commonly classified as T cell mediated. This new understanding of the role of B cells opened up novel therapeutic options for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This paper includes an overview of the different functions of B cells in autoimmunity; the involvement of B cells in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes; and current B-cell-based therapeutic treatments. We conclude with a discussion of novel therapies aimed at the selective targeting of pathogenic B cells. PMID:23807906

  6. Autophagy in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Goronzy, Jörg J; Weyand, Cornelia M

    2015-07-01

    Autophagy is a protective and life-sustaining process in which cytoplasmic components are packaged into double-membrane vesicles and targeted to lysosomes for degradation. This process of cellular self-digestion is an essential stress response and is cytoprotective by removing damaged organelles and proteins that threaten the cell's survival. Key outcomes include energy generation and recycling of metabolic precursors. In the immune system, autophagy regulates processes such as antigen uptake and presentation, removal of pathogens, survival of short- and long-lived immune cells, and cytokine-dependent inflammation. In all cases, a window of optimal autophagic activity appears critical to balance catabolic, reparative, and inflammation-inducing processes. Dysregulation of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux can have deleterious consequences, ranging from a failure to "clean house" to the induction of autophagy-induced cell death. Abnormalities in the autophagic pathway have been implicated in numerous autoimmune diseases. Genome-wide association studies have linked polymorphisms in autophagy-related genes with predisposition for tissue-destructive inflammatory disease, specifically in inflammatory bowel disease and systemic lupus erythematosus. Although the precise mechanisms by which dysfunctional autophagy renders the host susceptible to continuous inflammation remain unclear, autophagy's role in regulating the long-term survival of adaptive immune cells has recently surfaced as a defect in multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Efforts are underway to identify autophagy-inducing and autophagy-suppressing pharmacologic interventions that can be added to immunosuppressive therapy to improve outcomes of patients with autoimmune disease. PMID:26054920

  7. Prolactin in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Neidhart, M

    1998-04-01

    The immune system is still regarded by many as autonomous, and prolactin (Prl) has traditionally been considered as a lactogenic hormone. Over the last 10 years, the total number of publications considering Prl is decreasing, while the number of those investigating its role in immunity sustainly increased. In addition to the pituitary gland, Prl-like peptides can be produced by activated leukocytes and fibroblasts. Elevated serum levels of Prl in (rat) adjuvant arthritis, (murine) collagen type II-induced arthritis, (murine and human) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and (murine and rat) autoimmune type I diabetes may influence the outcome of the disease. It is suggested that mild hyperprolactinemia is a risk factor for the development of autoimmunity. This can occur under certain circumstances, for example adrenocortical deficiency or postpartum. In human SLE, Prl appears to favor the production of anti-double stranded DNA. While glucocorticoids would damp the immune reactivity, Prl constitutes a stimulatory link between the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Future directions should include: 1) multicenter projects for evaluation of the therapy with Prl-inhibiting compounds in SLE, considering for example the HLA-DRB1 *0301 status; and 2) the regulation of extra-pituitary Prl-like cytokines ("proliferins") (e.g., in rheumatoid arthritis synovium) and their role in the production of catabolic enzymes. PMID:9521087

  8. Immunodeficiency and autoimmune enterocolopathy linked to NFAT5 haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Boland, Brigid S; Widjaja, Christella E; Banno, Asoka; Zhang, Bing; Kim, Stephanie H; Stoven, Samantha; Peterson, Michael R; Jones, Marilyn C; Su, H Irene; Crowe, Sheila E; Bui, Jack D; Ho, Samuel B; Okugawa, Yoshinaga; Goel, Ajay; Marietta, Eric V; Khosroheidari, Mahdieh; Jepsen, Kristen; Aramburu, Jose; López-Rodríguez, Cristina; Sandborn, William J; Murray, Joseph A; Harismendy, Olivier; Chang, John T

    2015-03-15

    The link between autoimmune diseases and primary immunodeficiency syndromes has been increasingly appreciated. Immunologic evaluation of a young man with autoimmune enterocolopathy and unexplained infections revealed evidence of immunodeficiency, including IgG subclass deficiency, impaired Ag-induced lymphocyte proliferation, reduced cytokine production by CD8(+) T lymphocytes, and decreased numbers of NK cells. Genetic evaluation identified haploinsufficiency of NFAT5, a transcription factor regulating immune cell function and cellular adaptation to hyperosmotic stress, as a possible cause of this syndrome. Inhibition or deletion of NFAT5 in normal human and murine cells recapitulated several of the immune deficits identified in the patient. These results provide evidence of a primary immunodeficiency disorder associated with organ-specific autoimmunity linked to NFAT5 deficiency. PMID:25667416

  9. Stroke preceding autoimmune encephalitis with neuronal potassium channel antibody

    PubMed Central

    Simal, Patricia; Garcia-García, Ana Maria; Serna-Candel, Carmen; Egido, Jose Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune encephalitis related to voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies can occur as a complication of cancer but, more frequently, as a non-paraneoplastic disorder. The prompt recognition and treatment could mitigate the morbidity associated with this entity, but the broad-spectrum of neurological manifestations often makes the diagnosis a challenge. The authors describe, here, a unique case of autoimmune encephalitis related to VGKC antibodies preceded by an ischaemic stroke. Conditions associated with the stroke (infection, seizures, metabolic disturbances) had delayed the diagnosis. The authors suggest that autoimmune encephalitis needs to be taken into consideration as part of a differential diagnosis in patients with prolonged encephalopathy following an ischaemic stroke. Infection may trigger an inflammatory response. In addition, the rupture of blood brain barrier that occurs in stroke may have a pathogenic role by allowing antibodies to gain access to the central nervous system. PMID:22605845

  10. Air pollution in autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Sylvia C L; Silva, Clovis A; Orione, Maria Angelica M; Campos, Lucia M A; Sallum, Adriana M E; Braga, Alfésio L F

    2011-11-01

    Air pollution consists of a heterogeneous mixture of gasses and particles that include carbon monoxide, nitrates, sulfur dioxide, ozone, lead, toxic by-product of tobacco smoke and particulate matter. Oxidative stress and inflammation induced by inhaled pollutants may result in acute and chronic disorders in the respiratory system, as well as contribute to a state of systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. This paper reviews the mechanisms of air contaminants influencing the immune response and autoimmunity, and it focuses on studies of inhaled pollutants triggering and/or exacerbating rheumatic diseases in cities around the world. Remarkably, environmental factors contribute to the onset of autoimmune diseases, especially smoking and occupational exposure to silica in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Other diseases such as scleroderma may be triggered by the inhalation of chemical solvents, herbicides and silica. Likewise, primary vasculitis associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) may be triggered by silica exposure. Only few studies showed that air pollutants could trigger or exacerbate juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, no studies of tropospheric pollution triggering inflammatory myopathies and spondyloarthropathies were carried out. In conclusion, air pollution is one of the environmental factors involved in systemic inflammation and autoimmunity. Further studies are needed in order to evaluate air pollutants and their potentially serious effects on autoimmune rheumatic diseases and the mechanisms involved in the onset and the exacerbation of these diseases. PMID:21763467

  11. Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms and Human Autoimmune Disease in the Era of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cytokine (receptor) genes have traditionally attracted great interest as plausible genetic risk factors for autoimmune disease. Since 2007, the implementation of genome-wide association studies has facilitated the robust identification of allelic variants in more than 35 cytokine loci as susceptibility factors for a wide variety of over 15 autoimmune disorders. In this review, we catalog the gene loci of interleukin, chemokine, and tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and ligands that have emerged as autoimmune risk factors. We examine recent progress made in the clarification of the functional mechanisms by which polymorphisms in the genes coding for interleukin-2 receptor alpha (IL2RA), IL7R, and IL23R may alter risk for autoimmune disease, and discuss opposite autoimmune risk alleles found, among others, at the IL10 locus. PMID:22191464

  12. Treating endometriosis as an autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Warren B Nothnick

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on the role of autoimmunity in the etiology of endometriosis, compare the similarities in the pathophysiologies between endometriosis and autoimmune diseases, and discuss the use of immunomodulators currently used to treat autoimmune diseases as potential therapies for endometriosis.Design: The literature on endometriosis and other autoimmune diseases was reviewed, and summary data are presented.Results: Endometriosis shares

  13. Psychoneuroimmunology - psyche and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ziemssen, Tjalf

    2012-01-01

    Psychoneuroimmunology is a relatively young field of research that investigates interactions between central nervous and immune system. The brain modulates the immune system by the endocrine and autonomic nervous system. Vice versa, the immune system modulates brain activity including sleep and body temperature. Based on a close functional and anatomical link, the immune and nervous systems act in a highly reciprocal manner. From fever to stress, the influence of one system on the other has evolved in an intricate manner to help sense danger and to mount an appropriate adaptive response. Over recent decades, reasonable evidence has emerged that these brain-to-immune interactions are highly modulated by psychological factors which influence immunity and autoimmune disease. For several diseases, the relevance of psychoneuroimmunological findings has already been demonstrated. PMID:22612750

  14. Analysis of Families in the Multiple Autoimmune Disease Genetics Consortium (MADGC) Collection: the PTPN22 620W Allele Associates with Multiple Autoimmune Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Criswell, Lindsey A.; Pfeiffer, Kirsten A.; Lum, Raymond F.; Gonzales, Bonnie; Novitzke, Jill; Kern, Marlena; Moser, Kathy L.; Begovich, Ann B.; Carlton, Victoria E. H.; Li, Wentian; Lee, Annette T.; Ortmann, Ward; Behrens, Timothy W.; Gregersen, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmune disorders constitute a diverse group of phenotypes with overlapping features and a tendency toward familial aggregation. It is likely that common underlying genes are involved in these disorders. Until very recently, no specific alleles—aside from a few common human leukocyte antigen class II genes—had been identified that clearly associate with multiple different autoimmune diseases. In this study, we describe a unique collection of 265 multiplex families assembled by the Multiple Autoimmune Disease Genetics Consortium (MADGC). At least two of nine “core” autoimmune diseases are present in each of these families. These core diseases include rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type 1 diabetes (T1D), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid disease (Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves disease), juvenile RA, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis), psoriasis, and primary Sjögren syndrome. We report that a recently described functional single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs2476601, encoding R620W) in the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) confers risk of four separate autoimmune phenotypes in these families: T1D, RA, SLE, and Hashimoto thyroiditis. MS did not show association with the PTPN22 risk allele. These findings suggest a common underlying etiologic pathway for some, but not all, autoimmune disorders, and they suggest that MS may have a pathogenesis that is distinct from RA, SLE, and T1D. DNA and clinical data for the MADGC families are available to the scientific community; these data will provide a valuable resource for the dissection of the complex genetic factors that underlie the various autoimmune phenotypes. PMID:15719322

  15. The Open Autoimmunity Journal, 2009, 1, 27-32 27 1876-8946/09 2009 Bentham Open

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    follicular cells (TFC) can occur under numerous thyroid pathological conditions, including auto- immune of Graves' disease [7] and Hashimoto's thyroiditis [8], the two main thyroid autoimmune disorders in humans

  16. Dyslipidaemia in Rheumatological Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Toms, Tracey E; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Kitas, George D

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity forms the basis of many rheumatological diseases, and may contribute not only to the classical clinical manifestations but also to the complications. Many of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with an excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of this excess cardiovascular risk can be attributed to atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis is a complex pathological process, with dyslipidaemia and inflammation fundamental to all stages of plaque evolution. The heightened inflammatory state seen in conjunction with many rheumatological diseases may accelerate plaque formation, both through direct effects on the arterial wall and indirectly through inflammation-mediated alterations in the lipid profile. Alongside these factors, antibodies produced as part of the autoimmune nature of these conditions may lead to alterations in the lipid profile and promote atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the association between several of the rheumatological autoimmune diseases and dyslipidaemia, and the potential cardiovascular impact this may confer. PMID:21660202

  17. Dyslipidaemia in rheumatological autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Toms, Tracey E; Panoulas, Vasileios F; Kitas, George D

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity forms the basis of many rheumatological diseases, and may contribute not only to the classical clinical manifestations but also to the complications. Many of the autoimmune rheumatological diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus are associated with an excess cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Much of this excess cardiovascular risk can be attributed to atherosclerotic disease. Atherosclerosis is a complex pathological process, with dyslipidaemia and inflammation fundamental to all stages of plaque evolution. The heightened inflammatory state seen in conjunction with many rheumatological diseases may accelerate plaque formation, both through direct effects on the arterial wall and indirectly through inflammation-mediated alterations in the lipid profile. Alongside these factors, antibodies produced as part of the autoimmune nature of these conditions may lead to alterations in the lipid profile and promote atherosclerosis. In this review, we discuss the association between several of the rheumatological autoimmune diseases and dyslipidaemia, and the potential cardiovascular impact this may confer. PMID:21660202

  18. Clustering of autoimmune diseases in families with a high-risk for multiple sclerosis: a descriptive study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa F Barcellos; Brinda B Kamdar; Patricia P Ramsay; Cari DeLoa; Robin R Lincoln; Stacy Caillier; Silke Schmidt; Jonathan L Haines; Margaret A Pericak-Vance; Jorge R Oksenberg; Stephen L Hauser

    2006-01-01

    Methods A total of 176 families (386 individuals and 1107 fi rst-degree relatives) were characterised for a history of other autoimmune disorders. Family-based or case-control analyses were done to assess the association of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-antigen 4 (CTLA4) and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) variants with susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Findings 46 (26%) index cases reported at least one coexisting autoimmune disorder.

  19. Bcl-2-regulated cell death signalling in the prevention of autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Tischner, D; Woess, C; Ottina, E; Villunger, A

    2010-01-01

    Cell death mediated through the intrinsic, Bcl-2-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis signalling pathway is critical for lymphocyte development and the establishment of central and maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Defects in Bcl-2-regulated cell death signalling have been reported to cause or correlate with autoimmunity in mice and men. This review focuses on the role of Bcl-2 family proteins implicated in the development of autoimmune disorders and their potential as targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21364654

  20. The potential utility of B cell-directed biologic therapy in autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Arkfeld

    2008-01-01

    Increasing awareness of the importance of aberrant B cell regulation in autoimmunity has driven the clinical development of\\u000a novel B cell-directed biologic therapies with the potential to treat a range of autoimmune disorders. The first of these drugs—rituximab,\\u000a a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the B cell-specific surface marker CD20—was recently approved for treating rheumatoid\\u000a arthritis in patients with an inadequate

  1. Genes of the LMP\\/TAP cluster are associated with the human autoimmune disease vitiligo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C B Casp; J-X She; W T McCormack

    2003-01-01

    Genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), including genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, have been reported to be associated with several autoimmune diseases. We report here that the LMP\\/TAP gene region is significantly associated with vitiligo, a disorder in which biochemical defects and\\/or autoimmune destruction cause melanocyte loss and resulting skin depigmentation. Case\\/control

  2. Neurological autoimmunity targeting aquaporin-4

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Hinson; A. McKeon; V. A. Lennon

    2010-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is the first inflammatory autoimmune demyelinating disease of the CNS for which a specific tissue target molecule has been identified—the astrocytic water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Immunological insights have propelled significant advances in understanding the clinical, radiologic and immunopathologic characteristics of the disease in the last 5 years. In this review, we describe features distinguishing CNS AQP4 autoimmunity

  3. Autoimmune Polyendocrinopathy Candidiasis Ectodermal Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kisand, Kai; Peterson, Pärt

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. This review focuses on the clinical and immunological features of APECED, summarizes the current knowledge on the function of AIRE and discusses the importance of autoantibodies in disease diagnosis and prognosis. Additionally, we review the outcome of recent immunomodulatory treatments in APECED patients. PMID:26141571

  4. [Autoimmune diseases and seasonal variations].

    PubMed

    Ogura, Takehisa; Kameda, Hideto

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the exacerbation or development of autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis may have seasonality, although the seasonal characteristic depends on each disease. For example, the sunlight (ultraviolet) and infectious pathogens are involved in important environmental factors contributing the seasonality of the diseases. Furthermore, recent advances include the association between vitamin D and autoimmune diseases, and the different pathogenesis among the same clinical category according to the autoantibodies. PMID:24598065

  5. Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is linked to gastrointestinal autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ponto, K A; Schuppan, D; Zwiener, I; Binder, H; Mirshahi, A; Diana, T; Pitz, S; Pfeiffer, N; Kahaly, G J

    2014-10-01

    Common autoimmune disorders tend to co-exist in the same subjects and cluster in families. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of autoimmune co-morbidity in patients with autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) with and without thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO). This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an academic tertiary referral centre. Of 1310 patients with AITD [n?=?777 or 59% with Graves' disease (GD) and n?=?533, 41% with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT)] followed at a specialized joint thyroid-eye out-patient clinic, 176 (13·4%) had an adult type of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, 129 (9·8%) type 1 diabetes, 111 (8·5%) coeliac disease, 60 (4·6%) type A autoimmune gastritis, 57 (4·4%) vitiligo and 25 (1·9%) Addison's disease. Coeliac disease and autoimmune gastritis were associated positively with GD [odds ratio (OR)?=?2·18; P?=?0·002 and OR?=?6·52; P?autoimmune primary hypogonadism, alopecia areata, rheumatoid arthritis and Sjögren's syndrome were 'protective' for GD and thus linked to HT, OR?=?0·49 (P?autoimmune gastritis (3·4 and 4·03, both P?autoimmune condition and rates are increased compared to GD patients without TAO. PMID:24903731

  6. Is atherosclerosis an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Immunologic research into pathogenic mechanisms operating in autoimmune-mediated atherosclerosis initially focused on adaptive immunity. Current interest is directed to more basic inflammatory mechanisms. Chronic inflammation (innate immunity-associated) may trigger initial events that can lead to atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. This chronic inflammation may start early in life and be perpetuated by classic atherosclerosis risk factors. Lipid peroxidation of low-density lipoprotein seems to be a key event in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein triggers inflammatory and immunogenic events that promote endothelial dysfunction and the synthesis and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leading to an autoimmune response capable of accelerating the intracellular accumulation of lipids within atherosclerotic plaques. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein binds ?2-glycoprotein I to form circulating complexes found in both autoimmune and non-autoimmune atherosclerosis. It is likely that ?2-glycoprotein I and/or these complexes contribute to early atherogenesis by stimulating pro-inflammatory innate immunity through endogenous sensors and inflammasome/interleukin-1 pathways. We discuss the chronic inflammatory (innate) and autoimmune (adaptive) responses operating in atherosclerosis to discern the role of autoimmunity in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. PMID:24642015

  7. Novel Associations for Hypothyroidism Include Known Autoimmune Risk Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Eriksson; Joyce Y. Tung; Amy K. Kiefer; David A. Hinds; Uta Francke; Chuong B. Do

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome-wide association study of hypothyroidism, in 3,736 cases and 35,546 controls. Hypothyroidism was assessed via web-based questionnaires. We identify five genome-wide significant associations, three of which are well known to be involved in a large spectrum of autoimmune diseases: rs6679677

  8. The Role of Costimulation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael K. Racke; Robert B. Ratts; Rodney W. Stuart; Caishu Deng; Amy E. Lovett-Racke

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T cell-mediated, autoimmune disorder characterized by central nervous system\\u000a (CNS) inflammation and demyelination, features reminiscent of the human disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition to the\\u000a signal the encephalitogenic T cell receives through the T cell receptor (TCR), a second signal, termed costimulation, is required\\u000a for complete T cell activation. The B7 family of

  9. Annotation: PANDAS: a model for human autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan E. Swedo; Paul J. Grant

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infec- tions (PANDAS) is a recently recognized syndrome in which pre-adolescent children have abrupt onsets of tics and\\/or obsessive-compulsive symptoms, a recurring and remitting course of illness temporally related to streptococcal infections, and associated neurologic findings including adventitious move- ments, hyperactivity and emotional lability. Methods: Inspired by observations of similar symptoms in

  10. Drug-induced autoimmunity: experience of the French Pharmacovigilance system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thierry Vial; Brigitte Nicolas; Jacques Descotes

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions to a pharmacovigilance structure is a reasonable tool to detect new associations between drugs and a given toxic effect. An analysis of the French national database of pharmacovigilance was undertaken to evaluate how such a system is relevant to survey and\\/or detect drug-associated autoimmune disorders. Only 0.2% of reports were coded with terms

  11. Genetic susceptibility to autoimmune liver disease.

    PubMed

    Mattner, Jochen

    2011-01-27

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) are considered as putative autoimmune diseases of the liver. Whereas strong evidence that bacterial infection may trigger PBC exists, the etiologies for PSC and AIH remain unknown. Although there have been significant discoveries of genetic polymorphisms that may underlie the susceptibility to these liver diseases, their associations with environmental triggers and the subsequent implications have been difficult to elucidate. While single nucleotide polymorphisms within the negative costimulatory molecule cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) have been suggested as genetic susceptibility factors for all three disorders, we discuss the implications of CTLA-4 susceptibility alleles mainly in the context of PBC, where Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, has recently been specifically associated with the pathogenesis of this devastating liver disease. Ultimately, the discovery of infectious triggers of PBC may expand the concept of genetic susceptibility in immune-mediated liver diseases from the concept of aberrant immune responses against self-antigens to insufficient and/or inappropriate immunological defense mechanisms allowing microbes to cross natural barriers, establish infection and damage respective target organs. PMID:21307981

  12. Epstein-Barr virus in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Toussirot, Eric; Roudier, Jean

    2008-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are complex disorders with a genetic background and the involvement of environmental factors, including viruses. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a plausible candidate for playing a role in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Both SLE and RA are characterized by high titers of anti-EBV antibodies and impaired T-cell responses to EBV antigens. Compared with normal subjects, elevated EBV load in peripheral blood has been observed in SLE and RA. EBV DNA or RNA has been evidenced in target organs of RA (synovium) or pSS (salivary glands). Finally, molecular mimicry has been demonstrated between EBV proteins and self antigens in these three conditions. In addition, SLE, RA, and pSS are associated with an increased risk of lymphoma with a potential role for EBV. The influence of new and emergent treatments of these autoimmune diseases (biological therapies) on EBV load and the course of latent EBV infection requires further studies. PMID:19028369

  13. Diagnosis of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Kakushima, Naomi; Takizawa, Kohei; Tanaka, Masaki; Imai, Kenichiro; Hotta, Kinichi; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a distinct form of chronic pancreatitis that is increasingly being reported. The presentation and clinical image findings of AIP sometimes resemble those of several pancreatic malignancies, but the therapeutic strategy differs appreciably. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is necessary for cases of AIP. To date, AIP is classified into two distinct subtypes from the viewpoints of etiology, serum markers, histology, other organ involvements, and frequency of relapse: type 1 is related to IgG4 (lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis) and type 2 is related to a granulocytic epithelial lesion (idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis). Both types of AIP are characterized by focal or diffuse pancreatic enlargement accompanied with a narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, and both show dramatic responses to corticosteroid. Unlike type 2, type 1 is characteristically associated with increasing levels of serum IgG4 and positive serum autoantibodies, abundant infiltration of IgG4-positive plasmacytes, frequent extrapancreatic lesions, and relapse. These findings have led several countries to propose diagnostic criteria for AIP, which consist of essentially similar diagnostic items; however, several differences exist for each country, mainly due to differences in the definition of AIP and the modalities used to diagnose this disease. An attempt to unite the diagnostic criteria worldwide was made with the publication in 2011 of the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP, established at the 2010 Congress of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP). PMID:25469024

  14. Type 1 Diabetes and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kawasaki, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease caused by the autoimmune response against pancreatic ? cells. T1D is often complicated with other autoimmune diseases, and anti-islet autoantibodies precede the clinical onset of disease. The most common coexisting organ-specific autoimmune disease in patients with T1D is autoimmune thyroid disease, and its frequency is estimated at > 90% among patients with T1D and autoimmune diseases. The prevalence of anti-thyroid antibodies in children with T1D at disease onset is about 20% and is particularly common in girls. Furthermore, patients with anti-thyroid antibodies are 18 times more likely to develop thyroid disease than patients without anti-thyroid antibodies. Therefore, for early detection of autoimmune thyroid disease in children with T1D, measurement of anti-thyroid antibodies and TSH at T1D onset and in yearly intervals after the age of 12 yr is recommended. Anti-islet autoantibodies are predictive and diagnostic markers for T1D. The most frequently detected autoantibodies in Japanese patients are GAD autoantibodies (~80%) followed by IA-2 autoantibodies (~60%), insulin autoantibodies (~55%) and ZnT8 autoantibodies (~50%). In a combined analysis, 94% of Japanese patients with T1D can be defined as having type 1A diabetes. Furthermore, autoantibodies to ZnT8 and IA-2 are associated with childhood-onset and acute-onset patients. Thus, it is important to develop a diagnostic strategy for patients with type 1A diabetes in consideration of the age or mode of disease onset. PMID:25374439

  15. Is narcolepsy a classical autoimmune disease?

    PubMed

    Arango, María-Teresa; Kivity, Shaye; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-02-01

    Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. It is caused by the loss of orexin producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Current evidences suggest an autoimmune mediated process causing the specific loss of orexin neurons. The high association of the disease with the HLA DQB1*06:02, as well as the link with environmental factors and are important clues supporting this theory. Recently, the association between the occurrence of the disease and vaccination campaign after the 2009 H1N1 pandemic highlighted the importance to increase the knowledge in the Pandora box of the vaccines. This review discusses the last finding regarding the pathogenesis of the disease and its relationship with the H1N1 vaccines. PMID:25447795

  16. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome Misdiagnosed as Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Rudman Spergel, Amanda; Walkovich, Kelly; Price, Susan; Niemela, Julie E.; Wright, Dowain; Fleisher, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of apoptosis, most commonly due to mutations in the FAS (TNFRSF6) gene. It presents with chronic lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and symptomatic multilineage cytopenias in an otherwise healthy child. Unfortunately, these clinical findings are also noted in other childhood lymphoproliferative conditions, such as leukemia, lymphoma, and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, which can confound the diagnosis. This report describes a 6-year-old girl with symptoms misdiagnosed as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and treated with chemotherapy before the recognition that her symptoms and laboratory values were consistent with a somatic FAS mutation leading to ALPS. This case should alert pediatricians to include ALPS in the differential diagnosis of a child with lymphadenopathy, splenomegaly, and cytopenias; obtain discriminating screening laboratory biomarkers, such as serum vitamin B-12 and ferritin levels; and, in the setting of a highly suspicious clinical scenario for ALPS, pursue testing for somatic FAS mutations when germ-line mutation testing is negative. PMID:24101757

  17. Th17 cells in immunity and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Simone Kennedy; Lam, Brandon; Lau, Kenneth; Larkin, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Th17 and IL-17 play important roles in the clearance of extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. However, strong evidence also implicates the Th17 lineage in several autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and asthma. The Th17 subset has also been connected with type I diabetes, although whether it plays a role in the pathogenicity of or protection from the disease remains a controversial issue. In this review we have provided a comprehensive overview of Th17 pathogenicity and function, including novel evidence for a protective role of Th17 cells in conjunction with the microbiota gut flora in T1D onset and progression. PMID:24454481

  18. Cellular mechanisms of CCL22-mediated attenuation of autoimmune diabetes.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Loraine; Alvarez, Sigrid; Dai, Derek L; Soukhatcheva, Galina; Orban, Paul C; Verchere, C Bruce

    2015-04-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing ? cells in type 1 diabetes and islet transplantation involves a variety of immune pathways but is primarily mediated by self-reactive T cells. Chemokines can modulate local immune responses in inflammation and tumors by recruiting immune cells. We have reported that expression of the chemokine CCL22 in pancreatic ? cells in the NOD mouse prevents autoimmune attack by recruiting T regulatory cells (Tregs), protecting mice from diabetes. In this study we show that invariant NKT cells are also recruited to CCL22-expressing islet transplants and are required for CCL22-mediated protection from autoimmunity. Moreover, CCL22 induces an influx of plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which correlates with higher levels of IDO in CCL22-expressing islet grafts. In addition to its chemotactic properties, we found that CCL22 activates Tregs and promotes their ability to induce expression of IDO by dendritic cells. Islet CCL22 expression thus produces a tolerogenic milieu through the interplay of Tregs, invariant NKT cells, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which results in suppression of effector T cell responses and protection of ? cells. The immunomodulatory properties of CCL22 could be harnessed for prevention of graft rejection and type 1 diabetes as well as other autoimmune disorders. PMID:25740943

  19. PD-1, gender, and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Ravi K.; Hahn, Bevra H.; Singh, Ram Pyare

    2010-01-01

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) are responsible for inhibitory T cell signaling that helps mediate the mechanisms of tolerance and immune homeostasis. The PD-1:PD-L signaling pathway has been shown to play an important role in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune conditions, chronic infection, and cancer. Recently, investigators have explored the role of sex hormones in modulating the pathway in autoimmune conditions. Exploring the effects of sex hormones on the PD-1:PD-L pathway could shed light on the gender biased nature of many autoimmune conditions as well as aide in the development of therapeutics targeting the immune system. PMID:20433954

  20. Kidney transplantation during autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ounissi, M; Abderrahim, E; Hedri, H; Sfaxi, M; Fayala, H; Turki, S; Ben Maďz, H; Ben Abdallah, T; Chebil, M; Kheder, A

    2009-09-01

    Herein, we report the results of kidney transplantation in 9 of 376 patients who underwent kidney transplantation at our center between 1986 and 2007 because of chronic renal failure associated with autoimmune disease. Four of the 9 patients had systemic lupus erythematosus, 3 had Wegener granulomatosis, and 2 had Goodpasture syndrome. Six patients received organs from living donors, and 3 received cadaver organs. Infections were frequent and included cytomegalovirus and urinary tract infection in most cases. There was no difference in occurrence of metabolic and cardiovascular complications in our study patients compared with other transplant recipients. Incidence of allograft loss (n = 1) was similar to that in our entire transplantation population, with an overall rate of 2.9%. We conclude that kidney transplantation is a reasonable therapeutic option in patients with autoimmune disease with end-stage renal disease because of good graft and patient survival compared with kidney recipients without autoimmune diseases. PMID:19765434

  1. Toward molecular pathogenesis of an autoimmune disease: Refined genetic mapping of autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (APECED)

    SciTech Connect

    Aaltonen, J.; Bjoerses, P.; Peltonen, L. [National Public Health Institute, Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Autoimmune reactions encoupled to many human diseases are still only partially understood. Unravelling the molecular pathogenesis of inherited diseases with a strong autoimmune component in their clinical expression could help to dissect individual components in the molecular background of abnormal immune response. One such genetic disorder is autosomal recessive autoimmune polyglandular disease type I (PGD I), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED, MIM 240300). The disease is especially enriched in the genetically isolated population of Finland and we have assigned the APECED locus to human chromosome 21q22.3 in 14 Finnish families by linkage analyses. The best positional lod score of 6.49 was observed with marker D21S49. Based on the history of the Finns, the gene pool of this population clearly demonstrates the consequences of a founder effect and consequent isolation. In the Finnish population, we can take advantage of linkage disequilibrium and allelic association studies to more precisely define the critical DNA region for our disease gene of interest than would be possible by linkage analyses alone. We are now able to define the chromosomal region of interest between two flanking markers locating 1 cM apart. Linkage disequilibrium is observed with three of the markers used in the analyses and this suggests a distance of less than 500 kb to the disease locus, well approachable with molecular cloning techniques. Overlapping YAC and cosmid clones spanning our region of interest will facilitate the cloning of APECED gene in the near future.

  2. [Auto-immune diseases and cancers. Second part: auto-immune diseases complicating cancers and their treatment].

    PubMed

    Pasquet, F; Pavic, M; Ninet, J; Hot, A

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmune diseases may reveal or occur during the course of a neoplasia or its treatment. Autoimmune cytopenia, especially haemolytic anaemia, is common in lymphoproliferative disorders such as chronic lymphoid leukemia. The link between cancer and myositis is well established. Dermatomyositis is associated with an increased relative risk of cancer of 3.4 to 4.4. A combination of detection of antibodies against p155 and TEP-computed tomography may be the best approach to ascertain the presence of occult malignancy in patients with dermatomyositis. A cutaneous or a systemic vascularitis may reveal a cancer, most often a haematological malignancy such as hairy cell leukemia. Paraneoplastic polyarthritis have been described in particular with adenocardinoma of the lungs. Underlying neoplasia should be considered in male smokers patients with new onset polyarthritis and poor health status. The prevalence of autoimmune conditions in myelodysplastic syndromes is 10 to 30%. Vasculitis and relapsing polychondritis are the most commonly reported manifestations. Immune manifestations can also be related to treatment. The most common treatment complications are autoimmune haemolytic anaemia with fludarabine and thyroiditis related to interferon and cervical radiotherapy. PMID:25106665

  3. Therapy of Autoimmune Connective Tissue Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy M. Wright; Dana P. Ascherman

    \\u000a The autoimmune diseases can be divided into two basic categories: organ specific and systemic. Organ specific autoimmune disease can affect virtually any tissue of the body and is associated most often with evidence\\u000a of both T and B cell autoimmune responses directed against the cells of the affected organ. Examples of organ specific autoimmune\\u000a disease include multiple sclerosis, Type I

  4. Viruses, cytokines, antigens, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed Central

    Gianani, R; Sarvetnick, N

    1996-01-01

    To explain the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, we hypothesize that following an infection the immune response spreads to tissue-specific autoantigens in genetically predisposed individuals eventually determining progression to disease. Molecular mimicry between viral and self antigens could, in some instances, initiate autoimmunity. Local elicitation of inflammatory cytokines following infection probably plays a pivotal role in determining loss of functional tolerance to self autoantigens and the destructive activation of autoreactive cells. We also describe the potential role of interleukin 10, a powerful B-cell activator, in increasing the efficiency of epitope recognition, that could well be crucial to the progression toward disease. PMID:8637859

  5. Successful Combination Therapy with Rituximab and Glucocorticoids for Autoimmune Optic Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Asahara, Daisuke; Kaneko, Kaichi; Komatsumoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 77 Final Diagnosis: Autoimmune optic neuropathy Symptoms: Vision loss in the left eye Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Treatment with Rituximab and Glucocortioids Specialty: Ophthalmology and Internal Medicine Objective: Unusual or unexpected effect of treatment Background: Autoimmune optic neuropathy is optic neuropathy caused by an autoimmune mechanism. As treatment, steroid is usually used. If steroid is ineffective to improve visual function, other immunosuppressive agents are used as needed. Rituximab is one of molecular target agents and is now used as treatment for several types of autoimmune disorders. Case Report: A 77-year-old woman presented with vision loss in her left eye. Her past medical history included disturbances of multiple organs. Laboratory tests revealed positive myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. We assumed that her vision loss was caused by autoimmune optic neuropathy and put her on high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. Her visual function quickly re-deteriorated after high-dose glucocorticoid therapy discontinuation. To achieve vision improvement, we added rituximab to her treatment regimen. Her visual acuity recovered to almost 20/20 within a week later. She received other 3 rituximab-infusions and her visual acuity remained 20/20 while tapering glucocorticoid. Conclusions: Autoimmune optic neuropathy may result in blindness if treatment fails. Rituximab may be a therapeutic option for autoimmune optic neuropathy and may produce immediate response. PMID:26057570

  6. Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Invited Review Autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease J.S. Leon, D.M. Engman* Northwestern University the genesis of autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: (i) What mechanism(s) are potentially responsible for Parasitology Inc. Keywords: Myocarditis; Chagas heart disease Myosin; Autoimmunity 1. Introduction After

  7. Molecular Mimicry: Its Evolution from Concept to Mechanism as a Cause of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    On a clonal level, certain antibodies and T cells can interact with dissimilar antigens found in microbes and in host cells. More than 5% of over 800 monoclonal antibodies derived from multiple RNA and DNA viruses, as well as from a large number of T cell clones, engage in such interactions. Several of these cross-reactions, which we termed molecular mimicry, are against unique host proteins involved in autoimmune responses and diseases. Thus, molecular mimicry initiated as a host response to a virus or a microbial infection, but alternatively cross-reacting with an appropriate host-antigen, can be a mechanism for instigating an autoimmune disease. Molecular mimicry provides an explanation for the genetic observation that identical twins rarely manifest the same autoimmune disease and the documented epidemiologic evidence that microbial and/or viral infections often precede autoimmune disorders. PMID:24694269

  8. Cytotoxicity to Endothelial Cells by Sera from Aged MRL\\/ lpr\\/ lpr Mice Is Associated with Autoimmunity to Cell Surface Heparan Sulfate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra Dimitriu-Bona; Maja Matic; Wanhong Ding; Chang Pei Yang; Howard Fillit

    1995-01-01

    Vasculitis is an common clinical feature of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in humans and in animal models of this disease. Humoral autoimmunity against endothelial cells has been previously demonstrated in SLE and other autoimmune disorders, but the precise cell surface antigenic targets involved in the initiation and progression of vascular injury are still essentially unknown. In the current studies, we

  9. Redundancy between Cysteine Cathepsins in Murine Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Euan Ramsay Orr; Yates, Robin Michael

    2015-01-01

    The cysteine cathepsins B, S, and L are functionally linked to antigen processing, and hence to autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Stemming from several studies that demonstrate that mice can be protected from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) through the pharmacologic inhibition of cysteine cathepsins, it has been suggested that targeting these enzymes in multiple sclerosis may be of therapeutic benefit. Utilizing mice deficient in cysteine cathepsins both individually and in combination, we found that the myelin-associated antigen myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) was efficiently processed and presented by macrophages to CD4+ T cells in the individual absence of cathepsin B, S or L. Similarly, mice deficient in cathepsin B or S were susceptible to MOG-induced EAE and displayed clinical progression and immune infiltration into the CNS, similar to their wild-type counterparts. Owing to a previously described CD4+ T cell deficiency in mice deficient in cathepsin L, such mice were protected from EAE. When multiple cysteine cathepsins were simultaneously inhibited via genetic deletion of both cathepsins B and S, or by a cathepsin inhibitor (LHVS), MHC-II surface expression, MOG antigen presentation and EAE were attenuated or prevented. This study demonstrates the functional redundancy between cathepsin B, S and L in EAE, and suggests that the inhibition of multiple cysteine cathepsins may be needed to modulate autoimmune disorders such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26075905

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor- ? in Thyroid Autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) ? expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-? agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-? agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  11. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: From lab to bedside.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, R K; Das, Sudipta Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is not an uncommon clinical disorder and requires advanced, efficient immunohematological and transfusion support. Many AIHA patients have underlying disorder and therefore, it is incumbent upon the clinician to investigate these patients in detail, as the underlying condition can be of a serious nature such as lymphoproliferative disorder or connective tissue disorder. Despite advances in transfusion medicine, simple immunohematological test such as direct antiglobulin test (DAT) still remains the diagnostic hallmark of AIHA. The sensitive gel technology has enabled the immunohematologist not only to diagnose serologically such patients, but also to characterize red cell bound autoantibodies with regard to their class, subclass and titer in a rapid and simplified way. Detailed characterization of autoantibodies is important, as there is a relationship between in vivo hemolysis and strength of DAT; red cell bound multiple immunoglobulins, immunoglobulin G subclass and titer. Transfusing AIHA patient is a challenge to the immunohematologist as it is encountered with difficulties in ABO grouping and cross matching requiring specialized serological tests such as alloadsorption or autoadsorption. At times, it may be almost impossible to find a fully matched unit to transfuse these patients. However, transfusion should not be withheld in a critically ill patient even in the absence of compatible blood. The "best match" or "least incompatible units" can be transfused to such patients under close supervision without any serious side-effects. All blood banks should have the facilities to perform the necessary investigations required to issue "best match" packed red blood cells in AIHA. Specialized techniques such as elution and adsorption, which at times are helpful in enhancing blood safety in AIHA should be established in all transfusion services. PMID:24678166

  12. Screening Autoimmune Anti-neuronal Antibodies in Pediatric Patients with Suspected Autoimmune Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Sun Ah; Ryu, Hye Won; Kim, Hunmin; Lim, Byung Chan; Hwang, Hee; Chae, Jong-Hee; Choi, Jieun; Kim, Ki Joong; Hwang, Yong Seung; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to identify and describe the pediatric autoimmune encephalitis cases positive for anti-neuronal antibody tests. Methods: Screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in 23 children with suspected autoimmune encephalitis was performed by cell-based indirect immunofluorescence test with patients’ serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Results: Among the 23 cases enrolled here, eight patients (35%) were positive for the anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibody and one patient (4%) was positive for the anti-contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) antibody. In the anti-NMDA receptor antibody-positive group, seizure and movement disorders were the most prominent features and were present in all patients. A tumor was present in only one patient. Three patients with infant- and toddler-onset disease did not exhibit a classic multistage illness. In addition to seizure and dyskinesia, aphasia or mutism without severe consciousness impairment was present in all three patients. These atypical clinical presentations may suggest different pathomechanism of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis among these age groups. The patient who was positive for the anti-CASPR2 antibody was an 8-year-old girl who presented with fever, encephalopathy, and seizure. Neuromyotonia or other dyskinesia was not present. Conclusions: Eight anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients and one CASPR2 positive patient were identified from the screening of six anti-neuronal antibodies in pediatric patients suspected with autoimmune encephalitis. Developmental regression specifically for language skills was suggested as one of the atypical clinical features in infants and toddler onset anti-NMDA receptor antibody positive patients. PMID:25625089

  13. Diet, microbiota and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Vieira, S M; Pagovich, O E; Kriegel, M A

    2014-05-01

    There is growing evidence that the commensal bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract (the gut microbiota) influence the development of autoimmunity in rodent models. Since humans have co-evolved with commensals for millennia, it is likely that people, who are genetically predisposed to autoimmunity, harbor gut microbial communities that similarly influence the onset and/or severity of disease. Beyond the current efforts to identify such disease-promoting or -preventing commensals ("pathobionts" or "symbionts"), it will be important to determine what factors modulate them. Dietary changes are known to affect both the composition and function of the gut microbial communities, which in turn can alter the innate and adaptive immune system. In this review, we focus on the relationships between diet, microbiota, and autoimmune diseases. We hypothesize that the beneficial and life-prolonging effects of caloric restriction on a variety of autoimmune models including lupus might partly be mediated by its effects on the gut microbiome and associated virome, the collection of all viruses in the gut. We give recent examples of the immunomodulatory potential of select gut commensals and their products or diet-derived metabolites in murine models of arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 diabetes. Lastly, we summarize the published phenotypes of germ-free mouse models of lupus and speculate on any role of the diet-sensitive microbiome and virome in systemic lupus and the related antiphospholipid syndrome. PMID:24763536

  14. Adaptive Immunity in Autoimmune Hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Serena Longhi; Yun Ma; Giorgina Mieli-Vergani; Diego Vergani

    2010-01-01

    The histological lesion of interface hepatitis, with its dense portal cell infiltrate consisting of lymphocytes, monocytes\\/macrophages and plasma cells, was the first to suggest an autoaggressive cellular immune attack in the pathogenesis of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Immunohistochemical studies, focused on the phenotype of inflammatory cells infiltrating the liver parenchyma, have shown a predominance of ??-T cells. Amongst these cells, the

  15. Cell therapy for autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francesco Dazzi; Jacob M van Laar; Andrew Cope; Alan Tyndall

    2007-01-01

    Cell therapy, pioneered for the treatment of malignancies in the form of bone marrow transplantation, has subsequently been tested and successfully employed in autoimmune diseases. Autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become a curative option for conditions with very poor prognosis such as severe forms of scleroderma, multiple sclerosis, and lupus, in which targeted therapies have little or no

  16. Treating infertility in autoimmune patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Coli

    2008-01-01

    In Western countries, the rate of infertility is about 10-20% and is age dependent. Since the infertile partner among couples can be either the man or the woman, specification of which sex con- tributes to infertility is necessary in studies of patients with autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on patients with SLE—the only group for which extensive data are available.

  17. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis repressed by microglial paralysis.

    PubMed

    Heppner, Frank L; Greter, Melanie; Marino, Denis; Falsig, Jeppe; Raivich, Gennadij; Hövelmeyer, Nadine; Waisman, Ari; Rülicke, Thomas; Prinz, Marco; Priller, Josef; Becher, Burkhard; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2005-02-01

    Although microglial activation occurs in inflammatory, degenerative and neoplastic central nervous system (CNS) disorders, its role in pathogenesis is unclear. We studied this question by generating CD11b-HSVTK transgenic mice, which express herpes simplex thymidine kinase in macrophages and microglia. Ganciclovir treatment of organotypic brain slice cultures derived from CD11b-HSVTK mice abolished microglial release of nitrite, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Systemic ganciclovir administration to CD11b-HSVTK mice elicited hematopoietic toxicity, which was prevented by transfer of wild-type bone marrow. In bone marrow chimeras, ganciclovir blocked microglial activation in the facial nucleus upon axotomy and repressed the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We conclude that microglial paralysis inhibits the development and maintenance of inflammatory CNS lesions. The microglial compartment thus provides a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory CNS disorders. These results validate CD11b-HSVTK mice as a tool to study the impact of microglial activation on CNS diseases in vivo. PMID:15665833

  18. Novel associations for hypothyroidism include known autoimmune risk loci.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Nicholas; Tung, Joyce Y; Kiefer, Amy K; Hinds, David A; Francke, Uta; Mountain, Joanna L; Do, Chuong B

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome-wide association study of hypothyroidism, in 3,736 cases and 35,546 controls. Hypothyroidism was assessed via web-based questionnaires. We identify five genome-wide significant associations, three of which are well known to be involved in a large spectrum of autoimmune diseases: rs6679677 near PTPN22, rs3184504 in SH2B3, and rs2517532 in the HLA class I region (p-values 2.8·10(-13), 2.6·10(-12), and 1.3·10(-8), respectively). We also report associations with rs4915077 near VAV3 (p-value 7.5·10(-10)) and rs925489 near FOXE1 (p value 2.4·10(-19)). VAV3 is involved in immune function, and FOXE1 and PTPN22 have previously been associated with hypothyroidism. Although the HLA class I region and SH2B3 have previously been linked with a number of autoimmune diseases, this is the first report of their association with thyroid disease. The VAV3 association is also novel. We also show suggestive evidence of association for hypothyroidism with a SNP in the HLA class II region (independent of the other HLA association) as well as SNPs in CAPZB, PDE8B, and CTLA4. CAPZB and PDE8B have been linked to TSH levels and CTLA4 to a variety of autoimmune diseases. These results suggest heterogeneity in the genetic etiology of hypothyroidism, implicating genes involved in both autoimmune disorders and thyroid function. Using a genetic risk profile score based on the top association from each of the five genome-wide significant regions in our study, the relative risk between the highest and lowest deciles of genetic risk is 2.0. PMID:22493691

  19. Novel Associations for Hypothyroidism Include Known Autoimmune Risk Loci

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Nicholas; Tung, Joyce Y.; Kiefer, Amy K.; Hinds, David A.; Francke, Uta; Mountain, Joanna L.; Do, Chuong B.

    2012-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is the most common thyroid disorder, affecting about 5% of the general population. Here we present the current largest genome-wide association study of hypothyroidism, in 3,736 cases and 35,546 controls. Hypothyroidism was assessed via web-based questionnaires. We identify five genome-wide significant associations, three of which are well known to be involved in a large spectrum of autoimmune diseases: rs6679677 near PTPN22, rs3184504 in SH2B3, and rs2517532 in the HLA class I region (-values , , and , respectively). We also report associations with rs4915077 near VAV3 (-value ) and rs925489 near FOXE1 (-value ). VAV3 is involved in immune function, and FOXE1 and PTPN22 have previously been associated with hypothyroidism. Although the HLA class I region and SH2B3 have previously been linked with a number of autoimmune diseases, this is the first report of their association with thyroid disease. The VAV3 association is also novel. We also show suggestive evidence of association for hypothyroidism with a SNP in the HLA class II region (independent of the other HLA association) as well as SNPs in CAPZB, PDE8B, and CTLA4. CAPZB and PDE8B have been linked to TSH levels and CTLA4 to a variety of autoimmune diseases. These results suggest heterogeneity in the genetic etiology of hypothyroidism, implicating genes involved in both autoimmune disorders and thyroid function. Using a genetic risk profile score based on the top association from each of the five genome-wide significant regions in our study, the relative risk between the highest and lowest deciles of genetic risk is 2.0. PMID:22493691

  20. High incidence of allograft dysfunction in liver transplanted patients treated with pegylated-interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin for hepatitis C recurrence: possible de novo autoimmune hepatitis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Berardi; F Lodato; A Gramenzi; A D’Errico; M Lenzi; A Bontadini; M C Morelli; M R Tame?; F Piscaglia; M Biselli; C Sama; G Mazzella; A D Pinna; G Grazi; M Bernardi; P Andreone

    2007-01-01

    Background: Interferon may trigger autoimmune disorders, including autoimmune hepatitis, in immunocompetent patients. To date, no such disorders have been described in liver transplanted patients.Methods: 9 of 44 liver transplanted patients who had been receiving pegylated-interferon alpha-2b and ribavirin for at least 6 months for hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence, developed graft dysfunction despite on-treatment HCV-RNA clearance in all but one

  1. Adrenal antibodies detect asymptomatic auto-immune adrenal insufficiency in young women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Bakalov; V. H. Vanderhoof; C. A. Bondy; L. M. Nelson

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Auto-immune adrenal insufficiency is a potentially fatal disorder. Young women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure (POF) are at increased risk of developing this condition. METHODS: We further characterized auto-immune adrenal insufficiency in this population by conducting an in-depth cross-sectional evaluation of adrenal function in a series of 123 women. RESULTS: We uncovered a new diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in

  2. Plasma Exchange as a Necessary Prerequisite for the Induction of Remission by Human Immunoglobulin in AutoImmune Haemolytic Anaemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Hughes; T. Toogood

    1994-01-01

    High-dosage intravenous human immunoglobulin G (IV IgG) has been used with varying degrees of success to treat a variety of auto-immune disorders which are frequently characterized by a predominantly pathogenic auto-antibody. The present report, in which consistent control and ultimately complete remission of a resistant auto-immune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA) was achieved by carrying out preliminary plasma exchange as a crucial

  3. Abnormal Measles-Mumps-Rubella Antibodies and CNS Autoimmunity in Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijendra K. Singh; Sheren X. Lin; Elizabeth Newell; Courtney Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA

  4. Abnormal measles-mumps-rubella antibodies and CNS autoimmunity in children with autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vijendra K. Singh; Sheren X. Lin; Elizabeth Newell; Courtney Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Autoimmunity to the central nervous system (CNS), especially to myelin basic protein (MBP), may play a causal role in autism, a neurodevelopmental disorder. Because many autistic children harbor elevated levels of measles antibodies, we conducted a serological study of measlesmumps-rubella (MMR) and MBP autoantibodies. Using serum samples of 125 autistic children and 92 control children, antibodies were assayed by ELISA

  5. TP53 Gene Mutation, an Unfavorable Prognostic Factor for Malignant Lymphomas in Autoimmune Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiko Hoshida; Tadashi Hongyo; Jing-Xian Xu; Toru Sasaki; Yasuhiko Tomita; Taisei Nomura; Katsuyuki Aozasa

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether mutations of the TP53 tumor suppressor gene are associated with a poor prognosis in lymphoproliferative disorders (LPD) developing in patients with a history of autoimmune disease (AID). Methods: Fifty patients, 15 males and 35 females ranging in age from 23 to 83 (median, 61) years, were examined. Rheumatoid arthritis (21 cases) is the commonest type of

  6. Auto-Immunity & Inflammation | ABSTRACTS The expression and role of KLF4 in psoriasis

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Auto-Immunity & Inflammation | ABSTRACTS 097 The expression and role of KLF4 in psoriasis K Kim, H, as measured by RT-PCR, was increased after the treatment of the psoriasis skin and the proliferation of Ha disorders, includ- ing psoriasis. 099 Inflammatory gammadelta T cells collaborate with Th17 cells

  7. A Genomewide Screen in Multiplex Rheumatoid Arthritis Families Suggests Genetic Overlap with Other Autoimmune Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damini Jawaheer; Michael F. Seldin; Christopher I. Amos; Wei V. Chen; Russell Shigeta; Joanita Monteiro; Marlene Kern; Lindsey A. Criswell; Salvatore Albani; J. Lee Nelson; Daniel O. Clegg; Richard Pope; Harry W. Schroeder; S. Louis Bridges; David S. Pisetsky; Ryk Ward; Daniel L. Kastner; Ronald L. Wilder; Theodore Pincus; Leigh F. Callahan; Donald Flemming; Mark H. Wener; Peter K. Gregersen

    2001-01-01

    † Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune\\/inflammatory disorder with a complex genetic component. We report the first major genomewide screen of multiplex families with RA gathered in the United States. The North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium, using well-defined clinical criteria, has collected 257 families containing 301 affected sibling pairs with RA. A genome screen for allele sharing was performed, using

  8. Erythema annulare centrifugum in a patient with polyglandular autoimmune disease type 1.

    PubMed

    Garty, B

    1998-11-01

    The dermatologic disorders in polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAD) type 1 (previously called chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis) are nail dystrophy, vitiligo, and alopecia. A patient with PGAD and erythema annulare centrifugum (EAC) is presented. This association has not been reported previously. EAC may be related to occult or low-grade Candida infection in PGAD. PMID:9836055

  9. Ulcerative colitis with chronic liver disease, eosinophilia and auto-immune thyroid disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. P. Kane

    1977-01-01

    A patient with chronic mild ulcerative colitis is described. Her illness was characterized by fluctuating blood eosinophilia, chronic persistent hepatitis and hypersensitivity to sulphasalazine. She subsequently developed auto-immune thyroid disease. The inter-relationships of these various disorders are discussed.

  10. The association between autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune gastritis and type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lam-Tse, Wai-Kwan; Batstra, Manou R; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Bruining, Mu G J; Aanstoot, Henk Jan; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2003-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) and autoimmune gastritis often occur together forming the so-called autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type 3. Thyroid autoimmunity is evident in up to one third and gastric autoimmunity in up to a quarter of patients with DM1. Also relatives of DM1 patients, particularly mothers, have higher frequencies of these autoimmune conditions. Vice versa, gastric autoimmunity is present in one third of ATD patients and islet autoimmunity in one out ten. The BB-DP rat, the NOD mouse, the OS chicken and the neonatal thymectomy mouse model are animal models of APS type 3. In these models the autoimmune destruction of the various target tissues has been shown to be a multi-step process in which several genetic polymorphisms need to converge to induce both local anomalies in the target gland and anomalies in the immune system. With regard to environmental factors, excess iodine is well known to elicit/aggravate thyroid autoimmunity in these animal models. Screening DM1 patients and their relatives (particularly females) for thyroid autoimmunity is recommended. If positive, excess iodine should be avoided and thyroxin treatment considered. Whether autoimmune thyroiditis and autoimmune gastritis patients should be screened for islet Ab is not clarified. PMID:16437010

  11. Sonographic presentation in autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Lai, S M; Chang, T C; Chang, C C; Kuo, S H; Chen, F W

    1990-12-01

    We used real-time ultrasonography to examine 60 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis, then correlated the ultrasonic pictures with thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies and fine needle aspiration cytology. In these 60 patients, 45 (75%) showed diffuse goiter, 6 (10%) showed multinodular goiter, and 9 (15%) had a solitary thyroid nodule sonographically. One of the 9 patients with a solitary nodule was a case of autoimmune thyroiditis combined with papillary carcinoma. The echogenicity of the thyroid was more than, the same as, or less than that of the adjacent muscles in 17, 22, and 21 patients, respectively. The groups were classified as hyperechoic, isoechoic, and hypoechoic, respectively. The mean serum T4 level was significantly lower in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively), and the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.001 and p less than 0.005, respectively). In addition, high titers of the antithyroid microsomal antibody (greater than or equal to 1280) were present more frequently in the hypoechoic group than in the hyperechoic or isoechoic groups (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). There was no significant correlation between the cytomorphology and echogenicity of the thyroid in these cases. We conclude that sonography has two major uses in evaluating autoimmune thyroiditis: First, it is useful in excluding the coexistence of thyroid nodules; and second, marked hypoechogenicity of the thyroid implies an active cytotoxic autoimmune process and possibly a hypothyroid state. PMID:1982673

  12. Infections and Autoimmunity: A Panorama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pordeus; M. Szyper-Kravitz; R. A. Levy; N. M. Vaz; Y. Shoenfeld

    2008-01-01

    For more than 2,000 years, it was thought that malignant spirits caused diseases. By the end of nineteenth century, these\\u000a beliefs were displaced by more modern concepts of disease, namely, the formulation of the “germ theory,” which asserted that\\u000a bacteria or other microorganisms caused disease. With the emergence of chronic degenerative and of autoimmune diseases in\\u000a the last century, the causative

  13. Extraintestinal manifestations of autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Milosavljevic, Tomica; Kostic-Milosavljevic, Mirjana; Jovanovic, Ivan; Krstic, Miodrag

    2012-01-01

    The term autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) was first used in Japan in 1995 to describe a newly recognized form of chronic pancreatitis, after the description of Yoshida and colleagues. But Sarles in 1961, first described a form of idiopathic chronic inflammatory sclerosis of the pancreas, suspected to be due to an autoimmune process. AIP has become a widely accepted term because clinical, serologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical findings suggest an autoimmune mechanism. Most affected patients have hypergammaglobulinemia and increased serum levels of IgG, particularly IgG4. Recently published International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria for Autoimmune Pancreatitis include Guidelines of the International Association of Pancreatology, classifying AIP into types 1 and 2, using five cardinal features of AIP, namely imaging of pancreatic parenchyma and duct, serology, other organ involvement, pancreatic histology, and an optional criterion of response to steroid therapy. Extrapancreatic presentations can include sclerosing cholangitis, retroperitoneal fibrosis, sclerosing sialadenitis (Küttner tumor), lymphadenopathy, nephritis, and interstitial pneumonia. Increased IgG4+ plasma cell infiltrate has been reported in sclerosing lesions from other organ sites, including inflammatory pseudotumors of the liver, breast, mediastinum, orbit, and aorta, and it has been observed with hypophysitis and IgG4-associated prostatitis. Abundant IgG4+ plasma cells were also confirmed in Riedel thyroiditis, sclerosing mesenteritis, and inflammatory pseudotumor of the orbit and stomach. Extrapancreatic lesions could be synchronously or metachronously diagnosed with AIP, sharing the same pathological conditions, showing also a favorable result to corticosteroid therapy and distinct differentiation between IgG4-related diseases from the inherent lesions of the corresponding organs. PMID:22722443

  14. Pancreatic Tuberculosis or Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  15. Pancreatic tuberculosis or autoimmune pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Ayesha; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Isolated pancreatic and peripancreatic tuberculosis is a challenging diagnosis due to its rarity and variable presentation. Pancreatic tuberculosis can mimic pancreatic carcinoma. Similarly, autoimmune pancreatitis can appear as a focal lesion resembling pancreatic malignancy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration provides an effective tool for differentiating between benign and malignant pancreatic lesions. The immune processes involved in immunoglobulin G4 related systemic diseases and tuberculosis appear to have some similarities. Case Report. We report a case of a 59-year-old Southeast Asian male who presented with fever, weight loss, and obstructive jaundice. CT scan revealed pancreatic mass and enlarged peripancreatic lymph nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration confirmed the presence of mycobacterium tuberculosis. Patient also had high immunoglobulin G4 levels suggestive of autoimmune pancreatitis. He was started on antituberculosis medications and steroids. Clinically, he responded to treatment. Follow-up imaging showed findings suggestive of chronic pancreatitis. Discussion. Pancreatic tuberculosis and autoimmune pancreatitis can mimic pancreatic malignancy. Accurate diagnosis is imperative as unnecessary surgical intervention can be avoided. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration seems to be the diagnostic test of choice for pancreatic masses. Long-term follow-up is warranted in cases of chronic pancreatitis. PMID:24839445

  16. Guillain–Barré Syndrome—A Classical Autoimmune Disease Triggered by Infection or Vaccination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eitan Israeli; Nancy Agmon-Levin; Miri Blank; Joab Chapman; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare autoimmune disorder, the incidence of which is estimated to be 0.6–4\\/100,000 person\\/year\\u000a worldwide. Often, GBS occurs a few days or weeks after the patient has had symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal microbial\\u000a infection. The disorder is sub-acute developing over the course of hours or days up to 3 to 4 weeks. About a third

  17. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor and Kynurenine: Recent Advances in Autoimmune Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Nam Trung; Nakahama, Taisuke; Le, Duc Hoang; Van Son, Le; Chu, Ha Hoang; Kishimoto, Tadamitsu

    2014-01-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is thought to be a crucial factor in the regulation of immune responses. Many AHR-mediated immunoregulatory mechanisms have been discovered, and this knowledge may enhance our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammatory syndromes such as collagen-induced arthritis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, and experimental colitis. Recent findings have elucidated the critical link between AHR and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in the development of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, which are key factors in a variety of human autoimmune diseases. Induction of IDO and IDO-mediated tryptophan catabolism, together with its downstream products such as kynurenine, is an important immunoregulatory mechanism underlying immunosuppression, tolerance, and immunity. Recent studies revealed that induction of IDO depends on AHR expression. This review summarizes the most current findings regarding the functions of AHR and IDO in immune cells as they relate to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases in response to various stimuli. We also discuss the potential link between AHR and IDO/tryptophan metabolites, and the involvement of several novel related factors (such as microRNA) in the development of autoimmune diseases. These novel factors represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:25400638

  18. Thyroid Autoimmunity in the Context of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Implications for Vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Toulis, Konstantinos; Tsekmekidou, Xanthippi; Potolidis, Evangelos; Didangelos, Triantafyllos; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna; Zebekakis, Pantelis; Daniilidis, Michael; Kotsa, Kalliopi

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and autoimmune disorders. The association of vitamin D with T2DM and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) has not been investigated. Thus, we aimed to explore the putative association between T2DM and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) focusing on the role of 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D). Study population included 264 T2DM patients and 234 controls. To explore the potential association between 25(OH)D and thyroid autoimmunity while controlling for potential confounders—namely, age, gender, body mass index, and presence of T2DM—multivariate logistic regression analyses were undertaken. Patients with T2DM were younger (P < 0.001) and had significantly lower 25(OH)D levels (P < 0.001) and higher anti-TPO titers (P = 0.005). Multivariable logistic regression analyses suggested that T2DM and 25(OH)D levels were significantly associated with the presence of thyroid autoimmunity. In an elderly population of diabetic patients and controls with a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency, a patient with T2DM was found to be 2.5 times more likely to have thyroid autoimmunity compared to a nondiabetic individual and the higher the serum 25(OH)D levels were, the higher this chance was. PMID:26078759

  19. Successful Combination Therapy with Rituximab and Glucocorticoids for Autoimmune Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shoichi; Asahara, Daisuke; Kaneko, Kaichi; Komatsumoto, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autoimmune optic neuropathy is optic neuropathy caused by an autoimmune mechanism. As treatment, steroid is usually used. If steroid is ineffective to improve visual function, other immunosuppressive agents are used as needed. Rituximab is one of molecular target agents and is now used as treatment for several types of autoimmune disorders. CASE REPORT A 77-year-old woman presented with vision loss in her left eye. Her past medical history included disturbances of multiple organs. Laboratory tests revealed positive myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. We assumed that her vision loss was caused by autoimmune optic neuropathy and put her on high-dose glucocorticoid therapy. Her visual function quickly re-deteriorated after high-dose glucocorticoid therapy discontinuation. To achieve vision improvement, we added rituximab to her treatment regimen. Her visual acuity recovered to almost 20/20 within a week later. She received other 3 rituximab-infusions and her visual acuity remained 20/20 while tapering glucocorticoid. CONCLUSIONS Autoimmune optic neuropathy may result in blindness if treatment fails. Rituximab may be a therapeutic option for autoimmune optic neuropathy and may produce immediate response. PMID:26057570

  20. The role of genetic factors in autoimmune disease: implications for environmental research.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, G S; Miller, F W; Pandey, J P

    1999-01-01

    Studies in both humans and in animal models of specific disorders suggest that polymorphisms of multiple genes are involved in conferring either a predisposition to or protection from autoimmune diseases. Genes encoding polymorphic proteins that regulate immune responses or the rates and extent of metabolism of certain chemical structures have been the focus of much of the research regarding genetic susceptibility. We examine the type and strength of evidence concerning genetic factors and disease etiology, drawing examples from a number of autoimmune diseases. Twin studies of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), type I diabetes, and multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate that disease concordance in monozygotic twins is 4 or more times higher than in dizygotic twins. Strong familial associations (odds ratio ranging from 5-10) are seen in studies of MS, type I diabetes, Graves disease, discoid lupus, and SLE. Familial association studies have also reported an increased risk of several systemic autoimmune diseases among relatives of patients with a systemic autoimmune disease. This association may reflect a common etiologic pathway with shared genetic or environmental influences among these diseases. Recent genomewide searches in RA, SLE, and MS provide evidence for multiple susceptibility genes involving major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC loci; there is also evidence that many autoimmune diseases share a common set of susceptibility genes. The multifactorial nature of the genetic risk factors and the low penetrance of disease underscore the potential influence of environmental factors and gene-environment interactions on the etiology of autoimmune diseases. PMID:10502533

  1. Genetic association, seasonal infections and autoimmune basis of narcolepsy.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abinav Kumar; Mahlios, Josh; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, a growing number of potential autoimmune disorders affecting neurons in the central nervous system have been identified, including narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with irresistible sleep attacks, cataplexy (sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations, and abnormalities of Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Narcolepsy is generally a sporadic disorder and is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Studies have established that more than 90% of patients have a genetic association with HLA DQB1*06:02. Genome-wide association analysis shows a strong association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TCR? locus and weaker associations within TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H and the P2RY11-DNMT1 (purinergic receptor subtype P2Y11 to DNMT1, a DNA methytransferase) loci, suggesting an autoimmune basis. Mutations in DNMT1 have also been reported to cause narcolepsy in association with a complex neurological syndrome, suggesting the importance of DNA methylation in the pathology. More recently, narcolepsy was identified in association with seasonal streptococcus, H1N1 infections and following AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 influenza vaccination in Northern Europe. Potential immunological pathways responsible for the loss of hypocretin producing neurons in these cases may be molecular mimicry or bystander activation. Specific autoantibodies or T cells cross-reactive with hypocretin neurons have not yet been identified, however, thus narcolepsy does not meet Witebsky's criteria for an autoimmune disease. As the brain is not an easily accessible organ, mechanisms of disease initiation and progression remain a challenge to researchers. PMID:23497937

  2. Genetic association, seasonal infections and autoimmune basis of narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abinav Kumar; Mahlios, Josh; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a growing number of potential autoimmune disorders affecting neurons in the central nervous system have been identified, including narcolepsy. Narcolepsy is a lifelong sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness with irresistible sleep attacks, cataplexy (sudden bilateral loss of muscle tone), hypnagogic hallucinations, and abnormalities of Rapid Eye Movement sleep. Narcolepsy is generally a sporadic disorder and is caused by the loss of hypocretin (orexin)-producing neurons in the hypothalamus region of the brain. Studies have established that more than 90% of patients have a genetic association with HLA DQB1*06:02. Genome-wide association analysis shows a strong association between narcolepsy and polymorphisms in the TCR? locus and weaker associations within TNFSF4 (also called OX40L), Cathepsin H and the P2RY11-DNMT1 (purinergic receptor subtype P2Y11 to DNMT1, a DNA methytransferase) loci, suggesting an autoimmune basis. Mutations in DNMT1 have also been reported to cause narcolepsy in association with a complex neurological syndrome, suggesting the importance of DNA methylation in the pathology. More recently, narcolepsy was identified in association with seasonal streptococcus, H1N1 infections and following AS03-adjuvanted pH1N1 influenza vaccination in Northern Europe. Potential immunological pathways responsible for the loss of hypocretin producing neurons in these cases may be molecular mimicry or bystander activation. Specific autoantibodies or T cells cross-reactive with hypocretin neurons have not yet been identified, however, thus narcolepsy does not meet Witebsky’s criteria for an autoimmune disease. As the brain is not an easily accessible organ, mechanisms of disease initiation and progression remain a challenge to researchers. PMID:23497937

  3. Primary hyperaldosteronism associated with vitiligo vulgaris and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garrido, Maria José; Enríquez, Ricardo; Mora-Rufete, Antonia; Sirvent, Ana Esther; Guillen-Ponce, Carmen

    2007-03-01

    Type 3 polyendocrine autoimmune syndrome (PAS) is defined as the association between an autoimmune thyroid disease and 1 or more other autoimmune diseases, except for autoimmune Addison disease or hypoparathyroidism. Here we report an extremely rare case of type 3 PAS in which vitiligo vulgaris and symptomless autoimmune hypothyroidism were observed during the study of primary hyperaldosteronism. PMID:17496738

  4. Autoimmune and Neoplastic Thyroid Diseases Associated with Hepatitis C Chronic Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Politti, Ugo; Giuggioli, Dilia; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographic signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender versus healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with “HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia” (MC + HCV), a higher prevalence of thyroid autoimmune disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also versus HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC + HCV or HCV chronic infection show a higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC + HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine, but normal levels of Th2 (C-C motif) ligand 2 chemokine, than patients without thyroiditis. HCV thyroid infection could act by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes that secrete interferon-? and tumor necrosis factor-?. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, which may lead to the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function, particularly where nodules occur, is recommended in HCV patients. PMID:25374602

  5. The role of dendritic cells in autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Dipyaman; Haak, Stefan; Sisirak, Vanja; Reizis, Boris

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and shape both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Accordingly, recent evidence from clinical studies and experimental models implicates DCs in the pathogenesis of most autoimmune diseases. However, fundamental questions remain unanswered concerning the actual roles of DCs in autoimmunity, both in general and, in particular, in specific diseases. In this Review, we discuss the proposed roles of DCs in immunological tolerance, the effect of the gain or loss of DCs on autoimmunity and DC-intrinsic molecular regulators that help to prevent the development of autoimmunity. We also review the emerging roles of DCs in several autoimmune diseases, including autoimmune myocarditis, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, type 1 diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23827956

  6. Celiac disease as an autoimmune condition

    PubMed Central

    Sur, Genel; Lupan, Iulia; Tilinca, Mariana; Deleanu, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have become a major medical problem of recent years. Celiac disease is an autoimmune disease model. The aim of our study was to follow the changes in the clinical autoimmunity picture of the celiac disease from recent years. The study of autoimmunity in celiac disease has focused on associated diseases with the aforementioned disease: type 1 diabetes mellitus, thyroid autoimmunity disease, Graves’ disease, Hashimoto's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, spondyloarthritis, hyperprolactinemia, Turner syndrome, Addison's disease, sensory neuronopathies. Immune reactivity to tissue transglutaminase targeted autoantibodies and other autoantigens, including transglutaminase 3, actin, ganglioside, collagen, calreticulin or zonulin which have been reported in the celiac disease. New research directions given by celiac disease autoimmunity, interleukin 1, interleukin 2, protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 22, CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4, infection with Necator americanus and definitive identification of pathogenic T cell epitopes, seem to provide a solution in celiac disease treatment.

  7. Peripheral nervous system manifestations in systemic autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Cojocaru, Manole; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2014-09-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement is peripheral neuropathy, with symptoms of numbness, sensory paresthesias, weakness, or gait imbalance. The neuropathy may be multifocal and asymmetric or, less frequently, distal and symmetric. PMID:25705295

  8. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    COJOCARU, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement is peripheral neuropathy, with symptoms of numbness, sensory paresthesias, weakness, or gait imbalance. The neuropathy may be multifocal and asymmetric or, less frequently, distal and symmetric. PMID:25705295

  9. Autoimmunity to ?IV spectrin in paraneoplastic lower motor neuron syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Berghs, Stanny; Ferracci, Franco; Maksimova, Elena; Gleason, Shannon; Leszczynski, Nancy; Butler, Margaret; De Camilli, Pietro; Solimena, Michele

    2001-01-01

    Paraneoplastic neurological disorders may result from autoimmunity directed against antigens shared by the affected neurons and the associated cancer cells. We have recently reported the case of a woman with breast cancer and paraneoplastic lower motor neuron syndrome whose serum contained autoantibodies directed against axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier of myelinated axons, including the axons of motoneurons. Here, we show that major targets of the autoantibodies of this patient are ?IV?1 spectrin and ?IV spectrin 140, two isoforms of the novel ?IV spectrin gene, as well as a neuronal surface epitope yet to be identified. Partial improvement of the neurological symptoms following cancer removal was associated with a drastic reduction in the titer of the autoantibodies against ?IV spectrin and nodal antigens in general, consistent with the autoimmune pathogenesis of the paraneoplastic lower motor neuron syndrome. The identification of ?IV spectrin isoforms and surface nodal antigens as novel autoimmune targets in lower motor neuron syndrome provide new insights into the pathogenesis of this severe neurological disease. PMID:11391009

  10. Abnormal intestinal permeability and microbiota in patients with autoimmune hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rui; Zhou, Lu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Bangmao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic, progressive, and immunologically mediated inflammatory liver disorder. The etiology of AIH still remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation, and intestinal microbiome in patients with AIH and to evaluate the correlations of those changes with the stages of the disease. Methods: 24 patients with autoimmune hepatitis and 8 healthy volunteers were recruited for this study. We assessed (1) the integrity of tight junctions within the gut by immunohistochemical analysis of zona occludens-1 and occludin expression in duodenal biopsy specimens; (2) changes in the enteric microbiome by 16S rDNA quantitative PCR; and (3) the presence of bacterial translocation by the level of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using ELISA. Results: Increased intestinal permeability, derangement of the microbiome and bacterial translocation occurred in AIH, which correlated with the severity of the disease. Conclusions: Autoimmune hepatitis is associated with leaky gut and intestinal microbiome dysbiosis. The impaired intestinal barrier may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIH.

  11. Defective removal of ribonucleotides from DNA promotes systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Günther, Claudia; Kind, Barbara; Reijns, Martin A M; Berndt, Nicole; Martinez-Bueno, Manuel; Wolf, Christine; Tüngler, Victoria; Chara, Osvaldo; Lee, Young Ae; Hübner, Norbert; Bicknell, Louise; Blum, Sophia; Krug, Claudia; Schmidt, Franziska; Kretschmer, Stefanie; Koss, Sarah; Astell, Katy R; Ramantani, Georgia; Bauerfeind, Anja; Morris, David L; Cunninghame Graham, Deborah S; Bubeck, Doryen; Leitch, Andrea; Ralston, Stuart H; Blackburn, Elizabeth A; Gahr, Manfred; Witte, Torsten; Vyse, Timothy J; Melchers, Inga; Mangold, Elisabeth; Nöthen, Markus M; Aringer, Martin; Kuhn, Annegret; Lüthke, Kirsten; Unger, Leonore; Bley, Annette; Lorenzi, Alice; Isaacs, John D; Alexopoulou, Dimitra; Conrad, Karsten; Dahl, Andreas; Roers, Axel; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta E; Jackson, Andrew P; Lee-Kirsch, Min Ae

    2015-01-01

    Genome integrity is continuously challenged by the DNA damage that arises during normal cell metabolism. Biallelic mutations in the genes encoding the genome surveillance enzyme ribonuclease H2 (RNase H2) cause Aicardi-Goutičres syndrome (AGS), a pediatric disorder that shares features with the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here we determined that heterozygous parents of AGS patients exhibit an intermediate autoimmune phenotype and demonstrated a genetic association between rare RNASEH2 sequence variants and SLE. Evaluation of patient cells revealed that SLE- and AGS-associated mutations impair RNase H2 function and result in accumulation of ribonucleotides in genomic DNA. The ensuing chronic low level of DNA damage triggered a DNA damage response characterized by constitutive p53 phosphorylation and senescence. Patient fibroblasts exhibited constitutive upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes and an enhanced type I IFN response to the immunostimulatory nucleic acid polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid and UV light irradiation, linking RNase H2 deficiency to potentiation of innate immune signaling. Moreover, UV-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation was markedly enhanced in ribonucleotide-containing DNA, providing a mechanism for photosensitivity in RNase H2-associated SLE. Collectively, our findings implicate RNase H2 in the pathogenesis of SLE and suggest a role of DNA damage-associated pathways in the initiation of autoimmunity. PMID:25500883

  12. Pituitary autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1.

    PubMed

    Bensing, Sophie; Fetissov, Sergueď O; Mulder, Jan; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Gustafsson, Jan; Husebye, Eystein S; Oscarson, Mikael; Ekwall, Olov; Crock, Patricia A; Hökfelt, Tomas; Hulting, Anna-Lena; Kämpe, Olle

    2007-01-16

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. High titer autoantibodies (Aabs) toward intracellular enzymes are a hallmark for APS1 and serve as diagnostic markers and predictors for disease manifestations. In this study, we aimed to identify pituitary autoantigens in patients with APS1. A pituitary cDNA expression library was screened with APS1 sera and a tudor domain containing protein 6 (TDRD6) cDNA clone was isolated. Positive immunoreactivity against in vitro translated TDRD6 fragments was shown in 42/86 (49%) APS1 patients but not in patients with other autoimmune diseases or in healthy controls. By using immunohistochemistry, sera from 3/6 APS1 patients with growth hormone (GH) deficiency showed immunostaining of a small number of guinea pig anterior pituitary cells, and 40-50% of these cells were GH-positive. No such immunostaining was seen with sera from healthy controls. The APS1 Aab-positive, GH-negative cells may represent a novel subpopulation of anterior pituitary cells. In addition, 4/6 patient sera showed staining of a fiber-plexus in the pituitary intermediate lobe recognizing enzymes of monoamine and GABA synthesis. Thus, we have identified TDRD6 as a major autoantigen in APS1 patients and shown that several sera from GH-deficient patients stain specific cell populations and nerves in the pituitary gland. PMID:17215373

  13. Modulation of autoimmunity with artificial peptides

    PubMed Central

    La Cava, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The loss of immune tolerance to self antigens leads to the development of autoimmune responses. Since self antigens are often multiple and/or their sequences may not be known, one approach to restore immune tolerance uses synthetic artificial peptides that interfere or compete with self peptides in the networks of cellular interactions that drive the autoimmune process. This review describes the rationale behind the use of artificial peptides in autoimmunity and their mechanisms of action. Examples of use of artificial peptides in preclinical studies and in the management of human autoimmune diseases are provided. PMID:20807590

  14. Ataxia associated with Hashimoto's disease: progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration with autoimmune thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Selim, M; Drachman, D

    2001-01-01

    Acquired cerebellar ataxia has been described with hypothyroidism, and is typically reversible by thyroid hormone replacement therapy. The cerebellar dysfunction has been attributed to metabolic and physiological effects of the endocrine disorder. In a few patients, however, ataxia has persisted despite thyroid replacement therapy. Other mechanisms may be involved in ataxia associated with thyroid disorders.?OBJECTIVE—To document progressive non-familial adult onset cerebellar degeneration (PNACD) occurring in six patients with raised antithyroid antibodies (Hashimoto's/autoimmune thyroiditis), and other autoimmune manifestations, in the absence of hypothyroidism; and to document the independence of the cerebellar disorder from the endocrine dysfunction.?METHODS—A case study of six patients with PNACD reviewing the clinical course and relation to endocrine and autoimmune status.?RESULTS—All six patients were euthyroid when they developed their symptoms; had raised antithyroid antibodies consistent with Hashimoto's autoimmune thyroiditis; and had strong personal or family histories of organ specific autoimmune diatheses. Brain MRI disclosed atrophy of the cerebellar vermis in four patients and olivopontocerebellar atrophy in two. Other possible causes of cerebellar degeneration were excluded. De novo treatment (two patients) or continued treatment (three patients) with L-thyroxine did not modify the progression of the ataxia.?CONCLUSIONS—Cerebellar degeneration in these patients with raised antithyroid antibodies may be immune mediated. The presence of antithyroid antibodies may signal or cause the autoimmune process producing cerebellar degeneration. "Hashimoto's associated ataxia" seems to represent a recognisable and not uncommon condition; a trial of immunomodulating therapy should be considered in these patients.?? PMID:11413268

  15. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.

    PubMed Central

    Oyefara, B I; Kim, H C; Danziger, R N; Carroll, M; Greene, J M; Douglas, S D

    1994-01-01

    Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis is an immunodeficiency disease characterized by T-cell dysregulation and chronic superficial candidal infections. We report on three patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis who developed autoantibodies to erythrocytes. Our first patient, a 19-year-old female, developed autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) that required multiple courses of treatment, including corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and danazol. During the last exacerbation of AIHA, intensive treatment with corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin failed and yet the patient responded to plasmapheresis. Our second patient, a 21-year-old male, developed AIHA which responded to oral corticosteroid therapy. Our third patient, a 6-year-old female without evidence of hemolysis, was found to have erythrocyte autoantibodies on routine screening. These three patients had positive direct antiglobulin tests, and the first patient had both immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM erythrocyte autoantibodies, while the remaining two patients had only IgG autoantibody. This is the first report of the association of AIHA with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. We suggest that all patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis be screened periodically for erythrocyte autoantibodies. Plasmapheresis, a safe ancillary procedure in the management of AIHA, may be life-saving in some cases. The occurrence of erythrocyte autoantibodies in mucocutaneous candidiasis may be related to immunoregulatory disorders in this disease. PMID:7496919

  16. Gender Disparities in Ocular Inflammatory Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Hatice Nida; Davis, Janet; Ucar, Didar; Fox, Austin; Chan, Chi Chao; Goldstein, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders disproportionately affect women, and the majority of affected women are of childbearing age. The role of sex or reproductive hormones has been proposed in many other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, and findings from non-ocular autoimmune diseases suggest a complex interaction between sex hormones, genetic factors and the immune system. However, despite the age and sex bias, factors that influence this disparity are complicated and unclear. This review aims to evaluate the gender disparities in prevalence, incidence and severity of the most common infectious and non-infectious ocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:24987987

  17. Anti B cell therapy (rituximab) in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Kazkaz, Hanadi; Isenberg, David

    2004-08-01

    B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. Selective targeting of these cells has been recently achieved using a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the pan B cell surface marker CD20 (rituximab). This antibody was originally developed for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. It was found to be effective, well tolerated and had a very good safety profile. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of rituximab in several refractory autoimmune disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, chronic cold agglutinin disease, IgM-mediated neuropathies and mixed cryoglobulinemia. PMID:15251135

  18. Positron emission tomography with computed tomography imaging of neuroinflammation in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Radu, Caius G.; Shu, Chengyi J.; Shelly, Stephanie M.; Phelps, Michael E.; Witte, Owen N.

    2007-01-01

    2-[18F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) detection of the up-regulated glycolysis associated with malignant transformation is a noninvasive imaging technique used extensively in cancer diagnosis. Although striking similarities exist in glucose transport and metabolism between tumor cells and activated immune cells, the potential use of [18F]FDG PET for the diagnosis and evaluation of autoimmune disorders has not been systematically investigated. Here we ask whether [18F]FDG PET in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) could be used to monitor a complex autoimmune disorder such as murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and whether this approach is sensitive enough to evaluate therapeutic interventions. We found that (i) coregistration of metabolic (i.e., microPET) and high-resolution anatomical (i.e., CT) images allows serial quantification of glycolysis with [18F]FDG in various spinal column segments; (ii) [18F]FDG PET/CT can detect the increased glycolysis associated with paralysis-causing inflammatory infiltrates in the spinal cord; and (iii) the [18F]FDG measure of glycolysis in the spinal cord is sensitive to systemic immunosuppressive therapy. These results highlight the potential use of serial [18F]FDG PET/CT imaging to monitor neuroinflammation in EAE and suggest that similar approaches could be applied to the diagnosis and evaluation of other autoimmune and inflammatory disorders in animal models and in humans. PMID:17261805

  19. Low Dose Combination Steroids Control Autoimmune Mouse Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Kempton, J. Beth

    2010-01-01

    The severe side effects of glucocorticoids prevent long term management of hearing loss. Alternative steroid treatments that minimize or eliminate these effects would significantly benefit therapeutic control of hearing disorders. A steroid treatment study of mouse autoimmune hearing loss was conducted to determine the efficacy of combining aldosterone and prednisolone at low doses. An assessment also was made of low dose fludrocortisone, a synthetic mineralocorticoid that also has a slight glucocorticoid effect. MRL/MpJ-Faslpr mice were tested for baseline ABR thresholds at 3 months of age and then treated with aldosterone (3.0 ?g/kg) or prednisolone (1.0 mg/kg) to determine the lowest effective dose of each. Other mice were given the two steroids in combination at doses of Pred 0.5 mg + Aldo 1.5 ?g; Pred 1.0 mg + Aldo 3.0 ?g; or Pred 1.5 mg + Aldo 5.0 ?g. Mice were retested with ABR at one and two months to determine the efficacy of the different steroid treatments in controlling hearing loss. Another series of mice were given the synthetic mineralocorticoid fludrocortisone at low (2.8 ?g/kg) or high (10 ?g/kg) doses and retested at monthly intervals for three months. Autoimmune hearing loss developed in untreated controls. This threshold elevation was not prevented by prednisolone at 1 mg/kg or by aldosterone at 3 ?g/kg when each was given alone. However, the two steroids combined at these doses effectively controlled hearing loss. The fludrocortisone treatments also were effective at low doses in preventing or reversing the autoimmune mouse hearing loss. This efficacy of combined steroids at low doses suggests the potential for reducing the side effects of glucocorticoids in the therapeutic control of hearing disorders. PMID:20800906

  20. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Betterle; Renato Zanchetta

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome in- teresting young

  1. AUTOIMMUNE POLYGLANDULAR SYNDROME TYPE II ? CASE REPORT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mira Misjak; Miljenko Solter; Milan Vrkljan

    SUMMARY ? Presentation is made of a 41-year-old man with Addison's disease and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. The two diseases are presumed to be of autoimmune etiology and to manifest as part of the autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II, as also sug- gested by tissue typing for HLA B8 locus. Inadequate TSH suppression with standard levothyroxine substitution therapy for

  2. Cardiac contractile proteins and autoimmune myocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tohru Izumi; Haruo Hanawa; Makihiko Saeki; Makoto Kodama

    1993-01-01

    Concerning cardiac contractile proteins, antigenicity and myocarditogenicity were discussed. In normal states, these proteins are immunologically tolerant, and can not provoke any heart-specific disease. Why the proteins can provoke such lethal autoimmune myocarditis has not been completely elucidated. Shortly after cardiac infection or myocardial ischemia, these proteins may work as the antigen for the autoimmune myocardites. First of all, the

  3. Multiple sclerosis: a complicated picture of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Martin; Henry F McFarland

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, has expanded considerably in recent years. New insights have been provided by not only animal models but also studies of patients, often in conjunction with experimental therapies. It is accepted that autoimmune T cells mediate the early steps of new multiple sclerosis lesions, and although uncertainties remain about the specific targets of autoreactive

  4. Targeting ion channels for the treatment of autoimmune neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Bittner, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological targeting of ion channels has long been recognized as an attractive strategy for the treatment of various diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system with a prominent neurodegenerative component. A multitude of different cell types are involved in the complex pathophysiology of this disorder, including cells of the immune system (e.g. T and B lymphocytes and microglia), the neurovascular unit (e.g. endothelial cells and astrocytes) and the central nervous system (e.g. astrocytes and neurons). The pleiotropic expression and function of ion channels gives rise to the attractive opportunity of targeting different players and pathophysiological aspects of MS by the modulation of ion channel function in a cell-type and context-specific manner. We discuss the emerging knowledge about ion channels in the context of autoimmune neuroinflammation. While some pharmacological targets are at the edge of clinical translation, others have only recently been discovered and are still under investigation. Special focus is given to those candidates that could be attractive novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in neuroimmune autoinflammation. PMID:23997817

  5. The ‘hygiene hypothesis’ for autoimmune and allergic diseases: an update

    PubMed Central

    Okada, H; Kuhn, C; Feillet, H; Bach, J-F

    2010-01-01

    According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’, the decreasing incidence of infections in western countries and more recently in developing countries is at the origin of the increasing incidence of both autoimmune and allergic diseases. The hygiene hypothesis is based upon epidemiological data, particularly migration studies, showing that subjects migrating from a low-incidence to a high-incidence country acquire the immune disorders with a high incidence at the first generation. However, these data and others showing a correlation between high disease incidence and high socio-economic level do not prove a causal link between infections and immune disorders. Proof of principle of the hygiene hypothesis is brought by animal models and to a lesser degree by intervention trials in humans. Underlying mechanisms are multiple and complex. They include decreased consumption of homeostatic factors and immunoregulation, involving various regulatory T cell subsets and Toll-like receptor stimulation. These mechanisms could originate, to some extent, from changes in microbiota caused by changes in lifestyle, particularly in inflammatory bowel diseases. Taken together, these data open new therapeutic perspectives in the prevention of autoimmune and allergic diseases. PMID:20415844

  6. Potential target of infliximab in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Atzeni, Fabiola; Doria, Andrea; Carrabba, Mario; Turiel, Maurizio; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2007-09-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine produced by many cell types (blood monocytes, macrophages, mast cells and endothelial cells), that play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune and nonautoimmune disorders. A number of large placebo-controlled trials have shown that infliximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against TNF-alpha, is effective and well tolerated in patients with Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and spondiloarthritides and has become a widely used treatment for these diseases. Preliminary data suggest that several forms of vasculitis appear responsive to TNF antagonists: Behçet's disease, Churg-Strauss vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, and giant cell arteritis, among others. Wegener's granulomatosis and sarcoidosis have been shown to improve with infliximab. Polymyositis/dermatomyositis may also be responsive to TNF blockade. TNF likely plays little role in Sjögren's syndrome as evidenced by the lack of efficacy of TNF antagonists. There is a rationale for using TNF blockade even in systemic lupus erythematosus, a prototype of autoantibody-mediated disease, and a pilot study seems to confirm this potential effective approach. A number of other more rare disorders also may be responsive to TNF blockade. We here review the current and prospective roles of infliximab in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and other conditions. PMID:17854744

  7. Role of Autoimmune Responses in Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Soumya; Faizuddin, Mohamed; Dharmapalan, Jayanthi

    2014-01-01

    Periodontal diseases are characterized by localized infections and inflammatory conditions that directly affect teeth supporting structures which are the major cause of tooth loss. Several studies have demonstrated the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal disease. Evidences of involvement of immunopathology have been reported in periodontal disease. Bacteria in the dental plaque induce antibody formation. Autoreactive T cells, natural killer cells, ANCA, heat shock proteins, autoantibodies, and genetic factors are reported to have an important role in the autoimmune component of periodontal disease. The present review describes the involvement of autoimmune responses in periodontal diseases and also the mechanisms underlying these responses. This review is an attempt to throw light on the etiopathogenesis of periodontal disease highlighting the autoimmunity aspect of the etiopathogenesis involved in the initiation and progression of the disease. However, further clinical trials are required to strengthen the role of autoimmunity as a cause of periodontal disease. PMID:24963400

  8. Autoimmune mechanisms in pernicious anaemia & thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Osborne, David; Sobczy?ska-Malefora, Agata

    2015-09-01

    Pernicious anaemia (PA) and some types of thyroid disease result from autoimmune processes. The autoimmune mechanisms in these conditions have not been fully elucidated. This review discusses the autoimmune mechanisms involved in PA and how these affect diagnosis and disease progression. In addition to gastric antibodies, antibodies to the vitamin B12 binding protein transcobalamin which can result in high serum B12 levels are also addressed with regard to how they affect clinical practice. The role of autoimmune susceptibility is investigated by comparing PA to one of its most common comorbidities, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). Thyroid disease (although not exclusively AITD) and B12 deficiency are both also implicated in the pathology of hyperhomocysteinemia, an elevated homocysteine in plasma. Since hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular occlusive disease, this review also addresses how thyroid disease in particular leads to changes in homocysteine levels. PMID:25936607

  9. Cardiovascular involvement in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Montoya-Sánchez, Laura; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  10. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Yoshiyuki; Tomer, Yaron

    2005-01-01

    The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine) is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions) that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD) and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4) and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg). Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity. PMID:15712599

  11. Cardiovascular Involvement in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AD) represent a broad spectrum of chronic conditions that may afflict specific target organs or multiple systems with a significant burden on quality of life. These conditions have common mechanisms including genetic and epigenetics factors, gender disparity, environmental triggers, pathophysiological abnormalities, and certain subphenotypes. Atherosclerosis (AT) was once considered to be a degenerative disease that was an inevitable consequence of aging. However, research in the last three decades has shown that AT is not degenerative or inevitable. It is an autoimmune-inflammatory disease associated with infectious and inflammatory factors characterized by lipoprotein metabolism alteration that leads to immune system activation with the consequent proliferation of smooth muscle cells, narrowing arteries, and atheroma formation. Both humoral and cellular immune mechanisms have been proposed to participate in the onset and progression of AT. Several risk factors, known as classic risk factors, have been described. Interestingly, the excessive cardiovascular events observed in patients with ADs are not fully explained by these factors. Several novel risk factors contribute to the development of premature vascular damage. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of how traditional and nontraditional risk factors contribute to pathogenesis of CVD in AD. PMID:25177690

  12. Beneficial effect of testosterone in the treatment of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, S.A.; Young, P.R.; Penhale, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Early thymectomy and sublethal irradiation of normal rats consistently induces a sex-dependent chronic autoimmune thyroiditis. Females are much more susceptible to this autoimmune disorder than are males. The possible therapeutic effects of testosterone (Te) on established autoimmune thyroiditis has been investigated in this model. The pathologic condition of the gland before treatment was monitored by a thyroid grafting and extirpation techniques. Te administration by either parenteral injection or implantation caused significant regression of established thyroiditis. Repeated doses of Te ester in oil were found to be more effective than powdered free-Te given by implantation, and frequently produced complete resolution of chronic lesions involving the entire gland. In these thyroids, there was reappearance of normal thyroid architecture and complete absence of mononuclear cellular infiltration. However, no inhibitory effect on serum autoantibody production to thyroglobulin was noted with any form of Te treatment. These observations strengthen the concept that cellular rather than humoral mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of thyroiditis.

  13. Microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides induce T-cell tolerance and ameliorate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Getts, Daniel R; Martin, Aaron J; McCarthy, Derrick P; Terry, Rachael L; Hunter, Zoe N; Yap, Woon Teck; Getts, Meghann Teague; Pleiss, Michael; Luo, Xunrong; King, Nicholas JC; Shea, Lonnie D; Miller, Stephen D

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant T-cell activation underlies many autoimmune disorders, yet most attempts to induce T-cell tolerance have failed. Building on previous strategies for tolerance induction that exploited natural mechanisms for clearing apoptotic debris, we show that antigen-decorated microparticles (500-nm diameter) induce long-term T-cell tolerance in mice with relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Specifically, intravenous infusion of either polystyrene or biodegradable poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles bearing encephalitogenic peptides prevents the onset and modifies the course of the disease. These beneficial effects require microparticle uptake by marginal zone macrophages expressing the scavenger receptor MARCO and are mediated in part by the activity of regulatory T cells, abortive T-cell activation and T-cell anergy. Together these data highlight the potential for using microparticles to target natural apoptotic clearance pathways to inactivate pathogenic T cells and halt the disease process in autoimmunity. PMID:23159881

  14. Autoimmune associations and autoantibody screening show focused recognition in patient subgroups with generalized myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Reinhild; Marx, Alexander; Ströbel, Philipp; Schalke, Berthold; Nix, Wilfred; Willcox, Nick

    2013-09-01

    Autoimmune associations in myasthenia gravis (MG)-patients and their relatives have not been re-assessed since their separation into early- or late-onset MG (EOMG, LOMG), or thymoma-associated MG. Here, we analysed 226 EOMG-, 97 LOMG-, and 150 thymoma-patients for autoimmune disorders in themselves and their relatives. From 283 of them sera were tested for different organ- and non-organ-specific autoantibodies (autoAbs) by immunofluorescence test (IFT) and ELISA; genotyping was performed in 213 patients. Relatives with autoimmune disorders were reported by more patients with EOMG (40% of 210) than LOMG (20% of 89; p < 0.01) than thymomas (8% of 150; p < 0.001). In 150 genotyped EOMG-females, the known risk allele of the immuno-regulatory PTPN2 2 (R620W) appeared commoner in those with second autoimmune diseases (p ? 0.06), or with autoimmune relatives (p ? 0.03), than in those without. Organ-specific autoAbs were found in ? 30% of all MG-patients, autoAbs to striated muscle only in patients with thymoma-MG (62%) or LOMG (61%). Titers against adrenal cortex were lower in LOMG-patients. Disease-associated autoAbs against systemic targets or 'natural autoAbs' - except of autoAbs to nuclei - were uncommon in all groups (< 13%). Thus-with rare exceptions in EOMG and LOMG-we found minimal support for the notion that autoimmune patients have wide-ranging autoreactivity that causes disease only if it targets such Achilles' heels as the muscle acetylcholine receptor; even in thymoma-patients the autoAbs are sharply focused on a restricted range of muscle, cytokine and endocrine targets. PMID:23792059

  15. Splenectomy for haematological disorders.

    PubMed

    Jankulovski, N; Antovic, S; Kuzmanovska, B; Mitevski, A

    2014-01-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). Splenectomy is therapeutic for a large host of conditions. It is a consequence of expanding the list of disorders and liberalizing the indications for splenectomy in many diseases. Red blood cells disorders: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia are prone to splenectomy after failure of medical therapy. A variety of thrombocytopenic disorders are improved by splenectomy, and the most common indication for splenectomy is ITP (idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura). Splenectomy is successful in reversing hypersplenism in a spectrum of disease called myeloproliferative disorders. Relief of symptoms from splenomegaly is also achieved, but it does not affect the inexorable course of the disorder. The role of splenectomy in white blood cells disorders (leukemias and lymphomas) is only palliative and facilitates chemotherapy. Splenectomy in patients with hemathologic disorders imparts a risk of fulminant and life threatening infection "overwhelming postsplenectomy sepsis" that can be obviated by appropriate treatment. Although splenectomy for hemathologic disorders is only therapeutic and not curative, the relief of symptoms and for some disorders facilitation of chemotherapy leads to better quality of life and longer survival. Key words: Splenectomy, laparoscopic splenectomy, hemathologic dsorders, hereditary spherocytosis, idio-pathic thrombocytopenic purpura, ITP, myeloproliferative disorders, lymphoma, overwhelming posts-plenectomy sepsis. PMID:24798604

  16. Growth hormone deficiency in a patient with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy type 2.

    PubMed

    Papathanasiou, Asteroula; Kousta, Eleni; Skarpa, Vasiliki; Papachileos, Petros; Petrou, Vasilios; Hadjiathanasiou, Charalambos

    2007-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APs) type 2 is characterized by the presence of Addison's disease, in association with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus and is rare in children. A 12.5 yr old prepubertal boy presented with symptoms related to Addison's disease and a large goiter. He was euthyroid with positive thyroid antibodies, low cortisol, aldosterone and very high adrenocorticotropin (ActH) and renin levels. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and an MrI scan of the pituitary were normal. He was started on hydrocortisone, fludrocortisone and subsequently on L thyroxine. Eighteen months later, decreased growth rate was noted and GH deficiency was detected, apparently secondary to autoimmune hypophysitis. Interestingly, he did not develop any other pituitary hormone deficiencies. He was started on GH therapy and had a good treatment response in the next 3 years. the combination of adrenal and thyroid insufficiencies with autoimmune hypophysitis is a very rare manifestation of APs-type 2. GH deficiency as the only symptom of lymphocytic hypophysitis is extremely rare. In children with autoimmune polyendocrine disorders, careful monitoring of growth is needed. In the case of low growth rate, GH should be evaluated by dynamic tests and, if GH deficiency is detected, treatment with hGH must be initiated. PMID:17724010

  17. The role of microRNAs in autoimmune diseases with skin involvement.

    PubMed

    Deng, X; Su, Y; Wu, H; Wu, R; Zhang, P; Dai, Y; Chan, T-M; Zhao, M; Lu, Q

    2015-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that negatively modulate gene expression by binding to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target messenger RNAs (mRNAs), which leads to the degradation or translational repression of their target mRNAs. Previous research on miRNAs has revealed a new paradigm of gene regulations and pathways involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders and malignant diseases. The roles of miRNAs in cellular processes, including cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and immune functions, are not clearly understood. MiRNAs are easily detected in a variety of sources, including tissues, serum and other body fluids, and this make them a good biological sample for pathogenic studies and disease biomarker development. This review encompasses the current understanding of the roles of miRNAs in autoimmunity and the cellular and molecular mechanisms of miRNAs in various autoimmune diseases (AIMDs). Specifically, we focus on the target genes of miRNAs and the biological processes associated with autoimmune diseases with skin involvement, including systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, systemic sclerosis, Behcet's disease and dermatomyositis. In addition, the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of miRNAs that are involved in autoimmunity are elucidated to provide information for clinical implications. PMID:25430682

  18. Update on autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS).

    PubMed

    Betterle, Corrado; Zanchetta, Renato

    2003-04-01

    Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes (APS) were initially defined as a multiple endocrine gland insufficiency associated to an autoimmune disease in a patient. Neufeld & Blizzard (1980) suggested a classification of APS, based on clinical criteria only, describing four main types. APS-1 is characterized by presence of chronic candidiasis, chronic hypoparathyroidism, Addison's disease. It is a very rare syndrome interesting young subjects correlating to different mutations of AIRE (AutoImmuneRegulator) gene on chromosome 21. APS-2 is characterized by presence of Addison's disease (always present), autoimmune thyroid diseases and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. It is a rare syndrome interesting particularly adult females and associated to a genetic pattern of HLA DR3/DR4. Autoimmune thyroid diseases associated to other autoimmune diseases (excluding Addison's disease and/or hypoparathyroidism), are the main characteristics of APS-3. The different clinical combinations of autoimmune diseases not included in the previous groups are characteristics of APS-4. In this paper criteria for defining a disease as autoimmune are presented. Furthermore, the classification, epidemiology, pathogenesis, genetic, animal models, clinical features, laboratory's tests, imaging, therapy, recent progresses in understanding the APS and a detailed analysis of large group of our patients affected by different types of APS are proposed and discussed. PMID:12817789

  19. More than Meets the Eye: Monogenic Autoimmunity Strikes Again.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark S; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-06-16

    Autoimmunity is often familial, suggesting that inborn genetic variations might underlie its development. Curiously, autoimmunity has long been thought to be typically polygenic. Contrary to this prediction and consistent with growing discoveries of monogenic autoimmunity, Oftedal et al. discovered heterozygous dominant-negative AIRE mutations in patients with certain forms of autoimmunity. PMID:26084018

  20. Transmethylation in immunity and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Brian R.; Eleftheriadis, Theodoros; Tardif, Virginie; Gonzalez-Quintial, Rosana; Baccala, Roberto; Kono, Dwight H.; Theofilopoulos, Argyrios N.

    2013-01-01

    The activation of immune cells is mediated by a network of signaling proteins that can undergo post-translational modifications critical for their activity. Methylation of nucleic acids or proteins can have major effects on gene expression as well as protein repertoire diversity and function. Emerging data indicate that indeed many immunologic functions, particularly those of T cells, including thymic education, differentiation and effector function are highly dependent on methylation events. The critical role of methylation in immunocyte biology is further documented by evidence that autoimmune phenomena may be curtailed by methylation inhibitors. Additionally, epigenetic alterations imprinted by methylation can also exert effects on normal and abnormal immune responses. Further work in defining methylation effects in the immune system is likely to lead to a more detailed understanding of the immune system and may point to the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22364920

  1. Novel Targeted Therapies for Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    St.Clair, E. William

    2009-01-01

    Summary The emergence of new targeted therapies is rapidly improving the treatment of autoimmune disease. These drugs have been variably designed to deplete specific T and B cell subsets, interrupt receptor-ligand interactions, and inhibit the activity of inflammatory mediators relevant to immune function. Abatacept, a costimulatory blocker, and rituximab, a B cell depleting antibody are among the approved therapies seeking new indications, while the newer therapies include Fc receptor-non-binding CD3-specific antibodies, IL-12/23 antibodies, an IL-6 receptor antagonist, a sphingosine-1-phosphate agonist, and small molecule inhibitors of intracellular protein kinases. Antigen-specific therapies are in their infancy, but the latest results administering glutamic acid dehydrogenase peptide to type 1 diabetics are promising. In the future, treatment strategies may increasingly explore the use of drug combinations acting at multiple sites of aberrant immunoregulation to achieve disease quiescence and immune tolerance. PMID:19828300

  2. Autoimmune pancreatitis: a surgical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Saavedra-Perez, David; Vaquero, Eva C; Ayuso, Juan R; Fernandez-Cruz, Laureano

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is defined as a particular form of pancreatitis that often manifests as obstructive jaundice associated with a pancreatic mass or an obstructive bile duct lesion, and that has an excellent response to corticosteroid treatment. The prevalence of AIP worldwide is unknown, and it is considered as a rare entity. The clinical and radiological presentation of AIP can mimic bilio-pancreatic cancer, presenting difficulties for diagnosis and obliging the surgeon to balance decision-making between the potential risk presented by the misdiagnosis of a deadly disease against the desire to avoid unnecessary major surgery for a disease that responds effectively to corticosteroid treatment. In this review we detail the current and critical points for the diagnosis, classification and treatment for AIP, with a special emphasis on surgical series and the methods to differentiate between this pathology and bilio-pancreatic cancer. PMID:25066570

  3. The Influence and Role of Microbial Factors in Autoimmune Kidney Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding of the pathophysiology of autoimmune disorders is desired to allow tailored interventions. Despite increased scientific interest a direct pathogenic factor in autoimmune renal disease has been described only in a minority like membranous nephropathy or ANCA-associated vasculitis. Nonetheless the initial step leading to the formation of these antibodies is still obscure. In this review we will focus on the possible role of microbial factors in this context. Staphylococcus aureus may be a direct pathogenetic factor in granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Chronic bacterial colonization or chronic infections of the upper respiratory tract have been proposed as trigger of IgA vasculitis and IgA nephropathy. Interventions to remove major lymphoid organs, such as tonsillectomy, have shown conflicting results but may be an option in IgA vasculitis. Interestingly no clear clinical benefit despite similar local colonization with bacterial strains has been detected in patients with IgA nephropathy. In systemic lupus erythematosus injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide induced progressive lupus nephritis in mouse models. The aim of this review is to discuss and summarize the knowledge of microbial antigens in autoimmune renal disease. Novel methods may provide insight into the involvement of microbial antigens in the onset, progression, and prognosis of autoimmune kidney disorders.

  4. Celiac Disease and Autoimmune-Associated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lauret, Eugenia; Rodrigo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is frequently accompanied by a variety of extradigestive manifestations, thus making it a systemic disease rather than a disease limited to the gastrointestinal tract. This is primarily explained by the fact that CD belongs to the group of autoimmune diseases. The only one with a known etiology is related to a permanent intolerance to gluten. Remarkable breakthroughs have been achieved in the last decades, due to a greater interest in the diagnosis of atypical and asymptomatic patients, which are more frequent in adults. The known presence of several associated diseases provides guidance in the search of oligosymptomatic cases as well as studies performed in relatives of patients with CD. The causes for the onset and manifestation of associated diseases are diverse; some share a similar genetic base, like type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D); others share pathogenic mechanisms, and yet, others are of unknown nature. General practitioners and other specialists must remember that CD may debut with extraintestinal manifestations, and associated illnesses may appear both at the time of diagnosis and throughout the evolution of the disease. The implementation of a gluten-free diet (GFD) improves the overall clinical course and influences the evolution of the associated diseases. In some cases, such as iron deficiency anemia, the GFD contributes to its disappearance. In other disorders, like T1D, this allows a better control of the disease. In several other complications and/or associated diseases, an adequate adherence to a GFD may slow down their evolution, especially if implemented during an early stage. PMID:23984314

  5. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-01-01

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24646511

  6. Treatment of inflammatory nail disorders.

    PubMed

    Dehesa, Luis; Tosti, Antonella

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an updated review on diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory nail disorders including psoriasis, lichen planus, trachyonychia, and autoimmune bullous disorders. Despite the significant negative repercussion of the nail psoriasis in the quality of life of patients, treatment is often not sufficiently effective. The efficacy of topical therapies is limited to nail bed psoriasis. Intralesional corticosteroid injections are extensively utilized in nail matrix psoriasis. Systemic immunosuppressant drugs such as methotrexate and cyclosporine have shown efficacy. Biologics, particularly infliximab and etanercept, have also demonstrated high efficacy in the treatment of severe nail disease. Nail matrix lichen planus can cause nail atrophy and irreversible nail scarring and requires prompt treatment with systemic steroids. There is not gold standard therapy for trachyonychia, but in most cases the nail signs improve spontaneously and treatment is not necessary. Nail changes in pemphigus and other autoimmune disorders respond promptly to systemic therapy with steroids and immunosuppressants. PMID:23210751

  7. Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune disease (Schmidt's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Betterle, C; Volpato, M; Greggio, A N; Presotto, F

    1996-03-01

    Data on clinical, genetic, and immunological aspects of sixty patients with type 2 polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAD) are presented. The literature on this is reviewed and discussed. PMID:8887161

  8. Immunogenetic background of patients with autoimmune fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Y; Igarashi, T; Tatsuma, N; Imai, T; Yoshida, J; Tsuchiya, M; Murakami, M; Fukunaga, Y

    2000-10-01

    We have previously reported that approximately 50% of children with chronic nonspecific complaints were positive for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), and that a novel autoantibody to a 62 kD protein (anti-Sa) was found in 40% of these ANA-positive patients. Therefore, we proposed a distinct disease entity termed autoimmune fatigue syndrome (AIFS). We hypothesized that if autoimmune mechanisms did play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIFS, it is possible that it is immunogenetically regulated as observed in other autoimmune disorders. In order to examine the immunogenetic background of AIFS patients, HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DR loci were analyzed serologically in 61 AIFS patients. AIFS was found to be positively associated with the class I antigen HLA-B61 and with the class II antigen HLA-DR9, with odds ratios of 2.77 (p = 0.015, Pcorr = 0.48) and 2.60 (p= 0.012, Pcorr = 0.17), respectively. A negative association was also found between AIFS and HLA-DR2 with odds ratio of 0.25 (p = 0.029, Pcorr = 0.041). When comparing anti-Sa positive AIFS patients with healthy controls, the odds ratios associated with HLA-B61, DR9, and DR2 were 3.42 (p = 0.021, Pcorr = 0.22), 3.96 (p = 0.0011, Pcorr = 0.015), and 0.16 (p = 0.0022, Porr = 0.031), respectively. Thus, the HLA associations observed in this study suggested that immunogenetic background might play a role in AIFS. PMID:11092699

  9. Is there a Common Genetic Basis for Autoimmune Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Gómez, LuisMiguel; Castiblanco, John

    2006-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a diverse collection of diseases in terms of their demographic profile and primary clinical manifestations. The commonality between them however, is the damage to tissues and organs that arises from the response to self-antigens. The presence of shared pathophysiological mechanisms within ADs has stimulated searches for common genetic roots to these diseases. Two approaches have been undertaken to sustain the “common genetic origin” theory of ADs. Firstly, a clinical genetic analysis showed that autoimmunity aggregates within families of probands diagnosed with primary Sjögren's (pSS) syndrome or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). A literature review supported the establishment of a familiar cluster of ADs depending upon the proband's disease phenotype. Secondly, in a same and well-defined population, a large genetic association study indicated that a number of polymorphic genes (i.e. HLA-DRB1, TNF and PTPN22) influence the susceptibility for acquiring different ADs. Likewise, association and linkage studies in different populations have revealed that several susceptibility loci overlap in ADs, and clinical studies have shown that frequent clustering of several ADs occurs. Thus, the genetic factors for ADs consist of two types: those which are common to many ADs (acting in epistatic pleitropy) and those that are specific to a given disorder. Their identification and functional characterization will allow us to predict their effect as well as to indicate potential new therapeutic interventions. Both autoimmunity family history and the co-occurrence of ADs in affected probands should be considered when performing genetic association and linkage studies. PMID:17162361

  10. IL17 Mediates Pelvic Pain in Experimental Autoimmune Prostatitis (EAP).

    PubMed

    Murphy, Stephen F; Schaeffer, Anthony J; Done, Joseph; Wong, Larry; Bell-Cohn, Ashlee; Roman, Kenny; Cashy, John; Ohlhausen, Michelle; Thumbikat, Praveen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is the most common form of prostatitis, accounting for 90-95% of all diagnoses. It is a complex multi-symptom syndrome with unknown etiology and limited effective treatments. Previous investigations highlight roles for inflammatory mediators in disease progression by correlating levels of cytokines and chemokines with patient reported symptom scores. It is hypothesized that alteration of adaptive immune mechanisms results in autoimmunity and subsequent development of pain. Mouse models of CPPS have been developed to delineate these immune mechanisms driving pain in humans. Using the experimental autoimmune prostatitis (EAP) in C57BL/6 mice model of CPPS we examined the role of CD4+T-cell subsets in the development and maintenance of prostate pain, by tactile allodynia behavioral testing and flow cytometry. In tandem with increased CD4+IL17A+ T-cells upon EAP induction, prophylactic treatment with an anti-IL17 antibody one-day prior to EAP induction prevented the onset of pelvic pain. Therapeutic blockade of IL17 did not reverse pain symptoms indicating that IL17 is essential for development but not maintenance of chronic pain in EAP. Furthermore we identified a cytokine, IL7, to be associated with increased symptom severity in CPPS patients and is increased in patient prostatic secretions and the prostates of EAP mice. IL7 is fundamental to development of IL17 producing cells and plays a role in maturation of auto-reactive T-cells, it is also associated with autoimmune disorders including multiple sclerosis and type-1 diabetes. More recently a growing body of research has pointed to IL17's role in development of neuropathic and chronic pain. This report presents novel data on the role of CD4+IL17+ T-cells in development and maintenance of pain in EAP and CPPS. PMID:25933188

  11. Role of neutrophils in systemic autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neutrophils have emerged as important regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Recent evidence indicates that neutrophils display marked abnormalities in phenotype and function in various systemic autoimmune diseases, and may play a central role in initiation and perpetuation of aberrant immune responses and organ damage in these conditions. This review discusses the putative roles that neutrophils and aberrant neutrophil cell death play in the pathogenesis of various systemic autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel vasculitis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:24286137

  12. Coherent Somatic Mutation in Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kenneth Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Many aspects of autoimmune disease are not well understood, including the specificities of autoimmune targets, and patterns of co-morbidity and cross-heritability across diseases. Prior work has provided evidence that somatic mutation caused by gene conversion and deletion at segmentally duplicated loci is relevant to several diseases. Simple tandem repeat (STR) sequence is highly mutable, both somatically and in the germ-line, and somatic STR mutations are observed under inflammation. Results Protein-coding genes spanning STRs having markers of mutability, including germ-line variability, high total length, repeat count and/or repeat similarity, are evaluated in the context of autoimmunity. For the initiation of autoimmune disease, antigens whose autoantibodies are the first observed in a disease, termed primary autoantigens, are informative. Three primary autoantigens, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), phogrin (PTPRN2) and filaggrin (FLG), include STRs that are among the eleven longest STRs spanned by protein-coding genes. This association of primary autoantigens with long STR sequence is highly significant (). Long STRs occur within twenty genes that are associated with sixteen common autoimmune diseases and atherosclerosis. The repeat within the TTC34 gene is an outlier in terms of length and a link with systemic lupus erythematosus is proposed. Conclusions The results support the hypothesis that many autoimmune diseases are triggered by immune responses to proteins whose DNA sequence mutates somatically in a coherent, consistent fashion. Other autoimmune diseases may be caused by coherent somatic mutations in immune cells. The coherent somatic mutation hypothesis has the potential to be a comprehensive explanation for the initiation of many autoimmune diseases. PMID:24988487

  13. Stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Moore; P. Brooks

    2001-01-01

    Conclusion  HSCT in autoimmune diseases has now become one of the potential therapeutic options for physicians looking after patients\\u000a with severe intractable autoimmune diseases. It has now progressed beyond theory based on animal and human case reports, but\\u000a at this stage it has been appropriately reserved for patients with resistant disease in a clinical trial setting. Ongoing\\u000a analysis of the safety

  14. PTX cruiser: driving autoimmunity via TLR4.

    PubMed

    Racke, Michael K; Hu, Wei; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Although the cause of autoimmune diseases is unknown, it has long been speculated that an infectious agent might have a role in their initiation and progression. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), has been used to study factors in disease pathogenesis. A recent study shows that pertussis toxin, which is used as an adjuvant in EAE, uses Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to mediate its disease-inducing effect. PMID:15922942

  15. Heat shock proteins and autoimmunity in humans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter Res; Jelle Thole; René de Vries

    1991-01-01

    Summary T cells and antibodies against self and non-self hsp are present in both patients and healthy controls. T cells responding to hsp65 can be involved in autoimmune diseases, this was demonstrated for two site-specific animal autoimmune diseases: AA in Lewis rats and diabetes (IDDM) in NOD mice. In human ReA there is evidence for a direct stimulation of joint

  16. Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome-like disease in patients with LRBA mutation.

    PubMed

    Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Keller, Bärbel; Nabhani, Schafiq; Gámez-Díaz, Laura; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gombert, Michael; Hönscheid, Andrea; Saleh, Hani; Shaag, Avraham; Borkhardt, Arndt; Grimbacher, Bodo; Warnatz, Klaus; Elpeleg, Orly; Stepensky, Polina

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in LPS-responsive and beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were recently described in patients with combined immunodeficiency, enteropathy and autoimmune cytopenia. Here, we extend the clinical and immunological phenotypic spectrum of LRBA associated disorders by reporting on three patients from two unrelated families who presented with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, cytopenia, elevated double negative T cells and raised serum Fas ligand levels resembling autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) and one asymptomatic patient. Homozygous loss of function mutations in LRBA were identified by whole exome analysis. Similar to ALPS patients, Fas mediated apoptosis was impaired in LRBA deficient patients, while apoptosis in response to stimuli of the intrinsic mitochondria mediated apoptotic pathway was even enhanced. This manuscript illustrates the phenotypic overlap of other primary immunodeficiencies with ALPS-like disorders and strongly underlines the necessity of genetic diagnosis in order to provide early correct diagnosis and subsequent care. PMID:25931386

  17. Translating Data from Animal Models into Methods for Preventing Human Autoimmune Diabetes Mellitus: Caveat Emptor and Primum non Nocere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dale L. Greiner; Aldo A. Rossini; John P. Mordes

    2001-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes in humans is a serious autoimmune disorder of children that is still poorly understood, unpreventable, and irreversible. Study of its animal models, notably the NOD mouse and BB rat, has generated a wealth of information concerning genetics and immunopathogenesis, but that information has still not altered the way in which we treat children with diabetes. In this

  18. Indications et mécanismes d’action des immunoglobulines intraveineuses dans les pathologies auto-immunes et inflammatoires systémiques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Mouthon; G. Bussone; S. Kaveri

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are therapeutic preparations of normal human IgG obtained from pools of more than 1000 healthy blood donors. Initially used for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, IVIg have increasingly been used as immunomodulatory agent in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several mechanisms of action have been described during the last 25 years, including : (i) modulation of Fc? receptors expression

  19. NK Cell Autoreactivity and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Poggi, Alessandro; Zocchi, Maria Raffaella

    2014-01-01

    Increasing evidences have pointed out the relevance of natural killer (NK) cells in organ-specific and systemic autoimmune diseases. NK cells bear a plethora of activating and inhibiting receptors that can play a role in regulating reactivity with autologous cells. The activating receptors recognize natural ligands up-regulated on virus-infected or stressed or neoplastic cells. Of note, several autoimmune diseases are thought to be linked to viral infections as one of the first event in inducing autoimmunity. Also, it is conceivable that autoimmunity can be triggered when a dysregulation of innate immunity occurs, activating T and B lymphocytes to react with self-components. This would imply that NK cells can play a regulatory role during adaptive immunity; indeed, innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), comprising the classical CD56+ NK cells, have a role in maintaining or alternating tissue homeostasis secreting protective and/or pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, NK cells display activating receptors involved in natural cytotoxicity and the activating isoforms of receptors for HLA class I that can interact with healthy host cells and induce damage without any evidence of viral infection or neoplastic-induced alteration. In this context, the interrelationship among ILC, extracellular-matrix components, and mesenchymal stromal cells can be considered a key point for the control of homeostasis. Herein, we summarize evidences for a role of NK cells in autoimmune diseases and will give a point of view of the interplay between NK cells and self-cells in triggering autoimmunity. PMID:24550913

  20. 47,XXX in an Adolescent with Premature Ovarian Failure and Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M Holland

    2001-01-01

    Background: Premature ovarian failure (POF) may be idiopathic or may be associated with genetic or autoimmune disorders. The 47,XXX karyotype has been associated with POF and other genitourinary anomalies.Case: A 17-year-old woman with a history of immune thrombocytopenic purpura was referred to the adolescent medicine clinic for evaluation of oligomenorrhea with secondary amenorrhea. Evaluation revealed hypergonadotrophic premature ovarian failure, a

  1. A case of autoimmune pancreatitis with metachronous appearance of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroaki Sawai; Hiroyuki Matsubayashi; Masaki Tanaka; Yuichiro Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Ono

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is often associated with systemic disorders, but a case accompanied with idiopathic thrombocytopenic\\u000a purpura (ITP) is very rare. A 67-year-old man was referred to our institution with complaints of abdominal pain and jaundice.\\u000a Multiple images showed diffuse enlargement of the pancreas, narrowing of the main pancreatic duct, stenosis of the lower common\\u000a bile duct and thickness of

  2. B-cell targeting in rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Cambridge; Jonathan C. W. Edwards

    2006-01-01

    B-cell-targeted therapy for autoimmune disease emerged from theoretical proposition to practical reality between 1997 and 1998, with the availability of the B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody rituximab. Since then, a score of autoantibody-associated disorders have been treated, with most convincing evidence of efficacy seen in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. Several classes of B-cell-targeted agent are now under investigation. From the outset, a

  3. Utilisation des immunoglobulines polyclonales intraveineuses dans les pathologies auto-immunes et inflammatoires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Graff-Dubois; Sophie Sibéril; Sriramulu Elluru; Vir-Singh Negi; Sandrine Delignat; Luc Mouthon; Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes; Michel D. Kazatchkine; Jagadeesh Bayary; Srini V. Kaveri

    2007-01-01

    Initially used for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) have increasingly been used as immunomodulatory agent in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. The mode of action of IVIg is enigmatic, probably involving Fc-dependent and\\/or F(ab’)2-dependent non-exclusive mechanisms of action. IVIg broadly interacts with the different components of the immune system: cytokines, complement, Fc receptors and several cell surface immunocompetent molecules.

  4. Combined short-term immunotherapy for experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    SciTech Connect

    Pestronk, A.; Drachman, D.B.; Teoh, R.; Adams, R.N.

    1983-08-01

    A therapeutic strategy was designed to eliminate the humoral immune response to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in ongoing experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG). Rats with EAMG were treated with a protocol consisting of three components: (1) A single high dose of cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) was used to produce a rapid and sustained fall in the anti-AChR antibody levels by preferential destruction of antibody-producing B-lymphocytes. ''Memory'' lymphocytes were not eliminated by cyclophosphamide. (2) Irradiation (600 rads) was used to eliminate the ''memory'' cells. It eliminated the anamnestic response to a challenge with the antigen AChR. (3) Bone marrow transplantation was used to repopulate the hematopoietic system after the otherwise lethal dose of cyclophosphamide. We used bone marrow from syngeneic rats with active EAMG to simulate an autologous transplant. Rats with EAMG treated with this combined protocol showed a prompt and sustained fall in the anti-AChR antibody levels and had no anamnestic response to a challenge with AChR. Thus, an affected animal's own marrow could be stored and used later for repopulation after cyclophosphamide-irradiation treatment. This treatment eliminates the animal's ongoing immune responses and reconstitutes the immune system in its original state. The success of this approach suggests that, if their safety could be established, similar ''curative'' strategies might be developed for the treatment of patients with severe antibody-mediated autoimmune disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.

  5. Everything is autoimmune until proven otherwise.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-10-01

    It is astounding to consider that virtually, every textbook of physiology in every medical school in the world does not include a chapter on immunology. On the other hand, virtually, in every textbook in internal medicine, immunology and immune response overlaps with every tissue and every organ. Indeed, historically, the concept of the immune response was recognized primarily in the setting of allergy and/or anaphylaxis. Indeed, the very concepts of infection, microbiology and host protection are relatively new sciences. In fact, it was little more than 100 years ago when washing hands became what is now coined "standard of care." How different it is in 2013, where one finds Handi Wipes for shoppers to use at grocery stores to protect themselves from the flora on shopping cart handles. Autoimmunity is even a newer concept without going into the well-known history of Paul Ehrlich and hemolytic anemias, the LE cell, and the beginning field of serology (and rheumatoid factor discovery). It is apparent that our understanding of autoimmunity has become linked hand-in-glove with new tools and investigational probes into serology and, more recently, the cellular immune response. With such discoveries, a number of key observations stand out. Firstly, there are a great deal more autoantibodies than there are autoimmune diseases. Second, there are a great deal more of autoimmune diseases than was believed in 1963 on the occasion of the publication of the first textbook of autoimmune diseases. Third, autoimmune diseases are, for the most part, orphan diseases, with many entities afflicting too few patients to excite the financial limb of pharmaceutical companies. In this special issue, we have grouped a number of papers, many of which were presented at the recent Congress of Autoimmunity that focus on issues that are not commonly discussed in autoimmunity. It reminds us that due to the ubiquitous nature of the innate and adaptive response, that there are a large number of diseases that have either an inflammatory and/or specific autoimmune response, we have to keep an open eye because everything is potentially autoimmune until proven otherwise. PMID:23907711

  6. Autoimmune and other cytopenias in primary immunodeficiencies: pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmunity and immune dysregulation may lead to cytopenia and represent key features of many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Especially when cytopenia is the initial symptom of a PID, the order and depth of diagnostic steps have to be performed in accordance with both an immunologic and a hematologic approach and will help exclude disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, common variable immunodeficiency, and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes, hemophagocytic disorders, lymphoproliferative diseases, and novel differential diagnoses such as MonoMac syndrome (GATA2 deficiency), CD27 deficiency, lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency, activated PI3KD syndrome (APDS), X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect (MAGT1 deficiency), and others. Immunosuppressive treatment often needs to be initiated urgently, which impedes further relevant immunologic laboratory analyses aimed at defining the underlying PID. Awareness of potentially involved disease spectra ranging from hematologic to rheumatologic and immunologic disorders is crucial for identifying a certain proportion of PID phenotypes and genotypes among descriptive diagnoses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, chronic immune thrombocytopenia, Evans syndrome, severe aplastic anemia/refractory cytopenia, and others. A synopsis of pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and advances in treatment options for cytopenias in PID is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary management and to bridge different approaches. PMID:25163701

  7. Autoimmune and other cytopenias in primary immunodeficiencies: pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Markus G

    2014-10-01

    Autoimmunity and immune dysregulation may lead to cytopenia and represent key features of many primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Especially when cytopenia is the initial symptom of a PID, the order and depth of diagnostic steps have to be performed in accordance with both an immunologic and a hematologic approach and will help exclude disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus, common variable immunodeficiency, and autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndromes, hemophagocytic disorders, lymphoproliferative diseases, and novel differential diagnoses such as MonoMac syndrome (GATA2 deficiency), CD27 deficiency, lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) deficiency, activated PI3KD syndrome (APDS), X-linked immunodeficiency with magnesium defect (MAGT1 deficiency), and others. Immunosuppressive treatment often needs to be initiated urgently, which impedes further relevant immunologic laboratory analyses aimed at defining the underlying PID. Awareness of potentially involved disease spectra ranging from hematologic to rheumatologic and immunologic disorders is crucial for identifying a certain proportion of PID phenotypes and genotypes among descriptive diagnoses such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, chronic immune thrombocytopenia, Evans syndrome, severe aplastic anemia/refractory cytopenia, and others. A synopsis of pathomechanisms, novel differential diagnoses, and advances in treatment options for cytopenias in PID is provided to facilitate multidisciplinary management and to bridge different approaches. PMID:25163701

  8. Autoimmunity in isolated Addison's disease and in polyglandular autoimmune diseases type 1, 2 and 4.

    PubMed

    Betterle, C; Dalpra, C; Greggio, N; Volpato, M; Zanchetta, R

    2001-04-01

    Sera from 300 Italian patients with Addison's disease were collected over a 30 year period. Among these patients, 82% had autoimmune disease, 13% had tuberculosis and 5% had another causal condition. In 59% of the cases, autoimmune disease was associated with the autoimmune manifestations contributing to the description of polyglandular autoimmune disease (PGAD). In PGAD type 1, the disease was associated with chronic candidiasis and/or chronic hypoparathyroidism. In PGAD type 2, the patients had autoimmune thyroid disease and/or diabetes mellitus type 1, and in PGAD type 4, they presented a combination with other autoimmune diseases excluding those previously mentioned. Finally, the autoimmune disease was apparently isolated in 41% of the cases. In addition, patients with these four forms of disease exhibited a different genetic pattern, sex distribution, and age at presentation in addition to minor frequency of autoimmune diseases. Adrenal cortex autoantibodies directed against 21-hydroxylase were common serological markers for these four main clinical forms, showing a very high frequency at clinical onset of adrenal insufficiency. In some patients, steroid-producing cell autoantibodies were also present and correlated with gonadal failure and they recognize of 17alpha-hydroxylase or P450 side chain cleavage enzymes as target antigens. PMID:11353894

  9. Autoimmunity, Not a Developmental Defect, is the Cause for Subfertility of Autoimmune Regulator (Aire) Deficient Mice.

    PubMed

    Kekäläinen, E; Pöntynen, N; Meri, S; Arstila, T P; Jarva, H

    2015-05-01

    Autoimmune regulator's (AIRE) best characterized role is in the generation immunological tolerance, but it is also involved in many other processes such as spermatogenesis. Loss-of-function mutations in AIRE cause a disease called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy, candidiasis and ectodermal dystrophy (APECED; also called autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndrome type 1, APS-1) that is dominated by various autoimmune manifestations, mainly endocrinopathies. Both patients with APECED and Aire(-/-) mice suffer from varying levels of infertility, but it is not clear if it is a result of an autoimmune tissue damage or more of a developmental defect. In this study, we wanted to resolve whether or not the reduced fertility of Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on the adaptive immune system and therefore a manifestation of autoimmunity in these mice. We generated lymphopenic mice without Aire expression that were devoid of the autoimmune manifestations previously reported in immunocompetent Aire(-/-) mice. These Aire(-/-) Rag1(-/-) mice regained full fertility. This confirms that the development of infertility in Aire(-/-) mice requires a functional adaptive immune system. We also show that only the male Aire(-/-) mice are subfertile, whereas Aire(-/-) females produce litters normally. Moreover, the male subfertility can be adoptively transferred with lymphocytes from Aire(-/-) donor mice to previously fertile lymphopenic Aire(-/-) recipients. Our data show that subfertility in Aire(-/-) mice is dependent on a functional adaptive immune system thus confirming its autoimmune aetiology. PMID:25689230

  10. TGF-?\\/BMPs: Crucial crossroad in neural autoimmune disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Konstantine I. Voumvourakis; Roubina Ch. Antonelou; Dimitrios K. Kitsos; Eleftherios Stamboulis; Sotirios Tsiodras

    2011-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) has a crucial role in the differentiation of ectodermal cells to neural or epidermal precursors. TGF-? and bone morphogenetic protein molecules (BMPs) are involved in many developmental processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, mitotic arrest and intercellular interactions during morphogenesis. Additionally, the failure of central thymic tolerance mechanisms, leading to T cells with a

  11. Free radical theory of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Subburaj Kannan

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite great advances in clinical oncology, the molecular mechanisms underlying the failure of chemotherapeutic intervention in treating lymphoproliferative and related disorders are not well understood. HYPOTHESIS: A hypothetical scheme to explain the damage induced by chemotherapy and associated chronic oxidative stress is proposed on the basis of published literature, experimental data and anecdotal observations. Brief accounts of multidrug resistance,

  12. Autoimmune markers in children with chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Cukrowska, Bo?ena; Kierku?, Jaros?aw; Ry?ko, Józef

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the last decade we can observe a gradual increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases. The aetiology of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in children is varied and includes gene mutations, anatomic anomalies and others. The reported paediatric experience with chronic CP is scarce and little is known about the role of autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP). Aim To assess the frequency of autoimmune markers in children with CP. Material and methods One hundred and twenty-nine children hospitalised between 2005 and 2012 at the Department of Gastroenterology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, were examined for the presence of AIP; the level of IgG4 was determined, and tests for anti-tissue antibodies (ANA, ASMA, AMA, ANCA, AHA) were conducted. Clinical data were recorded and analysed. Results Anti-tissue antibodies were detected in 75/129 children (58%), and 24/68 patients (35.3%) showed an increased IgG4 level. Based on the International Association of Pancreatology criteria, a suspicion of AIP was raised in 6 patients (4.6%). We found gene mutations predisposing to CP in 32/75 (42.6%) patients with autoimmune markers. In 16/75 children (21.3%), anatomic anomalies were found. There was no difference in the severity of the disease and clinical course between children with evidence of autoimmune process and patients without autoimmune markers (p = NS). Conclusions In children with CP, similarly to adults, there is a high frequency of biochemical markers of autoimmunity. It is worth remembering that AIP can occur in children. PMID:25097710

  13. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Carmen Maria Lara; Borella, Elisabetta; Palma, Lavinia; Ragozzino, Silvio; De Ramón, Enrique; Gomez-Huelgas, Ricardo; Punzi, Leonardo; Doria, Andrea

    2015-02-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) is defined by buds of granulation tissue within lung distal airspaces. The diagnosis requires the histopathologic evidence of organizing pneumonia along with a suggestive clinical and radiographic pattern. This disorder is characterized by a good response to corticosteroids and an excellent prognosis. It can occur in association with a broad spectrum of clinical conditions or can be isolated, in this last case named cryptogenic organizing pneumonia. We searched for BOOP in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) in the literature, and we found 32 well-documented cases. We reported here demographic features, manifestations, treatment and outcome of patients with BOOP associated with ARD. Notably, BOOP can be the presenting feature in some patients with ARD; thus, a close follow-up of patients with BOOP is recommended. PMID:25480740

  14. Saving Death: Apoptosis for Intervention in Transplantation and Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Alice; Ojogho, Okechukwu; Escher, Alan

    2006-01-01

    Long considered immunologically “bland,” apoptotic cells are now recognized as important modulators of immune responses. The role of apoptosis in immunological homeostasis has been inferred from several findings, for example, induction of tolerance after injection of apoptotic cells and the capacity of APCs like macrophages and DCs to induce and maintain tolerance after phagocytosis of dead cells. Processing of apoptotic cells by DCs is of particular interest, because DCs are the only known APCs capable of activating naďve T lymphocytes to become effector or regulatory cells. In that regard, recent evidence suggests that phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by DCs can induce Tregs, a finding that has significant implications for the treatment of a variety of immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. Here, we review the relationship between apoptotic cells, DCs, and Tregs, and its impact on prevention of transplant rejection and treatment of autoimmune diseases. PMID:17162368

  15. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II - a case report.

    PubMed

    Azad, A K; Islam, M S; Quayum, S L

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome also known as autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II is characterized by the presence of Addison's disease, in association with autoimmune thyroid disease and/or type I diabetes mellitus. Here a 14 year old girl is reported with Addison's disease, autoimmune hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS) type II occurs most often in middle aged female and is quite rare in children but one should think to autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type II in patient at any age especially in patients with Addison's disease. PMID:25725692

  16. The implications of autoimmunity and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Andrea T; Naguwa, Stanley M; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2010-05-01

    There are multiple epidemiological studies that document the potential adverse affects of autoimmunity on nearly every aspect of reproduction, even in the absence of clinically manifest autoimmune disease. Two decades ago, it was suggested that women with autoimmune diseases avoid pregnancy due to inordinate risks to the mother and the child. In contrast, newer epidemiological data demonstrated that advances in the treatment of autoimmune diseases and the management of pregnant women with these diseases have similarly improved the prognosis for mother and child. In particular, if pregnancy is planned during periods of inactive or stable disease, the result often is giving birth to healthy full-term babies without increased risks of pregnancy complications. Nonetheless, pregnancies in most autoimmune diseases are still classified as high risk because of the potential for major complications. These complications include disease exacerbations during gestation and increased perinatal mortality and morbidity in most autoimmune diseases, whereas fetal mortality is characteristic of the anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). In this review, we will discuss these topics, including issues of hormones, along with potential long-term effects of the microchimerism phenomenon. With respect to pregnancy and autoimmune diseases, epidemiological studies have attempted to address the following questions: 1) Is it safe for the mother to become pregnant or are there acute or chronic effects of pregnancy on the course of the disease? 2) Does the disease alter the course and/or the outcome of a pregnancy and thereby represent an inordinate risk for the fetus and infant? And do new therapeutic and management approaches improve the pregnancy outcomes in women with autoimmune diseases? 3) Does passage of maternal autoantibodies represent a risk to the child? 4) Do pregnancy, parity, or other factors influencing hormonal status explain the female predominance of many autoimmune diseases, and is the pregnancy effect related to microchimerism? Answering these questions has taken on additional importance in recent decades as women in western countries now frequently choose to delay pregnancies and have some or all of their pregnancies after disease onset. In this paper, we primarily focus on APS, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), multiple sclerosis (MS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and type 1 diabetes (T1D). PMID:20031371

  17. Recent Advances in Autoimmune Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Phil A; Zen, Yoh; Chari, Suresh T

    2015-07-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a form of chronic pancreatitis that is characterized clinically by frequent presentation with obstructive jaundice, histologically by a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with fibrosis, and therapeutically by a dramatic response to corticosteroid therapy. Two distinct diseases, type 1 and type 2 AIP, share these features. However, these 2 diseases have unique pancreatic histopathologic patterns and differ significantly in their demographic profiles, clinical presentation, and natural history. Recognizing the popular and long-standing association of the term "AIP" with what is now called "type 1 AIP," we suggest using "AIP" solely for type 1 AIP and to acknowledge its own distinct disease status by using "idiopathic duct-centric chronic pancreatitis" (IDCP) for type 2 AIP. AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). The etiopathogenesis of AIP and IgG4-RD is largely unknown. However, the remarkable effectiveness of B-cell depletion therapy with rituximab in patients with AIP and IgG4-RD highlights the crucial role of B cells in its pathogenesis. IDCP is less commonly recognized, and little is known about its pathogenesis. IDCP has no biomarker but is associated with inflammatory bowel disease in ?25% of patients. Recently, the international consensus diagnostic criteria for AIP identified combinations of features that are diagnostic of both diseases. Both AIP and IDCP are corticosteroid responsive; however, relapses are common in AIP and rare in IDCP. Therefore, maintenance therapy with either an immunomodulator (eg, azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine, or mycophenolate mofetil) or rituximab is often necessary for patients with AIP. Long-term survival is excellent for both patients with AIP and patients with IDCP. PMID:25770706

  18. How I treat autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Joăo Bosco

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) represents a failure of apoptotic mechanisms to maintain lymphocyte homeostasis, permitting accumulation of lymphoid mass and persistence of autoreactive cells that often manifest in childhood with chronic nonmalignant lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and recurring multilineage cytopenias. Cytopenias in these patients can be the result of splenic sequestration as well as autoimmune complications manifesting as autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune-mediated thrombocytopenia, and autoimmune neutropenia. More than 300 families with hereditary ALPS have now been described; nearly 500 patients from these families have been studied and followed worldwide over the last 20 years by our colleagues and ourselves. Some of these patients with FAS mutations affecting the intracellular portion of the FAS protein also have an increased risk of B-cell lymphoma. The best approaches to diagnosis, follow-up, and management of ALPS, its associated cytopenias, and other complications resulting from infiltrative lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity are presented. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrial.gov as #NCT00001350. PMID:21885601

  19. Is gulf war syndrome an autoimmune disorder of endogenous neuropeptides, exogenous sandfly maxadilan and molecular mimicry? 1 The author declares no grants or financial conflict of interest are relevant in the development of this paper. Abstracts from PubMed, National Library of Medicine, were used in the development of this paper. 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald R Staines

    2004-01-01

    Gulf war syndrome (GWS) remains a contentious diagnosis with conflicting laboratory investigation and lack of a biologically plausible aetiology. This paper discusses the potential role of maxadilan, a potent sandfly vasoactive peptide, in causing autoimmune responses in susceptible individuals through possible molecular mimicry with pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and the PAC1R receptor.Gulf war syndrome may share some causative

  20. Meta-analysis of genome-wide linkage studies across autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Forabosco, Paola; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Ng, Mandy Y; Hermanowski, Jane; Fisher, Sheila A; Criswell, Lindsey A; Lewis, Cathryn M

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are chronic disorders initiated by a loss of immunologic tolerance to self-antigens. They cluster within families, and patients may be diagnosed with more than one disease, suggesting pleiotropic genes are involved in the aetiology of different diseases. To identify potential loci, which confer susceptibility to autoimmunity independent of disease phenotype, we pooled results from genome-wide linkage studies, using the genome scan meta-analysis method (GSMA). The meta-analysis included 42 independent studies for 11 autoimmune diseases, using 7350 families with 18?291 affected individuals. In addition to the HLA region, which showed highly significant genome-wide evidence for linkage, we obtained suggestive evidence for linkage on chromosome 16, with peak evidence at 10.0–19.8?Mb. This region may harbour a pleiotropic gene (or genes) conferring risk for several diseases, although no such gene has been identified through association studies. We did not identify evidence for linkage at several genes known to confer increased risk to different autoimmune diseases (PTPN22, CTLA4), even in subgroups of diseases consistently found to be associated with these genes. The relative risks conferred by variants in these genes are modest (<1.5 in most cases), and even a large study like this meta-analysis lacks power to detect linkage. This study illustrates the concept that linkage and association studies have power to identify very different types of disease-predisposing variants. PMID:18781189

  1. Compromised gut microbiota networks in children with anti-islet cell autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Endesfelder, David; zu Castell, Wolfgang; Ardissone, Alexandria; Davis-Richardson, Austin G; Achenbach, Peter; Hagen, Michael; Pflueger, Maren; Gano, Kelsey A; Fagen, Jennie R; Drew, Jennifer C; Brown, Christopher T; Kolaczkowski, Bryan; Atkinson, Mark; Schatz, Desmond; Bonifacio, Ezio; Triplett, Eric W; Ziegler, Anette-G

    2014-06-01

    The gut microbiome is suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders such as type 1 diabetes. Evidence of anti-islet cell autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes appears in the first years of life; however, little is known regarding the establishment of the gut microbiome in early infancy. Here, we sought to determine whether differences were present in early composition of the gut microbiome in children in whom anti-islet cell autoimmunity developed. We investigated the microbiome of 298 stool samples prospectively taken up to age 3 years from 22 case children in whom anti-islet cell autoantibodies developed, and 22 matched control children who remained islet cell autoantibody-negative in follow-up. The microbiome changed markedly during the first year of life, and was further affected by breast-feeding, food introduction, and birth delivery mode. No differences between anti-islet cell autoantibody-positive and -negative children were found in bacterial diversity, microbial composition, or single-genus abundances. However, substantial alterations in microbial interaction networks were observed at age 0.5 and 2 years in the children in whom anti-islet cell autoantibodies developed. The findings underscore a role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of anti-islet cell autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. PMID:24608442

  2. Testis-expressed protein TSGA10 an auto-antigen in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I.

    PubMed

    Reimand, Koit; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Link, Maire; Krohn, Kai; Peterson, Pärt; Uibo, Raivo

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare monogenic autosomal recessive disorder. Autoimmune gonadal failure is often one of its features. The aim of this study was to identify targets of immune reactions associated with male autoimmune hypogonadism in APS1. Human testis cDNA expression library immunoscreening with APS1 patients' sera identified the protein testis-specific protein 10 (TSGA10), which is a testis-expressed protein with a key role in spermatogenesis. The corresponding serum autoantibodies were detected by Radioimmunoprecipitation assay in 3 of 40 male (7.5%) and 2 of 26 female (7.7%) APS1 patients but in none of either 32 patients with Addison's disease or 116 healthy controls (p = 0.0055). However, the TSGA10 antibodies in APS1 patients showed no correlation with testicular or ovarian failure or with autoimmune hypogonadism markers. Nevertheless, their presence in a proportion of patients with APS1 highlights the role of TSGA10 as a target of immune reactions in APS1. PMID:18000009

  3. TSGA10 - A target for autoantibodies in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Smith, C J A; Oscarson, M; Rönnblom, L; Alimohammadi, M; Perheentupa, J; Husebye, E S; Gustafsson, J; Nordmark, G; Meloni, A; Crock, P A; Kämpe, O; Bensing, S

    2011-02-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a rare monogenic autoimmune disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene. High-titre autoantibodies are a characteristic feature of APS1 and are often associated with particular disease manifestations. Pituitary deficits are reported in approximately 7% of APS1 patients, with immunoreactivity to pituitary tissue frequently described. Using APS1 patient serum to immunoscreen a pituitary cDNA expression library, testis specific, 10 (TSGA10) was isolated. Immunoreactivity against TSGA10 was detected in 5/99 (5.05%) patients with APS1, but also in 5/135 (3.70%) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and 1/188 (0.53%) healthy controls. TSGA10 autoantibodies were not detected in the serum from patients with any other autoimmune disease. Autoantibodies against TSGA10 were detectable from a young age in 4/5 positive APS1 patients with autoantibody titres remaining relatively constant over time. Furthermore, real-time PCR confirmed TSGA10 mRNA to be most abundantly expressed in the testis and also showed moderate and low expression levels throughout the entire body. TSGA10 should be considered as an autoantigen in a subset of APS1 patients and also in a minority of SLE patients. No recognizable clinical phenotype could be found to correlate with positive autoantibody reactivity. PMID:21198756

  4. Thrombolysis during extended cardiopulmonary resuscitation for autoimmune-related pulmonary embolism

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jian-ping; Ying, Ke-jing

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Massive pulmonary embolism (MPE) and acute myocardial infarction are the two most common causes of cardiac arrest (CA). At present, lethal hemorrhage makes thrombolytic therapy underused during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, despite the potential benefits for these underlying conditions. Hypercoagulability of the blood in autoimmune disorders (such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia) carries a risk of MPE. It is critical to find out the etiology of CA for timely thrombolytic intervention. METHODS: A 23-year-old woman with a 10-year medical history of autoimmune hemolytic anemia suffered from CA in our emergency intensive care unit. ECG and echocardiogram indicated the possibility of MPE, so fibrinolytic therapy (alteplase) was successful during prolonged resuscitation. RESULTS: Neurological recovery of the patient was generally good, and no fatal bleeding developed. MPE was documented by CT pulmonary angiography. CONCLUSIONS: A medical history of autoimmune disease poses a risk of PE, and the causes of CA (such as this) should be investigated etiologically. A therapy with alteplase may be used early during cardiopulmonary resuscitation once there is presumptive evidence of PE. Clinical trials are needed in this setting to study patients with hypercoagulable states. PMID:26056548

  5. Protective Autoimmunity: A Unifying Model for the Immune Network Involved in CNS Repair.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Raposo, Catarina

    2014-01-01

    Immune activity in the CNS parenchyma under various acute and chronic neurodegenerative conditions has been often interpreted as a sign of pathological inflammation. The apparent resemblance of the local neuroinflammatory processes to autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), generated the view that, despite differences in etiology and pathology, neurodegenerative disorders with a local inflammatory component can benefit from systemic anti-inflammatory therapy. In addition, as CNS self-reactive T cells are associated with the etiology of MS, autoimmunity was assumed to solely reflect pathology, and therefore, was universally linked to autoimmune disease. Yet, it is becoming increasingly clear that CNS-specific T cells, along with circulating and local innate immune cells, can enhance CNS healing processes following non-infectious injuries, or any deviation from homeostasis, including chronic pathological conditions. Here, we discuss the theory of "protective autoimmunity," which describes the activity of an immune cell network encompassing effector and regulatory T cells with specificity for CNS antigens, in CNS maintenance and repair. Such an immune network, evoked in response to external and internal threats, functions in a tightly regulated way, ensuring restoration of the brain's equilibrium and return to homeostasis. PMID:24395337

  6. Autoimmune disease triggered by infection with alphaproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Javid P; Mattner, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    Despite having long been postulated, compelling evidence for the theory that microbial triggers drive autoimmunity has only recently been reported. A specific association between Novosphingobium aromaticivorans, an ubiquitous alphaproteobacterium, and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been uncovered in patients with PBC. Notably, the association between Novosphingobium infection and PBC has been confirmed in a mouse model in which infection leads to the development of liver lesions resembling PBC concomitant with the production of anti-PDC-E2 antibodies that cross-react with conserved PDC-E2 epitopes shared by Novosphingobium. The discovery of infectious triggers of autoimmunity is likely to change our current concepts about the etiology of various autoimmune syndromes and may suggest new and simpler ways to diagnose and treat these debilitating diseases. PMID:20161124

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Ram, Maya; Sherer, Yaniv; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2006-07-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (also named matrixin or MMPs) are a major group of enzymes that regulate cell-matrix composition by using zinc for their proteolytic activities. They are essential for various normal biological processes such as embryonic development, morphogenesis, reproduction tissue resorption, and remodeling. Metalloproteinases also play a role in pathological processes including inflammation, arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases and cancer. Herein we review the involvement of MMP-9 in a variety of autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, polymyositis and atherosclerosis. MMP-9 plays either a primary or secondary role in each one of those autoimmune diseases by its up or down-regulation. It is not expressed constantly but rather is induced or suppressed by many regulating molecules. This feature of MMP-9 along with its involvement in disease pathogenesis turns it into a target for therapy of autoimmune diseases. PMID:16652230

  8. Adoptive cell transfer in autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Czaja, Albert J

    2015-06-01

    Adoptive cell transfer is an intervention in which autologous immune cells that have been expanded ex vivo are re-introduced to mitigate a pathological process. Tregs, mesenchymal stromal cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells have been transferred in diverse immune-mediated diseases, and Tregs have been the focus of investigations in autoimmune hepatitis. Transferred Tregs have improved histological findings in animal models of autoimmune hepatitis and autoimmune cholangitis. Key challenges relate to discrepant findings among studies, phenotypic instability of the transferred population, uncertain side effects and possible need for staged therapy involving anti-inflammatory drugs. Future investigations must resolve issues about the purification, durability and safety of these cells and consider alternative populations if necessary. PMID:25719553

  9. Recurrence of Autoimmunity Following Pancreas Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Burke, George W.; Vendrame, Francesco; Pileggi, Antonello; Ciancio, Gaetano; Reijonen, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Pancreas transplantation is a therapeutic option for patients with type 1 diabetes. Advances in immunosuppression have reduced immunological failures, and these are usually categorized as chronic rejection. Yet studies in our cohort of pancreas transplant recipients identified several patients in whom chronic islet autoimmunity led to recurrent diabetes, despite immunosuppression that prevented rejection. Recurrent diabetes in our cohort is as frequent as chronic rejection, and thus is a significant cause of immunological graft failure. Our studies demonstrated islet autoimmunity by the presence of autoantibodies and autoreactive T-cells, which mediated ?-cell destruction in a transplantation model. Biopsy of the transplanted pancreas revealed variable degrees of ?-cell loss, with or without insulitis, in the absence of pancreas and kidney transplant rejection. Additional research is needed to better understand recurrent disease and to identify new treatment regimens that can suppress autoimmunity, as in our experience this is not effectively inhibited by conventional immunosuppression. PMID:21660419

  10. Range of Neurologic Disorders in Patients With Celiac Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathanel Zelnik; Avi Pacht; Raid Obeid; Aaron Lerner

    2010-01-01

    Objective. During the past 2 decades, ce- liac disease (CD) has been recognized as a multisystem autoimmune disorder. A growing body of distinct neu- rologic conditions such as cerebellar ataxia, epilepsy, myoclonic ataxia, chronic neuropathies, and dementia have been reported, mainly in middle-aged adults. There still are insufficient data on the association of CD with various neurologic disorders in children,

  11. Autoimmune Myocarditis, Valvulitis, and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jennifer M.; Cunningham, Madeleine W.; Fairweather, DeLisa; Huber, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac myosin-induced autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease initiated by CD4+ T cells (Smith and Allen 1991; Li, Heuser et al. 2004). It is a paradigm of the immune-mediated cardiac damage believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of a subset of postinfectious human cardiomyopathies (Rose, Herskowitz et al. 1993). Myocarditis is induced in susceptible mice by immunization with purified cardiac myosin (Neu, Rose et al. 1987) or specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Donermeyer, Beisel et al. 1995; Pummerer, Luze et al. 1996) (see Basic Protocol 1), or by adoptive transfer of myosin-reactive T cells (Smith and Allen 1991) (see Alternate Protocol). Myocarditis has been induced in Lewis rats by immunization with purified rat or porcine cardiac myosin (Kodama, Matsumoto et al. 1990; Li, Heuser et al. 2004) (see Basic Protocol 2) or S2-16 peptide (Li, Heuser et al. 2004), or by adoptive transfer of T cells stimulated by specific peptides derived from cardiac myosin (Wegmann, Zhao et al. 1994). Myocarditis begins 12 to 14 days after the first immunization, and is maximal after 21 days. Other animal models commonly used to study myocarditis development include the pathogen-induced models in which disease is initiated by viral infection. The first murine model of acute viral myocarditis causes sudden death via viral damage to cardiomyocytes (Huber, Gauntt et al. 1998; Horwitz, La Cava et al. 2000; Fong 2003; Fuse, Chan et al. 2005; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) whereas the second model is based on inoculation with heart-passaged coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) that includes damaged heart proteins (Fairweather, Frisancho-Kiss et al. 2004; Fairweather D 2004; Fairweather and Rose 2007; Cihakova and Rose 2008) In addition to the protocols used to induce EAM in mice and rats, support protocols are included for preparing purified cardiac myosin using mouse or rat heart tissue (see Support Protocol 1), preparing purified cardiac myosin for injection (see Support Protocol 2), and collecting and assessing hearts by histopathological means (see Support Protocol 3). PMID:23564686

  12. Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Murphy; Amanda Phelps; Markus Braun-Falco

    \\u000a Inflammatory disorders of the skin, including eczematous, psoriasiform, lichenoid-interface, ­autoimmune, and neutrophilic\\u000a dermatoses, probably represent the group of cutaneous diseases in which molecular pathology currently has the least impact\\u000a in daily clinical practice. Many of these diseases are readily diagnosed through the correlation of clinical features with\\u000a histopathological findings on hematoxylin and eosin (H + E)-stained tissue sections. In general,

  13. Autoimmune chronic active hepatitis in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lebovics, E; Schaffner, F; Klion, F M; Simon, C

    1985-09-01

    We reviewed the clinical and histologic features, course and response to therapy of 18 postmenopausal women with autoimmune chronic active hepatitis (CAH). The presentation of these patients was similar to that of younger patients, except for the lower incidence of associated autoimmune disease. Nuclear antibodies (ANA) were associated with complications, while smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) correlated with an uncomplicated course. Steroid therapy appeared to have less benefit and greater risk in our patients than in studies of all ages. The applicability of results of previous trials demonstrating benefit of corticosteroid therapy for CAH to postmenopausal women is questioned. PMID:3875463

  14. MicroRNAs in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

  15. MicroRNAs in Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Zigang; Li, Wenhui; Fu, Baoquan

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are featured by body's immune responses being directed towards its own specific target organs or multiple organ systems, causing persistent inflammation and consequent tissue damage. miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs in a size of approximately 22?nt that play important regulatory roles in many organisms by cleavage or translational inhibition of targeted mRNAs. Many miRNAs are reported to be differentially expressed in ADs and may play a pivotal role in regulating immune responses and autoimmunity. In this review, current research progress in the miRNAs in ADs was elucidated. PMID:24991561

  16. Requirements for innate immune pathways in environmentally induced autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that environmental triggers in combination with genetic and stochastic factors play an important role in spontaneous autoimmune disease. Although the specific environmental agents and how they promote autoimmunity remain largely unknown, in part because of diverse etiologies, environmentally induced autoimmune models can provide insights into potential mechanisms. Studies of idiopathic and environmentally induced systemic autoimmunity show that they are mediated by common adaptive immune response genes. By contrast, although the innate immune system is indispensable for autoimmunity, there are clear differences in the molecular and cellular innate components that mediate specific systemic autoimmune diseases, suggesting distinct autoimmune-promoting pathways. Some of these differences may be related to the bifurcation of toll-like receptor signaling that distinguishes interferon regulatory factor 7-mediated type I interferon production from nuclear factor-?B-driven proinflammatory cytokine expression. Accordingly, idiopathic and pristane-induced systemic autoimmunity require both type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines whereas the less aggressive mercury-induced autoimmunity, although dependent on nucleic acid-binding toll-like receptors, does not require type I interferon but needs proinflammatory cytokines. Scavenger receptors and the inflammasome may contribute to silica-induced autoimmunity. Greater understanding of the innate mechanisms responsible for idiopathic and environmentally induced autoimmunity should yield new information into the processes that instigate and drive systemic autoimmunity. PMID:23557436

  17. The influence of silicone implantation on experimental models of autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Caralee Joyce Schaefer

    1997-01-01

    The use of silicone implants in cosmetic and reconstructive surgery has recently been implicated in the development of autoimmune connective tissue diseases (CTDs), including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We have investigated the influence of different forms of silicone, including elastomers, gel and oil, in two experimental models of autoimmunity, to determine whether silicone implantation exacerbates autoimmune

  18. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Exploring necrotizing autoimmune myopathies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with suspicion of NAM, 142 controls with different inflammatory/autoimmune diseases and 100 healthy donorsRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Exploring necrotizing autoimmune myopathies with a novel immunoassay,3* and the French Myositis Network [CN] Abstract Introduction: Necrotizing autoimmune myopathies (NAM) have recently

  19. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    E-print Network

    Flegr, Jaroslav

    Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy Sa´rka Kan kova´1 to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. Citation: Kankova´ S, Procha´zkova´ L, Flegr J, Calda P, Springer D, et al. (2014) Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases

  20. Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens

    E-print Network

    of Publications 7 Abbreviations 8 Introduction 9 Background 13 Metabolic traits 13 Autoimmune diseases 13 SystemicGenetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Weronica Ek Faculty of Veterinary Cover: Ronald Nelson, SLU #12;Genetic Analysis of Autoimmune and Metabolic Traits in Chickens Abstract

  1. Early-onset autoimmune disease as a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Coutinho, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune disorders (AID) have been increasingly observed in association with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Here, we discuss the interface between PID and AID, focusing on autoimmune manifestations early in life, which can be diagnostic clues for underlying PIDs. Inflammatory bowel disease in infants and children has been associated with IL-10 and IL-10R deficiencies, chronic granulomatous disease, immunedysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-X-linked syndrome (IPEX), autoinflammatory disorders, and others. Some PIDs have been identified as underlying defects in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: C1q-, IgA-, IgM deficiencies, alterations of the IFN-? pathway (in Aicardi-Goutičres syndrome due to TREX1 mutation). IPEX (due to FOXP3 mutation leading to Treg cell deficiency), usually appearing in the first months of life, was recently observed in miscarried fetuses with hydrops who presented with CD3+ infiltrating lymphocytes in the pancreas. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to perforin deficiency was also identified as a cause of fetal hydrops. In conclusion, PID should be suspected in any infant with signs of autoimmunity after excluding transferred maternal effects, or in children with multiple and/or severe AID. PMID:25999944

  2. Early-Onset Autoimmune Disease as a Manifestation of Primary Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda; Coutinho, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune disorders (AID) have been increasingly observed in association with primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs). Here, we discuss the interface between PID and AID, focusing on autoimmune manifestations early in life, which can be diagnostic clues for underlying PIDs. Inflammatory bowel disease in infants and children has been associated with IL-10 and IL-10R deficiencies, chronic granulomatous disease, immunedysregulation-polyendocrinopathy-enteropathy-X-linked syndrome (IPEX), autoinflammatory disorders, and others. Some PIDs have been identified as underlying defects in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: C1q-, IgA-, IgM deficiencies, alterations of the IFN-? pathway (in Aicardi–Goutičres syndrome due to TREX1 mutation). IPEX (due to FOXP3 mutation leading to Treg cell deficiency), usually appearing in the first months of life, was recently observed in miscarried fetuses with hydrops who presented with CD3+ infiltrating lymphocytes in the pancreas. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis due to perforin deficiency was also identified as a cause of fetal hydrops. In conclusion, PID should be suspected in any infant with signs of autoimmunity after excluding transferred maternal effects, or in children with multiple and/or severe AID. PMID:25999944

  3. Autoimmune Adrenal Insufficiency and Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes: Autoantibodies, Autoantigens, and Their Applicability in Diagnosis and Disease Prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CORRADO BETTERLE; CHIARA DAL PRA; FRANCO MANTERO; RENATO ZANCHETTA

    2002-01-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of autoimmune adrenal disease, including a detailed analysis of a group of patients with Addison's disease (AD), has been reviewed. Criteria for defining an autoimmune disease and the main features of autoimmune AD (history, prevalence, etiology, histopathol- ogy, clinical and laboratory findings, cell-mediated and humoral immunity, autoantigens and their autoepitopes, ge- netics, animal models, associated

  4. Therapeutic antibodies for autoimmunity and inflammation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Chan; Paul J. Carter

    2010-01-01

    The development of therapeutic antibodies has evolved over the past decade into a mainstay of therapeutic options for patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Substantial advances in understanding the biology of human diseases have been made and tremendous benefit to patients has been gained with the first generation of therapeutic antibodies. The lessons learnt from these antibodies have provided the

  5. Chronic calorie restriction attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Piccio; Jennifer L. Stark; Anne H. Cross

    2008-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) prevents many age-associated diseases and prolongs the lifespan. CR induces multiple metabolic and physiologic modifications, including anti-inflammatory, antiox- idant, and neuroprotective effects that may be ben- eficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). The present stud- ies sought to determine whether CR or increased calorie intake alters the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the leading animal model for

  6. Gene therapy for autoimmune diseases: quo vadis?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Gould; Osvaldo L. Podhajcer; Yuti Chernajovsky

    2004-01-01

    Biological therapies using antibodies and cytokines are becoming widespread for the treatment of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, these treatments have several limitations — such as expense, the need for repeated injections and unwanted side-effects — that can be overcome by genetic delivery. This review summarizes the ingenuity, sophistication and variety of gene-therapy approaches that have been taken in the

  7. Scurfy mice: A model for autoimmune disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godfrey

    1993-01-01

    Autoimmune disease-the condition in which the body attacks its own tissue-has been an object of public concern recently. Former President George Bush and his wife Barbara both are afflicted with Graves' disease in which the body's own immune system attakcs the thyroid gland. The safety of breast implants was called into question because of evidence that some recipients had developed

  8. Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Michel; Mehdi Khellaf; Lionel Desforges; Ketty Lee; Annette Schaeffer; Bertrand Godeau; Philippe Bierling

    Background: The mechanisms triggering the produc- tion of platelet autoantibodies in autoimmune thrombo- cytopenic purpura (AITP) are poorly understood. Re- cently, marked improvements in platelet counts have been reported in patients with AITP and concurrent Helico- bacter pylori infection after eradication of H pylori by a standard antibiotic regimen. We looked for an associa- tion between H pylori infection and

  9. Peptide immunotherapy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Anderton, Stephen M

    2015-01-01

    We now have potent drugs available to treat the inflammatory component of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, not all patients respond, the drugs are not curative, and the associated risks to beneficial immune surveillance are considerable. A more desirable approach is to specifically target those comparatively rare T lymphocytes that are orchestrating the autoimmune attack. Using the autoantigen itself to instill immune tolerance in those cells remains a holy grail of immunotherapy. Peptide immunotherapy (PIT) is highly effective at silencing autoimmune responses in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and clinical trials of PIT are underway in MS. This review discusses the current paradigms for PIT-induced tolerance in naďve T cells. It highlights the need for better understanding of the mode of action of PIT upon memory and effector T cells that are responsible for driving/sustaining ongoing autoimmune pathology. Recent studies in EAEsuggest genetic and epigenetic changes in these pathogenic T-cell populations in response to PIT. Finally, future challenges to effective translation of PIT to the clinic are considered. PMID:26068029

  10. Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss: an immunologic perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Arturo Solares; Gordon B. Hughes; Vincent K. Tuohy

    2003-01-01

    Autoimmune sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL) typically produces a bilateral rapidly progressive loss of hearing that may occur suddenly. The diagnosis is made by excluding ototoxicity, systemic disease, and other factors that mimic ASNHL and by showing a therapeutic response to corticosteroid treatment. Although autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells have been implicated in the etiopathogenesis of ASNHL, several central issues remain

  11. Therapeutic strategies for autoimmune hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Manns, Michael P; Strassburg, Christian P

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a disease of unknown etiology. However, a loss of tolerance against the patient's own liver is regarded as the main pathogenetic mechanism. Immunosuppressive therapy prolongs survival in patients with severe AIH. Two phases of therapy have to be distinguished. In newly diagnosed AIH, induction of remission is the main goal. Here predniso(lo)ne alone or in combination with azathioprine has been shown to induce remission in the majority of patients. In the past, reduction of aminotransferase levels below two times the upper limit of normal was the aim of therapy. Nowadays, normalization of aminotransferase levels should be achieved. The majority of patients usually respond to therapy within 6-12 months. A significant reduction in aminotransferase levels is achieved within a few weeks of therapy. Improvement in clinical symptoms is followed by improvement in biochemical parameters of disease activity and then by significant improvement in histological disease activity. Around 20-40% of patients do not achieve remission. In these patients, alternative therapies should be evaluated for the individual patient. Prospective controlled trials with a larger number of patients are missing in this population. At the moment, mycophenolate mofetil at a dose of 2 × 1 g daily, either given alone or in combination with predniso(lo)ne, is able to achieve remission in a significant proportion of patients. Based on recent retrospective observations, mycophenolate mofetil is beneficial in patients who were previously azathioprine intolerant rather than azathioprine failure patients. Again, prospective trials are missing. Alternative drugs include cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin A, tacrolimus and others. Women in particular suffer from steroid-specific side effects, including weight gain, moon face, diabetes, glaucoma and bone disease. Recently, a topical steroid, budesonide, was shown to induce disease remission in combination with azathioprine. The second phase of therapy is maintenance of remission with the lowest possible dose in order to maintain remission while preventing significant side effects. Careful evaluation of the individual patients should lead to the decision whether predniso(lo)ne, budesonide, azathioprine or a combination of one of the steroids with azathioprine is to be used to maintain remission. Recently, a study has shown that after 6 months of induction therapy with prednisone plus azathioprine, a switch to budesonide in combination with azathioprine reduced steroid-specific side effects while maintaining remission of liver disease. Therefore, the application of the topical steroids may be helpful in maintaining remission while reducing steroid-specific side effects. Patients with liver cirrhosis should not be treated with budesonide since the benefit of budesonide with its 90% pass effect in the liver is lost if the patient has already developed portal hypertension with significant portosystemic shunting. Furthermore, there are safety concerns regarding budesonide use in cirrhotic patients derived from studies in primary biliary cirrhosis. If the diagnosis is correct and the appropriate therapy is chosen, liver transplantation should be avoidable in patients with AIH. PMID:21894012

  12. Statins as a potential risk factor for autoimmune diseases: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    John, Santhosh G; Thorn, Jennifer; Sobonya, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Association of statins with autoimmune disorders is rarely reported. We report a case of an apparently healthy 76-year-old woman who was on long-term statin therapy presenting with severe rhabdomyolysis, autoimmune hepatitis, and positive lupus antibodies. Patient presented with complaints of worsening fatigue, leg cramps, and progressive weakening of lower extremities over 3 weeks. The patient was on simvastatin daily for several years. Clinical examination on admission included muscle tenderness, lower extremity edema, and ascites. Her laboratory values on admission showed elevated creatine kinase and transaminases. Immunologic workup revealed positive ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-SSA antibodies. F-actin antibody was also positive at high titer. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lower extremities showed findings consistent with myositis. Patient underwent biopsy of the thigh muscles, which showed inflammatory myositis. Liver biopsy was characteristic of autoimmune hepatitis. Patient responded well to immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine and prednisone. Although statins are generally considered safe, recent data from long-term follow-up on patients who are on statins for long duration suggest that prolonged exposure to statins may trigger autoimmune reactions. The exact mechanism of statin-induced autoimmune reaction is unclear. Statins, as proapoptotic agents, release nuclear antigen into the circulation and may induce the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. The role of statins in inducing an endoplasmic reticular stress response with associated upregulation of major histocompatibility complex-1 expression and antigen presentation by muscle fibers has also been reported. Systemic immunosuppressive therapy has proven to be effective in many reported cases. PMID:23782756

  13. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease

    PubMed Central

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-?-and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I?:?C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD. PMID:24666275

  14. Imaging combined autoimmune and infectious disease microarrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewart, Tom; Raha, Sandeep; Kus, Dorothy; Tarnopolsky, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Bacterial and viral pathogens are implicated in many severe autoimmune diseases, acting through such mechanisms as molecular mimicry, and superantigen activation of T-cells. For example, Helicobacter pylori, well known cause of stomach ulcers and cancers, is also identified in ischaemic heart disease (mimicry of heat shock protein 65), autoimmune pancreatitis, systemic sclerosis, autoimmune thyroiditis (HLA DRB1*0301 allele susceptibility), and Crohn's disease. Successful antibiotic eradication of H.pylori often accompanies their remission. Yet current diagnostic devices, and test-limiting cost containment, impede recognition of the linkage, delaying both diagnosis and therapeutic intervention until the chronic debilitating stage. We designed a 15 minute low cost 39 antigen microarray assay, combining autoimmune, viral and bacterial antigens1. This enables point-of-care serodiagnosis and cost-effective narrowly targeted concurrent antibiotic and monoclonal anti-T-cell and anti-cytokine immunotherapy. Arrays of 26 pathogen and 13 autoimmune antigens with IgG and IgM dilution series were printed in triplicate on epoxysilane covalent binding slides with Teflon well masks. Sera diluted 1:20 were incubated 10 minutes, washed off, anti-IgG-Cy3 (green) and anti-IgM-Dy647 (red) were incubated for 5 minutes, washed off and the slide was read in an ArrayWoRx(e) scanning CCD imager (Applied Precision, Issaquah, WA). As a preliminary model for the combined infectious disease-autoimmune diagnostic microarray we surveyed 98 unidentified, outdated sera that were discarded after Hepatitis B antibody testing. In these, significant IgG or IgM autoantibody levels were found: dsDNA 5, ssDNA 11, Ro 2, RNP 7, SSB 4, gliadin 2, thyroglobulin 13 cases. Since control sera showed no autoantibodies, the high frequency of anti-DNA and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies found in infected sera lend increased support for linkage of infection to subsequent autoimmune disease. Expansion of the antigen set with synthetic peptide sequences should reveal the shared bacterial/human epitopes involved.

  15. Obesity as a Risk and Severity Factor in Rheumatic Diseases (Autoimmune Chronic Inflammatory Diseases)

    PubMed Central

    Gremese, Elisa; Tolusso, Barbara; Gigante, Maria Rita; Ferraccioli, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    The growing body of evidence recognizing the adipose tissue (AT) as an active endocrine organ secreting bioactive mediators involved in metabolic and inflammatory disorders, together with the global epidemic of overweight and obesity, rise obesity as a hot topic of current research. The chronic state of low-grade inflammation present in the obese condition and the multiple pleiotropic effects of adipokines on the immune system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory conditions including rheumatic autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We will discuss the main relevant evidences on the role of the AT on immune and inflammatory networks and the more recent evidences regarding the effects of obesity on the incidence and outcomes of the major autoimmune chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:25426122

  16. Candidate gene discovery in autoimmunity by using extreme phenotypes, next generation sequencing and whole exome capture.

    PubMed

    Johar, Angad S; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Andrews, Dan; Patel, Hardip R; Field, Matthew; Goodnow, Chris; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2015-03-01

    Whole exome sequencing (WES) is a widely used strategy for detection of protein coding and splicing variants associated with inherited diseases. Many studies have shown that the strategy has been broad and proficient due to its ability in detecting a high proportion of disease causing variants, using only a small portion of the genome. In this review we outline the main steps involved in WES, the comprehensive analysis of the massive data obtained including the genomic capture, amplification, sequencing, alignment, curating, filtering and genetic analysis to determine the presence of candidate variants with potential pathogenic/functional effect. Further, we propose that the multiple autoimmune syndrome, an extreme phenotype of autoimmune disorders, is a very well suited trait to tackle genomic variants of major effect underpinning the lost of self-tolerance. PMID:25447288

  17. Perspective: The RNA exosome, cytokine gene regulation and links to autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Blin, Juliana; Fitzgerald, Katherine A

    2015-08-01

    The RNA exosome is a highly conserved exoribonuclease complex that is involved in RNA processing, quality control and turnover regulation. The exosome plays pleiotropic functions by recruiting different cofactors that regulate its target specificity. Recently, the exosome has been implicated in the regulation of immune processes including cytokine production and negative regulation of innate sensing of nucleic acids. Careful regulation of such mechanisms is critical to avoid a breakdown of self-tolerance and the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders. This perspective briefly introduces the exosome, its its normal function in RNA biology and summarizes regulatory roles of the RNA exosome in immunity. Finally we discuss how dysregulation of exosome function can lead to autoimmune disease. PMID:25835609

  18. A iodúria de pacientes portadores de tireopatias autoimunes em Santo André, SP, é comparável ŕ dos indivíduos normais e estável nos últimos dez anos Urinary iodine in patients with auto-immune thyroid disorders in Santo André, SP, is comparable to normal controls and has been steady for the last 10 years

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Angela Zaccarelli Marino; Lourdes Conceiçăo Martins; Roberto Z. Esteves; Teresa S. Kasamatsu; Rui M. B. Maciel

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Evaluate whether the increase of iodine in the diet would be the triggering fac- tor for auto-immune thyropathies in the city of Santo André, SP. Methods: Urinary iodine was determined in samples isolated from 58 patients, divided in 4 Groups, and in 13 normal individuals (controls). Results: Urinary Iodine: Group 1 - hyperthyroidism = 203.5±152.71 µg\\/ L(mean±sd); Group 2

  19. Glycine Receptor Autoimmune Spectrum With Stiff-Man Syndrome Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    McKeon, Andrew; Martinez-Hernandez, Eugenia; Lancaster, Eric; Matsumoto, Joseph Y.; Harvey, Robert J.; McEvoy, Kathleen M.; Pittock, Sean J.; Lennon, Vanda A.; Dalmau, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether glycine receptor ?1 subunit-specific autoantibodies (GlyR?1-IgG) occur in a broader spectrum of brainstem and spinal hyperexcitability disorders than the progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus phenotype recognized to date, and to ascertain disease specificity. Design Retrospective, case-control study. Settings Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, and University of Barcelona, Spain. Patients Eighty-one patients with stiff-man syndrome phenotype, 80 neurologic control subjects, and 20 healthy control subjects. Intervention Glycine receptor ?1–transfected cells to test serum or cerebrospinal fluid from cases and control subjects. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of GlyR?1-IgG positivity among stiff-man syndrome phenotype cases and control subjects. Comparison of GlyR?1-IgG seropositive and seronegative cases. Results Seropositive cases (12% of cases) included 9 with stiff-man syndrome (4 classic; 5 variant; 66% were glutamic acid decarboxylase 65–IgG positive) and 1 with progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Immunotherapy responses were noted more frequently in GlyR?1-IgG–positive cases (6 of 7 improved) than in seronegative cases (7 of 25 improved; P=.02). The single seropositive control patient had steroid-responsive vision loss and optic atrophy with inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid. Conclusions Glycine receptor ?1–IgG aids identification of autoimmune brainstem/spinal cord hyperexcitability disorders and may extend to the glycinergic visual system. PMID:23090334

  20. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: clinical utility in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Willrich, Maria A V; Murray, David L; Snyder, Melissa R

    2015-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production is amplified in several autoimmune disorders. In the 1990s, it became a validated therapeutic target used for the treatment of conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Biologic drugs targeting TNF include engineered monoclonal antibodies and fusion proteins. Currently, there are 5 Food and Drug Administration-approved TNF inhibitors (infliximab, etanercept, adalimumab, certolizumab, and golimumab), representing close to $20 billion in sales. Clinical trials remain open to test their efficacy and safety compared with one another, as well as to measure clinical outcomes in different conditions and patient populations. The industry is also eager to develop biotherapeutics that are similar but cheaper than the currently existing biologics or are safer with higher efficacy; these are the so-called "biosimilars." Clinical utility of TNF inhibitors and indications of mono- or combined therapy with immunomodulators are reviewed here. Pharmacokinetics of the TNF inhibitors is affected by routes of administration, clearance mechanisms of immunoglobulins, and immunogenicity. Finally, strategies for management of treatment efficacy and increasing evidence for monitoring of serum concentration of TNF inhibitors are discussed, assessing for the presence of the antidrug antibodies and the different analytical methods available for laboratory testing. As clinical applications of the TNF inhibitors expand, and other classes join the revolution in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders, therapeutic drug monitoring of biologics will become increasingly important, with the potential to dramatically improve patient care and management. PMID:25305470

  1. Inflammasomes and human autoimmunity: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chin-An; Chiang, Bor-Luen

    2015-07-01

    Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes composed of a NOD-like receptor (NLR)/an AIM-like receptor (ALR), the adapter molecule apoptosis-associated speck-like protein that contains a CARD (ASC), and caspase-1. Active caspase-1 cleaves pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-18 to IL-1? and IL-18, resulting in inflammation. Genetic mutations in inflammasomes were first recognized to result in autoinflammatory diseases, which are characterized by the absence of both autoantibodies and autoreactive-T/B cells. However, there is increasing attention being placed on genetic polymorphisms that are involved in the components of inflammasomes, and these have implications for innate immunity and the natural history of autoimmune diseases. For example, while the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) haplotypes contributes to susceptibility to developing vitiligo; there are other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that alters the susceptibility and severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Indeed, there are multiple factors that contribute to lowering the threshold of immunity and inflammasomes play a key role in this threshold. For example, IL-1? and IL-18 further perpetuate Th17 responses and endothelial cell damage, which potentiate a number of autoimmune diseases, including synovitis in RA, cardiovascular disease, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There is also increasing data on the role of innate immunity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), in lupus nephritis, and in a variety of autoimmune pathologies in which activation of the innate immune system is the driver for the adaptive system. Indeed, it is likely that the chronic pathology of autoimmunity is mediated in part by otherwise innocent bystander cells, augmented by inflammasomes. PMID:26005048

  2. Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies, Autoimmune Neutropenia, and Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Peter C.; Sloan, J. Mark; Niles, John L.; Monach, Paul A.; Merkel, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Reports of an association between antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and autoimmune neutropenia have rarely included cases of proven vasculitis. A case of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) with recurrent neutropenia is described and relevant literature on the association between ANCA, neutropenia, and vasculitis is reviewed. Methods Longitudinal clinical assessments and laboratory findings are described in a patient with AAV and recurrent episodes of profound neutropenia from December 2008 – October 2010. A PubMed database search of the medical literature was performed for papers published from 1960 through October 2010 to identify all reported cases of ANCA and neutropenia. Results A 49 year-old man developed recurrent neutropenia, periodic fevers, arthritis, biopsy-proven cutaneous vasculitis, sensorineural hearing loss, epididymitis, and positive tests for ANCA with specificity for antibodies to both proteinase 3 and myeloperoxidase. Antineutrophil membrane antibodies were detected during an acute neutropenic phase and were not detectable in a post-recovery sample, whereas ANCA titers did not seem to correlate with neutropenia. An association between ANCA and neutropenia has been reported in 74 cases from 24 studies in the context of drug/toxin exposure, underlying autoimmune disease, or chronic neutropenia without underlying autoimmune disease. In these cases, the presence of atypical ANCA patterns and other antibodies were common; however, vasculitis was uncommon and when it occurred was usually limited to the skin and in cases of underlying toxin exposure. Conclusions ANCA is associated with autoimmune neutropenia, but systemic vasculitis rarely occurs in association with ANCA and neutropenia. The interaction between neutrophils and ANCA may provide insight into understanding both autoimmune neutropenia and AAV. PMID:21507463

  3. Epilepsy-related psychosis: a role for autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Pollak, T A; Nicholson, T R; Mellers, J D C; Vincent, A; David, A S

    2014-07-01

    Postictal psychosis (PIP) is a serious psychiatric complication of epilepsy that occurs in approximately 6% of patients following multiple complex partial or generalized seizures. The psychosis is classically described as having a pleomorphic phenomenology, including paranoid, grandiose, and religious delusions as well as multimodal hallucinations with prominent affective changes and agitation. Little is understood about the pathophysiology of the condition. There has been a recent increase in interest in the relevance of autoimmunity to the pathogenesis of both epilepsy and psychosis. Studies have demonstrated the presence of antibodies directed against synaptic autoantigens (such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor or the voltage-gated potassium channel complex) in approximately 10% of cases of sporadic epilepsy. These same autoantibodies are known to cause encephalopathy syndromes which feature psychiatric symptoms, usually psychosis, as a prominent part of the phenotype as well as other neurological features such as seizures, movement disorders, and autonomic dysfunction. It is beginning to be asked if these antibodies can be associated with a purely psychiatric phenotype. Here, we hypothesize that PIP may be an autoimmune phenomenon mediated by autoantibodies against synaptic antigens. More specifically, we outline a potential mechanism whereby long or repeated seizures cause short-lived blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction during which the brain becomes exposed to pathogenic autoantibodies. In essence, we propose that PIP is a time-limited, seizure-dependent, autoantibody-mediated encephalopathy syndrome. We highlight a number of features of PIP that may be explained by this mechanism, such as the lucid interval between seizures and onset of psychosis and the progression in some cases to a chronic, interictal psychosis. PMID:24840753

  4. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, “sausage-like” pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  5. Autoimmune pancreatitis: Multimodality non-invasive imaging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Crosara, Stefano; D'Onofrio, Mirko; De Robertis, Riccardo; Demozzi, Emanuele; Canestrini, Stefano; Zamboni, Giulia; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is characterized by obstructive jaundice, a dramatic clinical response to steroids and pathologically by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, with or without a pancreatic mass. Type 1 AIP is the pancreatic manifestation of an IgG4-related systemic disease and is characterized by elevated IgG4 serum levels, infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and extrapancreatic lesions. Type 2 AIP usually has none or very few IgG4-positive plasma cells, no serum IgG4 elevation and appears to be a pancreas-specific disorder without extrapancreatic involvement. AIP is diagnosed in approximately 2%-6% of patients that undergo pancreatic resection for suspected pancreatic cancer. There are three patterns of autoimmune pancreatitis: diffuse disease is the most common type, with a diffuse, "sausage-like" pancreatic enlargement with sharp margins and loss of the lobular contours; focal disease is less common and manifests as a focal mass, often within the pancreatic head, mimicking a pancreatic malignancy. Multifocal involvement can also occur. In this paper we describe the features of AIP at ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging, focusing on diagnosis and differential diagnosis with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. It is of utmost importance to make an early correct differential diagnosis between these two diseases in order to identify the optimal therapeutic strategy and to avoid unnecessary laparotomy or pancreatic resection in AIP patients. Non-invasive imaging plays also an important role in therapy monitoring, in follow-up and in early identification of disease recurrence. PMID:25493001

  6. Recommendations for the use of rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody) in the treatment of autoimmune bullous skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Hertl, Michael; Zillikens, Detlef; Borradori, Luca; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Burckhard, Harald; Eming, Rüdiger; Engert, Andreas; Goebeler, Matthias; Hofmann, Silke; Hunzelmann, Nicolas; Karlhofer, Franz; Kautz, Ocko; Lippert, Undine; Niedermeier, Andrea; Nitschke, Martin; Pfütze, Martin; Reiser, Marcel; Rose, Christian; Schmidt, Enno; Shimanovich, Iakov; Sticherling, Michael; Wolff-Franke, Sonja

    2008-05-01

    Autoimmune bullous skin disorders are induced by autoantibodies against distinct adhesion complexes of the epidermal and dermal-epidermal junction. Since most of these disorders are characterized by a severe, potentially lethal course,they require long-term immunosuppressive treatment to reduce the de novo synthesis of pathogenic autoantibodies by B lymphocytes. Rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20 on B lymphocytes, has shown promise in several case reports or cohort studies in the treatment of paraneo-plastic pemphigus,refractory cases of pemphigus vulgaris and foliaceus and in other autoimmune bullous disorders. Treatment with rituximab leads to depletion of pathogenic B-cells which may last up to 12 months resulting in a reduction of plasma cells secreting pathogenic autoantibodies. Rituximab is usually administered in an adjuvant setting at a dose of 375 mg/m(2) i.v.in weekly intervals for four consecutive weeks in addition to the standard immunosuppressive treatment. The present consensus statement of German-speaking dermatologists, rheumatologists and oncologists summarizes and evaluates the current evidence for the use and mode of application of rituximab in autoimmune bullous skin disorders. PMID:18201220

  7. Activation of Blood Coagulation in Two Prototypic Autoimmune Skin Diseases: A Possible Link with Thrombotic Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cugno, Massimo; Tedeschi, Alberto; Borghi, Alessandro; Bucciarelli, Paolo; Asero, Riccardo; Venegoni, Luigia; Griffini, Samantha; Grovetti, Elena; Berti, Emilio; Marzano, Angelo Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation activation has been demonstrated in two prototypic autoimmune skin diseases, chronic autoimmune urticaria and bullous pemphigoid, but only the latter is associated with increased thrombotic risk. Two markers of coagulation activation (prothrombin fragment F1+2 and fibrin fragment D-dimer) were measured by immunoenzymatic methods in plasma samples from 30 patients with active chronic autoimmune urticaria, positive for autologous serum skin test, 30 patients with active bullous pemphigoid and 30 healthy subjects. In skin biopsies, tissue factor expression was evaluated by both immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. F1+2 and D-dimer levels were higher in active chronic autoimmune urticaria (276.5±89.8 pmol/L and 5.56±4.40 nmol/L, respectively) than in controls (145.2±38.0 pmol/L and 1.06±0.25 nmol/L; P=0.029 and P=0.011) and were much higher in active bullous pemphigoid (691.7±318.7 pmol/L and 15.24±9.09 nmol/L, respectively) (P<0.0001). Tissue factor positivity was evident in skin biopsies of both disorders with higher intensity in bullous pemphigoid. F1+2 and D-dimer, during remission, were markedly reduced in both disorders. These findings support the involvement of coagulation activation in the pathophysiology of both diseases. The strong systemic activation of coagulation in bullous pemphigoid may contribute to increase the thrombotic risk and provides the rationale for clinical trials on anticoagulant treatments in this disease. PMID:26057532

  8. CTLA4 gene variants in autoimmunity and cancer: a comparative review.

    PubMed

    Ghaderi, Abbas

    2011-09-01

    Gene association studies are less appealing in cancer compared to autoimmune diseases. Complexity, heterogeneity, variation in histological types, age at onset, short survival, and acute versus chronic conditions are cancer related factors which are different from an organ specific autoimmune disease, such as Grave's disease, on which a large body of multicentre data is accumulated. For years the focus of attention was on diversity and polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex in respect to human diseases specially the autoimmune diseases, but in recent years, access to other human gene sequences prompted investigators to focus on genes encoding the immune regulatory proteins such as the co-stimulatory, adhesion molecules, cytokines and chemokines and their receptors. Among them, CTLA4 (CD152) has been in the centre of attention for its pivotal role in autoimmunity and cancer. Although not fully understood, CTLA4 with no doubt plays an important role in the maintenance of the immune response by its expression on activated and regulatory T cells. CTLA4 (Gene ID:1493, MIM number:123890) has many variants and polymorphic forms, some present in regulatory positions, some in 3' UTR and the most important one in the leader sequence (+49 A/G). As a pivotal regulatory element of the immune responses magnitude, CTLA4 could be considered as a two-blade knife, for which only the optimal expression ensures an effective, but at the same time, safe immune response. It can accordingly be speculated that CTLA4 alleles associated with extraordinary expression could make a person more susceptible to tumor growth and/or progression. On the other hand, alleles associated with a compromised CTLA4 expression/function may accelerate the formation and/or manifestation of inflammatory autoimmune disorder. I hypothesized a spectrum of the functional dichotomy of CTLA4 SNPs diverging from autoimmunity to cancer. To examine these hypotheses, results from previously published investigations on CTLA4 polymorphisms together with the work done by our own group are discussed in details. Because the most published data are about the polymorphism at position +49, I concentrated on this position; however the data regarding other SNPs are also included for comparison. To support the significance of CTLA4 gene variation in these two major human diseases evidences from organ transplantation are also included. As will be discussed in the manuscript, our work and reports by others from a normal population perspective support the hypothesis that individuals inheriting a GG genotype at position +49, for which lower CTLA4 expression has been extensively suggested, are more susceptible for developing autoimmune disorders and those with AA genotype, with an existence of a state of self-tolerance, may have a higher chance of developing cancer. CTLA4 SNPs may accordingly be considered as a crucial element, along with other known or yet unknown mechanisms, in keeping the immune balance in predisposed individuals to cancer and autoimmunity. Although an spectrum line can be drawn between autoimmunity and cancer by considering published data regarding CTLA4 +49 polymorphism, the extreme functional dichotomy of this SNP appears to be more complex and difficult to understand, but there is no doubt that the future investigations will resolve most ambiguities. PMID:21931200

  9. Movement disorder emergencies in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kirkham, F J; Haywood, P; Kashyape, P; Borbone, J; Lording, A; Pryde, K; Cox, M; Keslake, J; Smith, M; Cuthbertson, L; Murugan, V; Mackie, S; Thomas, N H; Whitney, A; Forrest, K M; Parker, A; Forsyth, R; Kipps, C M

    2011-09-01

    The literature on paediatric acute-onset movement disorders is scattered. In a prospective cohort of 52 children (21 male; age range 2mo-15y), the commonest were chorea, dystonia, tremor, myoclonus, and Parkinsonism in descending order of frequency. In this series of mainly previously well children with cryptogenic acute movement disorders, three groups were recognised: (1) Psychogenic disorders (n = 12), typically >10 years of age, more likely to be female and to have tremor and myoclonus (2) Inflammatory or autoimmune disorders (n = 22), including N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus, Sydenham chorea, systemic lupus erythematosus, acute necrotizing encephalopathy (which may be autosomal dominant), and other encephalitides and (3) Non-inflammatory disorders (n = 18), including drug-induced movement disorder, post-pump chorea, metabolic, e.g. glutaric aciduria, and vascular disease, e.g. moyamoya. Other important non-inflammatory movement disorders, typically seen in symptomatic children with underlying aetiologies such as trauma, severe cerebral palsy, epileptic encephalopathy, Down syndrome and Rett syndrome, include dystonic posturing secondary to gastro-oesophageal reflux (Sandifer syndrome) and Paroxysmal Autonomic Instability with Dystonia (PAID) or autonomic 'storming'. Status dystonicus may present in children with known extrapyramidal disorders, such as cerebral palsy or during changes in management e.g. introduction or withdrawal of neuroleptic drugs or failure of intrathecal baclofen infusion; the main risk in terms of mortality is renal failure from rhabdomyolysis. Although the evidence base is weak, as many of the inflammatory/autoimmune conditions are treatable with steroids, immunoglobulin, plasmapheresis, or cyclophosphamide, it is important to make an early diagnosis where possible. Outcome in survivors is variable. Using illustrative case histories, this review draws attention to the practical difficulties in diagnosis and management of this important group of patients. PMID:21835657

  10. [Autoimmune fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Itoh, Y; Igarashi, T; Tatsuma, N; Imai, T; Yoshida, J; Tsuchiya, M; Murakami, M; Fukunaga, Y

    1999-08-01

    We have encounted two patients with fibromyalgia (FM) initially diagnosed as having autoimmune fatigue syndrome (AIFS). To investigate the relationship between AIFS and FM, the distribution of the tender points in patients with AIFS was assessed according to the ACR criteria for FM. It was revealed that AIFS patients had 5.6 tender points on averages. Patients with headaches, digestive problems, or difficulty going to school had more tender points than patients without. Patients with ANA titers < 1: 160 had more tender points than patients with ANA > or = 1: 160. Anti-Sa negative patients had more tender points than positive patients. These results suggest a relationship between AIFS and FM in terms of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the numerous tender points. In other words, ANA-positive FM patients could be one form of AIFS, as well as ANA-positive chronic fatigue syndrome patients. Thus, autoimmunity could explain the controversial disease entities of FM and/or CFS. PMID:10466339

  11. Th17 cells in autoimmune demyelinating disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Recently published studies in multiple sclerosis (MS) and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have demonstrated an association between the development of demyelinating plaques and the accumulation of Th17 cells in the central nervous system and periphery. However, a causal relationship has been difficult to establish. In fact, in reports published thus far, interleukin (IL)-17A deficiency or neutralization in vivo attenuates, but does not completely abrogate, EAE. There is growing evidence that clinically similar forms of autoimmune demyelinating disease can be driven by myelin-specific T cells of distinct lineages with different degrees of dependence on IL-17A production to achieve their pathological effects. While such observations cast doubts about the potential therapeutic efficacy of Th17 blocking agents in MS, the collective data suggest that IL-17A expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells could serve as a surrogate biomarker of neuroinflammation and plaque formation and be a useful outcome measure for future clinical trials. PMID:20195867

  12. Regulatory T cells in autoimmune Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Hafler, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Regulatory T cells are the central element for the maintenance of peripheral tolerance. Several subtypes of regulatory T (Treg) cells have been described, and most of them belong to the CD4+ T-helper (Th) cell lineage. These specific subtypes can be discriminated according to phenotype and function. Forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)-expressing natural Treg cells (Tregs) and IL-10-producing, T-regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1) are the best-studied types of CD4+ regulatory T cells in humans and experimental animal models. It was shown that they play a crucial role during autoimmune neuroinflammation. Both cells types seem to be in particular important for multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we discuss the role of CD4+ regulatory T cells in autoimmune neuroinflammation with an emphasis on Tregs and Tr1 cells in MS. PMID:24712469

  13. Total lymphoid irradiation in alloimmunity and autoimmunity

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.

    1987-12-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation has been used as an immunosuppressive regimen in autoimmune disease and organ transplantation. The rationale for its use originated from studies of patients with Hodgkin disease, in whom this radiotherapy regimen was noted to induce profound and long-lasting immune suppression and yet was well tolerated, with few long-term side effects. Total lymphoid irradiation is a unique immunosuppressive regimen that produces a selective (and long-lasting) reduction in the number and function of helper T cells and certain subsets of B cells. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs show little selectivity, and their effects are short-lived. The most important aspect of total lymphoid irradiation is the potential for achieving transplantation tolerance and permanent remissions in autoimmune disease in laboratory animals. Attempts are being made to achieve similar goals in humans given total lymphoid irradiation, so that immunosuppressive drugs can be ultimately withdrawn from transplant recipients and patients with lupus nephritis. 28 references.

  14. Role of Microglia in CNS Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Prinz, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in the Western world. The disease is characterized histologically by the infiltration of encephalitogenic TH1/TH17-polarized CD4+ T cells, B cells, and a plethora of myeloid cells, resulting in severe demyelination ultimately leading to a degeneration of neuronal structures. These pathological processes are substantially modulated by microglia, the resident immune competent cells of the CNS. In this overview, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the highly diverse and complex function of microglia during CNS autoimmunity in either promoting tissue injury or tissue repair. Hence, understanding microglia involvement in MS offers new exciting paths for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23840238

  15. Dominant Mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator AIRE Are Associated with Common Organ-Specific Autoimmune Diseases.

    PubMed

    Oftedal, Bergithe E; Hellesen, Alexander; Erichsen, Martina M; Bratland, Eirik; Vardi, Ayelet; Perheentupa, Jaakko; Kemp, E Helen; Fiskerstrand, Torunn; Viken, Marte K; Weetman, Anthony P; Fleishman, Sarel J; Banka, Siddharth; Newman, William G; Sewell, W A C; Sozaeva, Leila S; Zayats, Tetyana; Haugarvoll, Kristoffer; Orlova, Elizaveta M; Haavik, Jan; Johansson, Stefan; Knappskog, Per M; Lřvĺs, Kristian; Wolff, Anette S B; Abramson, Jakub; Husebye, Eystein S

    2015-06-16

    The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene is crucial for establishing central immunological tolerance and preventing autoimmunity. Mutations in AIRE cause a rare autosomal-recessive disease, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS-1), distinguished by multi-organ autoimmunity. We have identified multiple cases and families with mono-allelic mutations in the first plant homeodomain (PHD1) zinc finger of AIRE that followed dominant inheritance, typically characterized by later onset, milder phenotypes, and reduced penetrance compared to classical APS-1. These missense PHD1 mutations suppressed gene expression driven by wild-type AIRE in a dominant-negative manner, unlike CARD or truncated AIRE mutants that lacked such dominant capacity. Exome array analysis revealed that the PHD1 dominant mutants were found with relatively high frequency (>0.0008) in mixed populations. Our results provide insight into the molecular action of AIRE and demonstrate that disease-causing mutations in the AIRE locus are more common than previously appreciated and cause more variable autoimmune phenotypes. PMID:26084028

  16. Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ram Maya; M. Eric Gershwin; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2008-01-01

    The etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases have long been an enigmatic subject that have involved genetic and environmental\\u000a factors. Recent intriguing data has contributed to the mechanisms involved, including the relationship of infectious agents\\u000a and loss of tolerance. This loss of tolerance is illustrated by the data on the immune response to Hepatitis B virus such\\u000a as the molecular

  17. Celiac disease-associated autoimmune cholangitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert E. Sedlack; Thomas C. Smyrk; Albert J. Czaja; Jayant A. Talwalkar

    2002-01-01

    There is an association between celiac disease (CD) and primary biliary cirrhosis, but there is little information regarding the association between CD and autoimmune cholangitis (antimitochondrial antibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis). We describe a case of a 60-yr-old woman with chronic serum liver biochemistry elevations, recent onset of pruritus, and unexplained iron deficiency anemia. Liver biopsy was suggestive of stage 1

  18. Oral Tolerance: Therapeutic Implications for Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Ana M. C.; Weiner, Howard L.

    2006-01-01

    Oral tolerance is classically defined as the suppression of immune responses to antigens (Ag) that have been administered previously by the oral route. Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral Ag. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral Ag induces Th2 (IL-4/IL-10) and Th3 (TGF-?) regulatory T cells (Tregs) plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and LAP+T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-?, cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), Flt-3 ligand, anti-CD40 ligand and continuous feeding of Ag. In addition to oral tolerance, nasal tolerance has also been shown to be effective in suppressing inflammatory conditions with the advantage of a lower dose requirement. Oral and nasal tolerance suppress several animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis and diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, colitis and stroke. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including MS, arthritis, uveitis and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to DNCB, nickel allergy. Positive results have been observed in phase II trials and new trials for arthritis, MS and diabetes are underway. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time and Ag-specific mechanism of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy and early therapy. PMID:17162357

  19. Mycobacterium Tuberculosis, Autoimmunity, and Vitamin D

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yinon Shapira; Nancy Agmon-Levin; Yehuda Shoenfeld

    2010-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Current anti-TB chemotherapies, although effective, are associated\\u000a with side effects and are limited in treating drug-resistant strands. Autoimmune diseases are a leading cause of morbidity\\u000a and mortality, with a growing mass of evidence implicating infections (e.g., TB) as their triggers. The burden of TB might\\u000a further increase by

  20. Avian models with spontaneous autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wick, Georg; Andersson, Leif; Hala, Karel; Gershwin, M. Eric; Selmi, Carlo F.; Erf, Gisela F.; Lamont, Susan J.; Sgonc, Roswitha

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases in human patients only become clinically manifest when the disease process has developed to a stage where functional compensation by the afflicted organ or system is not possible any more. In order to understand the initial etiologic and pathogenic events that are generally not yet accessible in humans, appropriate animal models are required. In this respect, spontaneously developing models - albeit rare – reflect the situation in humans much more closely than experimentally induced models, including knockout and transgenic mice. The present review describes three spontaneous chicken models for human autoimmune diseases, the Obese strain (OS) with a Hashimoto-like autoimmune thyroiditis, the University of California at Davis lines 200 and 206 (UCD-200 and 206) with a scleroderma-like disease and the amelanotic Smyth line with a vitiligo-like syndrome (SLV). Special emphasis is given to the new opportunities to unravel the genetic basis of these diseases in view of the recently completed sequencing of the chicken genome. PMID:17145302

  1. Oxygen free radicals and systemic autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ahsan, H; Ali, A; Ali, R

    2003-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species generated during various metabolic and biochemical reactions have multifarious effects that include oxidative damage to DNA leading to various human degenerative and autoimmune diseases. The highly reactive hydroxy radical (·OH) can interact with chromatin and result in a wide range of sugar and base-derived products, DNA–protein cross-links and strand breaks. Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that after modification the DNA becomes highly immunogenic and the induced antibodies exhibit variable antigen-binding characteristics. Systemic lupus erythematosus, a prototype autoimmune disease, is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies to multiple nuclear antigens. The detection of 8-hydroxyguanosine in the immune complex derived DNA of systemic lupus erythematosus patients reinforces the evidence that reactive oxygen species may be involved in its pathogenesis. Increased apoptosis and decreased clearance of apoptotic cells as observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) might well be a contributory factor in systemic autoimmunity. Clinically, titres of autoantibodies are closely related to the degree of renal inflammation. Anti-DNA antibodies may combine with circulating antigen and contribute to the deposition of immune complexes in renal glomeruli. PMID:12605691

  2. Autoimmune cholangitis in a patient with thymoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jang-Ha; Kim, Byung-Ho; Kim, Youn-Wha; Park, Joo-Cheol; Jung, Yong Hee; Lee, Byoung Ook; Han, Yo Seb; Dong, Seok Ho; Kim, Hyo Jong; Chang, Young-Woon; Lee, Joung Il; Chang, Rin

    2004-11-01

    Autoimmune cholangitis is characterized biochemically by chronic cholestasis and histopathologically by chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis. It is associated with positive antinuclear antibody test and negative antimitochondrial antibody test results. Recently, we experienced a case of a 35-year-old woman with autoimmune cholangitis associated with thymoma who presented with pruritus, jaundice, chronic fatigue and anterior chest discomfort. Her laboratory examinations revealed marked increases in levels of serum alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. In serological tests, antinuclear antibody was found, but antimitochondrial antibody was not. Liver biopsy findings were compatible with chronic non-suppurative destructive cholangitis. On computed tomography (CT) of the chest, a large anterior mediastinal mass was found. The mass was totally resected and the patient was treated with ursodeoxy cholic acid. Thereafter, her clinical symptoms improved and liver functions completely returned to the normal range. We describe here an uncommon association of autoimmune cholangitis with thymoma, which has not been reported previously in the English-written literature. PMID:15482546

  3. Targeting the Fc receptor in autoimmune disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinrui; Kimberly, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Fc receptors and their interaction with immunoglobulin and innate immune opsonins such as CRP are key players in humoral and cellular immune responses. As the effector mechanism for some therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and often a contributor to the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmunity, FcRs are promising targets for treating autoimmune diseases. Areas covered This review discusses the nature of different Fc receptors and the various mechanisms of their involvement in initiating and modulating immunocyte functions and their biological consequences. It describes a range of current strategies in targeting Fc receptors and manipulating their interaction with specific ligands while presenting the pros and cons of these approaches. This review also discusses potential new strategies including regulation of FcR expression and receptor cross-talk. Expert opinion Fc receptors are appealing targets in the treatment of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. However, there are still knowledge limitations and technical challenges, the most important being a better understanding of the individual roles of each of the Fc receptors and enhancement of the specificity in targeting particular cell types and specific Fc receptors. PMID:24521454

  4. No Evidence of Autoimmunity in 6YearOld Children Immunized at Birth With Recombinant Hepatitis B Vaccine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cesare Belloni; Maria A. Avanzini; Annalisa De Silvestri; Miryam Martinetti; Annamaria Pasi; Eliana Coslovich; Michele Autelli; Maria L. Masanti

    ABSTRACT. Objectives. Taking into account that ge- netic predisposition, marked by human leukocyte anti- gen (HLA) class I and II genes, augments the probability of developing an autoimmune disorder after a triggering vaccination, as largely debated, we investigated the fre- quency of autoantibody production after recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (rHBv) in 6-year-old children immu- nized at birth to evaluate an

  5. Hépatite auto-immune chez une patiente co-infectée VIH-VHC : difficultés diagnostiques et thérapeutiques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Cazanave; S. Rakotondravelo; P. Morlat; P. Blanco; F. Bonnet; J. Beylot

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. – Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory hepatic disorder, characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia and autoantibodies. In some cases, AIH can be associated with another liver disease; such as the hepatitis C–AIH overlap syndrome, which diagnosis and treatment may be delicate.Exegese. – We report a type 1 AIH case in a HIV–HCV co-infected woman. AIH remission and HCV eradication were

  6. Immunoglobulines intraveineuses dans les maladies auto-immunes et inflammatoires : au-delŕ d’une simple substitution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Galeotti; M. S. Maddur; M.-D. Kazatchkine; L. Mouthon; S.-V. Kaveri

    2009-01-01

    Despite their widespread use since many years in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, the mechanisms of action of IVIg have not been completely understood. These mechanisms depend on Fc and\\/or F(ab’)2. IVIg interacts with the different components of the immune system: Fc receptors, complement, cytokines, T and B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, granulocytes and NK cells. Here, we discuss the recent advances

  7. Virus-driven autoimmunity and lymphoproliferation: the example of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Zignego, Anna Linda; Gragnani, Laura; Piluso, Alessia; Sebastiani, Marco; Giuggioli, Dilia; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Ferri, Clodoveo

    2015-01-01

    HCV chronic infection is characterized by possible development of both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. The infection by this both hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus is responsible for polyoligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, leading to several immune-mediated disorders. Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome that in some cases may evolve to frank B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the prototype of HCV-driven autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders. The HCV oncogenic potential has been suggested by several clinicoepidemiological and laboratory studies; it includes hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and papillary thyroid cancer. The definition HCV syndrome refers to the complex of HCV-driven diseases; these latter are characterized by heterogeneous geographical distribution, suggesting a role of other important genetic and/or environmental cofactors. The natural history of HCV syndrome is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process, which may evolve from mild manifestations to systemic autoimmune disorders, and less frequently to malignant neoplasias. The present updated review analyzes the clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the main HCV-associated diseases. PMID:25534977

  8. Open questions in autoimmunity: discussions from the 2013 Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Meeting

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The recent CORA (Controversies in Rheumatology and Autoimmunity) meeting held in 2013 represented a unique opportunity for rheumatologists to address several topics. Among these, four topics include: (i) the role of epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as shown by studies in monozygotic twins; (ii) the cardiovascular and atherosclerotic risk in patients with RA treated with biologics; (iii) the use of new biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of RA and other autoimmune diseases, as represented by the new automatic machines for anti-nuclear antibodies detection, or ultrasound imaging to follow RA progression; and (iv) the latest guidelines on how to use and manage biologic therapies in RA and other autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. In summary, we will herein present these topics of discussion and underline the conclusions obtained by rheumatologists during the 2013 CORA Meeting. PMID:24642104

  9. Autoimmune pancreatitis: pathogenesis, latest developments and clinical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Kazushige; Sumimoto, Kimi; Mitsuyama, Toshiyuki; Ikeura, Tsukasa; Takaoka, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, autoimmune pancreatitis has been classified into two subtypes. Type 1 is related to immunoglobulin G4 and type 2 is related to granulocytic epithelial lesions, but pathogenetic mechanisms in both still remain unclear. Apart from type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis, the pathological features of type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis with increased serum immunoglobulin G4/immunoglobulin E levels, abundant infiltration of immunoglobulin G4+plasmacytes and lymphocytes, fibrosis, and steroid responsiveness are suggestive of abnormal immunity such as allergy or autoimmunity. Although pathophysiological conditions seem to be different in each, both respond well to steroid drugs. After remission, the patients with type 1 autoimmune pancreatitis show high relapse rates (30–50% within 6–12 months), whereas those with type 2 autoimmune pancreatitis seldom relapse. After remission, the steroid maintenance therapy and therapeutic strategy for relapsing patients with type 1 is different among local expertise. In this paper, recent advances in pathogenesis and clinical guidance for therapy are discussed. PMID:24790726

  10. Regulation of IL-17 in atherosclerosis and related autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Heeju; Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-08-01

    Patients with systemic autoimmune diseases exhibit a higher incidence of atherosclerosis. Conversely, hyperlipidemia has been known to accelerate autoimmune diseases in humans as well as in experimental animal. How atherosclerosis impacts autoimmunity remains poorly understood. Importantly, recent studies showed that several pro-atherogenic factors including cholesterol, oxidized low-density lipoprotein and fatty acids regulate the production of IL-17 and IL-17-promoting cytokines from innate and adaptive immune cells. Given that IL-17 is associated with a number of autoimmune diseases in humans, dissecting the mechanisms beyond the mutual regulation of pro-atherogenic factors and IL-17 might provide a novel pathophysiology between atherosclerosis and autoimmune diseases. In this review, we discuss our current understanding related to the role of pro-atherogenic factors in IL-17 production and autoimmune diseases. PMID:25890878

  11. Imaging of Focal Autoimmune Pancreatitis and Differentiating It from Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is an inflammatory disorder of pancreas. Two types have been identified: the diffuse and the focal or mass forming. Clinical presentation of AIP overlaps that of pancreatic cancer (PC). Sometimes serum IgG4 and CA 19-9 levels are unable to differentiate AIP from PC. Various series have shown that 5%–21% of resected pancreatic masses for suspected malignancy turned out to be AIP. Accurate diagnosis of focal AIP can avoid unnecessary surgeries. This paper elaborates the various imaging modalities useful in differentiating focal AIP from PC. PMID:24967284

  12. Deimination of linker histones links neutrophil extracellular trap release with autoantibodies in systemic autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Nishant; Neeli, Indira; Schall, Nicolas; Wan, Haibao; Desiderio, Dominic M; Csernok, Elena; Thompson, Paul R; Dali, Hayet; Briand, Jean-Paul; Muller, Sylviane; Radic, Marko

    2014-07-01

    Autoantibodies to nuclear antigens arise in human autoimmune diseases, but a unifying pathogenetic mechanism remains elusive. Recently we reported that exposure of neutrophils to inflammatory conditions induces the citrullination of core histones by peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) and that patients with autoimmune disorders produce autoantibodies that recognize such citrullinated histones. Here we identify histone H1 as an additional substrate of PAD4, localize H1 within neutrophil extracellular traps, and detect autoantibodies to citrullinated H1 in 6% of sera from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. No preference for deiminated H1 was observed in healthy control sera and sera from patients with scleroderma or rheumatoid arthritis. We map binding to the winged helix of H1 and determine that citrulline 53 represents a key determinant of the autoantibody epitope. In addition, we quantitate RNA for H1 histone subtypes in mature human neutrophils and identify citrulline residues by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Our results indicate that deimination of linker histones generates new autoantibody epitopes with enhanced potential for stimulating autoreactive human B cells.-Dwivedi, N., Neeli, I., Schall, N., Wan, H., Desiderio, D. M., Csernok, E., Thompson, P. R., Dali, H., Briand, J.-P., Muller, S., Radic, M. Deimination of linker histones links neutrophil extracellular trap release with autoantibodies in systemic autoimmunity. PMID:24671707

  13. Autoimmune manifestations in SCID due to IL7R mutations: Omenn syndrome and cytopenias.

    PubMed

    Zago, Claudia Augusta; Jacob, Cristina Miuki Abe; de Albuquerque Diniz, Edna Maria; Lovisolo, Silvana Maria; Zerbini, Maria Claudia Nogueira; Dorna, Mayra; Watanabe, Letícia; Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Rocha, Vanderson; Oliveira, Joăo Bosco; Carneiro-Sampaio, Magda

    2014-07-01

    B+NK+SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) due to IL7R? deficiency represents approximately 10% of American SCID cases. To better understand the spectrum of autoimmune disorders associated with IL7R? deficiency, we describe two unrelated IL7R?-deficient female SCID infants whose clinical picture was dominated by autoimmune manifestations: one with intrauterine Omenn syndrome (OS) and another with persistent thrombocytopenic purpura since 4months of age. The OS baby harbored a homozygous p.C118Y mutation in IL7R. She presented dense eosinophilic infiltrates in several organs, including pancarditis, which may have contributed to her death (on the 2nd day of life). B cells were observed in lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and thymus. The second patient harbored compound heterozygous p.C118Y and p.I121NfsX8 mutations. She underwent a successful unrelated cord blood transplant. In conclusion, early OS can be observed in patients with IL7R mutations, and autoimmune cytopenias could also complicate the clinical course of SCID babies with this type of defect. PMID:24759676

  14. Iodine Excess as an Environmental Risk Factor for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuqian; Kawashima, Akira; Ishido, Yuko; Yoshihara, Aya; Oda, Kenzaburo; Hiroi, Naoki; Ito, Tetsuhide; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The global effort to prevent iodine deficiency disorders through iodine supplementation, such as universal salt iodization, has achieved impressive progress during the last few decades. However, iodine excess, due to extensive environmental iodine exposure in addition to poor monitoring, is currently a more frequent occurrence than iodine deficiency. Iodine excess is a precipitating environmental factor in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. Excessive amounts of iodide have been linked to the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in humans and animals, while intrathyroidal depletion of iodine prevents disease in animal strains susceptible to severe thyroiditis. Although the mechanisms by which iodide induces thyroiditis are still unclear, several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) excess iodine induces the production of cytokines and chemokines that can recruit immunocompetent cells to the thyroid; (2) processing excess iodine in thyroid epithelial cells may result in elevated levels of oxidative stress, leading to harmful lipid oxidation and thyroid tissue injuries; and (3) iodine incorporation in the protein chain of thyroglobulin may augment the antigenicity of this molecule. This review will summarize the current knowledge regarding excess iodide as an environmental toxicant and relate it to the development of autoimmune thyroid disease. PMID:25050783

  15. APO-1/Fas gene: Structural and functional characteristics in systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Pradhan, Vandana; Patwardhan, Manisha; Ghosh, K

    2009-09-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder affecting multiple organ systems. It is characterized by the presence of autoantibodies reactive against various self-antigens. Susceptibility to SLE is found to be associated with many major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC genes, one of which is APO-1/Fas gene, which is present on chromosome 10 in humans. The APO-1/Fas promoter contains consensus sequences for binding of several transcription factors that affect the intensity of Fas expression in cells. The mutations in the APO-1/Fas promoter are associated with risk and severity in various autoimmune diseases and other malignancies. The APO-1/Fas receptor is expressed by many cell types. Two forms of APO-1/Fas protein that are involved in regulation of apoptosis have been identified. Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis plays a physiological and pathological role in killing of infected cell targets. In this review, we have focused on APO-1/Fas gene structure, promoter variants and its association with SLE and other autoimmune diseases. Functional aspects of Fas receptor in apoptosis are also discussed. PMID:21088713

  16. MicroRNA-155 promotes autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Ryan M; Kahn, Daniel; Gibson, William S J; Round, June L; Scholz, Rebecca L; Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Kahn, Melissa E; Rao, Dinesh S; Baltimore, David

    2010-10-29

    Mammalian noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of gene regulators that have been linked to immune system function. Here, we have investigated the role of miR-155 during an autoimmune inflammatory disease. Consistent with a positive role for miR-155 in mediating inflammatory responses, Mir155(-/-) mice were highly resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). miR-155 functions in the hematopoietic compartment to promote the development of inflammatory T cells including the T helper 17 (Th17) cell and Th1 cell subsets. Furthermore, the major contribution of miR-155 to EAE was CD4(+) T cell intrinsic, whereas miR-155 was also required for optimum dendritic cell production of cytokines that promoted Th17 cell formation. Our study shows that one aspect of miR-155 function is the promotion of T cell-dependent tissue inflammation, suggesting that miR-155 might be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:20888269

  17. Clustering of distinct autoimmune diseases associated with functional abnormalities of T cell survival in children

    PubMed Central

    Pignata, C; Alessio, M; Ramenghi, U; Bonissoni, S; Difranco, D; Brusco, A; Matrecano, E; Franzese, A; Dianzani, I; Dianzani, U

    2000-01-01

    To ascertain whether alterations of lymphocyte switching off may be associated with clustering of autoimmune diseases in children, Fas- and C2-ceramide-induced cell death was evaluated on T cell lines derived from three patients affected by clustering of autoimmune disorders. Three patterns were found: patient 3 was resistant to Fas- and C2-ceramide, patient 1 was resistant to Fas, but sensitive to C2-ceramide, patient 2 was resistant to C2-ceramide, but sensitive to Fas. By contrast, Fas- and C2-ceramide-induced cell death was normal in five children with systemic juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, five children with insulin-dependent diabetes and 10 age-matched healthy controls. Surface expression of Fas was low in patient 1, but normal in patients 2 and 3. Together with normal Fas transcripts, patients 2 and 3 displayed a transcript 152 bp longer than the normal one retaining intron 5. Our data indicate that polyreactive autoimmune syndromes may be associated with heterogeneous alteration of the immune response switching-off system. PMID:10886239

  18. MicroRNA-155 promotes autoimmune inflammation by enhancing inflammatory T cell development

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Ryan M.; Kahn, Daniel; Gibson, William S.J.; Round, June L.; Scholz, Rebecca L.; Chaudhuri, Aadel A.; Kahn, Melissa E.; Rao, Dinesh S.; Baltimore, David

    2010-01-01

    Summary Mammalian non-coding micro RNAs (miRNAs) are a class of gene regulators that have been linked to immune system function. Here, we have investigated the role of miR-155 during an autoimmune inflammatory disease. Consistent with a positive role for miR-155 in mediating inflammatory responses, Mir155?/? mice were highly resistant to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). miR-155 functions in the hematopoietic compartment to promote the development of inflammatory T cells including the T helper 17 (Th17) cell and Th1 cell subsets. Furthermore, the major contribution of miR-155 to EAE was CD4+ T cell intrinsic, whereas miR-155 was also required for optimum dendritic cell production of cytokines that promoted Th17 cell formation. Our study shows that one aspect of miR-155 function is the promotion of T cell-dependent tissue inflammation, suggesting that miR-155 might be a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of autoimmune disorders. PMID:20888269

  19. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Google+ LinkedIn Merck Manuals Consumer Version Blood Disorders White Blood Cell Disorders Eosinophilic Disorders Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome Resources In This Article Drugs Mentioned In This ...

  20. Non-myeloablative stem cell transplantation for autoimmune diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard K. Burt; Larissa Verda; Yu Oyama; Laisvyde Statkute; Shimon Slavin

    2004-01-01

    Treatment of life-threatening autoimmune diseases in animal models with induced or spontaneous autoimmune diseases can be accomplished by a 2-step procedure involving elimination of self-reactive lymphocytes with an immune ablative conditioning regimen followed by infusion of autologous or allogeneic stem cells, respectively. In animal models it was shown that using such a strategy, autoimmunity could be adequately controlled. It is

  1. Role of Osteopontin in Calcification in Autoimmune Pancreatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroki Takada; Takahiro Nakazawa; Hirotaka Ohara; Tomoaki Ando; Kazuki Hayashi; Itaru Naito; Fumihiro Okumura; Hajime Tanaka; Tamaki Yamada; Satoru Takahashi; Takashi Joh

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the potential for pancreatic calcification in autoimmune pancreatitis by investigating\\u000a osteopontin and CD44 expression. Methods Human pancreatic tissues in normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and autoimmune pancreatitis were obtained from the surgical\\u000a specimens of 42 patients. Pancreatic tissues from male Wistar Bonn\\/Kobori rats were also used as an animal autoimmune pancreatitis

  2. Treatment of autoimmune liver disease: current and future therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Palak J.

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease spans three predominant processes, from the interface hepatitis of autoimmune hepatitis to the lymphocytic cholangitis of primary biliary cirrhosis, and finally the obstructive fibrosing sclerotic cholangiopathy of primary sclerosing cholangitis. Although all autoimmune in origin, they differ in their epidemiology, presentation and response to immunosuppressive therapy and bile acid based treatments. With an ongoing better appreciation of disease aetiology and pathogenesis, treatment is set ultimately to become more rational. We provide an overview of current and future therapies for patients with autoimmune liver disease, with an emphasis placed on some of the evidence that drives current practice. PMID:23634279

  3. [Vaccines and autoimmunity: a strange association under debate].

    PubMed

    Batista-Duharte, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The occurrence and significance of autoimmune manifestations after administration of vaccines remain controversial. Evidence for immunization triggered autoimmunity come from several sources including theoretical models, animal studies, single and multiple case reports. In contrast, several epidemiological studies don't report this association, which is reassuring and at least indicates that vaccines are not a major cause of autoimmune diseases. We analyzed current scientific data concluded that vaccines bring a positive impact on public health, so it is necessary to continue developing this technology. Evaluation methods should be improved to avoid or anticipate the possible autoimmune side effects that can be presented. PMID:22858777

  4. Is preclinical autoimmunity benign?: The case of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Majka, Darcy S; Chang, Rowland W

    2014-11-01

    Although there are many examples of autoantibodies in disease-free individuals, they can be a preclinical phenomenon heralding future autoimmune rheumatic disease. They may be a marker for autoreactive B-cell activation and other inflammatory autoimmune processes. The increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, and the increased risk of CVD in patients with rheumatic disease with autoantibodies, suggest that CVD may have autoimmune features. Autoantibodies might be risk markers for subclinical and clinical CVD development not only in patients with rheumatic diseases but in the general population as well. PMID:25437283

  5. Epigenetics of Autoantigens: New Opportunities for Therapy of Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Marko; Muller, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    The field of epigenetics requires that traditional divisions between scientific disciplines give way to cross-fertilization of concepts and ideas from different areas of investigation. Such is the case with research in autoimmunity. Recent discoveries of stimuli that induce autoimmunity reveal that epigenetic marks of autoantigens are recognized by autoreactive B and T cell receptors. Thus, insights into the initiation of autoimmunity, its prevention and therapy will arise from understanding the biochemistry, cell biology and microbiology of autoantigen epigenetics. Here, we highlight potential benefits from the inhibition of a histone modifying enzyme and the administration of a phosphorylated, spliceosome-derived peptide, in the treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:25512708

  6. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-01-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  7. Autoimmune effector memory T cells: the bad and the good.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Priyadharshini; Chen, Zhibin

    2013-12-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity, a defense mechanism endowed to vertebrates during evolution. However, an autoimmune pathogenic role of memory lymphocytes is also emerging with accumulating evidence, despite reasonable skepticism on their existence in a chronic setting of autoimmune damage. It is conceivable that autoimmune memory would be particularly harmful since memory cells would constantly "remember" and attack the body's healthy tissues. It is even more detrimental given the resistance of memory T cells to immunomodulatory therapies. In this review, we focus on self-antigen-reactive CD(+) effector memory T (TEM) cells, surveying the evidence for the role of the T(EM) compartment in autoimmune pathogenesis. We will also discuss the role of T(EM) cells in chronic and acute infectious disease settings and how they compare to their counterparts in autoimmune diseases. With their long-lasting potency, the autoimmune T(EM) cells could also play a critical role in anti-tumor immunity, which may be largely based on their reactivity to self-antigens. Therefore, although autoimmune T(EM) cells are "bad" due to their role in relentless perpetration of tissue damage in autoimmune disease settings, they are unlikely a by-product of industrial development along the modern surge of autoimmune disease prevalence. Rather, they may be a product of evolution for their "good" in clearing damaged host cells in chronic infections and malignant cells in cancer settings. PMID:24203440

  8. Ovarian autoimmune disease: clinical concepts and animal models.

    PubMed

    Warren, Bryce D; Kinsey, William K; McGinnis, Lynda K; Christenson, Lane K; Jasti, Susmita; Stevens, Anne M; Petroff, Brian K; Petroff, Margaret G

    2014-11-01

    The ovary is not an immunologically privileged organ, but a breakdown in tolerogenic mechanisms for ovary-specific antigens has disastrous consequences on fertility in women, and this is replicated in murine models of autoimmune disease. Isolated ovarian autoimmune disease is rare in women, likely due to the severity of the disease and the inability to transmit genetic information conferring the ovarian disease across generations. Nonetheless, autoimmune oophoritis is often observed in association with other autoimmune diseases, particularly autoimmune adrenal disease, and takes a toll on both society and individual health. Studies in mice have revealed at least two mechanisms that protect the ovary from autoimmune attack. These mechanisms include control of autoreactive T cells by thymus-derived regulatory T cells, as well as a role for the autoimmune regulator (AIRE), a transcriptional regulator that induces expression of tissue-restricted antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells during development of T cells. Although the latter mechanism is incompletely defined, it is well established that failure of either results in autoimmune-mediated targeting and depletion of ovarian follicles. In this review, we will address the clinical features and consequences of autoimmune-mediated ovarian infertility in women, as well as the possible mechanisms of disease as revealed by animal models. PMID:25327908

  9. Primary Immunodeficiencies Unravel Critical Aspects of the Pathophysiology of Autoimmunity and of the Genetics of Autoimmune Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Coutinho; Magda Carneiro-Sampaio

    2008-01-01

    Background  Primary Immunodeficiencies (PIDs) represent unique opportunities to understand the operation of the human immune system. Accordingly,\\u000a PIDs associated with autoimmune manifestations provide insights into the pathophysiology of autoimmunity as well as into the\\u000a genetics of autoimmune diseases (AID). Epidemiological data show that there are PIDs systematically associated with AID, such\\u000a as immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX), Omenn syndrome,

  10. Utility and safety of rituximab in pediatric autoimmune and inflammatory CNS disease

    PubMed Central

    Brilot, Fabienne; Duffy, Lisa V.; Twilt, Marinka; Waldman, Amy T.; Narula, Sona; Muscal, Eyal; Deiva, Kumaran; Andersen, Erik; Eyre, Michael R.; Eleftheriou, Despina; Brogan, Paul A.; Kneen, Rachel; Alper, Gulay; Anlar, Banu; Wassmer, Evangeline; Heineman, Kirsten; Hemingway, Cheryl; Riney, Catherine J.; Kornberg, Andrew; Tardieu, Marc; Stocco, Amber; Banwell, Brenda; Gorman, Mark P.; Benseler, Susanne M.; Lim, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the utility and safety of rituximab in pediatric autoimmune and inflammatory disorders of the CNS. Methods: Multicenter retrospective study. Results: A total of 144 children and adolescents (median age 8 years, range 0.7–17; 103 female) with NMDA receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis (n = 39), opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (n = 32), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (n = 20), neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 18), and other neuroinflammatory disorders (n = 35) were studied. Rituximab was given after a median duration of disease of 0.5 years (range 0.05–9.5 years). Infusion adverse events were recorded in 18/144 (12.5%), including grade 4 (anaphylaxis) in 3. Eleven patients (7.6%) had an infectious adverse event (AE), including 2 with grade 5 (death) and 2 with grade 4 (disabling) infectious AE (median follow-up of 1.65 years [range 0.1–8.5]). No patients developed progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. A definite, probable, or possible benefit was reported in 125 of 144 (87%) patients. A total of 17.4% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 at rituximab initiation, compared to 73.9% at outcome. The change in mRS 0–2 was greater in patients given rituximab early in their disease course compared to those treated later. Conclusion: While limited by the retrospective nature of this analysis, our data support an off-label use of rituximab, although the significant risk of infectious complications suggests rituximab should be restricted to disorders with significant morbidity and mortality. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that in pediatric autoimmune and inflammatory CNS disorders, rituximab improves neurologic outcomes with a 7.6% risk of adverse infections. PMID:24920861

  11. Exome Analysis of Patients with Concurrent Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Autoimmune Disease

    PubMed Central

    Andreoletti, Gaia; Ashton, James J.; Coelho, Tracy; Willis, Claire; Haggarty, Rachel; Gibson, Jane; Holloway, John; Batra, Akshay; Afzal, Nadeem A.; Beattie, Robert Mark

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease (PIBD) is a chronic condition seen in genetically predisposed individuals. Genome-wide association studies have implicated >160 genomic loci in IBD with many genes coding for proteins in key immune pathways. This study looks at autoimmune disease burden in patients diagnosed with PIBD and interrogates exome data of a subset of patients. Methods: Patients were recruited from the Southampton Genetics of PIBD cohort. Clinical diagnosis of autoimmune disease in these individuals was ascertained from medical records. For a subset of patients with PIBD and concurrent asthma, exome data was interrogated to ascertain the burden of pathogenic variants within genes implicated in asthma. Association testing was conducted between cases and population controls using the SKAT-O test. Results: Forty-nine (28.3%) PIBD children (18.49% CD, 8.6% UC, and 21.15% IBDU patients) had a concurrent clinical diagnosis of at least one other autoimmune disorder; asthma was the most prevalent, affecting 16.2% of the PIBD cohort. Rare and common variant association testing revealed 6 significant genes (P < 0.05) before Bonferroni adjustment. Three of these genes were previously implicated in both asthma and IBD (ZPBP2 IL1R1, and IL18R1) and 3 in asthma only (PYHIN1, IL2RB, and GSTP1). Conclusions: One-third of our cohort had a concurrent autoimmune condition. We observed higher incidence of asthma compared with the overall pediatric prevalence. Despite a small sample size, SKAT-O evaluated a significant burden of rare and common mutations in 6 genes. Variant burden suggests that a systemic immune dysregulation rather than organ-specific could underpin immune dysfunction for a subset of patients. PMID:25895113

  12. Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Induction of cardiac autoimmunity in Chagas heart disease: A case for molecular mimicry EDECIO. Keywords: Chagas disease cardiomyopathy, autoimmunity, cardiomyocyte, Trypanosoma cruzi, molecular mimicry autoimmune responses in both humans and experimental animal models of disease reinforced this idea

  13. J Rheumatol . Author manuscript Intravenous immunoglobulin expands regulatory T cells in autoimmune

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    in autoimmune rheumatic disease Bayry Jagadeesh 1 * , Luc Mouthon 2 3 , Srini V. Kaveri 1 Centre de Recherche ; Aged ; Autoimmune Diseases ; immunology ; Female ; Humans ; Immunoglobulins, Intravenous ; immunology immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy can benefit diverse autoimmune and inflammatory diseases via several mutually

  14. IL-33 attenuates the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Mark; Allan, Debbie; Xu, Heping; Pei, Cheng; Chen, Mei; Niedbala, Wanda; Fukada, Sandra Y; Besnard, Anne-Galle; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Tong, Xiaoguang; Forrester, John V; Liew, Foo Yew; Jiang, Hui-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is associated with several important immune-mediated disorders. However, its role in uveitis, an important eye inflammatory disease, is unknown. Here, we investigated the function of IL-33 in the development of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). IL-33 and IL-33 receptor (ST2) were expressed in murine retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in culture, and IL-33 increased the expression of Il33 and Mcp1 mRNA in RPE cells. In situ, IL-33 was highly expressed in the inner nuclear cells of the retina of naďve mice, and its expression was elevated in EAU mice. ST2-deficient mice developed exacerbated EAU compared with WT mice, and administration of IL-33 to WT mice significantly reduced EAU severity. The attenuated EAU in IL-33-treated mice was accompanied by decreased frequency of IFN-?+ and IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and reduced IFN-? and IL-17 production but with increased frequency of IL-5+ and IL-4+ CD4 T cells and IL-5 production in the draining lymph node and spleen. Macrophages from the IL-33-treated mice show a significantly higher polarization toward an alternatively activated macrophage phenotype. Our results therefore demonstrate that the endogenous IL-33/ST2 pathway plays an important role in EAU, and suggest that IL-33 represents a potential option for treatment of uveitis. PMID:25116404

  15. Review of the diagnosis, classification and management of autoimmune pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Derek A; Malde, Deep J; Duncan, Trish; Rao, Madhu; Filobbos, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis, with as yet undetermined incidence and prevalence in the general population. Our understanding of it continues to evolve. In the last few years, 2 separate subtypes have been identified: type 1 AIP has been recognised as the pancreatic manifestation of a multiorgan disease, named immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease while type 2 AIP is a pancreas specific disorder not associated with IgG4. International criteria for the diagnosis of AIP have been defined: the HISORt criteria from the Mayo clinic, the Japan consensus criteria and, most recently, the international association of pancreatology “International Consensus Diagnostic Criteria”. Despite this, in clinical practice it can still be very difficult to confirm the diagnosis and differentiate AIP from a pancreatic cancer. There are no large studies into the long-term prognosis and management of relapses of AIP, and there is even less information at present regarding the Type 2 AIP subtype. Further studies are necessary to clarify the pathogenesis, treatment and long-term outcomes of this disease. Critically for clinicians, making the correct diagnosis and differentiating the disease from pancreatic cancer is of the utmost importance and the greatest challenge. PMID:24891978

  16. Anxiety Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Anxiety Disorders About Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders in Older Adults If you have an anxiety disorder, worry or ... of better as time goes on. Doctors and older adults tend to view anxiety and fear as normal ...

  17. Association of PNPLA3 I148M Variant With Chronic Viral Hepatitis, Autoimmune Liver Diseases and Outcomes of Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Ning; Xin, Yong-Ning; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Jiang, Man; Wang, Jian; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li-Zhen; Xuan, Shi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Context: The PNPLA3 I148M variant has been recognized as a genetic determinant of liver fat content and a genetic risk factor of liver damage progression associated with steatohepatitis. The I148M variant is associated with many chronic liver diseases. However, its potential association with inflammatory and autoimmune liver diseases has not been established. Evidence Acquisition: We systemically reviewed the potential associations of I148M variant with chronic viral hepatitis, autoimmune liver diseases and the outcome of liver transplantation, explored the underlying molecular mechanisms and tried to translate them into more individualized decision-making and personalized medicine. Results: There were associations between I148M variant and chronic viral hepatitis and autoimmune liver diseases and differential associations of I148M variant in donors and recipients with post-liver transplant outcomes. I148M variant may activate the development of steatosis caused by host metabolic disorders in chronic viral hepatitis, but few researches were found to illustrate the mechanisms in autoimmune liver diseases. The peripherally mediated mechanism (via extrahepatic adipose tissue) may play a principal role in triglyceride accumulation regardless of adiponutrin activity in the graft liver. Conclusions: Evidences have shown the associations between I148M variant and mentioned diseases. I148M variant induced steatosis may be involved in the mechanism of chronic viral hepatitis and genetic considered personalized therapies, especially for PSC male patients. It is also crucial to pay attention to this parameter in donor selection and prognosis estimation in liver transplantation.

  18. IDO2 is a critical mediator of autoantibody production and inflammatory pathogenesis in a mouse model of autoimmune arthritis1

    PubMed Central

    DuHadaway, James B.; Grabler, Samantha; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C.; Mandik-Nayak, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other autoimmune disorders are associated with altered activity of the immunomodulatory enzyme indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). However, the precise contributions of IDO function to autoimmunity remain unclear. Here, we examine the effect of two different IDO enzymes, IDO1 and IDO2, on the development of autoimmune arthritis in the KRN preclinical model of RA. We find that IDO2, not IDO1, is critical for arthritis development, providing the first direct evidence of separate in vivo functions for IDO1 and IDO2. Mice null for Ido2 display decreased joint inflammation relative to wild-type mice due to a reduction in pathogenic autoantibodies and antibody secreting cells. Notably, IDO2 appears to specifically mediate autoreactive, but not normal B cell responses, as total serum Ig levels are not altered and IDO2 ko mice are able to mount productive antibody responses to model antigens in vitro and in vivo. Reciprocal adoptive transfer studies confirm that autoantibody production and arthritis are modulated by IDO2 expression in a cell type extrinsic to the T cell. Taken together, our results provide the first insights into IDO2 function by defining its pathogenic contributions to autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity. PMID:24489090

  19. Dendritic cells in autoimmune thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Kabel, P J; Voorbij, H A; van der Gaag, R D; Wiersinga, W M; de Haan, M; Drexhage, H A

    1987-01-01

    Dendritic cells form a morphologically distinct class of cells characterized by shape, reniform nucleus, absent to weak acid-phosphatase activity and strong Class II MHC determinant positivity. Functionally they are the most efficient cells in antigen presentation to T-lymphocytes which indicates their role in the initiation of an immune response. Using immunehistochemical techniques we studied the presence of dendritic cells in normal Wistar rat and human thyroids, in thyroids of BBW rats developing thyroid autoimmunity and in Graves' goitres. Dendritic cells could be identified in all thyroids studied and were positioned underneath the thyrocytes in between the follicles. Skin dendritic cells travel via lymphatics to draining lymph nodes, thus forming an antigen presenting cell system. It is likely that a similar cell system exists on the level of the thyroid for dendritic cells have also been detected in thyroid draining lymph nodes. In normal thyroid tissue of both human and rat dendritic cells were relatively scarce. During the initial phases of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BBW rat (before the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) numbers of thyroid dendritic cells increased. Intrathyroidal T-helper cells, B-cells or plasma cells could not be found. The thyroid draining lymph node contained large numbers of plasma cells. During the later stages of the thyroid autoimmune response in the BB/W rat (after the appearance of Tg-antibodies in the circulation) and in Graves' goitres dendritic cells were not only present in high number, but 20-30% were seen in contact with now-present intrathyroidal T-helper lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3475920

  20. Myasthenia Gravis: paradox versus paradigm in autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Berrih-Aknin, Sonia

    2014-08-01

    Myasthenia Gravis (MG) is a paradigm of organ-specific autoimmune disease (AID). It is mediated by antibodies that target the neuromuscular junction. The purpose of this review is to place MG in the general context of autoimmunity, to summarize the common mechanisms between MG and other AIDs, and to describe the specific mechanisms of MG. We have chosen the most common organ-specific AIDs to compare with MG: type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD), multiple sclerosis (MS), some systemic AIDs (systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), Sjogren's syndrome (SS)), as well as inflammatory diseases of the gut and liver (celiac disease (CeD), Crohn's disease (CD), and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)). Several features are similar between all AIDs, suggesting that common pathogenic mechanisms lead to their development. In this review, we address the predisposing factors (genetic, epigenetic, hormones, vitamin D, microbiota), the triggering components (infections, drugs) and their interactions with the immune system [1,2]. The dysregulation of the immune system is detailed and includes the role of B cells, Treg cells, Th17 and cytokines. We particularly focused on the role of TNF-? and interferon type I whose role in MG is very analogous to that in several other AIDS. The implication of AIRE, a key factor in central tolerance is also discussed. Finally, if MG is a prototype of AIDS, it has a clear specificity compared to the other AIDS, by the fact that the target organ, the muscle, is not the site of immune infiltration and B cell expansion, but exclusively that of antibody-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. By contrast, the thymus in the early onset subtype frequently undergoes tissue remodeling, resulting in the development of ectopic germinal centers surrounded by high endothelial venules (HEV), as observed in the target organs of many other AIDs. PMID:24934596

  1. Treating prolactinoma can prevent autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Watad, Abdulla; Versini, Mathilde; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-04-01

    Prolactin (PRL) is a pleiotropic hormone; in addition to a wide variety of endocrine effects, PRL also exhibits immunostimulating effects. Therefore, there is increasing evidence linking PRL with a large number of systemic and organ specific autoimmune diseases. Herein, we report the case of an adolescent girl diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) occurring in the context of untreated prolactinoma evolving since childhood. This raises the exciting question of the involvement of PRL in the pathogenesis of MS. It is likely that early treatment of hyperprolactinemia in this case would have significantly reduced the risk of developing MS or even prevented its occurrence. PMID:25468803

  2. Immunosuppressive therapy for autoimmune inner ear disease

    PubMed Central

    Buniel, Maria C; Geelan-Hansen, Katie; Weber, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune inner ear disease (AIED) is a rare disease that is diagnosed after clinical suspicion and response to corticosteroids. AIED manifests as progressive, bilateral, although often asynchronous, sensorineural hearing loss and can be associated with vestibular symptoms. Since its description as a defined disease entity in 1979, the initial mainstay of treatment remains high-dose corticosteroids. Several animal models have been developed to assist in determining efficacy of immunosuppression in AIED, and several clinical studies have also investigated the role of both steroid and steroid-sparing treatments. Here we discuss the basic science and clinical research surrounding the history of immunosuppressive therapy in AIED. PMID:19885385

  3. PRKDC mutations associated with immunodeficiency, granuloma, and autoimmune regulator–dependent autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Anne-Laure; Verronese, Estelle; Rice, Gillian I.; Fouyssac, Fanny; Bertrand, Yves; Picard, Capucine; Chansel, Marie; Walter, Jolan E.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Butte, Manish J.; Nadeau, Kari Christine; Csomos, Krisztian; Chen, David J.; Chen, Karin; Delgado, Ana; Rigal, Chantal; Bardin, Christine; Schuetz, Catharina; Moshous, Despina; Reumaux, Héloďse; Plenat, François; Phan, Alice; Zabot, Marie-Thérčse; Balme, Brigitte; Viel, Sébastien; Bienvenu, Jacques; Cochat, Pierre; van der Burg, Mirjam; Caux, Christophe; Kemp, E. Helen; Rouvet, Isabelle; Malcus, Christophe; Méritet, Jean-Francois; Lim, Annick; Crow, Yanick J.; Fabien, Nicole; Ménétrier-Caux, Christine; De Villartay, Jean-Pierre; Walzer, Thierry; Belot, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Background PRKDC encodes for DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs), a kinase that forms part of a complex (DNA-dependent protein kinase [DNA-PK]) crucial for DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. In mice DNA-PK also interacts with the transcription factor autoimmune regulator (AIRE) to promote central T-cell tolerance. Objective We sought to understand the causes of an inflammatory disease with granuloma and autoimmunity associated with decreasing T- and B-cell counts over time that had been diagnosed in 2 unrelated patients. Methods Genetic, molecular, and functional analyses were performed to characterize an inflammatory disease evocative of a combined immunodeficiency. Results We identified PRKDC mutations in both patients. These patients exhibited a defect in DNA double-strand break repair and V(D)J recombination. Whole-blood mRNA analysis revealed a strong interferon signature. On activation, memory T cells displayed a skewed cytokine response typical of TH2 and TH1 but not TH17. Moreover, mutated DNA-PKcs did not promote AIRE-dependent transcription of peripheral tissue antigens in vitro. The latter defect correlated in vivo with production of anti–calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies, which are typically found in AIRE-deficient patients. In addition, 9 months after bone marrow transplantation, patient 1 had Hashimoto thyroiditis, suggesting that organ-specific autoimmunity might be linked to nonhematopoietic cells, such as AIRE-expressing thymic epithelial cells. Conclusion Deficiency of DNA-PKcs, a key AIRE partner, can present as an inflammatory disease with organ-specific autoimmunity, suggesting a role for DNA-PKcs in regulating autoimmune responses and maintaining AIRE-dependent tolerance in human subjects. PMID:25842288

  4. MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Autoimmune Diseases to Skin, Psychiatric and Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA molecules that negatively regulate gene expression via degradation or translational repression of their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Recent studies have clearly demonstrated that miRNAs play critical roles in several biologic processes, including cell cycle, differentiation, cell development, cell growth, and apoptosis and that miRNAs are highly expressed in regulatory T (Treg) cells and a wide range of miRNAs are involved in the regulation of immunity and in the prevention of autoimmunity. It has been increasingly reported that miRNAs are associated with various human diseases like autoimmune disease, skin disease, neurological disease and psychiatric disease. Recently, the identification of mi- RNAs in skin has added a new dimension in the regulatory network and attracted significant interest in this novel layer of gene regulation. Although miRNA research in the field of dermatology is still relatively new, miRNAs have been the subject of much dermatological interest in skin morphogenesis and in regulating angiogenesis. In addition, miRNAs are moving rapidly onto center stage as key regulators of neuronal development and function in addition to important contributions to neurodegenerative disorder. Moreover, there is now compelling evidence that dysregulation of miRNA networks is implicated in the development and onset of human neruodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette's syndrome, Down syndrome, depression and schizophrenia. In this review, I briefly summarize the current studies about the roles of miRNAs in various autoimmune diseases, skin diseases, psychoneurological disorders and mental stress. PMID:22194706

  5. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA): clues and pitfalls in the pediatric background.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Susanna; Prada, Elisabetta; Mastrolia, Maria Vincenza; Tarantino, Giusyda; Codecŕ, Claudio; Rigante, Donato

    2014-12-01

    The development and increasing diffusion of new vaccinations and global immunization protocols have aroused burning debates about safety of adjuvants and their immunogenicity-enhancing effect in vaccines. Shoenfeld and Agmon-Levin have grouped under the term "autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants" (ASIA) a complex of variable signs and symptoms that may occur after a previous exposure to different adjuvants and also external environmental triggers, even eliciting specific overt immune-mediated disorders. This entity subsumes five medical conditions: post-vaccination phenomena, gulf war syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, siliconosis, and sick building syndrome, but the relevance and magnitude of the syndrome in the pediatric age is fundamentally limited to post-vaccination autoimmune or inflammatory disorders. The occurrence of vaccine-triggered phenomena represents a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and a research conundrum for many investigators. In this paper, we will analyze the general features of ASIA and focus on specific post-vaccination events in relation with the pediatric background. In the presence of a favorable genetic background, many autoimmune/inflammatory responses can be triggered by adjuvants and external factors, showing how the man himself might breach immune tolerance and drive many pathogenetic aspects of human diseases. Nonetheless, the elective application of ASIA diagnostic criteria to the pediatric population requires further assessment and evaluations. Additional studies are needed to help clarify connections between innate or adaptive immunity and pathological and/or protective autoantibodies mostly in the pediatric age, as children and adolescents are mainly involved in the immunization agendas related to vaccine-preventable diseases. PMID:25395340

  6. Nuclear receptors and autoimmune disease: the potential of PPAR agonists to treat multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Racke, Michael K; Gocke, Anne R; Muir, Mark; Diab, Asim; Drew, Paul D; Lovett-Racke, Amy E

    2006-03-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a T-cell-mediated, autoimmune disorder characterized by central nervous system inflammation and demyelination, features reminiscent of the human disease, multiple sclerosis (MS). Prior work in the EAE model has suggested that encephalitogenic T cells are of the T helper (Th)-1 phenotype. Our group has performed several studies in the EAE model that suggest that a strategy for treating autoimmune disorders is to convert the pathogenic cells from the Th1 to Th2 phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that include receptors for steroids, retinoids, and thyroid hormone, all of which are known to affect the immune response. Recently, we examined the role of PPARgamma in EAE and observed that administration of the PPARgamma agonist 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14) prostaglandin J2 exerted a significant therapeutic effect predominantly by inhibiting the activation and expansion of encephalitogenic T cells. One potential advantage in studying PPARalpha agonists is that they have been very well tolerated when used in humans to treat conditions such as elevated triglycerides. Building on prior work in immune deviation and with PPAR agonists, we have demonstrated that PPARalpha agonists can alter the cytokine phenotype of myelin-reactive T cells, alter their encephalitogenicity, and be useful in the treatment of EAE. The fact that PPARalpha agonists have been used as therapeutic agents in humans to treat metabolic conditions for over 25 years with little toxicity makes them attractive candidates for use as adjunctive therapies in MS. PMID:16484546

  7. [Characteristics of warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia and Evans syndrome in adults].

    PubMed

    Michel, Marc

    2008-09-01

    The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) relies mainly on the direct antiglobulin test (DAT), that is, Coombs' direct test, which has a sensitivity of about 95%. The classification of different forms of AIHA depends on the characteristics of the autoantibody and is an essential part of the diagnostic procedure. AIHAs mediated by warm-reactive autoantibodies (wAIHA) account for approximately 70% of all types: they may be either idiopathic or secondary to another autoimmune disorder (such as systemic lupus, lymphoma or primary immune deficiencies) or drug-induced. In adults, AIHA may also precede by many years the onset of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or myelodysplastic syndrome. The management of wAIHA, based mainly on empirical data and uncontrolled studies, relies principally on corticosteroids as a first-line therapy. In cases of steroid resistance ( approximately 5-10% of the cases) and in cases of steroid-dependency, the most frequent second-line options are splenectomy or immunosuppressive agents. More recently, rituximab has shown promising results in small uncontrolled and retrospective studies and it is now widely used in refractory wAIHA. Future prospective studies should assess its efficacy earlier in the course of disease as a steroid-sparing strategy. Evans syndrome is an autoimmune disorder defined by the simultaneous or sequential combination of AIHA and immune thrombocytopenia or immune neutropenia. It may reveal an underlying condition (e.g., lupus, common variable immunodeficiency, etc.). Its management is usually extrapolated from the standard of care for isolated wAIHA. Before the availability of rituximab, the overall prognosis was relatively poor for adults with both wAIHA and ES, with a mortality rate of 15 to 20%. PMID:18644324

  8. Greatly attenuated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in aquaporin-4 knockout mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lihua Li; Hua Zhang; AS Verkman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The involvement of astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system has been suggested following the identification of AQP4 autoantibodies in neuromyelitis optica, an inflammatory demyelinating disease. RESULTS: We investigated the involvement of AQP4 in disease severity in an established mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) produced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein

  9. Primary liver cell carcinoma complicating autoimmune chronic active hepatitis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Jakobovits; P. R. Gibson; F. J. Dudley

    1981-01-01

    In a group of 50 patients seen with primary liver cell carcinoma over a period of five years, 38 had cirrhosis. In four patients the cirrhosis was due to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis. None of the patients had markers of hepatitis B virus infection, but in three of the four, serum autoantibodies were present. Coexisting autoimmune disease was present in

  10. Genetic susceptibility to post-thymectomy autoimmune diseases in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Kojima; Richmond T. Prehn

    1981-01-01

    The strain distribution pattern of five different post-thymectomy autoimmune diseases was determined in 21 inbred and two congenic, resistant strains of mice. The results indicated that susceptibility genes outside the H-2 complex may be involved in the development of localized autoimmune diseases in neonatally thymectomized mice. Studies of recombinant inbred strains also showed that susceptibility to gastritis was not associated

  11. Vaccination and Autoimmunity—‘vaccinosis’: A Dangerous Liaison?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoenfeld Y; Aron-Maor A

    2000-01-01

    The question of a connection between vaccination and autoimmune illness (or phenomena) is surrounded by controversy. A heated debate is going on regarding the causality between vaccines, such as measles and anti-hepatits B virus (HBV), and multiple sclerosis (MS). Brain antibodies as well as clinical symptoms have been found in patients vaccinated against those diseases. Other autoimmune illnesses have been

  12. Autoimmune pancreatitis and IgG4-related sclerosing disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kensuke Takuma; Naoto Egawa; Koji Tsuruta; Tsuneo Sasaki; Terumi Kamisawa

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a unique form of pancreatitis in which the pathogenesis is suspected to involve autoimmune mechanisms. AIP sometimes mimics pancreatic cancer in its presentation, but as AIP responds dramatically to steroid therapy, accurate diagnosis is necessary. AIP is currently diagnosed on the basis of a combination of characteristic clinical, serological, morphological and histopathological features. However, its diagnosis

  13. CD3G gene defects in familial autoimmune thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Gokturk, B; Keles, S; Kirac, M; Artac, H; Tokgoz, H; Guner, S N; Caliskan, U; Caliskaner, Z; van der Burg, M; van Dongen, J; Morgan, N V; Reisli, I

    2014-11-01

    The patients with CD3? deficiency can present with different clinical findings despite having the same homozygous mutation. We report three new CD3gamma-deficient siblings from a consanguineous family with a combined T-B+NK+ immunodeficiency and their variable clinical and cellular phenotypes despite the same homozygous mutation of the CD3G gene (c.80-1G>C). We also re-evaluate a previously reported non-consanguineous family with two CD3gamma-deficient siblings with the same mutation. The median age at diagnosis was 11 years (14 months-20 years). We found all five patients to display autoimmunity: autoimmune thyroiditis (n = 5), autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (n = 2), immune thrombocytopenia (n = 1), autoimmune hepatitis (n = 1), minimal change nephrotic syndrome (n = 1), vitiligo (n = 1) and positive antinuclear antibodies (n = 3) as well as high IgE (n = 2) and atopic eczema (n = 2). While CD3(+) TCR??+T cell percentages were low in all patients, only one had lymphopenia and 3 had CD3(+) T cell lymphopenia. Strikingly, we report frequent and multiple autoimmunity in tested heterozygous carriers in both families (n = 6; in 67%), and frequent autoimmunity in family members not available for testing (n = 5, in 80%). The results suggest that CD3G should be studied as a candidate gene for autoimmunity and that CD3gamma deficiency should be considered among other primary immunodeficiencies with predominantly autoimmune manifestations. PMID:24910257

  14. The Role of Dendritic Cells in Tissue-Specific Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Langridge, William

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we explore the role of dendritic cell subsets in the development of tissue-specific autoimmune diseases. From the increasing list of dendritic cell subclasses, it is becoming clear that we are only at the beginning of understanding the role of these antigen presenting cells in mediating autoimmunity. Emerging research areas for the study of dendritic cell involvement in the onset and inhibition of tissue-specific autoimmunity are presented. Further, we compare tissue specific to systemic autoimmunity to demonstrate how development of dendritic cell-based therapies may be broadly applicable to both classes of autoimmunity. Continued development of these research areas will lead us closer to clinical assessment of novel immunosuppressive therapy for the reversal and prevention of tissue-specific autoimmunity. Through description of dendritic cell functions in the modulation of tissue-specific autoimmunity, we hope to stimulate a greater appreciation and understanding of the role dendritic cells play in the development and treatment of autoimmunity. PMID:24877157

  15. Role of helicobacter pylori infection in autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hasni, Sarfaraz Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of review The etiology of most autoimmune diseases remains elusive. Prevailing evidence suggests an environmental trigger in a genetically susceptible individual. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have managed to survive in a hostile environment in its host for long period and have evaded eradication by immune system. Its chronic interaction with the immune system and the ubiquitous presence worldwide makes H. pylori an ideal candidate to study as a trigger of autoimmune phenomena. In this review, we would present data regarding the interplay between H. pylori and various components of the immune system and its association with various autoimmune diseases. Recent findings Strong associations of H. pylori with some autoimmune diseases such as immune thrombocytopenia have been found; but most other autoimmune disease studies have revealed conflicting data. The chronic survival of H. pylori in humans is possible because of an overall downregulation of the body’s immune response. In addition to this overall effect on the immune system, there are clinical and epidemiological data suggestive of H. pylori infection having a protective role in some autoimmune diseases. Summary Based on our review H. pylori status should be checked and treated only in certain autoimmune diseases such as ITP. For majority of the autoimmune diseases role of H. pylori remains controversial signifying need for further research. PMID:22617822

  16. Gender differences in autoimmunity associated with exposure to environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Autoimmunity is thought to result from a combination of genetics, environmental triggers, and stochastic events. Gender is also a significant risk factor with many diseases exhibiting a female bias. Although the role of environmental triggers, especially medications, in eliciting autoimmunity is well established less is known about the interplay between gender, the environment and autoimmunity. This review examines the contribution of gender in autoimmunity induced by selected chemical, physical and biological agents in humans and animal models. Epidemiological studies reveal that environmental factors can be associated with a gender bias in human autoimmunity. However many studies show that the increased risk of autoimmunity is often influenced by occupational exposure or other gender biased activities. Animal studies, although often prejudiced by the exclusive use of female animals, reveal that gender bias can be strain specific suggesting an interaction between sex chromosome complement and background genes. This observation has important implications because it argues that within a gender biased disease there may be individuals in which gender does not contribute to autoimmunity. Exposure to environmental factors, which encompasses everything around us, adds an additional layer of complexity. Understanding how the environment influences the relationship between sex chromosome complement and innate and adaptive immune responses will be essential in determining the role of gender in environmentally-induced autoimmunity. PMID:22137891

  17. Cell-mediated autoimmune diseases of the skin: some hypotheses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. B. Morhenn

    1997-01-01

    The propensity of most autoimmune diseases to manifest themselves in the skin may result from faulty teaching of what is ‘self’ by epithelial cells in the thymus. Whether T cells learn what is ‘self’ in the thymus or not until later, peripheral to the thymus, may explain the wide range of severity of autoimmune diseases. Also, I suggest that lichen

  18. Bugs on trial: the case of Helicobacter pylori and autoimmunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben J Appelmelk; Gerhard Faller; Dirk Claeys; Thomas Kirchner; Christina M. J. E Vandenbroucke-Grauls

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection induces autoantibodies to gastric H+K+-ATPase similar to those found in autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anaemia (AIG\\/PA). Here, Ben Appelmelk and colleagues consider the possibility that H. pylori infection triggers an autoimmune process that leads to gastric atrophy and AIG\\/PA.

  19. MODELING CYCLIC WAVES OF CIRCULATING T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES

    E-print Network

    Mahaffy, Joseph M.

    MODELING CYCLIC WAVES OF CIRCULATING T CELLS IN AUTOIMMUNE DIABETES JOSEPH M. MAHAFFY AND LEAH EDELSTEIN-KESHET Abstract. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which immune cells, notably T diabetes result once a large enough fraction of these beta cells have been destroyed. Recent investigation

  20. Molecular mechanisms of autoimmunity triggered by microbial infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hans-Joachim Anders; Daniel Zecher; Rahul D Pawar; Prashant S Patole

    2005-01-01

    Autoimmunity can be triggered by microbial infection. In this context, the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) provides new insights and research perspectives. TLRs induce innate and adaptive antimicrobial immune responses upon exposure to common pathogen-associated molecules, including lipopeptides, lipopolysaccharides, and nucleic acids. They also have the potential, however, to trigger autoimmune disease, as has been revealed by an increasing number

  1. Emerging role of long noncoding RNAs in autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guo-Cui; Pan, Hai-Feng; Leng, Rui-Xue; Wang, De-Guang; Li, Xiang-Pei; Li, Xiao-Mei; Ye, Dong-Qing

    2015-09-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), with size larger than 200 nucleotides, is a new class of noncoding RNA. Emerging evidence has revealed that lncRNAs play a key role in the regulation of immunological functions and autoimmunity. Herein, we review the recent findings of lncRNA regulation in immune functions and in the development of autoimmunity and autoimmune disease. In addition, we focus on the involvement of lncRNA regulation in innate and adaptive immune responses, immune cell development, and differential expression of lncRNAs in autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD), psoriasis, polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) and Crohn's disease (CD). PMID:25989481

  2. A candidate gene for autoimmune myasthenia gravis

    PubMed Central

    Landouré, Guida; Knight, Melanie A.; Stanescu, Horia; Taye, Addis A.; Shi, Yijun; Diallo, Oumarou; Johnson, Janel O.; Hernandez, Dena; Traynor, Bryan J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Elkahloun, Abdel; Rinaldi, Carlo; Vincent, Angela; Willcox, Nick; Kleta, Robert; Fischbeck, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We sought to identify a causative mutation in a previously reported kindred with parental consanguinity and 5 of 10 siblings with adult-onset autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Methods: We performed genome-wide homozygosity mapping, and sequenced all known genes in the one region of extended homozygosity. Quantitative and allele-specific reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) were performed on a candidate gene to determine the RNA expression level in affected siblings and controls and the relative abundance of the wild-type and mutant alleles in a heterozygote. Results: A region of shared homozygosity at chromosome 13q13.3–13q14.11 was found in 4 affected siblings and 1 unaffected sibling. A homozygous single nucleotide variant was found in the 3?-untranslated region of the ecto-NADH oxidase 1 gene (ENOX1). No other variants likely to be pathogenic were found in genes in this region or elsewhere. The ENOX1 sequence variant was not found in 764 controls. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression of ENOX1 decreased to about 20% of normal levels in lymphoblastoid cells from individuals homozygous for the variant and to about 50% in 2 unaffected heterozygotes. Allele-specific RT-PCR showed a 55%–60% reduction in the level of the variant transcript in heterozygous cells due to reduced mRNA stability. Conclusion: These results indicate that this sequence variant in ENOX1 may contribute to the familial autoimmune myasthenia in these patients. PMID:22744667

  3. Spondyloarthropathies in Autoimmune Diseases and Vice Versa

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fernández, Oscar M.; Mantilla, Rubén D.; Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Polyautoimmunity is one of the major clinical characteristics of autoimmune diseases (ADs). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ADs in spondyloarthropathies (SpAs) and vice versa. This was a two-phase cross-sectional study. First, we examined the presence of ADs in a cohort of patients with SpAs (N = 148). Second, we searched for the presence of SpAs in a well-defined group of patients with ADs (N = 1077) including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Among patients with SpAs, ankylosing spondylitis was observed in the majority of them (55.6%). There were two patients presenting with SS in the SpA group (1.4%) and 5 patients with autoimmune thyroiditis (3.5%). The global prevalence of ADs in SpAs was 4.86%. In the ADs group, there were 5 patients with SpAs (0.46%). Our results suggest a lack of association between SpAs and ADs. Accordingly, SpAs might correspond more to autoinflammatory diseases rather than to ADs. PMID:22400103

  4. Vitamin D, steroid hormones, and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Paolino, Sabrina; Sulli, Alberto; Smith, Vanessa; Pizzorni, Carmen; Seriolo, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    The endogenous serum metabolite of vitamin D (calcitriol, 1,25(OH)2 D3 ) is considered a true steroid hormone (D hormone), and like glucocorticoids (GCs) and gonadal hormones, may exert several immunomodulatory activities. Serum vitamin D deficiency (25(OH) D), and therefore reduced 1,25(OH)2 D3 availability, is considered a risk factor for several chronic/inflammatory or autoimmune conditions, including infectious diseases, type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and especially autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD). In ARD in particular, 1,25(OH)2 D3 regulates both innate and adaptive immunity, potentiating the innate response (antimicrobial activity) but reducing adaptive immunity (antigen presentation, T and B cell activities). Regarding a possible synergism between vitamin D and GCs, several studies show that 1,25(OH)2 D3 has significant additive effects on dexamethasone-mediated inhibition of human lymphocyte and monocyte proliferation. Conversely, vitamin D deficiency seems to play a role in increasing autoantibody production by B cells, and seasonal vitamin D declines may trigger flares in ARD, as recently shown. Finally, 1,25(OH)2 D3 seems to reduce aromatase activity and limit the negative effects related to increased peripheral estrogen metabolism (cell proliferation, B cell overactivity). PMID:24739090

  5. Immune-Neuroendocrine Interactions and Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jara, Luis J.; Navarro, Carmen; Medina, Gabriela; Vera-Lastra, Olga; Blanco, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between immune-neuroendocrine system is firmly established. The messengers of this connection are hormones, neuropeptides, neurotransmitters and cytokines. The immune-neuroendocrine system have the capacity to synthesize and release these molecules, which, in turn, can stimulate or suppress the activity of immune or neuroendocrine cells by binding to receptors. In fact, hormones, neuropeptides and neurotransmitters participate in innate and adaptive immune response.Autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARD) are characterized by aberrant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are a potent activator of the HPA axis. In consequence, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones such as estrogens and prolactin, and low levels of glucocorticoids, an anti-inflammatory hormone, have been described in the active phase of ARD. In addition, high levels of pro-inflammatory hormones and cytokines have also been frequently detected in organ involvement of patients with ARD, suggesting an abnormal local neuroendocrine immune interaction. There is evidence that hormonal changes may appear before the symptomatic phase of the disease. Therefore, it is possible that a pro-inflammatory hormone favors the rupture of tolerance, which is a key feature of autoimmune diseases. The interactions between the immune-neuroendocrine system have a major impact on our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms, diagnosis and therapy of ARD. PMID:17162354

  6. Epilepsy and autoimmunity in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Bekta?, Ömer; Jacobson, Leslie; Tutkak, Hüseyin; Karagöl, Sema; Lang, Bethan; Clover, Linda; Vincent, Angela; Deda, Gülhis

    2015-02-01

    Our aim was to determine the presence and possible role of autoantibodies in epileptic patients with an undetermined etiology. Eighty epilepsy patients, who were referred to the Pediatric Neurology Department at Ankara University between November 2011 and April 2012, were enrolled in the study. Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anticardiolipin IgG, antiphospholipid, antithyroid peroxidase, paraneoplastic, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies were studied in our university laboratory. In addition, NMDA receptor (NMDAR), voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex, leucine-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2) antibodies were studied at the Oxford University Immunology Laboratory. The study included 35 girls (44%) and 45 boys (56%) with a mean symptom age of 8.6?±?4.53 years. ANA was detected in 15 (18.8%), antiphospholipid Ab in 3 (3.75%), anticardiolipin Ab in 1 (1.25%), and antithyroid peroxidase in 3 (3.75%) epileptic patients. In addition, anti-GAD Ab was detected in 7 (8.75%), anti-Yo Ab in 3 (3.75%), and anti-Ma2 in 3 (3.75%) epileptic patients. Anti-VGKC was positive in 13 (16.25%) epileptic patients. We performed a pioneer study to investigate the association between autoimmunity and pediatric epilepsy and we conclude that autoimmunity should be considered in epileptic patients with an undetermined etiology. PMID:25290722

  7. Is systematic screening for thyroid disorders indicated in subfertile men?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Poppe; D Glinoer; H Tournaye; U Maniewski; P Haentjens; B Velkeniers

    2006-01-01

    Context: Data on the prevalence of thyroid disorders in male subfertility remain scarce. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid autoimmunity in men with normal and abnormal semen characteristics. Setting: Tertiary referral center for reproductive medicine of the University Hospital AZ-VUB, Brussels, Belgium. Patients and design: Two hundred and ninety-two men were stratified according to the presence

  8. Autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis: a newly described entity that is not exclusive of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Saeb-Lima, Marcela; Charli-Joseph, Yann; Rodríguez-Acosta, Elva Dalia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Neutrophilic dermatoses have long been known to be associated with autoinmune systemic diseases. Recently, a small number of cases of a disorder distinct from Sweet syndrome or bullous lupus erythematosus (LE) have been described as specifically related to systemic LE under diverse terms, including nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis, nonbullous neutrophilic LE, and Sweet-like neutrophilic dermatosis. We describe 7 patients that developed urticarial lesions in the context of a known or concurrently diagnosed autoimmune connective tissue disease. Of a total of 7 patients, 6 were afflicted by systemic LE and 1 by rheumatoid arthritis and secondary Sjögren syndrome. Histological findings in all patients included an interstitial and perivascular neutrophilic infiltrate with leukocytoclasia, vacuolar alteration along the dermal-edidermal junction, and no vasculitis. Most patients had active systemic disease at the time of the cutaneous eruption. Skin lesions resolved rapidly after the administration of immunomodulating agents. In conclusion, we provide additional evidence of the existence of a recently defined nonbullous neutrophilic dermatosis in the context of autoimmune connective tissue diseases and propose the term autoimmunity-related neutrophilic dermatosis as an appropriate designation. Furthermore, we believe that this entity should prompt physicians to screen the presence of an active systemic disorder in afflicted patients. PMID:23518639

  9. Isoprinosine delays the early appearance of autoimmunity in NZB/NZW F1 mice treated with interferon.

    PubMed Central

    Sergiescu, D; Cerutti, I; Kahan, A; Piatier, D; Efthymiou, E

    1981-01-01

    NZB/NZW F1 hybrid mice treated for long periods with type beta interferon developed early symptoms of autoimmune disease. In these animals the level of anti-dsDNA antibody begins to increase at 4-6 months while untreated NZB/NZW mice do not display similar levels until 12 months. The concomitant administration of isoprinosine and interferon delays the early appearance of autoimmune disorders. In interferon-treated NZB/NZW mice the cytotoxic activity of natural killer lymphocytes is maintained at high levels until the age of 5 months. Nevertheless, the natural killer activity is even stronger and detected until at least 7 months in NZB/NZW mice receiving a single dose of interferon 16 hr prior to the test. Lymphoblastoid ascitic tumours appeared early (2-3 months) during interferon treatment in all groups of NZB/NZW mice. However, in the presence of isoprinosine only a few animals developed tumours. Thus, isoprinosine seems to protect NZB/NZW mice both from early autoimmune disorders due to interferon and from early tumour development. PMID:6166417

  10. The Biology of FoxP3: A Key Player in Immune Suppression during Infections, Autoimmune Diseases and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Frances

    2013-01-01

    The Transcription factor FoxP3 belongs to the forkhead/winged-helix family of transcriptional regulators and shares general structural features with other FoxP family members. FoxP3 functions as a master of transcription for the development of regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) both in humans and in mice. Natural genetic mutations of FoxP3 that disrupt its function in humans result in an autoimmune syndrome called Immune Polyendocrinopathy, Enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) and in mice, its deletion causes the Scurfy phenotype, with similar pathology. The finding that FoxP3 is required for the development and function of Tregs has led to an explosion of research in determining its regulation and function in the immune system. Understanding the biological properties of FoxP3 has a wide range of implications for immune tolerance, autoimmune disorders, inflammation and immune response to infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:20429415

  11. Autoimmune Pancreatitis as a New Clinical Entity (Three Cases of Autoimmune Pancreatitis with Effective Steroid Therapy)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tetsuhide Ito; Itsuro Nakano; Shujiro Koyanagi; Toshihiko Miyahara; Yoshikatsu Migita; Keiichiro Ogoshi; Hironori Sakai; Shizu Matsunaga; Osamu Yasuda; Toshihiko Sumii; Hajime Nawata

    1997-01-01

    The most common forms of chronic pancreatitisare related to alcohol ingestion, whereas the entity ofnon-alcohol-associated (idiopathic) pancreatitis ispoorly understood. Autoimmunity has been suggested as a possible etiologic factor of idiopathicchronic pancreatitis. A total of 362 Japanese patientsunderwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP)for suspected pancreatic disease, and 161 were diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis. Among them, we foundthree cases (1.86% incidence) of unique

  12. High salt intake does not exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Kolypetri, P; Randell, E; Van Vliet, B N; Carayanniotis, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that high salt (HS) intake exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and have raised the possibility that a HS diet may comprise a risk factor for autoimmune diseases in general. In this report, we have examined whether a HS diet regimen could exacerbate murine autoimmune thyroiditis, including spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis (SAT) in non-obese diabetic (NOD.H2h4) mice, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) in C57BL/6J mice challenged with thyroglobulin (Tg) and EAT in CBA/J mice challenged with the Tg peptide (2549–2560). The physiological impact of HS intake was confirmed by enhanced water consumption and suppressed aldosterone levels in all strains. However, the HS treatment failed to significantly affect the incidence and severity of SAT or EAT or Tg-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels, relative to control mice maintained on a normal salt diet. In three experimental models, these data demonstrate that HS intake does not exacerbate autoimmune thyroiditis, indicating that a HS diet is not a risk factor for all autoimmune diseases. PMID:24528002

  13. Sex Differences in Autoimmune Disease from a Pathological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, DeLisa; Frisancho-Kiss, Sylvia; Rose, Noel R.

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases affect ?8% of the population, 78% of whom are women. The reason for the high prevalence in women is unclear. Women are known to respond to infection, vaccination, and trauma with increased antibody production and a more T helper (Th)2-predominant immune response, whereas a Th1 response and inflammation are usually more severe in men. This review discusses the distribution of autoimmune diseases based on sex and age, showing that autoimmune diseases progress from an acute pathology associated with an inflammatory immune response to a chronic pathology associated with fibrosis in both sexes. Autoimmune diseases that are more prevalent in males usually manifest clinically before age 50 and are characterized by acute inflammation, the appearance of autoantibodies, and a proinflammatory Th1 immune response. In contrast, female-predominant autoimmune diseases that manifest during the acute phase, such as Graves’ disease and systemic lupus erythematosus, are diseases with a known antibody-mediated pathology. Autoimmune diseases with an increased incidence in females that appear clinically past age 50 are associated with a chronic, fibrotic Th2-mediated pathology. Th17 responses increase neutrophil inflammation and chronic fibrosis. This distinction between acute and chronic pathology has primarily been overlooked, but greatly impacts our understanding of sex differences in autoimmune disease. PMID:18688037

  14. Compromised central tolerance of ICA69 induces multiple organ autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yong; Gualtierotti, Giulio; Tajima, Asako; Grupillo, Maria; Coppola, Antonina; He, Jing; Bertera, Suzanne; Owens, Gregory; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Rudert, William A; Trucco, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    For reasons not fully understood, patients with an organ-specific autoimmune disease have increased risks of developing autoimmune responses against other organs/tissues. We identified ICA69, a known ?-cell autoantigen in Type 1 diabetes, as a potential common target in multi-organ autoimmunity. NOD mice immunized with ICA69 polypeptides exhibited exacerbated inflammation not only in the islets, but also in the salivary glands. To further investigate ICA69 autoimmunity, two genetically modified mouse lines were generated to modulate thymic ICA69 expression: the heterozygous ICA69(del/wt) line and the thymic medullary epithelial cell-specific deletion Aire-?ICA69 line. Suboptimal central negative selection of ICA69-reactive T-cells was observed in both lines. Aire-?ICA69 mice spontaneously developed coincident autoimmune responses to the pancreas, the salivary glands, the thyroid, and the stomach. Our findings establish a direct link between compromised thymic ICA69 expression and autoimmunity against multiple ICA69-expressing organs, and identify a potential novel mechanism for the development of multi-organ autoimmune diseases. PMID:25088457

  15. Two Autoimmune Diabetes Loci Influencing T Cell Apoptosis Control Susceptibility to Experimental

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    in other autoimmune diseases including diabetes in the NOD mouse. These two loci also regulate apoptosis apoptosis of both thymic and peripheral T cells are shared by multiple autoimmune diseases. The Journal tool in the study of the pathogenesis of virus-induced autoimmune disease (10). Like other autoimmune

  16. Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Myosin Autoimmunity Is Not Essential for Cardiac Inflammation in Acute Chagas' Disease1 Juan S is an autoimmune disease induced by T. cruzi (6). In other words, T. cruzi infection induces autoimmune responses to acute myocarditis that is accompanied by autoimmunity to cardiac myosin in susceptible strains of mice

  17. Calcium, channels, intracellular signaling and autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Jorge-Hernán; Bonilla-Abadía, Fabio; Cańas, Carlos A; Tobón, Gabriel J

    2014-01-01

    Calcium (Ca˛?) is an important cation able to function as a second messenger in different cells of the immune system, particularly in B and T lymphocytes, macrophages and mastocytes, among others. Recent discoveries related to the entry of Ca˛? through the store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) has opened a new investigation area about the cell destiny regulated by Ca˛? especially in B and T lymphocytes. SOCE acts through calcium-release-activated calcium (CRAC) channels. The function of CRAC depends of two recently discovered regulators: the Ca˛? sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum or stromal interaction molecule (STIM-1) and one subunit of CRAC channels called Orai1. This review focuses on the role of Ca˛? signals in B and T lymphocytes functions, the signalling pathways leading to Ca˛? influx, and the relationship between Ca˛? signals and autoimmune diseases. PMID:24001934

  18. Personality disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    Personality disorders are a group of mental health conditions in which a person has a long-term pattern ... Causes of personality disorders are unknown. Genetic and ... a role. Mental health professionals categorize these disorders ...

  19. Cerebellar Disorders

    MedlinePLUS

    ... balance. Problems with the cerebellum include Cancer Genetic disorders Ataxias - failure of muscle control in the arms and legs that result in movement disorders Degeneration - disorders caused by brain cells decreasing in ...

  20. Mathematics disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    Mathematics disorder is a condition in which a child's math ability is far below normal for their age, ... Children who have mathematics disorder have trouble with simple ... disorder may appear with: Developmental coordination ...